50 per cent in C. australiensis. This high rate of recruitment indicates low larval mortality and demon- strates the numerical success of the loss of the planktonic phase (Forbes 1973b) and the adoption of a non-pelagic lecithotrophic form of larval ...
Devine (1966) made a similar study of C.filholi in New Zealand. C. kraussi is the dominant macro benthic species in many South Mrican closed estuaries. (Scott et al. 1952; MilJard & Scott 1953; Forbes 1973a) and is also abundant in sheltered sandy areas at many estuary mouths (Day et al. 1952; Day 1958; Macnae 1957).
Jul 23, 1986 ... starvation, sex, body size, salinity, temperature, seasons and reduced oxygen tensions on the respiratory rates of the prawns were ... No attempt was made to feed the prawns. An open flow respirometer was used to determine oxygen consumption (Figure 1). It was placed in an air-. Figure I The apparatus ...
Full Text Available En el Pacífico de Costa Rica se ha encontrado 117 especies de camarones y langostas. Estas se ubican en el Suborden Dendrobranchiata (Penaeoidea, 25 spp.; Sergestoidea, 1 sp.; y en el Suborden Pleocyemata (Caridea, 73 spp.; Astacidea, 1 sp; Thalassinidea, 13 spp. y Palinura, 4 spp.. Veintisiete especies (23% son nuevos infomes para Costa Rica. Cinco informes representan ampliaciones de ámbito, tres de importancia: Pontonia simplex (Holthuis, 1951 se extiende la distribución desde la bahía Tenacatitán, México hasta bahía Culebra, Guanacaste; Veleronia serratifrons (Holthuis, 1951 se amplia la distribución al norte desde La Libertad, Ecuador hasta Sámara, Guanacaste y Axiopsis serratifrons (A. Milne Edwards, 1873 también al norte desde la isla Gorgona, Colombia hasta bahía Culebra, Guanacaste. Nueve especies fueron descritas con material recolectado en Costa Rica y dos son endémicas. 43% de las especies de camarones del Pacífico este se encuentran en la costa Pacífica de Costa Rica. El total de especies indicado aquí es probablemente una subestimación de la diversidad de estos grupos en el Pacífico de Costa Rica.A total of 117 species of shrimp and lobster are known from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. They belong to the Suborders Dendrobranchiata, Superfamily Penaeoidea (26 species and Pleocyemata, Infraorder Caridea (73, Astacidea (one, Thalassinidea (13, and Palinura (four species. Twenty seven species (23% are reported for the first time for Costa Rica. The distribution range of five species is extended, three of which are significant: Pontonia simplex (Holthuis, 1951 from Tenacatitán Bay, México to Culebra Bay, Guanacaste; Veleronia serratifrons (Holthuis, 1951 from La Libertad, Ecuador to Sámara, Guanacaste and Axiopsis serratifrons (A. Milne Edwards, 1873 from Gorgona Island, Colombia to Culebra Bay, Guanacaste. Nine species, two of which are endemic, were described based on specimens collected in Costa Rica. Forty
One hundred and five species of thalassinidean, anomuran and brachyuran decapod crustaceans are recorded from a 1988 collecting expedition to the Kimberley region of northwestern Australia. An additional 70 species are recorded from the literature. One new species of pagurid hermit crab and a new
Stamhuis, E.J; Reede-Dekker, T; van Etten, Y; de Wiljes, J.J.; Videler, J.J
The behaviour and allocation of time of the endobenthic shrimp Callianassa subterranea from the central North Sea was studied in the laboratory. Animals were allowed to construct a two-dimensional burrow in large transparent sediment filled cuvettes tailored to their body width. The behaviour of the
During the second cruise of the Japanese Research Vessel "Kaiyo Maru" to the western coast of South America in 1968-69, Dr. Osame Tabeta of the Shimonoseki University of Fisheries, then on the staff of the Kyushu University, collected a number of galatheids off the northern Peruvian coast. All of
S. K. Dubey
Full Text Available Populations of mud lobster Thalassina anomala were studied on tidal flats in the Sagar island of Indian Sundarbans. Ecologically they are recognized as the 'friends of mangrove' and a 'Biological Marvel' of the system. They turn up the deep soil to the surface by regular night shift burrowing exercise and help to import aerated tidal water in the burrows 2 to 2.5 meter deep. They have extra ordinary morphological adaptation and structural changes and completely resort to detritivore diet. Being thigmotactic it seldom exposes to atmospheric oxygen and forms its palace underground with a central chamber having 5 to 6 radiated tunnels opening to the surface covered with earth mounds. It displays its engineering skill of bioturbation in tunneling. During tunneling the shrimp feeds on the mud packed with detritus and derived its required micronutrients. Being mud dwelling and mud eating habits, it's respiratory and food manipulating apparatus underwent transformations which demands intensive investigation. Thalassinid burrow associates comprising mieo and microorganisms also provide good subject of study of species specific interaction, exchanging of materials between associate partners.
Tamaki, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Ikebe, K.; Muramatsu, K.; Taka, M.; Tanaka, M.
-(1988) Cl 1st O-0989) 2nd O-0989) W 1st O-(1990) III 2nd O-(1990) ??3rd O-(1990) 1200 "E \\ 1000 La m 2 .- 800 .z 7 - 600 % k % 400 1 200 0 0.n0Nln0~r-Gn0~00 -7 -Ned--N &O~Ln~ua~N~NNNcor- __ 1989 1990 1991 Fig. 13. Temporal changes...
Stamhuis, Eize; Videler, Johannes
The process of flow generation with metachronally beating pleopods in a tubiform burrow was studied by designing a hydrodynamic model based on a thrust-drag force balance. The drag of the tube (including the shrimp) comprises components for accelerating the water into the tube entrance, for
Stamhuis, E J; Videler, J J
The morphology of the pleopods, uropods and telson of the tube-dwelling shrimp Callianassa subterranea have been studied using dissection microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The kinematics of these appendages were examined by motion analysis of macro-video recordings of ventilating shrimps in transparent artificial burrows. The pleopods show the usual crustacean biramous anatomy, but all segments are rostro-caudally flattened. The protopodite bears a triangular medially oriented endopodite and a scoop-shaped exopodite. The contralateral endopodites are linked by the appendix interna, ensuring a perfect phase relationship between contralateral pleopods. The outer rims of the exopodites are fringed with long fern-leaf-like plumose setae bearing flattened setules. These setae have very mobile joints and can be turned caudally. The slits between contralateral endopodites have rims of leaf-like setae as well. Setae of the same leaf-like type fringe the uropods, but these are non-motile. The telson has a narrow fringe of leaf-like setae, locally interrupted by long mechanoreceptory setae. A shrimp, wandering through the burrow or resting, holds its pleopods against the abdomen with the exopodites and their setal fringes retracted medially. The uropods are folded medially as well, probably to reduce the shrimp's drag. During ventilation, the uropods are extended against the tube wall, leaving only a small opening for flow ventral from the telson, and the pleopods beat at a frequency of approximately 1 Hz (0.9+/-0.2 Hz). Fourier analysis of pleopod kinematics showed that the motion pattern of the first flow-generating pleopod pair (PP1) consisted mainly of the first harmonic (75 %) and to a lesser extent of the third harmonic (20 %), resulting in almost perfect sinusoidal motion. The motion patterns of PP2 and PP3 could be modelled by assigning pure sinusoids with a 120 degrees phase shift and a rostro-caudal ranking to the three pairs of pleopods.
Stamhuis, E J; Videler, J J
The process of flow generation with metachronally beating pleopods in a tubiform burrow was studied by designing a hydrodynamic model based on a thrust-drag force balance. The drag of the tube (including the shrimp) comprises components for accelerating the water into the tube entrance, for adjusting a parabolic velocity profile, for accelerating the flow into a constriction due to the shrimp's body and another constriction due to the extended tail-fan, for shear due to separation and for the viscous resistance of all tube parts. The thrust produced by the beating pleopods comprises components for the drag-based thrust and for the added-mass-based thrust. The beating pleopods are approximated by oscillating flat plates with a different area and camber during the power stroke and the recovery stroke and with a phase shift between adjacent pleopod pairs. The added mass is shed during the second half of the power stroke and is minimized during the recovery stroke. A force balance between the pleopod thrust and the tube drag is effected by calculating the mean thrust during one beat cycle at a certain flow velocity in the tube and comparing it with the drag of the tube at that flow velocity. The energetics of the tube and the pump are derived from the forces, and the mechanical efficiency of the system is the ratio of these two. Adjusted to standard Callianassa subterranea values, the model predicts a mean flow velocity in the tube of 1.8 mm s-1. The mean thrust force, equalling the drag, is 36. 8 microN, the work done by the pleopod pump per beat cycle is 0.91 microJ and the energy dissipated by the tube system is 0.066 microJ per cycle. The mechanical efficiency is therefore 7.3 %. Pump characteristics that may be varied by the shrimp are the beat frequency, the phase shift, the amplitude and the difference in pleopod area between the power and recovery strokes. These parameters are varied in the model to evaluate their effects. Furthermore, the moment of added mass shedding, the distance between adjacent pleopods, the number of pleopods and the total tube drag were also varied to evaluate their effects.
Larval development of Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea from the Amazon region, reared in the laboratory O desenvolvimento larval de Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea da região amazônica, cultivado em laboratório
Fernando A. Abrunhosa
Full Text Available The complete larval development of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 was described and illustrated in detail from specimens reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were collected at Canela Island in the northeastern region of the State of Pará. The larvae hatch as a prezoea, in which they persist for less than 3 hours. The larval development consists of three zoeal stages and a megalopa. The zoeal development averaged from 69 to 111 hours. The period in the megalopa stage was about 185 hours (about 8 days. The percentage of individuals succeeding in molt into juvenile stage was 91,8%. The first juvenile stage was reached 254 hours (about 10 days after hatching. Morphological comparisons and their relationship with larvae of congeneric species are briefly discussed.O desenvolvimento completo de Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 foi descrito e ilustrado em detalhes a partir de espécimens cultivados em laboratório. Fêmeas ovígeras foram coletadas na ilha de Canela nordeste do Estado do Pará. As larvas eclodem como prezoea e o desenvolvimento larval consiste de 3 estágios de zoea e 1 de megalopa. O desenvolvimento dos 3 estágios de zoea durou em média de 69 a 111 horas. A duração de megalopa foi cerca de 185 horas (cerca de 8 dias. O primeiro juvenil foi alcançado em 254 horas (cerca de 10 dias após a eclosão. Comparações morfológicas com espécies do mesmo gênero são discutidas.
Diferencias en las historias de vida de dos especies de isópodos bopíridos (Isopoda: Epicaridea que parasitan al nape Neotrypaea uncinata (Milne-Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea Different life histories of two species of bopyrid isopods (Isopoda, Epicaridea, parasites of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea
Full Text Available En ambientes costeros de Concepción, Chile, se han registrado dos especies de isópodos, Ione ovata Shiino, 1964 e Ionella agassizi Bonnier, 1900, parásitos en las cámaras branquiales del nape Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837. La prevalencia de parasitismo sin embargo, es mucho menor en Ione ovata quien además presenta menor frecuencia de parejas cohabitando una misma branquia, aunque posee una especificidad comparativamente menor que I. agassizi. Esto sugiere que ambas especies poseen historias de vida contrastantes. Para mejorar el entendimiento de las causas de estas diferencias, en este estudio se analizan y comparan algunos rasgos de la historia de vida de los isópodos (fecundidad, tamaño de los huevos, inversión reproductiva, y capacidad de los machos para colonizar napes no parasitados. Ione agassizi tuvo una menor fecundidad, y huevos de mayor tamaño que I. ovata. Sin embargo, no hubo diferencias en la inversión reproductiva entre ambas especies, ni en su relación con el tamaño corporal del isópodo. Los machos de I. ovata poseen mayor habilidad que los de I. agassizi para colonizar nuevos napes no parasitados, ya que pudieron permanecer en nuevos hospedadores y rediferenciarse sexualmente en hembras. Se considera que sería necesario estimar la sobrevivencia durante el tiempo total de vida de estos parásitos para mejorar la interpretación de estos resultadosOn coastal habitats near Concepción city, Chile, there are two isopod species Ione ovata Shiino, 1964, and Ionella agassizi Bonnier, 1900 both occupying the gill chambers of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837. However, in I. ovata, the prevalence is smaller, there is a low frequency of coupled isopods in the same gill chamber, and is less host specific than I. agassizi. These observations suggest that both isopod species have different life histories. To improve the understanding of the causes of these differences some life history traits of isopods species (fecundity, egg size and reproductive investment and the capability of individual males isopods to survive in uninfested ghost shrimps are examined and compared. Ione agassizi has lower fecundity but larger eggs than I. ovata. However, there were neither differences in reproductive investment nor in relation to their body size between the two species. Experimental infestation of ghost shrimps by males of both species of isopods showed that only males of I. ovata could remain on the hosts for a few weeks and metamorphose into females. It would be necessary to estimate survival of isopods during the total life cycle, in order to improve the interpretation of these results
Wagner Cotroni Valenti
Full Text Available In this paper, the relative growth of Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae, is presented; the cephalothorax length/abdominal length, telson length/abdominal length and abdominal length/total length relashionships were determined. The adjusted equations showed a isometric growth pattern. There are no changes in these relationships during the animals growth that may be significant in the maximization of the meat's profit.
Burrow ventilation in the tube-dwelling shrimp callianassa subterranea (Decapoda: thalassinidea). II. The flow in the vicinity of the shrimp and the energetic advantages of a laminar non-pulsating ventilation current.
Stamhuis, E J; Videler, J J
The ventilation flow in the vicinity of the pleopod-pumping thalassinid shrimp Callianassa subterranea in an artificial transparent burrow has been mapped using particle image velocimetry. The flow in the tube in front of the shrimp was unidirectional, laminar and steady, with a parabolic cross-sectional velocity profile. The mean flow velocity was 2.0+/-0.1 mm s-1. The flow passed the thorax of the shrimp along the lateral and ventral sides. Ventral to the abdomen, the flow was dominated by the metachronally oscillating pleopods. The water around a pleopod is accelerated caudally and ventrally during the power stroke, and decelerated to a much lesser extent during the recovery stroke owing to a reduction in pleopod area. On average, the flow ventral to the abdomen converged towards the small opening underneath the telson, simultaneously increasing in velocity. A jet with a core velocity of 18-20 mm s-1 entered the area behind the shrimp from underneath the telson. This caused a separation zone with backflow caudal to the telson. Owing to the high rates of shear, the jet diverged and re-adjusted to a parabolic cross-sectional profile within 1-2 body lengths behind the shrimp, showing no traces of pulsation. The metachronal pleopod movements in combination with the increase in flow velocity at the constriction in the tube caused by the uropods and the telson probably prevented pulsation. The energetic consequences of pulsating and steady flows in combination with several tube configurations were evaluated. The results suggested that, by constricting the tube and keeping the flow steady, C. subterranea saves on ventilation costs by a factor of up to six compared with oscillatory flow in a tube without the tail-fan constriction.
Moravec, Frantisek; Santos, Cláudia P
Previously undescribed infective larvae of the cystidicolid nematode Pseudoproleptus sp. (probably conspecific with the nematode originally described as Heliconema izecksohni Fabio, 1982, a parasite of freshwater fish in Brazil), were found encapsulated in the hemocel of the Amazon river prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller) (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the natural canals on the Mexiana Island (Amazon River Delta), Pardá State, Brazil. The prevalence in prawns (body length 48-110 mm) examined in January and March 2008 (n = 44) was 32%, with an intensity of 1-6 (mean 2) larvae per crustacean. The nematode larvae (body length 19.7-25.7 mm), characterized by the cephalic end provided with a helmet-like cuticular structure having a thickened free posterior margin, are described based on light and scanning electron microscopy. Apparently prawns play a role as intermediate hosts for this nematode species. This is the first record of a larval representative of Cystidicolidae in South America and the first record of a species of Pseudoproleptus Khera, 1955, in the Neotropics. Heliconema izecksohni is transferred to Pseudoproleptus as Pseudoproleptus izecksohni (Fabio, 1982) n. comb.
Nov 28, 1986 ... £001. 16: 301-311. 311. HANEKOM, N.M. 19~O. A study of two thalassinid prawns in the non-Spartina regions of the Swartkops estuary. Ph.D. thesis, University of Port Elizabeth, South Africa. KENSLEY. B. 1974. The genus Callianassa (Crustacea,. Decapoda. Thalassinidea) from the west coast of South.
Marochi, Murilo Zanetti
Resumo: Ecomorfologia de caranguejos e siris (CRUSTACEA DECAPODA BRACHYURA) de ecossistemas costeiros. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar se diferentes espécies de Brachyura possuem padrões ecomorfológicos em comum ligados ao habitat em que estão inseridas. Foram analisados 528 exemplares pertencentes a 24 espécies e provenientes dos seguintes ecossistemas costeiros: manguezal, costão rochoso, praia arenosa, bentopelagial e mar aberto. De todos os exemplares foram mensurada...
Full Text Available This is the first comprehensive study of freshwater decapoda crustaceans from Vanuatu. Of the nineteen species collected during this study, eighteen appear to be new records for the archipelago. However none of these species is endemic to Vanuatu, nine having a Pacific distribution and ten an Indo-Pacific distribution. Half of the species recorded were widely distributed in Vanuatu, whereas the others were more restricted. A comparison is made with the freshwater decapoda fauna of the two neighbouring archipelagoes namely, those of Fiji and New Caledonia, which have already been thoroughly surveyed.
Gan, Huan You; Gan, Han Ming; Tan, Mun Hua; Lee, Yin Peng; Austin, Christopher M
The complete mitochondrial genome of the hermit crab Clibanarius infraspinatus was recovered by genome skimming using Next-Gen sequencing. The Clibanarius infraspinatus mitogenome has 16,504 base pairs (67.94% A + T content) made up of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal subunit genes, 22 transfer RNAs and a putative 1500 bp non-coding AT-rich region. The Clibanarius infraspinatus mitogenome sequence is the first for the family Diogenidae and the second for the superfamily Paguroidea and exhibits a translocation of the ND3 gene not previously reported for the Decapoda.
Julio H. Vinuesa
Full Text Available We report the occurrence of Lithodes turkayi (Anomura, Libidoclaea granaria, and C. edwardsii (Brachyura, in the Beagle Channel. This observation extends their range of distribution south of the previously reported limit of the Straits of Magellan. Acanthocyclus albatrossis (Brachyura occurs south of Isla Navarino and also in the Beagle Channel, however in a particular habitat of its northern coast. The occurrence of Lithodes confundens (formerly identified as L. antarcticus north of the eastern entrance of the Straits of Magellan is also reported. We extend its range of distribution northerly and its bathymetric distribution to the intertidal.
Wagner Cotroni Valenti
Full Text Available In this paper, the fecundity in Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 of the Ribeira de Iguape river (Southern Brazil (Crustacea, Decapoda, Palaemonidae, is presented. The mean individual fecundity of the population was estimated. Fecundity was related to either length and/or weight. Our data showed that this species presents high fecundity and is thus suitable for comercial culture. The fecundity/length and fecundity/weight relationships obtained are: F = - 14 712 + 2 311,8 L and F = -1493,9 + 798,76 W
IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.
Wardiatno, Yusli; Hakim, Agus Alim; Mashar, Ali; Butet, Nurlisa Alias; Adrianto, Luky; Farajallah, Achmad
Three specimens of Puerulus mesodontus Chan, Ma & Chu, 2013 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Achelata, Palinuridae) were collected from Palabuhanratu Bay, southern Java, Indonesia. There is no previous record on the presence of the species in Indonesia. This finding represents the first record of this species in Java, Indonesia, and confirms that the species is present in the Indian Ocean. The morphological characters of the species are described. This paper contains a new distribution record of a lobster species from Indonesian waters.
Keenan, S.; Alikhan, M.A. (Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, Ontario (Canada))
The purpose of the study reported in this paper was to compare concentrations of lead and cadmium in the sediment and water, as well as in the crayfish, Cambarus Bartoni (Fab.) (Decapoda - Crustacea) trapped from an acidic and a neutral lake in the Sudbury district of Northeastern Ontario. Hepatopancreatic, alimentary canal, tail muscles and exoskeletal concentrations in the crayfish are also examined to determine specific tissue sites for these accumulations.
Padate, V.P.; Rivonker, C.U.; Anil, A.C.; Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.
within the sub-family Thalamitinae Paulson, 1875, with 63 species (Thalamita Latreille, 1829 comprises 89 species) (Ng et al., 2008) distributed among four sub-genera (Charybdis De Haan, 1833; Goniohellenus Alcock, 1899; Gonioneptunus Ortmann, 1893.... Biol. Res., vol.6(6); 2010; 579-590 A new species of portunid crab of the genus Charybdis (De Haan, 1833) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) from Goa, India. VINAY P. PADATE Department of Marine Sciences, Goa University, Goa 403 206, India...
d'Udekem d'Azoc, C.; Faasse, M.; Dumoulin, E.; Blauwe, de H.
Het voorkomen van de rugstreepsteurgarnaal Palaemon macrodactylus in de zuidelijke bocht van de Noordzee, met een determinatiesleutel tot de Palaemonidae van Noordwest-Europa (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) In 1999 werd de rugstreepsteurgarnaal Palaemon macrodactylus Rathbun, 1902, een soort
Soni, P. Sarita, Ed.
This serial issue features 6 members of the Indiana University System faculty who have focused their research on Latin America, past and present. The first article, "A Literature of Their Own," highlights Darlene Sadlier's research on Brazilian women's fiction and poetry that has led to an interest in the interplay of Brazilian and…
Greenfield, Gerald Michael
Notes the problematical elements of diversity within Latin America, establishes priorities for the social studies curriculum, and reviews what should be taught about its geography, resources, people, religion, customs, economics, politics, history, and international relationships. Lists Latin American Studies programs and published instructional…
Intended for those involved in American social service and educational communities, this book addresses the widespread problem of illiteracy in the United States and the social consequences of this problem. Following an introduction, the chapters in the first section of the book discuss the growing crisis of illiterate America, specifically, the…
Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)
Kim, Sanghee; Choi, Han-Gu; Park, Joong-Ki; Min, Gi-Sik
We determined the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence of the red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus (Decapoda, Anomura). P. camtschaticus is one of the largest arthropods and the most expensive commercially available gourmet seafood. The genome sequence of P. camtschaticus is 16,720 bp in size and its gene content, gene order, and transcriptional polarity are almost identical to those of the hermit crab Pagurus longicarpus, which is thought to be derived from a common ancestor. However, P. camtschaticus mtDNA showed tRNA translocation in two blocks compared to that of P. longicarpus. Prior to this study, complete mt genomes of only two species of Anomura have been reported. Thus, our genomic data will provide additional information for constructing the decapod phylogeny.
Kornienko, Elena S; Korn, Olga M
Zoeal stages of the hermit crab Labidochirus anomalus (Balss, 1913) (Decapoda: Anomura: Paguridae) are described and illustrated from the larvae reared in the laboratory. The development included four zoeal stages following the typical pattern in the Paguridae. Morphological features of the larvae of L. anomalus are compared with those described for the related species L. splendescens (Owen, 1839). The larvae of both species share numerous zoeal characters and are similar as the species of one genus. At the same time, zoeae of L. anomalus have no dorsal carina on the carapace and long posterolateral carapace spines-key features of the larvae of L. splendescens. These zoeal characters considered as generic are not characteristic of only the genus Labidochirus but sporadically occur among Pagurus species. Main characters of zoeal stages allow assignment of both Labidochirus species to the Group A of Pagurus (the typical representative P. bernhardus).
Full Text Available To face the severe loss in biodiversity recorded in freshwater crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Astacidea, there is an increasing awareness that the CBD’s concept of the sustainable use of natural resources should be applied also to this large assemblage of species. This review paper will synthesize the several uses we make or have made of crayfish with the purpose of pinpointing where sustainability is desirable and feasible. Uses are here classified as direct (i.e. consumption and production and indirect. The latter uses refer to the recreational, cultural, ethical, aesthetic, scientific and education values of crayfish. An additional indirect use regards the environmental key role this taxon plays. Several examples, mostly related to Europe, will be provided to illustrate the importance of crayfish to human societies, culture and history. The potential of assigning a non-use value to them will be finally discussed.
Fernando L. Mantelatto
Full Text Available Abstract We designed 14 new primers for amplification of the COI barcode region of decapod crustacean species. We tested, with high level of success, the generation of ~ 640 ± 49 base-pair sequences in selected groups of decapods (hermit crabs, squat lobsters, marine and freshwater crabs and shrimps, encompassing representatives of 27 genera of 15 families, 11 of Pleocyemata (Anomura, Brachyura, and Caridea and 4 of Dendrobranchiata. Based on the results we expect the applicability of these primers for several studies with different taxa within Decapoda.
Oscar Antonio Amin
Full Text Available Effects of copper toxicity on zoea I of Lithodes santolla (Decapoda: Anomura were analysed. The 96-h LC50 was estimated, resulting in 298.5 µg L-1. Groups of larvae were exposed to sublethal concentrations (40, 80 and 160 µg L-1 for 96 h. Oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, O:N atomic ratio, lipid peroxidation (LPO and body water content were measured. Oxygen consumption of treated groups (mean 46.92 ± 8.03 µg-atom O2 h-1 mg-1 did not differ significantly with control. Ammonia excretion decreased by 60% at higher Cu concentration (1.61 ± 0.65 µg-atom N-NH3 h-1 mg-1, leading to a 117% increase in the O:N ratio. LPO values during the exposure time were higher in all treatments than in the controls. The water content was significantly higher in treatments than in controls. The highest concentration assayed, which represents about 50% of 96-h LC50, had evident effects on the parameters analysed. The values of copper in water reported for the coastal zone of Ushuaia bay exceed the value established by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA for ambient water quality criteria. Therefore, the results obtained in the present study are a contribution to the study of potential effects of copper as a common stressor in the first larval stage of this commercial species of the Beagle Channel.
Joaquim Olinto Branco
Full Text Available From January to December 1995, 332 individuals of the Callinectes ornatus species were collected from the Itapocoroy inlet in Penha, Sta. Catarina, Brazil to study its natural diet and the seasonal variations of diet. Results showed a diversified trophic spectrum with a generalized dietary strategy comprising the algae, macrophyta, foraminiferida, mollusca, polychaeta, crustacea, echinodermata, Osteichthyes and NIOM (Nonidentified Organic Matter groups.Alimentação natural de Callinectes ornatus Ordway, 1863 (Decapoda, Portunidae na Armação do Itapocoroy, Penha, SC - Brasil. No período de janeiro a dezembro de 1995, foram coletados 332 indivíduos de Callinectes ornatus, procedentes da Armação do Itapocoroy (Penha, SC. Foi estudada a alimentação natural da espécie e as variações sazonais da dieta. Os resultados mostram um espectro trófico diversificado, com estratégia alimentar generalista, sendo Algas, Macrófitas, Foraminiferida, Mollusca, Polychaeta, Crustacea, Echinodermata, Osteichthyes e matéria orgânica não identificada, os grupos que compõem sua dieta.
Felder, Darryl L; Robles, Rafael
Two new species of intertidal ghost shrimp are described from coastal Central American habitats of the eastern Pacific Ocean, bringing the total known membership of the genus to 18 species. Lepidophthalmus natesi sp. nov. from Colombia and Nicaragua shares with Lepidophthalmus panamensis sp. nov. from Colombia and Panama the lack of extensive ventral pleomere armor, especially in lacking a median ventral sclerite on the second pleomere. The absence of this plate is also a character of the eastern Pacific species L. rafai Felder & Manning, 1998, but the two new species differ from it in telson shape. Ventral armor including this plate is present in Lepidophthalmus bocourti (A. Milne-Edwards, 1870) and L. eiseni Holmes, 1904 which occur sympatrically with L. natesi sp. nov. in eastern Pacific tropical estuaries. As also known for at least L. bocourti, L. natesi sp. nov. invades and densely colonizes penaeid shrimp aquaculture ponds in regional estuarine settings. Individuals of L. panamensis sp. nov. are of smaller body size but also may be densely concentrated, especially in clayey substrates including those adjacent to intertidal rocks. Despite their similarities in the pleon and shape of the telson, the species can be readily separated by dentition of the cheliped fingers, relative length of the minor chela fingers, the second pleopod appendix of mature males, and egg size. The large eggs of L. panamensis sp. nov. suggest extremely abbreviated development. Characteristic coloration is described for both new species.
Lindsay, G N
As government increasingly recognizes its own obligations to support and provide family planning as a health and social measure, serious questions are raised as to the proper role for Planned Parenthood World Federation as a private organization. Federal programs both at home and abroad tend to make private fundraising more difficult, whatever the role of this organization may be. Contrary to common impression, experience thus far indicates that the existence of governmental programs does not decrease demands on Planned Parenthood as a private agency. A wide gap also exists between public acceptance, which has been realized, and public conviction, which still has not been accepted. Only those who feel distress at the vision of an all-encompassing megalopolis, only those with concern for the qualify of life in the crowd, and only those who see finite limits of resources recognize that the US must someday plan a halt to population growth. As the gap between the developed and the underdeveloped world widens, economists point out that the US, with less than 6% of the world's population, already consumes some 50% of the world's available raw materials. Business and government leaders are beginning to understand the rate at which an industrial and affluent society consumes the world's substance and threatens the environment. If the assumption is correct that the population explosion constitutes a major threat to life on earth, then America's own attitudes and actions at home, as well as abroad and in the developing countries, are vital. In the next few years Planned Parenthood faces the task of converting the tide of public acceptance into one of conviction and effective action on a giant scale both at home and abroad. In its effort, Planned Parenthood has continued to expand its own service functions. It now has 157 local affiliates with an additional 30 in the organizational stage. In 1967 Planned Parenthood affiliates operated 470 family planning centers, 71 more than
Black, Jan Knippers
There is a growing unacknowledged reality to the oneness of America. Latin America is increasingly sharing not only the blessings of U.S.-style modernization, but its demons as well. Also, many problems that have long plagued Latin America, e.g., indebtedness and militarism, are becoming more apparent in the United States. (RM)
Feb 9, 1999 ... Zoology Department, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville, 7535 South Africa. Barbara A. Stewart. Zoology Department, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X 1, Matieland, 7602 South Africa. Received 21 ... Introduction. The classification of aquatic inland invertebrates has received.
Oct 2, 1992 ... larvae of Sesarma catenata were found in all sampling sessions, with highest abundance during nocturnal ebb tides. Two seasonal peaks of abundance were detected in November and February-March. These coincided with recorded peaks of percentage abundance of gravid females in the adull ...
Elia Kazan's 1963 film, America America is a tribute to the immigrant experience of his own forebears, and has relevance to the refugee crisis of today. In stark black and white cinematography, the film provides insight into the refugee-immigrant experience, personified in Stavros, a young man longing for freedom, obsessed with an idealized America. His hope and innocence cannot safeguard him. His memories of his happy childhood and loving family create idealizing transferences to a world of others who manipulate and betray him as he undertakes his quest. Eventually he too learns to manipulate and betray, unconsciously identifying with the aggressor. History will offer ethical challenges, the black and white cinematography mirroring the black and white perception of good and bad, the shades of grey evoking a maturation of understanding.
Efectos del rizocéfalo Loxothylacus armatus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala en el cangrejo Paraxanthus barbiger (Decapoda: Brachyura en Chile Effects of the rhizocephalan Loxothylacus armatus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala on the crab Paraxanthus barbiger (Decapoda: Brachyura in Chile
Full Text Available Diversas asociaciones biológicas de amplia distribución y alta especificidad en el ambiente marino han pasado casi desapercibidas para los estudiosos en Chile. Aquí se describe cuantitativamente la infección por Loxothylacus armatus Boschma 1949 (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala en el cangrejo Paraxanthus barbiger (Poeppig 1836 (Decapoda: Brachyura y se evalúa si el parásito produce efectos semejantes a los descritos para asociaciones similares. Para ello, 513 ejemplares del cangrejo fueron recolectados manualmente desde el submareal somero, entre septiembre y octubre de 2003, en Lenga, Octava Región de Chile. La prevalencia de rizocéfalos alcanzó valores máximos cercanos al 60 % en hospedadores de pequeño tamaño corporal, provocando castración, inhibiendo el desarrollo gonadal de las hembras y modificando el tamaño de los caracteres sexuales secundarios en ambos sexos, lo que sugiere que impone una gran demanda sobre su hospedador. Estos resultados muestran una gran similitud con otros estudios que involucran a rizocéfalos, y podrían, al incorporar a las simbiosis en el estudio de las comunidades bentónicas en Chile, conducir a que se reinterprete, por ejemplo, la abundancia y patrones de reproducción de P. barbiger, una especie de depredador prominente de esas comunidades bentónicasIn the marine realm, several biological associations are distributed worldwide and are highly specific, but remain poorly studied in Chile. Here, we describe quantitatively the infection by the barnacle Loxothylacus armatus Boschma 1949 (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala in the crab Paraxanthus barbiger (Poeppig 1836 (Decapoda: Brachyura, and assess if the parasite effects are similar to rhizocephalan-decapod associations elsewhere. To do this, 513 crabs were collected by hand while scuba diving between September and October, 2003 in the shallow subtidal zone of Lenga (37° S, Chile. Maximum prevalence reached ca. 60 % in small body size hosts, producing total
The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) throughout Latin America in all aspects of the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico, Trinidad and Venezuela. The future for the oil industry in Latin America is viewed as 'highly prospective'
Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai
Based on an original survey conducted in the summer of 2012 in Beijing, we examine how China's America watchers—IR scholars who work on US-China relations—have viewed China's power status in the international system, US-China relations and some specific US policies in Asia. Our survey shows that ...
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Vega, Francisco J.; Ahyong, Shane T.; Espinosa, Belinda; Flores-Ventura, José; Luna, Laura; González-González, Arturo H.
A new genus and species of the Mathildellidae Prebranchioplax cretacica (Crustacea: Decapoda: Goneplacoidea) is reported from shallow marine sediments of the upper Campanian Parras Shale and Cerro del Pueblo Formation (Parras Basin), Coahuila, NE Mexico. Prebranchioplax cretacica was collected from siliceous concretions associated with more abundant specimens of the retroplumid Costacopluma mexicana Vega and Perrilliat, 1989. P. cretacica bears similarities to Eocene species of Branchioplax from Japan, USA (Alaska and Washington), England, Hungary and Tajikistan as well as with Eogeryonidae (Portunoidea) species from the Upper Cretaceous of Spain and Marocarcinidae (Styracocarcinus) from Morocco. However, clear differences in the carapace frontal shape places P. cretacica in the Mathildellidae. This record represents the oldest known Mathildellidae, and along with the Retroplumidae, appear to have originated during the Late Cretaceous in ancient seas of Mexico, with a wide distribution during Paleogene times becoming restricted today to deep waters of the Indo-Pacific region and Atlantic Ocean. Comments on preservation and morphology of Costacopluma mexicana are also included. Crab specimens preserved in siliceous concretions from one locality (Entronque) show peculiar desiccation marks, and a possible model of taphonomy.
Roterman, C N; Copley, J T; Linse, K T; Tyler, P A; Rogers, A D
The phylogeny of the superfamily Chirostyloidea (Decapoda: Anomura) has been poorly understood owing to limited taxon sampling and discordance between different genes. We present a nine-gene dataset across 15 chirostyloids, including all known yeti crabs (Kiwaidae), to improve the resolution of phylogenetic affinities within and between the different families, and to date key divergences using fossil calibrations. This study supports the monophyly of Chirostyloidea and, within this, a basal split between Eumunididae and a Kiwaidae-Chirostylidae clade. All three families originated in the Mid-Cretaceous, but extant kiwaids and most chirostylids radiated from the Eocene onwards. Within Kiwaidae, the basal split between the seep-endemic Kiwa puravida and a vent clade comprising Kiwa hirsuta and Kiwa spp. found on the East Scotia and Southwest Indian ridges is compatible with a hypothesized seep-to-vent evolutionary trajectory. A divergence date estimate of 13.4-25.9 Ma between the Pacific and non-Pacific lineages is consistent with Kiwaidae spreading into the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean via the newly opened Drake Passage. The recent radiation of Kiwaidae adds to the list of chemosynthetic fauna that appear to have diversified after the Palaeocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum, a period of possibly widespread anoxia/dysoxia in deep-sea basins.
Vergamini, F.G.; Pileggi, L.G.; Mantelatto, F.L.
The freshwater prawn Macrobrachium amazonicum is widely distributed in South America, and occupies habitats with a wide range of salinities. Several investigations have revealed the existence of wide intraspecific variability among different populations, although the understanding of this
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Warner, S L
Freud first saw this in America's attitude toward the use of cocaine. It was freely and legally used and even promoted by American physicians as beneficial in many medical conditions. Freud was first swept along by America's prococaine enthusiasm. He narrowly missed destroying his own medical reputation by his continuing close connection and advocacy of cocaine. Freud made his only visit to America in 1909. Despite the success of his visit and the congeniality of Americans toward him, he was already programmed toward a negative response. He allowed minor everyday inconveniences and cultural differences to spoil the trip for him. The chronic intestinal distress that had bothered him previously now was labelled as his "American dyspepsia." He developed additional reasons for disliking America. They accepted his three key dissenters, Adler, Jung, and Rank. He even believed that these three men achieved greater notoriety and popularity in America than he did. In fact, the Freudian psychoanalytic movement became much larger and more powerful in America than did the followings of any or all of his defectors. Freud did not like the shortcuts and lack of mastery of the basics of psychoanalysis that he believed happened in America. Some of this was true, but it was mainly exaggerated in Freud's mind. The gold of psychoanalysis was never transformed into a practical but deficient psychoanalytic alloy as Freud feared it might. There was a genuine disagreement about whether a psychoanalyst should have to become a medical doctor or not. It was a complicated issue in America because of laws that said that doing psychoanalysis was practicing medicine. Freud viewed the American stand against recognizing lay analysts as more evidence of American's being a rebellious son. Economic factors also played a significant factor in Freud's dislike of America. Freud was initially enthusiastic about President Wilson and his plans for peace. He found after World War I that all of his savings
Full Text Available Las especies del género Callinectes sostienen pesquerías importantes en varias partes del mundo. En el occidente de Venezuela, Callinectes sapidus es capturado con palangre y sostiene una pesquería artesanal importante en el Lago de Maracaibo; mientras que en la Isla de Margarita, Callinectes danae es capturado con nasa en zonas cercanas a lagunas costeras y su pesca está limitada por la oferta y la demanda. Estos recursos son de considerable importancia económica entre los crustáceos comestibles; sin embargo, pocos estudios han sido reportados sobre la dinámica poblacional y potencialidad pesquera en ambientes costeros de Venezuela que contribuyan a la toma de decisiones en la administración pesquera. En este documento se presenta información de los parámetros de crecimiento del cangrejo Callinectes danae Smith, 1869, con el fin de obtener un conocimiento detallado del patrón de crecimiento y lograr estimaciones más precisas sobre el tamaño de la población y su disponibilidad para la explotación. Se analizó una muestra constituida por 3 623 ejemplares capturados con nasa cangrejera por la flota artesanal, entre octubre 2007 y septiembre 2008. Se estableció la relación longitud-peso y se estimaron los parámetros de crecimiento de las curvas en longitud y peso del modelo de von Bertalanffy. La proporción sexual global mostró que no existe diferencia significativa entre machos y hembras (χ2=0.04, p>0.05. Los valores de las pendientes b entre machos y hembras presentaron diferencias significativas (ts=2.75, pDana Swimming crab growth Callinectes danae (Decapoda: Portunidae from Margarita Island, Venezuela. Callinectes danae is a common species captured with crab traps in nearby areas of coastal lagoons in Margarita Island. Although its considerable economic importance as a fishery resource, few studies have been done on population dynamics and its fishery potential in local coastal environments to support decision making in
Letessier, Tom B.; De Grave, Sammy; Boersch-Supan, Philipp H.; Kemp, Kirsty M.; Brierley, Andrew S.; Rogers, Alex D.
