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Sample records for americas decapoda thalassinidea

  1. The Hermit Crabs (Crustacea Decapoda, Paguridea) of Northwestern North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mclaughlin, P.A.

    1974-01-01

    A systematic study has been made of the Paguridea (exclusive of the Lithodidae) from northwestern North America. In addition to the redescriptions of all known species, two subgenera are herein raised to generic rank and a new genus is described. Several systematic problems have been resolved, and h

  2. Behaviour and time allocation of the burrowing shrimp Callianassa subterranea (Decapoda, Thalassinidea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stamhuis, E.J; Reede-Dekker, T; van Etten, Y; de Wiljes, J.J.; Videler, J.J

    1996-01-01

    The behaviour and allocation of time of the endobenthic shrimp Callianassa subterranea from the central North Sea was studied in the laboratory. Animals were allowed to construct a two-dimensional burrow in large transparent sediment filled cuvettes tailored to their body width. The behaviour of the

  3. Gastroptychus Cavimurus sp. nov., a new Chirostylid (Crustacea, Decapoda, Anomura) from off the western coast of South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baba, K.

    1977-01-01

    During the second cruise of the Japanese Research Vessel "Kaiyo Maru" to the western coast of South America in 1968-69, Dr. Osame Tabeta of the Shimonoseki University of Fisheries, then on the staff of the Kyushu University, collected a number of galatheids off the northern Peruvian coast. All of th

  4. Life history of the ghost shrimp, Callianassa japonica ortmann (Decapoda: Thalassinidea), on an intertidal sandflat in western Kyushu, Japan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tamaki, A.; Ingole, B.S.; Ikebe, K.; Muramatsu, K.; Taka; Tanaka, M.

    sandflat in western Kyushu, Japan A. Tamaki”‘*, B. Ingoleb, K. Ikebe”, K. Muramatsu=, M. Taka”, M. Tanakac 4Faculty of Fisheries, Nagasaki University, Bunkyo-machi l-14, Nagasaki 852, Japan bNational Institute of Oceanography, Goa-403004, India...

  5. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes

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    Lin Feng-Jiau

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea, Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea. All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome

  6. The Crustacea Decapoda of Cyprus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewinsohn, Ch.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1986-01-01

    An account of the species of Crustacea Decapoda so far known from Cyprus, based on (1) material collected during the 1967-1970 Hebrew University - Smithsonian Institution Joint Program "Biota of the Red Sea and the Eastern Mediterranean", (2) Cyprus material from other sources, and (3) published rec

  7. Behavioural and Physiological Implications of a Burrow-dwelling Lifestyle for Two Species of Upogebiid Mud-shrimp (Crustacea: Thalassinidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astall, C. M.; Taylor, A. C.; Atkinson, R. J. A.

    1997-02-01

    Upogebia stellataand U. deltaura(Crustacea: Thalassinidea) construct burrows in nearshore sediments in U.K. waters. Burrow structure is similar in both species; the basic burrow consisting of a two-opening, U-shaped section with a vertical shaft descending from the mid-point of the U. This structure may be variously elaborated. Burrow cross-section is circular, dilations allow turning by somersaulting and surface openings are often constricted. Conditions within the burrows are usually hypoxic and hypercapnic. Burrow water PO 2in the parts normally occupied by the mud-shrimp was between 80-110 Torr, but was much lower (10-45 Torr) in the deepest, poorly-irrigated parts. Both species irrigate their burrows by episodes of pleopod beating of variable duration (mean=8·5±3·5 min and 2·8±0·5 min for U. deltauraand U. stellata, respectively), which draws oxygenated water into the burrow and also particulate food for suspension feeding. When exposed to hypoxia, U. deltauraand U. stellatawere able to maintain their rates of oxygen consumption approximately constant over a wide range of PO 2( Pc=30-50 Torr). Under these conditions, there was a pronounced increase in scaphognathite beat rate but heart rate remained relatively constant. Below the Pc, however, both rates declined.

  8. Larval development of Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea from the Amazon region, reared in the laboratory O desenvolvimento larval de Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea da região amazônica, cultivado em laboratório

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    Fernando A. Abrunhosa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The complete larval development of the ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 was described and illustrated in detail from specimens reared in the laboratory. Ovigerous females were collected at Canela Island in the northeastern region of the State of Pará. The larvae hatch as a prezoea, in which they persist for less than 3 hours. The larval development consists of three zoeal stages and a megalopa. The zoeal development averaged from 69 to 111 hours. The period in the megalopa stage was about 185 hours (about 8 days. The percentage of individuals succeeding in molt into juvenile stage was 91,8%. The first juvenile stage was reached 254 hours (about 10 days after hatching. Morphological comparisons and their relationship with larvae of congeneric species are briefly discussed.O desenvolvimento completo de Lepidophthalmus siriboia Felder & Rodrigues, 1993 foi descrito e ilustrado em detalhes a partir de espécimens cultivados em laboratório. Fêmeas ovígeras foram coletadas na ilha de Canela nordeste do Estado do Pará. As larvas eclodem como prezoea e o desenvolvimento larval consiste de 3 estágios de zoea e 1 de megalopa. O desenvolvimento dos 3 estágios de zoea durou em média de 69 a 111 horas. A duração de megalopa foi cerca de 185 horas (cerca de 8 dias. O primeiro juvenil foi alcançado em 254 horas (cerca de 10 dias após a eclosão. Comparações morfológicas com espécies do mesmo gênero são discutidas.

  9. Diferencias en las historias de vida de dos especies de isópodos bopíridos (Isopoda: Epicaridea que parasitan al nape Neotrypaea uncinata (Milne-Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea Different life histories of two species of bopyrid isopods (Isopoda, Epicaridea, parasites of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea

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    GABRIELA MUÑOZ

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available En ambientes costeros de Concepción, Chile, se han registrado dos especies de isópodos, Ione ovata Shiino, 1964 e Ionella agassizi Bonnier, 1900, parásitos en las cámaras branquiales del nape Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837. La prevalencia de parasitismo sin embargo, es mucho menor en Ione ovata quien además presenta menor frecuencia de parejas cohabitando una misma branquia, aunque posee una especificidad comparativamente menor que I. agassizi. Esto sugiere que ambas especies poseen historias de vida contrastantes. Para mejorar el entendimiento de las causas de estas diferencias, en este estudio se analizan y comparan algunos rasgos de la historia de vida de los isópodos (fecundidad, tamaño de los huevos, inversión reproductiva, y capacidad de los machos para colonizar napes no parasitados. Ione agassizi tuvo una menor fecundidad, y huevos de mayor tamaño que I. ovata. Sin embargo, no hubo diferencias en la inversión reproductiva entre ambas especies, ni en su relación con el tamaño corporal del isópodo. Los machos de I. ovata poseen mayor habilidad que los de I. agassizi para colonizar nuevos napes no parasitados, ya que pudieron permanecer en nuevos hospedadores y rediferenciarse sexualmente en hembras. Se considera que sería necesario estimar la sobrevivencia durante el tiempo total de vida de estos parásitos para mejorar la interpretación de estos resultadosOn coastal habitats near Concepción city, Chile, there are two isopod species Ione ovata Shiino, 1964, and Ionella agassizi Bonnier, 1900 both occupying the gill chambers of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata (H. Milne Edwards, 1837. However, in I. ovata, the prevalence is smaller, there is a low frequency of coupled isopods in the same gill chamber, and is less host specific than I. agassizi. These observations suggest that both isopod species have different life histories. To improve the understanding of the causes of these differences some life history traits of isopods species (fecundity, egg size and reproductive investment and the capability of individual males isopods to survive in uninfested ghost shrimps are examined and compared. Ione agassizi has lower fecundity but larger eggs than I. ovata. However, there were neither differences in reproductive investment nor in relation to their body size between the two species. Experimental infestation of ghost shrimps by males of both species of isopods showed that only males of I. ovata could remain on the hosts for a few weeks and metamorphose into females. It would be necessary to estimate survival of isopods during the total life cycle, in order to improve the interpretation of these results

  10. Descrição de um Novo Decapoda (Natantia, Malacostraca, Crustacea

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    Márcia Aparecida Fernandes dos Reis

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available A “lobster” fossil from the Riachuelo Formation, Sergipe Sub-basin, is here described and placed in the Decapoda, Infraorder Palinura, based on the flattened carapace and the well-developed abdomen. The specimen is characterized by a dorsal median keel and a keel in each margin of the carapace and abdomen. Field data and petrographic studies suggest that the environment in which the Decapoda lived was probably a place with waves and moderate currents, located behind a sand barrier or in within a lagoon. Apparently, the carbonization process was responsible for specimen preservation.

  11. Complex burrows of the mud shrimp Callianassa truncata and their geochemical impact in the sea bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebis, W.; Forster, S.; Huettel, M.;

    1996-01-01

    ). Here we report the use of a diver observatory within the seabed, along with in situ measurements, to assess the geochemical impact of the mud-shrimp Callianassa truncata Giard and Bonnier (Decapoda, Thalassinidea), a species that commonly inhabits sandy sediments in the Mediterranean sea....

  12. BIODIVERSITY AND BIOGEOGRAPHY OF FRESHWATER CRUSTACEANS (DECAPODA: NATANTIA FROM VANUATU, A COMPARISON WITH FIJI AND NEW CALEDONIA.

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    MARQUET G.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first comprehensive study of freshwater decapoda crustaceans from Vanuatu. Of the nineteen species collected during this study, eighteen appear to be new records for the archipelago. However none of these species is endemic to Vanuatu, nine having a Pacific distribution and ten an Indo-Pacific distribution. Half of the species recorded were widely distributed in Vanuatu, whereas the others were more restricted. A comparison is made with the freshwater decapoda fauna of the two neighbouring archipelagoes namely, those of Fiji and New Caledonia, which have already been thoroughly surveyed.

  13. Typtonomenaeusformosanus gen. et sp. nov., a new sponge-associated pontoniine shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae) from northern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Ivan; Chan, Tin-Yam

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of sponge-associated pontoniine shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae) is described from northern part of Formosa Island (Taiwan). The new species can be clearly recognized by convex robust nail-like apices on dactyli of both pereiopods II--a unique morphological structure among pontoniine shrimps. Morphological differences from all known sponge-associated pontoniine genera are discussed.

  14. Efecto del parasitismo del isópodo bopírido Ionella agassizi (Isopoda: Epicaridea (Bornnier, 1900 sobre la fisiología nutricional del nape Neotrypaea uncinata (M. Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda: Thalassinidea Effects of parasitism in nutritional physiology of the ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata parasitized by the isopod Ionella agassizi

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    Lorena P. Astete-Espinoza

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available El nape Neotrypaea uncinata se encuentra parasitado en sus branquias por el isópodo Ionella agassizi. Trabajos anteriores han señalado que I. agassizi provoca un efecto negativo en la biología reproductiva del nape, afectando significativamente tanto el desarrollo de los órganos reproductores como la expresión de las características sexuales secundarias. Lo anterior podría estar asociado a una disminución de las sustancias de reserva de N. uncinata, afectando de esta manera su metabolismo. En este trabajo se determinaron las concentraciones de metabolitos relacionados con el estado nutricional de N. uncinata (proteínas totales, hemocianina, lactato y glucosa; además se evaluó el porcentaje de lípidos en el tejido del hospedador. Los resultados obtenidos indican una mayor frecuencia de infección en machos adultos, lo que sugiere la existencia de mortalidad diferencial en el hospedador. Se determinó una menor masa corporal en los individuos parasitados en comparación con los no parasitados. En relación con la concentración de metabolitos: se determinó una disminución de los niveles de proteínas totales y de las concentraciones de hemocianina, lo que evidencia un efecto importante del parasitismo a nivel nutricional. Además, se encontró una concentración menor de lactato en individuos parasitados asociado a una alta concentración de glucosa, lo cual sugiere la utilización del lactato como sustrato para la síntesis de glucosa en presencia del parásito. Finalmente la reducción de los lípidos en individuos parasitados evidencia la carencia de sustancias de reserva.The ghost shrimp Neotrypaea uncinata is parasitized in the branchial chamber for the isopod Ionella agassizi. Previous works had indicated that the parasite causes a negative effect in the reproductive biology of the ghost shrimp, influencing seriously the development of reproductive organs and the expression of secondary sexual characteristics. This effect can be produced by a general reduction of the reserve substances of N. uncinata caused by the presence of the parasite. In order to evaluate the effect of the parasite on the nutritional status of the ghost shrimp we measured the concentration of some metabolites related to the nutritional physiology of N. uncinata. The results showed a greater frequency of infection in adult males, which suggests differential mortality by effect of the parasite through the host ontogeny. The parasitized individuals showed a reduction of the body mass and a diminution of both protein and haemocyanin levels. However, the measured lactate levels are smaller in parasitized individuals, but the levels of glucose were higher in this individuals, this relationships suggest the use of lactate as substrate for glucose synthesis. Finally the lipid reduction in parasitized ghost shrimps demonstrates the scarcity of the reserve substances in this species

  15. Building America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brad Oberg

    2010-12-31

    IBACOS researched the constructability and viability issues of using high performance windows as one component of a larger approach to building houses that achieve the Building America 70% energy savings target.

  16. First stage larva of the mud shrimp Nihonotrypaea makarovi Marin, 2013 (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) obtained in the laboratory.

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    Korn, Olga M; Kornienko, Elena S; Golubinskaya, Darya D

    2016-02-19

    First stage larva of a new mud shrimp Nihonotrypaea makarovi Marin, 2013 (Decapoda: Axiidea: Callianassidae) obtained from the ovigerous female is described and illustrated for the first time. The first zoea of N. makarovi is well distinguished from the first larvae of N. japonica and N. petalura, sympatric callianassid species inhabiting Russian waters of the Sea of Japan, only by the greater size and by the presence of two terminal setae on the antennal endopod.

  17. Textbook America.

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    Karp, Walter

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on how political attitudes have been influenced by American history textbooks at various times throughout history. Excerpts from traditional and revisionist textbooks are presented, with emphasis on "America Revised" by Frances FitzGerald. Journal available from Harper's Magazine Co., 2 Park Ave., New York, NY 10016. (DB)

  18. Little People of America

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    ... information. World Dwarf Games 2017 Welcome to Little People of America Little People of America (LPA) is a nonprofit organization that provides support and information to people of short stature and their families. LPA is ...

  19. New distribution ranges and records of caridean shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea from the west coast of Mexico Nuevos intervalos de distribución y registros de camarones carideos (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea de la costa oeste de México

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    Michel E. Hendrickx

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Geographic records are presented for 24 species of Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda along Pacific coast of Mexico, in the East Pacific. New records are presented for Psathyrocaris fragilis Wood-Mason, 1893 (from Peru to Mexico, Periclimenes infraspinis (Rathbun, 1902, Pontonia margarita Smith, 1869, Alpheus cristulifrons Rathbun, 1900, Alpheus umbo Kim & Abele, 1988, Automate rugosa Coutière, 1900, and Lysmata californica (Stimpson, 1866 (within the Gulf of California, and Typton hephaestus Holthuis, 1951 (from the Gulf of California to the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. Aditional records are given that establish the presence of species at intermediate localities within the Gulf of California and along the southwestern coast of Mexico.Se recolectaron especímenes de 24 especies de Caridea (Crustacea: Decapoda en la costa del Pacífico de México, en el Pacífico Este. Nuevos registros geográficos son señalados para Psathyrocaris fragilis Wood-Mason, 1893 (desde Perú hasta México, Periclimenes infraspinis (Rathbun, 1902, Pontonia margarita Smith, 1869, Alpheus cristulifrons Rathbun, 1900, Alpheus umbo Kim & Abele, 1988, Automate rugosa Coutière, 1900 y Lysmata californica (Stimpson, 1866 (en el Golfo de California y para Typton hephaestus Holthuis, 1951 (del Golfo de California hasta el Golfo de Tehuantepec, México. Se proporciona información adicional acerca de la presencia de algunas especies en localidades intermedias en el Golfo de California y a lo largo de la costa suroeste de México.

  20. The complete mitogenome of the hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda, Brachyura) and comparison with brachyuran crabs.

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    Ki, Jang-Seu; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Hwang, Jiang-Shiou; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we analyzed the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of a hydrothermal vent crab Xenograpsus testudinatus (Decapoda: Brachyura) obtained from the hydrothermal vents off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan, which extend from the deep sea Okinawa Trench. The mitogenome of X. testudinatus was 15,796 bp in length and contained the same 37 genes (e.g. 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, and 13 PCGs) found in other metazoan mitogenomes. Analysis of the structural mt gene order in X. testudinatus revealed that the 13 PCGs, excluding a translocation of ND6-Cyt b cluster, were similarly ordered when compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern; however the tRNAs were severely rearranged. Phylogenetic analysis of decapod mitogenomes showed that the molecular taxonomy of the vent crab was in accordance with its morphological systematics. Together, these findings suggest that the vent crab studied here has little mitochondrial genetic variation when compared with morphologically defined conspecifics from other marine habitats.

  1. Gangs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-17

    Citizen Security held in July 2008 indicated that Guatemala now has the second highest murder rate in Central America (roughly 45 per 100,000 people...training regional security forces.48 In recent years, the U.S. Southern Command has taken a leading role in discussing the problem of citizen security in...the results CRS-19 51 “Memo: The Merida Initiative and Citizen Security in Mexico and Central America,” Washington Office on Latin America, March 2008

  2. Desenvolvimento e morfologia funcional dos estÃmagos de larvas e pÃs-larvas dos crustÃceos Decapoda

    OpenAIRE

    Marlon Aguiar Melo

    2005-01-01

    O conhecimento sobre o correto regime alimentar das larvas e pÃslarvas dos crustÃceos Decapoda à considerado essencial para o sucesso no cultivo larval. InformaÃÃes sobre o desenvolvimento e morfologia dos apÃndices bucais e estÃmago destes crustÃceos tÃm auxiliado na identificaÃÃo de alimentos e condiÃÃes de cultivo satisfatÃrias para o aumento da sobrevivÃncia e do crescimento durante o desenvolvimento larval. O desenvolvimento da estrutura do estÃmago e da funÃÃo digestiva f...

  3. America's Children and the Environment

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    ... Protection Agency Search Search America's Children and the Environment (ACE) Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us ... of updates to ACE . America's Children and the Environment (ACE) America's Children and the Environment (ACE) is ...

  4. Efectos del rizocéfalo Loxothylacus armatus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala en el cangrejo Paraxanthus barbiger (Decapoda: Brachyura en Chile Effects of the rhizocephalan Loxothylacus armatus (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala on the crab Paraxanthus barbiger (Decapoda: Brachyura in Chile

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    MARIO GEORGE-NASCIMENTO

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversas asociaciones biológicas de amplia distribución y alta especificidad en el ambiente marino han pasado casi desapercibidas para los estudiosos en Chile. Aquí se describe cuantitativamente la infección por Loxothylacus armatus Boschma 1949 (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala en el cangrejo Paraxanthus barbiger (Poeppig 1836 (Decapoda: Brachyura y se evalúa si el parásito produce efectos semejantes a los descritos para asociaciones similares. Para ello, 513 ejemplares del cangrejo fueron recolectados manualmente desde el submareal somero, entre septiembre y octubre de 2003, en Lenga, Octava Región de Chile. La prevalencia de rizocéfalos alcanzó valores máximos cercanos al 60 % en hospedadores de pequeño tamaño corporal, provocando castración, inhibiendo el desarrollo gonadal de las hembras y modificando el tamaño de los caracteres sexuales secundarios en ambos sexos, lo que sugiere que impone una gran demanda sobre su hospedador. Estos resultados muestran una gran similitud con otros estudios que involucran a rizocéfalos, y podrían, al incorporar a las simbiosis en el estudio de las comunidades bentónicas en Chile, conducir a que se reinterprete, por ejemplo, la abundancia y patrones de reproducción de P. barbiger, una especie de depredador prominente de esas comunidades bentónicasIn the marine realm, several biological associations are distributed worldwide and are highly specific, but remain poorly studied in Chile. Here, we describe quantitatively the infection by the barnacle Loxothylacus armatus Boschma 1949 (Cirripedia: Rhizocephala in the crab Paraxanthus barbiger (Poeppig 1836 (Decapoda: Brachyura, and assess if the parasite effects are similar to rhizocephalan-decapod associations elsewhere. To do this, 513 crabs were collected by hand while scuba diving between September and October, 2003 in the shallow subtidal zone of Lenga (37° S, Chile. Maximum prevalence reached ca. 60 % in small body size hosts, producing total

  5. Complex burrows of the mud shrimp Callianassa truncata and their geochemical impact in the sea bed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziebis, W.; Forster, S.; Huettel, M.;

    1996-01-01

    the overlying water and rapid consumption within the sea bed, Macrofauna organisms living within the sea bed affect the physical structure of the sea floor, its chemical zonations and the exchange processes across the sediment-water interface(3,4). Thalassinidean mud-shrimps are often abundant in tropical......). Here we report the use of a diver observatory within the seabed, along with in situ measurements, to assess the geochemical impact of the mud-shrimp Callianassa truncata Giard and Bonnier (Decapoda, Thalassinidea), a species that commonly inhabits sandy sediments in the Mediterranean sea....

  6. America in the Eyes of America Watchers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Huiyun; He, Kai

    2015-01-01

    that almost half of the survey participants thought that America would remain the global hegemon in the next ten years. Meanwhile, a large majority was also optimistic that China is a rising great power, especially in the economic sense, in the world. More than half of the respondents saw Asian military......Based on an original survey conducted in the summer of 2012 in Beijing, we examine how China's America watchers—IR scholars who work on US-China relations—have viewed China's power status in the international system, US-China relations and some specific US policies in Asia. Our survey shows...... issues, such as the South China Sea issue, as the most difficult problem between China and the US....

  7. Lupus Foundation of America

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    ... and Testing New Treatments Learn More About the Lupus Foundation of America We are devoted to solving ... Spam Control Text: Please leave this field empty Lupus FAQ What is lupus? What are the common ...

  8. Prevent Child Abuse America

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    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  9. Crustacea Decapoda captured through a passive collection in a stretch of Rio dos Mangues (Porto Seguro – Bahia – Brazil

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    Rafael Ribeiro Teixeira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to carry out, through passive collection, a survey of Crustacea Decapoda species present in a stretch of Rio dos Mangues (Porto Seguro – Bahia – Brazil, during spring season of 2009. The collections were carried out in five sites, distributed over the final 10km of the river, using traps containing biological bait left underwater for 15h. To assess the abiotic variables, temperature, pH, and conductivity values were measured. A total of 135 individuals was registered, belonging to three species: the shrimps Macrobrachium acanthurus (Wiegmann, 1836 and M. olfersi (Wiegman, 1836, besides the crab Trichodactylus fluviatilis Latreille, 1828. In addition to these, two other crab species were collected: Goniopsis cruentata (Latreille, 1803 and Panopeus lacustris Desbonne, 1867. The highest values were registered in P4 (34.07% of individuals, P1 (23.70%, and P3 (22.96%. Temperature and pH presented a small variation throughout the analyses (respectively, 5.1-5.8 and 25.7-29.1°C. In turn, conductivity differed the estuary point (P5 from the other ones (respectively, 886mS and 41-48mS. No individual was registered in P2. The distribution of species was related to the type of microhabitat and the habit of each of them.

  10. Descripción y distribución geográfica de una nueva especie para el archipiélago Juan Fernández: Platymera gaudichaudii (H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 (Decapoda, Calappidae

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    Marco A Retamal

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Se identifica una nueva especie en aguas del archipiélago Juan Fernández: Platymera gaudichaudii (Decapoda, Calappidae, ampliándose su distribución geográfica conocida en el hemisferio sur. Se entrega una diagnosis de la especie y se actualiza el status taxonómico de otras tres especies de decápodos en este archipiélago.

  11. Science in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco J.

    1995-01-01

    A brief history of science and technology in Latin America that begins with the Mayan civilization and progresses through the colonial period to the present. Compares increased scientific productivity in the Latin American and Caribbean regions to productivity in the United States and European Union. (LZ)

  12. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  13. Literacy in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in South America must be understood in terms of the linguistic diversity there, where only 2 of 14 nations and territories are monolingual. Oral traditions, standardization of indigenous languages, nonstandard varieties of colonial languages, bilingual education and mother tongue literacy, literacy teaching, and politics are discussed.…

  14. Americas at Odds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Despite lingering disputes,the United States keeps a firm grip on Latin America During his presidential campaign,Evo Morales said his election would be a "nightmare" for the United States.The Bolivian president honored his words. On September 10, Morales declared U.S.

  15. Ecodesign in Central America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.M.

    2003-01-01

    This PhD thesis describes and analyses the change process started by the Ecodesign project in Central America, executed between 1998 and 2002. The project started using the concept and praxis developed in Europe. Nine ecodesign projects were performed in industry, and ecodesign was introduced to cou

  16. Sarcoma Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Google+ Twitter LinkedIn YouTube © 2017 Sarcoma Foundation of America | All Rights Reserved. | Terms of Use | Privacy Policy Website Design & Hosting by 270net Technologies, Inc. X - Enter Your Location - - or - Get your current location Home About Us History People Public Filings News & Media SFA in the ...

  17. An Idea Called America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoonian, Michael; Van Scotter, Richard; White, William E.

    2007-01-01

    America evolved out of the principles of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment, suggesting that individuals could govern themselves and that people were "endowed" with "unalienable rights" such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. To secure these principles, Americans would continue to work on forming a more perfect Union, by…

  18. Lateinamerika oder -amerikas? Latin America or Americas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belén García Timón

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Anhand interdisziplinärer und empirischer Studien wird Lateinamerika als Bühne für die Entwicklung transkultureller Phänomene präsentiert. Geschlechterverhältnisse in unterschiedlichen Kontexten stehen im Mittelpunkt der Untersuchung. Begriffe wie Macht, Rasse oder Raum werden mit dem Ziel, weg von der bisherigen Vorstellung von homogenen kulturellen Einheiten zu kommen, revidiert.Latin America is presented as a stage for the development of transcultural phenomena through the use of interdisciplinary and empirical studies. Gender relations in different contexts lie at the heart of this study. Terms such as power, race, or space are revised with the goal of moving away from current perceptions of homogenous cultural unities.

  19. Composição e distribuição dos Crustácea (Decapoda na Lagoa do Peixe, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Composition and distribution of Crustácea (Decapoda from Lagoa do Peixe, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Santos

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lagoa do Peixe ("Peixe's Lagoon" is located between Atlantic Ocean and Lagoa dos Patos and is 30 Km long and 0,5-2,0 Km wide (31º13'S, 50º55'W -31º26'S, 51º09'. For one year, the composition and distribution of Crustácea Decapoda were analyzed monthly (from July/1994 to June/1995, in seven subareas (terrestrial border and aquatic area and physical and chemical parameters (depth, salinity, sediment texture, oxygen in water, organic material of sediment and water temperature were registered. Decapoda from the families Grapsidae, Ocypodidae, Portunidae (Brachyura, Diogenidae (Anomura and Penaeidae (Penaeidea were captured. Chasmagnathus granulata Dana 1851 was found ali months near the canal connecting Atlantic Ocean and Lagoa do Peixe, but inside the lagoon it was collected only in October/94 and June/95, and in extreme subareas it was sampled in February/95 when the salinity was 31 ‰ at these sites. Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 and Cyrtograpsus angulatus Dana, 1851 were captured throughout the year, except October/94 and April/95, respectively. Both species were found in ali áreas of sample, indicating a high plasticity in relation to the factors analyzed in this study. Another species captured probably come in the lagoon in specific months, when the environment provides ideal conditions for their develo-pments.

  20. First inventory of the Crustacea (Decapoda, Stomatopoda) of Juan de Nova Island with ecological observations and comparison with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel (Europa, Glorieuses, Mayotte)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poupin, J.

    2016-04-01

    Crustacea Decapoda and Stomatopoda are inventoried for the first time in Juan de Nova Island, Iles Eparses, Mozambique channel. In total, 112 species are reported: 69 crabs, 28 anomurans, 11 shrimps, 3 mantis shrimps and 1 lobster. A comparison is made with nearby islands in the Mozambique channel: Glorieuses Islands (157 species), Europa Island (178 species), and Mayotte Island (505 species). The lower species richness at Juan de Nova is explained by the small size of the island and by the difficulties to collect the crustaceans on the reef flat hardly accessible at low tide. The crustaceans are listed by main habitats from land to outer reef (2-20 m). The presence of the coconut crab (Birgus latro), an endangered species vulnerable to human predation, is confirmed.

  1. A review of Epipenaeon ingens Nobili, 1906 (Isopoda: Bopyridae) host species and documentation of a new host, Metapenaeopsis stridulans (Alcock, 1905) (Decapoda: Penaeidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. RAJKUMAR; S.MANOKARAN; SUN Jun; J.P.TRILLES

    2011-01-01

    We collected 3 596 Metapenaeopsis stridulans (Decapoda: Penaeidae) from the southeast coast of India between January and December 2007. Sixty three specimens (43 females and 18 males) were parasitized by the bopyrid isopod Epipenaeon ingens (Isopoda: Bopyridae). This is the first report of the occurrence of E. ingens in this host; therefore, it was considered as a new host record. The highest level of infestation (3.2%) occurred in October 2007, coincident with observations of gravid females (9). The total prevalence and presence of gravid females were 17.46% and 28%, respectively. Infestation caused a characteristic bulge of the branchial chamber, growth retardation, and degeneration of the sex organs, but had no effect on the host weight.

  2. Electricity in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breeze, P.

    1998-12-01

    The report provides an overview of the Latin American power market; analyses the power generation, transmission and distribution capabilities of 20 countries in central and south America; includes detailed comparative data on current capacity, shortfall and growth; investigates the existing network infrastructures and projected demand; examines the opportunities for independent power producers resulting from deregulation; assesses indigenous and imported fuel resources; and discusses the broad financial opportunities and restraints.

  3. Latin America Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-05

    8217Americas Watch’ Charges (THE DAILY GLEANER, 26 Sep 86) 92 - c - Briefs World Bank Loans 94 MEXICO 1985 Key Parastate Enterprise Losses Near...year later in the DIARIO DE CENTROAMERICA , on 27 December 1985. The previous pact, which had been in effect for 25 years, was the Central American... Mexico , including a sizable reduction in spreads (risk rates) collected from that country, will be the point of departure for the new round of

  4. Feeding ecology of the freshwater crab Trichodactylus borellianus (Decapoda: Trichodactylidae in the floodplain of the Paraná River, southern South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Williner

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are not commonly considered to be an important group in trophic webs, and this might be due to a lack of knowledge about their trophic roles in aquatic ecosystems. Trichodactylus borellianus is one of the most common and widely distributed freshwater crabs in the floodplains of the southern South American rivers. The main objective of the present study was to examine the trophic role of T. borellianus, in the floodplain of the Paraná River, and its relationships with the freshwater littoral community. The trophic spectrum of this species was characterized for both sexes and individuals of different sizes (adults and juveniles, throughout daily and seasonal cycles. Samples were collected from the aquatic vegetation of three shallow lakes. The diet composition and the feeding activity of T. borellianus were evaluated through the examination of the stomach contents and their degree of emptiness. This crab species consumed several plant and animal items, including amoebas, rotifers, oligochaetes, copepods, cladocerans, and insect larvae. Moreover, this species consumes filamentous and unicellular algae, diatoms, fungi, and macrophytic remains. The predatory habits varied with the season and time of day, and variations in the feeding activity of the juveniles and adults were detected and documented. The diversity of food items eaten by this crab suggests that its trophic role in the community as an omnivore and opportunistic predator provides a connection among several trophic levels from both aquatic and terrestrial communities.

  5. New record of Clypeasterophilus stebbingi (Rathbun, 1918 (Decapoda: Brachyura: Pinnotheridae from the east coast of Nicaragua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel E. Hendrickx

    Full Text Available The pinnotherid crab Clypeasterophilus stebbingi (Rathbun, 1918, previously known from Florida, USA, Colombia and Brazil, is reported for the first time from Central America, on the east coast of Nicaragua. A single female specimen was collected on the sand dollar Clypeaster subdepressus (Gray, 1825, at 4 m depth, among turtle grass on sandy bottom. The specimen fits well with the description provided by M.J. Rathbun and observations made on photographs of the male holotype. Comparison of the material described from Florida (including the type material, Colombia and Brazil to the Nicaragua specimen, however, indicates that C. stebbingi shows some variation in the shape of the third maxilliped.

  6. O neoliberalismo na America Latina

    OpenAIRE

    David Ibarra

    2011-01-01

    Neoliberalism in Latin America. Neoliberalism and globalization had decisive influence in shaping public policies both internal and foreign in Latin America. Less state, trade and market freedoms, social goals subordinated to economic criteria, are part and parcel of the neoliberal utopia. Price stability was erected as the main social objective; import substitution resulted replaced by exports as the main source of growth. The neoliberal net results as applied to Latin America are: less grow...

  7. An America unknown

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    If we consider that the Spanish chroniclers had gradually invented what eventually became America, as O'Gorman proposed, the Portuguese chroniclers of the first half of the 16th century were even more cautious in building an identity for the overseas territories visited by Columbus and Cabral. These sixteenth century chroniclers, focusing on Asia, only later ceased to think of this "almost other world" as a place of passage, to think of it as a place to stop. Disregarding the surprised tone o...

  8. Pensamento da America

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro de Filosofia e Ciências Humanas, Programa de Pós-Graduação em História, Florianópolis, 2013. Esta dissertação objetivou investigar a atividade editorial de Rui Ribeiro Couto e Renato Costa Almeida enquanto estes intelectuais estiveram à frente do Pensamento da America, uma publicação mensal vinculada ao A Manhã, jornal porta voz do Estado Novo. Este suplemento panamericano veio a público entre 1941 e 1949, no entanto a...

  9. Mosques in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Khalidi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The following article derived from an exhibit catalogue put together by Public Affairs Germany in the U.S. Embassy in Berlin and the U.S. Consulates in Frankfurt and Düsseldorf and accompanied Dr. Omar Khalidi’s photo exhibit “Mosques in America.” There are over 2,000 mosques in the United States, mostly housed in buildings originally built for other purposes. American mosques built in the last few decades, however, in the period in which Islam has begun to feel at home in the United States, are almost universally architect-designed.

  10. Eating in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康海燕

    2007-01-01

    Americans are too busy to cook at home.They often eat outside.Eating culture is one of the important parts in America.There are many kinds of restaurants.Some are open for breakfast. Others are open twenty-four hours a day. A number of restaurants call themselves"family restaurants".They serve no alcohol~* and have fairly restricted~* menus.They serve steaks,hamburgers and sandwiches.Besides these,there are some special restaurants.They serve only or mainly steaks,seafood,etc.

  11. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

      The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.……

  12. Let's Go to America!

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The United States and China have signed an agreement to facilitate Chinese group leisure travel to the United States. This agreement provides the necessary framework to permit group leisure travel from China to the United States. U.S. companies can now enter into business relationships with Chinese travel agencies to organize and market travel packages for group leisure travel to the United States. It also attracts more and more Chinese to go to America, as more and more convenience and comforts are coming up during the travel.

  13. Anaglyph, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of

  14. Locking in on Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MICHAEL; RICE

    2006-01-01

    China cautious as it sets up generous investment in Latin America The United States is keeping a watchful eye as China bolsters political and economic ties with Latin America. The situation has U.S. political analysts trying to determine just how China s emerging influence

  15. Lunar rhythms in the egg hatching of the subtidal crustacean: Callinectes arcuatus Ordway (Decapoda: Brachyura)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, M. C.; Epifanio, C. E.; Dittel, A. I.

    1983-12-01

    Gravid female portunid crabs, Callinectes arcuatus, were held in a recirculating seawater system and the development of the eggs was observed. Based on morphological criteria, nine developmental stages were noted. The relationship between a given stage and the subsequent time to hatching was determined. Based on this, an index was devised that predicted hatching date from microscopic observation of an egg mass. This index was used to predict the date of hatching of eggs from 439 crabs collected in the Gulf of Nicoya, Central America, and the frequency of hatching was analysed in relation to the lunar and tidal cycles. Significantly more eggs hatched during periods of spring than neap tides. The adaptive significance of this rhythmicity is unclear at present.

  16. GeoCorps America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, M.

    2011-12-01

    GeoCorps America, a program of the Geological Society of America's (GSA) Education and Outreach Department, provides short-term geoscience jobs in America's most amazing public lands. These jobs are hosted on federal lands managed by GeoCorps' three partner agencies: the National Park Service (NPS), the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). Agency staff submit to GSA position descriptions that help meet their geoscience needs. GSA advertises the positions online, recruits applicants from its 24,000+ members, and coordinates the placement of the candidates selected by agency staff. The typical GeoCorps position lasts for three months, pays a stipend of $2,750, and provides either free housing or a housing allowance. Some GeoCorps positions are classified as "Guest Scientist" positions, which generally last longer, involve larger payments, and require a higher level of expertise. Most GeoCorps positions occur during the spring/summer, but an increasing number of positions are being offered during the fall/winter. GeoCorps positions are open to geoscientists of all levels, from undergraduates through retired professionals. GeoCorps projects involve field and laboratory-based geoscience research, but some projects focus on developing educational programs and materials for staff, volunteers, and the public. The subject areas covered by GeoCorps projects include geology, hydrology, paleontology, mapping/GIS, soils, geo-hazards, cave/karst science, and more. GeoCorps positions have taken place at over 125 different locations nationwide, including Grand Canyon National Park, Sierra National Forest, and Craters of the Moon National Monument. In 2011, GeoCorps began offering GeoCorps Diversity Internships and GeoCorps American Indian Internships. The introduction of these programs doubled the level of diversity among GeoCorps participants. This increase in diversity is helping GSA and its partner agencies in meeting its mutual goal of

  17. South America Geologic Map (geo6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. The geologic map of South America was digitized so that we could use...

  18. Fermilab and Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Leon M.

    2006-09-01

    As Director of Fermilab, starting in 1979, I began a series of meetings with scientists in Latin America. The motivation was to stir collaboration in the field of high energy particle physics, the central focus of Fermilab. In the next 13 years, these Pan American Symposia stirred much discussion of the use of modern physics, created several groups to do collaborative research at Fermilab, and often centralized facilities and, today, still provides the possibility for much more productive North-South collaboration in research and education. In 1992, I handed these activities over to the AAAS, as President. This would, I hoped, broaden areas of collaboration. Such collaboration is unfortunately very sensitive to political events. In a rational world, it would be the rewards, cultural and economic, of collaboration that would modulate political relations. We are not there yet.

  19. Wind Powering America Podcasts, Wind Powering America (WPA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    Wind Powering America and the National Association of Farm Broadcasters produce a series of radio interviews featuring experts discussing wind energy topics. The interviews are aimed at a rural stakeholder audience and are available as podcasts. On the Wind Powering America website, you can access past interviews on topics such as: Keys to Local Wind Energy Development Success, What to Know about Installing a Wind Energy System on Your Farm, and Wind Energy Development Can Revitalize Rural America. This postcard is a marketing piece that stakeholders can provide to interested parties; it will guide them to this online resource for podcast episodes.

  20. O neoliberalismo na America Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ibarra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Neoliberalism in Latin America. Neoliberalism and globalization had decisive influence in shaping public policies both internal and foreign in Latin America. Less state, trade and market freedoms, social goals subordinated to economic criteria, are part and parcel of the neoliberal utopia. Price stability was erected as the main social objective; import substitution resulted replaced by exports as the main source of growth. The neoliberal net results as applied to Latin America are: less growth, deindustrialization, income concentration and precarious employments. Therefore, countries public policies should try to gain autonomy to use jointly markets and public intervention in a constructive and innovative fashion.

