WorldWideScience

Sample records for american west arkansas

  1. American Indian Studies in West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartelt, H. Guillermo

    1986-01-01

    Interest in the American Indian in West Germany is high. Romantic notions, derived from the novels of 19th century German writer Karl May and American westerns shown on German television, combined with a subtle anti-Americanism might be responsible for the American Indian Movement (AIM) support groups that have been forming among students and…

  2. Environmental History in the American West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Hal K.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that environmental history is an important component of the history of the American west. Discusses the historiography of the American west in relationship to environmental issues. Concludes that environmental history opened the door for scholars to study the way human beings interact with the physical world around them. (CFR)

  3. Description of Survey Data Regarding the Chemical Repackaging Plant Accident West Helena, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.; Vogt, B.M.

    1999-03-01

    Shortly after 1:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 8, 1997, clouds of foul-smelling smoke began pouring from an herbicide and pesticide packaging plant in West Helena, Arkansas. An alert was sounded, employees evacuated, and the West Helena fire department was called. As three firefighters prepared to enter the plant, the chemical compounds exploded, collapsing a solid concrete block wall, and killing all three firefighters. As the odorous smoky cloud drifted away from the plant, authorities ordered residents in a 2-mile area downwind of the plant to evacuate and those in the 2- to 3-mile zone to shelter in place. This study examines and compares the responses to a mail survey of those ordered to evacuate and those told to shelter in place. Among the variables examined are compliance with official orders and perceived warnings, threat perception, time and source of first warning, response times, and behavior characteristics for both populations. The findings indicate that 90% of those that were told to evacuate did so but only 27% of those told to shelter-in-place did so, with 68% opting to evacuate instead. The implications of these findings for emergency managers is that people will likely choose to evacuate when both warnings to evacuate and warnings to shelter are issued to residents in close proximity to each other. The findings on warning times closely resemble other findings from evacuations when chemical accidents occur and route notification is used for warning residents.

  4. Nocturnal field use by fall migrating American woodcock in the Delta of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, David G.; Crossett, Richard; Lehnen, Sarah E.

    2014-01-01

    The American woodcock (Scolopax minor) population has declined since the late 1960s across its range and is now considered a species of special concern. Research on woodcock habitat use during migration and migratory routes through the Central Flyway has been limited. We assessed woodcock phenology, estimated density, and nocturnal habitat use in fields on public lands in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley portion of Arkansas during November and December of 2010 and 2011. We used all-terrain vehicles to survey woodcock along transects in 67 fields of 8 field types. We analyzed data using hierarchical distance sampling. We detected woodcock from the first week in November through the third week in December but in low numbers. We did not detect woodcock in millet or rice fields, whereas woodcock had the highest estimated densities in unharvested soybeans. All other crop type-post-harvest management combinations had low woodcock densities. We did not detect woodcock in fields 40 ha. Woodcock in the lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley may benefit from management for unharvested soybean fields of moderate size (approx. 8-40ha).

  5. A century of glacier change in the American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, A. G.

    2007-12-01

    Over the past 100 years glaciers in the American West (exclusive of Alaska) have largely receded. The magnitude of the recession varies across the west, with the greatest loss in Montana and California (>50% area loss) and the least loss on the stratovolcanoes (>35%) of the Pacific Northwest. The variations can be broadly characterized by elevation. Our results suggest that increased mass loss caused by increased summer temperatures affect all glaciers, whereas increasing winter temperatures, that change the phase of precipitation from snow to rain adversely affect those glaciers less than 3000m in elevation. The high glaciers (>3000m) of California and Colorado appear to be immune to variations in snowfall making them sensitive to variations in temperature alone. We infer that these very small, steep glaciers can only hold a given amount of snow beyond which extra snow avalanches or is blown off. Conversely, during winters of little direct snowfall, additional snow may be added through win drift from the surrounding terrain. The relatively little glacier shrinkage on the stratovolcanoes is due to the high altitude of the glacier accumulation zones. An east to west decrease in glacier shrinkage from Montana through Washington is due to enhanced winter precipitation along the west coast that somewhat buffers ice loss due to summer temperatures and winter precipitation phase changes.

  6. Louis L'Amour's American West. A Sound Filmstrip Program. Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John; Peters, Frances

    Adapted from the motion picture based on two of Louis L'Amour's novels of the American West, "The Daybreakers" and "Sackett," this filmstrip program will help secondary students interpret the meaning of the frontier experience in American history. In the first three filmstrips--"Heading West,""Staking…

  7. 78 FR 24816 - Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set AGENCY: United... the price of the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set. The coin set will be offered...

  8. MENTOR-BASED EFFORT TO ADVANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREFERRED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PMPS) FOR OIL PRODUCERS IN SOUTH MIDCONTINENT (OKLAHOMA/ARKANSAS) AND WEST COAST (CALIFORNIA) REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2004-12-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) and cooperating Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) in its South Midcontinent (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma) and West Coast (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California) regions conducted a ''Mentor-Based Effort to Advance Implementation of Preferred Management Practices (PMPs) For Oil Producers'' (DE-FC26-01BC15272) under an award in Phase I of Department of Energy's (DOE's) PUMP (Preferred Upstream Management Practices) program. The project's objective was to enable producers in California, Oklahoma and Arkansas to increase oil production, moderating or potentially reversing production declines and extending the life of marginal wells in the near term. PTTC identified the primary constraints inhibiting oil production through surveys and PUMPer direct contacts in both regions. The leading common constraint was excess produced water and associated factors. Approaches for addressing this common constraint were tailored for each region. For Oklahoma and Arkansas, the South Midcontinent Region developed a concise manual titled ''Produced Water And Associated Issues'' that led to multiple workshops across the region, plus workshops in several other regions. In California, the West Coast Region leveraged PUMP funding to receive an award from the California Energy Commission for $300,000 to systematically evaluate water control solutions for the California geological environment. Products include still-developing remedial action templates to help producers identify underlying causes of excess water production and screen appropriate solutions. Limited field demonstrations are being implemented to build producer confidence in water control technologies. Minor leverage was also gained by providing technology transfer support to a Global Energy Partners project that demonstrated affordable approaches for reducing power consumption. PTTC

  9. C-CAP Territory of American Samoa (West Manua) 2004-2010 Land Cover Change Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains the 2004 and 2010 classifications of Territory of American Samoa (West Manua) derived from high resolution imagery and were analyzed according...

  10. The Influence of the West in American Civil War

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张铂

    2016-01-01

    After the 19th century, the West was no longer an appendage of the South and the North. During the Civil War, the North had superiority in both economy and politics. This owed much to the West. The share of the same labour system laid the foundation of the union between the North and the West. The victory of the North linked closely to the support of the West. The essay analyzed the contribution made by the West from the perspectives of economy and politics.

  11. The Effects of the Anti-Dam Movement on the Environmental Protection in American West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵倩

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the far - reaching influence of anti - dam movement on the protection of environment in the second half of the 20th century in American West. It first introduces the historical background of dams built along the Colorado Biver - the most important river in the West, especially the construction of Hoover Dam and Glen Canyon Dam. Then, the criticism of dams on the Colorado is examined with the emphasis on the anti - dam movement resulting from the awareness of the negative ecological impacts on the Colorado. In the conclusion, the author demonstrates the unparallel historical significance of the anti -dam movement in the en-vironmentalism in developing the American West.

  12. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan; Thom, Ron; Hornberger, Michelle; Morgan, Cheryl; Levings, Colin; Copping, Andrea; Fishman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

  13. Battle Brewing Over Arkansas Creationism Law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Rudy

    1981-01-01

    Reports recent proceedings regarding a new law enacted in early 1981 in Arkansas which requires schools that teach evolution to teach what the law calls "creation-science." Opposition to the law by the American Civil Liberties Union is discussed. (CS)

  14. The West Point Treason in American Drama, 1798-1891.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingsburg, Miriam J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses several plays concerning the treason of Benedict Arnold to demonstrate the changing taste in nineteenth century American drama. The plays move from neoclassic--with the depiction of the tragic stature of Andre--through the more melodramatic and gothic emphasis on Arnold's vengeful treachery to the unqualified romantic heroism of…

  15. The Study of American Literature: "Go West,Young Man"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    After some background history of literacy and literacy study in America, the author comments on the current state of the schoolarly study of American literature, including some remarks about where the study of literature seems to be going and the most promsing approaches to take.