Maintenance of often-observed elevated levels of pelagic diversity and biomass on seamounts, of relevance to conservation and fishery management, involves complex interactions between physical and biological variables that remain poorly understood. To untangle these biophysical processes we explore factors influencing the distribution of epi- and meso-pelagic (0-1000 m) micronektonic crustaceans (>15 mm; order Lophogastridea, family Gnathophausiidea; and order Decapoda) on and off seamounts along the South West Indian Ridge (SWIR, 27° to 42°S) and on a seamount off the Madagascar Ridge (31.6°S, 42.8°E). Thirty-one species of micronektic crustaceans were caught using mid-water trawls within the study area but there was no apparent latitude-related patterns in species richness or abundance. Species richness predicted by rarefraction curves and numerical abundance was highest in the vicinity (seamounts (species richness: 15 to 21; abundance: 10±2 to 20±1 ind.10-3 m-1) compared with over the abyssal plains and ridge slopes (species richness: 9.2-9.9; abundance: 24±2 to 79±8 ind.10-3 m-1). Multivariate analysis of assemblage composition revealed significant groupings of individual trawl samples with respect to whether the sample was on or off a seamount and hydrographic region, but not with time of sampling relative to diel cycle (day/night or dawn) or depth of sampling (0-500, 500-800, >800 m). The dominant species assemblage comprised the shrimps Systellaspis debilis (37%) and Sergia prehensilis (34%), and was restricted to seamounts on the subtropical SWIR. Our observations suggest that the 'oasis effect' of seamounts conventionally associated with higher trophic levels is also applicable to pelagic micronektic crustaceans at lower trophic levels. We suggest that the enhanced biomass and species richness attributed is due to 'habitat enrichment', whereby seamounts provide favourable habitats for both pelagic and bentho-pelagic mid-water crustaceans.
Monroe, Alan D.
The purposes of this book are to summarize and analyze the nature of public opinion in contemporary America and to examine the implications of that nature for the possibility of a functioning democracy. Material in the four sections covers the following topics: "The Study of Public Opinion: Political Theory and Methodology"--opinions and…
Petrilli, Michael J.; Scull, Janie
In this report, the authors identify public schools whose doors are effectively closed to poor children. These institutions--generally found in wealthy urban enclaves or well-heeled suburbs--educate many of the children of America's elite while proudly waving the "public school" flag. But they hardly embody the "common school" ideal. In fact, by…
Markovits, Andrei S.
In this article, the author discusses Europe's anti-Americanism stance. He observes that Europe's aversion to America has become greater, louder, and more determined, and that it has unified Western Europeans more than any other political emotion (with the exception of a common hostility toward Israel). The author contends that the many disastrous…
Austin, Robert D.; Meister, Darren
It took 19 years to build Knight Capital Americas LLC into the largest market maker on the New York Stock Exchange, but on August 1, 2012, it took only 45 minutes for the firm to be wiped out by an information technology (IT) problem: a change in the company's software caused it to lose more than...
Postman, Neil, Ed.; And Others
The essays published in this collection were written in response to the basic question, "To what extent is the language of politics/advertising/psychotherapy/education/bureaucracy/etc. facilitating or impeding our chances of survival?" The general topic here is the contemporary use of language and the semantic environment in America, especially in…
Ronald L. Trosper; Fred Clark; Patrica Gerez-Fernandez; Frank Lake; Deborah McGregor; Charles M. Peters; Silvia Purata; Teresa Ryan; Alan Thomson; Alan E. Watson; Stephen Wyatt
The colonial history of North America presents a contrast between Mexico and the two predominantly English-speaking countries, the United States and Canada. In Mexico, indigenous and other local communities own considerable forested lands, a consequence of the Mexican Revolution of the early twentieth century. In the United States, forest land is now primarily in...
Rajkumar, M.; Manokaran, S.; Sun, Jun; Trilles, J. P.
We collected 3 596 Metapenaeopsis stridulans (Decapoda: Penaeidae) from the southeast coast of India between January and December 2007. Sixty three specimens (43 females and 18 males) were parasitized by the bopyrid isopod Epipenaeon ingens (Isopoda: Bopyridae). This is the first report of the occurrence of E. ingens in this host; therefore, it was considered as a new host record. The highest level of infestation (3.2%) occurred in October 2007, coincident with observations of gravid females (9). The total prevalence and presence of gravid females were 17.46% and 28%, respectively. Infestation caused a characteristic bulge of the branchial chamber, growth retardation, and degeneration of the sex organs, but had no effect on the host weight.
adeloupe, 1964-1966. S Cova Garcia, Pablo, Division de Endemias Rurales, Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social , Mara- cay, Venezuela...Central America. Diaz Najerra , Alfonso, Laboratorio de En tomologia, Instituto de Salubridad y Enfermedades Trop- icales.— Mosquitoes of Mexico , loan of...Saneamiento Ambiental. Minister io de Sanidad y Asistencia Social , Caracas , Venezuela. — Organization of topotypic survey of mosquitoes in Vene zuela
The cholera epidemic 1st hit South America in January 1991 in the coastal town of Chancay, Peru. In 2 weeks, it spread over 2000 km of the Pacific coast. By the end of the 1st month, it had already reached the mountains and tropical forests. By August 1991, cholera cases were reported in order of appearances in Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Brazil, the US, Mexico, Guatemala, Bolivia, and El Salvador. Health authorities still do not know how it was introduced into South America. The case fatality rate has remained at a low of 1%, probably due to the prompt actions of health authorities in informing the public of the epidemic and what preventive cautions should be taken. This epidemic is part of the 7th pandemic which originated in Celebes, Indonesia in 1961. Cholera can spread relatively unchecked in Latin America because sewage in urban areas is not treated even though they do have sewage collection systems. The untreated wastewater enters rivers and the ocean. Consumption of raw seafood is not unusual and has been responsible for cholera infection in some cases. In fact, many countries placed import restrictions on marine products from Peru following the outbreak at a loss of $US10-$US40 million. Municipal sewage treatment facilities, especially stabilization ponds, would prevent the spread of cholera and other pathogens. In rural areas, pit latrines located away from wells can effectively dispose of human wastes. Most water supplies in Latin America are not disinfected. Disinfection drinking water with adequate levels of chlorine would effectively destroy V. cholera. If this is not possible, boiling the water for 2-3 minutes would destroy the pathogen. Any cases of cholera must be reported to PAHO. PAHO has responded to the outbreak by forming a Cholera Task Force and arranged transport of oral rehydration salts, intravenous fluids, antibiotics, and other essential medical supplies.
Sasson, Albert; Malpica, Carlos
This article provides the authors' view on how Latin America has embraced bioeconomy principles in the last two decades with different levels of socio-economic impact. Examples of biodiversity resource valorization in medicine, eco-intensification of agriculture, biotechnology applications in mature sectors such as mining, food and beverage production, bio-refineries and ecosystem services are provided. The importance of participatory and social innovation initiatives is highlighted. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ghosh, A.; Becker, T. W.; Humphreys, G.; Gérault, M.
Basal shear tractions, as generated by mantle convection, are likely to affect the stress field over western North America, and hence, influence the deformation of the North American lithosphere. Earlier studies (Humphreys & Coblentz (2007)) have argued for the importance of shear tractions beneath the continent, but at a reduced amplitude from those predicted by Becker & O'Connell (2001). However, these tractions did not take into account the existence of lateral viscosity variations (LVVs) beneath North America, resulting from strong cratonic root and weak plate margin. We evaluate the tractions and the resulting stresses over North America by incorporating LVVs in a global, high resolution, finite element convection code, CitcomS. Since our ultimate goal is to match observables, such as plate motions and geoid, in addition to stresses, we perform a global inversion for both radial and lateral viscosity variations and choose the viscosity structures that yield a good fit simultaneously to both the global geoid and plate motions. We evaluate the tractions and corresponding stress field from those models. We also attempt to incorporate the effects of gravitational potential energy (GPE) in our convection model. The combined stress field from GPE and tractions are compared to stress observations, such as the World Stress Map.
Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are not commonly considered to be an important group in trophic webs, and this might be due to a lack of knowledge about their trophic roles in aquatic ecosystems. Trichodactylus borellianus is one of the most common and widely distributed freshwater crabs in the floodplains of the southern South American rivers. The main objective of the present study was to examine the trophic role of T. borellianus, in the floodplain of the Paraná River, and its relationships with the freshwater littoral community. The trophic spectrum of this species was characterized for both sexes and individuals of different sizes (adults and juveniles, throughout daily and seasonal cycles. Samples were collected from the aquatic vegetation of three shallow lakes. The diet composition and the feeding activity of T. borellianus were evaluated through the examination of the stomach contents and their degree of emptiness. This crab species consumed several plant and animal items, including amoebas, rotifers, oligochaetes, copepods, cladocerans, and insect larvae. Moreover, this species consumes filamentous and unicellular algae, diatoms, fungi, and macrophytic remains. The predatory habits varied with the season and time of day, and variations in the feeding activity of the juveniles and adults were detected and documented. The diversity of food items eaten by this crab suggests that its trophic role in the community as an omnivore and opportunistic predator provides a connection among several trophic levels from both aquatic and terrestrial communities.
Michel E. Hendrickx
Full Text Available The pinnotherid crab Clypeasterophilus stebbingi (Rathbun, 1918, previously known from Florida, USA, Colombia and Brazil, is reported for the first time from Central America, on the east coast of Nicaragua. A single female specimen was collected on the sand dollar Clypeaster subdepressus (Gray, 1825, at 4 m depth, among turtle grass on sandy bottom. The specimen fits well with the description provided by M.J. Rathbun and observations made on photographs of the male holotype. Comparison of the material described from Florida (including the type material, Colombia and Brazil to the Nicaragua specimen, however, indicates that C. stebbingi shows some variation in the shape of the third maxilliped.
Schwartz, Mark D.; Beaubien, Elisabeth G.; Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Edited by Schwartz, Mark D.
Plant phenological observations and networks in North America have been largely local and regional in extent until recent decades. In the USA, cloned plant monitoring networks were the exception to this pattern, with data collection spanning the late 1950s until approximately the early 1990s. Animal observation networks, especially for birds have been more extensive. The USA National Phenology Network (USA-NPN), established in the mid-2000s is a recent effort to operate a comprehensive national-scale network in the United States. In Canada, PlantWatch, as part of Nature Watch, is the current national-scale plant phenology program.
This map presents details of pipelines currently in place throughout North America. Fifty-nine natural gas pipelines are presented, as well as 16 oil pipelines. The map also identifies six proposed natural gas pipelines. Major cities, roads and highways are included as well as state and provincial boundaries. The National Petroleum Reserve is identified, as well as the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. The following companies placed advertisements on the map with details of the services they provide relating to pipeline management and construction: Ferus Gas Industries Trust; Proline; SulfaTreat Direct Oxidation; and TransGas. 1 map
Full Text Available The following article derived from an exhibit catalogue put together by Public Affairs Germany in the U.S. Embassy in Berlin and the U.S. Consulates in Frankfurt and Düsseldorf and accompanied Dr. Omar Khalidi’s photo exhibit “Mosques in America.” There are over 2,000 mosques in the United States, mostly housed in buildings originally built for other purposes. American mosques built in the last few decades, however, in the period in which Islam has begun to feel at home in the United States, are almost universally architect-designed.
López, J. M.; Lombardi, M. A.
Time and its measurement belong to the most fundamental core of physics, and many scientific and technological advances are directly or indirectly related to time measurements. Timekeeping is essential to everyday life, and thus is the most measured physical quantity in modern societies. Time can also be measured with less uncertainty and more resolution than any other physical quantity. The measurement of time is of the utmost importance for many applications, including: global navigation satellite systems, communications networks, electric power generation, astronomy, electronic commerce, and national defense and security. This paper discusses how time is kept, coordinated, and disseminated in the Americas.
This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of
Lederman, Leon M.
As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet
This news brief reports that 66% of deforestation in Central America has happened in the past 40 years, based on World Conservation Union (WCU) data. Deforestation is expected to continue. The population of Central America and Mexico grew by 28% between 1977 and 1987. Growth is decreasing but remains high at 2.5% in all countries of the region except Panama. 29 million was the regional population in 1990; the projection is for 63 million by 2025. Population is migrating to urban centers. Forests declined by 13% and croplands increased from 4% to 13% of total land area and pasture land from 2% to 37%. There was an increase in unproductive land from 145 to 24%, i.e., 50% of El Salvador's land had soil degradation as does 30% of Guatemala's. In addition to deforestation and soil degradation, there has been soil erosion leading to sedimentation buildup near dam sites and in rivers, which diminishes hydroelectric power capability. Silting also affects groundwater resources, which impact on a safe drinking water supply. Population growth results in increased demand for fuelwood, urban land, and agricultural land. New techniques practiced widely are needed in order to meet the region's needs or demands. Slowing population growth buys time for adjusting to the necessary changes needed for sustaining the region's population. WCU urges conservation organizations to raise awareness about the role population plays in environmental degradation, and to support efforts to reduce birth rates. Women's status needs to be improved through income-generating projects, for instance, and cooperation is needed between conservation groups and organizations involved with improving maternal and child health.
Samuels, Richard P
.... Based on this working definition, America?s foreign policy history does not support characterization as a rogue state, though its dominant military and some imperialist history are exploited in rogue-America rhetoric...
Dos Santos, Antonina; Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus
The neotropical species Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862) is considered a particularly successful species, showing an extremely wide range of distribution (ca 4.000 km across). Populations assigned to this species live in estuaries along the northern and northeastern coasts of South America as well as in fresh water habitats in the Amazon, Orinoco and Paraná-Paraguay river basins. Following recent comparative studies that showed differential ecological, reproductive, developmental and physiological traits in geographically separated populations from the Amazon delta and the Pantanal region, Brazil, we examined the morphology of adult shrimps from these two regions. Based on significant differences, we conclude that the Pantanal population constitutes a new species, which is described here as Macrobrachium pantanalense. The main differences between M. amazonicum and the new species have been found in the morphology of the second pereiopod, the telson, and in the color patterns of both males and females. A modification on the key of American species of Macrobrachium is provided to accommodate the new species.
This article reviews the literature on migration and HIV/AIDS in Mexico and Central America, including Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Panama. Most migrants travel to the US through Mexico. US-Mexico trade agreements created opportunities for increased risk of HIV transmission. The research literature focuses on Mexico. Most countries, with the exception of Belize and Costa Rica, are sending countries. Human rights of migrants are violated in transit and at destination. Migration policies determine migration processes. The Mexican-born population in the US is about 3% of US population and 8% of Mexico's population. About 22% arrived during 1992-97, and about 500,000 are naturalized US citizens. An additional 11 million have a Mexican ethnic background. Mexican migrants are usually economically active men who had jobs before leaving and were urban people who settled in California, Texas, Illinois, and Arizona. Most Mexican migrants enter illegally. Many return to Mexico. The main paths of HIV transmission are homosexual, heterosexual, and IV-drug-injecting persons. Latino migrants frequently use prostitutes, adopt new sexual practices including anal penetration among men, greater diversity of sexual partners, and use of injectable drugs.
Mantesso-Neto, V.; Mansur, K.; López, R.; Schilling, M.; Ramos, V.
A Geopark is a territory delimited part of a holistic concept of protection, education and sustainable development, based on geological sites of particular importance, rarity or aesthetic geological sites. A Geopark achieves its goals through three main areas: geoconservation, education and geotourism. The first network of Geoparks born in Europe in 2000, and from 2004 UNESCO is promoting the creation of a Global Geoparks Network (Global Geoparks Network, GGN ). Currently, there are 64 Global Geoparks in 19 countries, and the movement is in full development. In Latin America there is hardly Araripe Geopark in Brazil. Presented in this work, projects and studies related to the development of Geoparks in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Peru and Venezuela. We understand that Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico and Nicaragua have projects in this line, but the details are not yet readily available. The authors invite geoscientists and professionals in related fields to join a movement for the creation of the Latin American Network of Geoparks, intended as a framework for the conservation, sustainable use and disclosure of our national geological heritage
Flowers, L.; Dougherty, P. J.
At the June 1999 Windpower Conference, the Secretary of Energy launched the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. The goals of the initiative are to meet 5% of the nation's energy needs with wind energy by 2020 (i.e., 80,000 megawatts installed), to double the number of states that have more than 20 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity to 16 by 2005 and triple it to 24 by 2010, and to increase wind's contribution to Federal electricity use to 5% by 2010. To achieve the Federal government's goal, DOE would take the leadership position and work with its Federal partners. Subsequently, the Secretary accelerated the DOE 5% commitment to 2005. Achieving the 80,000 MW goal would result in approximately$60 billion investment and$1.5 billion of economic development in our rural areas (where the wind resources are the greatest). The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on DOE's strategy for achieving its goals and the activities it has undertaken since the initiative was announced
Barretti, Pasqual; Bastos, Kleyton A; Dominguez, Jorge; Caramori, Jacqueline C T
Peritoneal dialysis has a high acceptance rate in Latin America, thus the knowledge concerning complication patterns is of great relevance. This work reviews Latin American data on peritonitis, the most serious complication of peritoneal dialysis. The incidence of peritonitis has been reduced over time, concomitantly with the incorporation of safer exchange systems and the use of prophylactic measurements. Today, rates lower than 1 episode per 24 patient-months are commonly reported. Furthermore, changes in causative organisms have been observed, with predominance of Staphylococcus aureus up through the mid-1990s, as well as increases in coagulase-negative staphylococcus and participation of gram negatives. However, the prevalence of S. aureus is still high, due possibly to climatic conditions and the elevated prevalence of carriers. Resolution rate varies from 55% to 78%, transfer to hemodialysis from 10.9% to 15.4%, and death in 3% to 9.9% of cases. Outcome is worse in S. aureus episodes compared to those with coagulase-negative staphylococcus, despite the higher percentage of oxacillin-resistant strains among the former. In general, despite socioeconomic or climatic conditions, our results are similar to those in developed countries, perhaps as a consequence of technological improvements and/or center expertise.
Flowers, L. (NREL); Dougherty, P. J. (DOE)
At the June 1999 Windpower Conference, the Secretary of Energy launched the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's Wind Powering America (WPA) initiative. The goals of the initiative are to meet 5% of the nation's energy needs with wind energy by 2020 (i.e., 80,000 megawatts installed), to double the number of states that have more than 20 megawatts (MW) of wind capacity to 16 by 2005 and triple it to 24 by 2010, and to increase wind's contribution to Federal electricity use to 5% by 2010. To achieve the Federal government's goal, DOE would take the leadership position and work with its Federal partners. Subsequently, the Secretary accelerated the DOE 5% commitment to 2005. Achieving the 80,000 MW goal would result in approximately $60 billion investment and $1.5 billion of economic development in our rural areas (where the wind resources are the greatest). The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on DOE's strategy for achieving its goals and the activities it has undertaken since the initiative was announced.
An account is given of the Treaty of Tlatelolco, 1967, providing for the designation of Latin America as a Nuclear Weapon-Free Zone (NWFZ); additional protocols attached to the Treaty are available for signature by States outside the region. The Treaty is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (OPANAL). Reference is made to its latest meeting, held in May 1983. The present paper also discusses the following: Non-Proliferation Treaty (with references to safeguards agreements concluded between each State and the IAEA); nuclear suppliers' group; peaceful nuclear explosions; nuclear energy programmes in Latin America. (U.K.)
Full Text Available Neoliberalism in Latin America. Neoliberalism and globalization had decisive influence in shaping public policies both internal and foreign in Latin America. Less state, trade and market freedoms, social goals subordinated to economic criteria, are part and parcel of the neoliberal utopia. Price stability was erected as the main social objective; import substitution resulted replaced by exports as the main source of growth. The neoliberal net results as applied to Latin America are: less growth, deindustrialization, income concentration and precarious employments. Therefore, countries public policies should try to gain autonomy to use jointly markets and public intervention in a constructive and innovative fashion.
Igawa, Momoko; Kato, Makoto
Symbiont shift is rare in obligate mutualisms because both the partners are reciprocally dependent on and specialized to each other. In the obligate accommodation-transportation mutualism between walking corals and sipunculans, however, an unusual saltatory symbiont shift was discovered. In shallow waters of southern Japan, an undescribed hermit crab species was found living in corallums of solitary scleractinian corals of the genera Heterocyathus and Heteropsammia, replacing the usual sipunculan symbiont. We described the hermit crab as a new species Diogenes heteropsammicola (Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae), and explored its association with the walking corals. This hermit crab species obligately inhabits the coiled cavity of the corals, and was easily distinguished from other congeneric species by the exceedingly slender chelipeds and ambulatory legs, and the symmetrical telson. Observations of behavior in aquaria showed that the new hermit crab, like the sipunculan, carries the host coral and prevents the coral from being buried. This is an interesting case in which an organism phylogenetically distant from Sipuncula takes over the symbiotic role in association with a walking coral. The hermit crab species is unique in that its lodging is a living solitary coral that grows with the hermit crab in an accommodation-transportation mutualism.
Terrat, Yves; Bonnivard, Eric; Higuet, Dominique
Crustacean species have not been examined in great detail for their transposable elements content. Here we focus on galatheid crabs, which are one of the most diverse and widespread taxonomic groups of Decapoda. Ty1/copia retrotransposons are a diverse and taxonomically dispersed group. Using degenerate primers, we isolated several DNA fragments that show homology with Ty1/copia retroelements reverse transcriptase gene. We named the corresponding elements from which they originated GalEa1 to GalEa3 and analyzed one of them further by isolating various clones containing segments of GalEa1. This is the first LTR retrotransposon described in crustacean genome. Nucleotide sequencing of the clones revealed that GalEa1 has LTRs (124 bp) and that the internal sequence (4,421 bp) includes a single large ORF containing gag and pol regions. Further screening identified highly related elements in six of the nine galatheid species studied. By performing BLAST searches on genome databases, we could also identify GalEa-like elements in some fishes and Urochordata genomes. These elements define a new clade of Ty1/copia retrotransposons that differs from all other Ty1/copia elements and that seems to be restricted to aquatic species.
Full Text Available Symbiont shift is rare in obligate mutualisms because both the partners are reciprocally dependent on and specialized to each other. In the obligate accommodation-transportation mutualism between walking corals and sipunculans, however, an unusual saltatory symbiont shift was discovered. In shallow waters of southern Japan, an undescribed hermit crab species was found living in corallums of solitary scleractinian corals of the genera Heterocyathus and Heteropsammia, replacing the usual sipunculan symbiont. We described the hermit crab as a new species Diogenes heteropsammicola (Decapoda, Anomura, Diogenidae, and explored its association with the walking corals. This hermit crab species obligately inhabits the coiled cavity of the corals, and was easily distinguished from other congeneric species by the exceedingly slender chelipeds and ambulatory legs, and the symmetrical telson. Observations of behavior in aquaria showed that the new hermit crab, like the sipunculan, carries the host coral and prevents the coral from being buried. This is an interesting case in which an organism phylogenetically distant from Sipuncula takes over the symbiotic role in association with a walking coral. The hermit crab species is unique in that its lodging is a living solitary coral that grows with the hermit crab in an accommodation-transportation mutualism.
Bianca Bentes da Silva
Full Text Available From Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae abundance in monthly collections in the Amazon estuary and on Mosqueiro Island (State of Pará, Brazil between April 2006 and August 2007, we verified that the site mentioned is favorable to the development of the species, since there is a significant number of young and adults specimens throughout the year, whose abundance is significantly higher in the dry season. Icoaraci was the site of great contribution in the total of specimens caught, relating this productivity to the large amount of organic matter in suspension. In this study, we found the largest M. amazonicum specimen ever collected, comparing to those mentioned by available scientific literature. The individual was a female caught on Combu Island with 44.72 mm carapace length or 18.45 cm total length. Relations of body mass (g vs. carapace length (mm for males, females and sexes together had negative allometry, which can be associated to the gonadal maturation cycle of the species. All other morphometric relationships showed positive allometry. Keywords. carapace; bio-ecology; population dynamics.
Juan Ignacio Mondelli
Full Text Available Considerable progress has been made towards eradicating statelessness in Latin America and the Caribbean since 2014 but there is still work to be done if it is to become the first world region to eradicate statelessness.
Small Business Administration — SBA’s new ScaleUp America Initiative is designed to help small firms with high potential “scale up” and grow their businesses so that they will provide more jobs and...
Long, Huey B.
Exploring the contribution of the home, apprenticeship, and evening schools, the analysis suggests that while sex bias apparently favored males in quality and quantity of educational opportunity, women's education in Colonial America was richer than popularly conceived. (Author/MW)
... com/Godspeed-Story-Pag.. Read More... BIAA Applauds Trump Administration's Opioid Emergency Declaration; Calls for More Resources ... The Brain Injury Association of America salutes the Trump Administration for directing the Department of Health and ...
Egleé L. Zent
Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.
Ziebis, W.; Forster, S.; Huettel, M.
the overlying water and rapid consumption within the sea bed, Macrofauna organisms living within the sea bed affect the physical structure of the sea floor, its chemical zonations and the exchange processes across the sediment-water interface(3,4). Thalassinidean mud-shrimps are often abundant in tropical...... and temperate coastal regions(5-7) and build burrows with a species-specific architecture, The deepest reported burrows reach down to 2.5 m sediment depth(8). It is difficult to study the activities of these secretive animals and their effect on sediment biogeochemistry without disturbing the sediment system(9......). Here we report the use of a diver observatory within the seabed, along with in situ measurements, to assess the geochemical impact of the mud-shrimp Callianassa truncata Giard and Bonnier (Decapoda, Thalassinidea), a species that commonly inhabits sandy sediments in the Mediterranean sea....
Thompson, Kathryn F. B.
Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)
Sheets, P.; Domke, D.S.; Wells, C.; Lingle, C.J.; Ballantyne, A.; Al-Sumait, F.; Cordingley, K.
In their public messages, United States politicians often invoke America in an attempt to unite citizens and build electoral coalitions. Such an emphasis is particularly common in presidential debates, which are climactic "media events" late in campaigns for the White House, when candidates take
Frank A. Ocaña
Full Text Available Uno de los organismos más comunes en las playas arenosas son los miembros del género Ocypode conocidos como cangrejos fantasmas, están ampliamente distribuidos en las regiones tropicales y subtropicales; además tienen un importante papel en la transferencia de energía en diferentes niveles tróficos. El objetivo del presente trabajo es dar a conocer aspectos relacionados con la variación espacial de la densidad de O. quadrata en playas con diferente nivel de influencia humana en la costa norte oriental de Cuba. En mayo de 2010, fueron contadas un total de 355 galerías en 360 unidades de muestreo. La composición por clases de tallas fue de 237 galerías de jóvenes y 118 de adultos. Del total de galerías contadas el 74% ocuparon el nivel P1, 20% el nivel P2 y 6% el nivel P3. La densidad varió entre 0.06-0.52galerías/m2. A pesar del nivel de influencia humana, la mayoría de las playas no mostró diferencias significativas en la densidad de galerías (Scheffé, p>0.05. La densidad de individuos en la zona superior de resaca del oleaje es mayor (Scheffé, pSpatial distribution of Ocypode quadrata (Decapoda: Ocypodidae in eight beaches of NorthEastern Cuba. Studies on the ecology of Ocypode quadrata have been mostly carried out in the Northern and Southern part of its distribution range. In despite that this species is common in Cuban beaches, there are no quantitative studies regarding its abundance and spatial distribution. The aim of this study was to report some aspects about the spatial variation of O. quadrata density in sandy beaches, with different levels of human influence, in the North coast of Eastern Cuba. For this, on May 2010, eight beaches with different levels of human influence were surveyed. On each beach, the number of crabs burrows were counted in 45 quadrats of 4m2 located in three different strata (P1, P2 and P3. According to burrow opening diameter, crabs were separated into young and adults forms. To determine the
Wowor, Daisy; Muthu, Victor; Meier, Rudolf; Balke, Michael; Cai, Yixiong; Ng, Peter K L
Freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium are free-living decapod crustaceans that are commonly encountered in tropical streams and lakes. We present a molecular phylogenetic analysis of the diverse Southeast and East Asian fauna based on >3 kb sequence data from three nuclear and two mitochondrial markers for almost 50% of the described fauna. We reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships and track the evolution of key life history traits. Our tree suggests that the last common ancestor of the Asian Macrobrachium laid numerous small eggs and had prolonged larval development ("PLD") in saline coastal waters after which the adults matured in freshwater habitats. We also argue for five independent losses of the marine larval phase to yield five clades of species that develop entirely in freshwater and have fewer and larger eggs than the species with PLD. These species have either semi-abbreviated (two origins) with at least one free-swimming stage or abbreviated larval development ("ALD": three origins) which lack free-swimming larvae. A Shimodaira-Hasegawa test rejects all trees that would imply a single loss of the marine larval phase, but alternative and equally parsimonious optimizations exist that imply a smaller number of losses. However, these scenarios would require the re-acquisition of free-swimming larvae. A concentrated-change test supports Pereira and Garcia's [Pereira, G.A., Garcia, J.V., 1995. Larval development of Macrobrachium reyesi Pereira (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), with a discussion on the origin of abbreviated development in palaemonids. J. Crust. Biol. 15, 117-133] hypothesis of a significant correlation between living in freshwater and the origin of semi-abbreviated and abbreviated larval development. Our phylogenetic tree also reveals that Asian Macrobrachium have independently become cavernicolous at least twice, and invaded the highly acidic waters of freshwater and peat swamps two or three times.
The first species of the genus Enoplometopus to become known to science is E. occidentalis, described in 1840 by J. W. Randall under the name Nephrops occidentalis and said to be "brought from the west coast of North America by Mr. Nuttall" (Randall, 1840: 139). The type locality indication is
Jaenen, Cornelius J.
Explores the French colonization in North America. Presents background information on New France, focusing on the French in Canada. Covers topics, such as how the French became interested in North American expansion, the French in Louisiana, colonial economics, and the reasons for the collapse of New France. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)
Willhelm, Sidney M.
The Marxist interpretation of the Black experience in America has always had difficulty explaining various noneconomic aspects of racism. A perspective is needed that can blend racism as a variable in relationship with economic variables. To reach this perspective, the labor process within capitalism must be more fully understood. (Author/GC)
Monroe, Mark; Reyer, Carolyn, Ed.
In his autobiography, Mark Monroe relates his life experiences as a Lakota Sioux Indian in White America. The book begins with Monroe reminiscing about his happy childhood on the Rosebud Reservation in South Dakota. In 1941 his family moved to Alliance, Nebraska, and his father Dakota. In 1941 his family moved to Alliance, Nebraska, and his father…
Image taken on August 25, 1992 by NOAA GOES-7 of the Americas and Hurricane Andrew.Photo Credit: Image produced by F. Hasler, M. Jentoft-Nilsen, H. Pierce, K. Palaniappan, and M. Manyin. NASA Goddard Lab for Atmospheres - Data from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).
Malecki, Edward J.
This paper examines the extent to which rural America is digital--has access to the Internet and to newer technologies such as wireless broadband--and discusses rural supply and demand for "going digital." Supply aspects include issues of both infrastructure and public policy. Demand aspects include entrepreneurs (business users) and…
Christensen, Steen Fryba; Silva Ramos Becard, Danielly
The article discusses the research field of China-Latin American relations and suggests a broad and encompassing approach to the topic. It discusses the main themes and problem areas that analysts mostly emphasize in analyses of China-Latin America relations....
Conservation agriculture (CA) is a production paradigm that groups reduced tillage, mulching with crop residues or cover crops, and diversified crop rotations, especially those that incorporate leguminous crops. In North America, reduced tillage is the most widely-adopted practice that seeks the ide...
Franchetto, Bruna; Rice, Keren
In the last decades, the documentation of endangered languages has advanced greatly in the Americas. In this paper we survey the role that international funding programs have played in advancing documentation in this part of the world, with a particular focus on the growth of documentation in Brazil, and we examine some of the major opportunities…
Velázquez Albo, Marco
This article analyses the development and achievements of the area of History in the Tuning-Latin America Project from its launch in 2004 to its completion in 2013. Through two phases and nine general meetings, academics from Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Guatemala, Mexico and Peru, along with academics from Spain, Portugal…
Refutes the claims of Allan Bloom that the source of the problem with today's universities is modern philosophy, that the writings and ideas of Hobbes and Locke planted the seeds of relativism in American culture, and that the cure is Great Books education. Suggests instead that America's founding principles are the only solution to the failure of…
Exceptional Parent, 1974
The Statement of the Spina Bifida Association of America (SBAA) explains SB as a malformation of the central nervous system, reports the formation of SBAA in 1974, explains SBAA's emphasis on local chapter organization, and describes SBAA services, including a bimonthly publication, public education efforts, and research validation projects. (GW)
size and com- position of the armed forces, and the traditional role of the 3 military in the political system. A third approach to military intervention...Structure and Military Intervention in Latin America," Archives Europeenes de Sociologie , 1I (Spring, 1961), 62-81; Ernest A. Duff and John F. McCamant
This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…
America's colleges and universities have been moving slowly but steadily away from tenure over the past decade. The American Federation of Teachers reports that community colleges have seen a 22% increase in the number of instructional staff between 1997 and 2007. During that time, the percentage of community college faculty that were full-time…
This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America
Merrick, T W; Kent, M M; Van Der Tak, J; Von Cube, A
In 1950 Latin America's population of 165 million was on a par with the 166 million of North America. 2 decades of growth at nearly 3% a year pushed the total to 405 million in 1985, vs. 264 million in North America. Despite substantial fertility declines since the 1960s, continued growth is ensured by the demographic momentum built into the region's large and youthful population bases. UN medium projections put the 2025 total at 779 million, compared to 345 million in North America. This Bulletin examines the main demographic changes in Latin America since World War II and their links to economic and social changes in the region as well as their implications for international and social relations. The post World War II population surge was accompanied by massive rural-ruban and international migration, rapid urbanization, large labor shifts out of agriculture into industry and services, increased education for both men and women, and higher labor force participation for females. The rural exodus was spurred by extreme land tenure inequalities and the urban bias of postwar industrialization. The labor-saving bias of this industrialization forced exploding city populations to turn to the informal sector for jobs. Population pressures on city services and housing as well as jobs have been further exacerbated by overconcentration in a few large cities and economic downturns of the 1980s. Recent fertility declines seem to be the result of both increased access to family planning and the economic and social pressures posed by the gap between young adults' aspirations and their ability to realize them. Population and economic pressures could induce faster fertility declines than now projected but in the short run are likely to mean more employment problems, continued rapid urban growth, and even larger international immigration flows within the hemisphere, particularly to the US.
..., we feel that simply waiving the Buy America requirement, which is based on the domestic content of... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Buy America Waiver Notification AGENCY... regarding the FHWA's finding that a partial Buy America waiver is appropriate for the obligation of Federal...
... construction and vehicles, we feel that simply waiving the Buy America requirement, which is based on the... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Buy America Waiver Notification AGENCY... regarding the FHWA's finding that a partial Buy America waiver is appropriate for the obligation of Federal...
Blair, Ann M.
The Neo-Latin poetry and prose from North America have already been well surveyed. Drawing on recent historical work, I propose instead to study the place of Neo-Latin writing in the broader history of attitudes toward Latin and the classics in North America (excluding Mexico, which follows the pattern of Spanish cultural assimilation best treated alongside Latin America).
Rossi, Natália; Grave, Sammy De; Mantelatto, Fernando L
Macrobrachium olfersii (Wiegmann, 1836), popularly known as Pitu, Bristled River Shrimp and Buchura River Prawn, is a freshwater shrimp species widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. The species can be found from the southeastern United States, where the prawns were introduced (Holthuis & Provenzano, 1970), southwards to Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil), including numerous records in Mexico, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana and Suriname (Holthuis, 1952; Williams, 1984; Melo, 2003; Valencia & Campos, 2007).
Robert G. Bednarik
Full Text Available In contrast to the great time depth of Pleistocene rock art and mobiliary ‘art’ in the four other continents, the available evidence from the Americas is very limited, and restricted at best to the last part of the final Pleistocene. A review of what has so far become available is hampered by a considerable burden of literature presenting material contended to be of the Ice Age, even of the Mesozoic in some cases, that needs to be sifted through to find a minute number of credible claims. Even the timing of the first colonization of the Americas remains unresolved, and the lack of clear-cut substantiation of palaeoart finds predating about 12,000 years bp is conspicuous. There are vague hints of earlier human presence, rendering it likely that archaeology has failed to define its manifestations adequately, and Pleistocene palaeoart remains almost unexplored at this stage.
Full Text Available The article provides an outlook of the regional relations concerning nuclear technology in Latin America. For that purpose, we initially discuss the historic relationship of the Latin American countries with the set of rules, norms, principles and organizations involved in nuclear governance. The article provides an analysis of the connection between the multilateral institutional framework and the bilateral arrangements aimed at curbing the proliferation of nuclear weapons in the region. The current state of nuclear cooperation among the countries of the region is also mapped. In addition, the article assesses the peaceful use of nuclear technology in the region and the potential expansion of the use of nuclear energy by the Latin American countries. Considerations on the trends for nuclear cooperation among the countries of Latin America are also offered.