  1. Helioclimatology of the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtaev, B. S.; Yakubov, M.; Shermatov, E.

    2013-05-01

    During the last 4 billion years, the Earth's climate has changed many times. There have been periods of warming and there have been ice ages. These large-scale climatic changes are shaped by factors like the tilt of the Earth's axis and tectonic plate movement. These major changes were driven by cyclical changes in the Earth's orbit, which altered the distribution of solar energy between the seasons and across the Earth. Milankovitch cycles explain well changes in climate over periods hundreds of thousands of years and are related to ice age cycles, but these cycles cannot explain the current rapid warming. The Sun is the most driving force for causing climate change. Much of the Sun energy evaporates water and causes atmospheric convection. Solar radiation, general circulation of atmosphere, geographical location of continents, oceans and the largest forms of a relief are the primary factors influencing on climate of lands. The purpose of this study is to identify contribution of the Sun on climate variability in the two continents, North and South America during instrumental records of air temperature. There were compared air temperatures of different weather stations in dependence from solar activity during the period 1878-1996. The high correlation between averaged temperature and solar activity was found for many weather stations of Americas. Air temperature in dependence from solar activity over the period 1878-1996 can be described by following equations: In Buenos Aires: T° = 0,04W+ 15,05, r-0,9; Caracas, Venezuela: T° = 0,03W + 18,88, r-0,73; Cordoba, Argentina: T° = 0,03W + 16,16, r-0,93; New York, Central Park: T° = 0,04W + 9,86, r-0,82; Toronto, T = 0,03W+ 6,66, r-0,81; Santiago Pudahuel, T= 0,019W + 13, 01, r - 0, 91; Rio de Janeiro:T°= 0,02W + 21,95, r= 0,88; Mexico over 1923-1986, T°= 0,021W+ 14,05, r-0,78; Miami over 1902-1996, T = 0,012W + 12,87 r-0,75; In our study, we used stations with reasonably long, consistently measured time records

  2. North America and South America (NA-SA) neuropathy project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasnoor, Mamatha; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Trivedi, Jaya; Wolfe, Gil I; Nations, Sharon; Herbelin, Laura; de Freitas, M G; Quintanilha, Giseli; Khan, Saud; Dimachkie, Mazen; Barohn, Richard

    2013-08-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common neurological disorder. There may be important differences and similarities in the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy between North America (NA) and South America (SA). Neuromuscular databases were searched for neuropathy diagnosis at two North American sites, University of Kansas Medical Center and University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, and one South American site, Federal Fluminense University in Brazil. All patients were included into one of the six major categories: immune-mediated, diabetic, hereditary, infectious/inflammatory, systemic/metabolic/toxic (not diabetic) and cryptogenic. A comparison of the number of patients in each category was made between North America and South America databases. Total number of cases in North America was 1090 and in South America was 1034 [immune-mediated: NA 215 (19.7%), SA 191 (18%); diabetic: NA 148 (13.5%), SA 236 (23%); hereditary: NA 292 (26.7%), SA 103 (10%); infectious/inflammatory: NA 53 (4.8%), SA 141 (14%); systemic/metabolic/toxic: NA 71 (6.5%), SA 124 (12%); cryptogenic: NA 311 (28.5%), SA 239 (23%)]. Some specific neuropathy comparisons were hereditary neuropathies [Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) cases] in NA 246/292 (84.2%) and SA 60/103 (58%); familial amyloid neuropathy in SA 31/103 (30%) and none in NA. Among infectious neuropathies, cases of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) neuropathy in SA were 36/141(25%), Chagas disease in SA were 13/141(9%) and none for either in NA; cases of neuropathy due to leprosy in NA were 26/53 (49%) and in SA were 39/141(28%). South American tertiary care centers are more likely to see patients with infectious, diabetic and hereditary disorders such as familial amyloid neuropathies. North American tertiary centers are more likely to see patients with CMT. Immune neuropathies and cryptogenic neuropathies were seen equally in North America and South America.

  3. A new species of Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), M. pantanalense, from the Pantanal, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Antonina; Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The neotropical species Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862) is considered a particularly successful species, showing an extremely wide range of distribution (ca 4.000 km across). Populations assigned to this species live in estuaries along the northern and northeastern coasts of South America as well as in fresh water habitats in the Amazon, Orinoco and Paraná-Paraguay river basins. Following recent comparative studies that showed differential ecological, reproductive, developmental and physiological traits in geographically separated populations from the Amazon delta and the Pantanal region, Brazil, we examined the morphology of adult shrimps from these two regions. Based on significant differences, we conclude that the Pantanal population constitutes a new species, which is described here as Macrobrachium pantanalense. The main differences between M. amazonicum and the new species have been found in the morphology of the second pereiopod, the telson, and in the color patterns of both males and females. A modification on the key of American species of Macrobrachium is provided to accommodate the new species.

  4. America's Electricity Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrecht, Gordon

    2006-03-01

    Where will America's future electricity supply come from? According to Vice President Cheney's energy task force, the U.S. needs to build about one 1 GW generating facilty a week in perpetuity.^(1) What sort of facilities will they be? Can the economy sustain such growth? Are there other possibilities? One possibility that strikes a chord with physicists is conservation as a source of energy. In this regard, Vice President Cheney famously said that conservation is``a sign of personal virtue, but it is not a sufficient basis---all by itself---for a sound, comprehensive energy policy,''^(2) echoing the Ayn Rand Instituite's view that ``Conservation is not a long- or short-term solution to the energy crisis. Conservation is the un-American idea of resigning oneself to doing with less.''^(3) This poster will explore the possible energy futures, their advantages and disadvantages, with and without conservation. 1. National Energy Policy Development Group (R. Cheney, C. L. Powell, P. O'Neill, G. Norton, A. M. Veneman, D. L. Evans, N. Y. Mineta, S. Abraham, J. M. Allbaugh, C. T. Whitman, J. B. Bolten, M. E. Daniels, L. B. Lindsey, and R. Barrales), National Energy Policy: Report of the National Energy Policy Development Group, (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 2001). 2. M. Allen, ``Bush energy plan will emphasize production,'' The Washington Post, 1 May 2001 3. R. Pool, ``Saving power deemed immoral,'' The Los Angeles Times, 12 May 2001.

  5. An America unknown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susani Silveira Lemos França

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available If we consider that the Spanish chroniclers had gradually invented what eventually became America, as O'Gorman proposed, the Portuguese chroniclers of the first half of the 16th century were even more cautious in building an identity for the overseas territories visited by Columbus and Cabral. These sixteenth century chroniclers, focusing on Asia, only later ceased to think of this "almost other world" as a place of passage, to think of it as a place to stop. Disregarding the surprised tone of the letters and reports used as sources, and showing concern in giving Cabral's travels a specific place in the construction of Portuguese history, the explorers' adventures highlight the peculiarities of the lands and peoples that would later come to deserve special attention from their congeners. It is the place that the Portuguese sixteenth century chronicler has given to these territories, and the place that was fixed in the memory of the 16th century Portuguese, which are the aspects covered in this text.

  6. ScaleUp America Communities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — SBA’s new ScaleUp America Initiative is designed to help small firms with high potential “scale up” and grow their businesses so that they will provide more jobs and...

  7. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enabled to enjoy the full interactive experience. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America Find a Doctor Find a ... Local Chapters News Events Search: What are Crohn's & Colitis? What is Crohn's Disease What is Ulcerative Colitis ...

  8. African Ethnobotany in the Americas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egleé L. Zent

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Review of African Ethnobotany in the Americas. Edited by Robert Voeks and John Rashford. 2013. Springer. Pp. 429, 105 illustrations, 69 color illustrations. $49.95 (paperback. ISBN 978‐1461408352.

  9. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care as key features of the evolution of freshwater Decapoda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Günter

    2013-02-01

    The transition from marine to freshwater habitats is one of the major steps in the evolution of life. In the decapod crustaceans, four groups have colonized fresh water at different geological times since the Triassic, the freshwater shrimps, freshwater crayfish, freshwater crabs and freshwater anomurans. Some families have even colonized terrestrial habitats via the freshwater route or directly via the sea shore. Since none of these taxa has ever reinvaded its environment of origin the Decapoda appear particularly suitable to investigate life-history adaptations to fresh water. Evolutionary comparison of marine, freshwater and terrestrial decapods suggests that the reduction of egg number, abbreviation of larval development, extension of brood care and lecithotrophy of the first posthatching life stages are key adaptations to fresh water. Marine decapods usually have high numbers of small eggs and develop through a prolonged planktonic larval cycle, whereas the production of small numbers of large eggs, direct development and extended brood care until the juvenile stage is the rule in freshwater crayfish, primary freshwater crabs and aeglid anomurans. The amphidromous freshwater shrimp and freshwater crab species and all terrestrial decapods that invaded land via the sea shore have retained ocean-type planktonic development. Abbreviation of larval development and extension of brood care are interpreted as adaptations to the particularly strong variations of hydrodynamic parameters, physico-chemical factors and phytoplankton availability in freshwater habitats. These life-history changes increase fitness of the offspring and are obviously favoured by natural selection, explaining their multiple origins in fresh water. There is no evidence for their early evolution in the marine ancestors of the extant freshwater groups and a preadaptive role for the conquest of fresh water. The costs of the shift from relative r- to K-strategy in freshwater decapods are traded

  10. Domestic Terrorism: Is America Prepared?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    Luther King , Jr. were attempts to push America from a path it has chosen. Painfully, the United States has stood firm in the face of terrorism and not...terrorism in America. Cowardly acts of terrorism such as the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, President Abraham Lincoln, and Dr. (Rev) Martin ...there are over 500 racist and neo-Nazi groups and over 400 active militia groups espousing extreme antigovernment views as of 1999. These hate groups

  11. Latin America`s emerging non-proliferation consensus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redick, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    Latin America`s incorporation into the international nuclear non-proliferation regime is well advanced. The 1967 Tlatelolco Treaty, which established a regional nuclear-weapon-free zone (NWFZ), is nearing completion. A signal event occurred January 18, when Argentina and Chile deposited instruments of ratification to the treaty, leaving Brazil and Cuba the only major countries in Latin America that are not yet contracting parties. And after more than two decades of concern about the nuclear programs and policies in Argentina and Brazil, there is room for great optimism that Brazil may now be moving quickly on important non-proliferation issues. Even Cuba, the {open_quotes}bad boy of the neighborhood{close_quotes} in the eyes of many, which held aloof from the Tlatelolco process for three decades, has stated its willingness to join the zone in the future.

  12. China-Latin America Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba; Silva Ramos Becard, Danielly

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the research field of China-Latin American relations and suggests a broad and encompassing approach to the topic. It discusses the main themes and problem areas that analysts mostly emphasize in analyses of China-Latin America relations.......The article discusses the research field of China-Latin American relations and suggests a broad and encompassing approach to the topic. It discusses the main themes and problem areas that analysts mostly emphasize in analyses of China-Latin America relations....

  13. Fuglene. Audubon: Birds of America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlichtkrull, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The Royal Library owns one of the most exceptional works in book history, an original edition of John James Audubon Birds of America. This edition, in a format called “double elephant folio” was published from 1827 to 1838. On basis of existing literature, this article briefly describes the work...... the Royal Library and the University Library, joined the library cooperation of the 1800’s on an equal standing with the other two libraries. The Classen’s Library and the library’s founder, industrialist JF Classen are described briefly in this article. Due to two library mergers the Birds of America...

  14. Algunos Animales de Latino America = Some Animals of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kathryn F. B.

    Developed by the Latin American Culture Studies Project for educators of elementary level children, these materials are designed to teach students the Spanish and English names of animals found in Latin America. The lesson includes coloring sheets, duplicating masters, fact sheets, the card game Maymayguashi, and directions for preparation. (DB)

  15. Language Documentation in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetto, Bruna; Rice, Keren

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the documentation of endangered languages has advanced greatly in the Americas. In this paper we survey the role that international funding programs have played in advancing documentation in this part of the world, with a particular focus on the growth of documentation in Brazil, and we examine some of the major opportunities…

  16. Individualist America and Today's Immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerry, Peter

    1991-01-01

    Reviews James Fallows's "More Like Us: Making America Great Again," a book conceived while he resided in Japan. Fallows stresses the virtues of individualism and competition. He advocates workfare, education vouchers, and generous immigration levels. He pays little attention, however, to the institutions that nurture and temper individualism. (DM)

  17. America's Consumerocracy: No Safe Haven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Nancy Lee; Swain, Letitia Price; Huysman, Mary; Tarrant, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Recently the authors completed a course designed to expand and deepen their knowledge about America's consumerocracy and the methods that give it the immense power it has. As a result of their reading and shared thinking in this course, Teaching Adolescents in a Consumer Society, they feel strongly motivated and better prepared to craft…

  18. Student Discipline in Colonial America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, John R.

    The basis for the severe discipline imposed on school children in colonial America, especially in the Puritan colonies, was the belief in original sin. The child was regarded as being born in sin and thus depraved and prone to sin. The purpose of education was to enable children to read the Bible and thus change the behavior which otherwise would…

  19. Brain Injury Association of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Only) 1-800-444-6443 Welcome to the Brain Injury Association of America (BIAA) Brain injury is not an event or an outcome. ... misunderstood, under-funded neurological disease. People who sustain brain injuries must have timely access to expert trauma ...

  20. Language Politics in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2005-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to take stock of the politics of language as it has been playing out in Latin America, ever since the countries in this region were colonized by European powers, mainly Spain and Portugal. Linguistic imperialism is by no means a new phenomenon in this part of the world. In more recent times, the relentless advance of…

  1. Demographic tensions in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-08-01

    This discussion of Central America focuses on the rapid growth of its population, its stagnating economy, and those countries that are socioeconomically advanced. Between 1950-85 the population of Central America tripled, from 9.1 million to 26. 4 million, due to marked mortality declines and the absence of off-setting fertility declines. The distribution of Central Americas's growing populations sets its population growth apart from that of other developing regions. Currently, almost half of all Central Americans live in cities. Although the average growth rate for Central American countries has fallen and is expected to drop further, the decline does not counterbalance the effect of the absolute rise in population numbers. The average annual growth rate of more than 3% annually in the 1960s fell to about 2.6% in recent years, but this decline is due primarily to socioeconomically advanced Costa Rica and Panama. Central America's age structure further complicates the population crisis. About 43% of Central Americans are under the age of 15. When the increasingly larger young population group enters it reproductive years, the potential for future growth (albeit the falling rate of population increase) is unparalleled. UN population projections show the region's population at 40 million by the year 2000. The 1973 oil crisis began a downward spiral for the buoyant post World War II Central American economy. Between 1950-79, real per capita income growth in Central America doubled, with Central American economies growing an average of 5.3% annually. By the early 1980s, overseas markets of the trade-dependent countries of Central America had dried up due to protectionism abroad and slumping basic commodity prices. These and other factors plunged Central America into its current economic malaise of falling real per capita income, rising unemployment, curtailed export led economic growth, and a rising cost of living. In general, economic growth in Central America

  2. Literate America on Illiterate America: An Essay Review of "Illiterate America."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, James Paul

    1986-01-01

    Reviews Jonathan Kozol's book, "Illiterate America." Asserts that Kozol's argument is insensitive to cultural variation and stems from an unquestioning commitment to humanism. Argues that conventional definitions of "literacy" have tended to be more closely related to particular social structures and values than to cognitive development and…

  3. TECHNICAL NOTE A NEW, VOLUNTEER-BASED, COST EFFECTIVE METHOD FOR ZOOLOGICAL MAPPING: THE PHOTO IDENTIFICATION OF FRESHWATER CRAYFISH (CRUSTACEA: DECAPODA SPECIES AND THE IMPORTANCE OF VOLUNTEERS IN CRAYFISH RESEARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PUKY M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The publication of the European Crayfish Atlas within the framework of the CRAYNET programme is a major breakthrough in Decapoda mapping in Europe. The current data base contains information from approximately 60-70% of the 50 km × 50 km squares covering the continent. A new method to improve this situation further is the use of photo identification involving volunteers in the collection of distribution data. The crayfish identification ability of two potential user groups, astacologists and biology teachers/students, was tested using the questionnaire given in Figure 2. One picture (Astacus leptodactylus male was correctly identified by everyone, the others were recognised by 59-94% (astacologists and 30-88% (non-crayfish specialised biology teachers and students. The first European Decapoda photo identification survey proved that the necessary expertise exists in the continent to determine crayfish species from pictures and also that the quality of the pictures is less important than the presence of key details. Photo identification is a low cost and environmental-friendly approach but it also needs special considerations. Volunteers need to be supported in several ways, such as by providing precise and interesting educational material in an easily understandable language describing e.g. the key parts of the body to photograph. However, the general use of digital cameras and even mobile phones/cameras and the Internet is an effective way to launch such surveys as it gives, on one hand, an opportunity for the specialists to check, and if necessary correct, the field identification of less experienced people and, on the other hand, it provides a much larger data base than what is available now by using the data collected by students, conservationists, scouts or other volunteers.

  4. Latin America Report, No. 2720

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    AMERICA REPORT , No, 2720 CONTENTS ENERGY ECONOMICS COSTA RICA ’Excellent Quality’ Oil Reportedly Found in Country (LA REPUBLICA , 18, 21 Jun...Report San Jose LA REPUBLICA in Spanish 18 Jun 83 p 3 [Text] Mexico—Jointly with other concerns, the state enterprise Mexican Petroleum (PEMEX) is...Jose LA REPUBLICA in Spanish 21 Jun 83 p 2 [Text] "We have found five possible horizons that exhibit the characteristics of petroleum deposits in

  5. Prostate cancer in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pow-Sang, Mariela; Destefano, Víctor; Astigueta, Juan Carlos; Castillo, Octavio; Gaona, José Luis; Santaella, Félix; Sotelo, Rene

    2009-11-01

    There is a very low rate of early prostate cancer detection in Latin America, since patients usually are diagnosed when the disease is in advanced stages. Sporadic prostate cancer screening campaigns do exist which allow us to diagnose this disease in earlier stages. Incidence and mortality rates differ widely from country to country, and they are probable underreported in our region since registers may be city-based instead of country-based.

  6. Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-09-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  7. Bertolt Brecht in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru Gökdağ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1943, when Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill’s The Three Penny Opera opened in Mexico, Latin America encountered Brecht for the first time. Political concerns among Latin Americans, and their attempts to present them theatrically, pre-dated the widespread dissemination of Brecht’s theories. After 1943, Brecht’s work as a theoretician in Latin America had to wait another decade before it was to have influence there.   Thus, when Latin America encountered Brecht, it was a case of parallel evolution rather than of direct influence. Brechtian theorizing and its influence on Augusto Boal's approach has been widely acknowledged.  Some critics state that Boal extended ideas similar to Brecht’s but improved upon them by transforming the audience from a reflective passive stance to an active participant. Yet Boal does more than merely extend or elaborate on the theories of Brecht. Brecht formulated his theory through critical and intellectual analysis, while Boal co-created his approach with individuals whom he was both teaching and learning from at the same time. Since Boal’s work is based on four decades of practice, there is a commitment in his ideas that is far less intellectual and more practical, a passion in his devotion to transforming audience expectation and response that is wholly absent in Brechtian theorizing.

  8. Breaking away to South America

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    In December 2010, Peter Dreesen of CERN’s Technology Department (TE) returned from a long trip to South America. In four months he traversed the entire Andean range, from the equator to a latitude of 55 degrees south—on a bicycle!   Peter Dreesen on the Salar de Uyuni Lake, Bolivia. 11 000 kilometres is one long bike ride! And yet, that’s what Peter Dreesen did, travelling from Quito, Ecuador to Ushuaia, Argentina. Peter, an engineer in the TE Department, is no novice: the year before, he cycled from Paris to Peking, a distance of 13 500 kilometres, in just over four months. His latest voyage began last August, when he loaded his bicycle and boarded a plane for South America. In the saddle. After a week of acclimatisation at three thousand metres altitude, Peter left Quito on 6 August 2010. He arrived in Ushuaia (el fin del mundo, the end of the world, as it’s known in South America) on 12 December 2010. He recounts: “It was a bizarre sensation...

  9. Terrestrial and freshwater Tardigrada of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Harry A

    2013-12-16

    This paper provides a comprehensive list of the freshwater and terrestrial tardigrade fauna reported from the Americas (North America, South America, Central America and the West Indies), their distribution in the Americas, and the substrates from which they have been reported. Data were obtained from 316 published references. Authors' identifications were accepted at face value unless subsequently amended. Taxa were assigned to sub-national units (states, provinces, etc.). Many areas, in particular large portions of Central America and the West Indies, have no reported tardigrade fauna.        The presence of 54 genera and 380 species has been reported for the Americas; 245 species have been collected in the Nearctic ecozone and 251 in the Neotropical ecozone. Among the tardigrade species found in the Americas, 52 are currently considered cosmopolitan, while 153 species have known distributions restricted to the Americas. Based on recent taxonomic revision of the genus Milnesium, the vast majority of records of M. tardigradum in the Americas should now be reassigned to Milnesium tardigradum sensu lato, either because the provided description differs from M. tardigradum sensu stricto or because insufficient description is provided to make a determination; the remainder should be considered Milnesium cf. tardigradum.        Most terrestrial tardigrade sampling in the Americas has focused on cryptogams (mosses, lichens and liverworts); 90% of the species have been collected in such substrates. The proportion of species collected in other habitats is lower: 14% in leaf litter, 20% in soil, and 24% in aquatic samples (in other terrestrial substrates the proportion never exceeds 5%). Most freshwater tardigrades have been collected from aquatic vegetation and sediment. For nine species in the Americas no substrates have been reported. 

  10. Environment, Politics and Governance in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Karen M. Siegel

    2016-01-01

    Environmental Governance in Latin America, edited by Fábio de Castro, Barbara Hogenboom, and Michiel Baud. Palgrave Macmillan, 2016.Environmental Politics in Latin America: Elite Dynamics, the Left Tide and Sustainable Development, edited by Benedicte Bull and Mariel Aguilar-Støen. Routledge, 2015.A Fragmented Continent: Latin America and the Global Politics of Climate Change, by Guy Edwards and J. Timmons Roberts. MIT Press, 2015.Ecuador’s Environmental Revolutions: Ecoimperialists, Ecodepen...

  11. Una visita en Sud America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    Oisfrute de una estadfa en el Hotel La Silla, el mejor hotel de Sud America con su tan unica atmosfera extraterrestre! Los espera su calificado personal de experimentados hoteleros, jefes de cocina, etc., ansiosos todos de satisfacer sus deseos hasta el mas mfnimo detalle. Naturalmente nuestro espacioso restaurant de tres estrellas ofrece un completo surtido de exquisitas comidas y deliciosos tragos (conocedores usualmente eligen "Oelicia Orion" 0 "Centauro Especial"). EI servicio cempleto durante 24 horas incluye nuestra ya mundialmente famosa "Cena de medianoche para los miradores de estrellas", por eso - no olvide: No pierda la oportunidad de una estadfa en EL HOTEL LA SILLA - una experiencia maravillosa!

  12. Convergence Patterns in Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quiroga, Paola Andrea Barrientos

    Literature on convergence among Latin American countries is still scarce compared to other regions. Moreover, almost none of the research connects convergence to the economic history of Latin America and the usual finding is one speed of convergence. In this paper I analyze 32 countries and 108...... years, more observations than any other study. This long span of data allows me to use economic history to explain, analyze, validate, and understand the results of convergence patterns in the region. I find more than one speed of convergence (clubs) related to the known historical background, country...

  13. Building America Top Innovations 2012: House Simulation Protocols (the Building America Benchmark)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored House Simulation Protocols, which have helped ensure consistent and accurate energy-efficiency assessments for tens of thousands of new and retrofit homes supported by the Building America program.

  14. 76 FR 68047 - Making It Easier for America's Small Businesses and America's Exporters to Access Government...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ...-oriented web or mobile applications. (5) Agencies shall integrate BusinessUSA, including ready access to... Businesses and America's Exporters to Access Government Services to Help Them Grow and Hire #0; #0; #0... Easier for America's Small Businesses and America's Exporters to Access Government Services to Help...

  15. China to be Latin America's2nd largest trade partner in 2015

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xnhua reported that China will become Latin America's second largest trade partner as early as in 2015,the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) said on September 8.Osvaldo Kacef,director of ECLAC's Economic Development Division,said the current China-Latin America trade volume has already reached that of Europe.

  16. 76 FR 14101 - Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion, MI; Amended Revised...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration Bruss North America; Russell Springs, KY; Bruss North America; Orion... Springs, Kentucky. The workers are engaged in the production of automobile parts and component parts. The... production of automobile parts at the Russell Springs, Kentucky location of Bruss North America. The...

  17. Gastroenterology training in Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Henry Cohen; Roque Saenz; Luiz E de Almeida Troncon; Maribel Lizarzabal; Carolina Olano

    2011-01-01

    Latin America is characterized by ethnic, geographical, cultural, and economic diversity; therefore, training in gastroenterology in the region must be considered in this context. The continent's medical education is characterized by a lack of standards and the volume of research continues to be relatively small. There is a multiplicity of events in general gastroenterology and in sub-disciplines, both at regional and local levels, which ensure that many colleagues have access to information. Medical education programs must be based on a clinical vision and be considered in close contact with the patients. The programs should be properly supervised, appropriately defined,and evaluated on a regular basis. The disparity between the patients' needs, the scarce resources available, and the pressures exerted by the health systems on doctors are frequent cited by those complaining of poor professionalism. Teaching development can play a critical role in ensuring the quality of teaching and learning in universities.Continuing professional development programs activities must be planned on the basis of the doctors' needs, with clearly defined objectives and using proper learning methodologies designed for adults. They must be evaluated and accredited by a competent body, so that they may become the basis of a professional regulatory system. The specialty has made progress in the last decades, offering doctors various possibilities for professional development. The world gastroenterology organization has contributed to the speciality through three distinctive, but closely inter-related, programs: Training Centers, Train-the-Trainers, and Global Guidelines, in which Latin America is deeply involved.

  18. EVOLUTION OF THE PHENOMENON INTEGRATION IN LATIN AMERICA (SOUTH AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMILIAN M. DOBRESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the end of the Cold War, the creation of a South American economic space has become an important priority of regional powers (Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and the great powers after the war, the U.S. and the European Union (the current name. This integration process has had particular features derived from characteristics of Latin American countries. Multitude of organizations integrative role once again demonstrates the specificity of this process in Latin America to other areas of the world: Africa, Asia, Europe, etc. Contradictory developments phenomenon / Latin American integration process gives substance its characteristic and I will make, probably deeply and future. The purpose of the work and objectives are: know the main features of the phenomenon in Latin American integrationist Objectives: following our vision of a historical phenomenon; brief characterization of the most important Latin American organizations, establishing current and future consequences of integrationist phenomenon in this part of the world.

  19. Electricity and gas regulation in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, Peter N.

    1998-08-01

    Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Background Information; The Electricity Chain; The Gas Chain; The Regulatory Structure; International Activity; Argentina; Bolivia; Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Mexico; Peru; Venezuela; Central America; Other Latin American Markets; Non-Latin America Markets; The Caribbean. (Author)

  20. Mapping recent chikungunya activity in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand chikungunya activity in the America we mapped recent chikungunya activity in the Americas. This activity is needed to better understand that the relationships between climatic factors and disease outbreak patters are critical to the design and constructing of predictive models....

  1. SOUTH AMERICA: INDUSTRIAL ROUNDWOOD SUPPLY POTENTIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronalds W. Gonzalez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available South America has substantial potential to expand its forest plantations and raw material supply. From 1997 to 2005, South America had a high annual growth rate in the production of industrial roundwood, with Brazil and Chile being the most important countries. In the same period, Asia had the only negative regional production growth rate in the world, and China became the largest round wood importer in the world. This paper summarizes the status of production, consumption, imports, and exports of industrial roundwood and forest products in South America. Produc-tion and exports from South America have continually increased at annual growth rates exceeding the forestry sector in general and the U.S. in particular. Based on timber growing investments to date, a strong timber production and forest products manufacturing sector has developed in the Southern Cone countries of Chile, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay, and is increasing in other countries in Latin America. There will be continued opportunities for forest plantations and new manufacturing facilities throughout South America, tempered somewhat by perceived country financial and political risks. These opportunities will allow South America to increase its share of world production and increase imports to North America and to Asia.

  2. Developments in Impact Assessment in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beginning with a background of recent global developments in this area, this presentation will focus on how global research has impacted North America and how North America is providing additional developments to address the issues of the global economy. Recent developments inc...

  3. South America Province Boundaries, 1999 (prv6ag)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — South America is part of Region 6 (Central and South America) for the World Energy Assessment. South America was divided into 107 geologic provinces as background...

  4. [Inequities in cardiovascular diseases in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2013-01-01

    In high-income countries, social inequalities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk are well-documented. Although Latin America has a rich history of theory and conceptual discussion regarding social inequalities in health, empirical research has been more limited. In this commentary we summarize recent empirical work on social inequalities in CVD risk in Latin America, and highlight key research needs as well as implications for prevention. Although much remains unknown about the social patterning of CVD in Latin America, the limited studies to date indicate that inequalities in CVD risk vary across populations and markers of socioeconomic position, as well as disease risk marker. The strongest social inequalities are seen among women, and in urban areas, with regards to obesity, diabetes, and diet. Few studies, though, have been conducted in some parts of Latin America, including the countries of Central America and northern South America. Vital registration systems and nationally-representative risk factor surveys can be important sources of data, as long as information on socioeconomic indicators is collected. Longitudinal studies will also be important for investigating factors driving social inequalities. As policies and prevention strategies are put into place to reduce CVD in Latin America, they must also address factors generating social inequalities in CVD risk.

  5. Post-War Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Kruijt

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available – Terror in the Countryside. Campesino Responses to Political Violence in Guatemala, 1954-1985, by Rachel A. May. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Center for International Studies/Research in International Studies/Latin America Series #35, 2001. – La guerrilla fue mi camino. Epitafio para César Montes, by Julio César Macías. Guatemala: Piedra Santa/Colección Afluentes de Modernidad, 1999. – Testigo de conciencia (Periodismo de Opinión Documentado, by Marco A. Mérida. Guatemala: ARCASAVI, 2000. – Centroamérica 2002. Un nuevo modelo de desarrollo regional, edited by Klaus Bodemer and Eduardo Gamarra. Caracas: Nueva Sociedad, 2002. – Who Governs? Guatemala Five years After the Peace Accords, by Rachel Sieder, Megan Thomas, George Vickers and Jack Spence. Cambridge, Mass.: Hemispheric Initiatives/Washington Office on Latin America (WOLA, January 2002. – Pasos hacia una nueva convivencia: Democracia y participación en Centroamérica, edited by Ricardo Córdova Macías, Günther Maihold and Sabina Kurtenbach. San Salvador: FUNDAUNGO, Instituto de Estudios Iberoamericanos de Hamburgo and Instituto Iberoamericano de Berlin, 2001. – Los desafíos de la democracia en Centroamérica, by René Poitevin and Alexander Sequén-Mónchez. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2002. – Más allá de las elecciones: Diez años después de los acuerdos de paz, edited by Hector Dada Hirezi. San Salvador: FLACSO, 2002. – Guatemala, un proyecto inconcluso: La multiculturalidad, un paso hacia la democracia, by Hugo Cayzac. Guatemala: FLACSO, 2001. – La violencia en el contexto del posconflicto, según la percepción de comunidades urbanas pobres de Guatemala, by Caroline Moser and Cathy McIlwaine. Washington/Bogotá: Banco Mundial-Región de Latinoamérica y el Caribe/Tercer Mundo Editores, 2001. – El lado oscuro de la eterna primavera. Violencia, criminalidad y delincuencia en la postguerra, by Manolo Vela, Alexander Sequén-Mónchez and Hugo Antonio Solares

  6. Overview on the European green crab Carcinus spp. (Portunidae, Decapoda), one of the most famous marine invaders and ecotoxicological models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leignel, V; Stillman, J H; Baringou, S; Thabet, R; Metais, I

    2014-01-01

    Green crabs (Carcinus, Portunidae) include two species native to Europe--Carcinus aestuarii (Mediterranean species) and Carcinus maenas (Atlantic species). These small shore crabs (maximal length carapace, approximately 10 cm) show rapid growth, high fecundity, and long planktonic larval stages that facilitate broad dispersion. Carcinus spp. have a high tolerance to fluctuations of environmental factors including oxygen, salinity, temperature, xenobiotic compounds, and others. Shipping of Carcinus spp. over the past centuries has resulted in its invasions of America, Asia, and Australia. Classified as one of the world's 100 worst invaders by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Carcinus spp. are the most widely distributed intertidal crabs in the world. Their voracious predatory activity makes them strong interactors in local communities, and they are recognized as a model for invasiveness in marine systems as well as a sentinel species in ecotoxicology. This review shows an exhaustive analysis of the literature on the life cycle, diversity, physiological tolerance, genomic investigations, ecotoxicological use, historical invasion, control programs, and putative economical valorization of shore crabs.

  7. From upstream to downstream: Megatrends and latest developments in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kang; Pezeshki, S.; McMahon, J.

    1995-08-01

    In recent years, Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector has been characterized by reorganization, revitalization, regional cooperation, environmental awakening, and steady expansion. The pattern of these changes, which appear to be the megatrends of the region`s hydrocarbons sector development, will continue during the rest of the 1990s. To further study the current situation and future prospects of Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector, we critically summarize in this short article the key issues in the region`s oil and gas development. These megatrends in Latin America`s hydrocarbons sector development will impact not only the future energy demand and supply in the region, but also global oil flows in the North American market and across the Pacific Ocean. Each country is individually discussed; pipelines to be constructed are discussed also.

  8. Latin America - the next bonanza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, Hank

    1996-03-01

    The potential for electric power investment in Latin America is analysed. A restructured and privatised power sector, together with political and fiscal stability, make Chile attractive to foreign investors. In 1992, Argentina began to follow Chile`s lead and sold off most of its national electric utilities and has subsequently extended this privatisation. Argentina has a large supply of natural gas which adds to its attraction for investment. Large reserves of natural gas are also a feature of Bolivia where government measures in recent years offer incentives to foreign investors. Brazil`s energy policies have been described as ``problematic`` and privatisation plans were upset by political issues. Continuing domestic and political problems in Colombia make foreign investors wary, though liberalised investment policies have resulted in two deals with US companies. There are few investment opportunities in Paraguay which has excess generating capacity. Privatisation has begun in Peru and there has been some investment from outside despite high costs and the difficulties created by terrorism. Plans for privatisation in Uruguay were voted out but the national utility may purchase power from private generators. Self-generators are an important part of Venezuela`s electric capacity but hydroplants for state utilities are being strongly supported. Economic and labour problems stand in the way of attracting foreign investment at present in Ecuador. (UK)

  9. Science and Passion in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagredo Baeza, Rafael

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In addition to increasing our knowledge and understanding of the naturalists who explored America at various times, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, we seek to discuss the personal, intimate, private, and sentimental nature of individuals who are usually described as well-bred, parsimonious, unfeeling, objective, rigorous, and methodical. For the same reason, perhaps, they are assumed to have stayed aloof from any form of sentimental or passionate relationships in the course of their excursions, despite the fact that the latter often lasted not for months but for years, and that in some instances were not conducted overland but involved prolonged voyages on the high seas.

    Además de avanzar en el conocimiento y comprensión de los naturalistas que exploraron América en algún momento, particularmente en los siglos XVIII y XIX, nos interesa relevar la dimensión personal, íntima, privada, sentimental, de sujetos que corrientemente son presentados como hombres comedidos, parcos, fríos, objetivos, rigurosos y metódicos y, tal vez por eso, se supone, ajenos a cualquier tipo de relación sentimental o pasional durante sus excursiones. Esto, a pesar de que muchas de ellas se prolongaron no ya por meses, sino que por años y que algunas de ellas no fueron itinerarios terrestres, sino que esencialmente marítimos, con largas temporadas en alta mar.

  10. The Norse discovery of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmoen, Iver A

    2005-12-01

    In the late 8th century, the stage for Viking expansion was set by commercial expansion in northwest Europe, the pressure of an increasing population in limited territorial reserves, and the development of the Viking ships. The Norsemen traveled extensively over the oceans, south to the Holy Land, and north to the White Sea and settled over a wide area from Sicily to Greenland. Historical sources, including the reports by Adam of Bremen and the Icelandic Sagas, describe several expeditions from Greenland to Vinland (somewhere along the east coast of North America) in approximately AD 1000 and later. Historians have arrived at highly different conclusions with respect to the location of Vinland (from Labrador to Georgia), but, in 1960, the Norwegian explorer Helge Ingstad localized ancient house sites on L'Ans aux Meadows, a small fishing village on the Northern beaches of Newfoundland. From 1961 to 1969, Ingstad and his wife, Anne Stine (an archaeologist), led several archaeological expeditions that revealed Viking turf houses with room for approximately 100 people. They also excavated a smithy, outdoor cooking pits, boathouses, a bathhouse, and enclosures for cattle, in addition to several Viking artifacts. The finds were C dated to AD 990 +/- 30. The present report reviews historical and archaeological evidence indicating the sites to which the Vikings traveled and attempted to settle in the new world.

  11. Bathymetry of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Bathymetry of North America map layer shows depth ranges using colors. The image was derived from the National Geophysical Data Center?s ETOPO2 elevation data,...

  12. Mineral Operations of Latin America and Canada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries...

  13. Latin America: population and internal unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiarda, J H; Siqueira Wiarda, I

    1985-09-01

    This discussion of population and internal unrest in Latin America covers the following: pressures on land and agriculture; economic frustrations; the youth and radicalism; rising social tensions; and political instability. At current growth rates, Latin America's population is projected to increases between 1981 2001 by 225 million people. This staggering population growth is likely to have serious political, economic, social, strategic, and other implications. The strong opposition to family planning which came principally from nationlists, the military, and the church during the 1960s has changed to general support for voluntary family planning programs in much of Latin America. Too rapid population growth now is viewed widely as aggravating the problems of development and putting severe strains on services and facilities. The wish to limit family size is particularly strong among women. Most of Latin America's untapped land is unusable, either so steeply mountainous, densely tropical, or barren of topsoil that it cannot support life at even the most meager level of subsistence. Food production in most of Latin America has not kept pace with population growth. Since most new agricultural production is oriented toward exports rather than home consumption, conditions for most rural populations are worsening. Economic dilemmas facing Latin America include widespread poverty, the world's highest per capita debt, unemployment and underemployment that may reach between 40-50% of the workforce, negative economic growth rates over the past 5 years, immense income inequalities, declining terms of trade, extensive capital flight, little new investment or foreign assistance, increased protectionism on the part of those countriews with whom Latin America must trade, rising prices for the goods Latin America must import, and (in some countries) devastation of the economic infrastrucutre by guerrilla forces. The unprecedent flow from the countryside has made Latin America the

  14. Building America Research-to-Market Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werling, Eric [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report presents the Building America Research-to-Market Plan (Plan), including the integrated Building America Technology-to-Market Roadmaps (Roadmaps) that will guide Building America’s research, development, and deployment (RD&D) activities over the coming years. The Plan and Roadmaps will be updated as necessary to adapt to research findings and evolving stakeholder needs, and they will reflect input from DOE and stakeholders.

  15. The coastal marine Tardigrada of the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William R; Perry, Emma S

    2016-06-20

    The Western Hemisphere or the New World, also known as the Americas (North, Central and South America, associated islands and included seas) have historically been divided into two Realms, the Nearctic and Neotropical based on terrestrial biogeography. The coasts of these two terrestrial realms are bordered by six marine realms, 14 marine provinces and 67 marine ecoregions. From current literature, a comprehensive list of the marine tardigrade fauna from the Americas is presented. Data on marine tardigrades were obtained from 385 published Records of the Occurrence (RoO) of a species, their location, tidal zone, and the substrates from which they were reported. Authors' identifications were accepted at face value unless subsequently amended. Thirty genera and 82 species or subspecies are reported from the Americas; 49 species are documented from margins of the terrestrial Nearctic realm (North America) and 48 from terrestrial Neotropical realm (South America) with only 17 species occurring in both. We define cosmopolitan distribution for marine tardigrades as occurring in or on the margins of five of the seven oceans, only two species of marine tardigrade meets this standard. From the Americas 39 species have been described as new to science, 32 species appear restricted to the hemisphere. Taxa were assigned to marine ecoregions based on adjacent geopolitical units (country, states, provinces, etc.) described in published records. Although tardigrades have been reported from all six marine realms, they are only known from 21 of the 67 ecoregions. Most marine tardigrade sampling in the Americas has focused on near shore substrate (sand, mud, barnacles); for some species no substrates have been reported. The west coasts of both continents have little or no data about tardigrade presence.

  16. MicroEnterprise Americas: Premiere Issue, 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)

    2001-01-01

    This premiere issue of MicroEnterprise Americas concentrates on the microfinance industry, a thriving segment of the Latin American financial sector that has rapidly expanded in the past five years. This issue explores looks at how market leaders have developed technologies, attracted investments, and developed tools for mitigating risk in the difficult financial climate of the past two years. MicroEnterprise Americas is published by the Inter-American Forum on Microenterprise, an annual even...

  17. America and China in a New World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert E.Goodman

    2007-01-01

    <正>America has prided itself for the past 50 years on being a leader in all things:politics,human rights,and economics,However,in this new century,there are new paradigms that are arising that are forcing a change of attitude and views on how America views the rest of the world_and, especially,China.That is the subject of this discourse today.