  16. Slamming Arkansas Schools!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W. Clayton

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author, a poet and teaching artist, shares how he successfully brought slam poetry to College Hill Middle School in Texarkana, Arkansas. In 2001 he discovered slam poetry--a poetry-reading format in which poets compete in dramatic readings of their works--and went to Slam Nationals in Seattle on the Arkansas slam team. He…

  17. Judo comes to California: Judo vs. Wrestling in the American West, 1900-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Hlinak

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay analyzes Japanese-American immigration into the American West through the prism of athletics, specifically by examining a series of contests between judoka and wrestlers from 1900 to 1920 in California. The popularity of these matches demonstrates the complex relationship between Japanese-Americans and the dominant European-American culture of the western states during this period. This complexity will be shown first by looking at the way in which martial arts are closely linked to national and ethnic identity. The strong barnstorming tradition in both judo and wrestling led to a number of matches of great interest to European-Americans of the period. These matches appealed to an interest in Japanese culture, a desire to see stereotypes reinforced, and nationalist tendencies during an age of uncertainty.

  18. Potential North American vectors of West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, M J; Sardelis, M R; Dohm, D J; O'Guinn, M L

    2001-12-01

    The outbreak of disease in the New York area in 1999 due to West Nile (WN) virus was the first evidence of the occurrence of this virus in the Americas. To determine potential vectors, more than 15 mosquito species (including Culex pipiens, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. salinarius, Aedes albopictus, Ae. vexans, Ochlerotatus japonicus, Oc. sollicitans, Oc. taeniorhynchus, and Oc. triseriatus) from the eastern United States were evaluated for their ability to serve as vectors for the virus isolated from birds collected during the 1999 outbreak in New York. Mosquitoes were allowed to feed on one- to four-day old chickens that had been inoculated with WN virus 1-3 days previously. The mosquitoes were incubated for 12-15 days at 26 degrees C and then allowed to refeed on susceptible chickens and assayed to determine transmission and infection rates. Several container-breeding species (e.g., Ae. albopictus, Oc. atropalpus, and Oc. japonicus) were highly efficient laboratory vectors of WN virus. The Culex species were intermediate in their susceptibility. However, if a disseminated infection developed, all species were able to transmit WN virus by bite. Factors such as population density, feeding preference, longevity, and season of activity also need to be considered in determining the role these species could play in the transmission of WN virus.

  19. The impact of West Nile virus on the abundance of selected North American birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beard Raphaelle H

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America has been associated with high mortality in the native avifauna and has raised concerns about the long-term impact of WNV on bird populations. Here, we present results from a longitudinal analysis of annual counts of six bird species, using North American Breeding Bird Survey data from ten states (1994 to 2010. We fit overdispersed Poisson models to annual counts. Counts from successive years were linked by an autoregressive process that depended on WNV transmission intensity (annual West Nile neuroinvasive disease reports and was adjusted by El Niño Southern Oscillation events. These models were fit using a Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. Results Model fit was mostly excellent, especially for American Crows, for which our models explained between 26% and 81% of the observed variance. The impact of WNV on bird populations was quantitatively evaluated by contrasting hypothetical count trajectories (omission of WNV with observed counts. Populations of American crows were most consistently affected with a substantial cumulative impact in six of ten states. The largest negative impact, almost 60%, was found in Illinois. A regionally substantial decline was also seen for American Robins and House Sparrows, while the other species appeared unaffected. Conclusions Our results confirm findings from previous studies that single out American Crows as the species most vulnerable to WNV infection. We discuss strengths and limitations of this and other methods for quantifying the impact of WNV on bird populations.

  20. Excerpt from East–West Interchanges in American Art: A Long and Tumultuous Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Gordon Chang’s essay, excerpted from East–West Interchanges in American Art: A Long and Tumultuous Relationship, focuses on Zhang Shuqi, a Chinese-born artist who worked in the United States during the period of World War II and acted as a cultural diplomat for China. Zhang strongly influenced American mass culture by bringing methods of Chinese brush painting to a general audience. However, despite the popular “orientalist” association of Zhang’s art with traditional brush painting (and, bey...

  1. Excerpt from East–West Interchanges in American Art: A Long and Tumultuous Relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon H. Chang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Gordon Chang’s essay, excerpted from East–West Interchanges in American Art: A Long and Tumultuous Relationship, focuses on Zhang Shuqi, a Chinese-born artist who worked in the United States during the period of World War II and acted as a cultural diplomat for China. Zhang strongly influenced American mass culture by bringing methods of Chinese brush painting to a general audience. However, despite the popular “orientalist” association of Zhang’s art with traditional brush painting (and, beyond that, timeless Chinese culture, his work was in fact strikingly modern.

  2. Vector competence of selected North American Culex and Coquillettidia mosquitoes for West Nile virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Sardelis, M. R.; Turell, M.J.; Dohm, D. J.; O'Guinn, M. L.

    2001-01-01

    To control West Nile virus (WNV), it is necessary to know which mosquitoes are able to transmit this virus. Therefore, we evaluated the WNV vector potential of several North American mosquito species. Culex restuans and Cx. salinarius, two species from which WNV was isolated in New York in 2000, were efficient laboratory vectors. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus from Florida were competent but only moderately efficient vectors. Coquillettidia perturbans was an inefficient laboratory v...

  3. Identifying sites for elk restoration in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telesco, R.L.; Van Manen, F.T.; Clark, J.D.; Cartwright, Michael E.

    2007-01-01

    We used spatial data to identify potential areas for elk (Cervus elaphus) restoration in Arkansas. To assess habitat, we used locations of 239 elk groups collected from helicopter surveys in the Buffalo National River area of northwestern Arkansas, USA, from 1992 to 2002. We calculated the Mahalanobis distance (D2) statistic based on the relationship between those elk-group locations and a suite of 9 landscape variables to evaluate winter habitat in Arkansas. We tested model performance in the Buffalo National River area by comparing the D2 values of pixels representing areas with and without elk pellets along 19 fixed-width transects surveyed in March 2002. Pixels with elk scat had lower D2 values than pixels in which we found no pellets (logistic regression: Wald χ2 = 24.37, P cover, gently sloping ridge tops and valleys, low human population density, and low road densities. To assess the potential for elk–human conflicts in Arkansas, we used the analytical hierarchy process to rank the importance of 8 criteria based on expert opinion from biologists involved in elk management. The biologists ranked availability of forage on public lands as having the strongest influence on the potential for elk–human conflict (33%), followed by human population growth rate (22%) and the amount of private land in row crops (18%). We then applied those rankings in a weighted linear summation to map the relative potential for elk–human conflict. Finally, we used white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) densities to identify areas where success of elk restoration may be hampered due to meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) transmission. By combining results of the 3 spatial data layers (i.e., habitat model, elk–human conflict model, deer density), our model indicated that restoration sites located in west-central and north-central Arkansas were most favorable for reintroduction.

  4. Landbird migration in the American West: Recent progress and future research directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, J.D.; Skagen, S.K.; Kus, B.E.; van Riper, Charles; Paxton, K.L.; Kelly, J.F.

    2009-01-01

    Our knowledge of avian behaviors during the nonbreeding period still lags behind that of the breeding season, but the last decade has witnessed a proliferation in research that has yielded significant progress in understanding migration patterns of North American birds. And, although historically the great majority of migration research has been conducted in the eastern half of the continent, there has been much recent progress on aspects of avian migration in the West. In particular, expanded use of techniques such as radar, plasma metabolites, mist-netting, count surveys, stable isotopes, genetic data, and animal tracking, coupled with an increase in multi-investigator collaborations, have all contributed to this growth of knowledge. There is increasing recognition that migration is likely the most limiting time of year for migratory birds, increasing the importance of continuing to decipher patterns of stopover ecology, identifying critical stopover habitats, and documenting migration routes in the diverse and changing landscapes of the American West. Here, we review and briefly synthesize the latest findings and advances in avian migration and consider research needs to guide future research on migration in the West. ?? 2009 by The Cooper Ornithological Society. All rights reserved.