Robert Kovach's second book looks at the interplay of earthquake and volcanic events, archeology, and history in the Americas. Throughout history, major earthquakes have caused the deaths of millions of people and have damaged countless cities. Earthquakes undoubtedly damaged prehistoric cities in the Americas, and evidence of these events could be preserved in archeological records. Kovach asks, Did indigenous native cultures-Indians of the Pacific Northwest, Aztecs, Mayas, and Incas-document their natural history? Some events have been explicitly documented, for example, in Mayan codices, but many may have been recorded as myth and legend. Kovach's discussions of how early cultures dealt with fearful events such as earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are colorful, informative, and entertaining, and include, for example, a depiction of how the Maya would talk to maize plants in their fields during earthquakes to reassure them.
In the early 1990s Latin America became a favoured target for foreign investors as one of the side-effects of the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. The reason is linked to macroeconomic reforms in Latin America and the failure of equivalent reforms in the former communist countries. Latin American state-owned-oil companies have been welcomed as borrowers on the international financial markets. Simultaneously private sector investment in the oil industry has increased. This chapter examines nationalisation and the state oil companies, the financing of the state sector, privatisation, the boosting of oil exploration and security issues. The sustainability of the economic reforms in the region is discussed. (UK)
Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.
The need for nuclear power in Latin American countries is surveyed. It is concluded that Latin America offers the greatest external market for all exporters of nuclear reactors and associated services in the near future. Mexico, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Bolivia are the only countries with fossil-fuel reserves adequate to meet their requirements in the next 20 to 30 years. Nuclear power is a necessity to maintain or improve the standard of living in the countries of Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru
Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J
Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During t...
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In this special issue the four articles focus on population health in terms of primary care and preventive medicine. This critical area of health often receives less attention than health care issues (more so in the popular press but also in academic analyses.Upon reviewing these very interesting and illuminating articles it was striking that despite significant cultural, economic, geographic and historical differences there are many commonalities which exist throughout the Americas.
President Eisenhower's Atoms for Peace program represented a radical departure from the policy of secrecy and denial that existed during the immediate postwar period, after the rejection of the Baruch Plan for international control of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons. Although the genesis and philosophy of the program are well known, the author emphasizes certain general aspects and considers specific situations in Latin America about the purposes and premises of Atoms for Peace
Jorge G. Ibáñez
Full Text Available A brief account of the development of Microscale Chemistry in Latin America is here presented. The US National Microscale Chemistry Center (Merrimack College, Massachusetts was instrumental in the initiationof several centers. Its Mexican counterpart, the Mexican Microscale Chemistry Center (CMQM, has been a key player in this process. Other participating countries include Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Cuba,Guatemala, Perú and Uruguay.
Adolfo Barajas; Roberto Steiner
This study examines the recent marked slowdown in bank credit to the private sector in Latin America. Based on the study of eight countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Peru, Mexico, and Venezuela), the magnitude of the slowdown is documented, comparing it to historical behavior and to slowdown episodes in other regions of the world. Second, changes in bank balance sheets are examined to determine whether the credit slowdown is merely a reflection of a slowdown in bank deposi...
In December 2010, Peter Dreesen of CERN’s Technology Department (TE) returned from a long trip to South America. In four months he traversed the entire Andean range, from the equator to a latitude of 55 degrees south—on a bicycle! Peter Dreesen on the Salar de Uyuni Lake, Bolivia. 11 000 kilometres is one long bike ride! And yet, that’s what Peter Dreesen did, travelling from Quito, Ecuador to Ushuaia, Argentina. Peter, an engineer in the TE Department, is no novice: the year before, he cycled from Paris to Peking, a distance of 13 500 kilometres, in just over four months. His latest voyage began last August, when he loaded his bicycle and boarded a plane for South America. In the saddle. After a week of acclimatisation at three thousand metres altitude, Peter left Quito on 6 August 2010. He arrived in Ushuaia (el fin del mundo, the end of the world, as it’s known in South America) on 12 December 2010. He recounts: “It was a bizarre sensation...
Proceedings of the Final Research Co-ordination Meeting of the FAO/IAEA/ARCAL III Regional Network for Improving the Reproductive Management of Meat- and Milk-Producing Livestock in Latin America with the Aid of Radioimmunoassay, organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture and held in Bogota, 19-23 September 1988. The general goals of this programme, which was part of the ARCAL (Arreglos Regionales Cooperativos para la promocion de la ciencia y la tecnologia nucleares en America Latina) project, were to characterize and improve the reproductive management of milk, meat and fibre producing livestock maintained under the diverse environmental and management conditions prevailing in the Latin America region. In particular, the programme addressed the efficacy of using radioimmunoassay methods of measuring reproductive performance based on breeding and production records, behaviour and clinical parameters. One of the major achievements of the programme was the establishment of viable RIA laboratories in each of the participant countries
Despite having proven reserves equal to that of North America, natural gas has traditionally played a minor role in the energy policies of Latin American countries, being considered secondary to oil. There has, therefore, been a neglect of the sector with a resultant lack of an adequate infrastructure throughout the region, perhaps with the exception of Argentina. However, with a massive increase in energy demand, growing concerns with environmental matters and a need to reduce the massive pollution levels in major cities in the region, natural gas is forecast to play a much greater role in Latin America's energy profile, with final consumption forecast to rise at 5.4% per annum for the next 15 years. This book assesses both the development of the use of natural gas in the power industrial sector and proposals for its growth into the residential, commercial and transport sectors. It analyses the significant investment required and the governments' need to turn to the private sector for investment and innovation. Natural Gas in Latin America analyses the possibilities and pitfalls of investing in the sector and describes the key trends and issues. It analyses all aspects of the gas industry from exploration and production to transportation and distribution to end users. (Author)
lateral and median tubercle; seventh segment triangular, with median pair of short spines. Eyes not retractile, with small dorsal spine. Antennule with basal segment inflated and bearing two spines, median margin flattened and flanged; second and third peduncle segments elongate, slender, flagellae short. Basal antennal ...
Mar 13, 1987 ... duration and current velocity) of the populations to the flow of water entering the estuary during flood tides, ... 2,5 m deep) and has a tidal fetch of about 16 ...... Energy dynamics of two benthic crustacea in relationship to diet. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 33(11): 2544-2550. . TUNNICLIFFE, V. & RISK, M.J. 1977.
BRIAN KENS LEY. South African Museum. Cape Town. Accepted: May 1977. ABSTRACT. Lambrachaew rami/er Alcock, previously known only from a single record from the Andaman. Islands, is recorded from a shallow reef off Zululand. The specimen, an ovigerous female, is described and figured. INTRODUCTION.
Relação energia: proteína dietária para pós-larvas de Macrobrachium amazonicum (Crustacea, Decapoda - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1979 Dietary energy: protein ratio for Macrobrachium amazonicum (Crustacea, Decapoda- DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.1979
Dario Rocha Falcon
Full Text Available Esta pesquisa foi realizada no Laboratório de Nutrição de Organismos Aquáticos (AquaNutri da FMVZ - Unesp - Campus de Botucatu, unidade integrada ao CaUnesp. Teve por objetivo avaliar o desempenho de pós-larvas de Macrobrachium amazonicum (Crustacea, Decapoda, submetidas a dietas purificadas, contendo 3 níveis de proteína bruta (30%; 35% e 40% e 2 níveis de energia bruta (3200 e 3600kcal/kg de ração, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, sistema fatorial 3x2, com 5 repetições. Pós-larvas com peso médio inicial de 280±12mg, provenientes do Setor de Carcinicultura do CaUnesp, foram mantidas em 30 aquários de 80 litros, em um sistema de recirculação de água (1,0L/min com temperatura controlada. Os resultados demonstraram, após 60 dias, a importância do balanço e a interação da energia e da proteína para as pós-larvas. Pode-se concluir que as rações com 35,0% de proteína bruta e 3600kcal de EB/kg proporcionam melhores respostas de ganho de peso e conversão alimentar para o M. amazonicum; que rações com 30,0% de proteína bruta e 3600kcal de EB/kg proporcionam melhores taxas de sobrevivência; e que as melhores respostas de crescimento são obtidas quando as rações apresentam a relação energia:proteína de 10,28:1,0.This experiment was conducted at the Aquatic Nutrition Organisms Laboratory (AquaNutri, integrated unit to CaUnesp. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth performance of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Crustacea, Decapoda, post larvae. Post larvae were fed diet containing different levels of protein and energy. A factorial experiment with three levels of protein (30.0; 35.0 and 40.0 crude protein and two levels of energy (3200 and 3600 gross energy kcal/kg was carried out on a completely randomly design, with five replicates. 360 post larvae were randomly stocked, average weight of 280±12mg, into 30 aquaria, 80L each aquarium. Albumin-gelatin diet was used. Weight gain, feed conversion and
This article describes some negative effects from modernization and urban growth in South America, including disease, pesticides, occupational hazards, poor environmental controls of water and garbage, sanitation, and environmental degradation. South America is following the global trend toward urbanization and the problems that accompany it. Agricultural expansion led to an expanded market for pesticides that includes the deadly DDT, paraquat, and heptachlor. Brazil and Colombia are the largest consumers. Latin American officials justify use of DDT, which is banned in the US and many European countries, as an effective means of combating mosquitos that carry malaria. Exposure occurs during harvesting, transporting, forestry, livestock farming, and vector control activities. Methyl bromide, which is used post-harvest and as a soil fumigant, is dangerous enough to be banned in the US in 2001, and in developing countries in 2002. Exposure to toxic chemicals can severely inhibit enzyme action that is necessary for neurological functioning. A hot climate, which prevents protective clothing, lack of education on proper application, and absence of water to wash exposed skin, make pesticide protection very difficult. Over 40 million agricultural workers are at risk of pesticide poisoning. Habitat destruction has contributed to increased mosquito infestations. Children in the workplace are at even greater risk of noise pollution and chemical poisoning. South America pollutes almost 11 times more fresh water per capita than Europe. About 70% of domestic garbage is collected, and about 30% is disposed of correctly. Only 10% of urban wastewater is treated before discharge into waterways. The loss of coastal wetlands reduces the ability of waterways to filter and absorb nutrients. Environmental health problems suggest an interlinkage between environmental sustainability, human health, and economic growth.
Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel; Ponce, Juan Federico; Stinco, Sergio G
A complete and updated catalogue of impact craters and structures in South America from 2014 is presented here. Approximately eighty proven, suspected and disproven structures have been identified by several sources in this continent. All the impact sites of this large continent have been exhaustively reviewed: the proved ones, the possible ones and some very doubtful. Many sites remain without a clear geological ""in situ"" confirmation and some of them could be even rejected. Argentina and Brazil are leading the list containing almost everything detected. In Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Guyana,
Present energy consumption patterns, known reserves of conventional energy sources (oil, gas, coal, and hydroelectricity), and the impact of the oil crisis on the oil-importing countries of Latin America are discussed. New approaches to energy use, including improvements on end-use efficiency, fuel substitutions, nonconventional energy sources, and changes in consumption patterns, are important. Of particular significance are the alcohol program in Brazil and the possibilities for increased use of hydroelectricity. Investments needed to sustain a reasonable increase in production from conventional energy sources up to 1990 are presented.
The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...... is now owned by the Royal Library. The acquisition of the Danish set by the Classen’s Library is examined by analyzing previously unpublished letters and is described for the first time, although not comprehensively, in this article. The provenance of this work, as described by Waldemar Fries in 1973...
There are a broad range of nuclear techniques applicable to a variety of hydrological problems and these techniques are becoming recognized as an additional and, in some cases, indispensable tool available to the hydrologist in his quest to meet the increasing demands for water by agriculture, industry and community water supply. In Latin America we find examples of almost all the nuclear hydrological techniques. This article endeavours to give a summary account of the status of isotope hydrology in the region and the types of problems to which these techniques have been applied
final_eng.pdf>; Internet accessed 12 November 2002. CEPAL, “Panorama Social de America Latina 2001-2002, Documento Informativo”; available from <http... America Report, No 2, December 1995; ”; available from <http://www.us.net/cip/dialogue/9512in02htm>. Internet accessed 20 January 2003. 24 Núñez, Joseph, A...Observatorio de Seguridad y Defensa en America Latina (OSAL), Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset. 38 Ibid. 26 BIBLIOGRAPHY Agosin, Manuel R., David
Mizraji, R; Alvarez, I; Palacios, R I; Fajardo, C; Berrios, C; Morales, F; Luna, E; Milanés, C; Andrade, M; Duque, E; Giron, F; Alfonso, J; Herra, S; Soratti, C; Ibar, R; Garcia, V D
Recently in Latin America, there has been a strong influence of the "Spanish model" of organ procurement. In 2001, The "Punta Cana Group" was created by Latin American transplantation coordinators with the objective of registering and improving the system of donation and procurement. In many countries there is no universal financial support from the government for medical treatment, including dialysis and transplantation. In other countries there is complete financial support for all of the population, including immunosuppressive drugs. Practically all countries have transplantation laws that follow ethical concepts, such as brain death diagnosis criteria, forms of consent, criteria of allocation, and inhibition of commerce. The rate of potential donors notified in countries that perform transplantations with deceased donors varied from 6 to 47 per million population yearly (pmp/y); The rate of effective donors varied from 1 to 20 pmp. In 2004, the mean rate of effective donors in Latin America was 5.4 pmp. The family refusal rate for the donation of organs varied from 28% in Uruguay to 70% in Peru. In some countries, such as Puerto Rico, Uruguay, and Cuba, it was more than 15 pmp, whereas in others countries deceased donors were practically not used. The number of patients on the waiting list for solid organ transplants in 12 Latin American countries is 55,000. Although the donation rate has increased by 100% during the last 10 years, it is lower than that in Europe (15 pmm/y) or the United States (20 pmp/y).
Most countries in Latin America, including all those on the mainland, are Members of the Agency. Interest in the possibilities of nuclear energy has led to considerable activity, much of it in direct collaboration with the IAEA. Member States in the region are: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela. Of these, Argentina, Brazil, Colombia and Venezuela are operating, and Mexico and Uruguay are constructing, research reactors, while Chile and Peru are studying proposals. Argentina, Brazil, Mexico and Uruguay have all agreed to accept Agency safeguards for reactors. The possibility of future needs for nuclear power is under examination by several countries, in some cases being related to desalination of water. All atomic work in Latin America is devoted to peaceful uses, and note-worthy progress has been made with proposals for a treaty which would make the whole region a militarily de-nuclearized zone. It is proposed that when this comes into effect the Agency will be asked to apply the controls developed in its safeguards system, and to carry out the inspections necessary to establish that work in progress is solely for peaceful purposes
Owen, Mark H; Inman, Kenneth A
.... Generally viewed as lagging in efforts to develop stable governments and self-sustaining economies, Mexico, Central America to include Panama and the Caribbean, henceforth Middle America, have in the...
Early 1958 the Brazilian representative on the Board of Governors of the International Atomic Energy Agency - supported by the Governors from Argentina and Guatemala -proposed that a study should be made of the possibility of setting up one or more atomic energy training centres in Latin America. On the Board's recommendation, the Director General of the Agency appointed a fact-finding team to make anon-the-spot study. In drafting this report the team was invited to consider the following points: (a) The need for establishing one or more regional training centres; (b) Existing facilities that are being or could be used for training, together with technical data concerning them; (c) The general scientific technological and industrial conditions of the countries visited insofar as they have a bearing on their training needs and capabilities. The authors of the report conclude that 'a training centre in radio-botany should provide vitally needed knowledge and vitally needed specialists to all the agricultural installations in Latin America. A training centre like this might provide an excellent model upon which to base training centres in other areas'. The report recommends that: 1. The Agency should meet the requests of Latin American universities by, for example, supplying equipment and sending experts; 2. At least one specialized training centre should be established as soon as possible. Taking as an example the field of radio-botany, such a centre would provide trained specialists in radio-botany to agricultural institutions throughout Latin America and also provide basic research results vital to agriculture. The cost of new facilities might be of the order of $7 500 000, with an annual budget of approximately $650 000. Staff required: 40 scientists and 175 employees; 3. Whenever it appears feasible to gather necessary staff of high creative ability and established productivity and when funds can be made available for facilities, equipment and operating costs, at
The objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of biomass to energy issues and opportunities in Central America. In this region, made up of seven countries (Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama), the biomass sector has the potential to play a crucial role in alleviating the environmental and development predicaments faced by all economies of the region. This paper assesses the available biomass resources at the regional and country levels and gives an overview of the current utilization of biomass fuels. It also describes the overall context in which the biomass-to-energy initiatives are immersed. At the regional level, biomass energy consumption accounts for more than 50% of total energy consumption. In regard to the utilization of biomass for energy purposes, it is clear that Central America faces a critical juncture at two levels, both mainly in rural areas: in the productive sector and at the household level. The absence of sustainable development policies and practices has jeopardized the availability of biomass fuels, particularly wood. Firewood is an important source of energy for rural industries such as coffee processing, which is one of the largest productive activities in the region. This paper comments on some of the most successful technological innovations already in place in the region, for instance, the rapid development of co-generation projects by the sugar cane industry, especially in El Salvador and Guatemala, the substitution of coffee husks for firewood in coffee processing plants in Costa Rica and El Salvador and the sustainable use of pine forests for co-generation in Honduras. Only one out of every two inhabitants in Central America now has access to electricity from the public grid. Biomass fuels, mainly firewood but also, to a lesser extent, other crop residues such as corn stalks, are the main source of energy for cooking and heating by most of the population. (It is foreseen that by the end
... America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised Determination on... relevant time period at the Orion, Michigan location of Bruss North America, Inc. The Orion, Michigan..., Kentucky facility also led to worker separations at the Orion, Michigan location during the relevant time...
Gonzalez, Javier M; Rodriguez, Carlos A; Agudelo, Maria; Zuluaga, Andres F; Vesga, Omar
The current increment of invasive fungal infections and the availability of new broad-spectrum antifungal agents has increased the use of these agents by non-expert practitioners, without an impact on mortality. To improve efficacy while minimizing prescription errors and to reduce the high monetary cost to the health systems, the principles of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) are necessary. A systematic review of the PD of antifungals agents was performed aiming at the practicing physician without expertise in this field. The initial section of this review focuses on the general concepts of antimicrobial PD. In vitro studies, fungal susceptibility and antifungal serum concentrations are related with different doses and dosing schedules, determining the PD indices and the magnitude required to obtain a specific outcome. Herein the PD of the most used antifungal drug classes in Latin America (polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins) is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Infectologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Kay, Luciano; Shapira, Philip
This article investigates the development of nanotechnology in Latin America with a particular focus on Argentina, Brazil, Chile, and Uruguay. Based on data for nanotechnology research publications and patents and suggesting a framework for analyzing the development of R and D networks, we identify three potential strategies of nanotechnology research collaboration. Then, we seek to identify the balance of emphasis upon each of the three strategies by mapping the current research profile of those four countries. In general, we find that they are implementing policies and programs to develop nanotechnologies but differ in their collaboration strategies, institutional involvement, and level of development. On the other hand, we find that they coincide in having a modest industry participation in research and a low level of commercialization of nanotechnologies.
Erinaldo Ferreira Carmo
Full Text Available Since the 1980s, when South America pulled away the shadow of authoritarianism and again to breathe the air of freedom, the democratization process has been strengthened in the region, within a very dynamic and not uniform among the states. In this chapter we describe the construction of regional democracy and the changes occurring every decade, including the prospects for this ongoing, with reference to the historical and political process of each South American State, including the ostensible expansion of citizenship rights and political involvement of citizen, but 186. GeoTextos, vol. 8, n. 2, dez. 2012. E. Carmo, S. Pacheco. 185-210 without ceasing to understand the fragility of political institutions, the drama of corruption, the obstacles posed by drug trafficking and the guerrilla groups, the constraints to economic growth and rising, but still incipient, organization of the Southern Common Market – Mercosul.
Javier M. Gonzalez
Full Text Available The current increment of invasive fungal infections and the availability of new broad-spectrum antifungal agents has increased the use of these agents by non-expert practitioners, without an impact on mortality. To improve efficacy while minimizing prescription errors and to reduce the high monetary cost to the health systems, the principles of pharmacokinetics (PK and pharmacodynamics (PD are necessary. A systematic review of the PD of antifungals agents was performed aiming at the practicing physician without expertise in this field. The initial section of this review focuses on the general concepts of antimicrobial PD. In vitro studies, fungal susceptibility and antifungal serum concentrations are related with different doses and dosing schedules, determining the PD indices and the magnitude required to obtain a specific outcome. Herein the PD of the most used antifungal drug classes in Latin America (polyenes, azoles, and echinocandins is discussed.
Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos
Literature on convergence among Latin American countries is still scarce compared to other regions. Moreover, almost none of the research connects convergence to the economic history of Latin America and the usual finding is one speed of convergence. In this paper I analyze 32 countries and 108...... years, more observations than any other study. This long span of data allows me to use economic history to explain, analyze, validate, and understand the results of convergence patterns in the region. I find more than one speed of convergence (clubs) related to the known historical background, country...... characteristics, and external shocks in the region. I study three important phases, following Thorp (1998): from 1900 to 1930, the exporting phase, from 1931 to 1974, the industrialization phase, and from 1975 to 2007, the globalization phase. During the last two phases, I find strong evidence of convergence...
Fermilab's program of collaboration with Latin America was initiated by then-Director Leon Lederman about 1980. His goal was to aid Latin American physics, and particularly its particle physics; this latter aim is in keeping with the Laboratory's particle physics mission. The reasons for collaboration between institutions in the US and Latin America are many, including geographic and cultural, together with the existence of many talented scientists and many centers of excellence in the region. There are also broader reasons; for example, it has been stated frequently that physics is the basis of much technology, and advanced technology is a necessity for a country's development. There is nothing unique about Fermilab's program; other US institutions can carry out similar activities, and some have carried out individual items in the past. On the Latin American side, such collaboration enables institutions there to carry out forefront physics research, and also to have the advantages of particle physics spin-offs, both in expertise in related technologies and in scientist training. In addition to particle physics, collaboration is possible in many other related areas. Although particle physics is frequently viewed as open-quotes big scienceclose quotes, all of the large research groups in the field are composed of many small university groups, each of which contributes to the experiment, the analysis and the physics. Fermilab is an international laboratory, open to all users; a research proposal is accepted on scientific merit and technical competence, not on the country of origin of the scientists making the proposal. Currently, of Fermilab's approximately 1400 users, about 30% are from non-US institutions. It should be noted here that Fermilab's funds, which come from the US government, are for particle physics only; however, there is some flexibility in interpretation of this
Chubb, John E.; And Others
Five articles comment on Chubb and Terry M. Moe's book "Politics, Markets, and America's Schools": (1) Choice in Education: Examining the Evidence on Equity; (2) Politics, Markets, and America's Schools: A Review; (3) Political Pollyannas; (4) Degrees of Imperfection: A Note from a Political Pollyanna; and (5) Thoughts on Choice. (SM)
One of a collection of articles on philanthropist George Peabody tells the story of two bronze doors made by sculptor Louis Amateis for the U.S. Capitol. The doors include a panel entitled Apotheosis of America that captures Amateis' vision of the spirit of America and includes the figures of George Peabody and other historic personages. (SM)
de la Torre, Augusto; Didier, Tatiana; Pinat, Magali
This paper discusses the theoretical arguments in favor of and against economic globalization and, with a view to ascertaining whether Latin America may be able to capture the globalization upside, examines the trends and salient features of Latin America's globalization as compared with that of Southeast Asia. The paper focuses on trade and financial integration as well as the aggregate d...
... America A Proclamation During the First and Second World Wars, Americans showed their patriotism by... ways our habits shape the world around us. In our homes, offices, and schools, let us strive to make... Vol. 78 Tuesday, No. 223 November 19, 2013 Part II The President Proclamation 9057--America...
To better understand chikungunya activity in the America we mapped recent chikungunya activity in the Americas. This activity is needed to better understand that the relationships between climatic factors and disease outbreak patters are critical to the design and constructing of predictive models....
Gale, Robert Peter; Seber, Adriana; Bonfim, Carmem; Pasquini, Marcello
Haematopoietic cell transplants are done by more than 1500 transplant centres in 75 countries, mostly for life-threatening haematological disorders. However, transplant technology and access are not uniformly-distributed worldwide. Most transplants are done in predominately Europe, North America and some Asian countries. We review transplants activity in Latin America, a geographic region with a population of more than 600 million persons living in countries with diverse economic and social development levels. The data indicate a 20-40-fold lower frequency of transplants in Latin America compared with Europe and North America. We show that although economics, infrastructure and expertise are important limitations, other variables also operate. Changes in several of these variables may substantially increase transplant activity in Latin America. PMID:26999468
Full Text Available – Terror in the Countryside. Campesino Responses to Political Violence in Guatemala, 1954-1985, by Rachel A. May. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies/Research in International Studies/Latin America Series #35, 2001. – La guerrilla fue mi camino. Epitafio para César Montes, by Julio César Macías. Guatemala: Piedra Santa/Colección Afluentes de Modernidad, 1999. – Testigo de conciencia (Periodismo de Opinión Documentado, by Marco A. Mérida. Guatemala: ARCASAVI, 2000. – Centroamérica 2002. Un nuevo modelo de desarrollo regional, edited by Klaus Bodemer and Eduardo Gamarra. Caracas: Nueva Sociedad, 2002. – Who Governs? Guatemala Five years After the Peace Accords, by Rachel Sieder, Megan Thomas, George Vickers and Jack Spence. Cambridge, Mass.: Hemispheric Initiatives/Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA, January 2002. – Pasos hacia una nueva convivencia: Democracia y participación en Centroamérica, edited by Ricardo Córdova Macías, Günther Maihold and Sabina Kurtenbach. San Salvador: FUNDAUNGO, Instituto de Estudios Iberoamericanos de Hamburgo and Instituto Iberoamericano de Berlin, 2001. – Los desafíos de la democracia en Centroamérica, by René Poitevin and Alexander Sequén-Mónchez. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2002. – Más allá de las elecciones: Diez años después de los acuerdos de paz, edited by Hector Dada Hirezi. San Salvador: FLACSO, 2002. – Guatemala, un proyecto inconcluso: La multiculturalidad, un paso hacia la democracia, by Hugo Cayzac. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2001. – La violencia en el contexto del posconflicto, según la percepción de comunidades urbanas pobres de Guatemala, by Caroline Moser and Cathy McIlwaine. Washington/Bogotá: Banco Mundial-Región de Latinoamérica y el Caribe/Tercer Mundo Editores, 2001. – El lado oscuro de la eterna primavera. Violencia, criminalidad y delincuencia en la postguerra, by Manolo Vela, Alexander Sequén-Mónchez and Hugo Antonio Solares
As in the other regions, nuclear technology development in Latin America reflects mainly the degree of technological development already existing in each country. It is quite significant that in nearly all countries in Latin America the medical profession has been the first to show interest in using nuclear techniques. As a result, a country such as Uruguay has become a source of recruitment for technical assistance experts in nuclear medicine to other developing countries, while at the same time it continues to receive assistance for new sophisticated techniques from the IAEA. Part of this assistance, in turn, comes from the neighbouring countries, Argentina and Brazil. For example, an expert from Uruguay is currently assigned under an Agency programme to Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala, and experts from Argentina and Brazil have been sent to Uruguay. This is an example of 'horizontal' development, meaning mutual assistance between developing countries under programmes supported by the United Nations Agencies, which is now being emphasized by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Still in the field of nuclear medicine, another significant model is provided by Bolivia. With assistance from the IAEA, and thanks to the availability of a good professional infrastructure in that country, a net of nuclear medicine services has been started, consisting of a well-developed nuclear medicine centre in La Paz and regional centres in Cochabamba, Sucre and Santa Cruz. Because of its great variations in altitude, Bolivia is in the position of being able to conduct research on the adaptation of man to diverse environmental conditions. The Agency has contributed, and continues to do so, to these programmes by sending experts, providing for training abroad of Bolivian doctors under its fellowship programmes, and providing basic equipment for all four centres. Independently of the cases described above, the IAEA has implemented or is implementing a considerable
Romero, M Carolina; Ansaldo, Martín; Lovrich, Gustavo A
In Tierra del Fuego (Southern South America), the stone or false king crab, Paralomis granulosa represents one of the most important crab fisheries. After capture, animals are kept in baskets and exposed to dryness for several hours, when the water flow through the gills is interrupted. As a consequence a concomitant increase of reactive oxygen species begins, triggering oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to determine oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities due to air exposure in different tissues of P. granulosa. Fifty crabs (carapace length >82 mm) were captured in Beagle Channel (54 degrees 50'S, 68 degrees 20'W) during winter 2004. Five groups of 10 crabs each were exposed to dryness at 6 degrees C for 0, 3, 6, 12 or 24 h, respectively. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S transferase (GST) protein and lipid oxidation were measured in gills, muscle, hepatopancreas and haemolymph samples. Almost all analyzed tissues showed antioxidant enzymes activity, which varied with time of air exposure. The maximum enzyme activity was measured after 6 h of air exposure. Protein oxidation levels varied significantly in gills. Lipid peroxidation levels increased significantly in muscle and hepatopancreas. The critical time of air exposure probably occurs at 6 h. Thereafter animals were unable to induce the synthesis of antioxidant enzymes or proteins. This should be taken into account to minimize the stress generated by the commercial capture process.
Rossi, Natália; Mantelatto, Fernando Luis
Macrobrachium olfersii is an amphidromous freshwater prawn, widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. This species shows great morphological modifications during ontogenesis, and several studies have verified the existence of a wide intraspecific variation. Because of this condition, the species is often misidentified, and several synonyms have been documented. To elucidate these aspects, individuals of M. olfersii from different populations along its range of distribution were investigated. The taxonomic limit was established, and the degree of genetic variability of this species was described. We extracted DNA from 53 specimens of M. olfersii, M. americanum, M. digueti and M. faustinum, which resulted in 84 new sequences (22 of 16S mtDNA, 45 of Cythocrome Oxidase I (COI) mtDNA, and 17 of Histone (H3) nDNA). Sequences of three genes (single and concatenated) from these species were used in the Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses and COI sequences from M. olfersii were used in population analysis. The genetic variation was evaluated through the alignment of 554 bp from the 16S, 638 bp from the COI, and 338 bp from the H3. The rates of genetic divergence among populations were lower at the intraspecific level. This was confirmed by the haplotype net, which showed a continuous gene flow among populations. Although a wide distribution and high morphological intraspecific variation often suggest the existence of more than one species, genetic similarity of Caribbean and Brazilian populations of M. olfersii supported them as a single species.
Full Text Available Macrobrachium olfersii is an amphidromous freshwater prawn, widespread along the eastern coasts of the Americas. This species shows great morphological modifications during ontogenesis, and several studies have verified the existence of a wide intraspecific variation. Because of this condition, the species is often misidentified, and several synonyms have been documented. To elucidate these aspects, individuals of M. olfersii from different populations along its range of distribution were investigated. The taxonomic limit was established, and the degree of genetic variability of this species was described. We extracted DNA from 53 specimens of M. olfersii, M. americanum, M. digueti and M. faustinum, which resulted in 84 new sequences (22 of 16S mtDNA, 45 of Cythocrome Oxidase I (COI mtDNA, and 17 of Histone (H3 nDNA. Sequences of three genes (single and concatenated from these species were used in the Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference phylogenetic analyses and COI sequences from M. olfersii were used in population analysis. The genetic variation was evaluated through the alignment of 554 bp from the 16S, 638 bp from the COI, and 338 bp from the H3. The rates of genetic divergence among populations were lower at the intraspecific level. This was confirmed by the haplotype net, which showed a continuous gene flow among populations. Although a wide distribution and high morphological intraspecific variation often suggest the existence of more than one species, genetic similarity of Caribbean and Brazilian populations of M. olfersii supported them as a single species.
Sérgio Schwarz da Rocha
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862 is a freshwater prawn occurring in rivers and reservoirs of Central and South America. Given its broad geographical distribution, the species shows great intraspecific morphological, reproductive, physiological and ecological plasticity. Furthermore, it also stands out for its economic importance, especially in the states of North (Pará and Amapá and Northeast Brazil. Despite the wide geographic distribution and economic importance of M. amazonicum, the biology of this species is poorly known, particularly in Northeast Brazil. We analyzed the length-weight relationships and condition factor of males and females of M. amazonicum. Specimens were collected monthly from September 2008 to August 2009 at the Pedra do Cavalo Reservoir, city of Cabaceiras do Paraguaçu, State of Bahia. All specimens were sexed, measured and weighted. After that, length-weight relationships and the allometric (K and relative (Kr condition factors were calculated. Altogether 2,974 specimens were analyzed, 334 of which were males (11% and 2,640 were females (89%. Females were larger and heavier than males. Males and females showed isometric and negative allometric growth, respectively. Monthly variations in the condition factor were similar for both sexes, and correlated strongly with rainfall regime and temperature in the region. Such variations are not correlated with the reproductive cycle of the species, but are probably correlated with food availability and somatic growth.
Full Text Available Presentamos información sobre la estructura de tallas, la relación ancho-peso y los parámetros de crecimiento de las jaibas Callinectes arcuatus y C. bellicosus. Las muestras fueron recolectadas mensualmente con una red de arrastre tipo camaronera durante el día y la noche desde marzo 1998 hasta febrero 2000 en una laguna costera del Golfo de California. C. bellicosus (n= 878 fue más abundante que C. arcuatus (n= 357 y su intervalo de talla de 8.4- 166 mm ancho del caparazón (AC y 9-130 mm AC, respectivamente. Ambas poblaciones son representadas principalmente por jóvenes (75 mm AC entre 37-75 mm AC y adultos entre 76- 90 mm AC. La relación ancho-peso mostró que los machos crecen más que las hembras en ambas especies y se observó una tendencia de crecimiento isométrico. Los parámetros de crecimiento para C. arcuatus estimados con el modelo von Bertalanffy fueron: K= 0.84 año-1, L∞= 140 a -0.12 mm para C. arcuatus, y K= 0.9 año -1, L∞= 169 a -0.11 mm para C. bellicosus. Estos resultados mostraron que la edad relativa a la cual se alcanza el crecimiento máximo es entre los tres y cuatro años de edad para ambas especies.Size frequency distribution and growth of the crabs Callinectes arcuatus and C. bellicosus (Decapoda: Portunidae in Las Guásimas coastal lagoon, Mexico. Information on size frequency distribution, the width-weight relation and growth parameters of the crabs Callinectes arcuatus and C. bellicosus is presented. The data comes from samples taken with a trawl net both day and night on a monthly basis from March 1998 to February 2000 in a coastal lagoon from Gulf of California. C. bellicosus (n= 878 was more abundant than C. arcuatus (n= 357 and its size frequency distribution presented carapace width CW ranges of 8.4-166 mm and 9-130 mm respectively. Both populations were mainly represented by juveniles (75 mm in CW ranging from 37 to 75 mm in CW, and adults (>75 mm in CW between 76 and 90 mm in CW. In both species
Jesús Sánchez Palacios
Full Text Available Se estudiaron el crecimiento y reproducción de de Atya margaritacea, con base en 542 organismos capturados en cinco sitios distribuidos desde la parte media de la cuenca hasta la desembocadura del río Presidio (Sinaloa, NW de México. La recolecta se realizó mediante el empleo de una red Surber, recolectándose organismos cuya longitud total y peso total variaron de 15 a 96 mm y 0.1 a 25.2 g respectivamente. La proporción macho:hembra fue 1.96:1 y los machos alcanzaron las mayores tallas y pesos. La relación entre la longitud total (Lt y el peso total (Pt se estableció mediante el modelo Pt = 1.02x10-5 (Lt3.2089 para los machos y por Pt = 2.29x10-5 (Lt3.0159 para las hembras. El crecimiento en machos resultó alométricamente positivo mientras que en hembras fue isométrico. La regresión entre la longitud total y longitud cefalotórax (Lc fue Log Lc = 1.1118 (Log Lt- 0.6087 en machos y Log Lc = 0.9945 (Log Lt- 0.4321 en hembras. El crecimiento relativo entre estas partes del cuerpo resultó alométrico positivo en machos e isométrico en hembras, indicando un claro dimorfismo sexual de estos organismos. Hembras ovígeras se presentaron en la época de lluvias (julio a noviembre. La fecundidad absoluta varió de 1 860 a 22 400 huevos en hembras de 43 y 59 mm de longitud y de 1.9 a 6.0 g de peso. La ecuación que relacionó el número de huevos con la longitud y peso, fue Fec = 8.3x10-7 (Lt5.8053 y Fec = 732 (Pt1.836 respectivamente.Growth and reproduction of the shrimp Atya margaritacea (Decapoda: Atyidae in Río Presidio, Sinaloa, Mexico. Some growth and reproduction parameters of the population of the shrimp Atya margaritacea in Presidio River (Sinaloa, NW Mexico were studied using 542 organisms collected with a Surber net in five sampling locations distributed from mid- to low river. Total lengths and gross weights ranged from 15 to 96 mm and 0.1 to 25.2 g. The male:female ratio was 1.96:1 and males had larger sizes and weights. The
Full Text Available Con el fin de conocer la toxicidad del DDT y endosulfan sobre postlarvas de camarón blanco (Litopenaeus vannaei, se realizaron pruebas de toxicidad aguda en condiciones de laboratorio por 168 h, con temperatura de 29 ± 1 °C, salinidad de 3 ± 1 ‰ y pH en 8 ± 1.Se calculó la concentración letal media (LC50 , la LC50 "incipiente", los tiempos medios de muerte (LT50 , la Máxima Concentración Aceptable del Tóxico (MACT y el "Nivel de Seguridad" (LS; así mismo, en los organismos sobrevivientes se determinó la concentración a la que el crecimiento de los organismos se reduce en un 5 y 50% (CE5 y CE50 . Se evaluaron además las alteraciones en el consumo de oxígeno. El DDT fue 3 veces más tóxico que el endosulfan; sin embargo, los organismos resultaron ser muy sensibles a ambos compuestos. La tasa de crecimiento de las postlarvas disminuyó en un 80 y 50% para el DDT y endosulfan respectivamente. La baja resistencia de las postlarvas al DDT y endosulfan, y las concentraciones de estos compuestos en la laguna, sugieren que si se diera un ingreso adicional de estos plaguicidas al sistema, es muy probable un potencial impacto en la producción de camarón del sistemaToxic efect of DDT and endosulfan in white shrimp postlarvae Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae from Chiapas, Mexico .We analized acute toxicity in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei postlarvae exposed to two chlorinated pesticides, DDT and endosulfan, under laboratory conditions during 168 hours, with controlled temperature (29 ± 1°C, salinity (3 ± 1 ‰ and pH (8 ± 1. Median lethal concentrations (LC50 , "incipient" LC50, median lethal time (LT50 the "maximum acceptable concentration of the toxic compound" (MACT and "the safety level" (SL were determined. The concentration of the compounds at which organism growth was reduced by 5 and 50% (EC5 and EC50 , as well as changes in oxygen consumption patterns were determined in the surviving postlarvae.They were very
Morgan, Lynn M; Roberts, Elizabeth F S
This paper develops the concept of reproductive governance as an analytic tool for tracing the shifting political rationalities of population and reproduction. As advanced here, the concept of reproductive governance refers to the mechanisms through which different historical configurations of actors - such as state, religious, and international financial institutions, NGOs, and social movements - use legislative controls, economic inducements, moral injunctions, direct coercion, and ethical incitements to produce, monitor, and control reproductive behaviours and population practices. Examples are drawn from Latin America, where reproductive governance is undergoing a dramatic transformation as public policy conversations are coalescing around new moral regimes and rights-based actors through debates about abortion, emergency contraception, sterilisation, migration, and assisted reproductive technologies. Reproductive discourses are increasingly framed through morality and contestations over 'rights', where rights-bearing citizens are pitted against each other in claiming reproductive, sexual, indigenous, and natural rights, as well as the 'right to life' of the unborn. The concept of reproductive governance can be applied to other settings in order to understand shifting political rationalities within the domain of reproduction.