  18. Regional Strategic Appraisal of Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    originally consisted of five states that gained their independence from Spain in 1821 and formed a single country, called Central America Federation ...and in each case a civilian president has voluntarily yielded power to another elected civilian. Electoral processes have nearly acquired a “life of...Observatorio de Seguridad y Defensa en America Latina (OSAL), Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset. 38 Ibid. 26 BIBLIOGRAPHY Agosin, Manuel R., David

  19. Wind Powering America Initiative (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Powering America initiative engages in technology market acceptance, barrier reduction, and technology deployment support activities. This fact sheet outlines ways in which the Wind Powering America team works to reduce barriers to appropriate wind energy deployment, primarily by focusing on six program areas: workforce development, communications and outreach, stakeholder analysis and resource assessment, wind technology technical support, wind power for Native Americans, and federal sector support and collaboration.

  20. Taxonomy of the freshwater crabs of Costa Rica, with a revision of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Pseudothelphusidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Célio; Wehrtmann, Ingo S; Lara, Luis Rólier; Mantelatto, Fernando L

    2015-01-13

    The taxonomy and geographic distribution of the freshwater crabs of the family Pseudothelphusidae Ortmann, 1893, of Costa Rica, Central America, particularly of the genus Ptychophallus Smalley, 1964, are revised. Historical materials deposited in major collections of several institutions were examined, as well as valuable collections in the Zoological Museum of the University of Costa Rica that include abundant specimens obtained recently (2007-2010) in the southern region of the country. The pseudothelphusids of Costa Rica consists of 15 currently valid species belonging to Achlidon Smalley, 1964 (two species), Allacanthos Smalley, 1964 (two species), Potamocarcinus H. Milne Edwards, 1853 (three species), and Ptychophallus (eight species). Two species seem to be restricted to the Atlantic drainage, while seven are known only from the Pacific drainage; six species occur in both drainages. Ptychophallus comprises 13 valid species; four new synonymies are proposed: P. osaensis Rodríguez, 2001, P. campylus Pretzmann, 1968, P. tumimanus ingae            Pretzmann, 1978, and P. barbillaensis Rodríguez & Hedström, 2001, as junior synonyms of P. paraxantusi (Bott, 1968), P. tristani (Rathbum 1896), P. tumimanus (Rathbun, 1898), and P. uncinatus Campos & Lemaitre, 1999, respectively. Two species, P. colombianus (Rathbun, 1896) and P. exilipes (Rathbun, 1898), are considered species inquerendae. Lectotype designations are made for P. montanus and P. colombianus. Three species of Ptychophallus are known exclusively from Costa Rica, five exclusively from Panama, and five species occur in both countries; one species appears to be exclusive of the Atlantic drainage, whereas five are known only from the Pacific drainage and seven occur in both drainages. The gonopod morphology of all species is redescribed and illustrated, and maps of their geographic distribution are furnished. A key to the species of Pseudothelphusidae from Costa Rica and to all species of

  1. Padrão de deslocamento do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae nas fases clara e escura ao longo de 24 horas Displacement pattern of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae in light and dark phases during a 24-hour period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele S. Pontes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O padrão diário de atividade de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Penaeidae é ainda pouco entendido. Com o objetivo de fornecer subsídios para otimizar o manejo nas fazendas de cultivo através do estudo do comportamento deste animal, foram desenvolvidos experimentos com juvenis (7,57 ± 1,01 g, mantidos em aquários (30 l. Para registro da atividade, os aquários foram submetidos a fotoperíodo artificial (fase do claro e do escuro, 12h:12 h, sendo monitorados 16 camarões (33 m² em cada fase, durante 20 dias, em janelas de 15 min a cada hora. A alimentação foi fornecida em horários aleatórios, sendo registrados os deslocamentos horizontal e vertical (focal contínuo e os comportamentos de natação e exploração (focal instantâneo. Os deslocamentos horizontal e vertical dos camarões foram mais acentuados na fase escura, predominando o comportamento de natação. A exploração do substrato ocorreu em ambas fases, acentuando-se entre cinco e sete horas após o acendimento das luzes.Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 daily behavior pattern is still poorly understood. With the aim of optimizing the management of shrimp farms through the study of this animal behavior, experiments were performed with juvenile (7.57 ± 1.01, which were marked and kept in aquariums (30 l. To record activity, the aquariums were submitted to an artificial photoperiod (light and dark phases, 12h:12 h, with 16 shrimp (33 m² monitored in each phase for 20 days, for 15-minute periods every hour. Food was provided at random times and a record kept of horizontal and vertical displacement (continuous focal, swimming and exploration behavior (instantaneous focal. The horizontal and vertical displacements of the shrimp were greater during the dark phase, with a predominance of the swimming behavior. Exploration of the substrate occurred in both phases, with a peak between five and seven hours after the lights were turned on.

  2. Postlarval settlement of spiny lobster, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 (Decapoda: Palinuridae, at the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica Asentamiento postlarval en la langosta espinosa, Panulirus argus (Latreille, 1804 (Decapoda: Palinuridae en la costa Caribe de Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar González

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Lobster fishery (Panulirus argus forms an important part of the fishing activities along the Caribbean coast of Central America. The present study provides information regarding the seasonal abundance and distribution of postlarval P. argus in Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica. During the study period (March 2004-February 2005, a total of 1907 pueruli were obtained from GuSi collectors. Postlarvae were present during all months, with a pronounced peak in January-February 2005 (CPUE of 21.82 and 22.18, pueruli/collector/month, respectively, and minor peaks in May and October 2004. The abundance of postlarval P. argus in the study area was comparable to locations which support important lobster fisheries, e.g. Mexico. A majority of the postlarvae (1027 ind. was collected during the first quarter moon, the remaining pueruli (880 ind. during new moon; these results are in general agreement with similar findings for P. argus in the Caribbean area. Based upon our results, we recommend introducing a local or regional monitoring program, studying spiny lobster migration and distribution patterns, and evaluate the introduction of artificial shelters for P. argus.Las capturas de langosta (Panulirus argus son de gran importancia en la actividad pesquera a lo largo de las costas del Caribe de Centroamérica. El presente estudio proporciona información relevante de la abundancia temporal y la distribución de postlarvas de P. argus en el Parque Nacional Cahuita, Costa Rica. Durante el periodo de estudio (Marzo 2004-Febrero 2005, un total de 1907 puérulos fueron obtenidos del colector GuSi. Las postlarvas fueron colectadas durante todos los meses, con máximos en enero-febrero 2005 (CPUE de 21.82 y 22.18, puérulos/colector/mes, respectivamente, y mínimos en mayo y octubre de 2004. La abundancia de postlarvas de P. argus en el estudio es comparada con áreas que soportan importantes pesquerías, p. ej. México. La mayoría de las postlarvas (1027 ind

  3. Healthy Municipios in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, H E; Llanos, G; Contreras, A; Rocabado, F; Gross, S; Suárez, J; González, J

    1995-09-01

    This article describes the Healthy Municipios movement in Latin America and gives examples of some PAHO projects that could become demonstration projects. The Healthy Municipios movement was established in the early 1990s. The movement aims to promote healthy municipalities according to objectives set forth in the 1987 Ottawa Charter on Health Promotion, the 1992 Declaration of Bogota, and the 1993 Caribbean Health Promotion Charter. The movement is a joint effort of government, the health sector, and the community in promoting health locally. Key features of the movement are its creativity, variety, political strength, and adaptation to local conditions. Technical cooperation serves the purpose of facilitating information exchange and promotes the use of modern techniques of analysis and scientific and technical information. All projects shared the following common features: initiation by the local community with strong political commitment, intersectoral organizational structure, widespread community mobilization and participation, problem solving activities, and a recognizable leader. Pioneering projects include the Comprehensive Project for Cienfuegos, Cuba; the Health Manizales, Colombia; the Network in Mexico; Baruta and El Hatillo, Venezuela; Valdivia, Chile; and San Carlos Canton, Costa Rica. It is concluded that these projects and most others aim to assure equity. These efforts are important for placing health on the political agenda and implementing healthy policies. The Valdivia project, for example, serves a population of about 120,000 in the urban city of Valdivia, the semi-urban area, and rural areas. The project was officially sanctioned by the President of Chile on World Health Day in 1993. Progress was reported in mass communication and school-based programs. Attention was directed also to prevention of risk factors for noncommunicable diseases and to the problem of traffic accidents.

  4. Hadron Therapy in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiner, A. J.; Bergueiro, J.; Burlon, A. A.; Di Paolo, H.; Castell, W.; Thatar Vento, V.; Levinas, P.; Cartelli, D.; Kesque, J. M.; Valda, A. A.; Ilardo, J. C.; Baldo, M.; Erhardt, J.; Debray, M. E.; Somacal, H. R.; Minsky, D. M.; Estrada, L.; Hazarabedian, A.; Johann, F.; Suarez Sandin, J. C.; Igarzabal, M.; Huck, H.; Repetto, M.; Obligado, M.; Lell, J.; Padulo, J.; Herrera, M.; Gonzalez, S. R.; Capoulat, M. E.; Davidson, J.; Davidson, M.

    2010-08-01

    The use of proton and heavy ion beams for radiotherapy is a well established cancer treatment modality in the first world, which is becoming increasingly widespread, due to its clear advantages over conventional photon-based treatments. This strategy is suitable when the tumor is spatially well localized. Also the use of neutrons has tradition. Here Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) stands out, though on a much smaller scale, being a promising alternative for tumors which are diffuse and infiltrating. On this sector, so far only nuclear reactors have been used as neutron sources. In this paper we briefly describe the situation in Latin America and in particular we discuss the present status of an ongoing project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole (TESQ) accelerator for Accelerator-Based (AB)-Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The project goal is a machine capable of delivering 30 mA of 2.4 MeV protons to be used in conjunction with a neutron production target based on the 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction. These are the specifications needed to produce sufficiently intense and clean epithermal neutron beams to perform BNCT for deep-seated tumors in less than an hour. The machine being currently designed and constructed is a folded TESQ with a terminal at 0.6 MV as a smaller scale prototype. Since the concept is modular the same structure will be used for the 1.2 MV final accelerator.

  5. Life on the beach for a sand crab (Emerita rathbunae (Decapoda, Hippidae: parasite-induced mortality of females in populations of the Pacific sand crab caused by Microphallus nicolli (Microphallidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Violante-González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Parasites, by definition, can affect mortality of their host, making parasitism an important biotic determinant of animal population dynamics and community structure. Reduction in the number of larger, reproductive age females in populations of the Pacific sand crab, Emerita rathbunae (Decapoda, Hippidae, was observed in studies of the helminth community of this host. The aim of this study was to determine if high abundance of the metacercaria of the trematode, Microphallus nicolli (Microphallidae, causes mortality in this host. Females of E. rathbunae were collected from four sandy beaches in Guerrero State, Mexico, and helminths were collected from each crab. An analysis of variance (Anova was applied to these data in order to identify differences in abundance between sizes of crabs, and an analysis of covariance (Ancova was applied to identify differences in the abundance of metacercariae between locations. Parasite-related mortality was inferred by a decrease in abundance in older hosts. Linear and polynomial regressions of mean abundance of helminths (log x+1 transformed data vs. cephalothorax length of crabs were significant for the four populations of E. rathbunae, indicating increased mortality of older, more heavily infected female crabs and resultant removal from the population. Encapsulation and melanization of cysts by crabs was observed, indicating that an immune response by crabs also killed a portion of the cysts from subsequent exposures. Mortality of hosts through behavioral modification favoring transmission of highly infected crabs was suggested as the driving force behind this process.

  6. Forensic anthropology in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işcan, M Y; Olivera, H E

    2000-03-13

    Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico-legal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature that deals with anthropological standards developed for the population of the continent of Central and South America. Using Uruguay as an example, there was not a single office or anthropologist assigned to analyze human skeletal remains in Uruguay. In 1991 the Laboratorio de Antropología Forense at the Morgue Judicial of Montevideo was created. A total of 189 forensic anthropological cases (276 individuals) were analyzed since this date. Twenty six percent of cases involving human remains were positively identified. The majority came from the Departamento de Montevideo, the largest population district of the country. Most of the cases fell into the 60 to 69 years old age range (35%). Females represented 32% of the total. Since the establishment of the laboratory, the number of forensic cases increased considerably from 20 in 1991 to 40 in 1997. The case studies were accompanied with skull-photo superimposition and facial reconstruction when no other evidence for positive identification was available. This service provided by the laboratory was quickly known to coroners, law enforcement agencies, and other legal authorities and thus utilized not only in Uruguay but also in several other countries in the continent. Because of the obvious need for an anthropologist, there are now university programs to provide forensic anthropological education. Yet, research has lagged behind considerably. Deficiencies are obvious in basic osteological standards of estimating age, calculating stature, determining sex and assessing race that can be applied to populations of the continent

  7. The ribbon continent of northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamira-Areyan, Armando

    The tectonic structure of the Plate Boundary Zone (PBZ) between the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) and the South American Plate (SOAM) is interpreted using models that require CARIB motion from the Pacific into the Atlantic. Those models can be subdivided into: (1) those in which the island arc rocks that are now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ have collided with the northern South America margin, either obliquely or directly during the Cretaceous or during the Cenozoic, and (2) those in which the island arc rocks now in the CARIB-SOAM PBZ collided with the west coast of South America during the Cretaceous and were transferred to the northern margin by transform motion during the Cenozoic. Magnetic anomalies were first rotated in the Central and South Atlantic, holding Africa fixed to establish how much NOAM had converged on SOAM during the Cenozoic. WSW convergence was discovered to have been accommodated in the northern boundary of the CARIB. There is no evidence of convergence in the form of Cenozoic island arc igneous rocks on the north coast of South America. Those results are consistent only with models of Class (2) that call for transform movement of material that had collided with the west coast of South America along the CARIB-SOAM PBZ on the northern margin of South America. 40Ar/39Ar ages of island arc rocks from northern Venezuela were found to be older than ca 70 Ma, which is consistent with a requirement of models of Class (2) that those rocks are from an island arc which collided with the west coast of South America during Cretaceous times. Testing that conclusion using data from Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, the Netherlands Antilles, Trinidad and Tobago has led to the construction of a new ribbon continent model of the northwestern Cordillera of South America. Because the part of the ribbon continent on the north coast of South America has been experiencing substantial deformation in the Maracaibo block during the past 10 m.y., structures in that body have had to be

  8. History of primary vasculitis in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Gammara, Antonio; Coral, Paola; Quintana, Gerardo; Toro, Carlos E; Flores, Luis Felipe; Matteson, Eric L; Restrepo, José Félix

    2010-03-01

    A literature review utilizing Fepafem, Bireme, LiLacs, Scielo Colombia, Scielo Internacional, former MedLine, Pubmed, and BVS Colombia as well as manual searches in the libraries of major Latin American universities was performed to study vasculitis in Latin America. Since 1945, a total of 752 articles have been published by Latin American authors. However, only a minority are devoted to primary vasculitides, and even fewer have been published in indexed journals. Approximately 126 are in OLD, Medline, Pubmed, Bireme, and Scielo. Most publications are from Mexico, followed by Brazil and Colombia. Systematic studies of the epidemiology of primary idiopathic vasculitis are available for a few countries, i.e. Brazil, Mexico, Colombia, Chile, and Peru. Takayasu arteritis and ANCA-associated vasculitis are the best studied forms of vasculitis in Latin America. Interest and expertise in vasculitis is growing in Latin America, as reflected in the increased number of published articles from this region of the world in the last decade. Racial and environmental factors are possibly responsible for the differential expression of various types of primary vasculitis observed in Latin America. With time, the unique features, epidemiology, and better treatment strategies for idiopathic vasculitides in Latin America will emerge.

  9. PTI TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO REBUILD AMERICA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    2002-04-01

    Public Technology Inc. (PTI) engaged in a cooperative agreement, DE-FC26-01NT41107, with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Rebuild America Program to provide energy efficiency and energy conservation technical assistance to local governments across the United States. The first year of the cooperative agreement dated from April 2, 2001 to April 1, 2002, at a funding level of $375,000. This technical report covers the period of October 2001--March 2002. PTI appreciates the support that it has received from Rebuild America and plans to continue, with DOE and Rebuild America support, to serve in a strategic capacity, lending the technical experience of its staff and that of the Energy Task Force on approaches to increasing program efficiencies, furthering program development, and coordinating information sharing to help ensure that energy programs are responsive to the needs of local governments.

  10. Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, Bob; Chandra, Subrato; Baden, Steven; Cummings, Jim; Cummings, Jamie; Beal, David; Chasar, David; Colon, Carlos; Dutton, Wanda; Fairey, Philip; Fonorow, Ken; Gil, Camilo; Gordon, Andrew; Hoak, David; Kerr, Ryan; Peeks, Brady; Kosar, Douglas; Hewes, Tom; Kalaghchy, Safvat; Lubliner, Mike; Martin, Eric; McIlvaine, Janet; Moyer, Neil; Liguori, Sabrina; Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John; Stroer, Dennis; Thomas-Rees, Stephanie; Daniel, Danielle; McIlvaine, Janet

    2010-11-30

    This report summarizes the work conducted by the Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP - www.baihp.org) during the final budget period (BP5) of our contract, January 1, 2010 to November 30, 2010. Highlights from the four previous budget periods are included for context. BAIHP is led by the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) of the University of Central Florida. With over 50 Industry Partners including factory and site builders, work in BP5 was performed in six tasks areas: Building America System Research Management, Documentation and Technical Support; System Performance Evaluations; Prototype House Evaluations; Initial Community Scale Evaluations; Project Closeout, Final Review of BA Communities; and Other Research Activities.

  11. Natural products research in latin america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M P

    2001-01-01

    The biodiversity found in Latin America is one of the richest in the world, yet its potential as a source of new pharmaceuticals has not been fully investigated. This paper will explore the present status of natural products research in 19 Latin American countries. Future research needs will be presented along with reports on the ethnobotanical and bioprospection projects under way in Latin America. The presentation will be based on data collected over the last five years and will be presented within the framework of the Fine Pharmaceutical Subprogram of the Iberoamerican Program of Science and Technology for Development (CYTED), a novel international cooperation program.

  12. History of rehabilitation in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotelano, Fernando

    2012-04-01

    Rehabilitation in Latin America was pioneered in the 1940s by orthopedists who envisioned the need for the integration of people with disabilities into society. The objective of this review is to discuss the evolution of rehabilitation in Latin America during the last few decades. This review is divided into the following sections: (1) prehistory, (2) the beginning, (3) common features in different countries, (4) the beginning and consolidation of the specialty, (5) the Latin American Medical Association of Rehabilitation, and (6) journals published by different countries.

  13. 77 FR 13479 - Read Across America Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Read Across America Day in our homes, schools, and libraries, let us recommit to empowering every child... America Day, we also celebrate the birthday of Theodor Seuss Geisel--an author whose fanciful wordplay...

  14. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Unvented, Conditioned Crawlspaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research which influenced code requirements by demonstrating that unvented, conditioned crawlspaces use 15% to 18% less energy for heating and cooling while reducing humidity over 20% in humid climates.

  15. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing that shed light on how real-world water usage affects energy saving estimates of high-efficiency water heating systems.

  16. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hunt, S. [Confluence Communications, Missoula, MT (united States)

    2014-02-01

    The Building America Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  17. Women in Insurgent Groups in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    in operations. This inclusion can break machista attitudes towards women , and therefore, break down stereotypes of women on the battlefield as...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited WOMEN IN INSURGENT...AND SUBTITLE WOMEN IN INSURGENT GROUPS IN LATIN AMERICA 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR (S) Omar Manual Roberto-Cáez 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME

  18. Nighttime Lights of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is an image of nighttime lights for North America, including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The data were collected in 1996 and 1997 as part of the...

  19. 75 FR 38594 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... a Buy America waiver is appropriate for the use of non-domestic high strength steel bars ASTM A722M... source for the high strength steel bars ASTM A722M 150 ksi (1\\7/8\\ inches in diameter). As a result... is appropriate for the use of non-domestic high strength steel bars for emergency repairs of...

  20. German Studies in America. German Studies Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Volkmar; Osterle, Heinz D.

    This volume contains two papers, "German Studies in America," by Volkmar Sander, and "Historicism, Marxism, Structuralism: Ideas for German Culture Courses," by Heinz D. Osterle. The first paper discusses the position of German studies in the United States today. The greatest challenge comes from low enrollments; therefore,…

  1. Evaluation of Breakthrough's "America 2049" Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, James; Brunner, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Breakthrough, a global human rights organization, produced "America 2049," an alternate-reality game set in a dystopian future in which the United States is on the verge of breaking apart because of an inability to tolerate diversity and promote human rights. During the 12-week game launch, players uncovered artifacts related to the…

  2. Forest health conditions in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkacz, Borys [USDA Forest Service, Forest Health Protection, 1601 North Kent Street, RPC7-FHP, Arlington, VA 22209 (United States)], E-mail: btkacz@fs.fed.us; Moody, Ben [Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Castillo, Jaime Villa [Comision Nacional Forestal, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Fenn, Mark E. [USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Some of the greatest forest health impacts in North America are caused by invasive forest insects and pathogens (e.g., emerald ash borer and sudden oak death in the US), by severe outbreaks of native pests (e.g., mountain pine beetle in Canada), and fires exacerbated by changing climate. Ozone and N and S pollutants continue to impact the health of forests in several regions of North America. Long-term monitoring of forest health indicators has facilitated the assessment of forest health and sustainability in North America. By linking a nationwide network of forest health plots with the more extensive forest inventory, forest health experts in the US have evaluated current trends for major forest health indicators and developed assessments of future risks. Canada and Mexico currently lack nationwide networks of forest health plots. Development and expansion of these networks is critical to effective assessment of future forest health impacts. - The forests of North America continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fragmentation, fires, native and invasive pests, and air pollution.

  3. "Math for America" Isn't

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfmeyer, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Aspects of the Math for America organization's actions, aims and affiliations are analyzed for their effects on urban schools and society at large. These aspects are argued as evidence to consider MfA as an agent working against democratic practice and in favor of furthering profit and its resultant inequitable resource distribution. The…

  4. Civilian-Military Relations in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Pion-Berlin, “The Defense Wisdom Deficit in Latin America: A Reply to Thomas C. Bruneau,” Revista Fuerzas Armadas y Sociedad , forthcoming. 3. Sir...Guatemala (Guatemala: Fondo de Cultura editorial), 1995. 27. in our view, the major defect of the peace and democratization process in Guatemala was

  5. The Race Race: Assimilation in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balis, Andrea; Aman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Can race and assimilation be taught? Interdisciplinary pedagogy provides a methodology, context, and use of nontraditional texts culled from American cultural history such as from, theater and historical texts. This approach and these texts prove useful for an examination of race and assimilation in America. The paper describes a course that while…

  6. Rat Lungworm Expands into North America

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-01-21

    Emily York, integrated pest management specialist at the Sam Noble Museum of Natural History, discusses the rat lungworm expansion in North America.  Created: 1/21/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 1/21/2016.

  7. 76 FR 72027 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Alameda County's intent to buy the Nissan Leaf, which is made in Japan, when there are electric vehicles... finding that a partial Buy America waiver is appropriate for the purchase of 79 electric sedans and 11 electric vans in Alameda County, California. The partial waiver will permit the purchase of these...

  8. A World of Hurt: Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, Rama

    2009-01-01

    Massive socioeconomic problems have left Latin American education in a dire condition, and decades behind the rest of the globe in integrating technology into teaching and learning. But a few spots in the region offer signs of hope. In this article, the author describes several efforts at tech-based educational reform in Latin America.

  9. High School Students and "Read Across America"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Julieta Dias; Hill, Ann

    2004-01-01

    Although more commonly associated with elementary school rather than high school students, "Read Across America" celebrations can cater to any age group and generate enthusiasm for reading long after the festivities have ended. In this article, the authors, library media specialists at Washington Township High School in Sewell, New Jersey, share …

  10. Who Will Save America's Urban Catholic Schools?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Scott W., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    America's urban Catholic schools are in crisis. This report finds that over 1,300 schools have shut down since 1990, mostly in our cities. As a result, some 300,000 students have been displaced--forced to attend other public, private, or parochial schools. The school closures have cost taxpayers more than $20 billion to accommodate the additional…

  11. 78 FR 41492 - Buy America Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... clarified the concept of this public interest exclusion by stating that Buy America requirements are... local entities to pursue clean fuel technologies. Moreover, the FHWA has no data to determine what such..., complex projects. One potential method of easing the inspection and reporting burden on...

  12. Black America: Looking Inward or Outward?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Vernon E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents some observations on what the recent attacks on affirmative action, the O. J. Simpson trial, and the Million Man March say about racism in America. In particular, the author assesses the Million Man March in terms of black leadership and its influence in helping black men to become more involved in constructive community service. (GR)

  13. Urban restructuring and deregulations in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmona, M.

    1992-01-01

    With this work we continue the debate on the trends of urban restructuring in Latin America. In fact due to the large economic crisis of the 80-ies, the continent has decreased is living standards to that of 12 years ago. The productive potential has increased in 1,3% in circumstances that in the pr

  14. Science Editing in America: An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara Gastel

    2003-01-01

    @@ In America, science editing appears to be an increasingly recognized field. In what settings do American science editors work, and what kinds of work do they do ? What is their educational background? What style manuals and other resources do they use? What organizations serve them? What topics and issues do they find of professional interest?

  15. Imaging of subducted lithosphere beneath South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engdahl, E.R.; Hilst, R.D. van der; Berrocal, J.

    1995-01-01

    Tomographic images are produced for the deep structure of the Andean subduction zone beneath western South America. The data used in the imaging are the delay times of P, pP and pwP phases from relocated teleseismic earthquakes in the region. Regionally, structural features larger than about 150 km

  16. Inequality in Latin America : Breaking with History?

    OpenAIRE

    de Ferranti, David; Guillermo E. Perry; Ferreira, Francisco H. G.; Walton, Michael

    2004-01-01

    With the exception of Sub-Saharan Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean has been one of the regions of the world with the greatest inequality. This report explores why the region suffers from such persistent inequality, identifies how it hampers development, and suggests ways to achieve greater equity in the distribution of wealth, incomes and opportunities. The study draws on data from ...

  17. "Song of Myself":Song of America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳晴

    2015-01-01

    Walt Whitman's poem"Song of Myself"is one of his most representative works. It is not only a song of Whitman him-self, but also a song of America. This paper will make an analysis of this poem from the angle of its theme, including American identity and American dream.

  18. What's Cooking in America's Schoolyard Gardens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Cathy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses what's cooking in America's schoolyard gardens. From First Lady Michelle Obama's world-famous Kitchen Garden, to Alice Waters' groundbreaking Edible Schoolyard in Berkeley, California, to a nationally recognized elementary school learning garden in the small Midwestern town of Ashland, Missouri, school children are planting…

  19. The Scapegoat Generation: America's War on Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Mike A.

    Claiming that politicians, private interests, and the media unfairly blame adolescents for America's social problems, this book explodes various myths about teen pregnancy, violence, and risk behaviors. The chapters are: (1) "Impounding the Future," examining trends in various social indicators such as rising rates of child poverty…

  20. 75 FR 64394 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-19

    ... the need for PennDOT to consider alternate designs using domestic steel on future Federal-aid projects... a Buy America waiver is appropriate for the use of non-domestic Steel Pipe; A53 Grade B, 26'' OD, 0.375'' wall for construction of a Recovery Act project on SR 60, Section A40, in Allegheny...

  1. Sisterhood and Sentimentality: Americas's Earliest Preschool Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewes, Dorothy W.

    1995-01-01

    Describes how America's oldest child-care centers began during a period of economic growth and intellectual turbulence in the late 1800s, when women from all walks of American life united to promote the kindergarten movement inspired by the German Friedrich Froebel. Chronicles the movement from a women's history perspective. (ET)

  2. 76 FR 71861 - America Recycles Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-18

    ... efforts to include a vast array of pioneering industrial processes that will drive our clean economy and... sustainable economic growth that will carry us through this century and into the next. To meet the economic... impacts of our products and strive to manage our resources in a sustainable way. To ensure America...

  3. On the German Language in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brian A.

    Sociolinguistic patterns among German immigrants to the United States of America are examined in this paper. Earlier studies in this area, including Wolfgang Viereck's work published in "Orbis" in 1967 and 1968, are examined. Through an analysis of the immigration patterns of the citizens of Glarus, Switzerland, in 1845 to New Glarus,…

  4. The Law and Bondage in Early America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. Sammy

    1976-01-01

    Concludes that economic determinism may not sufficiently explain servitude and other institutions in Colonial America but that the efforts of legal, cultural, and intellectual historians may reveal more about the subordination of whites and blacks to their social betters. (Author/AM)

  5. Chinese Studies Librarianship in North America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karen T. Wei

    2004-01-01

    Although American libraries had begun collecting Chinese language materials in the 19th century, notably the United States Library of Congress in 1869, Yale in 1878, Harvard in 1879, and Berkeley in 1896, East Asian studies librarianship in North America, including China studies librarianship, was not fully developed until the 1960s. There was no formal organization that represented the interest of Chinese studies librarians because there were few of them and most of them were China scholars rather than trained librarians. More than 100 years later, the number of Chinese studies librarians in North America has increased considerably,primarily in response to the demand in the field of China studies and more recently to the needs of immigrant population and the general public who has an interest in China.This paper traces the history and growth of Chinese studies librarianship in North America, documents the development of the professional organization that represents Chinese studies librarians, and examines the training programs that prepare them for their jobs. It also attempts to propose an international exchange forum aiming to bring together Chinese studies librarians in North America and librarians in China in sharing their experience and expertise to achieve the ultimate goal of serving the users.

  6. The State of America's Children Yearbook: 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Belva, Ed.

    The Children's Defense Fund (CDF) 1996 report on the state of America's children highlights the critical need for renewed commitment to children by early childhood advocates, parents, and all sectors of society. The introduction describes in general the crises faced by children and calls for adults to recommit their energies to providing solutions…

  7. Scientific research in America at risk

    CERN Multimedia

    Wojcicki, Esther

    2008-01-01

    "It is hard to believe, but science in America is struggling. Funding for scientific research has been cut back for years, but this year it is so bad that Fermi National Laboratory in the Chicago area, needs to close down for six weeks in 2008 to make ends meet." (1/2 page)

  8. Make Music, America! At MENC's National Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponick, F. S.

    1999-01-01

    Highlights the Music Educators National Conference (MENC) schedules for March 8-11, 2000, which focus on U.S. music and music education following the theme of "Make Music, America!" Covers session topics such as music and young children, improvisation, Orff techniques, at-risk students, world music, research, and technology. Includes an…

  9. 76 FR 14457 - Buy America Waiver Notification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... America waiver, stated in 41 U.S.C. 10b, is appropriate for the purchase of foreign Mobile Harbor Cranes.... This waiver is being requested because mobile harbor cranes are not produced in the United States... the National Institute of Standards and Technology, to identify manufacturing opportunities...

  10. 78 FR 48218 - Buy America Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... [Federal Register Volume 78, Number 152 (Wednesday, August 7, 2013)] [Notices] [Page 48218] [FR Doc No: 2013-19176] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration [FHWA Docket No. FHWA-2013-0041] Buy America Policy AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  11. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nucci, Marcio; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Echevarría, Juan; Sifuentes, Jose; Zurita, Jeannete; Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of adults who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in patients with candidemia. This manuscript is the second of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  12. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, María E; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of neonates who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, central venous catheter management, and management of complications. This manuscript is the fourth of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America'.

  13. Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolaya, María E; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Alvarado Matute, Tito; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Zurita, Jeannete; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Sifuentes, Jose; Echevarría, Juan; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the management of children who have, or who are at risk of, candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America' includes prophylaxis, empirical therapy, therapy for proven candidemia, patient work-up following diagnosis of candidemia, duration of candidemia treatment, and central venous catheter management in children with candidemia. This manuscript is the third of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  14. Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America. Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Cortes, Jorge Alberto; Zurita, Jeannete; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Alvarado Matute, Tito; de Queiroz Telles, Flavio; Santolaya, María E; Tiraboschi, Iris Nora; Echevarría, Juan; Sifuentes, Jose; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Nucci, Marcio

    2013-01-01

    Candidemia is one of the most frequent opportunistic mycoses worldwide. Limited epidemiological studies in Latin America indicate that incidence rates are higher in this region than in the Northern Hemisphere. Diagnosis is often made late in the infection, affecting the initiation of antifungal therapy. A more scientific approach, based on specific parameters, for diagnosis and management of candidemia in Latin America is warranted. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia' are a series of manuscripts that have been developed by members of the Latin America Invasive Mycosis Network. They aim to provide a set of best-evidence recommendations for the diagnosis and management of candidemia. This publication, 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America', was written to provide guidance to healthcare professionals on the diagnosis of candidemia, as well as on the usefulness and application of susceptibility testing in patients who have a confirmed diagnosis of candidemia. Computerized searches of existing literature were performed by PubMed. The data were extensively reviewed and analyzed by members of the group. The group also met on two occasions to pose questions, discuss conflicting views, and deliberate on a series of management recommendations. 'Recommendations for the diagnosis of candidemia in Latin America' includes diagnostic methods used to detect candidemia, Candida species identification, and susceptibility testing. The availability of methods, their costs and treatment settings are considered. This manuscript is the first of this series that deals with diagnosis and treatment of invasive candidiasis. Other publications in this series include: 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in adults in Latin America', 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in children in Latin America', and 'Recommendations for the management of candidemia in neonates in Latin America'.

  15. Contemporary Crustal Motion and Deformation of South America Plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Shuanggen; ZHU Wenyao

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the contemporary motion and active deformation of South America plate and relative motion of Nazca-South America plate using space geodetic data. The South America plate is moving at average 14.5 mm/a with an azimuth of 15.2° and shrinking in the west-east at 10. 9 mm/a. The geodetic deformations of sites with respect to the South America plate are in quite good agreement with the estimated deformations from NNR-NUVEL1A, but the deformation of the western South America regions is very large.

  16. Preliminary survey of a nemertean crab egg predator, Carcinonemertes, on its host crab, Callinectes arcuatus (Decapoda, Portunidae) from Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Robert K.; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The possible presence of egg predators in brood masses of portunid crabs from Pacific Central America has not been studied yet. This survey reports the finding of a nemertean crab egg predator on the portunid crab, Callinectes arcuatus, from the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific Costa Rica. Nemerteans were found in the egg masses of 26 out of the 74 crabs for a prevalence of 35%. The intensity (mean number of worms/ infected crab) was estimated to be 18 with a variance of 1–123 worms/infected crab. No nemerteans were observed either in the 19 Callinectes arcuatus from Golfo Dulce (southern Pacific coast) and the 10 Portunus asper from Herradura-Jaco (central Pacific coast). This nemertean is a member of the genus Carcinonemertes, which has been reported from the Caribbean coast of Panama. However, the encountered Carcinonemertes sp. is the first published finding and report from Costa Rica and Pacific Central America. PMID:25561848

  17. 50 Breakthroughs by America's National Labs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    America's National Laboratory system has been changing and improving the lives of millions for more than 80 years. Born at a time of great societal need, this network of Department of Energy Laboratories has now grown into 17 facilities, working together as engines of prosperity and invention. As this list of 50 Breakthroughs attests, National Laboratory discoveries have spawned industries, saved lives, generated new products, fired the imagination, and helped to reveal the secrets of the universe. Rooted in the need to be the best and bring the best, America's National Laboratories have put an American stamp on the past century of science. With equal ingenuity and tenacity, they are now engaged in winning the future.

  18. Intercultural otherness philosophy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro B. Márquez-Fernández

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Intercultural philosophy in Latin America takes it that the only way to achieve the liberation from the rationality and thinking of the hegemonic colonial culture, present in their countries from the “discovery” of America until now, would be through the recognition of the other in its identity and origin. This philosophy of ‘decolonization’ stresses that it is there where intersubjectivity comes ontologically into being where the authentic origins of their cultures in their ancestral practices emerge. Therefore, the emergence of the other is the dialectical result of a fenomenological consciousness that becomes aware of the existence of being as otherness; that is, a being that is there for another. This liberty makes possible an encounter without the kind of alienations that take place when a culture boasts of its superiority upon another. The intercultural discourse of Latin-American philosophy emphasizes the evolvement of being with others in favor of liberation for all.

  19. Education, democracy and development in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Candido

    1993-11-01

    The education first brought to America by Europeans was hardly more than ornamental culture, literacy was generally unimportant, and African slaves were not educated at all. Only in this century did industrialization cause some governments to provide economic and technological support through training and education. In the last decade, the debt crisis curtailed spending, while numbers of students and teachers continued to rise. A comparison between Latin America and South Korea illustrates the former's relative decline in investment. The advent of populist and corporatist democracies did not alleviate the situation, although there is now some evidence of concern for basic education for poorer children. With economic adjustment programmes, little else has been done for those who have suffered the heaviest burdens, and no obvious solutions to poverty and technological obsolescence are in prospect. A major reform of State institutions is called for, including a commitment to education, a change in the economic model, and a recognition of global interdependence.

  20. Closing the technological gap in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, J.H.; James, D.D.

    1978-06-01

    The 19 oil-importing countries of Latin America were severely affected by the 1973 oil embargo and price increases, which revealed a widening technological gap that has made stability and economic growth difficult for these countries. Unstable price levels and massive inflation have produced unprecedented balance-of-payments deficits. The area's technological gap leaves it unprepared to produce adequate food supplies or to make major resource substitutions. Internal weaknesses are evident in the educational and research biases of South America that have limited the progress of universities and research institutes. New policies are needed to promote viable science and technology by setting priorities and expanding indigenous research programs. Several case studies of indigenous innovation and adaptation are noted to illustrate the potential for closing the technological gap in a peaceful, constructive way. 44 references.

  1. Public health nutrition in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W

    2003-01-01

    An inquiry into options for Masters-level training and into attitudes and perceptions among a convenience sample of nutrition students and professionals from 11 countries suggests that the term, "Public Health Nutrition", as such, is poorly represented and poorly understood in the Latin American region. At least six countries (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico) at seven sites have Masters programs to provide training for nutrition in a public health context or public health with an emphasis in nutrition. Exploring alliances from the Americas with the formal PHN discipline emerging in Europe should enrich the mutual perspective on curriculum design. However, the form and context of postgraduate training in Latin America must consider first and foremost its own job-markets, diverse public health needs, and resource allocations in building or transforming training programs.

  2. The Educational Differences between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢咏雪

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, with the fast development of science and technology in China, there is an increasing number of people go⁃ing to study abroad (taking America as an example). For one hand, they want to get a better educational background to have a more promising career in the future. For the other, they want to change the way of getting knowledge, because they think the Chinese educational system still has a lot to be improved. With such tendency, more people are looking forward to an article that has a thorough analysis to reveal the educational differences between China and America from couple of aspects. It elaborates the educational differences in many ways with authentic research then comes to an analytic conclusion on what we can do to make a contribution to the Chinese educational system as a graduate student.

  3. Middle Class and Democracy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Fierro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The consolidation of the middle class has been interpreted by modernization and postmodernization theories as a key factor for the functioning and stability of the democratic system. However, in Latin America the middle class has tended to be associated with two contradictory positions. On the one hand, it is emphasized that it plays a stabilizing and democratic role while, on the other hand, it is linked to supporting military coups. With the purpose of elucidate such a dilemma, the relationship that can be established between the socioeconomic status and the degree of support for democracy will be examined. In order to do this, an empirical analysis from Latinbarometer surveys databases will be conducted, covering seventeen countries in the region for the period from 1996 to 2011. It will be concluded that the middle class in Latin America does not have particularly more favorable attitudes toward democracy than other social segments.

  4. Panorama linguistico e interculturale in America Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Maravilca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In America Latina, la tradizione amerindia è entrata in contatto con altre vertenti culturali, specialmente l'ispanica perciò si sono intrecciati, in passato e nell'attualità , molteplici e complesse reti sociali come conseguenza delle varie interazioni, che potrebbero essere strumentali, comunicative, cooperative o conflittuali. La popolazione indigena latino-americana, che attualmente sono circa cinquanta milioni di persone è determinante nella configurazione storica e culturale del continente e soprattutto nel futuro dell'educazione dei popoli. A continuazione, analizzerò gli inizi e le cause che hanno portato tutta l'America Latina ad ascoltare la voce decisa e altisonante delle sue popolazioni indigene. Così come l'impegnativo percorso che l'interculturalità  ha realizzato negli ultimi 30 anni.

  5. 2013 Building America Research Planning Meeting Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, C. E.; Hunt, S.

    2014-02-01

    The Building America (BA) Research Planning Meeting was held October 28-30, 2013, in Washington, DC. This meeting provides one opportunity each year for the research teams, national laboratories and Department of Energy (DOE) managers to meet in person to share the most pertinent information and collaboration updates. This report documents the presentations, highlights key program updates, and outlines next steps for the program.