  5. So Long the Journey: A Study of Women in the American West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Phelan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the last few decades of the twentieth century, the story of Westward expansion in the United States had centered on the heroic endeavors of men. Women's activities were viewed as peripheral, and scholars largely ignored their contributions in rearing families, and establishing communities and businesses in rural outposts.  This paper will examine a selection of the most influential literature on the subject in order to frame the topic within the larger study of that of the American West. It will argue that despite the assumption of non-traditional roles assumed by women while in the West, they generally always sought to uphold accepted contemporary notions of virtuous womanhood and femininity. These women should not be seen as the pre-cursors to an early feminist movement, but as mothers, wives, and daughters working to adapt to the harsh environment in which they found themselves.

  6. THE MEXICAN CALORIE ALLOCATION AMONG THE WORKING CLASS IN THE AMERICAN WEST, 1870-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Alan Carson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When measures for material conditions are sparse or unreliable, height and weight measurements are now widely accepted proxies that reflect changing economic conditions. This study uses two biological measurements related to height and weight: the basal metabolic rate (BMR and calorie accounting. BMRs and calories of Mexicans in the American West remained constant, indicating that their diets did not vary with United States economic development, but Mexican BMRs and diets varied with occupations. Farmers and unskilled workers had greater BMRs and received more calories per day than workers in other occupations. During much of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Mexicans born in Mexico received fewer calories in the US than Mexicans born in the West. Mexican nutrition and diets also did not vary by residence within the US, indicating that Mexican diets were similar across western states.

  7. Vector competence of selected North American Culex and Coquillettidia mosquitoes for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardelis, M R; Turell, M J; Dohm, D J; O'Guinn, M L

    2001-01-01

    To control West Nile virus (WNV), it is necessary to know which mosquitoes are able to transmit this virus. Therefore, we evaluated the WNV vector potential of several North American mosquito species. Culex restuans and Cx. salinarius, two species from which WNV was isolated in New York in 2000, were efficient laboratory vectors. Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. nigripalpus from Florida were competent but only moderately efficient vectors. Coquillettidia perturbans was an inefficient laboratory vector. As WNV extends its range, exposure of additional mosquito species may alter its epidemiology.

  8. Comparative West Nile virus detection in organs of naturally infected American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos).

    OpenAIRE

    Panella, N. A.; Kerst, A. J.; Lanciotti, R. S.; Bryant, P.; Wolf, B.; Komar, N.

    2001-01-01

    Widespread deaths of American Crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos)were associated with the 1999 outbreak of West Nile (WN) virus in the New York City region. We compared six organs from 20 crow carcasses as targets for WN virus detection. Half the carcasses had at least one positive test result for WN virus infection. The brain was the most sensitive test organ; it was the only positive organ for three of the positive crows. The sensitivity of crow organs as targets for WN virus detection makes crow...

  9. DNA vaccination of American robins (Turdus migratorius) against West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpatrick, A Marm; Dupuis, Alan P; Chang, Gwong-Jen J; Kramer, Laura D

    2010-05-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has caused at least 1150 cases of encephalitis, 100 deaths, and an estimated 30,000-80,000 illnesses in 6 of the last 7 years. Recent evidence from several regions has implicated American robins (Turdus migratorius) as an important host for feeding by Culex mosquitoes, and, when integrated with their host competence for WNV, demonstrates that they are a key WNV amplification host. We evaluated the efficacy of a DNA plasmid vaccine at reducing the viremia and infectiousness of hatch-year American robins. We found that a single dose of vaccine injected intramuscularly resulted in more than a 400-fold (10(2.6)) decrease in average viremia. Although sample sizes were small, these results suggest that vaccinated robins exhibit viremias that are likely to be mostly noninfectious to biting Culex mosquitoes. More broadly, if an orally effective formulation of this vaccine could be developed, new control strategies based on wildlife vaccination may be possible.

  10. Vector competence of three North American strains of Aedes albopictus for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardelis, Michael R; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Andre, Richard G; Roberts, Donald R

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the potential for North American (NA) Aedes albopictus to transmit West Nile virus (WN), mosquito strains derived from 3 NA sources (Frederick County, Maryland, FRED strain; Cheverly, MD, CHEV strain; Chambers and Liberty counties, Texas, TAMU strain) were tested. These strains were tested along with a previously tested strain from a Hawaiian source (OAHU strain). Mosquitoes were fed on 2- to 3-day-old chickens previously inoculated with a New York strain (Crow 397-99) of WN. All of the NA strains were competent laboratory vectors of WN, with transmission rates of 36, 50, 83, and 92% for the FRED, CHEV, OAHU, and TAMU strains, respectively. The extrinsic incubation period for WN in Ae. albopictus held at 26 degrees C was estimated to be 10 days. Based on efficiency of viral transmission, evidence of natural infection, bionomics, and distribution, Ae. albopictus could be an important bridge vector of WN in the southeastern USA.

  11. Characterization of West Nile viruses isolated from captive American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Jorge E; Ciuoderis, Karl A; Lopera, Juan G; Piedrahita, Leidy D; Murphy, Darby; Levasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C; Hofmeister, Erik

    2012-09-01

    Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice.

  12. Characterization of West Nile viruses isolated form captive American flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) in Medellin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Jorge E.; Ciuoderis, Karl A.; Lopera, Juan G.; Piedrahita, Leidy D.; Murphy, Darby; LeVasseur, James; Carrillo, Lina; Ocampo, Martha C.; Hofmeister, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Serum samples from a total of 71 healthy captive birds belonging to 18 species were collected in July of 2008 in Medellin (Colombia) and tested for flaviviruses. Eighteen of 29 samples from American Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus ruber) were positive for West Nile virus (WNV) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Selected positive samples were serially passaged and WNV was confirmed by immunofluorescence. Two isolates (524/08, 9835/08) were characterized in vitro and in vivo. Sequence analysis revealed WNV with 16 nucleotide substitutions resulting in six amino acid changes when compared with the NY99 strain. Colombian (COL) viruses were more closely related to Louisiana isolates from 2001. When compared with attenuated strains isolated from Texas, COL isolates differed in their plaque size and temperature sensitivity phenotype. The COL viruses were pathogenic in embryonated chicken eggs and Balb/c mice.

  13. West nile virus in American white pelican chicks: transmission, immunity, and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovada, Marsha A.; Pietz, Pamela J.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Bartos, Alisa J.

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes significant mortality of American White Pelican chicks at northern plains colonies. We tested oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs from moribund chicks for shed WNV. Such shedding could enable chick-to-chick transmission and help explain why WNV spreads rapidly in colonies. WNV was detected on swabs from 11% of chicks in 2006 and 52% of chicks in 2007; however, viral titers were low. Before onset of WNV mortality, we tested blood from maternal antibodies. Among near-fledged chicks, 41% tested positive for anti-WNV antibodies, indicating that they survived infection. Among years and colonies, cumulative incidence of WNV in chicks varied from 28% to 81%, whereas the proportion of chicks surviving WNV (i.e., seropositive) was 64–75%. Our data revealed that WNV kills chicks that likely would fledge in the absence of WNV, that infection of chicks is pervasive, and that significant numbers of chicks survive infection.