Langmoen, Iver A
In the late 8th century, the stage for Viking expansion was set by commercial expansion in northwest Europe, the pressure of an increasing population in limited territorial reserves, and the development of the Viking ships. The Norsemen traveled extensively over the oceans, south to the Holy Land, and north to the White Sea and settled over a wide area from Sicily to Greenland. Historical sources, including the reports by Adam of Bremen and the Icelandic Sagas, describe several expeditions from Greenland to Vinland (somewhere along the east coast of North America) in approximately AD 1000 and later. Historians have arrived at highly different conclusions with respect to the location of Vinland (from Labrador to Georgia), but, in 1960, the Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad localized ancient house sites on L'Ans aux Meadows, a small fishing village on the Northern beaches of Newfoundland. From 1961 to 1969, Ingstad and his wife, Anne Stine (an archaeologist), led several archaeological expeditions that revealed Viking turf houses with room for approximately 100 people. They also excavated a smithy, outdoor cooking pits, boathouses, a bathhouse, and enclosures for cattle, in addition to several Viking artifacts. The finds were C dated to AD 990 +/- 30. The present report reviews historical and archaeological evidence indicating the sites to which the Vikings traveled and attempted to settle in the new world.
Sagredo Baeza, Rafael
Full Text Available In addition to increasing our knowledge and understanding of the naturalists who explored America at various times, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, we seek to discuss the personal, intimate, private, and sentimental nature of individuals who are usually described as well-bred, parsimonious, unfeeling, objective, rigorous, and methodical. For the same reason, perhaps, they are assumed to have stayed aloof from any form of sentimental or passionate relationships in the course of their excursions, despite the fact that the latter often lasted not for months but for years, and that in some instances were not conducted overland but involved prolonged voyages on the high seas.
Además de avanzar en el conocimiento y comprensión de los naturalistas que exploraron América en algún momento, particularmente en los siglos XVIII y XIX, nos interesa relevar la dimensión personal, íntima, privada, sentimental, de sujetos que corrientemente son presentados como hombres comedidos, parcos, fríos, objetivos, rigurosos y metódicos y, tal vez por eso, se supone, ajenos a cualquier tipo de relación sentimental o pasional durante sus excursiones. Esto, a pesar de que muchas de ellas se prolongaron no ya por meses, sino que por años y que algunas de ellas no fueron itinerarios terrestres, sino que esencialmente marítimos, con largas temporadas en alta mar.
Bassuk, Ellen L
Approximately 1.5 million children experience homelessness in America each year. The current economic recession and staggering numbers of housing foreclosures have caused the numbers of homeless families to increase dramatically. The impact of homelessness on families and children is devastating. Without a place to call home, children are severely challenged by unpredictability, dislocation, and chaos. Homelessness and exposure to traumatic stresses place them at high risk for poor mental health outcomes. Despite the pressing needs of these children, federal policy during the last decade has focused primarily on chronically homeless adult individuals-to the exclusion of the families. In 2010, however, the U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness issued a comprehensive plan to eradicate homelessness for all people through interagency collaboration and aligning mainstream services. A key goal is to prevent and end homelessness for families, youth, and children within 10 years. This policy-focused article describes several tools that can be used to help achieve this goal, including: general principles of care for serving homeless families and children; BSAFE-a promising practice that helps families access community-based services and supports; and the Campaign to End Child Homelessness aimed at action on behalf of homeless families and children at the national, state, and local levels. © 2010 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Rodriguez Tejerina, Miguel
In the present day, Latin America is the most urbanised region - and also the most inequitable - on the planet, which means that its urban areas amass both huge wealth and huge poverty. Within this context, dealing with climate change is also a chance to increase citizens' well-being. Better public transport and more efficient energy and waste management are, besides being effective measures to reduce emissions, ultimately actions with a strong social component and work towards improving transportation and public health care and generate savings for citizens. Equally, actions geared towards boosting urban resilience represent measures that go beyond adaptation responses to climate change and primarily benefit those that are most vulnerable in the population. In the context of the future new global climate agreement, cities are taking a more prominent role in this new urban era, and gained in importance in the Sustainable Development Goals, LAC has a lot to give in the lessons learned from urbanisation. Rapidly urbanising regions like Asia and Africa, where population growth will be concentrated in cities in the present and near future, could learn a lot from the urbanisation process that has occurred, and continues to occur, in LAC. From the transport industry to energy and water, successful cases are numerous and varied, as are the setbacks, from which valuable lessons can be drawn for the purposes of more effectively facing up to this new global urban reality
Full Text Available A scientific approach to management was initiated for the first time in America in the late 19th century. Scientific management arose mainly from the need to increase efficiency in America, but other key factors were the spread of big businesses and the expanding application of science in industry. The aims of our paper are to present the emergence of scientific management in America and to emphasize the contribution of some of the most representatives American authors to its development. The methodological approach is literature review. Our paper shows that scientific management was essentially an American achievement that provided useful lessons for the whole human society.
Rowden, A. A.; Jones, M. B.; Morris, A. W.
The mud shrimp Callianassa subterranea (Montagu) is a common member of the macrobenthic community at the site in the North Sea selected to study the dynamics of suspended sediment behaviour. The extensive burrowing habit of this deposit-feeding species makes it an important contributor to the degree of bioturbation experienced at the site. Individuals recovered from the site were returned to the laboratory to investigate the influence of body size and temperature upon the amount of sediment expelled. A clear relationship between these variables and the quantity of expelled sediment was identified, and a well-defined temporal pattern of expulsion activity and inactivity was demonstrated. These experimental data, together with field information on seawater temperatures and aspects of mud shrimp population dynamics, allow the construction of an estimated annual sediment turnover budget of 11 kg (dry weight) m -2 yr -1. Field observations at the North Sea site show that the sediment expelled by the mud shrimp forms unconsolidated volcano-like mounds, which significantly modify seabed surface topography. The dimensions of these surface features were measured from bottom photographs of the site and used to determine values of boundary roughness length ( Zo). In January Zo was 0.0007 cm, whilst in September Zo equaled 0.79 cm. Callianassa subterranea's maximum contribution to resuspension was assessed by calculating a derived lateral sediment transport rate of 7 kg m -1 month -1 (from values of near-bed current velocity, modified boundary roughness length and sediment turnover rate).
Magalhães, Célio; Wehrtmann, Ingo S; Lara, Luis Rólier; Mantelatto, Fernando L
The taxonomy and geographic distribution of the freshwater crabs of the family Pseudothelphusidae Ortmann, 1893, of Costa Rica, Central America, particularly of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964, are revised. Historical materials deposited in major collections of several institutions were examined, as well as valuable collections in the Zoological Museum of the University of Costa Rica that include abundant specimens obtained recently (2007-2010) in the southern region of the country. The pseudothelphusids of Costa Rica consists of 15 currently valid species belonging to Achlidon Smalley, 1964 (two species), Allacanthos Smalley, 1964 (two species), Potamocarcinus H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (three species), and Ptychophallus (eight species). Two species seem to be restricted to the Atlantic drainage, while seven are known only from the Pacific drainage; six species occur in both drainages. Ptychophallus comprises 13 valid species; four new synonymies are proposed: P. osaensis Rodríguez, 2001, P. campylus Pretzmann, 1968, P. tumimanus ingae Pretzmann, 1978, and P. barbillaensis Rodríguez & Hedström, 2001, as junior synonyms of P. paraxantusi (Bott, 1968), P. tristani (Rathbum 1896), P. tumimanus (Rathbun, 1898), and P. uncinatus Campos & Lemaitre, 1999, respectively. Two species, P. colombianus (Rathbun, 1896) and P. exilipes (Rathbun, 1898), are considered species inquerendae. Lectotype designations are made for P. montanus and P. colombianus. Three species of Ptychophallus are known exclusively from Costa Rica, five exclusively from Panama, and five species occur in both countries; one species appears to be exclusive of the Atlantic drainage, whereas five are known only from the Pacific drainage and seven occur in both drainages. The gonopod morphology of all species is redescribed and illustrated, and maps of their geographic distribution are furnished. A key to the species of Pseudothelphusidae from Costa Rica and to all species of
Full Text Available C. sapidus fisheries has a significant influence on the economy of some countries in North America and has a relative extensive literature in these regions. However, only few papers discuss the ecology of C. sapidus in the South Atlantic, despite its economic importance in that region. We studied the fecundity, reproductive seasonality and maturation size of C. sapidus females captured in the Southeast coast of Brazil from January to December 2002. Females were separated, weighted (Wt, and cephalothorax width (CW was measured. Furthermore, the eggs-masses were classified according to embryonic development, separated, weighted (We and fixed. Eggs were also separated and counted, resulting in the average number of eggs per individual (Ne. A total sample of 307 females was collected: 78 young, 130 adults and 99 ovigerous. Ovigerous females showed CW between 7.49 and 15.89cm with average of 12.21cm and were distributed throughout the sample period, with highest incidence between December and March. The onset of morphological maturity (L50 occurred at CW=10.33cm, and the size in which all were mature (L100 was CW=11.20cm. Individual fecundity ranged from 689 356 to 3 438 122 with an average of 2 006 974. The CW showed a positive growth trend with Ne and We. We concluded that in order to ensure the resource sustainability, it is necessary to prohibit captures of C. sapidus in these regions, especially during summer. Additionally, our studies suggest that the minimum capture size should be 11cm of carapace width.
Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.
In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.
Hammons, T.J.; Franco, N. de; Sbertoli, L.V.; Khelil, C.; Rudnick, H.; Clerici, A.; Longhi, A.
This article is a summary of presentations made during the 1997 Winter Meeting panel session on Power and Natural Gas in Latin America: Towards an Integrated Market. Reregulation and demand for energy resources to support economic growth are driving international natural gas and electricity exchange initiatives. Panelists focused on the gas and electric power industry in Latin America in terms of the: transport of gas or transmission of electricity; energy market integration in the southern cone of South America; and issues on gas use for electricity generation in South America countries. Countries such as Argentina, Bolivia, and Peru will export natural gas to Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Chile, an the energy matrices of these countries will change
Alberto van Klaveren
Full Text Available South American countries participate on the new international stage in very diverse ways, reflecting their different political models and preferences. The big changes that have seriously affected the international system have had a profound impact on South America. The United States are no longer the dominant power in the world, nor in their old backyard, South America. Europe retains a certain role in the area, but the crisis it is undergoing is limiting its influence in the region. Relations between South American counties are increasing, but not within the framework of a single, coherent integration process. China, India, Korea, and other Asian countries are joining Japan’s traditional and always discreet presence in the area, but up to now Asia has confined itself to economic exchanges with South America. In general, South America is consolidating itself as the second-largest emerging region on the planet, after Asia, and is projecting that reality in its international relations.
Report from Greening America's Capitals project in Des Moines, IA, to help the city enhance the 6th Avenue Corridor with pedestrian and bike improvements and green infrastructure to manage stormwater.
Uruguay intends to become South America's leader in the renewables sector. The country is currently in a period of economic success, which facilitates restructuring of the power supply sector. (orig.)
Edson Tadeu Iede; Susete Rocio C. Penteado; Wilson Reis. Filho
The European woodwasp, Sirex noctilio Fabricius, 1793 (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) is being monitoring and/or controlled on about 4.1 million hectares Pinus spp. plantations in South Americaâs Southern Cone.
... help create green jobs, support a vibrant American recycling and refurbishing industry, and advance our clean energy economy. While we can celebrate the breadth of our successes on America Recycles Day, we...
... processes that will drive our clean economy and create green jobs. These advances cut waste, preserve our... environmental quality, and laying the foundation for a 21st-century economy. America Recycles Day offers us an...
Postlarval settlement of spiny lobster, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 (Decapoda: Palinuridae, at the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica Asentamiento postlarval en la langosta espinosa, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la costa Caribe de Costa Rica
Full Text Available Lobster fishery (Panulirus argus forms an important part of the fishing activities along the Caribbean coast of Central America. The present study provides information regarding the seasonal abundance and distribution of postlarval P. argus in Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica. During the study period (March 2004-February 2005, a total of 1907 pueruli were obtained from GuSi collectors. Postlarvae were present during all months, with a pronounced peak in January-February 2005 (CPUE of 21.82 and 22.18, pueruli/collector/month, respectively, and minor peaks in May and October 2004. The abundance of postlarval P. argus in the study area was comparable to locations which support important lobster fisheries, e.g. Mexico. A majority of the postlarvae (1027 ind. was collected during the first quarter moon, the remaining pueruli (880 ind. during new moon; these results are in general agreement with similar findings for P. argus in the Caribbean area. Based upon our results, we recommend introducing a local or regional monitoring program, studying spiny lobster migration and distribution patterns, and evaluate the introduction of artificial shelters for P. argus.Las capturas de langosta (Panulirus argus son de gran importancia en la actividad pesquera a lo largo de las costas del Caribe de Centroamérica. El presente estudio proporciona información relevante de la abundancia temporal y la distribución de postlarvas de P. argus en el Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica. Durante el periodo de estudio (Marzo 2004-Febrero 2005, un total de 1907 puérulos fueron obtenidos del colector GuSi. Las postlarvas fueron colectadas durante todos los meses, con máximos en enero-febrero 2005 (CPUE de 21.82 y 22.18, puérulos/colector/mes, respectivamente, y mínimos en mayo y octubre de 2004. La abundancia de postlarvas de P. argus en el estudio es comparada con áreas que soportan importantes pesquerías, p. ej. México. La mayoría de las postlarvas (1027 ind
Wiarda, J H; Siqueira Wiarda, I
This discussion of population and internal unrest in Latin America covers the following: pressures on land and agriculture; economic frustrations; the youth and radicalism; rising social tensions; and political instability. At current growth rates, Latin America's population is projected to increases between 1981 2001 by 225 million people. This staggering population growth is likely to have serious political, economic, social, strategic, and other implications. The strong opposition to family planning which came principally from nationlists, the military, and the church during the 1960s has changed to general support for voluntary family planning programs in much of Latin America. Too rapid population growth now is viewed widely as aggravating the problems of development and putting severe strains on services and facilities. The wish to limit family size is particularly strong among women. Most of Latin America's untapped land is unusable, either so steeply mountainous, densely tropical, or barren of topsoil that it cannot support life at even the most meager level of subsistence. Food production in most of Latin America has not kept pace with population growth. Since most new agricultural production is oriented toward exports rather than home consumption, conditions for most rural populations are worsening. Economic dilemmas facing Latin America include widespread poverty, the world's highest per capita debt, unemployment and underemployment that may reach between 40-50% of the workforce, negative economic growth rates over the past 5 years, immense income inequalities, declining terms of trade, extensive capital flight, little new investment or foreign assistance, increased protectionism on the part of those countriews with whom Latin America must trade, rising prices for the goods Latin America must import, and (in some countries) devastation of the economic infrastrucutre by guerrilla forces. The unprecedent flow from the countryside has made Latin America the
Werling, Eric [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)
This report presents the Building America Research-to-Market Plan (Plan), including the integrated Building America Technology-to-Market Roadmaps (Roadmaps) that will guide Building America’s research, development, and deployment (RD&D) activities over the coming years. The Plan and Roadmaps will be updated as necessary to adapt to research findings and evolving stakeholder needs, and they will reflect input from DOE and stakeholders.
the potential future impact of Chinese diplomatic and economic action in Latin America? This thesis explores, if given the current global...but also represent a challenge to U.S. regional influence. With the events of the past 15 years, has U.S. leadership underestimated the potential ...future impact of Chinese diplomatic and economic action in Latin America? This thesis explores, if given the current global environment, should the U.S
both licit and illicit networks. Traditional territorial security concerns declined in the Americas following the end of the Cold War, and NAFTA in...Central America, and the Caribbean in the 1980s into the United States and Mexico in the last decade. This dynamic has fostered substantial illicit...deepen economic ties and liberalize regimes, privileging development over security.12 Similarly, trade, fostered through NAFTA , has shaped and affected
Holtkamp, S. G.; Pritchard, M. E.; Lohman, R. B.
We searched for earthquake swarms in South America between 1973 and 2009 using the global Preliminary Determination of Epicenters (PDE) catalogue. Seismicity rates vary greatly over the South American continent, so we employ a manual search approach that aims to be insensitive to spatial and temporal scales or to the number of earthquakes in a potential swarm. We identify 29 possible swarms involving 5-180 earthquakes each (with total swarm moment magnitudes between 4.7 and 6.9) within a range of tectonic and volcanic locations. Some of the earthquake swarms on the subduction megathrust occur as foreshocks and delineate the limits of main shock rupture propagation for large earthquakes, including the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule, Chile and 2007 Mw 8.1 Pisco, Peru earthquakes. Also, subduction megathrust swarms commonly occur at the location of subduction of aseismic ridges, including areas of long-standing seismic gaps in Peru and Ecuador. The magnitude-frequency relationship of swarms we observe appears to agree with previously determined magnitude-frequency scaling for swarms in Japan. We examine geodetic data covering five of the swarms to search for an aseismic component. Only two of these swarms (at Copiapó, Chile, in 2006 and near Ticsani Volcano, Peru, in 2005) have suitable satellite-based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) observations. We invert the InSAR geodetic signal and find that the ground deformation associated with these swarms does not require a significant component of aseismic fault slip or magmatic intrusion. Three swarms in the vicinity of the volcanic arc in southern Peru appear to be triggered by the Mw= 8.5 2001 Peru earthquake, but predicted static Coulomb stress changes due to the main shock were very small at the swarm locations, suggesting that dynamic triggering processes may have had a role in their occurrence. Although we identified few swarms in volcanic regions, we suggest that particularly large volcanic swarms (those that
...., Palm Beach Holding, Inc., RailAmerica Transportation Corp., Central Railroad Company of Indianapolis... requirements of 49 U.S.C. 11323-25, for RailAmerica, Inc. (RailAmerica); Palm Beach Holding, Inc. (Palm Beach... Acquisition, RailAmerica, Palm Beach, and RTC will indirectly control DTC, because Fortress's noncarrier...
Iglesias Gammara, Antonio; Coral, Paola; Quintana, Gerardo; Toro, Carlos E; Flores, Luis Felipe; Matteson, Eric L; Restrepo, José Félix
A literature review utilizing Fepafem, Bireme, LiLacs, Scielo Colombia, Scielo Internacional, former MedLine, Pubmed, and BVS Colombia as well as manual searches in the libraries of major Latin American universities was performed to study vasculitis in Latin America. Since 1945, a total of 752 articles have been published by Latin American authors. However, only a minority are devoted to primary vasculitides, and even fewer have been published in indexed journals. Approximately 126 are in OLD, Medline, Pubmed, Bireme, and Scielo. Most publications are from Mexico, followed by Brazil and Colombia. Systematic studies of the epidemiology of primary idiopathic vasculitis are available for a few countries, i.e. Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, and Peru. Takayasu arteritis and ANCA-associated vasculitis are the best studied forms of vasculitis in Latin America. Interest and expertise in vasculitis is growing in Latin America, as reflected in the increased number of published articles from this region of the world in the last decade. Racial and environmental factors are possibly responsible for the differential expression of various types of primary vasculitis observed in Latin America. With time, the unique features, epidemiology, and better treatment strategies for idiopathic vasculitides in Latin America will emerge.
Full Text Available Chang Sei-jin. Sangsangdoen America: 1945 nyǒn 8wol ihu Hangukui neisǒn seosanǔn ǒtteoke mandǔleogǒtnǔnga 상상된 아메리카: 1945년 8월 이후 한국의 네이션 서사는 어떻게 만들어졌는가 [Imagined America: How national narratives of Korea have been constructed since August 1945]. Seoul: Purǔn Yeoksa, 2012.Research on U.S.–South Korean relations has continued steadily over the decades, especially in the fields of history and literature, resulting in many notable studies. However, the general tendency of this scholarship has been to introduce and analyze the United States as a discrete entity. While this perspective is useful in some regards, it is also necessary to investigate how this entity was felt, perceived, and constructed by those on the receiving end. By shifting the focus from “what America was in South Korea” to “how America was imagined in South Korea,” Sei-Jin Chang’s Imagined America: How National Narratives of Korea Have Been Constructed since August 1945 provides an insightful approach to this issue of complexity.
Full Text Available Governance is becoming an increasingly important concept in European theoretical debates and in political practice as a new way to manage public policies, since the public sector reforms in the 80s. However, the debate in Latin America has different characteristics than in Europe, so it is necessary to provide a critical review of the proposed agenda for the transformation of the state in the region, and of the transfer of the concept of governance by multilateral agencies. To understand these changes the paper examines three key areas of reforms in Latin America and the privatization of public services, new social policies proposals and the decentralization process. This will help us understand the tension between normative models and specific patterns of governance that prevail in Latin America.
Soto-Perez-de-Celis, E; Cordoba, R; Gironés, R; Karnakis, T; Paredero, I; Chavarri-Guerra, Y; Navarrete-Reyes, A P; Avila-Funes, J A
Population aging represents a worldwide challenge. In Ibero-America (Spain, Portugal, and the American countries in which the Spanish or Portuguese language are spoken), the number of older adults is growing, leading to an increase in aging-related diseases such as cancer. Older adults already account for half of all cancer cases in Ibero-America, and this proportion will continue to increase. Furthermore, Ibero-American healthcare systems are not adequately prepared to provide care for older adults with cancer, mainly due to a lack of resources and generalized paucity of geriatric training for healthcare providers. Across the region, several clinical initiatives, educational activities and research collaborations have been established to set the foundations of Ibero-American geriatric oncology and to increase the geriatric knowledge among healthcare providers. This article provides an overview of the current landscape of geriatric oncology in Ibero-America, highlighting its critical challenges, opportunities for improvement and collaboration, and future directions.
Machado, L.D.B.; Rotta, A.C.; Petrie, I.
In August 2006, an agreement between the Rad tech International North America and the ATBCR, the Brazillian Technical Association for Radiation cure, turns ATCBR into RadTech South America. This new institution starts with already 10 years of history and pioneering technical experience and achievements in UV and EB radiation cure. Both RadTech institutions have asserted a whole cooperation and information exchange to continue with the initial ATBCR compromise in promoting UV and EB curing technology and to make it available to professionals, enterprise and other organizations. The RadTech South America has it's headquarter at the Energy and Nuclear Research Institute, IPEN, in Sao Paulo, Brazil, from whom also gets sponsorship. (Author)
Chesson, Harrell W; Kent, Charlotte K; Owusu-Edusei, Kwame; Leichliter, Jami S; Aral, Sevgi O
The purpose of this study was to examine rates of 3 bacterial sexually transmitted diseases (STDs; syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia) in 8 subpopulations (known as the "eight Americas") defined by race and a small number of county-level sociodemographic and geographical characteristics. The eight Americas are (1) Asians and Pacific Islanders in specific counties; (2) Northland low-income rural white; (3) Middle America; (4) Low-income whites in Appalachia and Mississippi Valley; (5) Western Native American; (6) Black middle America; (7) Southern low-income rural black; and (8) High-risk urban black. A list of the counties comprising each of the eight Americas was obtained from the corresponding author of the original eight Americas project, which examined disparities in mortality rates across the eight Americas. Using county-level STD surveillance data, we calculated syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia rates (new cases per 100,000) for each of the eight Americas. Reported STD rates varied substantially across the eight Americas. STD rates were generally lowest in Americas 1 and 2 and highest in Americas 6, 7, and 8. Although disparities in STDs across the eight Americas are generally similar to the well-established disparities in STDs across race/ethnicity, the grouping of counties into the eight Americas does offer additional insight into disparities in STDs in the United States. The high STD rates we found for black Middle America are consistent with the assertion that sexual networks and social factors are important drivers of racial disparities in STDs.
Hendron, R.; Anderson, R.; Judkoff, R.; Christensen, C.; Eastment, M.; Norton, P.; Reeves, P.; Hancock, E.
To measure progress toward multi-year Building America research goals, cost and performance trade-offs are evaluated through a series of controlled field and laboratory experiments supported by energy analysis techniques that use test data to''calibrate'' energy simulation models. This report summarizes the guidelines for reporting such analytical results using the Building America Research Benchmark (Version 3.1) in studies that also include consideration of current Regional and Builder Standard Practice. Version 3.1 of the Benchmark is generally consistent with the 1999 Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Reference Home, with additions that allow evaluation of all home energy uses.
Rivera, Victor M.; Medina, Marco Tulio; Duron, Reyna M.; Macias, Miguel Angel
Before the advent of diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS), it was reported that the prevalence of MS in Mexico was “one of the lowest in the world” (1.6/100,000).1 The notion that MS was a rare neurologic disease among those living in the tropics of the Americas and Southern latitudes was widely accepted. The geopolitical boundaries of the region identified as Latin America (LA) extend from the southern border of United States with Mexico (32° North latitude) to the Argentinian and...
Abernethy, Bob; Chandra, Subrato; Baden, Steven; Cummings, Jim; Cummings, Jamie; Beal, David; Chasar, David; Colon, Carlos; Dutton, Wanda; Fairey, Philip; Fonorow, Ken; Gil, Camilo; Gordon, Andrew; Hoak, David; Kerr, Ryan; Peeks, Brady; Kosar, Douglas; Hewes, Tom; Kalaghchy, Safvat; Lubliner, Mike; Martin, Eric; McIlvaine, Janet; Moyer, Neil; Liguori, Sabrina; Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John; Stroer, Dennis; Thomas-Rees, Stephanie; Daniel, Danielle; McIlvaine, Janet
This report summarizes the work conducted by the Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP - www.baihp.org) during the final budget period (BP5) of our contract, January 1, 2010 to November 30, 2010. Highlights from the four previous budget periods are included for context. BAIHP is led by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) of the University of Central Florida. With over 50 Industry Partners including factory and site builders, work in BP5 was performed in six tasks areas: Building America System Research Management, Documentation and Technical Support; System Performance Evaluations; Prototype House Evaluations; Initial Community Scale Evaluations; Project Closeout, Final Review of BA Communities; and Other Research Activities.
Weil, T P; Pearl, G M
A review of America's "best" teaching hospitals shows a huge disparity in their fiscal positions. Among the 15 hospitals studied, roughly half experience some fiscal distress. However, a somewhat similar fiscal analysis of the nation's largest investor-owned hospital chains, HMOs, and physician practice management corporations shows an even more serious weakness in operating margins and debt-equity ratios. Aside from raising possible ethical, quality, and cost issues, this financial analysis suggests that conversion from nonprofit to for-profit ownership of America's top teaching hospitals might not guarantee an improvement in their long-term fiscal outlook.
Jane Barr; James Dobrowolski; John Campbell; Philippe Le Prestre; Lori Lynch; Marc Sydnor; Robert Adler; Jose Etcheverry; Alexander Kenny; Catherine Hallmich; Jim Lazar; Russell M. Meyer; Robin Newmark; Janet Peace; Julie A. Suhr Pierce; Stephen. Yamasaki
As previously indicated, GEO-5 shifts the GEO focus from identifying environmental problems to identifying solutions that governments can then prioritize. This chapter provides examples of a number of policy options and market mechanisms that have shown some success in improving environmental conditions in North America. They are organized by priority environmental...
Full Text Available Cryptococcosis is a life-threatening fungal infection caused by the encapsulated yeasts Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii, acquired from the environment. In Latin America, as occurring worldwide, C. neoformans causes more than 90% of the cases of cryptococcosis, affecting predominantly patients with HIV, while C. gattii generally affects otherwise healthy individuals. In this region, cryptococcal meningitis is the most common presentation, with amphotericin B and fluconazole being the antifungal drugs of choice. Avian droppings are the predominant environmental reservoir of C. neoformans, while C. gattii is associated with several arboreal species. Importantly, C. gattii has a high prevalence in Latin America and has been proposed to be the likely origin of some C. gattii populations in North America. Thus, in the recent years, significant progress has been made with the study of the basic biology and laboratory identification of cryptococcal strains, in understanding their ecology, population genetics, host-pathogen interactions, and the clinical epidemiology of this important mycosis in Latin America.
Metzger, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunt, S. [Confluence Communications, Missoula, MT (united States)
The Building America Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.
This project aims to support policies and programs that create greater opportunities and improve the well-being of 900,000 people living in poverty in the rural-urban territories of Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Poverty in the region Two-thirds of people in Latin America and the Caribbean live in areas that have not ...
Don C. Bragg; Hope A. Bragg
The authors review a 2-CD set created to aid in identifying woody plants. The product is intended to supplement (rather than replace) field instruction for identifying 470 of the most common native and introduced trees and shrubs in North America.
Martinson, Tom L.
Identifies and discusses potential instructional tools related to subsistence farming in Latin America. Instructional aids discussed include games, films, annotated bibliographies of audiovisual instructional aids, and an innovative program developed by Encyclopaedia Britannica Educational Corporation which allows teachers to construct their own…
Jordan, Vernon E.
Presents some observations on what the recent attacks on affirmative action, the O. J. Simpson trial, and the Million Man March say about racism in America. In particular, the author assesses the Million Man March in terms of black leadership and its influence in helping black men to become more involved in constructive community service. (GR)
Ending educational inequality requires not only an army of teachers who do whatever it takes to overcome the challenges facing children in low-income communities but also an army of leaders, working both in and outside school, who will change our inequitable system. Teach for America's mission is to help build this force. The organization's…
Giroux, Henry A.
This article describes America's descent into madness under the regime of neoliberalism that has emerged in the United States since the late 1970s. In part, this is due to the emergence of a public pedagogy produced by the corporate-owned media that now saturates Americans with a market-driven value system that undermines those formative…
Wu, Echo H.; Hertberg-Davis, Holly
This paper illustrates a case study on two Chinese American families with gifted children, and the major topic focuses on the influence of parenting beliefs and practices on children's talent development. In-depth interviews were employed to collect data from the Chinese parents who lived in America, and research questions include the daily…
Brown, Stanley P.; Smith, JohnEric W.; McAllister, Matthew; Joe, LeeAnn
Using pop icons in the science classroom represents a creative way to engage often-distracted students in a relevant and, perhaps more importantly, fun way. When the pop icon is as universally known as Captain America, the pedagogical stage is set. However, when the movies can also be employed to link dramatic references to the science concepts at…
Emily York, integrated pest management specialist at the Sam Noble Museum of Natural History, discusses the rat lungworm expansion in North America. Created: 1/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 1/21/2016.
tranquility , security, and economic gain. The greatest vulnerability to America has always been the lack of an educated and engaged citizenry...century:224 Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, Collaboration, Effective Oral and Written Communication, Analysis, and Imagination. Critical...possess effective oral and written communications skills, the ability to express and convey thoughts and views clearly, across cultures considering
Long-term sustainability of development in Latin America and the Caribbean through economic growth, equitable access to health and social services, sustainable natural resources, and civil security. And we are ... Honduras. With our partners, IDRC-funded research in Honduras is building robust local leadership capacity.
... a Buy America waiver is appropriate for use of non-domestic 22 mm Industrial dock steel chain, 400 ft, in construction of Federal-aid project BH-7826 (210) in Maine and the use of non-domestic U69 guard bars in construction of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (Pub. L. 111-5) (Recovery Act...
Arsel, M.; Hogenboom, B.; Pellegrini, L.
One of the main features of contemporary development politics in Latin America is the prominent role of the state. Another feature is the intensification of natural resource extraction. This extractivist drive is especially pronounced in the countries that are part of the ‘turn to the left’, which
M. Arsel (Murat); Barbara Hogenboom (B.); L. Pellegrini (Lorenzo)
textabstractOne of the main features of contemporary development politics in Latin America is the prominent role of the state. Another feature is the intensification of natural resource extraction. This extractivist drive is especially pronounced in the countries that are part of the ‘turn to the
Valdman, Albert, Ed.
The annual bulletin of the French 8 section of the Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Association of America is presented with the texts of papers read at both the 1969 and 1970 sessions. The 1970 papers, in French, include Jean Louis Darbelnet's "Etude Sociolinguistique des contacts entre 1'Anglais et le Francais au Canada et en…
... environment with the National unemployment rate over 8 percent, the Buy America requirement is especially... drive vehicle and that no vehicle on the market currently satisfies a 100 percent domestic iron and... market that can claim to incorporate 100 percent domestic steel and iron content. For instance, the Chevy...
... unemployment rate over 9 percent, the Buy America requirement is especially significant in that it will ensure... comments. In general, San Francisco County explained that there are no vehicles on the market that... vehicle on the market currently meets its project needs and satisfies a 100 percent domestic iron and...
Ge-Lin Chu; Stewart Sanderson
The genus Kochia and Bassia with which it has been combined, of Chenopodiaceae tribe Camphorosmeae, were at one time considered to include plants native to Eurasia, Australia, and North America, and included species of both C3 and C4 photosynthetic types. This aggregate has been reduced in size by removal of a large group of C3 Australian genera and species. Because of...
temperatures, radiation and micro meteorites . Also life support func- tions have to be provided which are breathing, metabolic heat, water and waste...Sub- Sahara ), Latin America, and West Europe. Supple- ments to the DAILY REPORTS may also be available periodically and will be distributed to
Maranto, Robert; Woessner, Matthew C.
In this article, the authors talk about the relevance of American political science and America. Political science has enormous strengths in its highly talented practitioners and sophisticated methods. However, its disconnection from its host society, while not so severe as for fields like English and sociology, nonetheless poses an existential…
A few articles have appeared recently regarding the subject of the health of classical music (or more broadly, the fine arts) in America. These include "Classical Music's New Golden Age," by Heather Mac Donald, in the "City Journal" and "The Decline of the Audience," by Terry Teachout, in "Commentary." These articles appeared around the time of…
The private sector is at last beginning to make inroads into the gas industry in Latin America, but the transition is expected to be anything but smooth. Whilst many of the initial problems are of an economic nature, it is politics that will create the biggest stumbling-block. (author)
Massive socioeconomic problems have left Latin American education in a dire condition, and decades behind the rest of the globe in integrating technology into teaching and learning. But a few spots in the region offer signs of hope. In this article, the author describes several efforts at tech-based educational reform in Latin America.
Tkacz, Borys; Moody, Ben; Castillo, Jaime Villa; Fenn, Mark E.
Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several regions of North America. Long-term monitoring of forest health indicators has facilitated the assessment of forest health and sustainability in North America. By linking a nationwide network of forest health plots with the more extensive forest inventory, forest health experts in the US have evaluated current trends for major forest health indicators and developed assessments of future risks. Canada and Mexico currently lack nationwide networks of forest health plots. Development and expansion of these networks is critical to effective assessment of future forest health impacts. - The forests of North America continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fragmentation, fires, native and invasive pests, and air pollution
Since about the mid seventies, the International Atomic Energy Agency has held meetings on the geology and uranium resources of different geographic regions of the world. As a continuation of this series the Technical Committee Meeting on Uranium Resources and Geology of North America was held between 1-3 September 1987 in Saskatoon, Canada. The meeting took place in the University of Saskatchewan, hosted by the Department of Geological Sciences in cooperation with the Department of Energy, Mines and Resources Canada. Thirty-six technical papers were presented to a group of over 85 participants from seven countries. These papers provided an excellent coverage of uranium occurrences and deposits and their geological framework in Canada and the USA, with analogies from other parts of the world. North America, the region dealt with in this meeting, is of eminent significance for the world's uranium production and the nuclear industry. Total WOCA U-resources according to the classification developed by the IAEA and the Nuclear Energy Agency of OECD are periodically collected by these two organisations for their report on Uranium Resources, Production and Demand. Currently total WOCA known U resources recoverable at costs of less than $130/kg U or $50/lb U 3 O 8 ) amount to 3.5 million t U, of which about 25% are located in North America, while the remainder is equally divided among Africa, Australia and the rest of WOCA (Asia, Europe, South America). Refs, figs and tabs
Countries of the Americas are proceeding with economic negotiations that could either support or inhibit sustainable development. Impact assessment can help mitigate serious health and environmental risks arising from new trade and economic development policies, and open space for greater public participation.
Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Stevens, Lillian; Morlett Paredes, Alejandra; Ardila, Alfredo; Rivera, Diego
The purpose of this study was to analyze characteristics of individuals working in the profession of neuropsychology in Latin America in order to understand their background, professional training, current work situation, assessment and diagnostic procedures used, rehabilitation techniques employed, population targeted, teaching responsibilities, and research activities. A total of 808 professionals working in neuropsychology from 17 countries in Latin America completed an online survey between July 2013 and January 2014. The majority of participants were female and the mean age was 36.76 years (range 21-74 years). The majority of professionals working in neuropsychology in Latin America have a background in psychology, with some additional specialized training and supervised clinical practice. Over half work in private practice, universities, or private clinics and are quite satisfied with their work. Those who identify themselves as clinicians primarily work with individuals with learning problems, ADHD, mental retardation, TBI, dementia, and stroke. The majority respondents cite the top barrier in the use of neuropsychological instruments to be the lack of normative data for their countries. The top perceived barriers to the field include: lack of academic training programs, lack of clinical training opportunities, lack of willingness to collaborate between professionals, and lack of access to neuropsychological instruments. There is a need in Latin America to increase regulation, improve graduate curriculums, enhance existing clinical training, develop professional certification programs, validate existing neuropsychological tests, and create new, culturally-relevant instruments.
Boxall, J.A. Jr.