  6. Building America House Simulation Protocols (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.

    2010-10-01

    The House Simulation Protocol document was developed to track and manage progress toward Building America's multi-year, average whole-building energy reduction research goals for new construction and existing homes, using a consistent analytical reference point. This report summarizes the guidelines for developing and reporting these analytical results in a consistent and meaningful manner for all home energy uses using standard operating conditions.

  7. Globalization and Christopher Columbus in the Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosik-Vélez, Elise

    2006-01-01

    In "Globalization and Christopher Columbus in the Americas," Elise Bartosik-Vélez considers the responses of scholars working in colonial and early modern studies to recent exponential increases in the transnationalization of capital and the resulting changes in the role of the nation-state. The case of Christopher Columbus and his appropriation by US-American nationalists during the early modern period is particularly instructive with regard to this discussion because Columbus exemplifies no...

  8. Topography over South America from ERS altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Anita; Frey, Herb; DiMarzio, John; Tsaoussi, Lucia

    1997-01-01

    The results of the surface topography mapping of South America during the ERS-1 geodetic mission are presented. The altimeter waveforms, the range measurement, and the internal and Doppler range corrections were obtained. The atmospheric corrections and solid tides were calculated. Comparisons between Shuttle laser altimetry and ERS-1 altimetry grid showed good agreement. Satellite radar altimetry data can be used to improve the topographic knowledge of regions for which only poor elevation data currently exist.

  9. Pandillas and Security in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the topic of pandillas (street gangs) and their implications for security in Central America. There is minimal scholarly literature on pandillas and security. In part this is due to serious challenges in analyzing pandillas. First, pandilla members consider truth to be situational; data derived directly from them is suspect. Second, those who know most about them are involved in NGOs that rely on foreign assistance for their work. The project reports the...

  10. Racism Is Alive and Well in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Joyce Lynn

    2009-01-01

    If the recent elections of a Black man to the presidency and a Hispanic woman to the Supreme Court of the United States, or news that Ku Klux Klan membership is down from its estimated high of 6 million in 1924 to about 8,000 in 2008 makes one think racism is gone from America, think again! Idaho residents still express concern about the image of…

  11. The Threat of Latin America Populism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    Horowitz, Populism in Latin America, (Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama, 1999) 23. 8 Alberto Paz , "Tango Lyrics in Spanish and English", February...December 5, 2008, http ://www.argentina.ar/ es/ciencia-y- educacion /C343 -invap-tecnologia -de-avanzada -a- medida.php (accessed December 15, 2009...andresoppenheimer.blogspotcom/2006_12_0l_archive.html. Paz Alberto, "Tango Lyrics in Spanish and English" , February 27, 2008, http://www.planet

  12. Report on China's Latin America Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    The Latin America Research Group,CICIR

    2004-01-01

    @@ Latin America is the only underdeveloped region in the Western Hemisphere, and China is the largest developing country in the Eastern Hemisphere. Across the vast Pacific Ocean, the Chinese and the Latin American people have a history of nearly 500 years of exchanges. Starting from the 1980s, both China and the Latin American states adopted the reform and opening-up strategies for development,which led to profound political, economic, and social transformations in the two areas.

  13. Forest Health Status in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borys Tkacz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The forests of North America provide a variety of benefits including water, recreation, wildlife habitat, timber, and other forest products. However, they continue to face many biotic and abiotic stressors including fires, native and invasive pests, fragmentation, and air pollution. Forest health specialists have been monitoring the health of forests for many years. This paper highlights some of the most damaging forest stressors affecting North American forests in recent years and provides some projections of future risks.

  14. Energy in Latin America: Present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Johnny N; Sheffield, John W [University of Missouri-Rolla (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The primary focus of this paper is on the analysis of the current situation of energy production and consumption in the region as a whole, to examine the determinants of energy supply and demand growth, and to forecast the future growth of energy production, consumption, and balances. Since the growth of oil demand in Latin American countries themselves began to accelerate in the early 1990s, the lack of investment and development and the consequence shrinking base of Latin America's energy exports may pose serious challenges to North America, where dependence on the Middle Eastern oil and gas is growing. This paper attempts to present different scenarios and strategies to tackle the problem of Latin America's future net energy supply. [Spanish] El enfoque principal de este articulo es sobre la base de la situacion actual de la produccion y consumo de energia en la region como un todo, para examinar las determinantes del suministro de energia y el crecimiento de la demanda y la prediccion del crecimiento futuro de la produccion de energia, consumo y balances. Desde el crecimiento de la demanda del petroleo, en los paises latinoamericanos, ellos mismos empezaron a acelerar a principios de los 90s, la falta de inversion y desarrollo y la consecuencia del encogimiento de la base de las exportaciones de energia de Latinoamerica podrian imponer serios retos a Norte America, en donde la dependencia del petroleo y del gas del Medio-Oeste esta creciendo. Este articulo intenta presentar diferentes escenarios y estrategias para atacar el problema del suministro neto de energia de Latinoamerica.

  15. Gravity and geoid model for South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blitzkow, Denizar; Oliveira Cancoro de Matos, Ana Cristina; do Nascimento Guimarães, Gabriel; Pacino, María Cristina; Andrés Lauría, Eduardo; Nunes, Marcelo; Castro Junior, Carlos Alberto Correia e.; Flores, Fredy; Orihuela Guevara, Nuris; Alvarez, Ruber; Napoleon Hernandez, José

    2016-04-01

    In the last 20 years, South America Gravity Studies (SAGS) project has undertaken an ongoing effort in establishing the fundamental gravity network (FGN); terrestrial, river and airborne relative gravity densifications; absolute gravity surveys and geoid (quasi-geoid) model computation for South America. The old FGN is being replaced progressively by new absolute measurements in different countries. In recent years, Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela organizations participated with relative gravity surveys. Taking advantage of the large amount of data available, GEOID2015 model was developed for 15°N and 57°S latitude and 30 ° W and 95°W longitude based on EIGEN-6C4 until degree and order 200 as a reference field. The ocean area was completed with mean free air gravity anomalies derived from DTU10 model. The short wavelength component was estimated using FFT. The global gravity field models EIGEN-6C4, DIR_R5 were used for comparison with the new model. The new geoid model has been evaluated against 1,319 GPS/BM, in which 592 are located in Brazil and the reminder in other countries. The preliminary RMS difference between GPS/BM and GEOID2015 throughout South America and in Brazil is 46 cm and 17 cm, respectively. New activities are carrying out with the support of the IGC (Geographic and Cartographic Institute) under the coordination of EPUSP/LTG and CENEGEO (Centro de Estudos de Geodesia). The new project aims to establish new gravity points with the A-10 absolute gravimeter in South America. Recent such surveys occurred in São Paulo state, Argentina and Venezuela.

  16. Andes Altiplano, Northwest Argentina, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This view of the Andes Altiplano in northwest Argentina (25.5S, 68.0W) is dominated by heavily eroded older and inactive volcano peaks. The altiplano is a high altitude cold desert like the Tibetan Plateau but smaller in area. It is an inland extension of the hyperarid Atacama Desert of the west coast of South America and includes hundreds of volcanic edifices (peaks, cinder cones, lava flows, debris fields, lakes and dry lake beds (salars).

  17. Religious Diversity and Islam in America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Uddin Khan

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity is the essence and spirit of America or the West both as a place and a people. Islam also allows for diversity within its concept of unity and oneness of God. Muslims, therefore, have no problem co-existing in peace with the Jews, Christians and the followers of other religions. Problems arise (a when secular values or principles disturb the working balance of the otherwise mutually exclusive religious diversity and harmony in America; (b when one follows opportunist policies, practices double standards, and is moved by mere worldly or political interests; and (c when war against the Zionist-and-neoconservative-manufactured terrorism turns into war against Islam. Such misleading and mischievous tendencies or policies prevent peace from prevailing, which ultimately tarnish the image of religions in the eyes of their followers and those of the rest making a mockery of the idea of religious diversity even in the so-called most democratic country called the United States of America!

  18. Multiple sclerosis care in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Victor M; Medina, Marco Tulio; Duron, Reyna M; Macias, Miguel Angel

    2014-05-01

    Before the advent of diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS), it was reported that the prevalence of MS in Mexico was "one of the lowest in the world" (1.6/100,000).(1) The notion that MS was a rare neurologic disease among those living in the tropics of the Americas and Southern latitudes was widely accepted. The geopolitical boundaries of the region identified as Latin America (LA) extend from the southern border of United States with Mexico (32° North latitude) to the Argentinian and Chilean Patagonia in South America (56° South latitude). The largest Spanish-speaking island countries in the Caribbean-Cuba, Dominican Republic, and Puerto Rico-are also traditionally considered part of LA. The continental mass includes 17 countries with a population of more than 550 million. Due to centuries of racial intermixing, it is a heterogeneous and genetically complex population. The blended cultures of native Amerindians with white Caucasian Europeans and black Africans has resulted in the predominant ethnic Latin American Mestizo. The influence of African genetics is notable in many areas of the subcontinent and the Caribbean. A common observation across LA is the absence of identification of MS in non-mixed Amerindians(2); the reason for this phenomenon is unclear.

  19. Mineral Facilities of Latin America and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Rachel; Eros, Mike; Quintana-Velazquez, Meliany

    2006-01-01

    This data set consists of records for over 900 mineral facilities in Latin America and Canada. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, smelters, or refineries of aluminum, cement, coal, copper, diamond, gold, iron and steel, nickel, platinum-group metals, salt, and silver, among others. Records include attributes such as commodity, country, location, company name, facility type and capacity if applicable, and generalized coordinates. The data were compiled from multiple sources, including the 2003 and 2004 USGS Minerals Yearbooks (Latin America and Candada volume), data to be published in the 2005 Minerals Yearbook Latin America and Canada Volume, minerals statistics and information from the USGS minerals information Web site (minerals.usgs.gov/minerals), and data collected by USGS minerals information country specialists. Data reflect the most recent published table of industry structure for each country. Other sources include statistical publications of individual countries, annual reports and press releases of operating companies,and trade journals. Due to the sensitivity of some energy commodity data, the quality of these data should be evaluated on a country-by-country basis. Additional information and explanation is available from the country specialists.

  20. [Population and nutrition in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, S

    1984-04-01

    This discussion of food and population in Latin America consists of 5 sections covering food and the population debate since Malthus, basic data on nutrition problems in Latin America, the demographic impact, food production, and future prospects. The present position in favor of limitation of population growth is based on the view that continued rapid population increase must inevitably bring a crisis of disequilibrium of food, natural resources, and ecological and economic security within about 100 years. The common element uniting those opposed to or indifferent to population control is a belief that science and technology can predict and satisfy the essential food needs of a burgeoning population. All developed countries have per capita caloric availabilities of over 3000/day, compared to an average of 2465 for Latin American as a whole. Only Barbados and Argentina have 3000 calories/day available. The daily average per capita protein consumption of 65.7 grams in Latin America is above the 54 gr/day recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organiation. In Latin America the average daily per capita consumption from animal protein is 496 calories, compared to 1331 in the US. The nutrition status of different Latin American countries varies, with minimal caloric intakes of 1880-2170 calories/day in some Central American and Caribbean countries. Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Honduras, Ecuador, and Bolivia have frank protein deficits. Within countries, there may be large food gaps between regions, rural and urban populations, and social classes. The FAO estimated that 41 million Latin Americans representing 13% of the population are undernourished. 38% of Guatemalans, Hondurans, and Haitians, 30% of Ecuadoreans, and 23% of Peruvians are believed to be inadequately nourished. The quality of the diet varies widely between countries and regions because of a multitude of cultural, environmental, and socioeconomic factors. In

  1. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  2. Contextualizing the trauma experience of women immigrants from Central America, South America, and Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltman, Stacey; Hurtado de Mendoza, Alejandra; Gonzales, Felisa A; Serrano, Adriana; Guarnaccia, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    Trauma has been understudied among Latina immigrants from Central and South America. This study examined the types and context of trauma exposure experienced by immigrant women from Central America, South America, and Mexico living in the United States. Twenty-eight women seeking care in primary care or social service settings completed life history interviews. The majority of the women reported some type of trauma exposure in their countries of origin, during immigration, and/or in the United States. In the interviews, we identified types of trauma important to the experience of these immigrants that are not queried by trauma assessments typically used in the United States. We also identified factors that are likely to amplify the impact of trauma exposure. The study highlights the importance of utilizing a contextualized approach when assessing trauma exposure among immigrant women.

  3. The advanced light source: America`s brightest light for science and industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, J.; Lawler, G.

    1994-03-01

    America`s brightest light comes from the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national facility for scientific research, product development, and manufacturing. Completed in 1993, the ALS produces light in the ultraviolet and x-ray regions of the spectrum. Its extreme brightness provides opportunities for scientific and technical progress not possible anywhere else. Technology is poised on the brink of a major revolution - one in which vital machine components and industrial processes will be drastically miniaturized. Industrialized nations are vying for leadership in this revolution - and the huge economic rewards the leaders will reap.

  4. Fostering renewable energy markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Jeremy [North American Comission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC), (United States)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation describes projects, programs and other issues addressed in order to promote renewable energy markets in North America. These are carried out by the North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation (CEC). In the first part of this presentation, there are going to be found some of the rules imposed by the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation (NAAEC). Then, it is shown the structure of the CEC as well as its programs, besides, there are presented the environment projects and the objectives along with their respective trades. There are described both benefits environmental and non-environmental. Also, there are shown the issues which the CEC is working in. And finally, it is shown a list mentioning the aspects that would change if: the expansion of the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE), happens, the grid-interconnected and the self supply of Renewable Electricity increase. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se describen los proyectos, los programas y otras cuestiones, cuyo objetivo es impulsar los mercados de energia renovable en America del Norte, realizadas por la North American Commission for Environmental Cooperation. En la primera parte, se encuentran algunas de las reglas impuestas por el Acuerdo de Cooperacion Ambiental de America del Norte (ACAAN). Enseguida, se muestra la estructura y los programas de la Comision para la Cooperacion Ambiental (CCA). Asimismo, se describen los proyectos ambientales, los objetivos junto con sus correspondientes tratados. Mas adelante, se explican tanto los beneficios ambientales como aquellos que no lo son. Igualmente, explican las cuestiones que podrian cambiar de: suceder la expansion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), incrementarse el auto- suministro de la energia renovable y los sistemas interconectados.

  5. Yellow fever vaccination in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Outbreaks of yellow fever in recent years in the Americas have prompted concern about the possible urbanization of jungle fever. Vaccination, using the 17D strain of yellow fever virus, provides an effective, practical method of large scale protection against the disease. Because yellow fever can reappear in certain areas after a 2-year dormancy period, some countries maintain routine vaccination programs in areas where jungle yellow fever is endemic. The size of the endemic area (approximately half of South America), transportation and communication difficulties, and the inability to ensure a reliable cold chain are problems facing these programs. In addition, the problem of reaching dispersed and isolated populations has been addressed by the use of mobile teams, radio monitoring, and educational methods. During yellow fever outbreaks, many countries institute massive vaccination campaigns, targeted at temporary workers and migrants. Because epidemics in South America may involve extensive areas, these campaigns may not effectively address the problem. The ped-o-jet injector method, used in Brazil and Colombia, should be used in outbreak situations, as it is effective for large-scale vaccination. Vaccine by needle, suggested for maintenance programs, should be administered to those above 1 year of age. An efficient monitoring method to avoid revaccination, and to assess immunity, should be developed. The 17D strain produces seroconversion in 95% of recipients, and most is prepared in Brazil and Colombia. But, problems with storage methods, instability in seed lots, and difficulties in large-scale production were identified in 1981 by the Pan American Health Organization and WHO. The group recommended modernization of current production techniques and further research to develop a vaccine that could be produced in cell cultures. Brazil and Colombia have acted on these recommendations, modernizing vaccine production and researching thermostabilizing media for

  6. NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. A.; Waltman, S. W.; Geng, X.; James, D.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-05-01

    NOAM-SOIL is being created by combining the CONUS-SOIL database with pedon data and soil geographic data coverages from Canada and Mexico. Completion of the in-progress NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) database will provide complete North America coverage comparable to CONUS. Canadian pedons, which number more than 500, have been painstakingly transcribed to a common format, from hardcopy, and key- entered. These data, along with map unit polygons from the 1:1,000,000 Soil Landscapes of Canada, will be used to create the required spatial data coverages. The Mexico data utilizes the INEGI 1:1,000,000 scale soil map that was digitized by U. S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center in the mid 1990's plus about 20,000 pedons. The pedon data were published on the reverse side of the paper 1:250,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico and key entered by USDA and georeferenced by Penn State to develop an attribute database that can be linked to the 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico based on taxonomic information and geographic proximity. The essential properties that will be included in the NOAM-SOIL data base are: layer thickness (depth to bedrock or reported soil depth); available water capacity; sand, silt, clay; rock fragment volume; and bulk density. For quality assurance purposes, Canadian and Mexican soil scientists will provide peer review of the work. The NOAM-SOIL project will provide a standard reference dataset of soil properties for use at 1km resolution by NACP modelers for all of North America. All data resources, including metadata and selected raw data, will be provided through the Penn State web site: Soil Information for Environmental Modeling and Ecosystem Management (www.soilinfo.psu.edu). Progress on database completion is reported.

  7. [Renewing primary health care in the Americas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macinko, James; Montenegro, Hernán; Nebot Adell, Carme; Etienne, Carissa

    2007-01-01

    At the 2003 meeting of the Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the PAHO Member States issued a mandate to strengthen primary health care (Resolution CD44. R6). The mandate led in 2005 to the document "Renewing Primary Health Care in the Americas. A Position Paper of the Pan American Health Organization/WHO [World Health Organization]," and it culminated in the Declaration of Montevideo, an agreement among the governments of the Region of the Americas to renew their commitment to primary health care (PHC). Scientific data have shown that PHC, regarded as the basis of all the health systems in the Region, is a key component of effective health systems and can be adapted to the range of diverse social, cultural, and economic conditions that exist. The new, global health paradigm has given rise to changes in the population's health care needs. Health services and systems must adapt to address these changes. Building on the legacy of the International Conference on Primary Health Care, held in 1978 in Alma-Ata (Kazakhstan, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), PAHO proposes a group of strategies critical to adopting PHC-based health care systems based on the principles of equity, solidarity, and the right to the highest possible standard of health. The main objective of the strategies is to develop and/or strengthen PHC-based health systems in the entire Region of the Americas. A substantial effort will be required on the part of health professionals, citizens, governments, associations, and agencies. This document explains the strategies that must be employed at the national, subregional, Regional, and global levels.

  8. Drug Trafficking as a Lethal Regional Threat in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    and Central America are only found in some magazines like TIME, and “Nueva Sociedad ” [New Society]. Another good source for analysis of current...relacion compleja” [Drugs and Insecurity in Latin America: a complex relation] published by the Colombian magazine Nueva Sociedad in July-August 2000...Organization of American States. 65 Table 1. Police Ratios in Central America Source: Author Interviews; Observatoriapara la violencia , Honduras; CIA

  9. Building America Developments, September 2000, Information Bulletin Number 1 (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Anderson, J.; Epstein, K.

    2001-12-01

    Building America Developments on-line newsletter highlights the Erie-Ellington Homes publicly-funded housing project in Boston, Massachusetts. A Building America and industry partnership that produced energy-efficient manufactured homes built with foam core panels is featured. Also, Habitat for Humanity dedicates two energy-efficient test houses in East Tennessee, and affordable, healthy homes are offered in metro Atlanta. Upcoming events in the Building America Program are also listed.

  10. Living in poverty in America today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holosko, Michael J; Feit, Marvin D

    2005-01-01

    No statistician, social scientist or tarot card reader is needed to attest that the gap between the rich and poor in America is increasing. Further, most Americans don't care that much about it. There are also more rich people today living in the U.S. and there are more people living in poverty. Between 2000 and 2002, the number of Americans living in poverty increased by nearly 3 million to 34.6 million. Of these, 12% (or about one half a million persons) are living extreme poverty and many are children, with 16.7% likely to be poor (National Association of Social Workers, 2003).

  11. Dipleurozoa from lower silurian of north america.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H; Fox, S K

    1968-10-04

    In a problematical fauna discovered in Australia, 152 meters below diagnostic Lower Cambrian species, are fossilized remains belonging in the phylum Coelenterata. These jellyfish-like fossils were defined as a new class(Dipleurozoa) by Harrington and Moore because of their strong bilateral symmetry and differentiated extremities. The class was not reported elsewhere before many specimens were discovered recently in the Shawangunk (Tuscarora) formation at Delaware Water Gap, Pennsylvania. Three new species belonging to a new genus can be recognized, the indication being that the class ranges stratigraphically from the infra-Cambrian to at least the Lower Silurian, and geographically from Australia to eastern North America.

  12. Sources of Economic Fluctuations in Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfredo Toledo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using panel data from Central America, this paper studies the determining factors of inflation and aggregate output fluctuations by estimating two Structural Vector Autoregressive (SVAR models. Price and output variables are included in one of the models, whereas M2 and the price of oil are additional variables in the other one. Findings of this study suggest that price is determined by the demand, while output seems to be influenced mainly by the supply shocks in that area. It was also evidenced that the price of oil does not have a significant impact on the general price level in that region.

  13. 2014 Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, C. Metzger [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    As Building America has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  14. Understanding China's Relations with Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This essay deals with the fast growing Sino-Latin American relations,touching upon the issues of the importance of Latin America to China;pros and cons of the bilateral relations;the U.S.factor;the opportunities that might be emerged from the financial crisis for the bilateral relations;China's first policy paper towards the region;the overseas Chinese contribution to the bilateral relations;Taiwan problem;the so-called neo-colonialism and the role of Europe.

  15. WELFARE REGIMES IN LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melisa Campana-Alabarce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a characterization of Latin American and Caribbean Welfare regimes in historiographical perspective. Firstly, it makes a review of the emergence conditions of Welfare States in Western Europe and its core features, with particular emphasis on its role as a method to regulate inequalities in industrial capitalism. Dialoguing with it, then stops in the specific configurations that welfare regimes have taken in Latin America during the course of the twentieth century. Finally, it provides a map of its contemporary features and the major challenges that the States of the region face in his capacity as right guarantors for the future.

  16. Le ripetute migrazioni giapponesi in America Latina

    OpenAIRE

    Merler, Alberto; Niihara, Michinobu

    2011-01-01

    Gli autori, un italiano e un giapponese, presentano una sintesi delle considerazioni di partenza e delle ipotesi da cui prendono le mosse alcune ricerche sulle ripetute migra-zioni dei nipponici e dei loro discendenti tra Giappone e America Latina. Si evidenzia l’esistenza di una triangolazione di risorse ed esperienze che comprende pure l’Europa e, in particolare, l’Italia. Los autores, un italiano y un japonés, presentan un resumen de las primeras consideraciones y de las hipótesis que l...

  17. Cultural Differences between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王子涵

    2013-01-01

    The Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English gives an explanation that culture is the customs, beliefs, art, music, and all the other products of human thought made by particular group of people at a particular time. Different nations have differ-ent cultures. Various cultural factors result in different language forms. China and America are distinct in languages, customs, be-haviors, values and many other aspects. It is the many differences between Chinese and Americans that constitute their own dis-tinct cultures. We can see that people bring along their culture with them and stick to their cultural norms in their daily life.

  18. The Failure of Macroeconomics in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joseph Stiglitz

    2011-01-01

    Editor's Words On 18 March 2011, the China Association for World Economics hosted "The Presentation of the 2010 Pushan Award for Excellent Papers on International Economics " at the China Central University of Finance and Economics. Over 700 scholars and students from home and abroad attended the ceremony. Professor Joseph Stiglitz, the winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics, presented the awards and gave a speech on "The Failure of Economics in America." The following speech transcript has been approved and edited kindly by Professor Stiglitz.

  19. Significance of the sexual openings and supplementary structures on the phylogeny of brachyuran crabs (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura), with new nomina for higher-ranked podotreme taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinot, Danièle; Tavares, Marcos; Castro, Peter

    2013-01-01

    it is lost in all other raninoid extant members. New evidence shows that the abdominal holding was an early occurrence for a brachyuran crab. The Raninoidea, sister to Palaeocorystoidea, is characterised by gymnopleurity, a condition that results from the lifting of the carapace and thus the exposure of several pleurites. The narrowing of the body and thoracic sternum, almost certainly associated with their burrowing behaviour, is a diagnostic feature of raninoid evolution, in contrast to the widening observed in the remaining Brachyura. The monophyly of Heterotremata is discussed. Although the correct assignment of the coxal male gonopore and sternal female gonopore (vulva) at the base of Decapoda and Eubrachyura, respectively, left no synapomorphies to support the Heterotremata, the group nevertheless should be regarded as the sister group to Thoracotremata. The controversial monophyly of Podotremata is discussed and arguments are presented against the suppression of this taxon. The distinction of Homoloidia from Dromioidia is argued, and a classification of Podotremata, which considers the fossil record whenever possible, is presented. The earliest brachyurans are re-examined, and a new interpretation of the phylogeny of several basal eubrachyuran groups (Dorippoidea, Inachoididae, Palicoidea, Retroplumoidea) is proposed. Stenorhynchus shares a number of characters with the Inachoididae that differentiate them from Inachidae, and also has some distinctive features that warrants its assignment to a separate inachoidid subfamily, Stenorhynchinae, which is resurrected. The concealment strategies among Brachyura are documented and discussed. Podotremes use carrying behaviour, often combined with burying and concealment under substrates, whereas living within a host, burying, and decoration are used by heterotremes, burrowing being essentially a thoracotreme strategy. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)

  20. Geografia de America Latina. Grados Seis-Diez (Geography of Latin America. Grades Six-Ten).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This publication, intended for Spanish-speaking students in grades 6-10, has three main objectives. First, it serves as an introduction (or refresher) to basic geographic concepts. Second, it is an examination of the physical and political geography of Latin America. Third, it is designed to help students examine maps in a critical manner. The…

  1. Influence of South America orography on summertime precipitation in Southeastern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junquas, C.; Li, L.; Vera, C. S.; Le Treut, H.; Takahashi, K.

    2016-06-01

    Impacts of the main South American orographic structures (the Andes, the Brazilian Plateau and the Guiana shield) on the regional climate and associated global teleconnection are investigated through numerical experiments in which some of these features are suppressed. Simulations are performed with a ``two-way nesting'' system coupling interactively the regional and global versions of the LMDZ4 atmospheric general circulation model. At regional scale, the simulations confirm previous studies, showing that both the Andes and the Brazilian Plateau exert a control on the position and strength of the South Atlantic convergence zone (SACZ), mainly through their impact on the low-level jet and the coastal branch of the subtropical anticyclones. The northern topography of South America appears to be crucial to determine the leading mode of rainfall variability in eastern South America, which manifests itself as a dipole-like pattern between Southeastern South America and the SACZ region. The suppression of South America orography also shows global-scale effects, corresponding to an adjustment of the global circulation system. Changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation are found in remote areas on the globe, being the consequences of various teleconnection mechanisms. When the Brazilian Plateau and the Andes are suppressed, there is a decrease of precipitation in the SACZ region, associated with a weakening of the large-scale ascendance. Changes are described in terms of anomalies in the Walker circulation, meridional displacements of the mid-latitude jet stream, Southern annular mode anomalies and modifications of Rossby wave train teleconnection processes.

  2. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report: FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, M.

    2013-05-01

    This document is the Building America FY2012 Annual Report, which includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  3. Building America Systems Integration Research Annual Report. FY 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gestwick, Michael [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    This Building America FY2012 Annual Report includes an overview of the Building America Program activities and the work completed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Building America industry consortia (the Building America teams). The annual report summarizes major technical accomplishments and progress towards U.S. Department of Energy Building Technologies Program's multi-year goal of developing the systems innovations that enable risk-free, cost effective, reliable and durable efficiency solutions that reduce energy use by 30%-50% in both new and existing homes.

  4. BAT-BORNE RABIES IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. Escobar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The situation of rabies in America is complex: rabies in dogs has decreased dramatically, but bats are increasingly recognized as natural reservoirs of other rabies variants. Here, bat species known to be rabies-positive with different antigenic variants, are summarized in relation to bat conservation status across Latin America. Rabies virus is widespread in Latin American bat species, 22.5%75 of bat species have been confirmed as rabies-positive. Most bat species found rabies positive are classified by the International Union for Conservation of Nature as “Least Concern”. According to diet type, insectivorous bats had the most species known as rabies reservoirs, while in proportion hematophagous bats were the most important. Research at coarse spatial scales must strive to understand rabies ecology; basic information on distribution and population dynamics of many Latin American and Caribbean bat species is needed; and detailed information on effects of landscape change in driving bat-borne rabies outbreaks remains unassessed. Finally, integrated approaches including public health, ecology, and conservation biology are needed to understand and prevent emergent diseases in bats.

  5. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

  6. [Clostridum difficile associated disease in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Ponce-de-León, Alfredo; Sifuentes-Osornio, José

    2009-01-01

    Clostridium difficile associated disease (CDAD) has shown a sustained increase worldwide over the last ten years. However, there are few studies on this topic in Latin America. We conducted a comprehensive literature review using medical databases of Latin American countries. We found only seven recent papers in which clinical characteristics and risk factors were analyzed; some included outcome variables. Of these articles, only one was prospective, while the rest were either retrospective, cross-sectional or case-control studies. Most studies were done among hospitalized adult patients, even though patients 13+ years were also included in some reports. Only two recent clinical studies used cell culture to determine a cytopathic effect and the rest included immunoenzymatic assays. In general, all the studies we reviewed showed that the use of fluorquinolones, clindamycin, and cephalosporins were the antibiotics mostly associated with CDAD. Treatment schedules generally included metronidazol, although vancomycin was reported in one. Attributable mortality was lower than the mortality described in previous reports from hospitals in developed countries. Studies where this outcome was included did not surpass 4%, a significant difference from the findings from developed countries. In Latin America there are few studies that describe this clinical problem, they generally include small sample sizes and most are retrospective. There is a clear need to design and carry out prospective studies that will allow us to determine the true prevalence of this health problem

  7. Toxocariasis in North America: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rachel M; Moore, Laura B; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J

    2014-08-01

    Toxocariasis is an important neglected tropical disease that can manifest as visceral or ocular larva migrans, or covert toxocariasis. All three forms pose a public health problem and cause significant morbidity in areas of high prevalence. To determine the burden of toxocariasis in North America, we conducted a systematic review of the literature following PRISMA guidelines. We found 18 articles with original prevalence, incidence, or case data for toxocariasis. Prevalence estimates ranged from 0.6% in a Canadian Inuit community to 30.8% in Mexican children with asthma. Commonly cited risk factors included: African-American race, poverty, male sex, and pet ownership or environmental contamination by animal feces. Increased prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection was linked in a group of case control studies conducted in Mexico to several high risk groups including waste pickers, asthmatic children, and inpatient psychiatry patients. Further research is needed to determine the true current burden of toxocariasis in North America; however the prevalence estimates gathered in this review suggest that the burden of disease is significant.

  8. North America: US activity is unprecedented

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-15

    For overall drilling activity in 1981, North America is expected to post a 20.9% increase over 1980 figures for a total of 90,347 wells. The growth is due solely to a 28.6% increase in US activity; Canada and Mexico show declines of 31.3% and 7.8%, respectively. Mid-year reports for the US included 36,776 wells, 7078 of them gas wells; of 7526 wildcats, 840 were gas-productive. The success rate for mid-year was 25.5%. The downturn in Canadian activity reflects the decrease in investments caused by the restructuring of the Canadian industry. Exploration is continuing, however, particularly in the east coast offshore region, the Beaufort Sea, and the Arctic Islands. The outlook in Mexico is highly promising: new fields are being discovered regularly in Campeche Bay, the Mesozoic region of Tabasco and Chiapas, the Sabinas Gulf region, and Chicontepec Paleocanyon. Since 1976, Petroleos Mexicanos has successfully reduced natural-gas flaring to less than 2% of production. Gas production increased by 22% in 1980, reaching 3.723 billion CF/day by December. Other drilling activity occurred in the West Indies and Caribbean Sea and parts of Central America.

  9. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the

  10. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Energy, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Wind Powering America program (based at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) sponsors the Wind for Schools Project to raise awareness in rural America about the benefits of wind energy while simultaneously educating college seniors regarding wind energy applications. The three primary project goals of…

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of chikungunya activity in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better understand chikungunya activity in the America we mapped recent chikungunya activity in the Americas. This activity is needed to better understand that the relationships between climatic factors and disease outbreak patters are critical to the design and constructing of predictive models....

  12. Preparing Teachers for Inclusive Education in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillant, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the current challenges facing inclusive education in Latin America and explores some possible solutions. The author suggests that teachers play a key role in providing education that is inclusive for all. In Latin America, today, however, inclusive education often does not respond to the needs of children and young people,…

  13. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, Cheryn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year, whole-house energy savings goals of 40%–70% and on-site power production of up to 30%, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Residential Buildings Program and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed the Building America (BA) Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.

  14. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 19, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2008-12-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams.

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND TREATMENT OF ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA IN LATIN AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Magalhães Rego

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Distinct epidemiological characteristics have been described in Acute Promielocytic Leukemia (APL. Populations from Latin America have a higher incidence of APL and in some geographic areas a distinct distribution of the PML-RARA isoforms is present. Here, we review the main differences in APL epidemilogy in Latin America as well as treatment outcomes.

  16. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carriquiriborde, P.; Mirabella, P.; Waichman, A.; Solomon, K.; Brink, van den P.J.; Maund, S.J.

    2014-01-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the

  17. Immigration and the New Racial Diversity in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the new racial and ethnic diversity in rural America, which may be the most important but least anticipated population shift in recent demographic history. Ethnoracial change is central to virtually every aspect of rural America over the foreseeable future: agro-food systems, community life, labor force change, economic…

  18. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Attic Air Sealing Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored Guide to Attic Air Sealing by Building America research partner Building Science Corporation, which provides best practices for attic air sealing. The guide has had 21,000 views and 13,000 downloads since it was posted.

  19. "Latin" and "Anglo" America Geographic Regions Do Not Exist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes DaSilva, Edmar; Kvasnak, Robert Neil

    2015-01-01

    The regional divisions termed as "Latin America" versus "Anglo-America" used by many geographers do not fully reflect the cultural and political trends in the world today. "Latin" is a term that was coined by the French Emperor Napoleon the III in order to justify Mexico's being ruled by Maximillian, and later picked…

  20. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  1. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Vapor Retarder Classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research in vapor retarders. Since 2006 the IRC has permitted Class III vapor retarders like latex paint (see list above) in all climate zones under certain conditions thanks to research by Building America teams.

  2. Intercultural Education Series. The Americas and Self-Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Earl, Ed.; Dean, Frances, Ed.

    This is the final monograph in the Programa de Educacion Interamericana resource series on Latin America: SO 001 424 through SO 001 428. Two main sections are contained here: 1) philosophical and methodological approaches to the problems of teaching the social studies, and 2) ammunition in knowing the Americas so they can be taught better. The…

  3. A Study of Afro-American Feminist Criticism in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>Specialty:Comparative Literature and World Literature This dissertation is meant to make a systematic inquiry into the critical thoughts of Black feminist criticism in America.As the representative of the Third World feminist criticism,Black feminist criticism in America has become an indispensable

  4. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef produc

  5. 78 FR 12358 - UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations, Including On-Site Leased...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... Employment and Training Administration UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations..., applicable to workers of UBS Financial Services, Inc., Wealth Management Americas Operations (UBS), Weehawken... Management Americas Operations (UBS), Weehawken, New Jersey, who were all adversely affected by the...

  6. Review: Malaria chemoprophylaxis for travelers to Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhardt, Laura C; Magill, Alan J; Arguin, Paul M

    2011-12-01

    Because of recent declining malaria transmission in Latin America, some authorities have recommended against chemoprophylaxis for most travelers to this region. However, the predominant parasite species in Latin America, Plasmodium vivax, can form hypnozoites sequestered in the liver, causing malaria relapses. Additionally, new evidence shows the potential severity of vivax infections, warranting continued consideration of prophylaxis for travel to Latin America. Individualized travel risk assessments are recommended and should consider travel locations, type, length, and season, as well as probability of itinerary changes. Travel recommendations might include no precautions, mosquito avoidance only, or mosquito avoidance and chemoprophylaxis. There are a range of good options for chemoprophylaxis in Latin America, including atovaquone-proguanil, doxycycline, mefloquine, and--in selected areas--chloroquine. Primaquine should be strongly considered for nonpregnant, G6PD-nondeficient patients traveling to vivax-endemic areas of Latin America, and it has the added benefit of being the only drug to protect against malaria relapses.

  7. Rebuild America Partner Update, January--February 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Rebuild America Partner Update, the bimonthly newsletter about the Rebuild America community, covers partnership activities, industry trends, and program news. Rebuild America is a network of community partnerships--made up of local governments and businesses--that save money by saving energy. These voluntary partnerships, working with the US Department of Energy, choose the best ways to improve the energy efficiency of commercial, government and apartment buildings. Rebuild America supports them with business and technical tools and customized assistance. By the year 2003, 250 Rebuild America partnerships will be involved in over 2 billion square feet of building renovations, which will save $650 million every year in energy costs, generate $3 billion in private community investment, create 26,000 new private sector jobs, and reduce air pollution by 1.6 million tons of carbon dioxide a year.

  8. New physics schools in Latin America

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    From left to right : Professor Luis Masperi, Director of CLAF, John Ellis, Egil Lillestøl, and Professor Roger Cashmore, Director for Collider Programmes. On Monday 29 January, Professor Luis Masperi, Director of CLAF (Centro LatinoAmericano de Fisica), visited CERN to join Professor Roger Cashmore, in signing an agreement concerning a new programme of CERN-CLAF Schools in Latin America. The inaugural school will take place in Itacuruca, Brazil, in May 2001, and has been supported by Spain, Portugal, France and Italy. The signing was attended by John Ellis (the Director General's Non-Member State Advisor), Egil Lillestøl (Director of the Physics Schools), and Claire Earnshaw (School Administrator).

  9. Fostering renewable electricity markets in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wingate, M.; Hamrin, J.; Kvale, L. [Centre for Resource Solutions, San Francisco, CA (United States); Alatorre, C. [Autonomous National Univ. of Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    This paper provided an overview of key market demand and supply drivers for the renewable electricity in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The aim of the paper was to assist North American governments in supporting the development of renewable electricity by addressing barriers that currently contribute to higher costs as well as challenges related to policy implementation. The paper outlined regulatory mandates and discussed issues related to voluntary purchases, and financial incentives. Current policy frameworks for renewable electricity were also examined. Opportunities for developing the renewable electricity market North America were explored. Wind power environmental standards were reviewed. Various green pricing schemes were discussed. The paper also included recommendations for the current electricity market as well as for members of the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation. 84 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  10. Peopling of the Americas: paleobiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, D G; Powell, J F

    1992-06-01

    A subjective and bivariate analysis of 8500-10,000-year-old human fossil remains from North America substantiates that the fossils' closest affinities are with Asian populations. Within North American prehistoric Indian populations, increasing brachycephalization and the possible development of a larger, broader face are two structural trends that can be identified. In those respects where Paleo-Indian specimens differ from modern northern Asians and North American Indians, they tend to resemble southern Asian and European populations. These assessments generally support the inference that populations entered the New World relatively recently but before the modern northern Asian and North American features were fully developed. Based on the data examined, no date can be specified for time of entrance of the first populations, nor can the number of founding populations be discerned.

  11. [The cultural psychiatry in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor-Bayardo, Sergio J; Rojas-Malpica, Carlos; Aceves-Pulido, Martha P

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents only some of the most important contributions in the development of cultural psychiatry in Latin America. The continental efforts to understand the role that culture plays in the manifestation and treatment of mental disorders have been fruitful. The authors included are: Fernando Pagés of Argentina; Mario G. Hollweg of Bolivia; Rubim Alvaro de Pinho and Adalberto Barreto of Brazil; Carlos A. Leon and Carlos A. Uribe of Colombia; Antonio José A. Bustamante and Santa Cruz de Cuba, Carlos Leon Andrade of Ecuador, Guatemala Cristina Chavez; Sergio Villasenor J. Bayardo of Mexico; Carlos A. Seguin, Hermilio Valdizán and Javier Mariátegui in Peru; Y. Bespaldi of Consens of Uruguay; Rojas and Carlos Malpica and Jacqueline Briceño Clarac of Venezuela.