  14. Richard Avedon's "In the American West" and Jean-Paul Sartre: An Existential Approach to Art and Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Richard Avedon's photographic exhibit "In the American West" both as a work of art and as an important link to contemporary philosophical thought, particularly that of Jean-Paul Sartre, through its depiction of the human condition. Notes that the exhibit used as a teaching resource engages students in questions concerning art…

  15. Richard Avedon's "In the American West" and Jean-Paul Sartre: An Existential Approach to Art and Value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, Richard M.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Richard Avedon's photographic exhibit "In the American West" both as a work of art and as an important link to contemporary philosophical thought, particularly that of Jean-Paul Sartre, through its depiction of the human condition. Notes that the exhibit used as a teaching resource engages students in questions concerning art and value.…

  16. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  17. West Nile virus infection in American Robins: new insights on dose response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaci K VanDalen

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a vector-borne pathogen that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The natural transmission cycle of WNV involves mosquito vectors and avian hosts, which vary in their competency to transmit the virus. American robins are an abundant backyard species in the United States and appear to have an important role in the amplification and dissemination of WNV. In this study we examine the response of American robins to infection with various WNV doses within the range of those administered by some natural mosquito vectors. Thirty American robins were assigned a WNV dosage treatment and needle inoculated with 10(0.95 PFU, 10(1.26 PFU, 10(2.15 PFU, or 10(3.15 PFU. Serum samples were tested for the presence of infectious WNV and/or antibodies, while oral swabs were tested for the presence of WNV RNA. Five of the 30 (17% robins had neutralizing antibodies to WNV prior to the experiment and none developed viremia or shed WNV RNA. The proportion of WNV-seronegative birds that became viremic after WNV inoculation increased in a dose dependent manner. At the lowest dose, only 40% (2/5 of the inoculated birds developed productive infections while at the highest dose, 100% (7/7 of the birds became viremic. Oral shedding of WNV RNA followed a similar trend where robins inoculated with the lower two doses were less likely to shed viral RNA (25% than robins inoculated with one of the higher doses (92%. Viremia titers and morbidity did not increase in a dose dependent manner; only two birds succumbed to infection and, interestingly, both were inoculated with the lowest dose of WNV. It is clear that the disease ecology of WNV is a complex interplay of hosts, vectors, and viral dose delivered.

  18. West Nile virus infection in American Robins: new insights on dose response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanDalen, Kaci K; Hall, Jeffrey S; Clark, Larry; McLean, Robert G; Smeraski, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a vector-borne pathogen that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The natural transmission cycle of WNV involves mosquito vectors and avian hosts, which vary in their competency to transmit the virus. American robins are an abundant backyard species in the United States and appear to have an important role in the amplification and dissemination of WNV. In this study we examine the response of American robins to infection with various WNV doses within the range of those administered by some natural mosquito vectors. Thirty American robins were assigned a WNV dosage treatment and needle inoculated with 10(0.95) PFU, 10(1.26) PFU, 10(2.15) PFU, or 10(3.15) PFU. Serum samples were tested for the presence of infectious WNV and/or antibodies, while oral swabs were tested for the presence of WNV RNA. Five of the 30 (17%) robins had neutralizing antibodies to WNV prior to the experiment and none developed viremia or shed WNV RNA. The proportion of WNV-seronegative birds that became viremic after WNV inoculation increased in a dose dependent manner. At the lowest dose, only 40% (2/5) of the inoculated birds developed productive infections while at the highest dose, 100% (7/7) of the birds became viremic. Oral shedding of WNV RNA followed a similar trend where robins inoculated with the lower two doses were less likely to shed viral RNA (25%) than robins inoculated with one of the higher doses (92%). Viremia titers and morbidity did not increase in a dose dependent manner; only two birds succumbed to infection and, interestingly, both were inoculated with the lowest dose of WNV. It is clear that the disease ecology of WNV is a complex interplay of hosts, vectors, and viral dose delivered.

  19. Toward Reducing Uncertainties in Biospheric Carbon Uptake in the American West: An Atmospheric Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. C.; Stephens, B. B.; Mallia, D.; Wu, D.; Jacobson, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the need for an understanding of terrestrial biospheric carbon fluxes to account for carbon cycle feedbacks and predict future CO2 concentrations, knowledge of such fluxes at the regional scale remains poor. This is particularly true in mountainous areas, where lack of observations combined with difficulties in their interpretation lead to significant uncertainties. Yet mountainous regions are also where significant forest cover and biomass are found—areas that have the potential to serve as carbon sinks. In particular, understanding carbon fluxes in the American West is of critical importance for the U.S. carbon budget, as the large area and biomass indicate potential for carbon sequestration. However, disturbances such as drought, insect outbreak, and wildfires in this region can introduce significant perturbations to the carbon cycle and thereby affect the amount of carbon sequestered by vegetation in the Rockies. To date, there have been few atmospheric CO2 observations in the American Rockies due to a combination of difficulties associated with logistics and interpretation of the measurements in the midst of complex terrain. Among the few sites are those associated with NCAR's Regional Atmospheric Continuous CO2 Network in the Rocky Mountains (Rocky RACCOON). As CO2 observations in mountainous areas increase in the future, it is imperative that they can be properly interpreted to yield information about biospheric carbon fluxes. In this paper, we will present CO2 observations from RACCOON, along with atmospheric simulations that attempt to extract information about biospheric carbon fluxes in the Western U.S. from these observations. We show that atmospheric models can significantly misinterpret the CO2 observations, leading to large errors in the retrieved biospheric fluxes, due to erroneous atmospheric flows. Recommendations for ways to minimize such errors and properly link the CO2 concentrations to biospheric fluxes are discussed.

  20. Twelve Years of Acoustical Research. American School Band Directors' Association, Research Committee Reports for the 17th Annual Convention, Hot Springs, Arkansas, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School Band Directors Association, Newark, OH.

    The guide, one in a series of committee reports relating to school band performance, organization, and equipment needs, discusses acoustical problems inherent to the clarinet. The report is presented in five sections. Section I summarizes findings of an American School Band Directors' Association (ASBDA) clarinet testing committee. A major finding…

  1. Excerpt from East–West Interchanges in American Art: A Long and Tumultuous Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Gordon Chang’s essay, excerpted from East–West Interchanges in American Art: A Long and Tumultuous Relationship, focuses on Zhang Shuqi, a Chinese-born artist who worked in the United States during the period of World War II and acted as a cultural diplomat for China. Zhang strongly influenced American mass culture by bringing methods of Chinese brush painting to a general audience. However, despite the popular “orientalist” association of Zhang’s art with traditional brush painting (and, bey...

  2. Vector competence of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Dohm, D J; Jones, J W

    2001-03-01

    We evaluated the potential for several North American mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced West Nile (WN) virus. Mosquitoes collected in the New York City metropolitan area during the recent WN virus outbreak, at the Assateague Island Wildlife Refuge, VA, or from established colonies were allowed to feed on chickens infected with WN virus isolated from a crow that died during the 1999 outbreak. These mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 wk later to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Aedes albopictus (Skuse), Aedes atropalpus (Coquillett), and Aedes japonicus (Theobald) were highly susceptible to infection, and nearly all individuals with a disseminated infection transmitted virus by bite. Culex pipiens L. and Aedes sollicitans (Walker) were moderately susceptible. In contrast, Aedes vexans (Meigen), Aedes aegypti (L.), and Aedes taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann) were relatively refractory to infection, but individual mosquitoes inoculated with WN virus did transmit virus by bite. Infected female Cx. pipiens transmitted WN virus to one of 1,618 F1 progeny, indicating the potential for vertical transmission of this virus. In addition to laboratory vector competence, host-feeding preferences, relative abundance, and season of activity also determine the role that these species could play in transmitting WN virus.

  3. Annual migratory patterns of long-billed curlews in the American west

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Gary W.; Warnock, Nils; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Jorgensen, Dennis; Hartman, C. Alex; Stenzel, Lynne E.