This article discusses the debate over the merit of hydroelectric power and the part it will play in providing energy in America in the future. The environmental impact, reliability, efficiency, and regulation of hydroelectric projects are discussed with examples and references to other publications. FERC application of existing regulations in the licensing and relicensing process is also discussed
This article discusses what's cooking in America's schoolyard gardens. From First Lady Michelle Obama's world-famous Kitchen Garden, to Alice Waters' groundbreaking Edible Schoolyard in Berkeley, California, to a nationally recognized elementary school learning garden in the small Midwestern town of Ashland, Missouri, school children are planting…
Teach for America (TFA) is perceived as a major player in the education wars over the future of public schools, and a key ally of those who disparage teacher unions and schools of education, and who are enamored of entrepreneurial reforms that bolster the privatization of a once-sacred public responsibility. But what exactly is TFA's role in these…
..., disassembled, and preserved for relocation. This innovative solution brought together State and local officials... percent of the steel in the Freedom Bridge to Carnegie Steel, a United States manufacturer, State... Federal Highway Administration Buy America Waiver Notification AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration...
Escalaya, Alejandro L; Tellez-Zenteno, Jose F; Steven, David A; Burneo, Jorge G
To assess the mortality related to epilepsy in Latin America. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and LILACS from inception to December 2013 for articles evaluating mortality in patients with epilepsy in Latin America. Studies were included if they evaluated any mortality outcome, included a population of subjects with recurrent seizures or epilepsy, and contained original data analysis. The search strategy yielded 177 publications in MEDLINE and EMBASE, and 59 publications in LILACS; of which 18 met inclusion criteria for our overall review of epilepsy and mortality in Latin America. Most excluded studies did not report the mortality or lacked original data. We also included two references obtained from 2 non-systematic reviews fulfilling our inclusion criteria, and able to provide data for our analyses. Five studies reported Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR), and demonstrated that people with epilepsy had a higher risk of death than the general population. The SMRs reported in two community-based studies were 1.34 and 2.45. The information about mortality in epilepsy in Latin America is very scarce. Comparisons cannot be made among studies due to methodological differences. More studies are needed. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Children's Defense Fund, Washington, DC.
This report on the state of children in the United States begins with a call to action that points out the destructive effects of poverty, violence, and drug use on America's children while outlining 10 needed steps that should be followed to help alleviate these problems. The greater part of the report focuses on: (1) health; (2) child care; (3)…
Petersen, Judith E.
Describes a U.S. literature course and a comparative literature course that focuses on Asian, African, Canadian, Caribbean, and Latin American literature. Asserts that students need to be aware of the European impact on the U.S. identity, even where it is unpleasant. Discusses the magical realism in the distinct artistic vision of Latin America.…
With this work we continue the debate on the trends of urban restructuring in Latin America. In fact due to the large economic crisis of the 80-ies, the continent has decreased is living standards to that of 12 years ago. The productive potential has increased in 1,3% in circumstances that in the
... site for Gear-Motor assembly ( http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/construction/contracts/waivers.cfm?id=48 ) on... a Buy America waiver is appropriate for the use of non domestic Gear-Motor Assembly with Horsepower... coatings) that are permanently incorporated in a Federal-aid construction project. The regulation also...
Vail, V.; Moore, I.; Nadel, D.
Various methods of controlling the medfly are available and include the use of insecticides, bait sprays and the sterile insect technique (SIT). Each of these control strategies may be used alone or in sequence. With regard to the application of the SIT, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture through its Insect and Pest Control Section and Entomology Laboratory is in an excellent position to assist in containing the medfly in Central America. For the past 12 years, the laboratory has participated in all phases of medfly control by sterile insect releases in various climates. This involvement has included planning of medfly campaigns, development of pre-release techniques (bait spraying, trapping, etc.) and shipment and release of sterilized medflies. Small-scale field tests utilizing the SIT have been carried out by nine countries: Italy (Procida, Capri), Spain, Cyprus, Israel, Tunisia, Peru, Panama, Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Other field projects presently being counselled and serviced are located in Argentina, Venezuela and the Canary Islands. The research and development that are still needed to effectively stabilize and gain control of the medfly situation in Central America include: The development and use of effective quarantine procedures in various countries; Development of effective conventional medfly control procedures under the conditions found in Central America; Development of methods to determine the geographic origin of medflies introduced into new areas; Medfly mass production (viz. all aspects of rearing Central American strains); Assessing the performance (competitiveness, etc.) of various strains; Logistics, including the development of systems for releasing pre-adult stages; Genetic rearing methods: developmental research in this area is particularly promising since the preferential production of males would allow considerable savings in the rearing costs of medflies for release; Development of adequate surveillance
Laboratory and 3D Systems to create a free Massive Open Online Course in additive manu- facturing business fundamentals. It is designed to help educate ...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0190 WHEN AMERICA MAKES, AMERICA WORKS: A SUCCESSFUL PUBLIC-PRIVATE 3D PRINTING (POSTPRINT) Ed Morris and Rob...ACQUISITION UNIVERSITY (STINFO COPY) AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH
Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Zurita, Jeannete; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Santolaya, María E; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Echevarría, Juan; Sifuentes, Jose; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Nucci, Marcio
Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the diagnosis of candidemia, as well as on the usefulness and application of susceptibility testing in patients who have a confirmed diagnosis of candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America' includes diagnostic methods used to detect candidemia, Candida species identification, and susceptibility testing. The availability of methods, their costs and treatment settings are considered. This manuscript is the first of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'. Copyright © 2013 Revista
Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio
Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of neonates who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, central venous catheter management, and management of complications. This manuscript is the fourth of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America'. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights
Nucci, Marcio; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Echevarría, Juan; Sifuentes, Jose; Zurita, Jeannete; Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes
Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of adults who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in patients with candidemia. This manuscript is the second of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by
Santolaya, María E; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Alvarado Matute, Tito; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio
Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of children who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in children with candidemia. This manuscript is the third of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'. Copyright © 2013 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by
The traditional view of colonization of the Americas as a migration across Beringia and subsequent dispersal southward following the last glacial maximum is being increasingly questioned. In North America, archaeological links to Siberia are tenuous and genetic data are more consistent with an earlier entry of people into the Americas, from Central rather than Northeast Siberia. An entry of populations into the Americas prior to the last glacial maximum forces a reconsideration not only of ti...
Shaw, C A; McDonald, H G
A right metacarpal III represents the first North American record of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla). Recovered in northwestern Sonora, Mexico, with a rich vertebrate fauna of early Pleistocene (Irvingtonian) age, it belongs to a cohort of large mammals that dispersed from South America to North America along a savanna corridor. Presumably habitat and climatic changes have subsequently driven this mammalian family more than 3000 kilometers back into Central America from its former expansion into temperate North America.
RUSSIA FOREIGN POLICY IN LATIN AMERICA — CASE STUDY OF NICARAGUA A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and...MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Russia Foreign Policy In Latin America — Case Study Of Nicaragua 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...open arctic channel in the North and in reviving diplomatic contacts and military exercises in Latin America. In Central America specifically, Russia
Seyle, D. Conor; Newman, Matthew L.
Recently it has become commonplace in America for commentators and the public to use the terms "red" and "blue" to refer to perceived cultural differences in America and American politics. Although a political divide may exist in America today, these particular terms are inaccurate and reductive. This article presents research from social…
Influencing pro-poor telecommunications policy in Latin America. A research network on telecommunications policy is playing a significant role in influencing pro-poor ICT policies in Latin America. View moreInfluencing pro-poor telecommunications policy in Latin America ...
Canada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus Research Program. A new funding opportunity on Zika virus is responding to the virus outbreak and the health threat it represents for the affected populations in the hardest hit countries in Latin America and the... View moreCanada-Latin America and Caribbean Zika Virus ...
Reis, R E; Albert, J S; Di Dario, F; Mincarone, M M; Petry, P; Rocha, L A
The freshwater and marine fish faunas of South America are the most diverse on Earth, with current species richness estimates standing above 9100 species. In addition, over the last decade at least 100 species were described every year. There are currently about 5160 freshwater fish species, and the estimate for the freshwater fish fauna alone points to a final diversity between 8000 and 9000 species. South America also has c. 4000 species of marine fishes. The mega-diverse fish faunas of South America evolved over a period of >100 million years, with most lineages tracing origins to Gondwana and the adjacent Tethys Sea. This high diversity was in part maintained by escaping the mass extinctions and biotic turnovers associated with Cenozoic climate cooling, the formation of boreal and temperate zones at high latitudes and aridification in many places at equatorial latitudes. The fresh waters of the continent are divided into 13 basin complexes, large basins consolidated as a single unit plus historically connected adjacent coastal drainages, and smaller coastal basins grouped together on the basis of biogeographic criteria. Species diversity, endemism, noteworthy groups and state of knowledge of each basin complex are described. Marine habitats around South America, both coastal and oceanic, are also described in terms of fish diversity, endemism and state of knowledge. Because of extensive land use changes, hydroelectric damming, water divergence for irrigation, urbanization, sedimentation and overfishing 4-10% of all fish species in South America face some degree of extinction risk, mainly due to habitat loss and degradation. These figures suggest that the conservation status of South American freshwater fish faunas is better than in most other regions of the world, but the marine fishes are as threatened as elsewhere. Conserving the remarkable aquatic habitats and fishes of South America is a growing challenge in face of the rapid anthropogenic changes of the 21
Okazaki, Robert K.; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.
Abstract The possible presence of egg predators in brood masses of portunid crabs from Pacific Central America has not been studied yet. This survey reports the finding of a nemertean crab egg predator on the portunid crab, Callinectes arcuatus, from the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific Costa Rica. Nemerteans were found in the egg masses of 26 out of the 74 crabs for a prevalence of 35%. The intensity (mean number of worms/ infected crab) was estimated to be 18 with a variance of 1–123 worms/infected crab. No nemerteans were observed either in the 19 Callinectes arcuatus from Golfo Dulce (southern Pacific coast) and the 10 Portunus asper from Herradura-Jaco (central Pacific coast). This nemertean is a member of the genus Carcinonemertes, which has been reported from the Caribbean coast of Panama. However, the encountered Carcinonemertes sp. is the first published finding and report from Costa Rica and Pacific Central America. PMID:25561848
Figueroa Yáñez, Gonzalo
The jurist's work is to detect the legal guiding principles, analize them and to anticipate what kind of acceptance they will have. The legislator must be prudent if the subject studied is changeable as it happens with the norms applied in Bioethics. This detection process is more delicate if the guiding principles that have to be detected are valid for such an extensive region, as it is Latin America, where the legislation of the different countries that form it would adopt them. The two problems that will be studied here are: a) if it is advisable or not to raise some Bioethic basic principles to the constitutional level. b) which are the main principles that have been adopted by the juridical legislations of Latin America and who, in some way, guide the legal regulation.
Guillermo MIRA DELLI-ZOTTI
Full Text Available This article identifies the restoration of the democracy and its persistence as one of the most remarkable facts of the recent history of Latin America. Nevertheless, in the experience of the subcontinent, democracy does not appear like synonymous of democratization. Starting off with the transitions, this article is led toward a periodic analysis of the so-called democratic crossing of Latin America. At the same time, it studies the unequal incidence that the impact of the «historical memory» has had in the public sphere of countries like Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, El Salvador and Guatemala, contrasting with the case of Brazil.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The success of the Supercourse showed that the effort was needed in Latin America. But would a Spanish language version be better for the region? METHODS: Google Analytics was used to determine website usage. A custom evaluation form was created to get user feedback on the usefulness of both the English language and Spanish language Supercouse lectures. RESULTS: Over a year's span from June 2009 to June 2010 there were 257,403 unique visits and 448,939 page views. The overall average rating of lectures was 4.87 with the Spanish language lectures getting even higher ratings. CONCLUSION: Supercourse lectures in Spanish were a great success in Latin America. This success shows the need for this information and similar success could be found in Central Asia.
Full Text Available In America Latina, la tradizione amerindia è entrata in contatto con altre vertenti culturali, specialmente l'ispanica perciò si sono intrecciati, in passato e nell'attualità , molteplici e complesse reti sociali come conseguenza delle varie interazioni, che potrebbero essere strumentali, comunicative, cooperative o conflittuali. La popolazione indigena latino-americana, che attualmente sono circa cinquanta milioni di persone è determinante nella configurazione storica e culturale del continente e soprattutto nel futuro dell'educazione dei popoli. A continuazione, analizzerò gli inizi e le cause che hanno portato tutta l'America Latina ad ascoltare la voce decisa e altisonante delle sue popolazioni indigene. Così come l'impegnativo percorso che l'interculturalità ha realizzato negli ultimi 30 anni.
The education first brought to America by Europeans was hardly more than ornamental culture, literacy was generally unimportant, and African slaves were not educated at all. Only in this century did industrialization cause some governments to provide economic and technological support through training and education. In the last decade, the debt crisis curtailed spending, while numbers of students and teachers continued to rise. A comparison between Latin America and South Korea illustrates the former's relative decline in investment. The advent of populist and corporatist democracies did not alleviate the situation, although there is now some evidence of concern for basic education for poorer children. With economic adjustment programmes, little else has been done for those who have suffered the heaviest burdens, and no obvious solutions to poverty and technological obsolescence are in prospect. A major reform of State institutions is called for, including a commitment to education, a change in the economic model, and a recognition of global interdependence.
Álvaro B. Márquez-Fernández
Full Text Available Intercultural philosophy in Latin America takes it that the only way to achieve the liberation from the rationality and thinking of the hegemonic colonial culture, present in their countries from the “discovery” of America until now, would be through the recognition of the other in its identity and origin. This philosophy of ‘decolonization’ stresses that it is there where intersubjectivity comes ontologically into being where the authentic origins of their cultures in their ancestral practices emerge. Therefore, the emergence of the other is the dialectical result of a fenomenological consciousness that becomes aware of the existence of being as otherness; that is, a being that is there for another. This liberty makes possible an encounter without the kind of alienations that take place when a culture boasts of its superiority upon another. The intercultural discourse of Latin-American philosophy emphasizes the evolvement of being with others in favor of liberation for all.
Full Text Available Latin America is one of the world’s most digitally connected regions, and also its most violent. Some governments and civil societies are evolving innovative and dynamic approaches to address the challenges of violence by taking advantage of expanding connectivity. New information and communication technologies (ICTs are being mobilized to strengthen the voice and capabilities of citizens and institutions to promote safety and security. Public and private actors are designing and applying innovative digital platforms and analytical tools to map insecurity online and off. This article reviews the emerging character and shape of 'digitally enhanced violence prevention' in Latin America, drawing primarily on the cases of Brazil, Colombia, and Mexico. It presents insights on the wider outcomes and drawbacks of these activities, and sets out some lessons learned and recommendations for future action.
Szyfres, Boris; Centro Panamericano de Zoonosis, Azul, Argentina; Blood, Benjamín D.; Centro Panamericano de Zoonosis, Azul, Argentina; Moya, Víctor; Centro Panamericano de Zoonosis, Azul, Argentina
The authors have summarized the information available to them regarding the problem of human and animal brucellosis in Latin America. Animal brucellosis in Latin American countries is a widespread infection. In cattle attacked in preference to animal milk which reaches its highest prevalence. The suina and caprine brucellosis is second in magnitude. In beef cattle, the infection is lower than in the previous groups, and in sheep there is a small percentage of reactants significant title, ther...
Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.
The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.
Metzger, Cheryn E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunt, Stacy [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
The Building America (BA) Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.
Garrett, Joyce Lynn
If the recent elections of a Black man to the presidency and a Hispanic woman to the Supreme Court of the United States, or news that Ku Klux Klan membership is down from its estimated high of 6 million in 1924 to about 8,000 in 2008 makes one think racism is gone from America, think again! Idaho residents still express concern about the image of…
Sussai Soares, Maira Covre
The coexistence of marriage and cohabitation is an intriguing feature of Latin American nuptiality. Historically common among lower social classes in Central America and the Caribbean, the incidence of cohabitation is also increasing among higher educated groups and southern Latin American countries. This study uses census and survey data to investigate the characteristics of Latin American cohabitation.First, the countries socioeconomic characteristics, related to the incidence of cohabitat...
Quinlan-Davidson, Meaghen; Sanhueza, Antonio; Espinosa, Isabel; Escamilla-Cejudo, José Antonio; Maddaleno, Matilde
To examine suicide mortality trends among young people (10-24 years of age(1)) in selected countries and territories of the Americas. An ecological study was conducted using a time series of suicide mortality data from 19 countries and one territory in the Region of the Americas from 2001 to 2008, comprising 90.3% of the regional population. The analyses included age-adjusted suicide mortality rates, average annual variation in suicide mortality rates, and relative risks for suicide, by age and sex. The mean suicide rate for the selected study period and countries/territory was 5.7/100,000 young people (10-24 years), with suicide rates higher among males (7.7/100,000) than females (2.4/100,000). Countries with the highest total suicide mortality rates among young people (10-24 years) were Guyana, Suriname, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Chile, and Ecuador; countries with the lowest total suicide mortality rates included Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, and Brazil, and the U.S. territory of Puerto Rico. During this period, there was a significant increase in suicide mortality rates among young people in the following countries: Argentina, Chile, Ecuador, Mexico, and Suriname; countries with significant decreases in suicide mortality rates included Canada, Colombia, Cuba, El Salvador, and Venezuela. The three leading suicide methods in the Americas were hanging, firearms, and poisoning. Some countries of the Americas have experienced a rise in adolescent and youth suicide during the study period, with males at a higher risk of committing suicide than females. Adolescent and youth suicide policies and programs are recommended, to curb this problem. Methodological limitations are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Fastly, the world economic crisis show its effects in Latin America. The text arises some of its main economic consequences. It is not a "regional contagion", but the conclusion of an unprecedent world integration of world capitalist economy. It´s a world crisis, in a real sense. It makes evident the historical and structural problems of Latin American economic framework.
support for the Orinoco steel complex, cannot supply. 9015 CSO: 3010 INTER-AMERICAN AFFAIRS ECONOMIC DATA FOR ANDEAN SUBREGION GIVEN Lima EL...the Parana River , and delays in schedule would bring tremendous difficulties in this economy. "In this way it would be possible to reach an agreement...especially those of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile and Paraguay, navies in this region of America, the natural users of the Plata ( River ) Basin and
Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)
The primary focus of this paper is on the analysis of the current situation of energy production and consumption in the region as a whole, to examine the determinants of energy supply and demand growth, and to forecast the future growth of energy production, consumption, and balances. Since the growth of oil demand in Latin American countries themselves began to accelerate in the early 1990s, the lack of investment and development and the consequence shrinking base of Latin America's energy exports may pose serious challenges to North America, where dependence on the Middle Eastern oil and gas is growing. This paper attempts to present different scenarios and strategies to tackle the problem of Latin America's future net energy supply. [Spanish] El enfoque principal de este articulo es sobre la base de la situacion actual de la produccion y consumo de energia en la region como un todo, para examinar las determinantes del suministro de energia y el crecimiento de la demanda y la prediccion del crecimiento futuro de la produccion de energia, consumo y balances. Desde el crecimiento de la demanda del petroleo, en los paises latinoamericanos, ellos mismos empezaron a acelerar a principios de los 90s, la falta de inversion y desarrollo y la consecuencia del encogimiento de la base de las exportaciones de energia de Latinoamerica podrian imponer serios retos a Norte America, en donde la dependencia del petroleo y del gas del Medio-Oeste esta creciendo. Este articulo intenta presentar diferentes escenarios y estrategias para atacar el problema del suministro neto de energia de Latinoamerica.
The large field patterns in this view of the Rio Sao Francisco basin, Brazil, South America, (11.5S, 43.5W) indicate a commercial agriculture venture; family subsistence farms are much smaller and laid out in different patterns. Land clearing in Brazil has increased at an alarming rate in recent years and preliminary estimates suggest a 25 to 30% increase in deforestation since 1984. The long term impact on the ecological processes are still unknown.
3 Why Do Fertility Rates Change?’.................... 4 America’s Changing Age Structure .................. 10 III. INTERNAL POPULATION...Population’s Changing Age Structure .............. 10 6. The Shift Toward Smaller Communities.............. 14 7. The Shift to the Sunbelt, 1970-80...born couples) may virtually halt early in the next cen- tury. Unprecedented demographic changes are in store-in the popu- lation’s age structure , in
Villa, Rafael Duarte
Abstract Existing research on security governance in South America functions on dichotomous lines. Analysis of Brazil’s security practices is a case in point. On the one hand, scholars point out the balance of power and hegemonic institutions as the main discourse in the security practices between Brazil and its South American neighbors. On the other hand, some other emphasize the importance of democracy, cooperation on defense and security, and peaceful conflict resolution between states in ...
Chomsky-Higgins, Kathryn; Miclau, Theodore A.; Mackechnie, Madeline C.; Aguilar, Dino; Avila, Jorge Rubio; dos Reis, Fernando Baldy; Balmaseda, Roberto; Barquet, Antonio; Ceballos, Alfredo; Contreras, Fernando; Escalante, Igor; Elias, Nelson; Vincenti, Sergio Iriarte; Lozano, Christian; Medina, Fryda
Enhancing health research capacity in developing countries is a global health priority. Understanding the orthopedic burden of disease in Latin America will require close partnership between more-developed and less-developed countries. To this end, the Osteosynthesis and Trauma Care Foundation assembled a research consortium of Latin-American orthopedic leaders. Prior to the meeting, we surveyed attendees on perceived barriers to conducting research at their institutions. During the event, wo...
Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.
A form of body decoration that developed in precolombian America is described and examined. The vestibular face and shape of the front teeth were altered in various ways, details of which are clear from archaeological discoveries (crania, teeth, ceramics, and statues). The various technical, social and cultural aspects of this practice are discussed with reference to their place in a civilisation whose works are still admired today.
13 PGCA refers to the Principios de Contabilidad Generalmente Aceptados. that Pemex and the permit holders must submit to the CRE. Directive on...international and domestic commercialization). Energy Regulatory Commission Act In October 1995, the Energy Regulatory Commission Act (Ley de la ...on st an t 20 00 U .S . D ol la r North America World • North American energy consumption per unit of Gross Domestic Product was about three
This article examines the impact of Latin America on the First World War, fitting into the gap between the existing histories of Latin America that focus on how the Great War impacted each republic and the histories of the First World War that completely ignore Latin America. This study exposes ways that the war was fought in Latin America, considers how the diplomacy and decisions of the region’s leaders affected the situation of each belligerent side, and judges the impact of the conflict in Latin America on the outcome of the overall World War.
For the second time in its history, the International Atomic Energy Agency is holding its General Conference in Latin America. The first was in Mexico City in September 1972; this September the Conference meets in Rio de Janeiro (in each case, the arrangement has been possible because of the very generous hospitality of the Host Government). Therefore, it is an appropriate occasion to devote a section of the IAEA Bulletin to nuclear energy in Latin America. The vast Latin American region presents many special opportunities for the introduction of nuclear science and technology. The first mission that the IAEA sent out, as far back as 1957, was to Latin America to promote co-operation in using radioisotope techniques. Today, these techniques are widely used by hospitals and medical research institutions throughout the region. Besides their medical applications, isotope techniques are also proving to be very useful in studying soils and irrigation, improving crops and livestock, and controlling insect pests. They also help make prudent use of the underground water resources in the region which, despite its bountiful rivers and tropical forests, includes many large arid areas. The major applications of nuclear technology have come only recently to Latin America, firstly in Argentina, where a 319 MW(e) nuclear power plant began operating at Atucha in 1974. It will soon be followed by the first Brazilian nuclear power plant - a 600 MW(e) light water plant at Angra dos Reis nearing completion. Argentina is building a second power plant at Embalse, and Brazil is planning two 1200 MW(e) plants at Angra and six more 1200 MW(e) units by 1990. Mexico is building its first nuclear plant at Laguna Verde, while other countries such as Chile and Colombia are planning the introduction of nuclear power. After a relatively slow start it, therefore, seems that nuclear power will go ahead fast in the Latin American region in the 1980's and 1990's. This is not surprising. Despite
Elena Igorevna Vesnovskaya
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the specificity of Venezuela's energy policy and the features of the evolution of its approaches to solving problems of energy security. Special attention is paid to the projects of Caracas in the energy sector which are aimed at the creating of common energy zone in Latin America. The author has revealed the interaction of internal political processes in Venezuela as the country's leader in the region, with its integration policy, and also identified trends in the further development of energy policy and strategy of Latin American countries. The research of energy resources of Latin America determined that the main factor that works in favor of convergence states within the South American "geopolitical ring" is to ensure energy security. Venezuela is among the richest resources of Latin America. In the research it was determined that Petrosur, Petrocaribe and Petroandina provide the basis for a range of bilateral agreements to promote cooperation, creation ventures based on the state oil companies of these states.
Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany
This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.
The Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Request (TASAR) concept offers onboard automation for the purpose of advising the pilot of traffic compatible trajectory changes that would be beneficial to the flight. A fast-time simulation study was conducted to assess the benefits of TASAR to Virgin America. The simulation compares historical trajectories without TASAR to trajectories developed with TASAR and evaluated by controllers against their objectives. It was estimated that about 25,000 gallons of fuel and about 2,500 minutes could be saved annually per aircraft. These savings were applied fleet-wide to produce an estimated annual cost savings to Virgin America in excess of $5 million due to fuel, maintenance, and depreciation cost savings. Switching to a more wind-optimal trajectory was found to be the use case that generated the highest benefits out of the three TASAR use cases analyzed. Virgin America TASAR requests peaked at two to four requests per hour per sector in high-altitude Oakland and Salt Lake City center sectors east of San Francisco.
Jalal Uddin Khan
Full Text Available Diversity is the essence and spirit of America or the West both as a place and a people. Islam also allows for diversity within its concept of unity and oneness of God. Muslims, therefore, have no problem co-existing in peace with the Jews, Christians and the followers of other religions. Problems arise (a when secular values or principles disturb the working balance of the otherwise mutually exclusive religious diversity and harmony in America; (b when one follows opportunist policies, practices double standards, and is moved by mere worldly or political interests; and (c when war against the Zionist-and-neoconservative-manufactured terrorism turns into war against Islam. Such misleading and mischievous tendencies or policies prevent peace from prevailing, which ultimately tarnish the image of religions in the eyes of their followers and those of the rest making a mockery of the idea of religious diversity even in the so-called most democratic country called the United States of America!
Sanzenbacher, Peter M.; Haig, Susan M.
Killdeers (Charadrius vociferus) are considered a common species that inhabits a wide range of wetland and upland habitats throughout much of North America, yet recent information suggests that they may be declining regionally, if not throughout much of their range. To address this issue, we examined population trends of this species at multiple spatial and temporal scales using data from two major avian survey efforts, the Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and Christmas Bird Count (CBC). A summary of BBS trends indicates significant long-term (1966a??1996) declines in breeding populations across North America. Geographic regions driving this decline were Canada, western survey regions of the continent, and select southeastern states. In contrast, over the same time period, Killdeer populations increased in some midwestern states, particularly those in the Great Lakes region. Recent BBS trends (1986a??1996) indicate highly significant declines across most areas of North America surveyed. Trends from CBC data (1959a??1988) indicate declines at a smaller spatial scale. While the ability of current major avian survey efforts to detect population trends for Killdeer and other shorebird species warrants further examination, significant negative trends in Killdeer populations indicates the need to further investigate the status of this species.
This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the
Jan 24, 2014 ... The structure of vasa deferentia and spermatophores has been described in Parapenaeopsis stylifera. The male reproductive system consists of two symmetrical halves; each half bears testis, vas deferens and an ejaculatory duct. Each testis comprised of two to three short, broad and milky white lobes; vas.
Variaciones en la condición nutricional de langostas Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la región este del Golfo de Batabanó, Cuba Variations of the nutritional condition of lobsters Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae in Eastern region of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba
Alexander Lopeztegui Castillo
Full Text Available En Cuba, la región del Golfo de Batabanó es la más importante zona de pesca de langosta debido a que de ella se extrae anualmente alrededor del 70% de la captura nacional. Con el objetivo de determinar variaciones espacio-temporales en la condición nutricional (K de langostas Panulirus argus del Golfo de Batabanó, Cuba, se calculó dicha condición mediante una relación pesolargo (K=Pt/Lt, para lo que se utilizaron ejemplares de cuatro zonas (uno, dos, cuatro y cinco del este del golfo, capturados en los años 1981 y 2010. Se encontró que en todos los casos analizados la condición nutricional fue significativamente mayor en machos que en hembras. Se detectaron variaciones significativas entre zonas en 1981 y 2010. También entre años el estado nutricional de las langostas presenta variaciones significativas, de manera que en 1981 (2.34±0.84g/mm fue mayor que en 2010 (1.96±0.49g/mm. Tanto las variaciones interzonales como las interanuales parecen estar relacionadas con variaciones reportadas en el tipo de fondo y la cobertura vegetal. Variaciones estacionales en la abundancia y distribución de organismos bentónicos que constituyen alimento para las langostas también podrían estar influyendo. Las diferencias entre sexos en cambio, se suponen consecuencia de la metodología utilizada y del dimorfismo sexual característico de esta especie, por cuanto otros métodos de estimación de K que no involucran mediciones morfométricas, no detectan estas diferencias.Variations of the nutritional condition of lobsters Panulirus argus (Decapoda: Palinuridae in Eastern region of the Gulf of Batabanó, Cuba. Nutritional condition can affect survival and growth rate of crustaceans, and this is mostly affected by habitat conditions. This study describes the space-temporary nutritional changes in this commercially important species. With this aim, the variations in the nutritional condition (K of lobsters from four zones (1, 2, 4 and 5 in the Gulf
Iannella, Hernán A; Luna, Carlos M
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. Poverty, socioeconomic factors, and malnutrition influence the incidence and outcome of CAP in LAC. In LAC, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microorganism responsible for CAP, (incidence: 24-78%); the incidence of atypical microorganisms is similar to other regions of the world. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing problem in the LAC region, with the Caribbean being the second most affected area worldwide after Sub-Saharan Africa. Pneumococcal pneumonia remains the most common cause of CAP in HIV-infected patients, but Pneumocystis jirovecii and tuberculosis (TB) are also common in this population. The heterogeneity of the health care systems and social inequity between different countries in LAC, and even between different settings inside the same country, is a difficult issue. TB, including multidrug-resistant TB, is several times more common in South American and Central American countries compared with North America. Furthermore, hantaviruses circulating in the Americas (new world hantaviruses) generate a severe respiratory disease called hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, with an associated mortality as high as 50%. More than 30 hantaviruses have been reported in the Western Hemisphere, with more frequent cases registered in the southern cone (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil). Respiratory viruses (particularly influenza) remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. Low rates of vaccination (against influenza as well as pneumococcus) may heighten the risk of these infections in low- and middle-income countries. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
The liquefied natural gas (LNG) export opportunities in the Asia Pacific market were reviewed. Some of the differences that affect a North American LNG projects compared to more typical LNG projects were also outlined. The two main aspects of the LNG market in North America include the establishment of LNG import terminals on the east and southern coasts of the United States and the development of export oriented LNG projects. The Pac-Rim LNG project calls for initial delivery to South Korea of 4.0 MTPA by the end of 2000. A large LNG project has also been proposed for the year 2005 which would use Prudhoe Bay gas. Generally, in North America, there is little use for large scale LNG import projects because of the vast pipeline network that delivers gas reliably and at low cost anywhere in North America. However, LNG remains a good alternative for the Asia Pacific region because of the lack of a pipeline network. Also, Japan, Korea and Taiwan, the three main centers for LNG demand, have no domestic energy supplies and rely on imported energy sources. China is another major market opportunity for LNG. The Pac-Rim LNG project differs from others of its kind in that usually, an LNG project is based on the availability of large reservoirs of natural gas owned by state governments and involves production agreements with multi-national oil and gas companies. This scenario is simply not possible in Canada's deregulated environment. In contrast, the existence of upstream facilities, technical expertise, and low capital costs, hence reduced risks and time to develop an LNG project, gives Canada significant advantages. 3 tabs., 3 figs
The South American continent includes several metallogenic provinces some of which have excellent uranium possibilities. Basically, two types of lithological complex have contributed to this favourability: the large Precambrian shields covering about 5,500,000 km 2 and the crystalline Hercynian nesocratons with about 300,000 km 2 as source rocks. Only in Argentina and Brazil has continuous uranium exploration in South America been carried out, with moderate budgets, during the last twenty-five years. In the rest of South America the search for uranium has been performed intermittently and with limited resources. However, during recent years interest has increased and more continuous operation has been recorded in some countries (Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Peru). It can be estimated that only 20% of the favourable areas have been explored fairly intensively in Argentina and Brazil, the two most advanced uraniferous countries. Nevertheless, the uranium possibilities of South America are proved by the resources of 250,000 t U already defined (in Argentina and Brazil) for the category of production cost below US $130/kg U. The speculative uranium potential of the continent was estimated by the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project as between 770,000 and 1,500,000 t U. Within the South American geostructural framework, five main uraniferous geological areas have been defined on the basis of the geotectonic evolution of the continent, the succession of sedimentary and magmatic processes, and the participation in them of the endogenous and exogenous phases of the uranium geochemical cycle. In this paper the principal uranium metallogenic models occurring in the above five main areas are studied together with the uranium potential of each area. The possibility of uranium recovery from these sources in relation to the respective costs of production is briefly discussed
Brown, Jeremy [North American Comission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), (United States)
This presentation describes projects, programs and other issues addressed in order to promote renewable energy markets in North America. These are carried out by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). In the first part of this presentation, there are going to be found some of the rules imposed by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). Then, it is shown the structure of the CEC as well as its programs, besides, there are presented the environment projects and the objectives along with their respective trades. There are described both benefits environmental and non-environmental. Also, there are shown the issues which the CEC is working in. And finally, it is shown a list mentioning the aspects that would change if: the expansion of the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE), happens, the grid-interconnected and the self supply of Renewable Electricity increase. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen los proyectos, los programas y otras cuestiones, cuyo objetivo es impulsar los mercados de energia renovable en America del Norte, realizadas por la North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. En la primera parte, se encuentran algunas de las reglas impuestas por el Acuerdo de Cooperacion Ambiental de America del Norte (ACAAN). Enseguida, se muestra la estructura y los programas de la Comision para la Cooperacion Ambiental (CCA). Asimismo, se describen los proyectos ambientales, los objetivos junto con sus correspondientes tratados. Mas adelante, se explican tanto los beneficios ambientales como aquellos que no lo son. Igualmente, explican las cuestiones que podrian cambiar de: suceder la expansion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), incrementarse el auto- suministro de la energia renovable y los sistemas interconectados.
Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.
Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, C. Metzger [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
As Building America has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.
Full Text Available Using panel data from Central America, this paper studies the determining factors of inflation and aggregate output fluctuations by estimating two Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR models. Price and output variables are included in one of the models, whereas M2 and the price of oil are additional variables in the other one. Findings of this study suggest that price is determined by the demand, while output seems to be influenced mainly by the supply shocks in that area. It was also evidenced that the price of oil does not have a significant impact on the general price level in that region.
Kozhimannil, Katy B; Henning-Smith, Carrie
This commentary responds to the recent article by Dr. James et al. on racial and ethnic health disparities in rural America, published in the November 16 issue of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. We applaud Dr. James and colleagues for their important contribution uncovering intra-rural racial and ethnic disparities and build on their paper by discussing potential mechanisms, including structural racism. We also discuss several pragmatic steps that can be taken in research, policy, and practice to address racial and ethnic disparities in rural communities and to work toward health equity for all rural residents.
Nicolas Padilla-Raygoza; Faina Linkov; Eugene Shubnikov; Ronald E. LaPorte; Rosalina Diaz-Guerrero
BACKGROUND: The success of the Supercourse showed that the effort was needed in Latin America. But would a Spanish language version be better for the region? METHODS: Google Analytics was used to determine website usage. A custom evaluation form was created to get user feedback on the usefulness of both the English language and Spanish language Supercouse lectures. RESULTS: Over a year's span from June 2009 to June 2010 there were 257,403 unique visits and 448,939 page views. The overall aver...
Diaz, Mary Lu Anna.
Recently, Congress, the literary community, and the public at large have come to reconsider the war on drugs. There are many opinions regarding alternatives to this pseudo war or new measures to be taken in the war effort, but the ongoing effort itself has escaped evaluation (to determine if the United States is winning this campaign). The intent of this thesis, then, is to explore the objectives of the war on drugs, and to determine if America is winning. This work concludes that the current...
Acevedo, Rogelio Daniel; García, Víctor Manuel
The first Catalogue of Meteorites from South America includes new specimens never previously reported, while doubtful cases and pseudometeorites have been deliberately omitted.The falling of these objects is a random event, but the sites where old meteorites are found tend to be focused in certain areas, e.g. in the deflation surfaces in Chile's Atacama Desert, due to favorable climate conditions and ablation processes.Our Catalogue provides basic information on each specimen like its provenance and the place where it was discovered (in geographic co-ordinates and with illustrative maps), its
Forsyth, A.; Mommer, B.; McBeth, B.
Three linked articles explore the current movement towards privatization in the various countries of South America. While the progress away from state control varies from country to country, the first article argues that the movement will offer economic benefits to the Latin American petroleum industry as a whole, despite the political difficulties which must be overcome. In the second article, public distaste for the nationalization of the Venezuelan oil industry back in 1943, petroleum engineers, economists, private sector representatives and oil industry employees all oppose wholesale privatization, favouring national and private investment within Venezuela. The last author argues for an efficient regulatory framework to oversee privatization schemes. (UK)
Adhikari, Kaustubh; Chacón-Duque, Juan Camilo; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés
The history of the Americas involved the encounter of millions of Native Americans, Europeans, and Africans. A variable admixture of these three continental groups has taken place throughout the continent, influenced by demography and a range of social factors. This variable admixture has had a major influence on the genetic makeup of populations across the continent. Here, we summarize the demographic history of the region, highlight some social factors that affected historical admixture, and review major patterns of ancestry across the Western Hemisphere based on genetic data.
Yactayo, Sergio; Staples, J Erin; Millot, Véronique; Cibrelus, Laurence; Ramon-Pardo, Pilar
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) emerged in the Americas in late 2013 to cause substantial acute and chronic morbidity. About 1.1 million cases of chikungunya were reported within a year, including severe cases and deaths. The burden of chikungunya is unclear owing to inadequate disease surveillance and underdiagnosis. Virus evolution, globalization, and climate change may further CHIKV spread. No approved vaccine or antiviral therapeutics exist. Early detection and appropriate management could reduce the burden of severe atypical and chronic arthritic disease. Improved surveillance and risk assessment are needed to mitigate the impact of chikungunya. © 2016 World Health Organization; licensee Oxford Journals.
F Xavier Bosch
Full Text Available Cervical cancer remains within the three most common cancer in women worldwide and is still the commonest female cancer in 41 of 184 countries. Within Latin America, cervical ranks as the most common cancer among women in Bolivia and Peru and the second most frequent in Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, The Guyanas, Surinam and Venezuela. Due to its relatively early age at onset, it ranks among the three most frequent cancers in women aged below 45 years in 82% of all countries in the world irrespective of their screening practices. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21149/spm.v58i2.7777
Castillo, M A
The author examines migratory movements and their causes in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean. Sections are included on migration trends, theoretical approaches, and methodological tools before the 1970s; the shift in migratory patterns after the 1980s; macrosocial variables as a general background of current international flows; and migration policies.
Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.
This publication, intended for Spanish-speaking students in grades 6-10, has three main objectives. First, it serves as an introduction (or refresher) to basic geographic concepts. Second, it is an examination of the physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, it is designed to help students examine maps in a critical manner. The…
Blanco-Chao, R.; Pedoja, K.; Witt, C.; Martinod, J.; Husson, L.; Regard, V.; Audin, Laurence; Nexer, M.; Delcaillau, B.; Saillard, M.; Melnick, D.; Dumont, J.F.; Santana, E.; Navarrete, E.; Martillo, C.
The great variety of climatic conditions, tidal ranges and wave regimes of South and Central America act on a complex geology and tectonic framework. Many of the rock and cliffed coasts of South America are strongly controlled by the occurrence of extensive Cenozoic and Pleistocene sediments that crop out at the coast. Geology and the different uplift rates are a major factor in the whole coastal geomorphology of South and Central America, and consequently are a very important control of the ...
This paper presents the development of renewable energy in Central America and the cooperation given by the European Comission in the promotion of renewable energy sources. Also discuss the current situation in energy demand in Central America and possible solutions linked to legislation that promotes the inversion of the private sector. The legal framework in each country of Central America is presented and its impact in the increasing of generation of energy through tax reductions, trading and prices
This is a report on a congress concerning the history of population in Latin America, which took place in Ouro Preto, Brazil, in 1989. Presentations made at the five sessions are summarized. Session topics dealt with the spatial distribution of historical populations in Latin America; components of demographic growth; comparative perspectives on nuptiality, household formation, and fertility; demographic characteristics of slave populations in Latin America; and population and economy.
Maco, Vicente; Tantaleán, Manuel; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
Ancient parasites of the genus Tunga originated in America and, during the first half of the 19th century, were transported to the Eastern Hemisphere on transatlantic voyages. Although they were first documented by Spanish chroniclers after the arrival of Columbus, little is known about their presence in pre-Hispanic America. To evaluate the antiquity of tungiasis in America, we assessed several kinds of early documentation, including written evidence and pre-Incan earthenware reproductions. ...
Dixon, D.A.; Hnatiw, D.S.J.; Walker, B.T.
The Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program is studying a concept for the disposal of nuclear fuel waste at a depth of 500 to 1000 m below the surface in stable crystalline rock of the Canadian Shield. The waste containers would be surrounded by a clay-based buffer material, composed of equal proportions of bentonite clay and silica sand. In the reference disposal concept, some 1.9 x 10 5 Mg of used fuel would be emplaced. This would require 2.5 x 10 6 Mg of bentonite. A review of the bentonite industry in North America was carried out to establish the availability of sufficient high-quality material. There are proven reserves of sodium bentonite clay in excess of 1.5 x 10 8 Mg, and vast supplies are known to exist but not yet proven. The Canadian conceptual disposal vault would require 6 x 10 4 Mg of sodium bentonite each year for 40 years. The bentonite industry of North America has an installed annual production capacity of 2 x 10 7 Mg. A disposal vault would therefore require approximately 2% of the industry capacity. A number of commercial products have been screened for potential suitability for use as a component of the buffer. Ten currently marketed bentonite products have been identified as meeting the initial quality standards for the buffer, and two non-commercial bentonites have been identified as having the potential for use in a disposal vault. (Author) (14 figs., 7 tabs., 18 refs.)
The regime established by the Treaty of Tlatelolco supports peace and security in the Latin American region and global nonproliferation efforts. Circumstances leading to the creation of the nuclear-weapon-free zone include careful preparations and negotiations, individual leadership, existence of certain shared cultural and legal traditions of Latin American countries, and the temporary stimulus of the Cuban missile crisis. The lack of overt superpower pressure on Latin America, compared with more turbulent regions, has permitted continued progress toward full realization of the zone. Tlatelolco's negotiating process, as well as the substance of the Treaty, deserve careful consideration relative to other areas. The Treaty enjoys wide international approval, but full support by certain Latin American States (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba) has been negatively affected by the failure of the US Senate to ratify Tlatelolco's Protocol I. Nuclear programs of Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico are expanding rapidly and these nations are forming linkages with West European countries, rather than the United States. The May 1980 Argentine-Brazilian nuclear agreement foresees significant cooperation between the two nation's nuclear energy commissions and more coordinated resistance to the nuclear supplier countries. Argentine-Brazilian nuclear convergence and the response accorded to it by the United States will have significant implications for the future of the Tlatelolco regime and nonproliferation in Latin America. 52 references
Lutter, C K
To describe growth patterns of young children in Latin America and the Caribbean, the types of nationally representative data available on complementary feeding practices and complementary feeding practices. Data on growth, timing of introduction of liquids and foods, and complementary feeding practices were abstracted from nationally representative surveys. The high prevalence of stunting relative to the low prevalence of underweight is striking, with the "average" child in the region, with the exception of the Haitian child, short and chubby. The focus of the demographic and health surveys continues to be on undernutrition with only one question, intake of sugary foods, related foods that may have consequences for adult health. The United States has more comprehensive information; Mexico has information on beverage consumption and Brazil on soft drink and biscuit or snack consumption. In 14 of 19 countries, fewer than half of infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life, indicating an early introduction of liquids and complementary foods. Among the 5 countries with data on the intake of sugary foods, intake in the previous 24 h among children 6-23 months of age ranged from 14% to 79%. The absence of data to characterize complementary feeding diets as they relate to risk of overweight and chronic diseases in the Region of the Americas calls attention to the need to improve data collection frameworks and methods to address this important gap in knowledge. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Reinsch, A.E.; Tissot, R.R.
This first volume of a three-volume series, provided an overview of major economic trends, and energy reserves (i.e. crude oil, natural gas and electricity) in Latin America. Established crude oil reserves were estimated at 125 billion barrels, with Mexico and Venezuela accounting for over 90 percent of the total. Established natural gas reserves were estimated at 249 Tcf, roughly one half of it being in Venezuela. It was noted that since natural gas exploration was still in its infancy in the region, this figure was very likely an underestimate of available resources. The current physical and market characteristics of the petroleum sector in each of the seven Latin American countries were examined in detail, as were the legal, regulatory, fiscal and political environments. Latin American efforts at integration were examined, with emphasis on regional trade agreements and energy integration. The central conclusion of the study was that Latin America appeared poised for a period of sustained economic development, with the energy sector occupying center stage. tabs., figs., refs
Rachel M Lee
Full Text Available Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.
Brown, Stanley P; Smith, JohnEric W; McAllister, Matthew; Joe, LeeAnn
Using pop icons in the science classroom represents a creative way to engage often-distracted students in a relevant and, perhaps more importantly, fun way. When the pop icon is as universally known as Captain America, the pedagogical stage is set. However, when the movies can also be employed to link dramatic references to the science concepts at hand, we may have a very powerful tool by which linkages between fiction and science can be forged. In this regard, Captain America's performances in several movies to date can be used to explain actual science. Granted, script writers and movie directors may or may not be interested in whether the physical performances they depict can be explained, but that is irrelevant. The point is to make a connection using science to explain how the superhero can run faster, jump higher, or lift more than is humanly possible. If a teachable moment has occurred and an important concept has been communicated, the educator has accomplished his or her job well. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Luis E. Escobar
Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.
This document is the Building America FY2012 Annual Report, which includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.
Gestwick, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
This Building America FY2012 Annual Report includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.
.... Concurrently, the U.S. faces a range of strategic challenges in Latin America including poor economic environments which promote problems including illegal immigration, drug trafficking, and instability...
This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the
The Wind Powering America FY06 Activities Summary reflects the accomplishments of our state wind working groups, our programs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and our partner organizations. The national WPA team remains a leading force for moving wind energy forward in the United States. WPA continues to work with its national, regional, and state partners to communicate the opportunities and benefits of wind energy to a diverse set of stakeholders. WPA now has 29 state wind working groups (welcoming New Jersey, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri in 2006) that form strategic alliances to communicate wind's benefits to the state stakeholders. More than 120 members of national and state public and private sector organizations from 34 states attended the 5th Annual WPA All-States Summit in Pittsburgh in June.
Being considered an intermediate growth among projections of technological development expressive or of development restricted by ecological considerations, in the next 50 years, the demand of primary energy in the countries of the American continent arrived to value sufficiently high to allow to consent at levels of quality of life but next to those enjoyed at the moment in developed countries. There will be an expansion substantial of electric power demand that rots to require the installation, in countries of Latin America and Caribbean, of power plants with total capacity of the order of 400 GW until half-filled of century. The resource to the nuclear source was accentuated starting from the decade of 2020 and an enormous challenge for the governments of the region it will be the one of driving the construction of about 2.300 MW/year nuclear power plants between 2020 and 2050. (Author)
Kostić Dragomir J.
Full Text Available Novel America consists of a series of fragments. It is built on the principles of expansion and compression, where the writer describes in detail what happened to Carl Rosmman, the main character of the novel (for instance, the conversation in the captain's quarters on the ship, the departure and openings in the mansion near New York, the meeting with the Delamars and the Robinsons, the investigation against Carl Robinson, leaving the elevator in the hotel, departure and arrival at Delamars, Robinson and Brunelde, or it runs through certain events and connects them collectively (the time at his uncle's, working at Occidental, when the author describes a space much longer than the elapsed time (in both cases, approximately two months. Rosmann's character is completely built on contrasts and oddities.
Jeffrey Brown; Bruce Exstrum
This report summarizes the activities carried out by Aspen Systems Corporation in support of the Department of Energy's Rebuild America program during the period from October 9, 1999 to October 31, 2004. These activities were in accordance with the Scope of Work contained in a GSA MOBIS schedule task order issued by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report includes descriptions of activities and results in the following areas: deployment/delivery model; program and project results; program representative support activities; technical assistance; web site development and operation; business/strategic partners; and training/workshop activities. The report includes conclusions and recommendations. Five source documents are also provided as appendices.
From left to right : Professor Luis Masperi, Director of CLAF, John Ellis, Egil Lillestøl, and Professor Roger Cashmore, Director for Collider Programmes. On Monday 29 January, Professor Luis Masperi, Director of CLAF (Centro LatinoAmericano de Fisica), visited CERN to join Professor Roger Cashmore, in signing an agreement concerning a new programme of CERN-CLAF Schools in Latin America. The inaugural school will take place in Itacuruca, Brazil, in May 2001, and has been supported by Spain, Portugal, France and Italy. The signing was attended by John Ellis (the Director General's Non-Member State Advisor), Egil Lillestøl (Director of the Physics Schools), and Claire Earnshaw (School Administrator).
Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de Azevedo
Full Text Available After a presentation of indicators that allow assessing the degree of democratization of the criminal justice system in the context of democratization process in Latin America, this article points out the discrepancy existing in that domain, in the several instances that make up the justice system, from criminal legislation to the prison system. Examining the specific situation of Brazil and Argentina, problems in the functioning of institutions responsible by crime as well as the increase in crime control are pointed out as factors that cause a growing loss of legitimacy for the system, which is unable to justify its high degree of selectivity and authoritarianism. Some efforts under way to approach that phenomenon are listed. Finally, a few alternatives for institutional improvement are presented, among which the action of social scientists by producing research and analyses, as a crucial instrument to enlarge institutional ability to deal with current social conflict on democratic bases.
Laughlin, Catherine A.; Morens, David M.; Cassetti, M. Cristina; Costero-Saint Denis, Adriana; San Martin, Jose-Luis; Whitehead, Stephen S.; Fauci, Anthony S.
Dengue is a systemic arthropod-borne viral disease of major global public health importance. At least 2.5 billion people who live in areas of the world where dengue occurs are at risk of developing dengue fever (DF) and its severe complications, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS). Repeated reemergences of dengue in sudden explosive epidemics often cause public alarm and seriously stress healthcare systems. The control of dengue is further challenged by the lack of effective therapies, vaccines, and point-of-care diagnostics. Despite years of study, even its pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. This article discusses recent advances in dengue research and identifies challenging gaps in research on dengue clinical evaluation, diagnostics, epidemiology, immunology, therapeutics, vaccinology/clinical trials research, vector biology, and vector ecology. Although dengue is a major global tropical pathogen, epidemiologic and disease control considerations in this article emphasize dengue in the Americas. PMID:22782946
Full Text Available Background. The Latin American region is undergoing a demographic and epidemiological transition, which is leading to an increase in chronic and degenerative diseases. Osteoporosis (OP and fragility fractures (FF are emerging as main causes of disease burden with great impact on health institutions. Purpose. This review article provides an updated overview of trends in the epidemiology and economic impact of OP and FF, as well as in diagnosis and available treatments in Latin America, including calcium, vitamin D and prevention programs. Methods. Expert panel. Conclusions. According to this review, there is a lack of epidemiological and economic information in the region. It is desirable to obtain information regarding quality of life in OP and FF as well as to highlight prevention as a tool to reduce FF.
This regional study is comprised of three case studies, which concentrate on Greater Buenos Aires, Caracas and Rio de Janeiro - Caju. Each case focuses on the analysis of specific aspects of urban poverty, energy availability and policies to improve living conditions from the energy point of view. Unlike other developing regions in the world, the problem of energy poverty in Latin America has been concentrated increasingly in the large cities and urban areas. This problem has deep systemic, economic, political, structural and cultural roots. Providing basic energy services to the urban poor is an issue that requires far more attention and expertise than it is receiving today, and therefore WEC has taken the initiative to address this issue, and the results of their study are presented in this report.
Hendron, R.; Farrar-Nagy, S.; Anderson, R.; Judkoff, R.
As the Building America Program has grown to include a large and diverse cross section of the home building industry, accurate and consistent analysis techniques have become more important to help all program partners as they perform design tradeoffs and calculate energy savings for prototype houses built as part of the program. This document illustrates some of the analysis concepts proven effective and reliable for analyzing the transient energy usage of advanced energy systems as well as entire houses. The analysis procedure described here provides a starting point for calculating energy savings of a prototype house relative to two base cases: builder standard practice and regional standard practice. Also provides building simulation analysis to calculate annual energy savings based on side-by-side short-term field testing of a prototype house.
Graham, Barney S; Repik, Patricia M; Yactayo, Sergio
Discovered in 1953, chikungunya virus (CHIKV) circulated in Africa and Southeast Asia, with periodic outbreaks, for many years. Highly efficient transmission following a genetic mutation of the virus in 2005 caused its global spread. Associated with significant morbidity, CHIKV creates a large public health burden, and despite various efforts, there are currently no licensed vaccines nor specific treatments. To garner a better understanding of the virus, identify gaps in knowledge, and guide the development of more-effective interventions, the World Health Organization and National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases assembled global experts for discussion and review. Herein described are the outcomes. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Full Text Available This article draws from the preliminary findings of an ongoing appliedresearch program on rural territorial dynamics carried out by the Latin American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP. The article provides some initial findings on 4 territories, of the 11 territories that are part of the overall study. The case studies include the island of Chiloé in southern Chile, the province of Tungurahua in Ecuador, a dairy farm region of Santo Tomás Nicaragua and Cuatro Lagunas near Cuzco Perú. Rural areas in Latin America are characterized by their dual nature with agro-exporting enclaves linked to global value chains alongside impoverished peasant economies, leading to differentiated policy recommendations. The research attempts to find relationships between reduced poverty and inequality in winning regions, measured by three variables, with issues of access to resources, human capital, political empowerment, markets and institutions, with particular attention to innovative social coalitions.
Martinez-Agudelo, J. A.; Dominguez, F.
The Amazon forest receives high amounts of moisture from the tropical Atlantic. A significant part of this moisture is returned back to the atmosphere by the forest, and further redistributed to the rest of the continent by the meridional flow imposed by the Andes. Thus, the land-atmosphere interaction between the Amazon forest and the large-scale flow affects not only the forest itself but also the downstream regions. We develop a method to quantify the precipitation of continental origin over South America, and identify the contribution that selected source regions make to continental precipitation. The average annual cycle of precipitation of continental origin for the five-year period 2000-2004 shows a band of high values aligned along the northwest-southeast direction, from southern Peru to northeastern Argentina. The lowest values of precipitation of continental origin occur upstream, over the northeastern coast of South America. Precipitation that originates as moisture from the Amazon forest shows maximum values over the western side of the Amazon, east of the Andes, especially over southern Peru. The Amazon forest also contributes to precipitation over La Plata River Basin (LPRB) and the Pacific coast of Colombia. During its dry season, up to 29.3% of the precipitation over LPRB originates as moisture from the Amazon forest. Throughout the year, the contributions to precipitation over LPRB by the Amazon forest and LPRB (recycled precipitation) are in the same range, but out of phase. The average contribution of the rest of the continent to precipitation over LPRB is smaller but of the same order as that of the Amazon and LPRB.
Alfredo Arahuetes García
Full Text Available In the period 1981-1992, the international flow of direct investments witnessed significant changes which affected their magnitude, geographical orientation, sectorial distribution, forms of investment and sources of financing. This happened in such a way that traditional distribution among industrialized and developing countries was modified as was the capacity for attraction of the different areas in development. In this sense, the main contrast could be seen in the growing importance of East and South East Asia and the decline of Latin American countries which traditionally have been the largest receivers of direct investments within the group of developing countries. The expansive phase of direct investments begun in 1986 threatened to exclude Latin American countries but the establishment of a new framework for the treatment of the problem of external debt -the Brady Plan-, the change in the context of theinternational economy in 1990 and the stability and economic growth of the countries of the region favoured, without a doubt, the recovery of the capacity for attraction for new flows of direct investments regarding Latin American countries.In this way, Latin America registered once again a growing participation in the international flow of direct investments. The evolution of direct Spanish investment in Latin America followed a path similar to that of wider international flows and, after the intense absorption of the first years of the Eighties, the rest of the decade registered a discreet attraction for investors which only began to change course from 1989 onwards with the reestablishment of the new phase of the economic cycle in the countries of the region.
Trinh, Thuy T; Kamb, Mary L; Luu, Minh; Ham, D Cal; Perez, Freddy
To present the findings of the Pan American Health Organization's 2014 survey on syphilis testing policies and practices in the Americas. Representatives of national/regional reference and large, lower-level laboratories from 35 member states were invited to participate. A semi-structured, electronically administered questionnaire collected data on syphilis tests, algorithms, equipment/commodities, challenges faced and basic quality assurance (QA) strategies employed (i.e. daily controls, standard operating procedures, technician training, participating in external QA programmes, on-site evaluations). The 69 participating laboratories from 30 (86%) member states included 41 (59%) national/regional reference and 28 (41%) lower-level laboratories. Common syphilis tests conducted were the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) (62% of surveyed laboratories), venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) (54%), fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) (41%) and Treponema pallidum haemagglutination assay (TPHA) (32%). Only three facilities reported using direct detection methods, and 28 (41% overall, 32% of lower-level facilities) used rapid tests. Most laboratories (62%) used only traditional testing algorithms (non-treponemal screening and treponemal confirmatory testing); however, 12% used only a reverse sequence algorithm (treponemal test first), and 14% employed both algorithms. Another nine (12%) laboratories conducted only one type of serologic test. Although most reference (97%) and lower-level (89%) laboratories used at least one QA strategy, only 16% reported using all five basic strategies. Commonly reported challenges were stock-outs of essential reagents or commodities (46%), limited staff training (73%) and insufficient equipment (39%). Many reference and clinical laboratories in the Americas face challenges in conducting appropriate syphilis testing and in ensuring quality of testing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd The Pan-American Health Organization retains
US Department of Energy, 2007
The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…
Building America is investigating the best ways to make existing homes more energy-efficient, based on lessons learned from research in new homes. America program is aiming for a 20%–30% reduction in energy use in existing homes by 2020.
To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.
Akkari, Abdeljalil; Perez, Soledad
Describes the historical context of educational research in Latin America and focuses on the theoretical frameworks applied to educational research in the area. Identifies the primary institutions involved in educational research in Latin America and suggests priorities for future research. (SLD)
Analyzes reviewers' assessments of all publications on Latin American education included in the "Handbook of Latin American Studies" since 1969. Compares publications on education in South America with those relating to Central America and the Caribbean. Concludes that although the quality of research has been uneven, progress is being…
Carriquiriborde, P.; Mirabella, P.; Waichman, A.; Solomon, K.; Brink, van den P.J.; Maund, S.J.
Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the
Enhancing Economic Opportunities in Latin America: From Poverty Reduction Projects to Sustainable Livelihoods. Despite the region's progress in reducing poverty, 165 million people in Latin America (28% of its population) live in poverty. The pace of extreme poverty reduction has slowed in recent years. Large segments ...
Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
To track progress toward aggressive multi-year, whole-house energy savings goals of 40%–70% and on-site power production of up to 30%, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Residential Buildings Program and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Building America (BA) Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.
Andereck, Mary E.; Dixon, Clifton V., Jr.
The purpose of this study was to quantitatively analyze the Latin American content of contemporary world geography textbooks published for United States secondary schools. A preliminary review of the literature indicated that Latin America was generally omitted from world geography texts, Central America was given minimal attention, and…
United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.
This annotated bibliography of materials on Latin America is intended for children to age 14. South and Central America, Mexico, and the French, English, and Spanish speaking areas of the Caribbean are covered. Listings are by country and include history books, geography books, fiction, nonfiction, poetry, and folklore books. Some works in Spanish…
Lichter, Daniel T.
This article highlights the new racial and ethnic diversity in rural America, which may be the most important but least anticipated population shift in recent demographic history. Ethnoracial change is central to virtually every aspect of rural America over the foreseeable future: agro-food systems, community life, labor force change, economic…
Land & Development in Latin America: Issues and Openings for Policy Research. Book cover Land & Development in Latin America: Issues and Openings for Policy Research. Auteur(s) : Stephen Baranyi, Carmen Diana Deere, and Manuel Morales. Maison(s) d'édition : North-South Institute, IDRC. 1 janvier 2004. ISBN :.
Jun 22, 2016 ... Building on the IDRC and Organization of American States partnership which established the Network of e-Government Leaders of Latin America and the Caribbean (RED GEALC) in 2003, the joint project Innovations in e-Government in the Americas has strengthened regional capacity to generate and ...
Early modern natural history: Contributions from the Americas and India. Rajesh Kochhar. Perspectives Volume 37 Issue ... Keywords. India; medical botany; natural history; scientific botany; the Americas. Author Affiliations. Rajesh Kochhar1. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali 140 306 Punjab, India ...
Full Text Available The traditional view of colonization of the Americas as a migration across Beringia and subsequent dispersal southward following the last glacial maximum is being increasingly questioned. In North America, archaeological links to Siberia are tenuous and genetic data are more consistent with an earlier entry of people into the Americas, from Central rather than Northeast Siberia. An entry of populations into the Americas prior to the last glacial maximum forces a reconsideration not only of timing, but also geographic points of entry and speed of dispersal, based on ecological theory. A number of emerging alternative hypotheses on the colonization of the Americas predict early entry and dispersal of people into South America - earlier than, or coeval with, initial dispersal in North America. The study of genetic, morphological, and archaeological variation across South America is critical to testing these new, alternative hypotheses of Native American origins. I will review the evidence for emerging, alternative views of American Colonization, and suggest ways in which data from South American populations and prehistory will be crucial in testing them.
Pashaei Kamali, F.
Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America
The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and
Wendell R. Haag
Aim North America harbours the most diverse freshwater mussel fauna on Earth. This fauna has high endemism at the continental scale and within individual river systems. Previous faunal classifications for North America were based on intuitive, subjective assessments of species distributions, primarily the occurrence of endemic species, and do not portray continent-wide...
This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored Guide to Attic Air Sealing by Building America research partner Building Science Corporation, which provides best practices for attic air sealing. The guide has had 21,000 views and 13,000 downloads since it was posted.
Despite favourable conditions for social and economic development, such as high commodity prices and more effective democratic governance, development challenges in Latin America remain. Perhaps most starkly ... -deepen knowledge on the relationship between ICT access and the poor in Latin America; -establish a ...
Venezuela's plans of a 10 000 km gas pipeline project spanning Latin America is presented. A brief analysis of Venezuela's petroleum industry is provided. President Hugo Chavez' main ambitions include reducing oil sales to the USA and to spark South America's energy integration
Duration. 24 months. IDRC Officer. Smith, Matthew. Total funding. CA$ 482,841. Country(s). North and Central America, South America. Project Leader. Carlos Gregorio. Project Leader. Carlos Gregorio. Institution. Instituto de Investigación para la Justicia - Asociación Civil. Institution Country. Argentina. Institution Website.
Jaimovich, G; Martinez Rolon, J; Baldomero, H; Rivas, M; Hanesman, I; Bouzas, L; Bonfim, C; Palma, J; Kardus-Urueta, A; Ubidia, D; Bujan-Boza, W; Gonzalez-Ramella, O; Ruiz-Argüelles, G; Gomez-Almaguer, D; Espino, G; Fanilla, E; Gonzalez, D; Carrasco, A; Galeano, S; Borelli, G; Hernandez-Gimenez, M; Pasquini, M; Kodera, Y; Gratwohl, A; Gratwohl, M; Nuñez, J; Szer, J; Gale, R P; Niederwieser, D; Seber, A
Haematopoietic cell transplant activity in the 28 countries comprising Latin America is poorly defined. We conducted a voluntary survey of members of the Latin American Bone Marrow Transplantation Group regarding transplant activity 2009-2012. Collated responses were compared with data of transplant rates from the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation for other geographic regions. Several socio-economic variables were analysed to determine correlations with transplant rates. In total, 94 teams from 12 countries reported 11 519 transplants including 7033 autotransplants and 4486 allotransplants. Annual activity increased from 2517 transplants in 2009 to 3263 in 2012, a 30% increase. Median transplants rate (transplant per million inhabitants) in 2012 was 64 (autotransplants, median 40; allotransplants, median 24). This rate is substantially lower than that in North America and European regions (482 and 378) but higher than that in the Eastern Mediterranean and Asia Pacific regions (30 and 45). However, the Latin America transplant rate is 5-8-fold lower than that in America and Europe, suggesting a need to increase transplant availability. Transplant team density in Latin America (teams per million population; 1.8) is 3-4-fold lower than that in North America (6.2) or Europe (7.6). Within Latin America, there is substantial diversity in transplant rates by country partially explained by diverse socio-economic variables including per capita gross national income, health expenditure and physician density. These data should help inform future health-care policy in Latin America.
Bernardes DaSilva, Edmar; Kvasnak, Robert Neil
The regional divisions termed as "Latin America" versus "Anglo-America" used by many geographers do not fully reflect the cultural and political trends in the world today. "Latin" is a term that was coined by the French Emperor Napoleon the III in order to justify Mexico's being ruled by Maximillian, and later picked…
... journey to literacy begins early and continues throughout childhood. Parents and caregivers can play an... children, we make a vital investment not only in their future, but also in an America that leads the world in educating its people. As we celebrate Read Across America Day in our homes, schools, and libraries...
1 Maritime Transportation of Illegal Drugs from South America • Michael P. Atkinson: Operations Research Department, Naval...2 Maritime Transportation of Illegal Drugs from South America Abstract The US invests considerable effort in searching and interdicting drug...Trafficking Organizations (DTOs) employ both maritime and air conveyances and use a variety of vessel types to transport the drugs. Examples of maritime
Rural Agroindustry in Latin America : An Evaluation of the PRODAR Network. Couverture du livre Rural Agroindustry in Latin America : An Evaluation of the PRODAR Network. Auteur(s) : Ed Weber (CRDI), Bernard Bridier (CIRAD) et Raul Fiorentino (IFAD). Maison(s) d'édition : CRDI. 1 janvier 1997. ISBN : Épuisé.
Antón M. Pazos
Full Text Available The Holy See begun to take interest in Latin America at the end of the last century. The aim was to articulate a continental Church. This article analyse the correspondence between the Holy See and Bishop from America.
Tamir, Jeremy; Haik, Josef; Orenstein, Arie; Schwartz, Eli
Dermatobia hominis is the most common cause of myiasis in Central and South America, affecting mammals and humans, causing nonhealing furuncle-like lesions. During the years 1994 to 1999, 14 Israeli travelers returning from South America were diagnosed with D hominis myiasis. The approach consists of correct diagnosis and a proper removal of the larvae, after which the patients heal with no complications.
Juvenile Violence, Policing and Access to Justice in Latin America. Latin America is experiencing alarming trends in kidnapping, narcotics trafficking, gang violence, homicide, police brutality and gender-based violence. Many of these crimes involve young people, either as perpetrators or victims of violence. Through ...
Migratory Fishes of South America : Biology, Fisheries, and Conservation Status. Couverture du livre Migratory Fishes of South America : Biology, Fisheries, and Conservation Status. Directeur(s) : Joachim Carolsfield, Brian Harvey, Carmen Ross et Anton Baer. Maison(s) d'édition : World Fisheries Trust, Banque mondiale, ...
Policy Influence and Urban Slums in Latin America : Ecohealth International Workshop. IDRC's Ecosystem Approaches to Human Health (Ecohealth) program initiative has been active in Latin America and the Caribbean for the past eight years. Ecohealth recognizes that it is now imperative to systematize the lessons ...
Jones, Earl, Ed.; Dean, Frances, Ed.
This is the final monograph in the Programa de Educacion Interamericana resource series on Latin America: SO 001 424 through SO 001 428. Two main sections are contained here: 1) philosophical and methodological approaches to the problems of teaching the social studies, and 2) ammunition in knowing the Americas so they can be taught better. The…
This joint initiative between IDRC and the Climate and Development Knowledge Network will help strengthen decision-making and scale-up effective action on climate resilient development to improve the livelihoods of those most affected by climate change in Latin America. Climate change in Latin America Climate ...
Cruz, Barbara C.
In April 2013, Florida will commemorate Juan Ponce de Leon's historic voyage. Yet Ponce de Leon's arrival was, in several important ways, not just the beginning of Spain's presence in Florida, but in North America as a whole. Today, the historical Spanish influence on America is palpable--in culture, language, politics, and more. This year marks…
IDRC Officer. Smith, Matthew. Total funding. CA$ 850,300. Country(s). North and Central America, South America, West Indies. Project Leader. Miguel Porrúa. Institution. General Secretariat of the Organization of American States. Institution Country. United States. Institution Website. http://www.oas.org. Outputs. Reports.
To better understand chikungunya activity in the America we mapped recent chikungunya activity in the Americas. This activity is needed to better understand that the relationships between climatic factors and disease outbreak patters are critical to the design and constructing of predictive models....
Mac A. Callaham; Grizelle Gonzalez; Cynthia M Hale; Liam Henegham; Sharon L. Lachnicht; Xiaoming Zou
The introduction, establishment and spread of non-native earthworm species in North America have been ongoing for centuries. These introductions have occurred across the continent and in some ecosystems have resulted in considerable modifications to ecosystem processes and functions associated with above- and belowground foodwebs. However, many areas of North America...
Anzaldo, Salvatore S.
Abstract The thirty-nine extant genera of Conoderinae known to occur in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean are reviewed based on external morphology. An identification key is provided along with diagnoses, distributions, species counts, and natural history information, when known, for each genus. Morphological character systems of importance for weevil classification are surveyed, potential relationships among the tribes and genera are discussed, and groups most in need of taxonomic and phylogenetic attention are identified. The following genera are transferred to new tribes: Acoptus LeConte, 1876 from the Lechriopini to the Othippiini (new placement) and the South American genus Hedycera Pascoe, 1870 from the Lechriopini to the Piazurini (new placement). Philides Champion, 1906 and Philinna Champion, 1906 are transferred from the Lechriopini to Conoderinae incertae sedis (new placement) although their placement as conoderines is uncertain. The species Copturomimus cinereus Heller, 1895 is designated as the type species of the genus Copturomimus Heller, 1895. PMID:28769729
Salvatore S. Anzaldo
Full Text Available The thirty-nine extant genera of Conoderinae known to occur in North America, Central America, and the Caribbean are reviewed based on external morphology. An identification key is provided along with diagnoses, distributions, species counts, and natural history information, when known, for each genus. Morphological character systems of importance for weevil classification are surveyed, potential relationships among the tribes and genera are discussed, and groups most in need of taxonomic and phylogenetic attention are identified. The following genera are transferred to new tribes: Acoptus LeConte, 1876 from the Lechriopini to the Othippiini (new placement and the South American genus Hedycera Pascoe, 1870 from the Lechriopini to the Piazurini (new placement. Philides Champion, 1906 and Philinna Champion, 1906 are transferred from the Lechriopini to Conoderinae incertae sedis (new placement although their placement as conoderines is uncertain. The species Copturomimus cinereus Heller, 1895 is designated as the type species of the genus Copturomimus Heller, 1895.
Energy sector developments in Central America and the Caribbean were discussed. Central America is composed of six small countries whose total population is 32 million. The Caribbean population is 20.5 million. Central America is generally poor in hydrocarbon reserves but the geological prospects in several of the countries are encouraging. The oil and petroleum products supply and demand picture, the main characteristics of the hydrocarbon market, structure of the oil industry, hydrocarbon market reforms, pricing issues and recent trend towards reforms in the electric power industry in Central America were discussed. An overview of the Inter-American Development Bank's (IDB) effort to provide technical assistance and loans to strengthen the energy sector development in Central America and the Caribbean was also given. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 23 figs
Rebuild America Partner Update, the bimonthly newsletter about the Rebuild America community, covers partnership activities, industry trends, and program news. Rebuild America is a network of community partnerships--made up of local governments and businesses--that save money by saving energy. These voluntary partnerships, working with the US Department of Energy, choose the best ways to improve the energy efficiency of commercial, government and apartment buildings. Rebuild America supports them with business and technical tools and customized assistance. By the year 2003, 250 Rebuild America partnerships will be involved in over 2 billion square feet of building renovations, which will save $650 million every year in energy costs, generate $3 billion in private community investment, create 26,000 new private sector jobs, and reduce air pollution by 1.6 million tons of carbon dioxide a year.
Farrar, Sara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rothgeb, Stacey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, Lieko [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
This document is a set of appendices presenting technical discussion and references as a companion to the 'Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes' publication.
... Packard Company, Enterprise Business Division, Technical Services America, Global Parts Supply Chain Group... Business Division, Technical Services America, Global Parts Supply Chain Group, Including Leased Workers... workers of Hewlett Packard Company, Enterprise Business Division, Technical Services America, Global Parts...
... Packard Company, Enterprise Business Division, Technical Services America, Global Parts Supply Chain Group... Business Division, Technical Services America, Global Parts Supply Chain Group, Including Leased Workers... Packard Company, Enterprise Business Division, Technical Services America, Global Parts Supply Chain Group...
Linhares Alexandre C.
Full Text Available Worldwide, rotaviruses account for more than 125 million cases of infantile gastroenteritis and nearly 1 million deaths per year, mainly in developing countries. Rather than other control measures, vaccination is most likely to have a major impact on rotavirus disease incidence. The peak incidence of rotavirus diarrhea occurs between 6 and 24 months of age. In developing countries, however, cases are not uncommon among children younger than 6 months. G serotypes 1 to 4 are responsible for most disease, but there are indications that in Brazil that G type 5 is of emerging epidemiological importance. Both homotypic and heterotypic responses are elicited during natural rotavirus infection, and the immunological response at the intestinal mucosal surface is probably the more consistent predictor of clinical immunity. With the primary objective of protecting children against life-threatening dehydrating diarrhea, many approaches to rotavirus vaccine development have been attempted. One vaccine, the tetravalent rhesus-human reassortant rotavirus vaccine (RRV-TV, was given licensing approval in the United States of America, introduced to the market, and later withdrawn. A number of studies have found better efficacy of RRV-TV in developed countries than in developing ones. Field trials with a 4 X 10(4 plaque-forming units (PFU preparation of RRV-TV have been carried out in two countries in Latin America, Brazil and Peru. Those trials yielded protective efficacy rates against all rotavirus diarrhea ranging from 18% to 35%. Data from a large catchment trial in Venezuela with a higher RRV-TV dose, of 4 X 10(5 PFU/dose, indicated an efficacy rate of 48% against all rotavirus diarrhea and 88% against severe rotavirus diarrhea. It appears that breast-feeding does not compromise the efficacy of RRV-TV if three doses of the vaccine are administered. Similarly, possible interference of oral poliovirus vaccine with the "take" of the rotavirus vaccine can be
Panama, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Honduras, Guatemala, Belize, southern Mexico and parts of Cuba and Jamaica are all seen in this image from NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The dominant feature of the northern part of Central America is the Sierra Madre Range, spreading east from Mexico between the narrow Pacific coastal plain and the limestone lowland of the Yucatan Peninsula. Parallel hill ranges sweep across Honduras and extend south, past the Caribbean Mosquito Coast to lakes Managua and Nicaragua. The Cordillera Central rises to the south, gradually descending to Lake Gatun and the Isthmus of Panama. A highly active volcanic belt runs along the Pacific seaboard from Mexico to Costa Rica.High-quality satellite imagery of Central America has, until now, been difficult to obtain due to persistent cloud cover in this region of the world. The ability of SRTM to penetrate clouds and make three-dimensional measurements has allowed the generation of the first complete high-resolution topographic map of the entire region. This map was used to generate the image.Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow, red, and magenta, to white at the highest elevations.For an annotated version of this image, please select Figure 1, below: [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Large image: 9 mB jpeg)Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect
McIlvaine, Janet; Chandra, Subrato; Barkaszi, Stephen; Beal, David; Chasar, David; Colon, Carlos; Fonorow, Ken; Gordon, Andrew; Hoak, David; Hutchinson, Stephanie; Lubliner, Mike; Martin, Eric; McCluney, Ross; McGinley, Mark; McSorley, Mike; Moyer, Neil; Mullens, Mike; Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John; Vieira, Rob; Wichers, Susan
This final report summarizes the work conducted by the Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (www.baihp.org) for the period 9/1/99-6/30/06. BAIHP is led by the Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida and focuses on factory built housing. In partnership with over 50 factory and site builders, work was performed in two main areas--research and technical assistance. In the research area--through site visits in over 75 problem homes, we discovered the prime causes of moisture problems in some manufactured homes and our industry partners adopted our solutions to nearly eliminate this vexing problem. Through testing conducted in over two dozen housing factories of six factory builders we documented the value of leak free duct design and construction which was embraced by our industry partners and implemented in all the thousands of homes they built. Through laboratory test facilities and measurements in real homes we documented the merits of 'cool roof' technologies and developed an innovative night sky radiative cooling concept currently being tested. We patented an energy efficient condenser fan design, documented energy efficient home retrofit strategies after hurricane damage, developed improved specifications for federal procurement for future temporary housing, compared the Building America benchmark to HERS Index and IECC 2006, developed a toolkit for improving the accuracy and speed of benchmark calculations, monitored the field performance of over a dozen prototype homes and initiated research on the effectiveness of occupancy feedback in reducing household energy use. In the technical assistance area we provided systems engineering analysis, conducted training, testing and commissioning that have resulted in over 128,000 factory built and over 5,000 site built homes which are saving their owners over $17,000,000 annually in energy bills. These include homes built by Palm Harbor Homes, Fleetwood, Southern Energy
Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan
Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.