  12. Alleviating Urban Energy Poverty in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-02-15

    This regional study is comprised of three case studies, which concentrate on Greater Buenos Aires, Caracas and Rio de Janeiro - Caju. Each case focuses on the analysis of specific aspects of urban poverty, energy availability and policies to improve living conditions from the energy point of view. Unlike other developing regions in the world, the problem of energy poverty in Latin America has been concentrated increasingly in the large cities and urban areas. This problem has deep systemic, economic, political, structural and cultural roots. Providing basic energy services to the urban poor is an issue that requires far more attention and expertise than it is receiving today, and therefore WEC has taken the initiative to address this issue, and the results of their study are presented in this report.

  13. Rural territorial dynamics in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Chiriboga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article draws from the preliminary findings of an ongoing appliedresearch program on rural territorial dynamics carried out by the Latin American Center for Rural Development (RIMISP. The article provides some initial findings on 4 territories, of the 11 territories that are part of the overall study. The case studies include the island of Chiloé in southern Chile, the province of Tungurahua in Ecuador, a dairy farm region of Santo Tomás Nicaragua and Cuatro Lagunas near Cuzco Perú. Rural areas in Latin America are characterized by their dual nature with agro-exporting enclaves linked to global value chains alongside impoverished peasant economies, leading to differentiated policy recommendations. The research attempts to find relationships between reduced poverty and inequality in winning regions, measured by three variables, with issues of access to resources, human capital, political empowerment, markets and institutions, with particular attention to innovative social coalitions.

  14. 2009 Linear Collider Workshop of the Americas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, Sally [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2009-09-29

    The 2009 Linear Collider Workshop of the Americas was held on the campus of the University of New Mexico from 29 September to 3 October, 2009. This was a joint meeting of the American Linear Collider Physics Group and the ILC Global Design Effort. Two hundred fifty people attended. The number of scientific contributions was 333. The complete agenda, with links to all of the presentations, is available at physics.unm.edu/LCWA09/. The meeting brought together international experts as well as junior scientists, to discuss the physics potential of the linear collider and advances in detector technology. The validation of detector designs was announced, and the detector design groups planned the next phase of the effort. Detector R&D teams reported on progress on many topics including calorimetry and tracking. Recent accelerator design considerations were discussed in a special session for experimentalists and theorists.

  15. Wind Powering America FY06 Activities Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-02-01

    The Wind Powering America FY06 Activities Summary reflects the accomplishments of our state wind working groups, our programs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and our partner organizations. The national WPA team remains a leading force for moving wind energy forward in the United States. WPA continues to work with its national, regional, and state partners to communicate the opportunities and benefits of wind energy to a diverse set of stakeholders. WPA now has 29 state wind working groups (welcoming New Jersey, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri in 2006) that form strategic alliances to communicate wind's benefits to the state stakeholders. More than 120 members of national and state public and private sector organizations from 34 states attended the 5th Annual WPA All-States Summit in Pittsburgh in June.

  16. Osteoporosis in Latin America: panel expert review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Clark

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Latin American region is undergoing a demographic and epidemiological transition, which is leading to an increase in chronic and degenerative diseases. Osteoporosis (OP and fragility fractures (FF are emerging as main causes of disease burden with great impact on health institutions. Purpose. This review article provides an updated overview of trends in the epidemiology and economic impact of OP and FF, as well as in diagnosis and available treatments in Latin America, including calcium, vitamin D and prevention programs. Methods. Expert panel. Conclusions. According to this review, there is a lack of epidemiological and economic information in the region. It is desirable to obtain information regarding quality of life in OP and FF as well as to highlight prevention as a tool to reduce FF.

  17. REBUILD AMERICA PROGRAM SCOPE OF WORK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey Brown; Bruce Exstrum

    2004-12-01

    This report summarizes the activities carried out by Aspen Systems Corporation in support of the Department of Energy's Rebuild America program during the period from October 9, 1999 to October 31, 2004. These activities were in accordance with the Scope of Work contained in a GSA MOBIS schedule task order issued by the National Energy Technology Laboratory. This report includes descriptions of activities and results in the following areas: deployment/delivery model; program and project results; program representative support activities; technical assistance; web site development and operation; business/strategic partners; and training/workshop activities. The report includes conclusions and recommendations. Five source documents are also provided as appendices.

  18. Crustal deformation in northern Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Diego; Monterroso, David; Tavakoli, Behrooz

    2005-07-01

    Evaluation of the seismic moment tensor for earthquakes on plate boundary is a standard procedure to determine the relative velocity of plates, which controls the seismic deformation rate predicted from the slip on a single fault. The moment tensor is also decomposed into an isotropic and a deviatoric part to discover the relationship between the average strain rate and the relative velocity between two plates. We utilize this procedure to estimate the rates of deformation in northern Central America where plate boundaries are seismically well defined. Four different tectonic environments are considered for modelling of the plate motions. The deformation rates obtained here compare well with those predicted from the plate motions models and are in good agreement with actual observations. Deformation rates on faults are increasingly being used to estimate earthquake recurrence from information on fault slip rate and more on how we can incorporate our current understanding into seismic hazard analyses.

  19. Hepatitis B seroprevalence in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, T R; da Fonseca, J C; Rivera, L; Fay, O H; Tapia, R; Santos, J I; Urdeneta, E; Clemens, S A

    1999-12-01

    The seroprevalence of hepatitis B was investigated in over 12,000 subjects in six countries of Latin America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, the Dominican Republic, Mexico, and Venezuela. Each study population was stratified according to age, gender, and socioeconomic status. Antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) were measured in order to determine hepatitis B infection. The highest overall seroprevalence was found in the Dominican Republic (21.4%), followed by Brazil (7.9%), Venezuela (3.2%), Argentina (2.1%), Mexico (1.4%), and Chile (0.6%). In all the countries an increase in seroprevalence was found among persons 16 years old and older, suggesting sexual transmission as the major route of infection. In addition, comparatively high seroprevalence levels were seen at an early age in the Dominican Republic and Brazil, implicating a vertical route of transmission.

  20. Mantle Structure Beneath Central South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecar, J. C.; Silver, P. G.; James, D. E.; Assumpcao, M.; Schimmel, M.; Zandt, G.

    2003-12-01

    Making use of 60 digital broadband seismic stations that have operated across central South America in recent years, we have undertaken an inversion for the upper- and uppermost lower-mantle P- and S-wave velocity structures beneath the region. We have combined data from four portable PASSCAL-type experiments as well as the 3 GTSN permanent stations (LPAZ, BDFB and CPUP) and 1 Geoscope station (SPB) located in the region. The portable data were deployed at various times between 1992 and 1999 and include: 28 sites from the Brazilian Lithosphere Seismic Project (BLSP: Carnegie Institution of Washington and Universidade de Sao Paulo), 16 sites from the Broadband ANdean JOint experiment (BANJO: Carnegie Institution of Washington and University of Arizona), 8 sites from the Seismic Exploration of the Deep Altiplano project (SEDA: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) and 4 sites from the University of Brasilia. The P- and S-wave relative delay times are independently obtained via a multi-channel cross correlation of band-passed waveforms for each teleseismic event. These data are then inverted using an iterative, robust, non-linear scheme which parameterizes the 3-D velocity variations as splines under tension constrained at over 120,000 nodes across South America between latitudes of 15 and 30 degrees South. Amongst other features, we robustly image the high-velocity subducting Nazca plate penetrating into the lower mantle and the high-velocity root of the ~3.2 Gyr old Sao Francisco Craton extending to depths of 200-300 km. We will discuss the consistency between our tomographic models and predictions of dynamic mantle models based on plate tectonic reconstructions of subduction.

  1. Direct Spanish Investments in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Arahuetes García

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1981-1992, the international flow of direct investments witnessed significant changes which affected their magnitude, geographical orientation, sectorial distribution, forms of investment and sources of financing. This happened in such a way that traditional distribution among industrialized and developing countries was modified as was the capacity for attraction of the different areas in development. In this sense, the main contrast could be seen in the growing importance of East and South East Asia and the decline of Latin American countries which traditionally have been the largest receivers of direct investments within the group of developing countries. The expansive phase of direct investments begun in 1986 threatened to exclude Latin American countries but the establishment of a new framework for the treatment of the problem of external debt -the Brady Plan-, the change in the context of theinternational economy in 1990 and the stability and economic growth of the countries of the region favoured, without a doubt, the recovery of the capacity for attraction for new flows of direct investments regarding Latin American countries.In this way, Latin America registered once again a growing participation in the international flow of direct investments. The evolution of direct Spanish investment in Latin America followed a path similar to that of wider international flows and, after the intense absorption of the first years of the Eighties, the rest of the decade registered a discreet attraction for investors which only began to change course from 1989 onwards with the reestablishment of the new phase of the economic cycle in the countries of the region.

  2. Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes -- Appendix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Sara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rothgeb, Stacey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, Lieko [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This document is a set of appendices presenting technical discussion and references as a companion to the 'Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes' publication.

  3. Global evolution of Equidae and Gomphotheriidae from South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, José L; Alberdi, María T

    2014-08-01

    The contemporary South American mammalian communities were determined by the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama and by the profound climatic oscillations during the Pleistocene. Horses and gomphotheres were 2 very conspicuous groups of immigrant mammals from North America that arrived in South America during the Pleistocene. The present study compiles updated data on the phylogeny, systematics and ecology of both groups in South America. The horses in South America are represented by 2 genera, Hippidion and Equus, as are the gomphotheres, represented by Cuvieronius and Stegomastodon. Both genera of horses include small (Hippidion devillei, H. saldiasi, E. andium and E. insulatus) and large forms (Equus neogeus and H. principale), which dispersed into South America using 2 different routes. The possible model for this dispersion indicates that the small forms used the Andes corridor, while larger horses dispersed through the eastern route and through some coastal areas. In the case of gomphotheres, Cuvieronius and Stegomastodon reached South America in 2 independent dispersal events, and Cuvieronius dispersed across the Andean corridor, while large Stegomastodon spread along the eastern route. Horses and gomphotheres present values of δ(13) C from woodlands to C4 grasslands. Hippidion present lower values of δ(13) C than Equus in the late Pleistocene, whereas the gomphotheres diverge from value of δ(18) O, reflecting that Cuvieronius inhabited the Andean corridor and Stegomastodon dispersed through eastern plains. The gomphothere and horse species recorded in South America became extinct around the time that humans arrived.

  4. Private hospitals in Latin America - An investor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaton-Jones, Ioan P

    2015-01-01

    Private hospitals are expanding in Latin America, but the industry is less developed in this region than in some other emerging markets. Groups of hospitals are emerging in countries such as Brazil, Mexico, Colombia and Peru. However, they haven't reached the size of hospital groups in Malaysia, India and South Africa. They also remain domestically focused, while companies from the aforementioned three emerging markets outside Latin America have expanded to multiple other countries and have listed on stock exchanges to access more capital to finance their expansion. It is very likely that these trends seen in other emerging markets will manifest in Latin America as it continues to develop.

  5. Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlvaine, Janet; Chandra, Subrato; Barkaszi, Stephen; Beal, David; Chasar, David; Colon, Carlos; Fonorow, Ken; Gordon, Andrew; Hoak, David; Hutchinson, Stephanie; Lubliner, Mike; Martin, Eric; McCluney, Ross; McGinley, Mark; McSorley, Mike; Moyer, Neil; Mullens, Mike; Parker, Danny; Sherwin, John; Vieira, Rob; Wichers, Susan

    2006-06-30

    This final report summarizes the work conducted by the Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (www.baihp.org) for the period 9/1/99-6/30/06. BAIHP is led by the Florida Solar Energy Center of the University of Central Florida and focuses on factory built housing. In partnership with over 50 factory and site builders, work was performed in two main areas--research and technical assistance. In the research area--through site visits in over 75 problem homes, we discovered the prime causes of moisture problems in some manufactured homes and our industry partners adopted our solutions to nearly eliminate this vexing problem. Through testing conducted in over two dozen housing factories of six factory builders we documented the value of leak free duct design and construction which was embraced by our industry partners and implemented in all the thousands of homes they built. Through laboratory test facilities and measurements in real homes we documented the merits of 'cool roof' technologies and developed an innovative night sky radiative cooling concept currently being tested. We patented an energy efficient condenser fan design, documented energy efficient home retrofit strategies after hurricane damage, developed improved specifications for federal procurement for future temporary housing, compared the Building America benchmark to HERS Index and IECC 2006, developed a toolkit for improving the accuracy and speed of benchmark calculations, monitored the field performance of over a dozen prototype homes and initiated research on the effectiveness of occupancy feedback in reducing household energy use. In the technical assistance area we provided systems engineering analysis, conducted training, testing and commissioning that have resulted in over 128,000 factory built and over 5,000 site built homes which are saving their owners over $17,000,000 annually in energy bills. These include homes built by Palm Harbor Homes, Fleetwood, Southern Energy

  6. Research on the river shrimps of the genus Macrobrachium (Bate, 1868 (Decapoda: Caridea: Palaemonidae with known or potential economic importance: strengths and weaknesses shown through scientometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Chong-Carrillo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study revealed that the scientific interest in the genus Macrobrachium was not restricted to a biological point of view, but included also social and economic aspects. Many species of the genus are subject of traditional fisheries and culture worldwide. Several research groups across the globe have developed projects in various subject areas on commercial or non-commercial native species of this genus. This investigation aimed to contribute to the development of the genus Macrobrachium research through a scientometric study. The study was based on publications (1980 to 2013 registered in the following databases: Biological Abstracts, ISI Web of Science, SciELO Citation Index, BioOne, Science Direct, Scopus, and Redalyc. A total of 2165 publications on Macrobrachium in the last 33 years were included in this analysis. The themes that yielded most posts were related to culture, nutrition/feeding, and genetics with almost 60% of the total. Publications concerning M. rosenbergii represented more than 60% of the total with the remaining 40% encompassing 22 other species. Analysis performed by geographical regions evidenced that Latin America produced 23% of the publications, South Asia 22%, and East Asia 16%. Brazil generated 65% of the percentage mentioned for the Latin American region. It is necessary to strengthen research on topics of basic biology, especially those of native species. This will allow rapid progress in the generation of production technologies sustained by a solid biological knowledge base.

  7. Sustainable transport practices in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogat, J.; Hinostroza, M. [UNEP Risoe Centre (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    The rapid growth of Latin American cities beginning in the 70s has led to, among other things, growing mobility and demand for transportation. The lack of efficient, reliable and safe public transport systems has promoted the switch away from buses and trains towards private cars. Some of the impacts of a steadily increasing car fleet have been increased congestion, number of accidents and environmental deterioration. Recognising the potential implications of such a development, policy makers and officials found it necessary and went ahead to reformulate transport policies with the aim of providing safe, cost-effective and environmental-friendly public transport systems. Bus rapid transit (BRT) became the answer in a number of Latin American cities. The successful experiences of Curitiba in Brazil and Bogota in Colombia have served as the source of inspiration for other cities in Latin America, Asia, Europe and the USA. Thus, the BRT represents a unique example of South-South, South-North technology transfer. This paper presents some of the Latin American experiences and discusses their achievement and drawbacks. (au)

  8. Irrigation Water Management in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureo S de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin American countries show a great potential for expanding their irrigated areas. Irrigation is important for strengthening local and regional economy and for enhancing food security. The present paper aimed at providing a brief review on key aspects of irrigation management in Latin America. Poor irrigation management can have great impact on crop production and on environment while good management reduces the waste of soil and water and help farmers maximizing their profits. It was found that additional research is needed to allow a better understanding of crop water requirements under Latin American conditions as well as to provide farmers with local derived information for irrigation scheduling. The advantages of deficit irrigation practices and the present and future opportunities with the application of remote sensing tools for water management were also considered. It is clear that due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, collaborative work among Latin American researchers and institutions is of paramount importance to face the challenges imposed by a growing population, environment degradation, and competition in the global market.

  9. [The transcultural process in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yampey, N

    1981-07-01

    Are we living in an age of rapid changes, or are we actually experiencing an existencial mutation? The author believes the analysis of today's transcultural processes in Latin America to be vital to the understanding of the society which is an emergent of these processes. He defines the concepts of transculturation, aculturation, adaptation creative integration and of assimilation in its biological, cultural and religious aspects. He outlines the general characteristics of a complex problem: the unity or heterogenity of the Latin American people with relation to the interaction, juxtaposition or synthesis of their different indigenous, european and african cultures over a period of four centuries. He classifies five ideological proposals which have arisen from this process: 1) the ultraconservative proposal; 2) the nationalistic proposal; 3) the indigenistic proposal; 4) the proposal of imitation; 5) the proposal of a transcendent synthesis. The subject is the transcultural process in persons who have migrated from rural areas to large cities, and from one country to another. The author describes four adoptive or integrative phases; he emphasizes that this experience implies mourning, transition and working-through for both the individual and the community. Migrants are faced with "horizontal" as well as "vertical" mobility, thus having to deal with a mobilization implying changes which may cause persecutory, depresive and confusional anxieties. These crises test the person's degree of individuation and identity, as reflected in different types of behavior.

  10. Biomedical engineering undergraduate education in Latin America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allende, R [Biomedical Engineering Department, Universidad de Valparaiso, 13 Norte 766, Vina del Mar (Chile); Morales, D [Biomedical Engineering Department, Universidad de Valparaiso, 13 Norte 766, Vina del Mar (Chile); Avendano, G [Biomedical Engineering Department, Universidad de Valparaiso, 13 Norte 766, Vina del Mar (Chile); Chabert, S [Biomedical Engineering Department, Universidad de Valparaiso, 13 Norte 766, Vina del Mar (Chile)

    2007-11-15

    As in other parts of the World, in recent times there has been an increasing interest on Biomedical Engineering (BME) in Latin America (LA). This interest grows from the need for a larger number of such specialists, originated in a spreading use of health technologies. Indeed, at many universities, biomedical engineering departments have been created, which also brought along discussions on strategies to achieve the best education possible for both undergraduate and graduate programs. In these settings, different positions were taken as regards which subject to emphasize. In such a context, this work aimed to make a survey on the 'state-of-the-art' of undergraduate BME education in LA, and to analyze the observed differences. Broadly speaking, similar education profiles are perceived in the entire continent, with main emphasis on electronics and bioinstrumentation, biology and informatics respectively. Much less relevance is given to biomechanics and biomaterials. This tendency is similar in Departments with many decades of experience or in newly opened ones.

  11. Biomedical engineering undergraduate education in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, R.; Morales, D.; Avendano, G.; Chabert, S.

    2007-11-01

    As in other parts of the World, in recent times there has been an increasing interest on Biomedical Engineering (BME) in Latin America (LA). This interest grows from the need for a larger number of such specialists, originated in a spreading use of health technologies. Indeed, at many universities, biomedical engineering departments have been created, which also brought along discussions on strategies to achieve the best education possible for both undergraduate and graduate programs. In these settings, different positions were taken as regards which subject to emphasize. In such a context, this work aimed to make a survey on the "state-of-the-art" of undergraduate BME education in LA, and to analyze the observed differences. Broadly speaking, similar education profiles are perceived in the entire continent, with main emphasis on electronics and bioinstrumentation, biology and informatics respectively. Much less relevance is given to biomechanics and biomaterials. This tendency is similar in Departments with many decades of experience or in newly opened ones.

  12. Wind Powering America FY07 Activities Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-02-01

    The Wind Powering America FY07 Activities Summary reflects the accomplishments of our state wind working groups, our programs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and our partner organizations. The national WPA team remains a leading force for moving wind energy forward in the United States. WPA continues to work with its national, regional, and state partners to communicate the opportunities and benefits of wind energy to a diverse set of stakeholders. WPA now has 30 state wind working groups (welcoming Georgia and Wisconsin in 2007) that form strategic alliances to communicate wind's benefits to the state stakeholders. More than 140 members of national and state public and private sector organizations from 39 U.S. states and Canada attended the 6th Annual WPA All-States Summit in Los Angeles in June. WPA's emphasis remains on the rural agricultural sector, which stands to reap the significant economic development benefits of wind energy development. Additionally, WPA continues its program of outreach, education, and technical assistance to Native American communities, public power entities, and regulatory and legislative bodies.

  13. Plutonium isotope ratio variations in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; La Mont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eisele, William F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fresquez, Philip R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mc Naughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-12-14

    Historically, approximately 12,000 TBq of plutonium was distributed throughout the global biosphere by thermo nuclear weapons testing. The resultant global plutonium fallout is a complex mixture whose {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio is a function of the design and yield of the devices tested. The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in global fallout is 0.176 + 014. However, the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio at any location may differ significantly from 0.176. Plutonium has also been released by discharges and accidents associated with the commercial and weapons related nuclear industries. At many locations contributions from this plutonium significantly alters the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios from those observed in global fallout. We have measured the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in environmental samples collected from many locations in North America. This presentation will summarize the analytical results from these measurements. Special emphasis will be placed on interpretation of the significance of the {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios measured in environmental samples collected in the Arctic and in the western portions of the United States.

  14. Sputnik's Impact on Science Education in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrow, Charles H.

    2007-04-01

    The launch of Sputnik, the world's first artificial Earth orbiting satellite, by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957 was a triggering event. Before Sputnik pressure had been rising to mobilize America's intellectual resources to be more effective and useful in dealing with the Cold War. Sputnik released that pressure by stirring up a mixture of American hysteria, wounded self-esteem, fears of missile attacks, and deep questioning of the intellectual capabilities of popular democratic society and its educational system. After Sputnik the federal government took several remarkable actions: President Eisenhower established the position of Presidential Science Advisor; the House and the Senate reorganized their committee structures to focus on science policy; Congress created NASA -- the National Aeronautics and Space Agency -- and charged it to create a civilian space program; they tripled funding for the National Science Foundation to support basic research but also to improve science education and draw more young Americans into science and engineering; and they passed the National Defense Education Act which involved the federal government to an unprecedented extent with all levels of American education. I will describe some pre-Sputnik pressures to change American education, review some important effects of the subsequent changes, and talk about one major failure of change fostered by the national government.

  15. Latin America: a development pole for phenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyela Valentina Camargo Rodriguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC has long been associated with the production and export of a diverse range of agricultural commodities. Due to its strategic geographic location, which encompasses a wide range of climates, it is possible to produce almost any crop. The climate diversity in LAC is a major factor in its agricultural potential but this also means climate change represents a real threat to the region. Therefore, LAC farming must prepare and quickly adapt to a climate that is likely to feature long periods of drought, excessive rainfall and extreme temperatures. With the aim of moving towards a more resilient agriculture, LAC scientists have created the Latin American Plant Phenomics Network (LatPPN which focuses on LAC’s economically important crops. LatPPN’s key strategies to achieve its main goal are: 1 training of LAC members on plant phenomics and phenotyping, 2 establish international and multidisciplinary collaborations, 3 develop standards for data exchange and research protocols, 4 share equipment and infrastructure, 5 disseminate data and research results, 6 identify funding opportunities and 7 develop strategies to guarantee LatPPN’s relevance and sustainability across time. Despite the challenges ahead, LatPPN represents a big step forward towards the consolidation of a common mind-set in the field of plant phenotyping and phenomics in LAC.

  16. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  17. Latin America: A Development Pole for Phenomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Anyela V.; Lobos, Gustavo A.

    2016-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) has long been associated with the production and export of a diverse range of agricultural commodities. Due to its strategic geographic location, which encompasses a wide range of climates, it is possible to produce almost any crop. The climate diversity in LAC is a major factor in its agricultural potential but this also means climate change represents a real threat to the region. Therefore, LAC farming must prepare and quickly adapt to an environment that is likely to feature long periods of drought, excessive rainfall and extreme temperatures. With the aim of moving toward a more resilient agriculture, LAC scientists have created the Latin American Plant Phenomics Network (LatPPN) which focuses on LAC's economically important crops. LatPPN's key strategies to achieve its main goal are: (1) training of LAC members on plant phenomics and phenotyping, (2) establish international and multidisciplinary collaborations, (3) develop standards for data exchange and research protocols, (4) share equipment and infrastructure, (5) disseminate data and research results, (6) identify funding opportunities and (7) develop strategies to guarantee LatPPN's relevance and sustainability across time. Despite the challenges ahead, LatPPN represents a big step forward toward the consolidation of a common mind-set in the field of plant phenotyping and phenomics in LAC. PMID:27999577

  18. Toward a cultural history of America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hulme

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Caliban and otheressays, by ROBERTO FERNANDEZ RETAMAR. (Translated by Edward Baker, Foreword by Fredric Jameson. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989. xvi + 139 pp. (Cloth US $35.00, Paper US $14.95 Deconstructing America: representations of the other, by PETER MASON. London: Routledge, 1990. vii + 216 pp. (Cloth £ 30.00 Both these books beiong to a field of study that aims to analyze the ways in which Europe, or more generally the West, has represented to itself in words and images the non-European world. Edward Said's Orientalism inaugurated that field in 1978, immediately constituting a corpus of work through its author's recognition of precedent and analogue, then acting as indispensable touchstone to the subsequent development of the field during the 1980s. Although Said's work deals with the oriënt, however defined, a surprising amount of ideological analysis of colonial representation had already taken place within the Caribbean. Frantz Fanon, Eric Williams, and Aimé Césaire were three notable precursors recognized by Said; and Roberto Fernéndez Retamar's essays, especially those written in the late 1960s and early 1970s, pursued many similar themes within the rather different context of the Cuban Revolution. Four of those essays are now published in English, along with a more recent reflection on the most famous of them, "Caliban."

  19. America's post-war immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterson, R F

    1984-01-01

    This article provides a historical perspective on immigration policy in the US after World War II and assesses the present situation. US immigration and refugee policy has undergone significant change since World War II. The McCarran-Walter Act of 1952, which instituted a system of proportional quotas based on national origins, was discarded in 1965 following years of criticism that it discriminated against nonwhites. Third World immigrants, especially from Asia and the Americas, have benefited from the immigration laws. However, the problems resulting from unrestricted and undifferentiated immigration are now becoming apparent, even to liberal critics of previous national origins policies. During the 1970s, there was a 61% increase in the number of Mexican nationals in the US and Mexicans currently comprise over 20% of the population in 40 Congressional districts in 8 states. 83.3% of legal immigrants, and all illegal immigrants, are of non-European descent--a fact that may retard their assimilation and intensify ethnic tensions. There is a danger that the concept of national borders may become superfluous. The theoreticval liberalism of the 1950s and 1960s is, in the 1970s, being confronted with the reality of large numbers of immigrants unable and unwilling to be absorbed into a previously European-dominated country. It is concluded that the enforced application of the concept of equality in matters of immigration has not been the panacea that its liberal proponents envisioned.

  20. Petroleum geology of Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America, from Guatemala to Ecuador

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scrutton, M.E.; Escalante, G.F.

    1986-07-01

    Exploration for hydrocarbons along the Pacific margin of Central America and northern South America has been limited and spasmodic. Less than 100 exploration wells have been drilled, with nearly 50 of these being in the Santa Elena, Progreso, and Guayas basins in Ecuador. Shows have been reported in some wells, and a few oil seeps are known. The only commercial production established to date has been from the Santa Elena Peninsula in Ecuador in the extreme south of the study area. Understanding of the geology in this part of the continental margin is incomplete at best. This paper reviews present-day knowledge in an attempt to define the sedimentary basins better, to characterize their structure and stratigraphy, and to assess their petroleum prospects. The area of continental margin reviewed is to the north, located northwest of the trench system where oceanic crust of the Cocos plate subducts under the Caribbean plate, and to the south, where the northern part of the Nazca plate collides with the South American plate. This plate tectonic setting forms the framework on which local structural and sedimentary events have created a series of relatively small trench-slope and forearc basins in what is now the coastal plain and adjacent offshore area of Central and South America, south or west of a line of mountain ranges with active volcanism. Sedimentary fill is generally of Tertiary age. The basins and subbasins recognized and described include: in Ecuador - Guayas, Santa Elena, Progreso, Valdivia, Bajo Grande, Manta, Muisne-Esmeraldas, and Borbon; in Colombia - Choco-Pacific; in Panama - Gulf of Panama basin complex (Santiago, Tonosi, Sambu), and Burica-Chiriqui; in Costa Rica - Terraba and Coronado/Tempisque; in Nicaragua - San Juan del Sur; and in the Honduras, El Salvador, and Guatemala - the Pacific coastal basin.

  1. Mechanisms for synoptic variations of atmospheric CO2 in North America, South America and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Baker

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Synoptic variations of atmospheric CO2 produced by interactions between weather and surface fluxes are investigated mechanistically and quantitatively in midlatitude and tropical regions using continuous in-situ CO2 observations in North America, South America and Europe and forward chemical transport model simulations with the Parameterized Chemistry Transport Model. Frontal CO2 climatologies show consistently strong, characteristic frontal CO2 signals throughout the midlatitudes of North America and Europe. Transitions between synoptically identifiable CO2 air masses or transient spikes along the frontal boundary typically characterize these signals. One case study of a summer cold front shows CO2 gradients organizing with deformational flow along weather fronts, producing strong and spatially coherent variations. In order to differentiate physical and biological controls on synoptic variations in midlatitudes and a site in Amazonia, a boundary layer budget equation is constructed to break down boundary layer CO2 tendencies into components driven by advection, moist convection, and surface fluxes. This analysis suggests that, in midlatitudes, advection is dominant throughout the year and responsible for 60–70% of day-to-day variations on average, with moist convection contributing less than 5%. At a site in Amazonia, vertical mixing, in particular coupling between convective transport and surface CO2 flux, is most important, with advection responsible for 26% of variations, moist convection 32% and surface flux 42%. Transport model sensitivity experiments agree with budget analysis. These results imply the existence of a recharge-discharge mechanism in Amazonia important for controlling synoptic variations of boundary layer CO2, and that forward and inverse simulations should take care to represent moist convective transport. Due to the scarcity of tropical observations at the time of this study, results in Amazonia are not generalized for

  2. Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth and elevation ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image...

  3. Classification of Forest Fragmentation in North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of North America including the Caribbean and most of Mexico. The map layer is an excerpt from a global assessment of forest...

  4. Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image was derived from the National...

  5. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Engebrecht, C.

    2010-01-01

    The Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without chasing a 'moving target.'

  6. Where Is Community Development Going in Latin America?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, Frances

    1994-01-01

    Reviews community development in Latin America (self-help local improvement projects, popular education, nongovernmental organizations). Identifies challenges--increasing the participation of all levels, reorganizing priorities, and supporting the development of economic democracy. (SK)

  7. [An overview of telehealth initiatives in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Alaneir de Fátima; D'Agostino, Marcelo; Bouskela, Maurício Simon; Fernandéz, Andrés; Messina, Luiz Ary; Alves, Humberto José

    2014-01-01

    This article aimed to systematize the views on telehealth in Latin America and to present the experience of building an instrument for monitoring the development of telehealth initiatives based on the reality of this region. A group was structured to coordinate telehealth efforts in Latin America, with members appointed by the ministries of health of 16 countries. Five thematic groups were also set up. Based on international experiences and focusing on the reality of telehealth in the continent, an instrument was created to monitor the development of telehealth in Latin America. Several countries have national telehealth projects: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama. Others are in the process of development and early deployment: Bolivia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Peru, Venezuela. The instrument described in the article, which is still being tested, proposes a characterization of countries according to their telehealth development stage: nonexistent, nascent, intermediate, advanced, and exemplary. Currently, important telehealth initiatives are already underway in Latin America.

  8. Musculoskeletal evaluation in severe haemophilia A patients from Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozelo, M C; Villaça, P R; Pérez-Bianco, R; Candela, M; Garcia-Chavez, J; Moreno-Rodriguez, B; Rodrigues, M B; Rodriguez-Grecco, I; Solano, M H; Chumpitaz, G; Morales-Gana, M M; Ruiz-Sáez, A

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of literature on haemophilia treatment in Latin American countries, a region characterized by rapidly improving systems of care, but with substantial disparities in treatment between countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the musculoskeletal status of haemophilia patients from Latin America and to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal status and treatment practices across countries. The Committee of Latin America on the Therapeutics of Inhibitor Groups conducted a survey of its member country representatives on key aspects of haemophilia treatment in 10 countries. Musculoskeletal status of patients was obtained during routine comprehensive evaluations between March 2009 and March 2011. Eligible patients had severe haemophilia A (factor VIII Latin America, the musculoskeletal status of patients with severe haemophilia without inhibitors has improved significantly in association with the provision of long-term prophylaxis. As more countries in Latin America institute this practice, further improvements are anticipated.

  9. A Review of the New ESL Approach in America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Shubiao

    2002-01-01

    This article is trying to review a new ESL Approach which has achieved a great success in America. Some of its key principles, methods and results are introduced so that the readers may get some ideas from it.

  10. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Basement Insulation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes research on basement insulation, which identifies the wall installation methods and materials that perform best in terms of insulation and water resistance.

  11. Professionalization of the editorial work of journals in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editores Biblios

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Interview with Ana María Cetto and José Octavio Alonso Gamboa, Latindex coordinators: Regional Cooperative Online Information System for Scholarly Journals from Latin America, the Caribbean, Spain, and Portugal.

  12. Wind for Schools: A Wind Powering America Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-12-01

    This brochure serves as an introduction to Wind Powering America's Wind for Schools Project, including a description of the project, the participants, funding sources, and the basic configurations of the project.

  13. Grayscale North America Shaded Relief ? 1-Kilometer Resolution - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale North America shaded relief data were derived from the GTOPO30 elevation data. GTOPO30 is a global digital elevation model (DEM) with a horizontal grid...

  14. A Comparative Study on Family Education in America and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐岩

    2013-01-01

      Family education is an important complement to school education. This paper focuses on the differences and simi-larities of family education in America and China to accelerate their learning from each other and improvement.

  15. Imperiled Freshwater and Diadromous Fishes of North America

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — List of imperiled freshwater and diadromous fishes of North America as determined by the 2008 American Fisheries Society (AFS) Endangered Species Committee (ESC) on...

  16. Economic relations between Latin America and the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Ocampo

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Relations between Latin America and the countries of the European Union have traditionally been strong. The cultural and economic ties that have historically linked the two regions have gradually been transformed opening up new spaces for cooperation and development. Since the consolidation of the EU, this relationship has become stronger and changed with Europe’s recognition of Latin America as a region, as an important partner in economic and political terms, and within it, of each country in accordance with its level of development. Latin America has to an ever greater extent ceased being an aid recipient and begun to establish relationships of reciprocity, which offer great potential for expansion in the future. However, poverty remains the major concern of European policy toward the region. The authors, in their analysis, also focus on the possible consequences for Latin America of future EU enlargement toward the countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

  17. Skin Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diseases Take Big Slice Out of America's Health, Economy The sometimes deadly conditions cost $75 billion in ... a major impact on Americans and the U.S. economy, a new report finds. "The impact of skin ...

  18. The palms of South America: diversity, distribution and evolutionary history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an inventory of South American palms including 457 species and 50 genera. The distribution of palms within seven phytogeographical entities is analyzed. Factors which influence the evolution of palms in South America are discussed.

  19. Development of regional network for nuclear information in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinuma, Yukio

    Among the recent INIS activities several interesting items are reported. In particular Latin America area where active movements have been seen recently is described in detail in terms of INIS information services. The author reports Latin America regional nuclear information project which has been implemented as 5-year project since 1985 supported by IAEA, and its progress, and describes information service system in Brazil which plays the core role in promoting this project.

  20. Tropical Gothic in Literature and Culture The Americas

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, JD; Vasconcelos, SGT

    2016-01-01

    Tropical Gothic examines Gothic within a specific geographical area of ‘the South’ of the Americas. In so doing, we structure the book around geographical coordinates (from North to South) and move among various national traditions of the gothic (Mexico, Costa Rica, Brazil, etc.) alongside regional manifestations of the Gothic (the U.S. south and the Caribbean) as well as transnational movements of the Gothic within the Americas. The reflections on national traditions of the Gothic in this...

  1. Cervical cancer prevention and treatment in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Melissa S; Baker, Ellen S; Maza, Mauricio; Fontes-Cintra, Georgia; Lopez, Aldo; Carvajal, Juan M; Nozar, Fernanda; Fiol, Veronica; Schmeler, Kathleen M

    2017-02-07

    Cervical cancer is a preventable disease with a known etiology (human papillomavirus), effective preventive vaccines, excellent screening methods, and a treatable pre-invasive phase. Surgery is the primary treatment for pre-invasive and early-stage disease and can safely be performed in many low-resource settings. However, cervical cancer rates remain high in many areas of Latin America. This article presents a number of evidence-based strategies being implemented to improve cervical cancer outcomes in Latin America.

  2. A New Eocene Casquehead Lizard (Reptilia, Corytophanidae) from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Jack L

    2015-01-01

    A new fossil showing affinities with extant Laemanctus offers the first clear evidence for a casquehead lizard (Corytophanidae) from the Eocene of North America. Along with Geiseltaliellus from roughly coeval rocks in central Europe, the new find further documents the tropical fauna present during greenhouse conditions in the northern mid-latitudes approximately 50 million years ago (Ma). Modern Corytophanidae is a neotropical clade of iguanian lizards ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America.

  3. [Scientific journals of medical students in Latin-America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Samith, Ignacio; Oróstegui-Pinilla, Diana; Angulo-Bazán, Yolanda; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Rodríguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2010-11-01

    This article deals with the history and evolution of student's scientific journals in Latin-America, their beginnings, how many still exist and which is their future projection. Relevant events show the growth of student's scientific journals in Latin-America and how are they working together to improve their quality. This article is addressed not only for Latin American readers but also to worldwide readers. Latin American medical students are consistently working together to publish scientific research, whose quality is constantly improving.

  4. Relationship Between Human and Nature In America Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷炎炎

    2007-01-01

    Nature is one of an important themes in America literature. This article mainly analyzes Ralph Emerson, Henry David Thoreau,Nathaniel Hawthorne, Jack London, Ernest Hemingway and Robert Frost's different representative stylistic works on nature; inquires into nature's various forms in America literature, such as its personification, objectification, deification and so on; elaborates on its significant meanings; expounds and proves the relationship between and nature in different writer's works and points out nature's profound impact on human.

  5. "A Balancing Act: How to End America's Trade Deficits"

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Now that America's financial institutions have been brought back from the brink, the greatest threat to global economic stability is the gigantic trade imbalance between the United States, China, and other trading partners. A second big threat to economic stability, in the longer run, is global warming. Both problems are related to America's addiction to cheap imports and foreign oil—bad habits that a clever cap-and-trade system could help us kick at last.

  6. The Influence of Nationalism in Mercosur and in South America - can the regional integration project survive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    2007-01-01

    The article discusses if the tendency towards nationalism in Latin America seems to get in the way of the regional integration project in Mercosur and at the level of South America......The article discusses if the tendency towards nationalism in Latin America seems to get in the way of the regional integration project in Mercosur and at the level of South America...

  7. 76 FR 13662 - Hewlett Packard Company, Enterprise Business Division, Technical Services America, Global Parts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Parts Supply Chain Group, Including Leased Workers From QFlex, North America Logistics, and UPS, All... Services America, Global Parts Supply Chain Group, Including Leased Workers From QFlex, North America... Business Division, Technical Services America, Global Parts Supply Chain Group, including leased...

  8. 76 FR 10394 - Hewlett Packard Company, Enterprise Business Division, Technical Services America, Global Parts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... Parts Supply Chain Group, Including Leased Workers From Qflex, North America Logistics, and UPS... Services America, Global Parts Supply Chain Group, Including Leased Workers From Qflex, North America..., Technical Services America, Global Parts Supply Chain Group, including leased workers from QFlex,...

  9. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America and...