    2014-01-01

    Effective conservation of migratory species requires comprehensive knowledge of annual movement patterns. Such information is sparse for the Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus), a North American endemic shorebird of conservation concern. To test hypotheses about individual and area differences in migratory patterns across western North America, we tagged 29 curlews with satellite transmitters at breeding sites in Oregon, Nevada, and Montana. Transmissions from 28 birds for up to 4 years demonstrated that all wintered within the species’ known winter range, including 9 from Oregon tracked to agricultural areas of California’s Central Valley; 5 from Nevada tracked to the Central Valley, northern Gulf of California, or west coast of Baja California, Mexico; and 14 from Montana that wintered inland, from the Texas Panhandle south to the Mexican Plateau, or near the Gulf of Mexico. Montana breeders migrated east of the Rocky Mountains and traveled more than twice the distance of Oregon and Nevada breeders. Montana birds also stopped more often and longer during most passages. As a group, curlews arrived on their Oregon breeding grounds earlier than in Montana, while males preceded females in Montana and possibly Oregon. No consistent pattern emerged between sexes in departure from breeding areas, although within pairs males departed later than their mates. Individuals exhibited strong fidelity to breeding and wintering sites, and many birds showed a strong propensity for agricultural regions during winter. Our results underscore the importance of studying

  4. Implications of spatial patterns of roosting and movements of American robins for West Nile virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Thomas J; Ward, Michael P; Lampman, Richard L; Raim, Arlo; Weatherhead, Patrick J

    2012-10-01

    The arrival of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America has led to interest in the interaction between birds, the amplification hosts of WNV, and Culex mosquitoes, the primary WNV vectors. American robins (Turdus migratorius) are particularly important amplification hosts of WNV, and because the vector Culex mosquitoes are primarily nocturnal and feed on roosting birds, robin communal roosting behavior may play an important role in the transmission ecology of WNV. Using data from 43 radio-tracked individuals, we determined spatial and temporal patterns of robin roosting behavior, and how these patterns related to the distribution of WNV-infected mosquitoes. Use of the communal roost and fidelity to foraging areas was highly variable both within and among individual robins, and differed markedly from patterns documented in a previous study of robin roosting. Although there were clear seasonal patterns to both robin roosting and WNV occurrence, there was no significant relationship between communal roosting by robins and temporal or spatial patterns of WNV-positive mosquitoes. Our results suggest that, although robins may be important as WNV hosts, communal roosts are not necessarily important for WNV amplification. Other factors, including the availability and distribution of high-quality mosquito habitat and favorable weather for mosquito reproduction, may influence the importance of robin roosts for local WNV amplification and transmission.

  5. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region. PMID:27893826

  6. Digital outlines and topography of the glaciers of the American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Andrew G.; Hoffman, Matthew; Jackson, Keith; Basagic, Hassan; Nylen, Thomas; Percy, David

    2007-01-01

    Alpine glaciers have generally receded during the past century (post-“Little Ice Age”) because of climate warming (Oerlemans and others, 1998; Mann and others, 1999; Dyurgerov and Meier, 2000; Grove, 2001). This general retreat has accelerated since the mid 1970s, when a shift in atmospheric circulation occurred (McCabe and Fountain, 1995; Dyurgerov and Meier, 2000). The loss in glacier cover has had several profound effects. First, the shrinkage of glaciers results in a net increase in stream flow, typically in late summer when water supplies are at the lowest levels (Fountain and Tangborn, 1985). This additional water is important to ecosystems (Hall and Fagre, 2003) and to human water needs (Tangborn, 1980). However, if shrinkage continues, the net contribution to stream flow will diminish, and the effect upon these benefactors will be adverse. Glacier shrinkage is also a significant factor in current sea level rise (Meier, 1984; Dyurgerov and Meier, 2000). Second, many of the glaciers in the West Coast States are located on stratovolcanoes, and continued recession will leave oversteepened river valleys. These valleys, once buttressed by ice are now subject to failure, creating conditions for lahars (Walder and Driedger, 1994; O’Connor and others, 2001). Finally, reduction or loss of glaciers reduce or eliminate glacial activity as an important geomorphic process on landscape evolution and alters erosion rates in high alpine areas (Hallet and others, 1996). Because of the importance of glaciers to studies of climate change, hazards, and landscape modification, glacier inventories have been published for Alaska (Manley, in press), China (http://wdcdgg.westgis.ac.cn/DATABASE/Glacier/Glacier.asp), Nepal (Mool and others, 2001), Switzerland (Paul and others, 2002), and the Tyrolian Alps of Austria (Paul, 2002), among other locales. To provide the necessary data for assessing the magnitude and rate of glacier change in the American West, exclusive of Alaska

  7. Arkansas River Water Needs Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the legal elements, hydrologic analysis, objectives, and water levels related to the Arkansas River and the management of it.

  8. Libraries in Arkansas: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/arkansas.html Libraries in Arkansas To use the sharing features on ... Center Northwest - U Ark Med Sci AHEC - Northwest Library 1125 N College Ave Fayetteville, AR 72703 479- ...

  9. Copula Deletion and West African Languages: A Source for Covert Norms in American Black English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Thomas S.

    The loss of the copula in Black English Vernacular (BEV) is demonstrably traceable to norms of pidginization that have their roots in West African languages and in contact among those languages. An extensive examination of the verb systems of a number of West African languages reveals that in every case a variety of verbal forms serves the many…

  10. Influences of geomorphology and geology on alpine treeline in the American West - More important than climatic influences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.R.; Malanson, G.P.; Walsh, S.J.; Fagre, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    The spatial distribution and pattern of alpine treeline in the American West reflect the overarching influences of geological history, lithology and structure, and geomorphic processes and landforms, and geologic and geomorphic factors—both forms and processes—can control the spatiotemporal response of the ecotone to climate change. These influences occur at spatial scales ranging from the continental scale to fine scale processes and landforms at the slope scale. Past geomorphic influences, particularly Pleistocene glaciation, have also left their impact on treeline, and treelines across the west are still adjusting to post-Pleistocene conditions within Pleistocene-created landforms. Current fine scale processes include solifluction and changes on relict solifluction and digging by animals. These processes should be examined in detail in future studies to facilitate a better understanding of where individual tree seedlings become established as a primary response of the ecotone to climate change.

  11. Dry matter partitioning and quality of Miscanthus, Panicum, and Saccharum genotypes in Arkansas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partitioning and quality of aboveground biomass have important ramifications for crop management and biomass conversion. In preliminary studies, small samples of Saccharum sp. x Miscanthus sp. hybrids exhibited stubble cold tolerance in west-central Arkansas, unlike Saccharum sp. x S. spontaneum...

  12. 75 FR 11195 - Central Arkansas National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... obtain a copy of the CCP by writing to: Mr. William R. Smith, Planning Team Leader, Central Arkansas... International Importance.'' Cache River NWR is noted as part of the most important wintering habitats for..., Including the Preferred Alternative A planning team comprised of Service personnel, State...

  13. Analysis and Lessons from General Galvez’s West Florida Campaign during the American Revolutionary War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Robert J. Allison, The American Revolution: A Concise History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011). 6 Martha Steincamp, Spain: The Forgotten...American Revolution, 1775-1783 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991); Robert H. Thonhoff, The Texas Connection with the American Revolution... Historia Militar, “Bernardo De Gálvez (III)–La Toma De Fort Charlotte En Mobila (Alabama), accessed January 28, 2015, http://www.gehm.es/uncategorized

  14. Abortion applicants in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henker, F O

    1973-03-01

    The article reports upon the characteristics of 300 abortion applicants in Arkansas manifesting significant stress from unwanted pregnancy between May 1, 1970 and June 30, 1971. The sample is limited by the fact that all of these women had been willing to seek medical aid. Patients ranged from ages 13-47, 131 of them ages 17-21. 35% had had some college education; another 29% were high school graduates. 50.6%, 20.6%, and 27.3% were single, divorced, and married, respectively. 59.6% of the patients were primiparas. 18.3%, 9.6%, and 12.3% were classified as being neurotic, having psychophysiologic tendencies (gastrointestinal problems, obesity, chronic headaches), and having sociopathic features (passive-aggressive, frankly rebellious, delinquent, antisocial, alcoholic), respectively. 12 women had noticeable schizoid features; 4 women had mildly active schizophrenia. Fathers of the women were usually blue-collar workers (55.3%) or white-collar workers (24.6%). The most frequent ordinal sibling position among the women was oldest child (38%). Parental instability (1 or both parents lost through death, divorce, father usually away working, chronic alcoholism, etc.) was reported by 39.6% of the patients. Patients' attitudes toward the unwanted pregnancy included dislike of inexpediency of the situation (82.6%), self-depreciation (55.6%), and aversion (28.6%). Precipitated psychiatric disorders were for the greatest part mild. Manifesting symptoms included depression (66.7%), anxiety (21%), and mixed anxiety and depression (12.2%). Suicidal threats and gestures were made by 22 and 8 patients, respectively. In summary, the study reveals a group of predominantly Caucasian women from unstable, middle-class urban families who were going through an adjustment reaction to adolescence or adult life.