Marcelo M. Dalosto
Full Text Available Aeglids are freshwater anomurans that are endemic from southern South America. While their population biology at the species-level is relatively well understood, intraspecific variation within populations has been poorly investigated. Our goal was to investigate the population biology of Aegla platensis Schmitt, 1942 from the Uruguay River Basin, and compare our data with data from other populations. We estimated biometric data, sex ratio, population density and size-class frequencies, and frequencies of ovigerous females and juveniles, from the austral spring of 2007 until autumn 2008. Sexual dimorphism was present in adults, with males being larger than females. Furthermore, males and females were significantly larger than previously recorded for the species. The overall sex ratio was 1.33:1 (male:female, and population density ranged from 1.8 (spring to 3.83 ind.m-² (winter. Data from this population differ from published information about A. platensis in almost all parameters quantified except for the reproductive period, which happens in the coldest months, and a population structure with two distinct cohorts. Difference among studies, however, may be in part due to methodological differences and should be further investigated in order to determine their cause. In addition to different methodologies, they may result from ecological plasticity or from the fact that the different populations actually correspond to more than one species.
Buch David; Guex Jean; Stuchy J.; Baumgartner Peter O.
Palaxius osaensis n. ichnosp. a new ichnospecies of crustacean coprolite is described. The coprolite is preserved in a 200 m thick Paleocene sequence in Southern Costa Rica that is largely dominated by pillow basalts. The studied sample is part of a seamount formed in the Pacific Ocean that was accreted to the Central American isthmus during the Eocene. The absence of lava vesicles shallow water deposits and detrital sediments in the section suggest that the coprolites were deposited in a dee...
... America Fund; Developing a Unified Intercarrier Compensation Regime AGENCY: Federal Communications... information collection associated with the Commission's Connect America Fund, Report and Order (Order)'s...
Investments in technology and innovation enable new space missions, stimulate the economy, contribute to the nation's global competitiveness, and inspire America's next generation of scientists, engineers and astronauts. Chief Technologist Mason Peck will provide an overview of NASA's ambitious program of space exploration that builds on new technologies, as well as proven capabilities, as it expands humanity's reach into the solar system while providing broadly-applicable benefits here on Earth. Peck also will discuss efforts of the Office of the Chief Technologist to coordinate the agency's overall technology portfolio, identifying development needs, ensuring synergy and reducing duplication, while furthering the national initiatives as outlined by President Obama's Office of Science and Technology Policy. By coordinating technology programs within NASA, Peck's office facilitates integration of available and new technology into operational systems that support specific human-exploration missions, science missions, and aeronautics. The office also engages other government agencies and the larger aerospace community to develop partnerships in areas of mutual interest that could lead to new breakthrough capabilities. NASA technology transfer translates our air and space missions into societal benefits for people everywhere. Peck will highlight NASA's use of technology transfer and commercialization to help American entrepreneurs and innovators develop technological solutions that stimulate the growth of the innovation economy by creating new products and services, new business and industries and high quality, sustainable jobs.
Barr, Ronald E.
Many faculty believe that engineering education in America is at a crossroads and much change is needed. International competition in engineering and the global economy have major potential impact on the engineering workforce of the future. We must find ways to educate U.S. engineers to be competitive and creative contributors in the worldwide arena. Recent national reports are sounding the alarm that the U.S. is losing it leadership in technology and innovation, with consequences for economic prosperity and national security. The report Rising Above the Gathering Storm discusses this dilemma in detail and offers four recommendations to U.S. policymakers. The report Educating the Engineer of 2020 discusses new ways to prepare American engineers for the 21st Century. Furthermore, changes in ABET accreditation, along with new paradigms of teaching and new technology in the classroom, are changing the scholarship of engineering education. We must find ways to promote change in engineering faculty for this new opportunity in engineering educational scholarship. Future engineering students are now in K-12, which is becoming an increasingly diverse population that in the past has not been fully represented in engineering education. Current trends show disaffection for pursuing studies in science and engineering in the youth of our U.S. society. We must find new ways to portray engineering as an exciting and rewarding career, and certainly as an educational platform for professional careers beyond the baccalaureate degree.
Clark, David J; Schumacher, Mark A
America is in the midst of an opioid epidemic characterized by aggressive prescribing practices, highly prevalent opioid misuse, and rising rates of prescription and illicit opioid overdose-related deaths. Medical and lay public sentiment have become more cautious with respect to prescription opioid use in the past few years, but a comprehensive strategy to reduce our reliance on prescription opioids is lacking. Addressing this epidemic through reductions in unnecessary access to these drugs while implementing measures to reduce demand will be important components of any comprehensive solution. Key supply-side measures include avoiding overprescribing, reducing diversion, and discouraging misuse through changes in drug formulations. Important demand-side measures center around educating patients and clinicians regarding the pitfalls of opioid overuse and methods to avoid unnecessary exposure to these drugs. Anesthesiologists, by virtue of their expertise in the use of these drugs and their position in guiding opioid use around the time of surgery, have important roles to play in reducing patient exposure to opioids and providing education about appropriate use. Aside from the many immediate steps that can be taken, clinical and basic research directed at understanding the interaction between pain and opioid misuse is critical to identifying the optimal use of these powerful pain relievers in clinical practice.
Batterson, R F
This article provides a historical perspective on immigration policy in the US after World War II and assesses the present situation. US immigration and refugee policy has undergone significant change since World War II. The McCarran-Walter Act of 1952, which instituted a system of proportional quotas based on national origins, was discarded in 1965 following years of criticism that it discriminated against nonwhites. Third World immigrants, especially from Asia and the Americas, have benefited from the immigration laws. However, the problems resulting from unrestricted and undifferentiated immigration are now becoming apparent, even to liberal critics of previous national origins policies. During the 1970s, there was a 61% increase in the number of Mexican nationals in the US and Mexicans currently comprise over 20% of the population in 40 Congressional districts in 8 states. 83.3% of legal immigrants, and all illegal immigrants, are of non-European descent--a fact that may retard their assimilation and intensify ethnic tensions. There is a danger that the concept of national borders may become superfluous. The theoreticval liberalism of the 1950s and 1960s is, in the 1970s, being confronted with the reality of large numbers of immigrants unable and unwilling to be absorbed into a previously European-dominated country. It is concluded that the enforced application of the concept of equality in matters of immigration has not been the panacea that its liberal proponents envisioned.
Olga V. Varentsova
Full Text Available Contemporary political regimes in Venezuela and Bolivia led by late Hugo Châvez (now by his successor Nicolas Maduro and Evo Morales are considered by foreign and Russian scholars as part of the third wave of populism. In the 20th century Latin America already witnessed two waves of populism which coincided with significant political transitions, namely a transition from oligarchy to mass politics accompanied by implementation of import substitution industrialization policies, and a transition from authoritarian rule to democracy during the third wave of democratization which triggered neoliberal reforms inspired by Washington Consensus. This article presents common characteristics of Latin American populist regimes that emerged in different historical periods which help identify the origins as well as distinctive features of Venezuelan and Bolivian political regimes. It is stated that the Châvez and Morales left populist regimes resemble classic populist regimes in that they rely on incendiary anti-establishment discourse. Therefore, left populist regimes are characterized by high levels of polarization as well as weak institutionalization and class or indigenous orientation. Election of left populist leaders may lead to institutional deadlock, uneven playing field and transition to competitive authoritarianism.
The Wind Powering America FY07 Activities Summary reflects the accomplishments of our state wind working groups, our programs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and our partner organizations. The national WPA team remains a leading force for moving wind energy forward in the United States. WPA continues to work with its national, regional, and state partners to communicate the opportunities and benefits of wind energy to a diverse set of stakeholders. WPA now has 30 state wind working groups (welcoming Georgia and Wisconsin in 2007) that form strategic alliances to communicate wind's benefits to the state stakeholders. More than 140 members of national and state public and private sector organizations from 39 U.S. states and Canada attended the 6th Annual WPA All-States Summit in Los Angeles in June. WPA's emphasis remains on the rural agricultural sector, which stands to reap the significant economic development benefits of wind energy development. Additionally, WPA continues its program of outreach, education, and technical assistance to Native American communities, public power entities, and regulatory and legislative bodies.
This book is concerned primarily with wood production. Without the direct economic returns possible therefrom, the other, less tangible benefits that accrue from forests are in jeopardy in the face of developmental pressures driven by more attractive direct financial incentives. Nevertheless, multiple benefits from forests are inseparable, so the goal should be to make forest productive for all purposes. Forest production, then, as here defined refers to all the values of forests, including those primarily esthetic. The text emphasizes two vital relations. One is that forestry is ecological. Forest managers must be oriented to accept ecological information fundamental to goals and practices. A rift between the two disciplines that exists elsewhere must not intensify in tropical America. Forest production is forestry, not ecology, but intimacy between the two disciplines is mutually vital. The second relation emphasized in the book is that in productive forest management the animal component is as crucial as the plants, The value of animals to forest ecosystems goes far beyond their physical attraction.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To evaluate prevalence of cardiovascular risk among adults 40 years and older using population-based samples from six Central American countries. METHODS: Risk factors were derived from a multi-national cross-sectional survey implemented in 2003-2006, which included a sample of 4 202 participants aged 40 years and older. Charts produced by the World Health Organization and the International Society of Hypertension for the Region of the Americas sub-region B were used to predict risk on the basis of factors including age, sex, blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, smoking status, and diabetes status. RESULTS: Overall, 85.9% of the population was classified as having 20% risk. More than 75% of those with a 30-40% risk had previously been identified by health services, and an additional 23% were identified during the study, suggesting they could be diagnosed by opportunistic screening for diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. Results of bivariate analysis showed that respondents who were male, older, obese and/or less educated had higher risk for cardiovascular events, but a multivariate analysis including education indicated highest risks for older, obese, and less educated females. CONCLUSIONS: Measuring cardiovascular disease risk identifies most cases of (or at risk for diabetes, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia among adults 40 years and older. This strategy can facilitate implementation of control programs and decrease disabilities and premature mortality.
Aureo S de Oliveira
Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.
Rogat, J.; Hinostroza, M. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)
The rapid growth of Latin American cities beginning in the 70s has led to, among other things, growing mobility and demand for transportation. The lack of efficient, reliable and safe public transport systems has promoted the switch away from buses and trains towards private cars. Some of the impacts of a steadily increasing car fleet have been increased congestion, number of accidents and environmental deterioration. Recognising the potential implications of such a development, policy makers and officials found it necessary and went ahead to reformulate transport policies with the aim of providing safe, cost-effective and environmental-friendly public transport systems. Bus rapid transit (BRT) became the answer in a number of Latin American cities. The successful experiences of Curitiba in Brazil and Bogota in Colombia have served as the source of inspiration for other cities in Latin America, Asia, Europe and the USA. Thus, the BRT represents a unique example of South-South, South-North technology transfer. This paper presents some of the Latin American experiences and discusses their achievement and drawbacks. (au)
Bruno M. Teixeira
Full Text Available The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species. Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs in South America.
Teixeira, Bruno M; Hagiwara, Mitika K; Cruz, Juliano C M; Hosie, Margaret J
The rapid emergence of AIDS in humans during the period between 1980 and 2000 has led to extensive efforts to understand more fully similar etiologic agents of chronic and progressive acquired immunodeficiency disease in several mammalian species. Lentiviruses that have gene sequence homology with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have been found in different species (including sheep, goats, horses, cattle, cats, and several Old World monkey species). Lentiviruses, comprising a genus of the Retroviridae family, cause persistent infection that can lead to varying degrees of morbidity and mortality depending on the virus and the host species involved. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) causes an immune system disease in domestic cats (Felis catus) involving depletion of the CD4+ population of T lymphocytes, increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections, and sometimes death. Viruses related to domestic cat FIV occur also in a variety of nondomestic felids. This is a brief overview of the current state of knowledge of this large and ancient group of viruses (FIVs) in South America.
Full Text Available [First paragraph] Caliban and otheressays, by ROBERTO FERNANDEZ RETAMAR. (Translated by Edward Baker, Foreword by Fredric Jameson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989. xvi + 139 pp. (Cloth US $35.00, Paper US $14.95 Deconstructing America: representations of the other, by PETER MASON. London: Routledge, 1990. vii + 216 pp. (Cloth £ 30.00 Both these books beiong to a field of study that aims to analyze the ways in which Europe, or more generally the West, has represented to itself in words and images the non-European world. Edward Said's Orientalism inaugurated that field in 1978, immediately constituting a corpus of work through its author's recognition of precedent and analogue, then acting as indispensable touchstone to the subsequent development of the field during the 1980s. Although Said's work deals with the oriënt, however defined, a surprising amount of ideological analysis of colonial representation had already taken place within the Caribbean. Frantz Fanon, Eric Williams, and Aimé Césaire were three notable precursors recognized by Said; and Roberto Fernéndez Retamar's essays, especially those written in the late 1960s and early 1970s, pursued many similar themes within the rather different context of the Cuban Revolution. Four of those essays are now published in English, along with a more recent reflection on the most famous of them, "Caliban."
Holbrow, Charles H.
The launch of Sputnik, the world's first artificial Earth orbiting satellite, by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957 was a triggering event. Before Sputnik pressure had been rising to mobilize America's intellectual resources to be more effective and useful in dealing with the Cold War. Sputnik released that pressure by stirring up a mixture of American hysteria, wounded self-esteem, fears of missile attacks, and deep questioning of the intellectual capabilities of popular democratic society and its educational system. After Sputnik the federal government took several remarkable actions: President Eisenhower established the position of Presidential Science Advisor; the House and the Senate reorganized their committee structures to focus on science policy; Congress created NASA -- the National Aeronautics and Space Agency -- and charged it to create a civilian space program; they tripled funding for the National Science Foundation to support basic research but also to improve science education and draw more young Americans into science and engineering; and they passed the National Defense Education Act which involved the federal government to an unprecedented extent with all levels of American education. I will describe some pre-Sputnik pressures to change American education, review some important effects of the subsequent changes, and talk about one major failure of change fostered by the national government.
Marcos C. Holanda
Full Text Available The article investigates the occurrence of contagion among the three main economies of Latin America during the second half of the 90's. The investigation is based on the Brady Bonds market for Brazil, Mexico and Argentina. Three methodologies are applied to quantify the contagion effect: correlation of Brady Bonds price, analyses of residuals of estimated regressions and signal extraction analyses through the Kalman filter.O artigo estuda a ocorrência de contágio entre as três principais economias da América Latina na segunda metade dos anos 90. O estudo baseia-se na análise do mercado de Brady Bonds do Brasil, México e Argentina. Três metodologias são aplicadas para medir o efeito contágio: correlação dos preços dos Bradies, análise do comportamento dos resíduos de regressões estimadas e extração de sinal a partir do filtro de Kalman.
Allende, R; Morales, D; Avendano, G; Chabert, S
As in other parts of the World, in recent times there has been an increasing interest on Biomedical Engineering (BME) in Latin America (LA). This interest grows from the need for a larger number of such specialists, originated in a spreading use of health technologies. Indeed, at many universities, biomedical engineering departments have been created, which also brought along discussions on strategies to achieve the best education possible for both undergraduate and graduate programs. In these settings, different positions were taken as regards which subject to emphasize. In such a context, this work aimed to make a survey on the 'state-of-the-art' of undergraduate BME education in LA, and to analyze the observed differences. Broadly speaking, similar education profiles are perceived in the entire continent, with main emphasis on electronics and bioinstrumentation, biology and informatics respectively. Much less relevance is given to biomechanics and biomaterials. This tendency is similar in Departments with many decades of experience or in newly opened ones
Ramchand, Rajeev; Tanielian, Terri; Fisher, Michael P; Vaughan, Christine Anne; Trail, Thomas E; Epley, Caroline; Voorhies, Phoenix; Robbins, Michael; Robinson, Eric; Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie
While much has been written about the role of caregiving for the elderly and chronically ill and for children with special needs, little is known about "military caregivers"-the population of those who care for wounded, ill, and injured military personnel and veterans. These caregivers play an essential role in caring for injured or wounded service members and veterans. This enables those for whom they are caring to live better quality lives, and can result in faster and improved rehabilitation and recovery. Yet playing this role can impose a substantial physical, emotional, and financial toll on caregivers. This article distills a longer report, Hidden Heroes: America's Military Caregivers , which describes the results of a study designed to describe the magnitude of military caregiving in the United States today, as well as to identify gaps in the array of programs, policies, and initiatives designed to support military caregivers. Improving military caregivers' well-being and ensuring their continued ability to provide care will require multifaceted approaches to reducing the current burdens caregiving may impose, and bolstering their ability to serve as caregivers more effectively. Given the systematic differences among military caregiver groups, it is also important that tailored approaches meet the unique needs and characteristics of post-9/11 caregivers.
Full Text Available Los aminoácidos esenciales y su disponibilidad son importantes en la formulación de alimentos. La digestibilidad de materia seca (DAMS, proteína (DAP y aminoácidos esenciales (DAAA fueron determinados (triplicado para el camarón blanco del Pacífico, Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19g, usando una dieta de referencia con 30% (de cada ingrediente. Los ingredientes evaluados fueron: caseína (CAS, harinas de subproductos avícolas (HSPA y porcícolas (HSPP, gluten de maíz (GLM y trigo (GLT, pasta de soya (PS, harinas de sorgo (HS y trigo (HT. La DAMS y DAP variaron entre 68%-109% y 70%-103%, respectivamente. La DAP en CAS, PS, HT y GLT fue mayor al 90%, en GLM y HSPA superior a 80%; HSPP (76% y HS (70% tuvieron menor digestibilidad. Hubo concordancia entre DAP y DAAA, excepto para Arg en GLM, Fen y Leu en HS, Fen en PS y Lis en HT y HSPA. Se encontró una gran variabilidad en la DAMS, DAP y DAAA en los ingredientes, lo que debe ser tomado en cuenta al formular alimentos para camarón.Apparent digestion coefficients for dry matter, protein and essential amino acids in terrestrial ingredients for Pacific shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Decapoda: Penaeidae. Protein quality mainly depends on the essential amino acid (EAA profile, but also on its bioavailability, because EAA digestibility is generally lower than the analyzed amounts. This information is needed in the aquaculture industry for aquafeed formulation. For this purpose, the apparent digestibility coefficients of dry matter, protein, and essential amino acids of eight feedstuffs of terrestrial origin were determined for the juvenile whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (15-19g, using 1% chromic oxide as an inert marker. A reference diet was formulated and produced in the laboratory. Eight experimental diets were prepared each with 30% of one of the experimental ingredients added to the reference diet: casein, porcine byproduct meal poultry byproduct meal, corn meal, wheat gluten meal, soybean
Cleaton-Jones, Ioan P
Private hospitals are expanding in Latin America, but the industry is less developed in this region than in some other emerging markets. Groups of hospitals are emerging in countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Colombia and Peru. However, they haven't reached the size of hospital groups in Malaysia, India and South Africa. They also remain domestically focused, while companies from the aforementioned three emerging markets outside Latin America have expanded to multiple other countries and have listed on stock exchanges to access more capital to finance their expansion. It is very likely that these trends seen in other emerging markets will manifest in Latin America as it continues to develop.
Barker, G.; Norton, P.
The report outlines the short-term field testing used by Building America staff and includes a report on the results of an example test of a PV system with battery storage on a home in Tucson, Arizona. This report is not intended as a general recommended test procedure for wide distribution. It is intended to document current practices in Building America to inform program stakeholders and stimulate further discussion. Building America staff intend to apply this procedure until relevant standards for testing PV modules are completed.
I. T. Baker
Full Text Available Synoptic variations of atmospheric CO2 produced by interactions between weather and surface fluxes are investigated mechanistically and quantitatively in midlatitude and tropical regions using continuous in-situ CO2 observations in North America, South America and Europe and forward chemical transport model simulations with the Parameterized Chemistry Transport Model. Frontal CO2 climatologies show consistently strong, characteristic frontal CO2 signals throughout the midlatitudes of North America and Europe. Transitions between synoptically identifiable CO2 air masses or transient spikes along the frontal boundary typically characterize these signals. One case study of a summer cold front shows CO2 gradients organizing with deformational flow along weather fronts, producing strong and spatially coherent variations. In order to differentiate physical and biological controls on synoptic variations in midlatitudes and a site in Amazonia, a boundary layer budget equation is constructed to break down boundary layer CO2 tendencies into components driven by advection, moist convection, and surface fluxes. This analysis suggests that, in midlatitudes, advection is dominant throughout the year and responsible for 60–70% of day-to-day variations on average, with moist convection contributing less than 5%. At a site in Amazonia, vertical mixing, in particular coupling between convective transport and surface CO2 flux, is most important, with advection responsible for 26% of variations, moist convection 32% and surface flux 42%. Transport model sensitivity experiments agree with budget analysis. These results imply the existence of a recharge-discharge mechanism in Amazonia important for controlling synoptic variations of boundary layer CO2, and that forward and inverse simulations should take care to represent moist convective transport. Due to the scarcity of tropical observations at the time of this study, results in Amazonia are not generalized for
Full Text Available The caridean freshwater shrimp Atya scabra is a common resident of stream systems of tropical rainforests in America, including Brazilian drainages. This shrimp has an amphidromous life cycle, which increases its vulnerability when facing habitat fragmentation. Since information on the reproduction of this species is still limited, we present here data on egg production, egg loss, and energy investment, to achieve a better understanding of reproductive features of A. scabra. Specimens were collected between 2006 and 2007 in São Sebastião Island, southeastern Brazil, in 13 locations. The fecundity of 21 ovigerous females analyzed ranged between 414 and 19,250 eggs, which were higher than previously reported. However, the larger size of females analyzed may explain the observed intraspecific difference in egg production. During embryogenesis, egg volume and water content increased by 103 and 22.6%, respectively. The initial egg volume of A. scabra in the present study (0.027 mm³ was slightly lower, but comparable to the values reported previously from the same study area. During incubation, females of A. scabra lost 15% of their initially produced eggs. The reproductive output (average RO of 3.6% is the first report for any atyid species. Its value is fairly low compared to other freshwater shrimps, and it is hypothesized that this might be related to a high energy investment in morphological adaptations, which allows the shrimp to cling on to the substrate in the fast flowing environment they inhabit. Additionally, the long life span, a well-known phenomenon in atyid shrimp, may allow the species to invest a relatively low amount of energy per brood in egg production, but over a longer time span.
Michael Gavin; Ricardo Hausmann; Ernesto Talvi
This paper reviews and contributes to the policy debate on the issue of saving in Latin America, presenting an alternative perspective on the relationship between saving and growth, saving and inflation stabilization and structural reform, and saving and capital flows.
Stine, Deborah D
The America COMPETES Act (P.L. 110-69) responds to concerns that the United States may not be able to compete economically with other nations in the future due to insufficient investment today in science and technology research...
Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.
The Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without chasing a 'moving target.'
Full Text Available This article presents an inventory of South American palms including 457 species and 50 genera. The distribution of palms within seven phytogeographical entities is analyzed. Factors which influence the evolution of palms in South America are discussed.
Helfrich, Louis A. (Louis Anthony), 1942-; Parkhurst, James A. (James Albert)
Describes natural aquatic habitats, such as rivers, streams, springs, estuaries, bays, and various wetlands, and discusses the major differences between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Part of a 12 part series on sustaining aquatic biodiversity in America.
Williams, Lynden S.
Provides an evaluation of regional texts on Latin America by means of analyzing opinions of 45 Latin Americanist geographers. Findings are presented in three categories--highly rated texts, intermediately rated texts, and others. (DB)
Cruz, Christopher A
..., and a sympathetic population filled with anti-American sentiment, the Islamic terrorist threat is very real in South America and should be a major security concern for the United States. While U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM...
An overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program and how it works with the U.S. building industry to demonstrate the benefits of energy efficient integrated systems in residential construction.
An overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America Program and how it works with the U.S. building industry to demonstrate the benefits of energy efficient integrated systems in residential construction.
Carlos M Luna
Full Text Available The global spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA means it is now a pathogen of worldwide public health concern. Within Latin America, MRSA is highly prevalent, with the proportion of S. aureus isolates that are methicillin-resistant on the rise, yet resources for managing the infection are limited. While several guidelines exist for the treatment of MRSA infections, many are written for the North American or European setting and need adaptation for use in Latin America. In this article, we aim to emphasize the importance of appropriate treatment of MRSA in the healthcare and community settings of Latin America. We present a summary of the available guidelines and antibiotics, and discuss particular considerations for clinicians treating MRSA in Latin America
This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research on basement insulation, which identifies the wall installation methods and materials that perform best in terms of insulation and water resistance.
The research contained in this book is designed to foster discussion about the policies and actions that must be promoted for building an Internet culture in Latin America and the Caribbean based on the principles of social and cultural equity.
Stine, Deborah D
.... An issue for Congress is whether FY2009 appropriations will. The Presidents s Office of Science and Technology Policy reports that the FY2009 budget request includes funding for America COMPETES Act initiatives at 88...
Juan Manuel Gil Barragán
Full Text Available This document has as main objective to discuss the dual role that China is playing in Latin America, on one hand, a strategic trade partner in Asia, source of foreign direct investment (FDI and key ally in the international arena, on the other hand, China is a formidable competitor particularly in the manufacturing sector. To reach the main objective, we make a brief description of the international trade relation between China and Latin America for the last 15 years, also, a review of the investment flows in different economic sectors, and lastly, a description of the political and diplomatic relation between Latin America and China. From this, it can be inferred that the bilateral relation is prominently framed by the trade of commodities from Latin America to China and the Chinese investment in the sourcing of natural resources.
Full Text Available The Croatian emigration to America begins after 1800. It is not possible to establish the exact number of the first immigrants to America because they came from Austria-Hungary and they were often registred as Austrians or Hungarians. The estimation is that about 500,000 Croatians came to America before World War I. The first literary appearances may be found in various religious documents, calendars, and year-books. A very important role in the life and literary production of Croatian emigrants played newspapers and journals publishing prose text, anecdotes and poetry. Autobiographies were also important as they reflected their authors' experiences in the new environment. A very rich bilingual literary emigrant production has developed in America.
David James Cantor
Full Text Available There is a startling range of positive examples of national law, policy and practice all across the Americas that states have used to respond to the migratory consequences of disasters.
The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) program provides environmental tools and information to build the capacity of LAC governments and civil society organizations to reduce environmental degradation and its impacts on public health.
Munoz Ribadeneira, F.; Villarreal, E.
The Agency's technical assistance and co-operation programmes operate in Latin America under two modalities: national projects and regional activities. This report presents an overview of projects being executed in a variety of nuclear and related fields
Cherubini, Jon C., Comp.
This quarterly bibliography of Italian studies in North America includes books, bibliographies, and reviews of comparative literature studies, translations, and publications on art, music, philosophy, history, cinema, and sociology, which are closely related to literature. (SW)
Maco, Vicente; Tantaleán, Manuel; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
Ancient parasites of the genus Tunga originated in America and, during the first half of the 19th century, were transported to the Eastern Hemisphere on transatlantic voyages. Although they were first documented by Spanish chroniclers after the arrival of Columbus, little is known about their presence in pre-Hispanic America. To evaluate the antiquity of tungiasis in America, we assessed several kinds of early documentation, including written evidence and pre-Incan earthenware reproductions. We identified 17 written documents and 4 anthropomorphic figures, of which 3 originated from the Chimu culture and 1 from the Maranga culture. Tungiasis has been endemic to Peru for at least 14 centuries. We also identified a pottery fragment during this study. This fragment is the fourth representation of tungiasis in pre-Hispanic America identified and provides explicit evidence of disease endemicity in ancient Peru.
This presentation discusses the Building America Program. This presentation discusses the background and goals of the program. A few hot topic technologies are discussed. Outreach activities are discussed as well.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This model product contains the source code for the Ecosystem Demography Model (ED version 1.0) as well as model input and output data for a portion of South America...
This report contains a contextual review of air cargo transportation in the 10-state Mid-America Freight Coalition (MAFC) region including the industrys recent history, security implications, and integration within the greater MAFC economy. The re...
Many cities in Latin America and the Caribbean are experiencing a water crisis as sources become exhausted or degraded. Urbanization, deteriorating infrastructures with a lack of funds for repairs, and inadequate polices are conspiring to cause water shortages.
dos Santos, Alaneir de Fátima; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Bouskela, Maurício Simon; Fernandéz, Andrés; Messina, Luiz Ary; Alves, Humberto José
This article aimed to systematize the views on telehealth in Latin America and to present the experience of building an instrument for monitoring the development of telehealth initiatives based on the reality of this region. A group was structured to coordinate telehealth efforts in Latin America, with members appointed by the ministries of health of 16 countries. Five thematic groups were also set up. Based on international experiences and focusing on the reality of telehealth in the continent, an instrument was created to monitor the development of telehealth in Latin America. Several countries have national telehealth projects: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama. Others are in the process of development and early deployment: Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Peru, Venezuela. The instrument described in the article, which is still being tested, proposes a characterization of countries according to their telehealth development stage: nonexistent, nascent, intermediate, advanced, and exemplary. Currently, important telehealth initiatives are already underway in Latin America.
Swisher, R.; Ancona, D.F.
This paper will highlight the key wind energy activities and programs of American countries. In South and Central America, wind technology awareness and opportunity is spreading. Countries have projects in the beginning stages of development and many sites with excellent wind resources are believed to exist. Argentina, Costa Rica, Colombia, Mexico, and several Caribbean countries are among those active in wind energy development. In Canada, after a decade of research and systems development, the Department of Energy Mines and Resources is conducting a review of all renewable energy technologies, including wind, to develop a strategic plan for future activities. Canadian industry continues development of various vertical axis projects and the Province of Alberta has begun a program to assess wind potential in that region. In the United States, commercial application of wind energy is continuing to expand. During 1989, over 140 MW of new wind turbine capacity was installed in wind power plants, bringing the total operating in the U.S. to 14600 turbines and 1,400 MW. During 1989, these machines produced over 2.1 billion kWh, enough to supply the residential needs of Washington D.C. or San Francisco. This is an increase of 15% over the 1988 total, even though installed operating capacity dropped by about 10% as smaller, out-dated turbines were phased out or replaced. The U.S. government is in the process of formulating a new National Energy Strategy. It seems clear that renewable energy and energy efficiency will play an increasingly important role in this strategy. The U.S. wind program continues to emphasize broad-based technology development, but has also initiated conceptual design studies for an advanced wind turbine for power generation in the late 1990s. (Author)
Heusser, C. J.
Overall trends in late-glacial paleoenvironments of southern South America are interpretable from the pollen stratigraphy of radiocarbon dated sections of mires in Tierra del Fuego (55°S), the Chilotan archipelago (42-43°S), and the Chilean Lake District (39-41°S). In Tierra del Fuego, southern beech ( Nothofagus) and shrub and herb taxa (Gramineae, Empetrum, Acaena, Gunnera, Compositae and Cyperaceae) serve as indicators of the changing climate; in the Chilotan archipelago and in the Chilean Lake District, southern beech and other trees (species of Myrtaceae, Podocarpus, Prumnopitys, Pseudopanax and Weinmannia) suffice as indices of climatic change. Pollen records from each of these regions, although in need of greater dating control, indicate climatic sequences that are broadly similar. The records, however, are not regionally consistent in all aspects and differ in their indicator value with the implication of fossil beetle evidence. Attempts at correlation can be unsatisfactory at times and can stem inter alia from the different ecophysiological responses of both plants and beetles to environmental pressures. These differences, which affect the timing of reproduction and migration, may result in the variable occurrence of different species in the records. The broad implication of the pollen data is that following a glacial readvance culminating at about 15,000-14,500 BP, late-glacial climate was generally warmer during intervals before 13,000 and between 12,000 and 11,000 BP, and was cooler between 13,000 and 12,000 and from 11,000 to 10,000 BP.
Merrick, T W
This publication examines the main demographic changes in Latin America since World War II, and considers their social and economic impact on the region. The paper looks at the following demographic trends: population growth, fertility, death rate, internal migration, international migration, and age structure. It also examines other factors such as marriage and family structure, and employment and education. Furthermore, the publication provides a discussion of the relationship between population growth and economic development from both a neo-Malthusian and Structuralist view. Finally, the paper considers the region's current population policies and future population prospects. From 1950-65, annual population growth averaged 2.8%, which decreased moderately to 2.4% from 1965-85. The report identified 3 population growth patterns in the region: 1) countries which experienced early and gradual declines in birth and death rates and generally lower population growth rates (the group includes Argentina, Cuba, Uruguay, with Chile and Panama also closely fitting the description); 2) countries which underwent rapid declines in birth rate during the 1950s and which began experiencing declines in the birth rate after 1960 (Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, Paraguay, and Venezuela, with Ecuador and Peru as borderline cases); and 3) countries which didn't begin to experience declines in mortality rates until relatively late and which lag behind in fertility declines (Bolivia, Haiti, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua). Although population growth has slowed and will continue to fall, UN projections do not expect the population to stabilize until late in the 21st Century.
Full Text Available The present article discusses the conditions for the adoption of development strategies in Latin America in the aftermath of the neoliberal reforms, focusing specifically on the role of political institutions as a component of the productive regimes in selected countries. Development is treated as an endogenous process, which is shaped over time in terms of trajectories that are continuously redefined according to specific political conjunctures. Having moved from restricted democracies or authoritarian regimes and autarchic economies to mass democracies operating in the context of open economies after the market-oriented reforms, persistent structural inequalities presently constitute the major axis framing the definition of development policies. More so than in advanced countries where the State is treated as epiphenomenon of their respective productive regimes, in the case of the Latin American semi-periphery the State is the crucial actor for the reversal of vicious circles and negative complementarities stemming from the extreme structural and social inequalities within and between countries in the region. Following a brief discussion on development and economic growth in the definition of the post-neoliberal agenda, the article examines institutional indicators for economic performance of contemporary governmental coalitions in selected countries, focusing on State policies favouring development such as financing, technological innovation, training of labour and social policies. Next, we concentrate on the analysis of political institutions and the role of political elites capable of generating national projects for sustainable development strategies, showing some of the differences between these countries. We conclude with a brief discussion on the adequacy of contemporary political economy approaches to understand processes of capitalist transformation in the periphery, calling attention to the need for a redefined regional perspective
Conde-Agudelo, A; Belizán, J M; Díaz-Rossello, J L
To identify risk factors associated with fetal death, and to measure the rate and the risk of fetal death in a large cohort of Latin American women. We analyzed 837,232 singleton births recorded in the Perinatal Information System Database of the Latin American Center for Perinatology and Human Development (CLAP) between 1985 and 1997. The risk factors analyzed included fetal factors and maternal sociodemographic, obstetric, and clinical characteristics. Adjusted relative risks were obtained, after adjustment for potential confounding factors, through multiple logistic regression models based on the method of generalized estimating equations. There were 14,713 fetal deaths (rate=17.6 per 1000 births). The fetal death risk increased exponentially as pregnancy advanced. Thirty-seven percent of all fetal deaths occurred at term, and 64% were antepartum. The main risk factors associated with fetal death were lack of antenatal care (adjusted relative risk [aRR]=4.26; 95% confidence interval, 3.84-4.71) and small for gestational age (aRR=3.26; 95% CI, 3.13-3.40). In addition, the risk of death during the intrapartum period was almost tenfold higher for fetuses in noncephalic presentations. Other risk factors associated with stillbirth were: third trimester bleeding, eclampsia, chronic hypertension, preeclampsia, syphilis, gestational diabetes mellitus, Rh isoimmunization, interpregnancy interval or =4, maternal age > or =35 years, illiteracy, premature rupture of membranes, body mass index > or =29.0, maternal anemia, previous abortion, and previous adverse perinatal outcomes. There are several preventable factors that should be dealt with in order to reduce the gap in fetal mortality between Latin America and developed countries.
Full Text Available Visual registers of Latin America acquired new characteristics at the dawning of the 19th century. Alongside the pointedly secular practice of the scientific Enlightenment, naturalistic in character, there emerged an artistic current that produced images with a strong subjective quality. This American iconography of the 19th century was the work of traveling artists. In the exercise of their work, painters and drawers were led through modern esthetical premises that proposed an amalgam of artistic activity and the production of scientific knowledge. This article intends to venture into that genre of the arts based on a study of the theoretical context that sustains it, observing the range of themes it covered.
Los registros visuales de la América ibérica adquirieron un perfil nuevo con los albores del siglo XIX. Paralelamente a la práctica más que secular de la ilustración científica de carácter naturalista surgió una vertiente artística que produjo un tipo de imágenes con una fuerte carga subjetiva. Esa iconografía americana decimonónica fue obra de los artistas viajeros. En el ejercicio de su tarea, pintores y dibujantes fueron conducidos por premisas estéticas modernas, que proponían una amalgama del quehacer artístico con la producción de conocimiento científico. Este artículo propone una incursión en ese género de las bellas artes a partir de un estudio del contexto teórico que la sustenta, observando el abanico temático que abarcó.
Escudero, D; Matesanz, R; Soratti, C A; Flores, José Ignacio
To examine the diagnosis of brain death (BD) in Latin America. The term BD has long been used to define the death of an individual despite legal differences and variations in the diagnostic criteria applied in each country. A survey was conducted to gain information on the medical and legal diagnosis of BD in the 21 countries that make up the Latin American Network/Council of Donation and Transplant. All the Latin American countries except for Nicaragua legally recognize BD as the death of the person. To declare a person dead, 2 or 3 doctors are required in most countries. In all the countries, the requirements that must be fulfilled are unresponsive coma, lack of brainstem reflexes and of spontaneous breathing. Partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide levels required in the apnea test vary from 50-60mm Hg. The minimum temperature required for a neurological examination ranges from 32 degrees -35 degrees C. The atropine test is mandatory in 7 (35%) countries. The most recommended observation period is 6h, but there is great variation and can be up to 24h. In 8 countries (40%), an instrumental test is obligatory, while in the remaining countries this is only undertaken under special circumstances. In some countries, when organs are not donated for transplant, support measures are not withdrawn, this being more frequent in children. There seems to be some uniformity in the main diagnostic criteria applied, with differences observed in clinical prerequisites, neurological exams, observation time, instrumental tests and the clinical decisions made following a declaration of BD. It is recommended that diagnostic criteria be standardized.