  10. 瓯江口海域夏、秋季口足目和十足目虾类分布特征%Distribution of Hoplocarida and Decapoda shrimps in Oujiang estuary, East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐兆礼; 沈盎绿; 李新正

    2009-01-01

    采用2007年6月和9月瓯江口海域2个航次的渔业资源调查资料,研究瓯江口海域甲壳动物口足目(Hoplocarida)和十足目(Decapoda)中虾类的资源密度、种类组成和物种多样性等分布,探讨优势种、地形地貌、水团、温度和盐度等因素变化对这些分布的影响.结果表明,在2次拖网调查中,共鉴定口足目2种和虾类17种.口虾蛄(Oratosquilla oratoria)和哈氏仿对虾(Parapenaeopsis hardwickii)是6月的关键种,口虾蛄是9月的关键种.6月和9月2类优势甲壳动物平均质量密度分别为41.14 kg/km2和32.36 kg/km2,尾数密度为18.41×103ind/km2和10.66×103ind/km2.质量密度与尾数密度分布趋势一致,即调查水域东部高于西部,南部高于北部.6月,种问分布较均匀,物种数多,多样性指数值(H')较高;9月,在群岛外侧,由于口虾蛄在质量密度上形成单一优势种,导致质量多样性指数下降;但在尾数密度上,种间分布较均匀,尾数多样性指数值明显高于质量多样性指数值.无论是在6月还是9月,高密度区均出现在瓯江口洞头群岛外侧,特别是东南部受台湾暖流影响的海域.瓯江北口外的冲淡水水团是形成瓯江口北侧口足目和十足目虾类密度、种数和多样性低的重要原因.研究结果表明,瓯江冲淡水势力的季节变化是影响瓯江订海域口足目和虾类种类和多样性分布的主要水文因素.[中国水产科学,2009,16(1):104-112

  11. IAI Training in Climate and Health in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, J. L.

    2007-05-01

    The Inter-American Institute for Global Change Research (IAI) has addressed training in climate and health in the Americas in two major ways. First, IAI supports students to engage in research training. A multi-country health activity funded by IAI was the collaborative research network (CRN) on Diagnostics and Prediction of Human Health Impacts in the Tropical Americas, which focused principally on the effect of El Nino/Southern Oscillation and other aspects of climate variability on mosquito-borne diseases malaria and dengue. The CRN involved students in Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, Colombia and Jamaica. The CRN was also linked to other climate and health projects that used a similar approach. Second, IAI organizes training institutes to expand the network of global change research scientists and facilitate the transfer of global change research into practice. The IAI Training Institute on Climate and Health in the Americas was held on November 7 - 18, 2005 at the University of the West Indies in Kingston, Jamaica, engaging participants from the CRN and other programs in the Americas. The Training Institute's central objective was to help strengthen local and regional capacity to address the impacts of climate variability and climate change on human health in the populations of the Americas, particularly Latin America and the Caribbean. The Training Institute had three core components: Science; Applications; and Proposal Development for Seed Grants. Recommendations for future Training Institutes included incorporating new technologies and communicating with policy-makers to develop more proactive societal strategies to manage risks.

  12. Reproductive aspects of the caridean shrimp Atya scabra (Leach, 1815 (Decapoda: Atyidae in São Sebastião Island, southwestern Atlantic, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Herrera-Correal

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The caridean freshwater shrimp Atya scabra is a common resident of stream systems of tropical rainforests in America, including Brazilian drainages. This shrimp has an amphidromous life cycle, which increases its vulnerability when facing habitat fragmentation. Since information on the reproduction of this species is still limited, we present here data on egg production, egg loss, and energy investment, to achieve a better understanding of reproductive features of A. scabra. Specimens were collected between 2006 and 2007 in São Sebastião Island, southeastern Brazil, in 13 locations. The fecundity of 21 ovigerous females analyzed ranged between 414 and 19,250 eggs, which were higher than previously reported. However, the larger size of females analyzed may explain the observed intraspecific difference in egg production. During embryogenesis, egg volume and water content increased by 103 and 22.6%, respectively. The initial egg volume of A. scabra in the present study (0.027 mm³ was slightly lower, but comparable to the values reported previously from the same study area. During incubation, females of A. scabra lost 15% of their initially produced eggs. The reproductive output (average RO of 3.6% is the first report for any atyid species. Its value is fairly low compared to other freshwater shrimps, and it is hypothesized that this might be related to a high energy investment in morphological adaptations, which allows the shrimp to cling on to the substrate in the fast flowing environment they inhabit. Additionally, the long life span, a well-known phenomenon in atyid shrimp, may allow the species to invest a relatively low amount of energy per brood in egg production, but over a longer time span.

  13. Fire and amphibians in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilliod, D.S.; Bury, R.B.; Hyde, E.J.; Pearl, C.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    Information on amphibian responses to fire and fuel reduction practices is critically needed due to potential declines of species and the prevalence of new, more intensive fire management practices in North American forests. The goals of this review are to summarize the known and potential effects of fire and fuels management on amphibians and their aquatic habitats, and to identify information gaps to help direct future scientific research. Amphibians as a group are taxonomically and ecologically diverse; in turn, responses to fire and associated habitat alteration are expected to vary widely among species and among geographic regions. Available data suggest that amphibian responses to fire are spatially and temporally variable and incompletely understood. Much of the limited research has addressed short-term (1-3 years) effects of prescribed fire on terrestrial life stages of amphibians in the southeastern United States. Information on the long-term negative effects of fire on amphibians and the importance of fire for maintaining amphibian communities is sparse for the majority of taxa in North America. Given the size and severity of recent wildland fires and the national effort to reduce fuels on federal lands, future studies are needed to examine the effects of these landscape disturbances on amphibians. We encourage studies to address population-level responses of amphibians to fire by examining how different life stages are affected by changes in aquatic, riparian, and upland habitats. Research designs need to be credible and provide information that is relevant for fire managers and those responsible for assessing the potential effects of various fuel reduction alternatives on rare, sensitive, and endangered amphibian species. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Late-glacial of southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, C. J.

    Overall trends in late-glacial paleoenvironments of southern South America are interpretable from the pollen stratigraphy of radiocarbon dated sections of mires in Tierra del Fuego (55°S), the Chilotan archipelago (42-43°S), and the Chilean Lake District (39-41°S). In Tierra del Fuego, southern beech ( Nothofagus) and shrub and herb taxa (Gramineae, Empetrum, Acaena, Gunnera, Compositae and Cyperaceae) serve as indicators of the changing climate; in the Chilotan archipelago and in the Chilean Lake District, southern beech and other trees (species of Myrtaceae, Podocarpus, Prumnopitys, Pseudopanax and Weinmannia) suffice as indices of climatic change. Pollen records from each of these regions, although in need of greater dating control, indicate climatic sequences that are broadly similar. The records, however, are not regionally consistent in all aspects and differ in their indicator value with the implication of fossil beetle evidence. Attempts at correlation can be unsatisfactory at times and can stem inter alia from the different ecophysiological responses of both plants and beetles to environmental pressures. These differences, which affect the timing of reproduction and migration, may result in the variable occurrence of different species in the records. The broad implication of the pollen data is that following a glacial readvance culminating at about 15,000-14,500 BP, late-glacial climate was generally warmer during intervals before 13,000 and between 12,000 and 11,000 BP, and was cooler between 13,000 and 12,000 and from 11,000 to 10,000 BP.

  15. Traveling Artists in America: Visions and Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diener, Pablo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual registers of Latin America acquired new characteristics at the dawning of the 19th century. Alongside the pointedly secular practice of the scientific Enlightenment, naturalistic in character, there emerged an artistic current that produced images with a strong subjective quality. This American iconography of the 19th century was the work of traveling artists. In the exercise of their work, painters and drawers were led through modern esthetical premises that proposed an amalgam of artistic activity and the production of scientific knowledge. This article intends to venture into that genre of the arts based on a study of the theoretical context that sustains it, observing the range of themes it covered.

    Los registros visuales de la América ibérica adquirieron un perfil nuevo con los albores del siglo XIX. Paralelamente a la práctica más que secular de la ilustración científica de carácter naturalista surgió una vertiente artística que produjo un tipo de imágenes con una fuerte carga subjetiva. Esa iconografía americana decimonónica fue obra de los artistas viajeros. En el ejercicio de su tarea, pintores y dibujantes fueron conducidos por premisas estéticas modernas, que proponían una amalgama del quehacer artístico con la producción de conocimiento científico. Este artículo propone una incursión en ese género de las bellas artes a partir de un estudio del contexto teórico que la sustenta, observando el abanico temático que abarcó.

  16. Building America FY 2016 Annual Report: Building America Is Driving Real Solutions in the Race to Zero Energy Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Sara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rothgeb, Stacey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, Lleko [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building America Program enables the transformation of the U.S. housing industry to achieve energy savings through energy-efficient, high-performance homes with improved durability, comfort, and health for occupants. Building America bridges the gap between the development of emerging technologies and the adoption of codes and standards by engaging industry partners in applied research, development, and demonstration of high-performance solutions.

  17. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  18. Reaching remote areas in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes, R

    1994-01-01

    Poor communities in remote and inaccessible areas tend to not only be cut off from family planning education and services, but they are also deprived of basic primary health care services. Efforts to bring family planning to such communities and populations should therefore be linked with other services. The author presents three examples of programs to bring effective family planning services to remote communities in Central and South America. Outside of the municipal center in the Tuxtlas region of Mexico, education and health levels are low and people live according to ancient customs. Ten years ago with the help of MEXFAM, the IPPF affiliate in Mexico, two social promoters established themselves in the town of Catemaco to develop a community program of family planning and health care offering education and prevention to improve the quality of people's lives. Through their health brigades taking health services to towns without an established health center, the program has influenced an estimated 100,000 people in 50 villages and towns. The program also has a clinic. In Guatemala, the Family Welfare Association (APROFAM) gave bicycles to 240 volunteer health care workers to facilitate their outreach work in rural areas. APROFAM since 1988 has operated an integrated program to treat intestinal parasites and promote family planning in San Lucas de Toliman, an Indian town close to Lake Atitlan. Providing health care to more than 10,000 people, the volunteer staff has covered the entire department of Solola, reaching each family in the area. Field educators travel on motorcycles through the rural areas of Guatemala coordinating with the health volunteers the distribution of contraceptives at the community level. The Integrated Project's Clinic was founded in 1992 and currently carries out pregnancy and Pap tests, as well as general lab tests. Finally, Puna is an island in the middle of the Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador. Women on the island typically have 10

  19. Tectonic history of the southeastern North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1993-03-01

    The present-day configuration of the crust of southeastern North America (SENA) is the product of a lengthy history traceable through more than 1 billion yr. of geologic time. The Appalachians (AP) record complete Wilson cycles of opening and closing of several oceans from ca. 690 Ma to 245 M. The final event forming the AP was the collision of SENA with Gondwana to form the supercontinent Pangaea. The Ouachitas (OA) had a somewhat different history culminating with island-arc collision during the Pennsylvanian--before the final collision began in the AP. SENA faced the open lapetos ocean no earlier than the Early Cambrian. The AP and OA were built on an earlier margin formed by rifting of the Rodonia super-continent formed by construction of the 1.2 to 1.0 Ga Grenville orogen, and farther west, a crust formed by still earlier (1.3 and 1.8 Ga) events. Recent suggestions that part of the AP platform is in Argentina raises the possibility that a fragment was rifted from between the AP and OA during the early Paleozoic. The crust beneath the Mississippi Embayment is atypical of continental crust, and would have been rifted during the Neoproterozoic and early Paleozoic. The Argentine fragment may have been removed along a transform that was reactivated several times since. Northern Pangaea was rifted during the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic and SENA once again faced open ocean-the nascent present Atlantic (AT) when spreading began. The Gulf of Mexico (GOM) also opened then forming extensive salt deposits. The AT opened partly along the old suture, but produced a failed rift in GA and FL leaving a piece of Africa forming the crust beneath the Coastal Plain as far south as central FL. The overlying sediments record recurrent uplift and decay of the AP and OA, cooling of new AT oceanic crust, eustatic sea-level changes during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and uplift of the Rockies providing a new source of voluminous detritus that is still being deposited in the GOM.

  20. Social Security privatization in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritzer, B E

    2000-01-01

    The new, partially privatized social security system adopted by Chile in 1981 has attracted attention in many parts of the world. Since then, a number of Latin American countries have implemented the Chilean model, with some variations: either with a single- or multi-tier system, or with a period of transition to take care of those in the labor force at the time of the change. The single-tier version consists of a privatized program with individual accounts in pension fund management companies. Multi-tier systems have a privatized component and retain some form of public program. This article describes each of the new programs in Latin America, their background, and similarities and differences among them. Much more information is available for Chile than for the other countries (in part because Chile has the oldest system), enough to be able to evaluate what, in most cases, is the most accurate information. That is often not the case for the other countries, especially when dealing with subjects such as transition costs and net rates of return (rates of return minus administrative fees). No country has copied the Chilean system exactly. Bolivia, El Salvador, and Mexico have closed their public systems and set up mandatory individual accounts. Argentina has a mixed public/private system with three tiers. In Colombia and Peru, workers have a choice between the public and private programs. Uruguay created a two-tier mixed system. Costa Rica has a voluntary program for individual accounts as a supplement to the pay-as-you-go program and has just passed a law setting up mandatory accounts containing employer contributions for severance pay. All of the countries continue to face unresolved issues, including: High rates of noncompliance--the percentage of enrollees who do not actively and regularly contribute to their accounts--which could lead to low benefits and greater costs to the governments that offer a guaranteed minimum benefit; Proportionately lower benefits for

  1. Managing weather and climate risks to agriculture in North America, Central America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harlan D. Shannon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, numerous weather- and climate-related natural disasters have impacted North America, Central America, and the Caribbean, repeatedly demonstrating how vulnerable local agriculture is to extreme episodic events. Given this recent history, and expectations that the frequency and intensity of some episodic events will increase with climate change, it is becoming increasingly important for farmers to proactively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture to protect their livelihoods. Some farmers in this region already apply various strategies to help reduce weather and climate risks and uncertainties, including farming in multiple locations, diversifying crops and varieties, seeking alternative sources of income, and purchasing crop insurance. Such efforts often help farmers maintain a more stable income while also protecting and preserving the productivity of the land. Other farmers, however, have failed to implement basic risk management strategies despite the clear benefits. Reasons for these failures can be attributed to inadequate farmer education and training, a lack of tools to help facilitate the practical application of risk management concepts, and poor communications between the agrometeorological and farming communities. The agrometeorological community can help overcome these obstacles by building upon existing efforts that have successfully educated farmers about weather and climate risks to agriculture and have equipped farmers with the data, tools, and applications necessary to manage these risks. Farmer input is critical to preparing effective educational and training materials and developing user-friendly risk management tools. The agrometeorological community should solicit input from farmers regularly to ensure that farmers are obtaining the information necessary to effectively manage weather and climate risks to agriculture.

  2. [Governance and political economy of PHC policies in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báscolo, Ernesto

    2011-06-01

    The development of implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America, is a challenge yet to be tackled. It is necessary to acknowledge the political economy related to the implementation processes of PHC policies in Latin America from a governance perspective, characterized by the regulatory strategies used and the political processes. The promotion of social values, organizational policies or the introduction of new financial incentives are components of different forms of governance used in health system reforms. The institutional factors of social protection systems in Latin America are considered. Their potential, redistribution limitations and the political economy disputes of the reform strategies are explained by the conflict between the economic and related interests and values of the actors involved. This dynamic of the political process influences regulatory modes inherent in the processes of implementation of PHC policies. The State's governing capacity and levels of health system segmentation impinge on the effectiveness of reform strategies for resolving the conflicts in the policies implemented.

  3. Democratic survival in Latin America (1945-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal PÉREZ-LIÑÁN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Why do democracies survive or break down? In this paper, it returns to this classic question with an empirical focus on Latin America from 1945 to 2005. The argument deviates from the quantitative literature and a good part of the qualitative literature on democratic survival and breakdown. It is argued that structural variables such as the level of development and inequalities have not shaped prospects for democratic survival in Latin America. Nor, contrary to findings in some of the literature, has economic performance affected the survival of competitive regimes. Instead, it is focused on the regional political environment and on actors’ normative preferences about democracy and dictatorship and their policy radicalism or moderation. It is argued that 1 a higher level of development did not increase the likelihood of democratic survival in Latin America over this long time; 2 if actors have a normative preference for democracy, it is more likely to survive; and 3 policy moderation facilitates democratic survival.

  4. [Health system reforms in South America: an opportunity for UNASUR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Temporão, José; Faria, Mariana

    2014-01-01

    Health systems in South America still support segmentation, privatization and fragmentation. Health reforms of the structural adjustment programs in the 1980s and 1990s in South America followed different purposes and strategies ranging from privatization, commodification and state intervention for the implementation of a national public health service with universal access as a right of the citizens. Since the 2000s, many countries have expanded social policies, reduced poverty and social inequalities, and improved access to healthcare. This article proposes to discuss the health systems in South America from historical and political backgrounds, and the progress from the reforms in the last three decades. It also presents the three paradigmatic models of reform and their evolution, as well as the contrasts between universal coverage and universal systems. Finally, it presents current strengths and weaknesses of the twelve South American health systems as well as current opportunities and challenges in health for UNASUR.

  5. Pertussis in Latin America: epidemiology and control strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falleiros Arlant, Luiza Helena; de Colsa, Agustín; Flores, Dario; Brea, José; Avila Aguero, Maria L; Hozbor, Daniela Flavia

    2014-10-01

    Pertussis is a serious respiratory disease in infants that can also affect children and adults. Vaccination against pertussis was introduced in the 1950s and in the 1990s a resurgence of pertussis was observed worldwide. The aim of this work is to summarize the recent data concerning pertussis disease in different countries of Latin America. In this geographic region, pertussis is nationally notifiable and cases should be reported to the appropriate health department/Ministry. Though the surveillance systems are not the same among Latin America countries, over recent decades an increasing number of cases have been detected. Most of these cases correspond to patients younger than 6 months old who received fewer than three doses of vaccine. However, cases in adolescent and adults have also been detected. For this situation, which is not peculiar to Latin America countries, several explanations have been proposed.

  6. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 15, 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2007-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a ''moving target''.

  7. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated December 20, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2008-01-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a 'moving target'.

  8. Building America Research Benchmark Definition: Updated August 15, 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.

    2007-09-01

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Building America industry teams. The Benchmark is generally consistent with mid-1990s standard practice, as reflected in the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) Technical Guidelines (RESNET 2002), with additional definitions that allow the analyst to evaluate all residential end-uses, an extension of the traditional HERS rating approach that focuses on space conditioning and hot water. Unlike the reference homes used for HERS, EnergyStar, and most energy codes, the Benchmark represents typical construction at a fixed point in time so it can be used as the basis for Building America's multi-year energy savings goals without the complication of chasing a 'moving target'.

  9. The medicinal use of chocolate in early North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2008-10-01

    The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating back to the 16th century. From Mesoamerican Codices and European Treatises scholars have determined that for hundreds of years the beverage called chocolate was administered to the sick and prescribed homeopathically to prevent illness. Yet, little scholarship exists that focuses on medicinal chocolate usage in early North America (18th-19th century). This paper examines medical practices during this era and associated medicinal norms with special attention given to chocolate/cocoa usage. Given the current scientific attention on the relationship between dark chocolate consumption and heart disease attenuation it is timely to investigate and chronicle America's medical forebears' understanding of, and practices related to, the medicinal use of chocolate. Indeed, there is a significant amount of literature to suggest that chocolate was used for wellness and to treat illness.

  10. Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

    . Addressing a broad variety of historical, political, economic, social, cultural and legal issues, the book offers unique insights into the enormous opportunities and challenges the region presents for implementing effective marketing strategies. Macro marketing issues such as regional integration, foreign......Marketing in the Emerging Markets of Latin America provides a much needed analysis of business and marketing in Latin America. The book highlights the diverse characteristics of the Latin American business and marketing environment as well as the dynamic nature of regional and country markets...... trade and direct investment are considered within the context of specific countries, as are the micro aspects of a company's marketing activities. The book is an extremely valuable resource for academics, practitioners and anyone interested in doing business in or with Latin America....

  11. Economic aspects for South America energy integration; Aspectos economicos para a integracao energetica da America do Sul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vela, Jorge Alberto Alcala; Cardozo, Fernando Simoes [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Expansion of the internal market and external, production on a large scale and more dynamic economic growth would be the consequences of a regional integration in South America. However, due to the specific characteristics of South America this process did not occur. Many attempts were made through the years with the creation of institutions that tried to promote the integration of different forms of South America. This article analyses the current economic conditions in which this initiative is to achieve an energy integration, which seems feasible given the provision expresses the presidents of South American countries before a possible rationing of energy. Through analysis of the results it may be concluded that there is a growing demand for energy in all countries, which should be resolved first in order not to cut the development of South America. The main economic aspects which affect the process of integrating energy are the commercial structures of energy, the energy complementarities, the degree of development of infrastructure for interconnection, the industrial structure and conformation electric business. However, an immediate solution would be to boost bilateral integration energy projects and construction of transmission lines that interconnect the regional stations for the supply of electric energy. Moreover, as the conditions are not improved political and economic and there is no compatible models between technical institutions and legal and administrative, will not be achieved significant progress in the process of regional energy integration of South America. (author)

  12. Height System Unification in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideris, Michael; Amjadiparvar, Babak

    2015-04-01

    GOCE has contributed important gravity information towards the definition and realization of the new North American height reference system. In addition to the new gravimetric geoid models based on GOCE, offsets of the classical levelling-based vertical datums in North America, namely CGVD28 in Canada and NAVD88 in the USA and Mexico, can be computed with respect to a global equipotential surface defined by means of a GOCE-based geoid. Although the two datums will eventually be replaced by a common and continent-wide vertical datum (and in fact the new Canadian height datum established in 2013 is already geoid based), their connection and unification is of great interest to the scientific and user communities. This study investigates the practical implementation of the geodetic boundary value problem (GBVP) approach as a rigorous method for unifying classical levelling-based vertical datums. The so-called indirect bias term, the effect of the GOCE geoid omission error, the effect of the systematic levelling datum errors and distortions, and the effect of the data errors on the datum unification are of great importance for the practical implementation of this approach. These factors are investigated numerically using the GNSS-levelling and tide gauge (TG) stations in Canada, the USA, Alaska, and Mexico. The results show that the indirect bias term can be omitted if a GOCE-based global geopotential model is used in geoid computation. This is significant because the omission of the indirect bias term simplifies the geoid computations as well as the linear system of equations for the estimation of datum offsets. Because of the existing systematic levelling errors and distortions in the Canadian and US levelling networks, the datum offsets are investigated in eight smaller regions along Canadian and US coastal areas instead of over the whole North American land mass. The effect of the omission error on the datum offsets decreases significantly in areas with good

  13. Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America and : Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, J. P.; Bustamante, M.; Forti, M. C.; Peres, T.; Stein, A. F.; Jaramillo, V.; Perez, C.; Pinho, P. F.; Ascarrunz, N.; Austin, A.; Martinelli, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    Latin America is at a crossroads where a balance should be found between production of the major agricultural commodities, reasonable and planned urbanization and conservation of its natural ecosystems and associated goods and services. Most of the natural biological fixation of the globe occurs in forests of Latin America. On the other hand, Latin America has one of the highest rate of deforestation in the world, and one of the highest increases in the use of nitrogen fertilizers. A better understanding of the responses of the N cycle to human impacts will allow better conservation of biodiversity and natural resources, with an improvement in food security and more effective land use choices in biofuel development. Latin America is a unique region in multiple aspects, and particularly relevant for this proposal are the broad climatic gradient and economic patterns that include a diverse range of natural ecosystems and socio-economic development pathways. Additionally, the region is impaired by the lack of information on actual impacts of human activity on N cycling across this diverse range of ecosystems. Finally, the large expanse of tropical ecosystems and reservoirs of biodiversity juxtaposed with an intense economic incentive for development make our understanding of human impacts in this context particularly important for global change research in the region. An evaluation of current and predicted changes in climate and land use on nitrogen stocks and fluxes in the region what is being develop by the Nnet network (Nitrogen Cycling In Latin America: Drivers, Impacts And Vulnerabilities ). This presentation will bring the latest results of this integrative initiative in Latin America, focusing on the nitrogen budget associated to provision of ecosystem services and climate change.

  14. Dirofilariosis in the Americas: a more virulent Dirofilaria immitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Dirofilarioses are widespread diseases caused by filarioid nematodes (superfamily Filarioidea) of the genus Dirofilaria, which are transmitted by a plethora of mosquito species. The principal agent of canine dirofilariosis in the Americas is Dirofilaria immitis, which may also occasionally infest humans, resulting in pulmonary nodules that may be confounded with malignant lung tumours. Because human cases of dirofilariosis by D. immitis are relatively frequent in the Americas and rare in Europe and other eastern countries, where Dirofilaria repens is the main causative agent, the existence of a more virulent strain of D. immitis in the Americas has been speculated. Recently, a case of human ocular infestation by Dirofilaria sp. was diagnosed in Pará State, northern Brazil, where canine heartworm dirofilariosis is endemic. The nematode was shown to be morphologically and phylogenetically related to D. immitis but it was genetically distinct from reference sequences, including those of D. immitis infesting dogs in the same geographical area. This finding raised questions regarding the aetiology of human dirofilariosis in the Americas, since information on the genetic makeup of filarioids infesting dogs and humans is meagre. Further studies would be needed to better characterize filarioids infesting dogs, wild animals, and humans in the Americas and to assess the existence of a more virulent D. immitis strain in this continent. Finally, the competence of different culicid species/strains from Europe and the Americas as vectors of Dirofilaria species should be investigated. Such studies would help us to understand possible variations in transmission patterns and even to predict possible scenarios that may emerge in the future, with the introduction of non-endemic Dirofilaria species/strains in free areas through importation of infested animals, vectors, or both. PMID:24274042

  15. Social Movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqra Anugrah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three recent works – Social Activism in Southeast Asia, Social Movements in Latin America: Neoliberalism and Popular Resistance, and Southeast Asia and the Civil Society Gaze: Scoping a Contested Concept in Cambodia and Vietnam – provide a timely update on the contemporary landscape of social movements in Southeast Asia and Latin America. These works are also relevant for broader theoretical discussions on social movements and provide a basis for future inter-regional comparative studies.

  16. Collaborative studies target volcanic hazards in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Rose, William I.

    Central America is the second-most consistently active volcanic zone on Earth, after Indonesia. Centuries of volcanic activity have produced a spectacular landscape of collapsed calderas, debris flows, and thick blankets of pyroclastic materials. Volcanic activity dominates the history, culture, and daily life of Central American countries.January 2002 marked the third consecutive year in which a diverse group of volcanologists and geophysicists conducted focused field studies in Central America. This type of multi-institutional collaboration reflects the growing involvement of a number of U.S. and non-U.S. universities, and of other organizations, in Guatemala and El Salvador (Table 1).

  17. Incorporation Crisis in Latin America: The limits of ''Conservative Modernization''

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Filgueira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the incorpora tion crisis that occurred in Latin America at the end of the twentieth century as a result of: changes in the economic model, the durability of electoral democracies and of inequalities; increasing expectations related to educational mobility, and the dissemination of new patterns of consumption. It is argued that this type of crisis can be best understood as an epochal change of "conservative modernization". It is also argued that this change is at the basis of the shift to the Left in present day Latin America.

  18. Nutrition, poverty alleviation, and development in Central America and Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immink, Maarten D C

    2010-03-01

    This paper reviews research with policy relevance for food and nutrition in Central America and similar areas. The research was conducted by the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) during the last three decades of the past millennium (1970-99). Six policy areas were selected for this review: agricultural commercialization and rural development; wage and price policies; human resource development; social safety nets, particularly complementary food programs; multi-sectoral nutrition planning; and food and nutrition monitoring for policy formulation. The contents and major conclusions of the work are described, as well as their public policy implications.

  19. OECD Highlights China's Role in Economic Development of Latin America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Xinhua reported on October 28 that Latin America had been more resilient to the economic crisis by diversifying commercial and financial exchanges with Asian economies, with China as the main driver in the last three years, said Angel Gurria, General Secretary of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), in Asuncion, Paraguay.During the Ibero-American business forum within the Ibero- American Summit, to be opened Friday evening, Gurria made a speech on the theme "Towards a more sustainable trade and investment between Latin America and China".

  20. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Cesar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods: HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results: The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years, more likely to be female (27% vs. 20% and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all. In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.32 to 1.96, particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50, change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62 and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57. Conclusions: HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation.

  1. Health outcomes among HIV-positive Latinos initiating antiretroviral therapy in North America versus Central and South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesar, Carina; Koethe, John R; Giganti, Mark J; Rebeiro, Peter; Althoff, Keri N; Napravnik, Sonia; Mayor, Angel; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Wolff, Marcelo; Padgett, Denis; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Sterling, Timothy R; Willig, James; Levison, Julie; Kitahata, Mari; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C; Moore, Richard D; McGowan, Catherine; Shepherd, Bryan E; Cahn, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinos living with HIV in the Americas share a common ethnic and cultural heritage. In North America, Latinos have a relatively high rate of new HIV infections but lower rates of engagement at all stages of the care continuum, whereas in Latin America antiretroviral therapy (ART) services continue to expand to meet treatment needs. In this analysis, we compare HIV treatment outcomes between Latinos receiving ART in North America versus Latin America. Methods HIV-positive adults initiating ART at Caribbean, Central and South America Network for HIV (CCASAnet) sites were compared to Latino patients (based on country of origin or ethnic identity) starting treatment at North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD) sites in the United States and Canada between 2000 and 2011. Cox proportional hazards models compared mortality, treatment interruption, antiretroviral regimen change, virologic failure and loss to follow-up between cohorts. Results The study included 8400 CCASAnet and 2786 NA-ACCORD patients initiating ART. CCASAnet patients were younger (median 35 vs. 37 years), more likely to be female (27% vs. 20%) and had lower nadir CD4 count (median 148 vs. 195 cells/µL, p<0.001 for all). In multivariable analyses, CCASAnet patients had a higher risk of mortality after ART initiation (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.61; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32 to 1.96), particularly during the first year, but a lower hazard of treatment interruption (AHR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.50), change to second-line ART (AHR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.62) and virologic failure (AHR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.48 to 0.57). Conclusions HIV-positive Latinos initiating ART in Latin America have greater continuity of treatment but are at higher risk of death than Latinos in North America. Factors underlying these differences, such as HIV testing, linkage and access to care, warrant further investigation. PMID:26996992

  2. Hydrogeology in North America: past and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2005-03-01

    This paper is a retrospective on the evolution of hydrogeology in North America over the past two centuries, and a brief speculation of its future. The history of hydrogeology is marked by developments in many different fields such as groundwater hydrology, soil mechanics, soil science, economic geology, petroleum engineering, structural geology, geochemistry, geophysics, marine geology, and more recently, ecology. The field has been enriched by the contributions of distinguished researchers from all these fields. At present, hydrogeology is in transition from a state of discovering new resources and exploiting them efficiently for maximum benefit, to one of judicious management of finite, interconnected resources that are vital for the sustenance of humans and other living things. The future of hydrogeology is likely to be dictated by the subtle balance with which the hydrological, erosional, and nutritional cycles function, and the decision of a technological society to either adapt to the constraints imposed by the balance, or to continue to exploit hydrogeological systems for maximum benefit. Although there is now a trend towards ecological and environmental awareness, human attitudes could change should large parts of the populated world be subjected to the stresses of droughts that last for many decades. Cet article est une rétrospective de l'évolution de l'hydrogéologie en Amérique du Nord sur les deux derniers siècles, et une brève évaluation de son futur. L'histoire de l'hydrogéologie est marquée par le développement de plusieurs techniques de terrain telles, l'hydrologie des eaux souterraines, la mécanique des sols, les sciences du sol, la géologie économique, l' ingénierie pétrolière, la géologie structurale, la géochimie, la géophysique, la géologie marine et plus récemment l'écologie. La science a été enrichie par la contribution de plusieurs chercheurs distingués, provenant de toutes ces branches. A présent, l

  3. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Thermal Bypass Air Barriers in the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America research supporting Thermal Bypass Air Barrier requirements. Since these were adopted in the 2009 IECC, close to one million homes have been mandated to include this vitally important energy efficiency measure.

  4. Mercati, identità e diritto in America Latina - Markets, identity and law in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Luigi Palmisano

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Identities, and ethnic identities in particular, are the in fieri result of complex social and cultural processes which show how much the identities of the social actors are multiple, in transition, situational and constantly negotiated. However, the structure of the dominating social and political order of the contemporary post-global era coincides with the order of the financial markets. Based upon the ethnographies of Latin America this article claims that this new order interacts antagonistically with the structures which are acknowledged, proposed or anyway regulated by both the national juridical systems (customary law, Constitution, civil and penal law and international law toward processes of fixation and reification of the identities. The social actor is thus reduced and constrained in the mono-role of consumer up to indebtedness and to his consequent epiphany as res. The way to a law without State is thus open: an icon and embodiment of elitist ideologies that are at the same time active and hidden but deeply inscribed the new order of the financial markets which convey social Darwinism and the subordination of man to financial capital.

  5. Transportation: Design, Build, and Manage the Future for America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertini, Robert

    2011-01-01

    A safe, efficient, and effective transportation system is critical to the growth and stability of the U.S. economy, America's ability as a nation to compete in increasingly competitive global markets, and as a commuter network that provides access to jobs and recreational facilities that are important to quality of life for all Americans. The…

  6. Adult Education and Indigenous Peoples in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelkes, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the educational situation of indigenous peoples in Latin America, and in particular their scant participation in adult education activities. It analyses the historical, structural and institutional barriers to their greater involvement in adult education. The article proposes to look at indigenous demands on education as a…

  7. Intercultural Education Series. Some Perspectives on Inter-America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Armond, Louis; And Others

    This publication of the Programa de Educacion Interamericana builds upon the overall cultural base on Latin America presented for the teacher in SO 001 424 by providing additional information for understanding past and present events. It also presents, in general view, the development of music, literature, and art. A third dimension is introduced,…

  8. 76 FR 12263 - Read Across America Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... great readers. Cultivation of basic literacy skills can begin early and in the home. It is family who... recommitting to improving literacy and raising the expectations we have for our students, for our schools, and... Across America Day. I call upon children, families, educators, librarians, public officials, and all...

  9. Financing Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Rebuild America Guides Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelinski, Richard W.; Gatlin, Douglas R.

    The Rebuild America Program, a network of community partnerships of local businesses and governments organized to save money by saving energy through improvements in building energy efficiencies, provides technical and business manuals designed to meet the real-life needs of these partnerships. This document, written for organizations considering…

  10. Across the Americas, Globalization of Higher Education Lags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Marion

    2009-01-01

    The internationalization of higher education in the Americas is mostly talk with little action, concluded delegates at a joint congress in Mexico's second-largest city. More than 300 university administrators, professors, and education specialists from throughout the region and Europe met in Guadalajara last month to promote inter-American…

  11. Private Higher Education in a Cold War World: Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, James J.

    2009-01-01

    In Central America the Cold War support of the elites by the United States was designed to ward off the communist threat. At the same time social and economic demands by the working and middle classes created revolutionary movements in the face of rigid and violent responses by Central American governments. Issues of social justice pervaded the…

  12. Visiting the Digital Divide: Women Entrepreneurs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Helena

    2006-01-01

    Micro and small enterprises comprise approximately 60-70% of enterprises in South and Central America. Most of these enterprises, particularly micro enterprises, are managed and owned by women. These women for the most part lack both skills and training in the use of computers and the Internet, and access to the use of information and…

  13. New species of Ficus (Moraceae) from South America

    OpenAIRE

    C.C. Berg

    2007-01-01

    Eleven new species and one new subspecies of Ficus from South America, mainly from the Andean region, are described and illustrated: F. cotopaxiensis, F. ecuadorensis, F. francoae, F. jacobii subsp. mantana, F. loxensis, F. maximoides, F. pastasana, F. quichuana, F. quistocochensis, F. rimacana, F. sumacoana, and F. valaria. Ficus malacocarpa Standl. is reduced to a subspecies of F. popenoei Standl.

  14. Augmentative biological control of arthropods in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.; Bueno, V.H.P.

    2003-01-01

    Augmentative forms of biological control, where natural enemies are periodically introduced, are applied over large areas in various cropping systems in Latin America. About 25% of the world area under augmentative control is situated in this region. Well-known examples are the use of species of the

  15. College for America: Student-Centered, Competency-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Kris; Simon, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new model of education that works with employers to help their employees gain the skills and credentials needed for promotions and career mobility. Southern New Hampshire University's College for America, a competency-based education model for working adults, increases their access to, and the convenience of higher…

  16. New species of Ficus (Moraceae) from South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, C.C.

    2007-01-01

    Eleven new species and one new subspecies of Ficus from South America, mainly from the Andean region, are described and illustrated: F. cotopaxiensis, F. ecuadorensis, F. francoae, F. jacobii subsp. mantana, F. loxensis, F. maximoides, F. pastasana, F. quichuana, F. quistocochensis, F. rimacana, F.

  17. Building America Top Innovations 2012: EEBA Builder’s Guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes the DOE-sponsored Builder’s Guides, which met a great need for clear guidance on the latest technologies and best practices for high-performance homes. Over 12,000 copies have been sold, including second and third editions for many of the guides.

  18. Homeschooling in America: Capturing and Assessing the Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This book is the definitive study on homeschooling in the United States, delving into a movement that impacts more students nationwide than the entire charter school movement. In 2010, more than 2 million students were homeschooled. This book explores: (1) The history of homeschooling in America; (2) How this movement has grown in credibility and…

  19. Academic Talent Development in North America and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvin, Linda; Subotnik, Rena F.

    2015-01-01

    First we describe one particular model of talent development (Jarvin and Subotnik in The handbook of secondary gifted education. Prufrock Press, Waco, 2006) and situate it in perspective to other models developed in North America and Europe. We then discuss the implications of this view of giftedness on education and review related resources and…

  20. Learning about America, and about Buying from Starbucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Bryant

    2011-01-01

    Professor Bryant Simon is the author of "Everything But the Coffee: Learning About America From Starbucks" (University of California Press, 2009). He presented his key findings to the class and summarizes them here. Studying Starbucks reveals essential truths about what its customers, who represented a large cross-section of the American…

  1. Spanish Bilateral Initiatives for Education in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Regina; Sanchez, Maria Teresa

    2007-01-01

    The research presented in this article concerns la Agencia Espanola de Cooperacion Internacional (Spanish Agency for International Cooperation--AECI) and its growing presence in Latin America since the late 1990s. The aim is to evaluate the transformative potential that bilateral funding can have on educational reform in the region. The article…

  2. Porcine colonization of the Americas: a 60k SNP story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgos-Paz, W.; Souza, C.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Ramayo-Caldas, Y.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Groenen, M.

    2013-01-01

    The pig, Sus scrofa, is a foreign species to the American continent. Although pigs originally introduced in the Americas should be related to those from the Iberian Peninsula and Canary islands, the phylogeny of current creole pigs that now populate the continent is likely to be very complex. Becaus

  3. Recent Literature on Slavery in Colonial North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Donald R.

    2003-01-01

    Provides a review of literature published on slavery in colonial North America, focusing on how this literature has changed over the years. Includes literature in topical areas, such as the Atlantic slave trade, African American culture, and race. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  4. Securing Our Future? Rethinking Public Investments in America's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanishi, Ruby; Chen, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of the Great Recession provides us with the opportunity to engage in a long overdue conversation about public investments in America's children. Less than ten percent of the Fiscal Year 2010 federal budget of $3.603 trillion is allocated to children and youth. This percentage is likely to decline in the next decade if current laws…

  5. Tarrant County Junior College District, Exploring America's Communities. Progress Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant County Junior Coll. District, Ft. Worth, TX.

    In 1996, Tarrant County Junior College District participated in the American Association of Community Colleges' Exploring America's Communities project, which works to strengthen the teaching and learning of American history, literature, and culture at U.S. community colleges. The primary goals included the following: (1) to develop an inclusive,…

  6. The importance of rheumatology biologic registries in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Maria; da Silveira de Carvalho, Hellen M; Ventura Ríos, Lucio; Goycochea Robles, Maria V; Casado, Gustavo C

    2013-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by joint articular pain and disability. Although there is scarcity of data available on the incidence and prevalence of RA in Latin America, there is a growing recognition of this disease where chronic diseases are on the rise and infectious disease on the decline. RA is a substantial burden to patients, society, and the healthcare system. The heterogeneity identified within RA presents an opportunity for personalized medicine, especially in regions with such demographic diversity as that of Latin America. To understand the long-term effects of treatment for RA especially on safety, registries have been established, a number of which have been created in Latin America. Despite their weaknesses (e.g., lack of controls and randomization), registries have provided additional and complementary information on the use of biologics in clinical practice in Latin America and other regions. Although certain challenges remain in the implementation and maintenance of registries, they continue to provide real-life data to clinical practice contributing to improved patient care.

  7. Reading Comprehension in Latin America: Difficulties and Possible Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lions, Séverin; Peña, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Reading comprehension (RC) is below the international standard in many countries of Latin America (LA). Here we review factors that might be associated with failure in RC of the first language in LA. Then we present interventions reporting beneficial impact on RC in typically developing students from English-speaking countries and discuss their…

  8. ESD: Power, Politics, and Policy: "Tragic Optimism" from Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Gaudiano, Edgar J.