  15. THE ROLE OF RAILROAD IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE AMERICAN WEST--Railroad, Migration and Urban Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the role of geographical expansion of railroads, one of the most important Fransportation vehicles, in the history of American west development, analyses its implication on the unprecedentedmigration movement and the resulted urbanization in the west and concludes with the fact that the appropriate interference by the governmnet, especially in the early period, is vital to regional development practice, because of market failure at the initial stage, infrastructure construction conducted by the government always plays as the first impetus to any regional development process. Only through this bridge, can some physical factors, such as population, be attracted to feed the backward area. As a result, cities grow fast and the region develops well. The experience can be shared by all countries. Besides reviewing the history of west development in America, focusing on the relationship between railroadsexpansion and urban growth, which was realized through population migration. A comparison on the particular pattern of regional development between U. S and China is made as well at the end. It is noted that despite of the common first impetus, government subsidies and the common final result, urbanization, the path for the America is bottom-up, whereas that for China is topdown, that is to say, development should originate from big cities, then to towns, and finally radiate into rural areas.

  16. Legacy of the American West: Indian Cowboys, Black Cowboys, and Vaqueros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandy, S. Kay

    2008-01-01

    The cowboy is viewed as an American icon: rider of the open range, rugged individual, and champion of good. Cowboys are still very much a part of American culture today. Why is it important to study cowboys? The introduction of cattle and horses by the Spanish "conquistadors" transformed the local culture, influenced the economics of the…

  17. Plant Nematodes Occurring in Arkansas

    OpenAIRE

    Wehunt, E. J.; Golden, A. M.; Robbins, R. T.

    1989-01-01

    A total of 110 species of plant nematodes were found in various habitats in Arkansas. Thirty species from 19 genera are reported here for the first time. Included in the new reports are the known plant pathogens Criconemella onoense, Hirshmanniella oryzae, Longidorus elongatus, and Pratylenchus pratensis.

  18. Culture in Asian American community psychology: beyond the East-West binary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In response to a call to better integrate culture in community psychology (O'Donnell in American Journal of Community Psychology 37:1-7 2006), we offer a cultural-community framework to facilitate a collaborative engagement between community psychologists and ethnic minority communities, focusing on Asian American communities as illustrations. Extending Hays' (Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 2008) ADDRESSING framework for considering cultural influences on a counseling relationship, the proposed framework provides a broad but systematic guidepost for considering three major cultural-ecological influences on Asian American communities: Race and Ethnicity (R), Culture (C), and Immigration and Transnational Ties (I). We provide a sequence of steps that incorporate the ADDRESSING and the RCI frameworks to facilitate the collaborative community-based research or social action.

  19. Seroprevalence of CANINE LEISHMANIASIS AND American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections with both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishman...

  20. The Vanishing West: 1964-2010--The Disappearance of Western Civilization from the American Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Glenn; Wood, Peter R.; Balch, Stephen H.; Thorne, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    "The Vanishing West" traces the decline and near extinction of the Western Civilization history survey course in America's top colleges and universities from 1964 to 2010. This course, covering classical antiquity to the present, was once part of the undergraduate curriculum's intellectual bedrock, not only because it was often a graduation…

  1. Teaching the West in the Early American Republic: Old Chestnuts and the Fruits of New Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, John Lauritz

    2000-01-01

    Contends that the literature on westward expansion during the early republic does not provide a platform for assisting teachers in the development of a coherent story on the rise of the west. Provides suggestions for recovering the truth about westward expansion using the available literature, both current and old. (CMK)

  2. East vs. West: A Comparison of Mobile Phone Use by Chinese and American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosehfeld, Barbara; O'Connor-Petruso, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are used around the world, however, there are no definitive rules regarding their appropriate use. In the absence of such codification, the researchers surveyed 225 American and 115 Chinese college students to understand their perceptions of etiquette and appropriate use of mobile phones both in the classroom and in other public…

  3. The improbable but unexceptional occurrence of megadrought clustering in the American West during the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coats, Sloan; Smerdon, Jason E.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.; Seager, Richard

    2016-07-01

    The five most severe and persistent droughts in the American West (AW) during the Common Era occurred during a 450 year period known as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA—850-1299 C.E.). Herein we use timeseries modeling to estimate the probability of such a period of hydroclimate change occurring. Clustering of severe and persistent drought during an MCA-length period occurs in approximately 10% of surrogate timeseries that were constructed to have the same characteristics as a tree-ring derived estimate of AW hydroclimate variability between 850 and 2005 C.E. Periods of hydroclimate change like the MCA are thus expected to occur in the AW, although not frequently, with a recurrence interval of approximately 11 000 years. Importantly, a shift in mean hydroclimate conditions during the MCA is found to be necessary for drought to reach the severity and persistence of the actual MCA megadroughts. This result has consequences for our understanding of the atmosphere-ocean dynamics underlying the MCA and a persistently warm Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation is suggested to have played an important role in causing megadrought clustering during this period.

  4. Arkansas State University Beebe Branch Faculty Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Univ., Beebe.

    Arkansas State University Beebe Branch provides a liberal arts oriented program for traditional and nontraditional students. Its faculty handbook contains institutional goals, description of responsibilities of administrative officers and faculty committees, faculty employment policies, and administrative and instructional policies. The…

  5. Tectonic origin of Crowley's Ridge, northeastern Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanArsdale, R.B. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States). Geology Dept.); Williams, R.A.; Shedlock, K.M.; King, K.W.; Odum, J.K. (Geological survey, Denver, CO (United States). Denver Federal Center); Schweig, E.S. III; Kanter, L.R. (Memphis State Univ., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Crowley's Ridge is a 320 km long topographic ridge that extends from Thebes, Illinois to Helena, Arkansas. The ridge has been interpreted as an erosional remnant formed during Quaternary incision of the ancestral Mississippi and Ohio rivers; however, the Reelfoot Rift COCORP line identified a down-to-the-west fault bounding the western margin of Crowley's Ridge south of Jonesboro, Arkansas. Subsequent Mini-Sosie seismic reflection profiles confirmed the COCORP data and identified additional faults beneath other margins of the ridge. In each case the faults lie beneath the base of the ridge scarp. The Mini-Sosie data did not resolve the uppermost 150 m and so it was not possible to determine if the faults displace the near-surface Claiborne Group (middle Eocene). A shotgun source seismic reflection survey was subsequently conducted to image the uppermost 250 m across the faulted margins. The shotgun survey across the western margin of the ridge south of Jonesboro reveals displaced reflectors as shallow as 30 m depth. Claiborne Group strata are displaced approximately 6 m and it appears that some of the topographic relief of Crowley's Ridge at this location is due to post middle Eocene fault displacement. Based on the reflection data, the authors suggest that Crowley's Ridge is tectonic in origin.