González, Juan Camilo; Arango, Victoria E; Einarson, Thomas R
Pharmacovigilance activities have been ongoing for 4 decades. However, little is known (especially outside of the area) about the contribution of Latin America to this field. To review and quantify the published literature on pharmacovigilance in Latin American countries. We searched electronic databases including MEDLINE (1966-2004), EMBASE (1980-2004), International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1970-2004), Toxline (1992-2004), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (1982-2004), Sistema de Información Esencial en Terapéutica y Salud (1980-2004), and the Pan American Health Organization Web site (1970-2004) for articles on pharmacovigilance or adverse drug reactions in any of the 19 major Latin American countries. Papers were retrieved and categorized according to content and country of origin by 2 independent reviewers. There were 195 usable articles from 13 countries. Fifty-one of the papers retrieved dealt with pharmacovigilance centers (15 national centers, 10 hospitals, 26 other), 55 covered pharmacovigilance itself (21 theoretical papers, 9 with description of models, 25 educational papers), and 89 were pharmacoepidemiologic studies of adverse drug reactions (69 case reports, 13 observational cohorts, 2 cohort studies, 1 randomized clinical trial, 4 clinical papers on adverse reaction management). Studies have increased exponentially since 1980. Five countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Venezuela) published reports from national centers. No studies were found from 6 countries: Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Paraguay, or Uruguay. Most studied categories were antiinfectives and drugs affecting the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and musculoskeletal system. Contributions of Latin American countries to the field of pharmacovigilence have been remarkable, considering the constraints on these countries. A need exists for an increased number of formal pharmacovigilance studies and research
Prados de la Escosura, Leandro
How has Latin America’s wellbeing evolved over time? How does Latin America compare to today’s developed countries (OECD, for short)? What explains their differences? These questions are addressed using an historical index of human development. A sustained improvement in wellbeing can be observed since 1870. The absolute gap between OECD and Latin America widened over time, but an incomplete catching up – largely explained by education- occurred since 1900, but faded away after 1980, as Latin...
Pedro Sergio Urquijo Torres; Gerardo Bocco Verdinelli
In this paper we report results of a thorough contemporary historiographic revision of published geographic research and geography research departments and centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG) Geography. First we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we...
Poissonet, M.; Marvy, A.
North America will be one of the few places in the world where continuous development of new uranium mining projects and renewed, more intense exploration will occur for the coming years. Although the present project approval process and regulatory regime can be seen as a burden, past discoveries of world-class deposits have made North America the best place to invest in uranium production for many years to come. (author) 1 fig
The role of nuclear medicine in protection of health in Latin America states is shown. Nuclear medicine methods are applied in Latin America countries for diagnosis of coronary disease, cancer, malfunctioning of separate organs and transplants, kidney transplants in particular. The present situation in protection of health in the region is evaluated. It is emphasized that nuclear medicine should play its role in the course of public health improvement in those countries
Gomes-Temporão, José; Instituto Suramericano de Gobierno Salud (ISAGS/UNASUR). Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.; Faria, Mariana; Instituto Suramericano de Gobierno Salud (ISAGS/UNASUR). Rio de Janeiro, Brasil.
Health systems in South America still support segmentation, privatization and fragmentation. Health reforms of the structural adjustment programs in the 1980s and 1990s in South America followed different purposes and strategies ranging from privatization, commodification and state intervention for the implementation of a national public health service with universal access as a right of the citizens. Since the 2000s, many countries have expanded social policies, reduced poverty and social in...
Cabrera-Samith, Ignacio; Oróstegui-Pinilla, Diana; Angulo-Bazán, Yolanda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J
This article deals with the history and evolution of student's scientific journals in Latin-America, their beginnings, how many still exist and which is their future projection. Relevant events show the growth of student's scientific journals in Latin-America and how are they working together to improve their quality. This article is addressed not only for Latin American readers but also to worldwide readers. Latin American medical students are consistently working together to publish scientific research, whose quality is constantly improving.
Alex Augusto Timm Rathke; Verônica de Fátima Santana; Isabel Maria Estima Costa Lourenço; Flávia Zóboli Dalmácio
Abstract This study analyzes the level of earnings management in Latin America after the adoption of the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and analyzes the role of cross-listing in the United States. The literature on earnings management in less developed countries is still under construction, and few studies focus on this issue, especially with respect to Latin America, despite its relevant role in the global economy. This paper fills this gap in the literature as it analyze...
Analysis of the morphological characters in North and South American horses present during Paleoindian time indicates that at least eight Equus ecospecies occurred in North America. In South America, Equus had radiated into four ecospecies, Hippidion had one, and Onohippidium had three geographically separate ecospecies. These species are found in archeological deposits ranging from ca. 13,000 to 8,000 yr B.P., in tropical habitats as well as in the high Andean and Patagonian colder ecotopes.
Edwards, JD; Vasconcelos, SGT
Tropical Gothic examines Gothic within a specific geographical area of ‘the South’ of the Americas. In so doing, we structure the book around geographical coordinates (from North to South) and move among various national traditions of the gothic (Mexico, Costa Rica, Brazil, etc.) alongside regional manifestations of the Gothic (the U.S. south and the Caribbean) as well as transnational movements of the Gothic within the Americas. The reflections on national traditions of the Gothic in this...
The thermotolerant species of Campylobacter have become very important in public health, especially as agents of infectious diarrhea in human beings. In this brief revision we present part of the available information generated in South America about epidemiological, clinical and bacteriological aspects of campylobacteriosis and we identify some differences between the observed and documented campylobacteriosis in South America compared to those described in industrialized countries.
Strategic issues for the North American polyolefin industry were discussed with reference to oil and gas price forecasts, oil capacity increases, and high density polyethylene production and ethylene integration costs. The overall polyolefin trade balance in North America was also explored. It was cautioned that unless a significant amount of new capacity is built in the United States, it is anticipated that by 2008, the United States will become a net importer of polyolefin resins. Currently exported product will be used increasingly in the domestic market to meet demand growth. This shift from being a net exporter of resins can be attributed to the high cost of feedstocks and the lack of investment in new capacity throughout the region. In contrast, there have been several proposals for new capacity in Latin America in the past several years. Since there is already an important level of commerce and trade between North and South America, countries with access to the Caribbean basin, are logistically well situated to serve the North American market. The availability of low cost feedstocks in countries such as Trinidad, Venezuela and Bolivia add to the attractiveness of the region for the development of new petrochemical capacity. This paper examined the status of the different proposed projects in Latin America and analyzed the potential opportunities that exist for North American producers to collaborate in those projects. The general trade balance of the continent was reviewed in order to verify if the traditional seclusion of America's polyolefin market can be maintained in the future. It was concluded that even if all projects in Latin America are launched, the Americas will still be in a net deficit position. Under the right circumstances, the Middle East will be the global supplier of commodity polyolefins that could extend to the Americas. It was emphasized that companies should be prepared for feedstock advantaged investments, alliances, acquisitions and
Sarah West; Ann Wolverton
Rapid urbanization and increased industrialization have led to high pollution levels throughout Latin America. Economists tout policies based on market-based economic incentives as the most cost-effective methods for addressing a wide variety of environmental problems. This chapter examines market-based incentives and their applicability to Latin America. We first review the market-based incentives traditionally used to address pollution – emissions taxes, environmental subsidies, tax and sub...
Macellari, C. E.
The western margin of South America was encroached upon by a series of marine advances that increased in extent from the Early Cretaceous to a maximum in the early Late Cretaceous for northern South America (Venezuela to Peru). In southern South America, however, the area covered by the marine advances decreased from a maximum in the Early Cretaceous to a minimum during mid-Cretaceous time, followed by a widespread advance at the end of the period. A series of unconformity-bounded depositional cycles was recognized in these sequences: five cycles in northern South America, and six (but not exactly equivalent) cycles in the Cretaceous back-arc basins of southern South America (Neuquén and Austral, or Magallanes, Basins). Both widespread anoxic facies and maximum flooding of the continent in northern South America coincide in general terms with recognized global trends, but this is not the case in southern South America. Here, anoxic facies are restricted to the Lower Cretaceous and seem to be controlled by local aspects of the basin evolution and configuration. The contrasts observed between northern and southern South America can be explained by differences in tectonic setting and evolution. To the north, sediments were deposited around the tectonically stable Guayana-Brazilian Massifs, and thus registered global "signals" such as anoxic events and major eustatic changes. The southern portion of the continent, on the contrary, developed in an active tectonic setting. Here, the mid-Cretaceous Peruvian Orogeny overprinted, to a large extent, world-wide trends and only the earliest and latest Cretaceous conform to global depositional patterns.
The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges
Full Text Available This thesis first took an overall look at the relationship between Asia and Central and South America. Meanwhile, this thesis studied the growth potential of these two continents and the rapid growth trend compared with other areas. Based on these, this thesis emphasized the necessity of the cooperation between Asia and Central and South America, which has been alienated for a long period. Upon studying of this thesis, the reader will track the connection of the overseas investment strategy of Korea to the domestic and overseas economic factors while analyzing its motivation and feature, etc. Also, it analyzes Korea's future investment in Central and South America as comparing with the strategies of Japan and Taiwan. Besides, in this thesis the author is trying to get future-oriented experiences from the analyses in areas such as trade, investment experience, culture difference and personnel exchange, and the prospect of the relationship between Korea and Central and South America. This thesis brought forward the 'blueprint' about promoting the cooperation between Asia and Central and South America, such as to organize the meeting for the new setting summit conference of Asian and Central American leaders, to add members from Central and South America countries to the MERCOSUR of APEC, to expand items in order to promote mutual-communication.
Aron, J. L.
The Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI) has addressed training in climate and health in the Americas in two major ways. First, IAI supports students to engage in research training. A multi-country health activity funded by IAI was the collaborative research network (CRN) on Diagnostics and Prediction of Human Health Impacts in the Tropical Americas, which focused principally on the effect of El Nino/Southern Oscillation and other aspects of climate variability on mosquito-borne diseases malaria and dengue. The CRN involved students in Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Jamaica. The CRN was also linked to other climate and health projects that used a similar approach. Second, IAI organizes training institutes to expand the network of global change research scientists and facilitate the transfer of global change research into practice. The IAI Training Institute on Climate and Health in the Americas was held on November 7 - 18, 2005 at the University of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica, engaging participants from the CRN and other programs in the Americas. The Training Institute's central objective was to help strengthen local and regional capacity to address the impacts of climate variability and climate change on human health in the populations of the Americas, particularly Latin America and the Caribbean. The Training Institute had three core components: Science; Applications; and Proposal Development for Seed Grants. Recommendations for future Training Institutes included incorporating new technologies and communicating with policy-makers to develop more proactive societal strategies to manage risks.
Farrar, Sara; Rothgeb, Stacey; Polly, Ben; Earle, Lieko; Merrigan, Tim
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America Program enables the transformation of the U.S. housing industry to achieve energy savings through energy-efficient, high-performance homes with improved durability, comfort, and health for occupants. Building America bridges the gap between the development of emerging technologies and the adoption of codes and standards by engaging industry partners in applied research, development, and demonstration of high-performance solutions.
Meadvin, Joanna Beth
This dissertation is a literary and cultural history of the intertwining of Yiddish, Spanish and English in the twentieth-century Americas. I employ a hemispheric lens to argue that across the Americas, Jewish authors imagined national belonging through different engagements with language. The project follows the literary production of eastern European Jews in Buenos Aires and New York—two major urban immigration centers—arguing that linguistic strategies and language politics undergird the s...
Christensen, Steen Fryba
The article discusses if the tendency towards nationalism in Latin America seems to get in the way of the regional integration project in Mercosur and at the level of South America......The article discusses if the tendency towards nationalism in Latin America seems to get in the way of the regional integration project in Mercosur and at the level of South America...
Kritzer, B E
The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for
Normapolles pollen have been found in North America in Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary rocks from the eastern Atlantic Seaboard, the Mississippi embayment region and from the states and provinces from western North America as far north as the District of Mackenzie, Northwest Territories. Previous postulates relating to the Normapolles floral province (western Europe-eastern North America) were re-examined in the light of new finds of Normapolles genera in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway which separated the Normapolles province from the western North American Aquilapollenites province. A study of published occurrences of Normapolles genera and U.S. Geological Survey Denver Laboratory Normapolles records revealed that of the approximately 60 Normapolles genera recognized from western Europe, only 26 of these have been recognized from eastern North America. These data suggest that Normapolles-producing plants originated in western Europe and migrated to eastern North America prior to the opening of the north Atlantic seaway. Ten of these 26 genera also have been found in rocks from west of the Cretaceous epeiric seaway, suggesting that these genera were the only ones able to cross this barrier. At least six genera having Normapolles characteristics occur in eastern North America but have not yet been recorded from Europe. Two additional genera with Normapolles characteristics have been reported only from the Aquilapollenites province of western North America. Several discrepancies in the record need resolution, such as the latitudinal restriction of Thomsonipollis and Nudopollis to areas south 40??N latitude, the absence of records of Thomsonipollis east and north of central Georgia, and the absence of records of Kyandopollenites and Choanopollenites west of eastern Texas. These data show that the known boundaries of the Normapolles province are somewhat hazy and that firm conclusions regarding the geographic distribution and history of dispersal of
Harlan D. Shannon
Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous weather- and climate-related natural disasters have impacted North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, repeatedly demonstrating how vulnerable local agriculture is to extreme episodic events. Given this recent history, and expectations that the frequency and intensity of some episodic events will increase with climate change, it is becoming increasingly important for farmers to proactively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture to protect their livelihoods. Some farmers in this region already apply various strategies to help reduce weather and climate risks and uncertainties, including farming in multiple locations, diversifying crops and varieties, seeking alternative sources of income, and purchasing crop insurance. Such efforts often help farmers maintain a more stable income while also protecting and preserving the productivity of the land. Other farmers, however, have failed to implement basic risk management strategies despite the clear benefits. Reasons for these failures can be attributed to inadequate farmer education and training, a lack of tools to help facilitate the practical application of risk management concepts, and poor communications between the agrometeorological and farming communities. The agrometeorological community can help overcome these obstacles by building upon existing efforts that have successfully educated farmers about weather and climate risks to agriculture and have equipped farmers with the data, tools, and applications necessary to manage these risks. Farmer input is critical to preparing effective educational and training materials and developing user-friendly risk management tools. The agrometeorological community should solicit input from farmers regularly to ensure that farmers are obtaining the information necessary to effectively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture.
Full Text Available This catalogue includes all valid family-group (8 subfamilies, 52 tribes, 14 subtribes, genus-group (349 genera, 86 subgenera, and species-group names (2825 species, 215 subspecies of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae known to occur in North America1 and their available synonyms. Data on extant, subfossil and fossil taxa are given. For each name the author and year and page number of the description are provided, with additional information (e.g., type species for genus-group names, author of synonymies for invalid taxa depending on the taxon rank. Several new nomenclatural acts are included. One new genus, Lepidocnemeplatia Bousquet and Bouchard, is described. Spelaebiosis Bousquet and Bouchard [for Ardoinia Özdikmen, 2004], Blapstinus marcuzzii Aalbu [for Blapstinus kulzeri Marcuzzi, 1977], and Hymenorus campbelli Bouchard [for Hymenorus oculatus Doyen and Poinar, 1994] are proposed as new replacement names. Supporting evidence is provided for the conservation of usage of Tarpela micans (Fabricius, 1798 nomen protectum over Tarpela vittata (Olivier, 1793 nomen oblitum. The generic names Psilomera Motschulsky, 1870 [= Stenomorpha Solier, 1836], Steneleodes Blaisdell, 1909 [= Xysta Eschscholtz, 1829], Ooconibius Casey, 1895 and Euconibius Casey, 1895 [= Conibius LeConte, 1851] are new synonyms (valid names in square brackets. The following 127 new synonymies of species-group names, listed in their original combination, are proposed (valid names, in their current combination, placed in square brackets: Bothrasida mucorea Wilke, 1922 [= Pelecyphorus guanajuatensis (Champion, 1884]; Parasida zacualpanicola Wilke, 1922 [= Pelecyphorus asidoides Solier, 1836]; Stenosides kulzeri Pallister, 1954, Stenosides bisinuatus Pallister, 1954, and Parasida trisinuata Pallister, 1954 [= Pelecyphorus dispar (Champion, 1892]; Asida favosa Champion, 1884 and Asida similata Champion, 1884 [= Pelecyphorus fallax (Champion, 1884]; Ologlyptus bicarinatus
Bousquet, Yves; Thomas, Donald B.; Bouchard, Patrice; Smith, Aaron D.; Aalbu, Rolf L.; Johnston, M. Andrew; Jr., Warren E. Steiner
Abstract This catalogue includes all valid family-group (8 subfamilies, 52 tribes, 14 subtribes), genus-group (349 genera, 86 subgenera), and species-group names (2825 species, 215 subspecies) of darkling beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) known to occur in North America1 and their available synonyms. Data on extant, subfossil and fossil taxa are given. For each name the author and year and page number of the description are provided, with additional information (e.g., type species for genus-group names, author of synonymies for invalid taxa) depending on the taxon rank. Several new nomenclatural acts are included. One new genus, Lepidocnemeplatia Bousquet and Bouchard, is described. Spelaebiosis Bousquet and Bouchard [for Ardoinia Özdikmen, 2004], Blapstinus marcuzzii Aalbu [for Blapstinus kulzeri Marcuzzi, 1977], and Hymenorus campbelli Bouchard [for Hymenorus oculatus Doyen and Poinar, 1994] are proposed as new replacement names. Supporting evidence is provided for the conservation of usage of Tarpela micans (Fabricius, 1798) nomen protectum over Tarpela vittata (Olivier, 1793) nomen oblitum. The generic names Psilomera Motschulsky, 1870 [= Stenomorpha Solier, 1836], Steneleodes Blaisdell, 1909 [= Xysta Eschscholtz, 1829], Ooconibius Casey, 1895 and Euconibius Casey, 1895 [= Conibius LeConte, 1851] are new synonyms (valid names in square brackets). The following 127 new synonymies of species-group names, listed in their original combination, are proposed (valid names, in their current combination, placed in square brackets): Bothrasida mucorea Wilke, 1922 [= Pelecyphorus guanajuatensis (Champion, 1884)]; Parasida zacualpanicola Wilke, 1922 [= Pelecyphorus asidoides Solier, 1836]; Stenosides kulzeri Pallister, 1954, Stenosides bisinuatus Pallister, 1954, and Parasida trisinuata Pallister, 1954 [= Pelecyphorus dispar (Champion, 1892)]; Asida favosa Champion, 1884 and Asida similata Champion, 1884 [= Pelecyphorus fallax (Champion, 1884)]; Ologlyptus bicarinatus
Goldman, N; Pebley, A R
In Latin America, socially sanctioned conjugal unions take 2 forms: legal marriage and consensual unions. While legal marriage is more prestigious, consensual unions offer practical advantages. An examination of the legalization of consensual unions in rural areas in Colombia, Peru, Costa Rica, and Mexico is undertaken using data from the 1969 Centro Latinoamericano de Demografia's (CELADE) comparative survey of fertility. The survey in each country is based on a self weighted sample of 2000-3000 women aged 15-49 living in areas with fewer than 20,000 inhabitants. The union histories addressed types of unions, duration, and age and date of onset and of termination. The samples consisted of 881 unions in Colombia, 646 in Costa Rica, 865 in Mexico, and 1009 in Peru. The risk of legalization was measured by life table procedures, using only single decrement values for comparisons among subgroups. Between 32-41% of the unions are consensual in the rural areas of these countries. With the exception of Peru, consensual unions are higher among 2nd and later unions than among 1st unions. As expected from previous studies, they are more prevalent among younger women, those without education and among non-Catholics or non-practicing Catholics. About 30% of the consensual unions become legalized in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, and in Peru the rate of conversion is about 50%. Less than 20% in Colombia and Peru remain intact for more than 25 years; about 25% are terminated within the 1st 2 years. The single decrement values suggest that in the absence of separation or death of a partner, almost 50% of the unions would eventually be legalized in Colombia, Costa Rica, and Mexico, about 65% in Peru. The probability of conversion is highest among women in their 1st union and in the 1st year. Only 2-8% of the women legalize higher order unions. Of the factors related to the probability of legalization, age is an important differential in Costa Rica, education in Mexico, and
Haggerty, Jeannie L; Yavich, Natalia; Báscolo, Ernesto Pablo
To determine the relevancy of applying the Canadian primary health care (PHC) assessment strategy to Latin America and to propose any modifications that might be needed for reaching a consensus in Latin America. The Delphi method was used to reach a consensus among 29 experts engaged in PHC development or evaluation in Latin America. Four virtual sessions and a face-to-face meeting were held to discuss the PHC evaluation logic model and the seven goals and six conditioning factors that make up the Canadian strategy, as well as any questions regarding the evaluation and indicators. The relevance of each concept was ranked according to the perspective of the Latin American countries. The experts considered the Canadian strategy's objectives and conditioning factors to be highly relevant to assessing PHC in Latin America, though they acknowledged that additional modification would increase relevance. The chief suggestions were to create a PHC vision and mission, to include additional objectives and conditioning factors, and to rework the original set. The objectives that concerned coordination and integrated comprehensive care did not achieve a high degree of consensus because of ambiguities in the original text and multiple interpretations of statements regarding certain aspects of the evaluation. Considerable progress was made on the road to building a PHC evaluation framework for the Region of the Americas. Indicators and information-gathering tools, which can be appropriately and practically applied in diverse contexts, need to be developed.
Gurfinkel, Enrique P; Lernoud, Veronica S; Laguens, Ruben P; Favaloro, Roberto R
The beginnings of coronary artery bypass graft in Latin America could be set in the year 1971. Since then, improvements in technique and greater experience have resulted in a rapid increase in the rate of interventions performed in the region. Searches through PubMed and Literatura Latinoamericana y del Caribe en Ciencias de la Salud, as well as personal communications from specialists from Latin America, have been the source of information. Articles were selected by their content related to the theme, and the authors' nationality and information is mainly from Latin America. Demographic information of the population of Latin America denotes higher age averages, and this implies an increase in the severity of comorbidities in patients who undergo surgery. Longer life expectancy and improvements in medical therapy have implied that patients survive a first intervention beyond the expected time a bypass persists patent. Wall vessel properties of arterial conduits, plus a better anastomotic technique, seem to be the current solution to worsening in the coronary health of patients who undergo revascularization surgery in Latin America. Despite scarce economic investment in medical sciences, many academic groups contribute to the exploration of therapeutic pharmacological combinations and inclusively apply genetic strategies.
To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a 'moving target'.
To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a ''moving target''.
To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a 'moving target'.
The opportunity in Asia for petrochemical companies generally is well known among global players in the industry. Conventional wisdom dictates that most companies at least consider investing in Asia, and for good reason, in most cases. The more aggressive, growth-oriented companies, however, already are attempting to discover the ''next Asia,'' if there is such a thing. Latin America has been nominated as one of the less developed regions that might inherit the Asia/Pacific region's enviable position. This nomination, however, was made before the Mexican financial crisis and the burgeoning pressure on the currencies of Brazil and Argentina. In light of current events, can Latin America still be considered the next Asia, and, if so, what opportunities will follow the devaluation of the Mexican peso? An analysis of the economic and political factors affecting the petrochemical industry in Latin America indicates that the region still hold excellent prospects for petrochemical companies
Sapag, Jaime C; Kawachi, Ichiro
Latin America faces common development and health problems and equity and overcoming poverty are crucial in the search for comprehensive and high impact solutions. The article analyzes the definition of social capital, its relationship with health, its limitations and potentialities from a perspective of community development and health promotion in Latin America. High-priority challenges are also identified as well as possible ways to better measure and to strengthen social capital. Particularly, it is discussed how and why social capital may be critical in a global health promotion strategy, where empowerment and community participation, interdisciplinary and intersectorial work would help to achieve Public Health aims and a sustainable positive change for the global development. Also, some potential limitations of the social capital concept in the context of health promotion in Latin America are identified.
Marinov, Marin Alexandrov
. Addressing a broad variety of historical, political, economic, social, cultural and legal issues, the book offers unique insights into the enormous opportunities and challenges the region presents for implementing effective marketing strategies. Macro marketing issues such as regional integration, foreign......Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Latin America provides a much needed analysis of business and marketing in Latin America. The book highlights the diverse characteristics of the Latin American business and marketing environment as well as the dynamic nature of regional and country markets...... trade and direct investment are considered within the context of specific countries, as are the micro aspects of a company's marketing activities. The book is an extremely valuable resource for academics, practitioners and anyone interested in doing business in or with Latin America....
Full Text Available Why do democracies survive or break down? In this paper, it returns to this classic question with an empirical focus on Latin America from 1945 to 2005. The argument deviates from the quantitative literature and a good part of the qualitative literature on democratic survival and breakdown. It is argued that structural variables such as the level of development and inequalities have not shaped prospects for democratic survival in Latin America. Nor, contrary to findings in some of the literature, has economic performance affected the survival of competitive regimes. Instead, it is focused on the regional political environment and on actors’ normative preferences about democracy and dictatorship and their policy radicalism or moderation. It is argued that 1 a higher level of development did not increase the likelihood of democratic survival in Latin America over this long time; 2 if actors have a normative preference for democracy, it is more likely to survive; and 3 policy moderation facilitates democratic survival.
In developing countries, the ability to provide adequate and reliable energy supplies is a key to sustainable economic development. The aim of this report is to study the energy supply security in both Southern Africa and South America and how these regions can participate in the international effort to combat climate change. This report showed that South Africa's energy sector mostly relies on carbon intensive coal while Brazil is mainly supplied by hydroelectricity. It was found that in both countries energy needs will increase significantly due to rising demand both internally and at a regional scale. However it was also shown that both Southern Africa and South America have important hydro, solar and wind renewable resources which could enhance their electricity security while minimizing their environmental impacts. This study demonstrated that Southern Africa and South America can enhance their electricity security through the use of renewable energies but that technology and financing is needed to develop the sector.
The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political economy disputes of the reform strategies are explained by the conflict between the economic and related interests and values of the actors involved. This dynamic of the political process influences regulatory modes inherent in the processes of implementation of PHC policies. The State's governing capacity and levels of health system segmentation impinge on the effectiveness of reform strategies for resolving the conflicts in the policies implemented.
Goebel, Ted; Waters, Michael R; O'Rourke, Dennis H
When did humans colonize the Americas? From where did they come and what routes did they take? These questions have gripped scientists for decades, but until recently answers have proven difficult to find. Current genetic evidence implies dispersal from a single Siberian population toward the Bering Land Bridge no earlier than about 30,000 years ago (and possibly after 22,000 years ago), then migration from Beringia to the Americas sometime after 16,500 years ago. The archaeological records of Siberia and Beringia generally support these findings, as do archaeological sites in North and South America dating to as early as 15,000 years ago. If this is the time of colonization, geological data from western Canada suggest that humans dispersed along the recently deglaciated Pacific coastline.
Full Text Available Chagas disease in Central America is known since 1913 when the first human case was reported in El Salvador. The other Central American countries reported their first cases between 1933 and 1967. On October 1997 was launched the Central American Initiative for Chagas Disease Control (IPCA. The objectives of this sub-regional Initiative are: (1 the elimination of Rhodnius prolixus in Central America; (2 the reduction of the domiciliary infestation of Triatoma dimidiata; and (3 the elimination of the transfusion transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi. Significant advancements being close to the elimination of R. prolixus in Central America and the control of the transfusion transmission has been a transcendent achievement for the sub-region. The main challenges that the IPCA will have in the close future are: developing effective strategies for control and surveillance of T. dimidiata; and surveillance of other emerging triatominae species like R. pallescens, T. nitida, and T. ryckmani.
Pucciarelli, Deanna L; Grivetti, Louis E
The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating back to the 16th century. From Mesoamerican Codices and European Treatises scholars have determined that for hundreds of years the beverage called chocolate was administered to the sick and prescribed homeopathically to prevent illness. Yet, little scholarship exists that focuses on medicinal chocolate usage in early North America (18th-19th century). This paper examines medical practices during this era and associated medicinal norms with special attention given to chocolate/cocoa usage. Given the current scientific attention on the relationship between dark chocolate consumption and heart disease attenuation it is timely to investigate and chronicle America's medical forebears' understanding of, and practices related to, the medicinal use of chocolate. Indeed, there is a significant amount of literature to suggest that chocolate was used for wellness and to treat illness.
Sanchez-Sierra, G. (OLADE, Quito (Ecuador))
In the last two decades, the Latin America/Carribean region has become increasingly dependent on electricity to meet growing demands for energy. Hydropower is the prevailing source for meeting this need. Hydroelectric generation increased at an annual average rate of nearly 9% between 1971 and 1989. HYdro now provides more than two-thirds of total electric power generated in Latin America and the Caribbean. The only other predominant source used for electric generation is fossil fuels. In this region there are several trends developing. They include: developing more small hydro facilities, opportunities for sharing water resources, an interest in changing the approach to water use regulation, and possibilities for more participation by the private sector. Overall, hydro appears to have a favorable competitive position in the power industry in the Latin America/Caribbean region.
Ruilope, L M; Nunes Filho, A C B; Nadruz, W; Rodríguez Rosales, F F; Verdejo-Paris, J
In the countries of Central America, South America and the Caribbean, there has been a dramatic rise in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors in the last few decades. Epidemiological evidence highlights a consistent correlation between obesity and hypertension, and the presence of obesity predisposes an individual to a greater risk of hypertension although the mechanisms remain unclear. Obesity and hypertension are two key drivers of the cardio-renal disease continuum, and patients with uncontrolled cardiovascular risk in their mid-life will likely have an increased risk of clinical cardiovascular and renal outcomes in old age. This article summarizes the current status for the prevalence and consequences of obesity and hypertension in Latin America, with the aim of initiating a call to action to all stakeholders for greater implementation of primary prevention strategies, particularly in the young. Copyright © 2018 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Cardozo, Fernando Simoes [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
Expansion of the internal market and external, production on a large scale and more dynamic economic growth would be the consequences of a regional integration in South America. However, due to the specific characteristics of South America this process did not occur. Many attempts were made through the years with the creation of institutions that tried to promote the integration of different forms of South America. This article analyses the current economic conditions in which this initiative is to achieve an energy integration, which seems feasible given the provision expresses the presidents of South American countries before a possible rationing of energy. Through analysis of the results it may be concluded that there is a growing demand for energy in all countries, which should be resolved first in order not to cut the development of South America. The main economic aspects which affect the process of integrating energy are the commercial structures of energy, the energy complementarities, the degree of development of infrastructure for interconnection, the industrial structure and conformation electric business. However, an immediate solution would be to boost bilateral integration energy projects and construction of transmission lines that interconnect the regional stations for the supply of electric energy. Moreover, as the conditions are not improved political and economic and there is no compatible models between technical institutions and legal and administrative, will not be achieved significant progress in the process of regional energy integration of South America. (author)
Ometto, J. P.; Bustamante, M.; Forti, M. C.; Peres, T.; Stein, A. F.; Jaramillo, V.; Perez, C.; Pinho, P. F.; Ascarrunz, N.; Austin, A.; Martinelli, L. A.
Latin America is at a crossroads where a balance should be found between production of the major agricultural commodities, reasonable and planned urbanization and conservation of its natural ecosystems and associated goods and services. Most of the natural biological fixation of the globe occurs in forests of Latin America. On the other hand, Latin America has one of the highest rate of deforestation in the world, and one of the highest increases in the use of nitrogen fertilizers. A better understanding of the responses of the N cycle to human impacts will allow better conservation of biodiversity and natural resources, with an improvement in food security and more effective land use choices in biofuel development. Latin America is a unique region in multiple aspects, and particularly relevant for this proposal are the broad climatic gradient and economic patterns that include a diverse range of natural ecosystems and socio-economic development pathways. Additionally, the region is impaired by the lack of information on actual impacts of human activity on N cycling across this diverse range of ecosystems. Finally, the large expanse of tropical ecosystems and reservoirs of biodiversity juxtaposed with an intense economic incentive for development make our understanding of human impacts in this context particularly important for global change research in the region. An evaluation of current and predicted changes in climate and land use on nitrogen stocks and fluxes in the region what is being develop by the Nnet network (Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America: Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities ). This presentation will bring the latest results of this integrative initiative in Latin America, focusing on the nitrogen budget associated to provision of ecosystem services and climate change.
The paper describes the present status of nuclear power in Latin America, giving an analysis of Argentina, Brazil, Cuba and Mexico - the countries that have committed themselves to nuclear power undertakings. The historical development of the energy sector is studied and analysed, comparing Latin America with developed countries and groups of countries. Projected data are also studied and analysed, defining the present status of nuclear power in Latin American and its future possibilities. The region's future needs are analyzed on the basis of various indicators and the most important conclusions are highlighted. (author). 10 refs, 9 figs, 21 tabs
Jensen, Olaf Chresten
for research in this part of the world. Materials and Methods PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online, Pan American Journal of Public Health, Medicina Maritima and other relevant journals in Latin America in the Spanish and English languages were searched. Results 57 peer-reviewed......Background So far the maritime health and safety research for seafarers and fishermen mainly comes from the industrial developed countries with sparse contributions from the developing countries. The aim was to give an overview of the peer reviewed research in Latin America to point out the needs...
abstracts see "Abstracting Sientific ed Technical Reports of Defense-Sponsored RDT&3."""- %, -’ p 4 ,’ 0 0 ." .. ’ ..\\ a U.S. Q t$74-540-847102. ... % % F...Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 1982. 10 p. Q180 .Al R16 No. 6752 THE AMERICAS AT A CROSSROADS: REPORT OF THE INTER- AMERICAN DIALOGUE. Washington, DC: Woodrow...Wilson International Center for Scholars Latin American Program, 1983. 63 p. P1408 .A65 1983 Anderson, Thomas P. POLITICS IN CENTRAL AMERICA: GUATEMALA
Full Text Available The sterile corticolous crustose lichen Protoparmelia capitata (Ascomycota: Parmeliaceae, recently described for southeastern North America, is reported as a new record for South America in the Serra da Jiboia mountain range, near the municipality of Santa Teresinha, in the state of Bahia, in northeastern Brazil. This species is locally common and is probably closely related to P. isidiata, which has the same pigmentation and medullary chemistry, P. capitata differing from P. isidiata in that the former features soredia rather than isidia.
Full Text Available Three recent works â€“ Social Activism in Southeast Asia, Social Movements in Latin America: Neoliberalism and Popular Resistance, and Southeast Asia and the Civil Society Gaze: Scoping a Contested Concept in Cambodia and Vietnam â€“ provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies.
Narasimhan, T. N.
This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une rétrospective de l'évolution de l'hydrogéologie en Amérique du Nord sur les deux derniers siècles, et une brève évaluation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrogéologie est marquée par le développement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la mécanique des sols, les sciences du sol, la géologie économique, l' ingénierie pétrolière, la géologie structurale, la géochimie, la géophysique, la géologie marine et plus récemment l'écologie. La science a été enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingués, provenant de toutes ces branches. A présent, l
Falavigna, Asdrubal; Martins Filho, Délio Eulálio; Avila, José María Jiménez; Guyot, Juan Pablo; Gonzáles, Alvaro Silva; Riew, Daniel K
The emancipatory nature of education requires research as its fundamental base, because physicians can only improve their skills and knowledge through enquiry. The number and quality of scientific publications by Latin-American spine surgeons found in the Medline database was low between 2000 and 2011. Nevertheless, the research Bank Survey of AOSpine Latin America (AOSLA) members showed that 96% of responders were very interested and motivated to perform scientific research. The research officer of AOSLA together with the Country Council and the AOSpine Research Commission established a competency-based curriculum to improve understanding of what is necessary to produce research and the best methods to achieve this goal. The research curriculum was divided into four main components: (1) research educational plan, (2) performing research, (3) technical and professional support and (4) assessment. The competences, learning outcomes and a syllabus on knowledge in research were developed to enable the participants to understand and perform investigations effectively. The eLearning module was designed to improve the competences to access, evaluate and use scientific information available in the main databases efficiently. Research courses were given as an isolated activity four times in Brazil and Mexico and as precourse activities six times in Brazil, Mexico and Peru. The result was an increased number of articles published and works presented at congresses. The project of education in research can be effectively disseminated and applied across regions, across students and across specialties.
Antonio Luigi Palmisano
Full Text Available Identities, and ethnic identities in particular, are the in fieri result of complex social and cultural processes which show how much the identities of the social actors are multiple, in transition, situational and constantly negotiated. However, the structure of the dominating social and political order of the contemporary post-global era coincides with the order of the financial markets. Based upon the ethnographies of Latin America this article claims that this new order interacts antagonistically with the structures which are acknowledged, proposed or anyway regulated by both the national juridical systems (customary law, Constitution, civil and penal law and international law toward processes of fixation and reification of the identities. The social actor is thus reduced and constrained in the mono-role of consumer up to indebtedness and to his consequent epiphany as res. The way to a law without State is thus open: an icon and embodiment of elitist ideologies that are at the same time active and hidden but deeply inscribed the new order of the financial markets which convey social Darwinism and the subordination of man to financial capital.
Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro
Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992
And there are growing concerns about the ethics of implementing some types of IE. This paper explores recent IE practice in Latin America and reviews more than 300 impact evaluations in 21 countries. It examines the policy issues covered and methodologies used; the research actors and implementing agencies involved; ...
Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Bui
Elahee, Mohammad; Norbis, Mario
This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…
Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Herold, Christina I; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Dizon, Don S; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Del Carmen, Marcela; Randall, Tom C; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline M; Goss, Paul E
Cervical cancer (CC) is second most common cause of cancer in Latin America and is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women. In 2015, an estimated 74,488 women will be diagnosed with CC in Latin America and 31,303 will die of the disease. CC mortality is projected to increase by 45% by 2030 despite human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening efforts. In this setting, the goal was of the current study was to examine CC control efforts in Latin America and identify deficiencies in these efforts that could be addressed to reduce CC incidence and mortality. The authors found that HPV vaccination has been introduced in the majority of Latin American countries, and there is now a need to monitor the success (or shortcomings) of these programs and to ensure that these programs are sustainable. This topic was also reviewed in light of emerging data demonstrating that visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing without Papanicolaou tests have efficacy from a screening perspective and are good alternatives to cytology-based screening programs. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for CC control in Latin America and the best strategy will depend on the country/region and must be tailored to meet the needs of the population as well as available resources. © 2015 American Cancer Society.