    2016-01-01

    In light of the challenging developmental issues confronting the countries of Latin America, this response article analyzes the power and resistance of education for sustainable development from both theoretical and policy perspectives. Of particular concern are the neo-productivist strategies driving the latest stage of capitalist development.…

  9. School Readiness Research in Latin America: Findings and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Katherine; Rolla, Andrea; Romero-Contreras, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Educational results in Latin America (LA) are well below those of developed countries. One factor that influences how well children do at school is school readiness. In this article, we review studies conducted in LA on the readiness skills of preschool children. We begin by discussing contextual factors that affect what is expected of children…

  10. Emergent Evaluation and Educational Reforms in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinic, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to characterize educational reforms in Latin America over the last 25 years, and the way they reflect the role, method, and use of evaluation processes. The main theoretical and methodological tensions that are created by the development of evaluations will be reviewed, concluding with the identification of some of the…

  11. Cervical cancer control in Latin America: A call to action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Ferreyra, Mayra E; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Herold, Christina I; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Dizon, Don S; Schmeler, Kathleen M; Del Carmen, Marcela; Randall, Tom C; Nogueira-Rodrigues, Angelica; de Carvalho Calabrich, Aknar Freire; St Louis, Jessica; Vail, Caroline M; Goss, Paul E

    2016-02-15

    Cervical cancer (CC) is second most common cause of cancer in Latin America and is a leading cause of cancer mortality among women. In 2015, an estimated 74,488 women will be diagnosed with CC in Latin America and 31,303 will die of the disease. CC mortality is projected to increase by 45% by 2030 despite human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and screening efforts. In this setting, the goal was of the current study was to examine CC control efforts in Latin America and identify deficiencies in these efforts that could be addressed to reduce CC incidence and mortality. The authors found that HPV vaccination has been introduced in the majority of Latin American countries, and there is now a need to monitor the success (or shortcomings) of these programs and to ensure that these programs are sustainable. This topic was also reviewed in light of emerging data demonstrating that visual inspection with acetic acid and HPV DNA testing without Papanicolaou tests have efficacy from a screening perspective and are good alternatives to cytology-based screening programs. Overall, there is a need to build capacity for CC control in Latin America and the best strategy will depend on the country/region and must be tailored to meet the needs of the population as well as available resources.

  12. [International migration in the Americas: intraregional migration grows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, H

    1992-01-01

    The principal destinations for intraregional migrants in South America in recent decades have been Argentina, Brazil, and Venezuela, while in North America the U.S. has exerted a growing attraction since 1965. Intraregional migration in Latin America has been irregular and difficult to quantify, and reliable statistics on migratory flows are nonexistent. Census data indicate that most migration to Argentina and Brazil occurred before 1960, while most migration to Venezuela occurred during the 1970s. Between 1960 and 1980, the proportion of migrants from other Latin American countries showed a tendency to increase, despite decreases in the overall level of immigration. The effect of the economic crisis of the 1980s on immigration from Latin American countries will become more apparent as census data for the 1990s become available. Selectivity according to country of origin is an important characteristic of intraregional migration in South America. The U.S. has, however, been the principal destination of Latin American migrants for the past three decades. Between 1965 and 1991 the U.S. granted resident status to more than 7.4 million persons of Latin American and Caribbean origin, and they constituted 47% of immigrants during those years. The great majority of the Latin American immigrants in the U.S. are Mexican. The 3.5 million Mexicans admitted to the U.S. as immigrants between 1965 and 1991 accounted for 22% of all immigrants during this period.

  13. Building America Research Benchmark Definition, Updated December 19, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2008-12-19

    To track progress toward aggressive multi-year whole-house energy savings goals of 40-70% and onsite power production of up to 30%, DOE's Residential Buildings Program and NREL developed the Building America Research Benchmark in consultation with the Bui

  14. Made in America: The Global Youth Justice Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott Bernard

    2009-01-01

    For an increasing and record number of communities in America and now in other countries, youth courts are providing a positive alternative to the juvenile justice system with significant and unexpected favorable outcomes. Youth court is most commonly identified as a juvenile justice program, given that the vast majority of youth cases referred…

  15. Bark beetle outbreaks in western North America: causes and consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, Barbara; Logan, Jesse; MacMahon, James A.; Allen, Craig D.; Ayres, Matt; Berg, Edward E; Carroll, Allan; Hansen, Matt; Hicke, Jeff H.; Joyce, Linda A.; Macfarlane, Wallace; Munson, Steve; Negron, Jose; Paine, Tim; Powell, Jim; Raffa, Kenneth; Regniere, Jacques; Reid, Mary; Romme, Bill; Seybold, Steven J.; Six, Diana; Vandygriff, Jim; Veblen, Tom; White, Mike; Witcosky, Jeff; Wood, David

    2005-01-01

    Since 1990, native bark beetles have killed billions of trees across millions of acres of forest from Alaska to northern Mexico. Although bark beetle infestations are a regular force of natural change in forested ecosystems, several of the current outbreaks, which are occurring simultaneously across western North America, are the largest and most severe in recorded history.

  16. Country Queers: Queer Youth and the Politics of Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greteman, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the lives of rural lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and their identity work, Mary Gray's "Out in the Country: Youth, Media, and Queer Visibility in Rural America" offers one of the first ethnographic studies of queer rural life in the United States and their use of new media. Throughout, Gray provides various case…

  17. Drowning in Itself: The Plight of Adolescence in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, T. Elijah

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent willing and desiring is pervasive in mainstream American culture. The result is that America's youth is drowning in itself, in the immaturity, impulsiveness, and pastlessness of our dominant culture. Listening to the voices of youth caught in this crisis, and drawing from the observations of thinkers such as Nietzsche, Erikson, Baldwin,…

  18. Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation: Focus on Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massaro, Ayrton R.; Lippp, Gregory Y. H.

    2016-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained cardiac arrhythmia, with an estimated prevalence of 1-2% in North America and Europe. The increased prevalence of AF in Latin America is associated with an ageing general population, along with poor control of key risk factors, including hypertension. As a result, stroke prevalence and associated mortality have increased dramatically in the region. Therefore, the need for effective anticoagulation strategies in Latin America is clear. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of anticoagulants for stroke prevention. The use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs, eg, warfarin) and aspirin in the prevention of stroke in patients with AF in Latin America remains common, although around one fifth of all AF patients receive no anticoagulation. Warfarin use is complicated by a lack of access to effective monitoring services coupled with an unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile. The overuse of aspirin is associated with significant bleeding risks and reduced efficacy for stroke prevention in this patient group. The non-VKA oral anticoagulants (NOACbs) represent a potential means of overcoming many limitations associated with VKA and aspirin use, including a reduction in the need for monitoring and a reduced risk of hemorrhagic events. The ultimate decision of which anticoagulant drug to utilize in AF patients depends on a multitude of factors. More research is needed to appreciate the impact of these factors in the Latin American population and thereby reduce the burden of AF-associated stroke in this region. PMID:27533256

  19. Information Sharing About International Terrorism in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    that blossomed in the golden age of insurgency in the second half of the 20th century. At that time, many states in Latin America, Asia , Africa, and...articles/anmviewer.asp?a=464&print=yes. Somoza, L. (2001). Inteligencia: Su Utilidad para la Toma de Decisiones en un Mundo de Nuevos Conflictos

  20. Environmental governance in Latin America: towards an integrative research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Baud; F. de Castro; B. Hogenboom

    2011-01-01

    Latin America plays an important international role with regard to environmental governance. Knowledge generated by empirical and theoretical studies on environmental challenges can support the renewed efforts in the region to achieve equitable and sustainable natural resource use. Although link age

  1. 75 FR 10791 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... about the history and current status of spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste disposal in the United... to include presentations on the history of efforts to dispose of civilian light- water reactor spent... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear...

  2. Project Closeout: Guidance for Final Evaluation of Building America Communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, P.; Burch, J.; Hendron, B.

    2008-03-01

    This report presents guidelines for Project Closeout. It is used to determine whether the Building America program is successfully facilitating improved design and practices to achieve energy savings goals in production homes. Its objective is to use energy simulations, targeted utility bill analysis, and feedback from project stakeholders to evaluate the performance of occupied BA communities.

  3. Involving High School Students in Read Across America Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, Kelly C.; Zarzeka, Jo

    2011-01-01

    Many U.S. elementary and middle schools celebrate Dr. Seuss' birthday on March 2nd via the National Education Association's (NEA) Read Across America Day (RAAD). Not as many high schools participate in this joyous ode to reading. In this article, the authors describe how they, as media specialists at Sprayberry High School in Marietta, Georgia,…

  4. The Trauma of Racism: America's Original Sin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponds, Kenneth T.

    2013-01-01

    With the election of Barack Obama as President, many believed that this nation was entering into a post-racial America, a color-blind society where racism could begin to be healed if not totally dismissed. However, a recent Associated Press poll has shown that this is not the case (AP, 2012). In fact, racial prejudice has increased slightly since…

  5. The Reality and Future of Latin America: An Educational Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Oscar

    1993-01-01

    Third World countries have lacked the resources to invest in economic and academic development. The source lies in gross inequities between industrialized and developing countries. Globalization of markets has not benefited Latin America. Militarism, corruption, poverty, and social injustice can only be eradicated by incorporating strong…

  6. Internationalizing Business Education in Latin America: Issues and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahee, Mohammad; Norbis, Mario

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the extent of internationalization of business education in Latin America and identifies the key challenges facing the Latin American business schools. Based on a survey of the business schools that are members of CLADEA (Consejo Latinoamericano de Escuelas de Administracion--Latin American Council of Management Schools), and…

  7. Social Science and Public Policy: Diversity in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Examines diversity using Martin Luther King, Jr.'s metaphor of human unity, "the single garment of destiny," noting diversity's uniqueness in viewing America as individual groups, some of which have historically been denied privileges. Calls diversity a political doctrine that asserts that some social categories deserve compensatory…

  8. Do authoritarians vote for authoritarians? Evidence from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollie J. Cohen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During the 2016 presidential election campaign in the United States, scholars argued that authoritarian visions of the family are associated with support for Donald Trump, a candidate also noted to exhibit authoritarian or illiberal tendencies. Though it is plausible that “authoritarian” citizens (defined by parenting attitudes vote for “authoritarian” candidates (defined by disrespect for democratic institutions, past research provides relatively little guide regarding this relationship. One reason is that few US candidates announce overtly authoritarian views. Latin America, by contrast, has had many such candidates. We take advantage of this variation using the 2012 AmericasBarometer, which applied a battery of authoritarian parenting attitudes. We first describe mass authoritarianism across Latin America, showing it is associated with many social attitudes. We then examine authoritarians’ voting behavior, distinguishing between support for “mano dura” (“strong arm” candidates, who are usually rightists, and for candidates threatening violations of general civil liberties, who are often leftists in Latin America. We find that authoritarians tend to vote for right-wing authoritarian candidates, while authoritarianism boosts support for candidates threatening civil liberty violations only among citizens identifying on the ideological right. Education is the most consistent determinant reducing support for both leftist and rightist authoritarian candidates.

  9. Retrofitting America: A 1970s Home Energy Efficiency Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-11-17

    This paper describes a modeling tool that Building America research team CARB developed to identify the energy benefits of various retrofit energy efficiency measures for a typical 1970’s ranch home in ten cities across four climate zones in the United States.

  10. Rapid evolution of distinct Helicobacter pylori subpopulations in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Jane; Kato, Ikuko; Suzuki, Rumiko; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Sheppard, Samuel K.; Falush, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    For the last 500 years, the Americas have been a melting pot both for genetically diverse humans and for the pathogenic and commensal organisms associated with them. One such organism is the stomach-dwelling bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is highly prevalent in Latin America where it is a major current public health challenge because of its strong association with gastric cancer. By analyzing the genome sequence of H. pylori isolated in North, Central and South America, we found evidence for admixture between H. pylori of European and African origin throughout the Americas, without substantial input from pre-Columbian (hspAmerind) bacteria. In the US, strains of African and European origin have remained genetically distinct, while in Colombia and Nicaragua, bottlenecks and rampant genetic exchange amongst isolates have led to the formation of national gene pools. We found three outer membrane proteins with atypical levels of Asian ancestry in American strains, as well as alleles that were nearly fixed specifically in South American isolates, suggesting a role for the ethnic makeup of hosts in the colonization of incoming strains. Our results show that new H. pylori subpopulations can rapidly arise, spread and adapt during times of demographic flux, and suggest that differences in transmission ecology between high and low prevalence areas may substantially affect the composition of bacterial populations. PMID:28231283

  11. Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sauerbrey Mauricio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Onchocerciasis (river blindness is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide. While 99% of the population at-risk for infection from onchocerciasis live in Africa, some 500,000 people in the Americas are also threatened by infection. A relatively recent arrival to the western hemisphere, onchocerciasis was brought to the New World through the slave trade and spread through migration. The centuries since its arrival have seen advances in diagnosing, mapping and treating the disease. Once endemic to six countries in the Americas (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela, onchocerciasis is on track for interruption of transmission in the Americas by 2012, in line with Pan American Health Organization resolution CD48.R12. The success of this public health program is due to a robust public-private partnership involving national governments, local communities, donor organizations, intergovernmental bodies, academic institutions, non-profit organizations and the pharmaceutical industry. The lessons learned through the efforts in the Americas are in turn informing the program to control and eliminate onchocerciasis in Africa. However, continued support and investment are needed for program implementation and post-treatment surveillance to protect the gains to-date and ensure complete elimination is achieved and treatment can be safely stopped within all 13 regional foci.

  12. Saving Alma Mater: A Rescue Plan for America's Public Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, James C.

    2009-01-01

    America's public universities educate 80% of our nation's college students. But in the wake of rising demands on state treasuries, changing demographics, growing income inequality, and legislative indifference, many of these institutions have fallen into decline. Tuition costs have skyrocketed, class sizes have gone up, the number of courses…

  13. Differences in Humor Styles between China and America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮

    2014-01-01

    Humor, as a relaxing topic, is a very complicate thing in the intercultural communication. The famous professor of psychology at the University of Western Ontario, Rod A. Martin who focuses his study on functions of humor and laughter proposes four humor styles. In this essay, I use four dimensions referred by Hofstede to analyze the preferred humor styles in China and America.

  14. Chinese Soft Power in Latin America: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    such as José Cuervo, Café Britt, Bimbo, Modelo , Pollo Campero, and Jamaican Blue Mountain coffee, sell to the new Chinese middle class, which is open...narrow involvement in emerging China–Latin America trade, even in key hubs for trade such as Colón, Iquique, or Ciudad del Este. Beyond business

  15. Adolescent Substance Use: America's #1 Public Health Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report finds that adolescent smoking, drinking, misusing prescription drugs and using illegal drugs is, by any measure, a public health problem of epidemic proportion, presenting clear and present danger to millions of America's teenagers and severe and expensive long-range consequences for the entire population. This report is a wake-up call…

  16. Substance Abuse by Youth and Young Adults in Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, David; Gale, John A.; Hartley, David

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Addressing substance abuse in rural America requires extending our understanding beyond urban-rural comparisons to how substance abuse varies across rural communities of different sizes. We address this gap by examining substance abuse prevalence across 4 geographic levels, focusing on youth (age 12-17 years) and young adults (age 18-25…

  17. Country Queers: Queer Youth and the Politics of Rural America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greteman, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Exploring the lives of rural lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth and their identity work, Mary Gray's "Out in the Country: Youth, Media, and Queer Visibility in Rural America" offers one of the first ethnographic studies of queer rural life in the United States and their use of new media. Throughout, Gray provides…

  18. Poverty in Latin America: A Critical Analysis of Three Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltvinik, Julio

    1996-01-01

    Critically evaluates the methodologies used in three recent studies on poverty in Latin America. Maintains that some studies measure the relative nature of nutritional poverty while others record the absolute nature of nutritional poverty (physical survival). Includes a comparative analysis of the studies' results. (MJP)

  19. A Brief Introduction of the "Diverse" America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李潜波

    2011-01-01

    America is called the Melt Pot because of its diverse ethnic groups. With over 200 years' development, this Melt Pot, which has diverse cultural background and traditions, has gradually eliminated racial discrimination and achieved its harmony among Asian, African, Hispanic, Indian ethnic groups, and European ethnic groups.

  20. 2.5-min gravity grid of N. America

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dgrav gridded data set was produced by NGDC by regridding the Decade of North American (DNAG) 6-km gravity grid of N. America. A grid cell dimension of 2.5...

  1. Three languages from America in contact with Spanish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, D.; Sakel, J.; Stolz, T.

    2012-01-01

    Long before Europeans reached the American shores for the first time, and forced their cultures upon the indigenous population, including their languages, a great many other languages were spoken on that continent. These dated back to the original discoverers of America, who probably came from the W

  2. The human genetic history of the Americas: the final frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Dennis H; Raff, Jennifer A

    2010-02-23

    The Americas, the last continents to be entered by modern humans, were colonized during the late Pleistocene via a land bridge across what is now the Bering strait. However, the timing and nature of the initial colonization events remain contentious. The Asian origin of the earliest Americans has been amply established by numerous classical marker studies of the mid-twentieth century. More recently, mtDNA sequences, Y-chromosome and autosomal marker studies have provided a higher level of resolution in confirming the Asian origin of indigenous Americans and provided more precise time estimates for the emergence of Native Americans. But these data raise many additional questions regarding source populations, number and size of colonizing groups and the points of entry to the Americas. Rapidly accumulating molecular data from populations throughout the Americas, increased use of demographic models to test alternative colonization scenarios, and evaluation of the concordance of archaeological, paleoenvironmental and genetic data provide optimism for a fuller understanding of the initial colonization of the Americas.

  3. Highlights in the History of Oral Teacher Preparation in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvelli, Alan L.

    2010-01-01

    The history of oral teacher preparation in America is both significant and diverse. There are numerous individuals and events that shifted and defined the professional practices of individuals who promote the listening and spoken language development of children with hearing loss. This article provides an overview of this rich history and offers a…

  4. New Way Found in China-America Textile Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Duoduo

    2005-01-01

    @@ "Lossing way in the great mountains and cross rivers, it is great happy to find a new village through the trees shadows and bright flowers." this is a famous poem by Lu You, a famous Chinese poet who lived around 1000 years before in Song Dynasty, but it is quite available to describe the current trade relations between China and America.

  5. The North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Kate E.; Howell, David G.; Vigil, Jose F.

    2003-01-01

    The North America Tapestry of Time and Terrain (1:8,000,000 scale) is a product of the US Geological Survey in the I-map series (I-2781). This map was prepared in collaboration with the Geological Survey of Canada and the Mexican Consejo Recursos de Minerales. This cartographic Tapestry is woven from a geologic map and a shaded relief image. This digital combination reveals the geologic history of North America through the interrelation of rock type, topography and time. Regional surface processes as well as continent-scale tectonic events are exposed in the three dimensions of space and the fourth dimension, geologic time. The large map shows the varying age of bedrock underlying North America, while four smaller maps show the distribution of four principal types of rock: sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic and metamorphic. This map expands the original concept of the 2000 Tapestry of Time and Terrain, by Jose F. Vigil, Richard J. Pike and David G. Howell, which covered the conterminous United States. The U.S. Tapestry poster and website have been popular in classrooms, homes, and even the Google office building, and we anticipate the North America Tapestry will have a similarly wide appeal, and to a larger audience.

  6. New digital magnetic anomaly database for North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, C.A.; Pilkington, M.; Cuevas, A.; Hernandez, I.; Urrutia, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Consejo de Recursos Minerales of Mexico (CRM) are compiling an upgraded digital magnetic anomaly database and map for North America. This trinational project is expected to be completed by late 2002.

  7. Integrated Communications at America's Leading Total Quality Management Corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronstedt, Anders

    1996-01-01

    Examines how to create organizational processes that allow communication professionals with a variety of expertise to support each other through coordination and integration. Studies eight of America's leading total quality management corporations, including AT&T, Federal Express, Saturn, and Xerox. Explores how various total quality…

  8. A Long and Winding Road: Soto Zen Training in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senauke, Hozan Alan

    2006-01-01

    This paper seeks to outline the broad parameters of Soto Zen Buddhist training in the North American context. Using his personal experience of training as a case study, the author argues that Zen in America is strongly oriented towards meditation and everyday practice in the world by dedicated lay people, a situation relatively rare in the history…

  9. 76 FR 1608 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy... and nuclear waste. The Commission is scheduled to submit a draft report to the Secretary of Energy by... to CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov , or post comments on the Commission Web site at...

  10. 75 FR 25850 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy...- 0544; e-mail CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov . Additional information may also be available at http... to CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov , or post comments on the Commission Web site at...

  11. Building America System Research Results. Innovations for High Performance Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-05-01

    This report provides a summary of key lessons learned from the first 10 years of the Building America program and also included a summary of the future challenges that must be met to reach the program’s long term performance goals.

  12. College for America: Student-Centered, Competency-Based Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerkin, Kris; Simon, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new model of education that works with employers to help their employees gain the skills and credentials needed for promotions and career mobility. Southern New Hampshire University's College for America, a competency-based education model for working adults, increases their access to, and the convenience of higher…

  13. Social Protection Systems in Latin America and the Caribbean: Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Filgueira

    2014-01-01

    Uruguays welfare state can be characterised by its universal primary education system, its early and robust social security system as well as widespread health coverage and benefits. Uruguay also has one of Latin Americas highest levels of social spending in terms of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (24.3 per cent) and as a percentage of total public spending (80.6 per cent)..(?)

  14. Adult Education Faculty and Programs in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdell, Elizabeth J.; Wright, Robin Redmon; Taylor, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a quantitative survey of North American adult education faculty and a textual analysis of websites of adult education graduate programs in North America conducted in the fall of 2013. This study examined background information about adult education faculty and programs; the nature of faculty work interests,…

  15. The Development of Land Information Policies in the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Parker, John R.

    2005-01-01

    of ?The Development of Land Information Policies in the Americas?. FIG was tasked with taking the lead role in planning and arranging the Special Forum. The objective of this inter-regional forum was to establish an awareness of the economic and social value for decision makers, of the importance...

  16. Proceedings of the 2013 sorghum improvement conference of north america

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 2013 Sorghum Improvement Conference of North America (SICNA) meeting was held at the International Cultural Center, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, from August 28-30, 2013. The meeting attracted a large group of participants from a wide spectrum of the sorghum research community, represe...

  17. Inclusive education in Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa BLANCO GUIJARRO

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The region of Latin America and the Caribbean is known for being the most socially unequal in the world and for this has highly segmented societies, which affects the education, integration and social cohesion of the population. Expanding opportunities for everyone to have access to quality education and developing more inclusive schools, which would educate within and for diversity, stand out as two powerful strategies in a move towards more just and democratic societies in Latin America. This paper presents a detailed analysis of the educational situation in the region from the perspective of rights and inclusion, with particular attention paid to those individuals and groups that suffer most from the impact of inequality, exclusion and marginalization. This analysis begins with an assessment the progress and challenges still to be made regarding access, attendance, quality and equity of education in Latin America. In the second part it addresses the major issues on the agenda of Inclusion in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  18. Climate Projections for South America -discussion of mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Iracema

    2014-05-01

    While temperature is projected to increase, in the future, in the whole South America, with the highest values in central-north areas, precipitation projections show increases or reductions in specific regions. The mechanisms of these changes need to be understood in face of climate change scenarios and possible modifications in the regional meteorological systems behavior. Large areas of South America have a monsoon regime, which shows precipitation differences from winter to summer. Several systems, such as the South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ), the Bolivian High and others, are part of this continental seasonal variability. Tropical areas close to the equator are influenced by the seasonality of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Other areas at higher latitudes have an extratropical regime, affected by transient synoptic systems, being more uniform during the year. Teleconnections, as ENSO, the Pacific South America (PSA) and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) affect the variability of the regional systems and precipitation. Ensemble projections of precipitation analyzed in CMIP5 models for the analyzed period of AR5 [(2081-2100)-(1986-2005)]and regional models [(2071-2100)- (1961-1990)] show changes in several areas of South America. Increased precipitation over Southeastern, Northwestern and extreme Southwestern South America, as well as reduced precipitation in Amazonia, Northeast Brazil and Central Chile are projected under scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 by the majority of CMIP5, and regional models downscaled from scenario A1B from CMIP3. The role of changes in SST and in atmospheric circulation in the future projections, which affect the variability of the main systems over South America is discussed. Although there is medium confidence in PSA, SACZ and ITCZ changes, possible changes in the PSA pattern, including the wavetrain centers of action position and intensity, SACZ position and intensity, SAM phase variability and subtropical highs position and

  19. [The demographic transition in Latin America and Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala De Cosio, M E

    1992-12-01

    This work describes and analyzes the "European model of demographic transition" and compares it to the fertility transition in Latin America, arguing that two different types of demographic transition coexist in Latin America. Chesnais has defined 3 principal postulates of the theory of demographic transition that he believes are universally valid: the precedence in time of mortality decline; the occurrence of reproductive transition in 2 phases, limitation of marriages followed by limitation of births; and the influence of economic growth on the initiation of the secular fertiilty decline. This work is largely limited to discussion of the first 2 postulates. In all the European transitions analyzed, mortality has declined before the occurrence of fertility changes. Exceptions cited in the literature have probably been caused by omissions or other problems in the data. The level of mortality at the beginning of the transition and the rate of decline differ, giving unique character to each transition. Imbalances resulting from mortality decline are at the root of modern fertility transitions. The French demographic transition was distinguished by early appearance of birth limitation by married couples, as part of the regulation of population growth. In the rest of Europe, during the pretransitional period, the traditional system of reproduction was regulated primarily by control of nuptiality. Only at a second stage was marital fertiity controlled, when limitation of marriage was no longer sufficient or had exceeded the limits of social acceptability. All countries of Northern and Western Europe recorded increased proportions definitively single as the demographic situation began to change, until the moment when couples began to limit births. The demographic transition in Latin America began at the end of the 19th century, with mortality decline. Fertility increased initially in Latin America as it had in Europe and for the same reasons, but the impact was greater

  20. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Rocha Tourinho-Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. Objective: to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Results: Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. Conclusion: prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits.

  1. Prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America: epidemiology and screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourinho-Barbosa, Rafael Rocha; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima; Glina, Sidney

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Prostate cancer is one of the tumors with higher incidence and mortality among men in the World. Epidemiological data are influenced by life expectancy of population, available diagnostic methods, correct collection of data and quality of health services. Screening of the disease is not standardized around the World. Up till now there is no consensus about the risks versus benefits of early detection. There are still missing data about this pathology in Latin America. Objective: to revise current epidemiologic situation and early diagnosis policies of prostate cancer in Brazil and Latin America. Materials and Methods: Medline, Cochrane Library and SciELO databases were reviewed on the subject of epidemiology and screening of prostate cancer. Screening research was performed in websites on national public health organizations and Latin America. Screening recommendations were obtained from those governmental organizations and from Latin American urological societies and compared to the most prominent regulatory agencies and societies of specialists and generalists from around the World. Results: Brazil and Latin America have a special position in relation to incidence and mortality of prostate cancer. In Brazil, it occupies the first position regarding incidence of cancer in men and the second cause of mortality. Central America has the highest rate of mortality of the continent with lower incidence/mortality ratios. Screening recommendations are very distinct, mainly among regulatory organs and urological societies. Conclusion: prostate cancer epidemiology is an important health public topic. Data collection related to incidence and mortality is still precarious, especially in less developed countries. It is necessary to follow-up long term screening studies results in order to conclude its benefits. PMID:27622278

  2. Latin America wind market assessment. Forecast 2013-2022

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-10-15

    Wind Power Activities by Country: Developers/Owners, Wind Plant Sizes, Wind Turbines Deployed, Commissioning Dates, Market Share, and Capacity Forecasts Latin American markets are a subject of intense interest from the global wind industry. Wind plant construction across Latin America is modest compared to the more established markets like the United States, Europe, and China, but it is an emerging market that is taking off at a rapid pace. The region has become the hottest alternative growth market for the wind energy industry at a time when growth rates in other markets are flat due to a variety of policy and macroeconomic challenges. Globalization is driving sustainable economic growth in most Latin American countries, resulting in greater energy demand. Wind is increasingly viewed as a valuable and essential answer to increasing electricity generation across most markets in Latin America. Strong wind resources, coupled with today's sophisticated wind turbines, are providing cost-effective generation that is competitive with fossil fuel generation. Most Latin American countries also rely heavily on hydroelectricity, which balances well with variable wind generation. Navigant Research forecasts that if most wind plants under construction with planned commissioning go online as scheduled, annual wind power installations in Latin America will grow from nearly 2.2 GW in 2013 to 4.3 GW by 2022. This Navigant Research report provides a comprehensive view of the wind energy market dynamics at play in Latin America. It offers a country-by-country analysis, outlining the key energy policies and development opportunities and barriers and identifying which companies own operational wind plants and which wind turbine vendors supplied those projects. Market forecasts for wind power installations, capacity, and market share in Latin America, segmented by country and company, extend through 2022. The report also offers an especially close analysis of Brazil and Mexico

  3. Drivers of animal welfare policy in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas, S M; Gallo, C; Galindo, F

    2014-04-01

    Owing to its large size and ethnic, social, cultural and economic diversity, the Americas' production volume is set to make the region one of the world's leading providers of animal foodstuffs. Animal husbandry, transport and slaughter conditions vary from country to country in response to their differing climatic and geographic characteristics. This article examines the main drivers of animal welfare in the Americas, including the standards of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), legislation, codes of practice and advances in education, training, research and development. It recognises the important roles played by all the various stakeholders in changing perceptions of animal welfare by raising public awareness and promoting communication and cooperation as drivers of overall change in the Americas. Regional and international organisations, public and private-sector bodies, academia and non-governmental organisations have launched a number of initiatives with encouraging results. In 2009, the OIE established the Chile-Uruguay Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare Research, which is now the OIE Collaborating Centre for Animal Welfare and Livestock Production Systems and has recently incorporated Mexico. The Collaborating Centre works closely with official OIE Delegates and the Focal Points for Animal Welfare of national Veterinary Services. The OIE Regional Animal Welfare Strategy for the Americas was adopted in 2012, under the coordination of the OIE Regional Representation for the Americas, as a guide for developing future policies based on a regional approach. The way to achieve cultural change for improving animal welfare, operator safety and the sector's profitability is through training and knowledge transfer. The results demonstrate that the joint efforts of all institutions and the active role of the Collaborating Centre have been most effective, as have the continuing education programmes implemented by universities.

  4. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Moisture and Ventilation Solutions in Hot, Humid Climates: Florida Manufactured Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes work by Building America researchers who visited 24 manufactured home factories between 1996 and 2003 to investigate moisture problems while improving energy efficiency and identified insufficient air sealing and poor HVAC installation as the biggest culprits. One manufacturer reported zero moisture-related issues in 35,000 homes built after implementing Building America recommendations.

  5. 77 FR 32497 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc. (Wind Turbine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc... generating set manufacturing facility of Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc., located in Fort Smith... and generating sets at the Mitsubishi Power Systems Americas, Inc., facility located in Fort...

  6. 78 FR 18968 - Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on March 8, 2013, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC (Natural), 3250 Lacey Road, 7th... directed to Bruce H. Newsome, Vice President, Natural Gas Pipeline Company of America LLC, 3250 Lacey...

  7. No Place To Hide: Substance Abuse in Mid-Size Cities and Rural America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    America's substance abuse epidemic has come to rural America. Adults in small metropolitan and rural areas are just as likely as those in urban America to use and abuse illegal drugs, alcohol, and tobacco. Young teens in small metropolitan and rural areas are more likely to abuse substances than those in large metro areas. Based on a wide variety…

  8. 77 FR 36272 - SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy...) announces in this notice the release of the SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop Solar for public comment. Interested persons are encouraged to learn about the SunShot Prize: America's...

  9. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Reduced Call-Backs with High-Performance Production Builders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes ways Building America teams have helped builders cut call-backs. Harvard University study found builders who worked with Building America had a 50% drop in call-backs. One builder reported a 50-fold reduction in the incidence of pipe freezing, a 50% reduction in drywall cracking, and a 60% decline in call-backs.

  10. A Brief Analysis of Cultural Differences between China and America in Business Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄徐臻

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the influence caused by the culture differences between China and America on business negotiation has aroused enormous attention from the business negotiator. This thesis analyzes the culture differences between China and America in the business negotiation aspect and put forward the practical method to deal with the culture differences between China and America.

  11. Lecturas sobre educacion de adultos en America latina (Readings on Adult Education in Latin America). Serie: Retablo de Papel 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latapi, Pablo, Comp.; Castillo, Alfonso, Comp.

    Twelve essays written in Spanish on the state of adult education in Latin America are presented. The essays are organized into three main sections, including: "Concepto y evolucion historica de la educacion de adultos" (Conception and Historical Evolution of Adult Education); "Aspectos particulares" (Specific Subjects); and…

  12. Publicaciones Periodicas de Educacion de America Latina y el Caribe (Educational Publications of Latin America and the Caribbean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oficina Regional de Educacion de la Unesco para America Latina y el Caribe, Santiago (Chile).

    The periodicals listed in this bibliography are those published in Latin America and the Caribbean that deal exclusively with educational themes. Information for each entry, when available, includes the title, subtitle, name and address of publisher, frequency of publication, year the publication began and/or terminated, any previous title, and…

  13. Online Responses to a Multilingual Super Bowl Ad: Is "America the Beautiful" by Any Other Language Still America, the Beautiful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Brooke Y.

    2016-01-01

    On 2 February 2014, an advertisement entitled "It's Beautiful" debuted during Super Bowl XLVIII, which was watched by 111.5 million people in the USA. The Coca-Cola advertisement portrayed people of various ethnicities and was accompanied by "America the Beautiful" sung in nine languages. Using critical discourse analysis, I…

  14. Lecturas sobre educacion de adultos en America latina (Readings on Adult Education in Latin America). Serie: Retablo de Papel 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latapi, Pablo, Comp.; Castillo, Alfonso, Comp.

    Twelve essays written in Spanish on the state of adult education in Latin America are presented. The essays are organized into three main sections, including: "Concepto y evolucion historica de la educacion de adultos" (Conception and Historical Evolution of Adult Education); "Aspectos particulares" (Specific Subjects); and "Tendencias y…

  15. Educacion en Poblaciones Indigenas: Politicas y Estrategias en America Latina. (Education for Indigenous Populations: Policies and Strategies in Latin America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga, Madeleine, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a compilation of 20 papers from a seminar on educational policy and strategy for educating the indigenous peoples of Latin America and Mexico. There is a growing awareness among linguistics and anthropology specialists and educators of the necessity to validate education that respects the values of an indigenous culture. This…

  16. Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindoso, José Angelo; Cota, Gláucia Fernandes; da Cruz, Alda Maria; Goto, Hiro; Maia-Elkhoury, Ana Nilce Silveira; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; de Sousa-Gomes, Márcia Leite; Santos-Oliveira, Joanna Reis; Rabello, Ana

    2014-09-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin American network for

  17. Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in Latin America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Angelo Lindoso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is an endemic zoonotic disease in Latin America caused by Leishmania (Leishmania infantum, which is transmitted by sand flies from the genus Lutzomyia. VL occurs in 12 countries of Latin America, with 96% of cases reported in Brazil. Recently, an increase in VL, primarily affecting children and young adults, has been observed in urban areas of Latin America. The area in which this spread of VL is occurring overlaps regions with individuals living with HIV, the number of whom is estimated to be 1.4 million people by the World Health Organization. This overlap is suggested to be a leading cause of the increased number of reported VL-HIV coinfections. The clinical progression of HIV and L. infantum infections are both highly dependent on the specific immune response of an individual. Furthermore, the impact on the immune system caused by either pathogen and by VL-HIV coinfection can contribute to an accelerated progression of the diseases. Clinical presentation of VL in HIV positive patients is similar to patients without HIV, with symptoms characterized by fever, splenomegaly, and hepatomegaly, but diarrhea appears to be more common in coinfected patients. In addition, VL relapses are higher in coinfected patients, affecting 10% to 56.5% of cases and with a lethality ranging from 8.7% to 23.5% in Latin America, depending on the study. With regards to the diagnosis of VL, parasitological tests of bone marrow aspirates have proven to be the most sensitive test in HIV-infected patients. Serologic tests have demonstrated a variable sensitivity according to the method and antigens used, with the standard tests used for diagnosing VL in Latin America displaying lower sensitivity. For this review, few articles were identified that related to VL-HIV coinfections and originated from Latin America, highlighting the need for improving research within the regions most greatly affected. We strongly support the formation of a Latin

  18. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 7.1: Guide to Determining Climate Regions by County

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Cole, Pamala C.; Hefty, Marye G.; Love, Pat M.

    2010-08-30

    This report for DOE's Building America program helps builders identify which Building America climate region they are building in. The guide includes maps comparing the Building America regions with climate designations used in the International Energy Conservation Code for Residential Buildings and lists all U.S. counties by climate zone. A very brief history of the development of the Building America climate map and descriptions of each climate zone are provided. This report is available on the Building America website www.buildingamerica.gov.

  19. Geographic distribution of human Blastocystis subtypes in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan David; Sánchez, Angie; Hernández, Carolina; Flórez, Carolina; Bernal, María Consuelo; Giraldo, Julio Cesar; Reyes, Patricia; López, Myriam Consuelo; García, Lineth; Cooper, Philip J; Vicuña, Yosselin; Mongi, Florencia; Casero, Rodolfo D

    2016-07-01

    Blastocystis is a cosmopolitan enteric protist colonizing probably more than 1 billion people. This protozoan exhibits genetic diversity and is subdivided into subtypes (STs). The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs in symptomatic and asymptomatic human samples from different countries of South America. A total of 346 fecal samples were genotyped by SSU rDNA showing ST1 (28.3%), ST2 (22.2%), ST3 (36.7%), ST4 (2%), ST5 (2.3%), ST6 (2%), ST7 (2.3%), ST8 (0.6%), ST12 (0.9%) and a novel ST (2.7%). These findings update the epidemiology of Blastocystis in South America and expand our knowledge of the phylogeographic differences exhibited by this stramenopile.

  20. Credit Rating and Capital Structure: Evidence from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dany Rogers

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the impact of reclassifications trends in credit rating decisions in capital structure of listed non-financial companies in Latin America. To verify both the existence of this association were employed data belonging to all non-financial companies listed in Latin America, possessing ratings issued by the three major international ratings agencies international (i.e. Standard & Poor's, Moody's and Fitch in January, 2010. When considering data for the period 2001-2010, through analysis of panel data, the main results suggest that the reclassifications of ratings seem have no informational content to the capital structure decisions of firms. However, some results indicate that companies classified in the worst levels of risk, and which are on the verge of the rating reclassifications, tend to use more debt than other companies, suggesting the existence of market timing.

  1. THE SOLITUDE OF LATIN AMERICA IN THE GREAT PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Barbosa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, it is investigated the reasons why Latin America has a little qualitative and quantitative space in great press. This study is based on sociohistorical and journalistic aspects. This research demonstrates that the Latin-American continent is separated, because of historical processes, in the “official Latin America” and the “popular Latin America”. While the great press represents the “official Latin America”, the “popular Latin America” is represented by the alternative press. Thus, the myth of the impartiality is broken and it is concluded that, in order to not condemn Latin America to the solitude, it is necessary to develop and study the Latin-American social movements, including its communication processes.

  2. Fusang: The Enlightenment Story of the Chinese Discovery of America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Statman, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    In 1761 the French scholar and Sinologue Joseph de Guignes announced that "Chinese vessels made the voyage to America many centuries before Christopher Columbus." From the Chinese books in the Bibliotheque du Roi and new missionary reports from Beijing, he concluded that the mythical land of Fusang described by a medieval Buddhist monk could be nowhere other than the west coast of North America, only recently charted by European navigators. Philippe Buache, premier géographe du roi, agreed. At the height of the French Enlightenment, the indigenous geographical tradition of China could be used to further the progress of universal science, providing evidence about issues from the mapping of the Pacific Rim to the organization of the continents. Furthermore, the story of Fusang explained the origins of American peoples, showing that the inhabitants of the New World had arrived there from the Old and contributing to a diffusionist account of the development of civilization in space and time.

  3. Proceedings of the heavy oil Latin America congress 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This conference brought experts together to explore the challenges faced and opportunities available in the dynamic emerging market for heavy oil which Latin America offers. The conference was attended by over 700 delegates from around the world representing official and private agencies, Latin American governments, national oil companies and service companies in heavy oil producing countries. These participants were given the opportunity to learn about the entire value chain of Latin America's heavy oil industry, with emphasis on balancing challenging environmental and social issues with operational best practices, and they also the opportunity to share their knowledge and expertise with their peers. 17 of the 29 papers presented during this conference have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database.

  4. Poultry welfare scenario in South America: norms and regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RBTR Silva

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal welfare related issues have been intensely discussed in recent years as a consequence of changes in public attitudes and regulatory reforms that are taking place in many countries. A combination of public opinion pressure and trade policy has driven requirements for regulation and the World Trade Organization (WTO assigned the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE to develop guidelines that could be used as international standards. However, trade disputes related to animal welfare are not likely to be resolved under the auspices of OIE, and access to international markets may be questioned in a way that does not necessarily reflect attitudes to animal production in emerging economies, such as those in South America. This paper presents an overall view of basic welfare issues and points out specific items related to the present scenario of norms and regulations that are being implemented in South America, where the growing poultry industry is an important economic activity.