  6. A Case of Asynchronous Media Change in the 1950s: How US-American TV Series Came to Early West German Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Dechert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of radio and cinema on the first television program designs in West Germany, and other nations, can be explained by a theory which has recently been put forward by communication scholar Gabriele Balbi. According to Balbi, in a first step new media imitate old media in manifold ways before they develop characteristics of their own and become a truly new medium. However, the ‘producers’ of early West German national television were not only looking to radio or cinema for clues on how to design the program of Deutsches Fernsehen (DFS, West Germany’s first and only national television channel from 1954 to 1961/63. DFS’ executives and executive employees were also looking to other nations, particularly to those – like the United States – that were years ahead in television’s evolution. Especially the implementation of the entertainment series in West German television is strongly rooted in visits to the United States and newly gathered information and impressions. To exemplify this argument, I delve into examples which demonstrate that West German television executives and executive employees were either creating television series on the basis of US-American television series or were broadcasting the latter after synchronization. In this context, major findings of diffusion research constitute a useful addition to current theories on media change.

  7. Why museums matter: a tale of pinworms (Oxyuroidea: Heteroxynematidae) among pikas (Ochotona princeps and O. collaris) in the American west.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, E P; Pilitt, P A; Galbreath, K E

    2009-04-01

    Permanent and well-supported museum or natural history collections provide a solid foundation for the process of systematics research through creation of an empirical record which validates our understanding of the biosphere. We explore the role of museums in ongoing studies of the complex helminth fauna characteristic of pikas (Ochotona spp.) in the American west. These studies address the taxonomy for pinworms of the Labiostomatinae and the problems associated with the absence of adequate type series and vouchers and with misidentifications in original descriptions. We demonstrate that the types for Labiostomum (Labiostomum) coloradensis are identical to some specimens in the syntype series representing L. (Eugenuris) utahensis, although the published descriptions are in disagreement. Both are identical to L. (Eugenuris) talkeetnaeuris and, as a consequence, are reduced as junior synonyms. Only 2 species of large pinworms, namely L. (Labiostomum) rauschi and L. (Eugenuris) talkeetnaeuris, are widely distributed in Ochotona collaris and O. princeps. Although this serves to clarify the taxonomy for species in these genera, prior records remain confused, as representative voucher specimens from all major surveys in North America were never submitted to museum collections. We strongly suggest that type and voucher series should not be held in private or personal collections, where such are eventually lost, discarded, or destroyed through neglect due to inattention and the absence of curation. The potential to accumulate meaningful baselines for assessment of environmental change is jeopardized if materials from survey and inventory are not routinely submitted to museum collections. The capacity of museum repositories, as a focus for systematics, ecology, and evolutionary studies and for the development of resources for biodiversity informatics, continues to be undervalued and poorly utilized by a cadre of scientists who are dependant on accurate and definitive

  8. Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K

    2010-02-22

    Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective, the mean wind speed, direction, and turbulence properties may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 to 120 m AGL). This variability can cause tall turbines to produce difference amounts of power during time periods with identical hub height wind speeds. Using meteorological and power generation data from a West Coast North American wind farm over a one-year period, our study synthesizes standard wind park observations, such as wind speed from turbine nacelles and sparse meteorological tower observations, with high-resolution profiles of wind speed and turbulence from a remote sensing platform, to quantify the impact of atmospheric stability on power output. We first compare approaches to defining atmospheric stability. The standard, limited, wind farm operations enable the calculation only of a wind shear exponent ({alpha}) or turbulence intensity (I{sub U}) from cup anemometers, while the presence at this wind farm of a SODAR enables the direct observation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the turbine rotor disk. Additionally, a nearby research meteorological station provided observations of the Obukhov length, L, a direct measure of atmospheric stability. In general, the stability parameters {alpha}, I{sub U}, and TKE are in high agreement with the more physically-robust L, with TKE exhibiting the best agreement with L. Using these metrics, data periods are segregated by stability class to investigate power performance dependencies. Power output at this wind farm is highly correlated with atmospheric stability during the spring and summer months, while atmospheric stability exerts

  9. 2015 Fact Book: Arkansas Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Department of Higher Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides governmental and higher education decision-makers a statewide perspective of Arkansas public higher education finance for the 2015-17 biennium, as well as trends for the past several years. It also contains a detailed financial profile of each institution and presents a basis for comparative assessments of revenue sources…

  10. 78 FR 9448 - Arkansas Disaster #AR-00061

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... ADMINISTRATION Arkansas Disaster AR-00061 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  11. 78 FR 5202 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Arkansas State University Museum... culturally affiliated with the human remains may contact the Arkansas State University Museum....

  12. 78 FR 5199 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Arkansas State University Museum, Jonesboro, AR AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Arkansas State University Museum... associated funerary objects may contact the Arkansas State University Museum. Repatriation of the...

  13. Revision of the West Indian Wattius Kaszab (Tenebrionidae, Toxicini, Eudysantina) with lectotype designations for Pascoe’s South American species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron D.; Sanchez, Lucio A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Wattius species occurring in the West Indies are revised for the first time. Wattius cucullatus (Pascoe), previously reported from Cuba, is diagnosed and restricted to Brazil. Wattius asperulus (Pascoe), currently a synonym of Wattius cucullatus, from Colombia is diagnosed and resurrected. All species found in the West Indies are endemic to the islands and form a single informal species-group. Three species are described: Wattius andersoni sp. n. from Cuba, Wattius emmabaconae sp. n. from Hispaniola (Dominican Republic), and Wattius viatorus sp. n. from Cuba and the Bahamas, and lectotypes are designated for Calymmus cucullatus Pascoe and Calymmus asperulus Pascoe. A key to the West Indian species is provided. PMID:26798241

  14. Pine Mountain Revisited: An Archeological Study in the Arkansas Ozarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    that Winbcst :ound on the wall of Shelter 2. These tlree red -:iarks on the wall were indistinct as to shape or what they rcpreo-ented. Herbest notd...the Arkansas Ozarks, compiled by L. Mark Raab. Arkansas Archeological Survey Research ,eport 7:31-39. Flenniken, J. Jeffrey and Robert A. Taylor 1977...J. Jeffrey Flennikcen and Robert A. Taylor. 1977. 103 pages. $4.00 No. 12 Contract Archeology in the Lower Mississippi Valley of Arkansas

  15. Population genomics reveals that an anthropophilic population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in West Africa recently gave rise to American and Asian populations of this major disease vector

    KAUST Repository

    Crawford, Jacob E.

    2017-02-20

    BackgroundThe mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. This major disease vector is thought to have arisen when the African subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus evolved from being zoophilic and living in forest habitats into a form that specialises on humans and resides near human population centres. The resulting domestic subspecies, Ae. aegypti aegypti, is found throughout the tropics and largely blood-feeds on humans.ResultsTo understand this transition, we have sequenced the exomes of mosquitoes collected from five populations from around the world. We found that Ae. aegypti specimens from an urban population in Senegal in West Africa were more closely related to populations in Mexico and Sri Lanka than they were to a nearby forest population. We estimate that the populations in Senegal and Mexico split just a few hundred years ago, and we found no evidence of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes migrating back to Africa from elsewhere in the tropics. The out-of-Africa migration was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in effective population size, resulting in a loss of genetic diversity and rare genetic variants.ConclusionsWe conclude that a domestic population of Ae. aegypti in Senegal and domestic populations on other continents are more closely related to each other than to other African populations. This suggests that an ancestral population of Ae. aegypti evolved to become a human specialist in Africa, giving rise to the subspecies Ae. aegypti aegypti. The descendants of this population are still found in West Africa today, and the rest of the world was colonised when mosquitoes from this population migrated out of Africa. This is the first report of an African population of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes that is closely related to Asian and American populations. As the two subspecies differ in their ability to vector disease, their existence side by side in West Africa may have important implications for

  16. Arab American College Students' Physical Activity and Body Composition: Reconciling Middle East-West Differences Using the Socioecological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I conducted focus group interviews with 21 Arab American college students (9 men, 12 women; 9 Muslims, 12 non-Muslims), who were selected for extreme manifestation of religiosity or acculturation, to explore their beliefs and attitudes toward socioecological (SE) factors that facilitated and hindered their individual physical…

  17. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub...

  18. A Feasibility Study of Youth Apprenticeship in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobs for the Future, Inc., West Somerville, MA.