  5. Social Pedagogy in North America: historical background and current developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schugurensky

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In North America, the use of the term ‘social pedagogy’ is a relatively new phenomenon, but social pedagogical practices have been used for a long time. The recent interest in the field of social pedagogy can be explained in part by the publication of an unprecedented volume of books and articles in English language, the creation of a new international journal, the simultaneous development of graduate programs in social pedagogy in the UK and the USA, and the establishment of a social pedagogy association that brings together academics and practitioners. In North America, social pedagogy thinking is influenced by the history of the field, by current social pedagogy theory and practice in other parts of the world, and by several traditions that connect education with social change. The paper discusses ten of them: indigenous education, progressive education, social movement learning, community development, public pedagogy, popular education, participatory action research, social economy, participatory democracy, and critical theory. 

  6. Lianas as invasive species in North America: Chapter 28

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht-Young, Stacey A.; Pavlovic, Noel B.

    2015-01-01

    Liana diversity is typically low in the temperate zones; however, the influx of non-native invasive liana species in North America has increased local diversity at the expense of native habitats and species. Some of the most illustrative studies of invasive lianas in temperate North America compared the biological traits of invasive lianas with native congeners or ecological analogs. The majority of these studies focused on two species, Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bittersweet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle). Temperate zone lianas generally have higher photosynthetic rates than other early successional species and their host trees. Invasive lianas are having an increasing impact on the dynamics and trajectories of North American plant communities. They often exhibit superior growth and survival compared to their native counterparts, and in some cases, invasive lianas may directly contribute to the decline of their native correlates.

  7. Assessment and monitoring of onchocerciasis in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Mario A; Unnasch, Thomas R; Real-Najarro, Olga

    2011-01-01

    Onchocerciasis has historically been one of the leading causes of infectious blindness worldwide. It is endemic to tropical regions both in Africa and Latin America and in the Yemen. In Latin America, it is found in 13 foci located in 6 different countries. The epidemiologically most important focus of onchocerciasis in the Americas is located in a region spanning the border between Guatemala and Mexico. However, the Amazonian focus straddling the border of Venezuela and Brazil is larger in overall area because the Yanomami populations are scattered over a very large geographical region. Onchocerciasis is caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. The infection is spread through the bites of an insect vector, black flies of the genus Simulium. In Africa, the major vectors are members of the S. damnosum complex, while numerous species serve as vectors of the parasite in Latin America. Latin America has had a long history of attempts to control onchocerciasis, stretching back almost 100 years. The earliest programmes used a strategy of surgical removal of the adult parasites from affected individuals. However, because many of the adult parasites lodge in undetectable and inaccessible areas of the body, the overall effect of this strategy on the prevalence of infection was relatively minor. In 1988, a new drug, ivermectin, was introduced that effectively killed the larval stage (microfilaria) of the parasite in infected humans. As the microfilaria is both the stage that is transmitted by the vector fly and the cause of most of the pathologies associated with the infection, ivermectin opened up a new strategy for the control of onchocerciasis. Concurrent with the use of ivermectin for the treatment of onchocerciasis, a number of sensitive new diagnostic tools were developed (both serological and nucleic acid based) that provided the efficiency, sensitivity and specificity necessary to monitor the decline and eventual elimination of

  8. Book review: Shorebirds of North America: the photographic guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterjohn, Bruce G.

    2005-01-01

    As stated in the preface of this new guide, shorebirds are among our most engaging birds. Their ecology and behavior are the subjects of numerous ornithological studies, their identification can challenge the skills of the most serious birdwatchers, and people with a casual interest in birds are captivated by the antics of Sanderlings (Calidris alba) chasing waves along a beach. While some books provide a worldwide perspective on shorebird identification, this book is the first guide devoted solely to identifying every species occurring in North America. Its coverage is truly continental, extending from Alaska to Panama and including the West Indies.Review info: Shorebirds of North America: the photographic guide. By Dennis R. Paulson, 2005. ISBN: 0691102740, 384 pp.

  9. Dengue in the Americas: challenges for prevention and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Dantés, Héctor; Willoquet, Janine Ramsey

    2009-01-01

    Dengue is the most important vector-borne disease in the Americas and threatens the lifes of millions of people in developing countries. Imprecise morbidity and mortality statistics underestimate the magnitude of dengue as a regional health problem. As a result, it is considered a low priority by the health sector with no timely steps for effective control. Dengue is perceived as a problem of 'others' (individually, collectively and institutionally), therefore responsibility for its control is passed on to others (neighbors, the community, municipality, health institutions, or other governmental agencies). With no precise risk indicators available there is little opportunity for timely diagnoses, treatment, health interventions or vector control (poor surveillance). Solutions only targeting the vector reduce the impact of interventions and there is no sustainable control. Without political commitment there are insufficient resources to face the problem. This paper discusses the challenges for prevention and control in the Americas.

  10. Financing dengue vaccine introduction in the Americas: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constenla, Dagna; Clark, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Dengue has escalated in the region of the Americas unabated despite major investments in integrated vector control and prevention strategies. An effective and affordable dengue vaccine can play a critical role in reducing the human and economic costs of the disease by preventing millions around the world from getting sick. However, there are considerable challenges on the path towards vaccine introduction. These include lack of sufficient financing tools, absence of capacity within national level decision-making bodies, and demands that new vaccines place on stressed health systems. Various financing models can be used to overcome these challenges including setting up procurement mechanisms, integrating regional and domestic taxes, and setting up low interest multilateral loans. In this paper we review these challenges and opportunities of financing dengue vaccine introduction in the Americas.

  11. Rapid Passenger Transport in North America in 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Tietze

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of outstanding transport innovations maylead to monumental reconstruction in large urbanised regionssuch as North America. The decisive factor in this is the introductionofTransrapid, a new rapid transport technology basedon the principle of magnetic levitation (Maglev.This paper uses the urban network of North America Eastof the 1 O(Jh meridian, together with the smaller region of California,to demonstrate the advantages of innovative transporttechnology as the optimal link between road and air transport.Despite requiring less energy input, achieving better adaptationto the topography of the country, causing less noise and beingsubject to less wear and tear, Transrapid achieves almost twicethe speed of conventional trains.

  12. Periodontal disease in children and adolescents of Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Javier E; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Duque, Andres; Jaramillo, Adriana; Contreras, Adolfo

    2015-02-01

    Periodontal diseases are a group of infectious diseases that mainly include gingivitis and periodontitis. Gingivitis is the most prevalent form of periodontal disease in subjects of all ages, including children and adolescents. Less frequent types of periodontal disease include aggressive periodontitis, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis and various diseases of herpesviral and fungal origin. This review aimed to retrieve relevant information from Latin America on the prevalence of periodontal diseases among children and adolescents of the region. Gingivitis was detected in 35% of young Latin American subjects and showed the highest frequencies in Colombia (77%) and Bolivia (73%) and the lowest frequency in Mexico (23%). The frequency of gingivitis in subjects from other Latin American countries was between 31% and 56%. Periodontitis may affect children and adolescents of Latin America may help policy makers and dentists to institute more effective public health measures to prevent and treat the disease at an early age to avoid major damage to the permanent dentition.

  13. Astroparticles in Latin America: current status and outlook

    CERN Document Server

    Sidelnik, Iván

    2014-01-01

    The successful installation and operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina has been a milestone in Astroparticle research in Latin America, generating new regional research opportunities in the field. In this context, the LAGO project, begun in 2005 with the aim of studying the high-energy component of gamma ray bursts (GRBs). This observatory consists of different arrays of water-Cherenkov detectors installed in high altitude mountains throughout Latin America. Recently, it has demonstrated the feasibility of conducting studies on the solar modulation of the galactic cosmic ray flux. Currently more than 80 scientists and students from Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia and Argentina are integrated into the LAGO Collaboration. The high level of regional integration in the scientific community reached thanks to this kind of major projects, has led to the recent formation of the CLES (Consorcio Latinoamericano de Experimentos Subterr\\'{a}neos). This organization promotes ...

  14. The electoral observation. Notes for conceptual discussion in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Facundo Gabriel GALVÁN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in electoral observation in Latin America, the region of greatest development activity in recent years (Cuéllar and Thompson 2008; Pinilla 2008, we still lack of a consistent conceptual discussion about what we mean when we say «electoral observation». Further on, in the same direction, it is well known that the countries of the region call that activity in many different ways, so this has a great impact on the way we carry research on the subject. This paper reviews specifi cases of observations and discusses the most used conceptualizations on electoral observation in Latin America (Boneo, Carrillo and Valverde 2007; Thompson 2008; Muñoz-Pogossian 2013. Finally, it presents a definition that includes each of its basic elements and, at the same time, avoids «concept stretching» to allow deeper knowledge on the subject (Sartori 1984.

  15. Final Scientific Report - Wind Powering America State Outreach Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Mark; Margolis, Anne

    2012-02-01

    The goal of the Wind Powering America State Outreach Project was to facilitate the adoption of effective state legislation, policy, finance programs, and siting best practices to accelerate public acceptance and development of wind energy. This was accomplished by Clean Energy States Alliance (CESA) through provision of informational tools including reports and webinars as well as the provision of technical assistance to state leaders on wind siting, policy, and finance best practices, identification of strategic federal-state partnership activities for both onshore and offshore wind, and participation in regional wind development collaboratives. The Final Scientific Report - Wind Powering America State Outreach Project provides a summary of the objectives, activities, and outcomes of this project as accomplished by CESA over the period 12/1/2009 - 11/30/2011.

  16. Eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bruce D

    2006-08-15

    The status of eastern North America as an independent center of plant domestication has recently been called into question by a number of genetic and archaeological studies, which suggest that the region may not have witnessed the independent domestication of local crop plants, but rather may have been on the receiving end of domesticated crop plants introduced from Mexico. Here, I provide a synthesis of the currently available archaeological and genetic evidence from both eastern North America and Mexico regarding the spatial and temporal context of initial domestication of the four plant species identified as potential eastern North American domesticates: marshelder (Iva annua), chenopod (Chenopodium berlandieri), squash (Cucurbita pepo), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Genetic and archaeological evidence provides strong support for the independent domestication of all four of these plant species in the eastern United States and reconfirms the region as one of the world's independent centers of domestication.

  17. Strangers and neighbours: cross-border banking in North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. DEAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper is concerned with regulatory and competitive aspects of the mutual penetration by Canadian and U.S. banks of each other’s domestic markets. The authors assess the degree to which economic factors alone are responsible for the difference in growth rates between domestic and foreign banks in North America. They argue that regulation has not affected the growth of foreign banks in North America by addressing the question of reciprocity in banking regulations, before examining foreign banks in the U.S. and the manner in which they have been regulated. U.S. banks operating in Canada are then dealt with. Finally, the results of an empirical test of the proposition that the growth of cross-border banking is attributable to factors other than differential regulation is presented.

  18. A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, Eurasia, and Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S.; Strange, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A detailed gravimetric geoid of North America, the North Atlantic, Eurasia, and Australia computed from a combination of satellite-derived and surface 1 x 1 gravity data, is presented. Using a consistent set of parameters, this geoid is referenced to an absolute datum. The precision of this detailed geoid is + or - 2 meters in the continents but may be in the range of 5 to 7 meters in those areas where data was sparse. Comparisons of the detailed gravimetric geoid with results of Rice for the United States, Bomford and Fischer in Eurasia, and Mather in Australia are presented. Comparisons are also presented with geoid heights from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  19. Classroom Materials from the Acoustical Society of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, W. K.; Clark, A.; Schneider, K.

    2013-09-01

    As part of the new education initiatives of the Acoustical Society of America (ASA), an activity kit for teachers that includes a variety of lessons addressing acoustics for a range of students (K-12) has been created. The "Sound and Music Activity Kit" is free to K-12 teachers. It includes materials sufficient to teach a class of 30 students plus a USB thumb drive containing 47 research-based, interactive, student-tested lessons, laboratory exercises, several assessments, and video clips of a class using the materials. ASA has also partnered with both the Optical Society of America (OSA) and the American Association of Physics Teachers. AAPT Physics Teaching Resource Agents (PTRA) have reviewed the lessons along with members of the ASA Teacher Activity Kit Committee. Topics include basic learning goals for teaching the physics of sound with examples and applications relating to medical imaging, animal bioacoustics, physical and psychological acoustics, speech, audiology, and architectural acoustics.

  20. The history of dengue outbreaks in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite Dick, Olivia; San Martín, José L; Montoya, Romeo H; del Diego, Jorge; Zambrano, Betzana; Dayan, Gustavo H

    2012-10-01

    Dengue is a viral disease usually transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Dengue outbreaks in the Americas reported in medical literature and to the Pan American Health Organization are described. The outbreak history from 1600 to 2010 was categorized into four phases: Introduction of dengue in the Americas (1600-1946); Continental plan for the eradication of the Ae. aegypti (1947-1970) marked by a successful eradication of the mosquito in 18 continental countries by 1962; Ae. aegypti reinfestation (1971-1999) caused by the failure of the mosquito eradication program; Increased dispersion of Ae. aegypti and dengue virus circulation (2000-2010) characterized by a marked increase in the number of outbreaks. During 2010 > 1.7 million dengue cases were reported, with 50,235 severe cases and 1,185 deaths. A dramatic increase in the number of outbreaks has been reported in recent years. Urgent global action is needed to avoid further disease spread.

  1. Invasion by a Japanese marine microorganism in western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGann, M.; Sloan, D.; Cohen, A.N.

    2000-01-01

    The earliest record in western North America of Trochammina hadai Uchio, a benthic foraminifer common in Japanese estuaries, is from sediment collected in Puget Sound in 1971. It was first found in San Francisco Bay in sediment samples taken in 1983, and since 1986 has been collected at 91% of the sampled sites in the Bay, constituting up to 93% of the foraminiferal assemblage at individual sites. The species is also present in recent sediment samples from 12 other sites along the west coast of North America. The evidence indicates that T. hadai is a recent introduction to San Francisco Bay, and is probably also not native to the other North American sites. Trochammina hadai was probably transported from Japan in ships' ballast tanks, in mud associated with anchors, or in sediments associated with oysters imported for mariculture. Its remarkable invasion of San Francisco Bay suggests the potential for massive, rapid invasions by other marine microorganisms.

  2. Job flexibility in Latin America: A comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alejandro Ibarra Cisneros

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of studies about labor flexibility show a partial image of the situation of Latin America labor markets. They are limited to confirm, the existence of high degrees of rigidity and the necessity to conduct labor reforms to the margin of specific national circumstances. The design of a synthetic labor rigidity indicator using methodology considered by the oecd, through a factor analysis for countries of IberoAmerica, allows obtaining certain advances in relation to this debate. The results establish the high importance of the rigidity in the procedures of collective dismissal, over normative aspects related to fixed term contracts. Finally, it is establish the little relation between flexibility levels and results in terms of economic development, putting into question the assertions that try to extrapolate strategies of flexibilization like isolated measurement to facilitate the economic progress of a country.

  3. Perception of Ethical Misconduct by Neuropsychology Professionals in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panyavin, Ivan S; Goldberg-Looney, Lisa D; Rivera, Diego; Perrin, Paul B; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos

    2015-08-01

    To date, extremely limited research has focused on the ethical aspects of clinical neuropsychology practice in Latin America. The current study aimed to identify the frequency of perceived ethical misconduct in a sample of 465 self-identified neuropsychology professionals from Latin America in order to better guide policies for training and begin to establish standards for practitioners in the region. Frequencies of neuropsychologists who knew another professional engaging in ethical misconduct ranged from 1.1% to 60.4% in the areas of research, clinical care, training, and professional relationships. The most frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional training and expertise, with nearly two thirds of participants knowing other professionals who do not possess adequate training to be working as neuropsychologists. The least frequently reported perceived misconduct was in the domain of professional relationships. Nearly one third of participants indicated that they had never received formal training in professional ethics.

  4. Postneoliberalism and Penality in South America: By Way of Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo Sozzo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, there has been an extraordinary growth in incarceration rates in South America, with some variations across national contexts but generally in line with the same trend. Twenty years ago, incarceration rates were relatively low in most countries in the region; despite that knowledge, it has proved difficult to reconstruct the official data for that period. In 1992, with the exclusion of the small countries with less than one million inhabitants in the Northern region of South America such as Guyana, French Guyana and Surinam, only three countries had 100 prisoners or more per 100,000 inhabitants: Uruguay (100, Venezuela (133 and Chile (154 (see Figure 1. Several other national contexts reflected ‘'Scandinavian’' rates, such as Argentina (62, Peru (69, Ecuador (75 and Brazil (74. Download the PDF file to continue with this introduction to the articles in the dossier within this issue of the journal.

  5. Central and South America GPS geodesy - CASA Uno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, James N.; Dixon, Timothy H.

    1990-01-01

    In January 1988, scientists from over 25 organizations in 13 countries and territories cooperated in the largest GPS campaign in the world to date. A total of 43 GPS receivers collected approximately 590 station-days of data in American Samoa, Australia, Canada, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, New Zealand, Norway, Panama, Sweden, United States, West Germany, and Venezuela. The experiment was entitled CASA Uno. Scientific goals of the project include measurements of strain in the northern Andes, subduction rates for the Cocos and Nazca plates beneath Central and South America, and relative motion between the Caribbean plate and South America. A second set of measurements are planned in 1991 and should provide preliminary estimates of crustal deformation and plate motion rates in the region.

  6. Vertebrate Paleontology in Central America: 30 years of progress

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Vertebrate paleontology began in Central America in 1858 with the first published records, but the last 30 years have seen remarkable advances. These advances range from new localities, to new taxa to new analyses of diverse data. Central American vertebrate fossils represent all of the major taxonomic groups of vertebrates—fishes, amphibians, reptiles (especially turtles), birds and mammals (mostly xenarthrans, carnivores and ungulates)—but coverage is very uneven, with many groups (especial...

  7. Narco-scapes: Cocaine Trafficking and Deforestation in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrathall, D.; McSweeney, K.; Nielsen, E.; Pearson, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Narcotics trafficking and drug interdiction efforts have resulted in a well-documented social crisis in Central America, but more recently, has been tightly linked to environmental catastrophe and accelerated deforestation in transit zones. This talk will outline synthesis findings from multi-country, interdisciplinary research on cocaine trafficking as an engine of forest loss in Central America. During the "narco-boom" of the mid-2000s, we observed a geographical evolution of cocaine flows into Central America, and the transit of cocaine through new spaces, accompanied by specific patterns of social and environmental change in new nodes of transit. We coarsely estimated that the total amount of cocaine flowing through Central America increased from 70 metric tons in 2000 to 350 mt in 2012, implying that total cocaine trafficking revenue in the region increased from roughly 600 million dollars to 3.5 billion in that time. We describe the mechanism by which these locally captured cocaine rents resulted in a rapid conversion of forest into cattle pasture. Narco-traffickers are drawn to invest in the cattle economy, as a direct means of laundering and formalizing proceeds. Ranching is a land intensive activity, and new narco-enriched cattle pastures can be isolated from other forms forest loss solely by their spatial and temporal change characteristics. A preliminary forest change study in Honduras, for example, indicated that areas of accelerated deforestation were in close proximity to known narcotics trafficking routes and were thirteen times more extensive on average than other forest clearings. Deforested areas commonly appeared in isolated and biodiverse lowland tropical rainforest regions that often intersected with protected areas and indigenous reserves. We find that narco-deforestation is a readily identifiable signal of the extent and health of the cocaine economy. This talk will feature summaries of both ethnographic and land cover change we have observed

  8. Gay Marriage, Same-Sex Parenting, and America's Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children.…

  9. A magmatic probe of dynamic topography beneath western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöcking, M.; White, N. J.; Maclennan, J.

    2014-12-01

    A region centered on the Yellowstone hotspot and encompassing the Colorado Plateau sits at an elevation 2 km higher than the cratonic North America. This difference broadly coincides with tomographically observed variations in lithospheric thickness: ~120 km beneath western North America, ~240 km beneath the craton. Thermochronology of the Grand Canyon area, sedimentary flux to the Gulf of Mexico, and river profile inversion all suggest that regional uplift occurred in at least two separate stages. High resolution seismic tomographic models, using USArray data, have identified a ring of low velocity material beneath the edges of the Colorado Plateau. Magmatism coincides with these low velocity zones and shows distinct phases: an overall increase in volume around 40 Ma and a change from lithospheric to asthenospheric signatures around 5 Ma. Volcanism is also observed to migrate north-east with time. Here, we attempt to integrate these different observations with lithospheric thickness. A dynamic topography model of progressive lithospheric erosion over a hot mantle plume might account for uplift as well as the temporal and spatial distribution of magmatism across western North America. Thinning of the lithosphere around the edges of the Colorado Plateau in combination with the hotter mantle potential temperature of a plume could create isostatic and dynamic uplift as well as allowing for melt production. To test this model, we have analysed around 100 samples from volcanic centers across western North America by ICP-MS for rare earth elements (REE). Most of the samples are younger than 5 Ma, and all of them have previously been analysed by XRF. Using trace element ratios such as La/Yb and Nb/Y we assess depth of melting and melt fraction, respectively. In addition, we use REE inversion modelling to estimate melt fractions as a function of depth and temperature of melting. The results are compared to existing constraints on lithospheric thickness and mantle potential

  10. The challenges of organizing an international course in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Vairo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG is the main course of its kind in the genetics field in Latin America. Here we describe the main challenges regarding the organization of such event, including how we obtain funding and how we proceed with student selection. Thus, we aim to share our experience with other groups that intend to follow this format to create similar events in other areas in this region of the world.

  11. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world`s most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  12. Aridland Springs in North America: Ecology and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Smith

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of Aridland Springs in North America: Ecology and Conservation. Lawrence E. Stevens and Vicky J. Meretsky, editors. 2008. The University of Arizona Press and the Arizona‐SonoraDesert Museum, Tucson.Pp. 406, 4 black‐and‐white photos, 28 illustrations, 38 tables, 8 maps, bibliography.$75.00 (cloth. ISBN 978‐0‐8165‐2645‐1.

  13. On the possibility of embryo donation in Hispanic America

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Díaz, Jorge Alberto; Médico sexólogo clínico, magíster en bioética. Doctorando en el Programa de Ciencias Sociosanitarias y Humanidades Médicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid- España. Becario del Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT), México.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical studies regarding embryo donation in developed countries show that the most probable action would be to discard surplus embryos and, if they would donate them, the preferred option would be for research, and eventually to other couples. There are not enough studies in Hispanic America about the opinions of those who have participated in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) regarding embryo disposition of surplus embryos. Moreover, there are scarce specific laws regulating ART in...

  14. Asymmetric Interdependence: Do America and Europe Need Each Other?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    in the world.”33 Notes 1. Joseph R . Biden, “America needs the world just as the world needs America” (speech, 45th Munich Security Conference, 7...International Herald Tribune, 22 January 2008. 5. Stephan Bierling , Die Huckepack-Strategie: Europa muss die USA einspannen [The Huckepack Strategy...601–22. 32. Bierling : Die Huckepack-Strategie. 33. European Council, A Secure Europe in a better World, 13. [ 124 ] Strategic Studies Quarterly ♦ Winter 2009

  15. Europe/Latin America Report, Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    AUTOMAZIONE E STRUMENTAZIONE, May 86) 53 LATIN AMERICA FACTORY AUTOMATION Automation Seminars Show Level of Brazilian Sophistication ( MAQUINAS E...METAIS, Jul 86) 54 State of CAD/CAM in Brazil (Jose Americo Dias; NOVA ELETRONICA, Apr 86) .... 71 Brazilian R&D on Robot Motors ( MAQUINAS E...FACTORY AUTOMATION AUTOMATION SEMINARS SHOW LEVEL OF BRAZILIAN SOPHISTICATION Sao Paulo MAQUINAS E METAIS in Portuguese Jul 86 pp 50-58 [Text

  16. The Determinants of Arms Spending in South America

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, South America has witnessed a large increase in arms purchases. Nonetheless, there are important intraregional differences in terms of the allocation of resources for weapons acquisitions. How can we account for these disparities? Mainstream literature suggests that levels of arms importation depend on either the size of the defense budget or the perception of threat. In contrast, this article contends that the level of spending on arms is mainly determined by: (a) the expans...

  17. Where does human plague still persist in Latin America?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Schneider

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plague is an epidemic-prone disease with a potential impact on public health, international trade, and tourism. It may emerge and re-emerge after decades of epidemiological silence. Today, in Latin America, human cases and foci are present in Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, and Peru. AIMS: The objective of this study is to identify where cases of human plague still persist in Latin America and map areas that may be at risk for emergence or re-emergence. This analysis will provide evidence-based information for countries to prioritize areas for intervention. METHODS: Evidence of the presence of plague was demonstrated using existing official information from WHO, PAHO, and Ministries of Health. A geo-referenced database was created to map the historical presence of plague by country between the first registered case in 1899 and 2012. Areas where plague still persists were mapped at the second level of the political/administrative divisions (counties. Selected demographic, socioeconomic, and environmental variables were described. RESULTS: Plague was found to be present for one or more years in 14 out of 25 countries in Latin America (1899-2012. Foci persisted in six countries, two of which have no report of current cases. There is evidence that human cases of plague still persist in 18 counties. Demographic and poverty patterns were observed in 11/18 counties. Four types of biomes are most commonly found. 12/18 have an average altitude higher than 1,300 meters above sea level. DISCUSSION: Even though human plague cases are very localized, the risk is present, and unexpected outbreaks could occur. Countries need to make the final push to eliminate plague as a public health problem for the Americas. A further disaggregated risk evaluation is recommended, including identification of foci and possible interactions among areas where plague could emerge or re-emerge. A closer geographical approach and environmental characterization are suggested.

  18. Morphometrics of genus Caluromys (Didelphimorphia : Didelphidae) in northern South America

    OpenAIRE

    López Fuster, María José; Pérez Hernández, Roger; Ventura Queija, Jacinto

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed the morphometric relationships between different forms of the woolly opossum, genus Caluromys, in northern South America by means of univariate and multivariate analyses of skull characters. Results revealed that specimens from Trinidad and northern Venezuela differ substantially in size and shape from other representatives of the genus. Thus, we propose that they should be attributed to Caluromys trinitatis rather to C. philander. Consequently, the specific name given by Thomas (...

  19. Incorporation Crisis in Latin America: The limits of ''Conservative Modernization''

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Filgueira; Luis Reygadas; Juan Pablo Luna; Pablo Alegre

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the incorpora tion crisis that occurred in Latin America at the end of the twentieth century as a result of: changes in the economic model, the durability of electoral democracies and of inequalities; increasing expectations related to educational mobility, and the dissemination of new patterns of consumption. It is argued that this type of crisis can be best understood as an epochal change of "conservative modernization". It is also argued that this change is at the bas...

  20. Aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriquiriborde, Pedro; Mirabella, Paula; Waichman, Andrea; Solomon, Keith; Van den Brink, Paul J; Maund, Steve

    2014-10-01

    Latin America is anticipated to be a major growth market for agriculture and production is increasing with use of technologies such as pesticides. Reports of contamination of aquatic ecosystems by pesticides in Latin America have raised concerns about potential for adverse ecological effects. In the registration process of pesticides, all countries require significant data packages on aquatic toxicology and environmental fate. However, there are usually no specific requirements to conduct an aquatic risk assessment. To address this issue, the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry organized a workshop that brought together scientists from academia, government, and industry to review and elaborate on aquatic risk assessment frameworks that can be implemented into regulation of pesticides in Latin America. The workshop concluded that the international framework for risk assessments (protection goals, effects, and exposure assessments, risk characterization, and risk mitigation) is broadly applicable in Latin America but needs further refinement for the use in the region. Some of the challenges associated with these refinements are discussed in the article. It was recognized that there is potential for data sharing both within and outside of the region where conditions are similar. However, there is a need for research to compare local species and environmental conditions to those in other jurisdictions to be able to evaluate the applicability of data used in other countries. Development should also focus on human resources as there is a need to build local capacity and capability, and scientific collaboration and exchange between stakeholders in industry, government, and academia is also important. The meeting also emphasized that, although establishing a regionally relevant risk assessment framework is important, this also needs to be accompanied by enforcement of developed regulations and good management practices to help protect aquatic habitats

  1. National Geothermal Association Trade Mission to Central America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    The United States (US) geothermal industry, the world's most technically proficient, has been unable to achieve penetration into the markets of the developing nations. This report details the findings of an industry Trade Mission to Central America, tasked with determining the reasons for this shortfall and with developing a US industry geothermal export strategy designed to achieve immediate and long-term export benefits.

  2. Projected Future Climate Analogues and Climate "Velocities" in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, S. L.; Bartlein, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    Future climate changes may have significant effects on many North American ecosystems. One way of assessing the potential impacts of future climate change is to use future climate analogues of present climate to evaluate the spatial extent and rates of future climate change. We used a set of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM) future climate simulations (2006-2100) produced under representative concentration pathway scenario RCP8.5. We regridded these data to a 10-km equal-area grid of North America. Modern climate data (1961-1990 30-year mean) were interpolated to the same 10-km grid. The projected future climate data were analyzed using 10-year mean values of monthly and seasonal temperature and precipitation and a set of derived annual bioclimatic variables (e.g., growing degree days) considered to be ecologically significant. Potential future climate analogues were calculated for each grid cell using Euclidean distances to identify similar climates occurring elsewhere in North America. We identify regions that are projected to retain climates similar to present in the future (e.g., parts of the southeastern United States) and regions where present climates are projected to become less common or to disappear in the future (e.g., high elevation sites in western North America). We also calculate the rates of change in locations of similar climates (i.e., climate analogue velocities) and compare our results with simulated paleoclimate velocities over the past 22 kyr (from TraCE-21ka transient climate simulations for 22 ka-present). We discuss the implications of these results for conservation and natural resource management in North America. We also describe a web application being developed to allow researchers, decision makers, and members of the public, to visualize, explore, and use the climate analogue data.

  3. Some Considerations about World Bank Educational Politics for Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, João Paulo Pereira; UEM; Melo, José Joaquim Pereira; UEM

    2009-01-01

    The present research aims at discussing World Bank educational policies for Latin America as reported in the source document “World Bank: Priorities and Strategies in Education”. Prior to the comprehension of the suggestions from the above international organization, a historical discussion on economical and social struggles within the contemporary society must be detailed. The development of capital after World War II is discussed and also the implications of economical structures in the Wor...

  4. EERE-Supported International Activities in Latin America (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-05-01

    The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) is involved in a variety of international initiatives, partnerships, and events that promote greater understanding and use of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) worldwide. In support of the Energy and Climate Partnership of the Americas (ECPA), EERE is working with several Latin American countries to advance EE and RE deployment for economic growth, energy security, poverty relief, and disaster recovery goals. This fact sheet highlights those activities.

  5. José del Valle: a Benthamite in Central America

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between Jeremy Bentham and José Cecilio del Valle, one of the most important leaders of Central America’s independence process. Since this relationship has received little attention from those studying the links between Bentham and Spanish American politicians, with the exception of Miriam Williford, we consider that is very important to explore the influence of the utilitarian philosophy in Central America. With this purpose in mind, we will examine the i...

  6. Generational Transfers and Population Aging in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    artículo (arbitrado)--Universidad de Costa Rica, Instituto de investigaciones en Salud, 2011. Este documento es privado debido a limitaciones de derechos de autor. Population aging, a direct consequence of the demographic transition, is often portrayed in negative, even dire terms. This chapter examines some of the probable effects of population aging in Latin America within the framework of the National Transfer Accounts (NTA ) project (NTA 2010).1 The starting point is the NTA estimates ...

  7. Program and Abstracts, Boron Americas IX Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feakes, Debra A.

    2006-08-09

    The Scientific and Technical Information (STI) submitted includes the final report and a collection of abstracts for the Ninth Boron in the Americas Conference which was held May 19-22, 2004, in San Marcos, Texas. The topics covered in the abstracts include: Application in Medicine, Application in Organic Synthesis and Catalysis, Boranes and Carboranes, Materials and Polymers, Metallaboranes and Metallacarboranes, Organoboron Compounds, Synthesis and Catalysis, and Theoretical Studies. Attendees represented researchers from government, industry, and academia.

  8. Lowland tapir distribution and habitat loss in South America

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The development of species distribution models (SDMs) can help conservation efforts by generating potential distributions and identifying areas of high environmental suitability for protection. Our study presents a distribution and habitat map for lowland tapir in South America. We also describe the potential habitat suitability of various geographical regions and habitat loss, inside and outside of protected areas network. Two different SDM approaches, MAXENT and ENFA, produced relative diff...

  9. Are the Maras Overwhelming Governments in Central America?

    OpenAIRE

    Boraz, Steven C.; Thomas C. BRUNEAU

    2006-01-01

    Military Review, November - December 2006 Violence in Central America has grown so much in the last half decade that Colombia is no longer the homicide capital of the region. In fact, it now ranks fourth in that ignominious distinction behind El Salvador, Honduras, and Guatemala.1 The violence is mostly due to the phenomenon of street gangs, also called pandillas or gangas, but most often maras. They have grown in number, sophistication, and stature and have largely...

  10. Origins and Destinies: Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in America

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Introduction. 1. Origins and Destinies: Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in American History--Silvia Pedraza. 2. Origins and Destinies: Immigration, Race, and Ethnicity in Contemporary America--Ruben G. Rumbaut. COLOR AND CASTE. NATIVES AND AFRICANS. 3. North American Indians and Demography of Contact--Russell Thornton. 4. From Sundown to Sunup: Slavery and the Making of the Black Community--George P. Rawick. 5. Farewell--We're Good and Gone: The Great Black Migration from the PostBellum Sout...

  11. A practical approach to acromegaly management in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Bronstein, Marcello D.; Oscar D. Bruno; Abreu, Alin; Mangupli, Ruth; Mercado, Moisés

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Evidence-based treatment guidelines have undoubtedly advanced medical practice and supported optimal management of acromegaly, but their application may be hampered by limited access to the latest treatment options. Methods In this retrospective, narrative review, the authors revisited existing treatment guidelines for acromegaly in Latin America. These were considered in conjunction with published evidence chosen at the authors’ discretion. Findings In a socially and economicall...

  12. New Way Found in China-America Textile Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen; Duoduo

    2005-01-01

      "Lossing way in the great mountains and cross rivers, it is great happy to find a new village through the trees shadows and bright flowers." this is a famous poem by Lu You, a famous Chinese poet who lived around 1000 years before in Song Dynasty, but it is quite available to describe the current trade relations between China and America.……

  13. Growth Drivers for IT Consultancy Services in Latin America (LATAM)

    OpenAIRE

    Shergill, Darvinder

    2014-01-01

    With slower than anticipated growth over the last decade there is renewed impetus for a leading global IT Consultancy Services company to identify new and exciting opportunities in the emerging market of Latin America (LATAM) to increase market share and revenue. With an ever increasing portfolio of services, strategic alignment and renewed prioritization is required on high value industry segments in order to maximize profit margins, while at the same time continuing to maintain a competitiv...

  14. Social Exclusion and Violence in Latin America and the Caribbean

    OpenAIRE

    Berkman, Heather

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines how social exclusion contributes to violence in communities throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. Residents in socially excluded communities cannot depend on those institutions designed to protect them, and violence becomes an instrument to achieve certain outcomes, such as justice, security, and economic gain. When conventional methods of obtaining and working for increased social status, higher income, and wider influence are limited, as they often are in marginali...

  15. Reforming America's health system through innovation and entrepreneurship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Richard L

    2005-01-01

    America's attempts for healthcare reform are gridlocked. Healthcare special interests are reluctant to abandon profitable activities, and American culture-distrust of centralized federal power, belief in self-improvement, desire for choice, and belief in equal access to medical technologies-is slow to change. Physician entrepreneurship and innovation, coupled with consumer-driven healthcare and public-private partnerships, may break the present gridlock.

  16. Mobilizing Black America: Solutions to Black Health Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    the most obese ethnic group in America. Too many black children are overweight because black adults feed them a steady diet of fatty and salty foods...start and elementary school children in the Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnosis, and Treatment (EPSDT) program. EPSDT has been instrumental in...blood cholesterol, obesity , unhealthy diets, and smoking are the leading causes (major risk factors) of these killers. The underlying problems associated

  17. [Immunotherapy in Latin America. From the past to the future].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnani, Carlos E Baena; Lockey, Richard F; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Canonica, G Walter

    2008-01-01

    In Latin America, allergic diseases have a very high prevalence, comparable to that of many other countries of the world, and that prevalence is constantly increasing. Within the region, the number of allergy specialists is quite high, although allergy is not recognized as a full specialty in all countries. Specific immunotherapy is the only available allergen-oriented immunomodulator, capable of improving symptoms and modifying the natural course of the disease, and therefore it represents a powerful therapeutic tool for specialists. During the last 20 years, the practice of immunotherapy in Latin America has much improved, especially because of the intensive educational effort, the widespread divulgation of the international guidelines and the adoption of the paradigm of the evidence-based medicine. In this regard, indications, contraindications, and limits of immunotherapy, are currently well acknowledged. In Latin America, immunotherapy is properly prescribed for inhalant allergens and hymenoptera venom by allergy specialists, although some non-evidence based forms of immunotherapy (e.g. bacterial extracts, treatment of atopic dermatitis) are still occasionally practiced. Sublingual immunotherapy is now accepted as a viable alternative to the traditional subcutaneous administration, and it begins to be proposed and studied also in some Latin American countries. Some debate remains on the use of immunotherapy for one or few versus multiple allergens, and also the availability of standardized extracts is not uniform. Finally, this therapeutic modality is not always given for free to low income patients such is the case in some countries and the different modalities of reimbursement among countries often represent a limit to the use of this treatment. Much has been done in improving the use of immunotherapy in Latin America. The main challenges and objectives for the near future are greater diffusion of the evidence-based medicine, a better standardization of

  18. Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marek Graniczny; Jonas Satkunas; Jurga Lazauskiene; Jiri Sebesta

    2006-01-01

    @@ The International Workshop on "Geoenvironmental problems and cross-border cooperation in Central America" was organized in Managua, Nicaragua, 5-8 December, 2005 by the Working Group International Borders-Geoenvironmental Concerns (IBC), under the IUGS Commission on Geosciences for Environmental Management (GEM) and in the framework of the IUGS funded project "Application of geosciences for sustainable development of cross-border areas(GEOCrossBorder)".

  19. Hispanophone culture. Meeting point between Latin America and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Solange Okome Beka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gabon since its independence in 1960, adopted the teaching of Spanish as second foreign language. Since then, three major objectives were pursued: the linguistic, communicative and cultural, being the later the most prominent one. The (IPN National Pedagogical Institute recommends in its 1996 Guidance Letter, the cultural grounding of the Gabonese student, in order to contribute to their balanced development and their social and cultural integration, making them thoughtful citizens. For this aim, the teacher has the role of transmitting and developing students intercultural values. However, in Gabon, teaching of Spanish as second foreign language is done through manuals conceived in Spain or France. The contents are based on the European cultural view of the world, hiding other realities like Latin American or African ones. Even, when these are shown they are in a  very stereotypical way: drugs, misery, poverty, illegal immigration to the United States or Europe. Very few media offer further background on Afromerican or latinamerican indigenous contexts, even if there are quite noticeable similarities between Africa and America, as regards their cultures and beliefs. Students must know both the history and daily present of Latin America and Africa. Therefore, the latest gabonese educational reforms advocate towards introducing the intercultural perspective in teaching. Nevertheless, without promoting real contact and knowledge between the peoples of these areas, it will be totally unrealistic. Therefore, we favor a pedagogy in which the teaching of Spanish could be a meeting point between America and Africa.

  20. Space, geophysical research related to Latin America - Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Blanca; Shea, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    For the last 25 years, every two to three years the Conferencia Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial (COLAGE) is held in one of the Latin American countries for the purpose of promoting scientific exchange among scientists of the region and to encourage continued research that is unique to this area of the world. At the more recent conference, the community realized that many individuals both within and outside Latin America have contributed greatly to the understanding of the space sciences in this area of the world. It was therefore decided to assemble a Special Issue Space and Geophysical Physics related to Latin America, presenting recent results and where submissions would be accepted from the world wide community of scientists involved in research appropriate to Latin America. Because of the large number of submissions, these papers have been printed in two separate issues. The first issue was published in Advances in Space Research, Vol. 57, number 6 and contained 15 papers. This is the second issue and contains 25 additional papers. These papers show the wide variety of research, both theoretical and applied, that is currently being developed or related to space and geophysical sciences in the Sub-Continent.