    A study assessed the feasibility and attractiveness of youth apprenticeship in Arkansas in over 80 interviews with employers in 5 key Arkansas industries and occupations. They were allied health, food processing (equipment repair and maintenance and lab technician/quality control), information services, metalworking, and self-employment and…

  19. 78 FR 61251 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Heber Springs, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Heber Springs, Arkansas. AGENCY: Federal... Making filed by Sydney Allison Sugg, proposing the allotment of Channel 270C3 at Heber Springs, Arkansas, as the community's third local service. Channel 270C3 can be allotted to Heber Springs...

  20. Hope, Arkansas to Hope, Albania: naivete and idealism to reality and tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B C

    2000-06-01

    The wars in Croatia, Bosnia and Kosovo were perpretrated by a radical nationalist Serbian cultural political consciousness that the American cultural political consciousness and leadership had difficulty responding to and understanding. There is a great cultural divide between a 'pathology' in Serbian culture, Milosević's radical nationalism, and a humane 'naivete' in American cultural consciousness. I discuss why, finally, American political leadership, Bill Clinton from Hope, Arkansas, responded to the tragedy of these wars. However, we are still left with the question of good vs evil: What is the course of human history; psychotic political leadership causing repetitive human tragedy or can there be a higher humane and moral order to human cultural events?

  1. 75 FR 44982 - Arkansas Valley Conduit (AVC) and Long-Term Excess Capacity Master Contract, Fryingpan-Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ..., Fryingpan-Arkansas Project (Fry-Ark Project) Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION... proposed feature of the Fryingpan-Arkansas (Fry-Ark) Project, and the issuance of an Excess Capacity Master...-Ark Project water in Pueblo Reservoir, a feature of the Fry-Ark Project. The water would be used...

  2. Sensitivity and specificity of monoclonal and polyclonal immunohistochemical staining for West Nile virus in various organs from American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ping

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Based on results of earlier studies, brain, heart and kidney are most commonly used for West Nile virus (WNV detection in avian species. Both monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies have been used for the immunohistochemical diagnosis of WNV in these species. Thus far, no studies have been performed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies in detecting WNV in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos. Our objectives were to determine 1 the comparative sensitivities of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies for immunohistochemical (IHC diagnosis of WNV infection in free-ranging American crows, 2 which organ(s is/are most suitable for IHC-based diagnosis of WNV, and 3 how real-time RT-PCR on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues compared to IHC for the diagnosis of WNV infection. Methods Various combinations, depending on tissue availability, of sections of heart, kidney, brain, liver, lung, spleen, and small intestine from 85 free-ranging American crows were stained using a rabbit-polyclonal anti-WNV antibody as well as a monoclonal antibody directed against an epitope on Domain III of the E protein of WNV. The staining intensity and the extent of staining were determined for each organ using both antibodies. Real-time RT-PCR on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from all 85 crows was performed. Results Forty-three crows were IHC-positive in at least one of the examined organs with the polyclonal antibody, and of these, only 31 were positive when IHC was performed with the monoclonal antibody. Real-time RT-PCR amplified WNV-specific sequences from tissue extracts of the same 43 crows that were IHC-positive using the polyclonal antibody. All other 42 crows tested negative for WNV with real-time PCR and IHC staining. Both antibodies had a test specificity of 100% when compared to PCR results. The test sensitivity of monoclonal antibody-based IHC staining was only 72

  3. Arkansas' Anemometer Loan Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando Vego

    2012-10-11

    The measurement campaign had one year duration from 04/01/2011 to 03/31/2012 and was taken at 20m and 34m with NRG instrumentation. The data was analyzed weekly to check inconsistencies and validity and processed using Excel, Flexpro and Windographer standard Edition Version 2.04. The site analyzed is located in the Waldron, Arkansas in Scott County. It is an open site for most of the direction sectors with immediate roughness class of 1.5. It has seasonally directional winds, of which the most energetic come from the southern direction. The vertical wind profile shows moderate wind shear that varies by season as well.

  4. Earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity 1699-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Richard L.; Ausbrooks, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    This map summarizes approximately 300 years of earthquake activity in Arkansas. It is one in a series of similar State earthquake history maps. Work on the Arkansas map was done in collaboration with the Arkansas Geological Survey. The earthquake data plotted on the map are from several sources: the Arkansas Geological Survey, the Center for Earthquake Research and Information, the National Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, and the Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality. In addition to earthquake locations, other materials presented include seismic hazard and isoseismal maps and related text. Earthquakes are a legitimate concern in Arkansas and parts of adjacent states. Arkansas has undergone a number of significant felt earthquakes since 1811. At least two of these events caused property damage: a magnitude 4.7 earthquake in 1931, and a magnitude 4.3 earthquake in 1967. The map shows all historical and instrumentally located earthquakes in Arkansas and vicinity between 1811 and 2010. The largest historic earthquake in the vicinity of the State was an intensity XI event, on December 16, 1811; the first earthquake in the New Madrid sequence. This violent event and the earthquakes that followed caused considerable damage to the then sparsely settled region.

  5. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2 genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raul Sandoval

    Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2 influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249 (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno, and Ecuador (n = 182 (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados. The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80, Amantani (0.80 and Anapia (0.58 islander communities of the Lake Titicaca, but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest, as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  6. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ñique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n = 182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  7. Aquifers of Arkansas: protection, management, and hydrologic and geochemical characteristics of groundwater resources in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Merriman, Katherine R.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Fugitt, D. Todd; Spellman, Jane L.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Blackstock, Joshua M.; Battreal, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen aquifers in Arkansas that currently serve or have served as sources of water supply are described with respect to existing groundwater protection and management programs, geology, hydrologic characteristics, water use, water levels, deductive analysis, projections of hydrologic conditions, and water quality. State and Federal protection and management programs are described according to regulatory oversight, management strategies, and ambient groundwater-monitoring programs that currently (2013) are in place for assessing and protecting groundwater resources throughout the State.

  8. Regional assessment of nonforestry related biomass resources: Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-11-01

    This document consists of spreadsheets detailing in a county by county manner agricultural crop, agricultural waste, municipal waste and industrial waste in Arkansas that are potential biomass energy sources.

  9. Central Arkansas National Wildlife Refuge Complex: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Central Arkansas NWR Complex for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Complex...

  10. Final Critical Habitat for the Arkansas River Shiner (Notropis girardi)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Arkansas River Shiner (Notropis girardi) occur. The geographic extent includes New...

  11. Archeological Investigation at Montgomery Point, Desha County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    listed in the same census were the voyageurs trading on the Arkansas, White and St. Francis Rivers (Vaudreull Papers, LO 200). Life at the post settled...tied to the systems of navigation and commerce on the Mississippi, Arkansas, and White Rivers. Although the Mississippi River was a highway of trade...was guaranteed that a real system of commerce developed. Beginning with flatboats and keelboats, expanding during the steamboat era, and continuing into

  12. Air pollution and cardiovascular and respiratory emergency visits in Central Arkansas: A time-series analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodopoulou, Sophia; Samoli, Evangelia; Chalbot, Marie-Cecile G.; Kavouras, Ilias G.

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart disease and stroke mortality and morbidity rates in Arkansas are among the highest in the U.S. While the effect of air pollution on cardiovascular health was identified in traffic-dominated metropolitan areas, there is a lack of studies for populations with variable exposure profiles, demographic and disease characteristics. Objective Determine the short-term effects of air pollution on cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity in the stroke and heart failure belt. Methods We investigated the associations of fine particles and ozone with respiratory and cardiovascular emergency room visits during the 2002–2012 period for adults in Central Arkansas using Poisson generalized models adjusted for temporal, seasonal and meteorological effects. We evaluated sensitivity of the associations to mutual pollutant adjustment and effect modification patterns by sex, age, race and season. Results We found effects on cardiovascular and respiratory emergencies for PM2.5 (1.52% [95%CI: −1.10, 4.20]; 1.45% [95%CI: −2.64, 5.72] per 10 μg/m3) and O3 (0.93% [95%CI: −0.87, 2.76]; 0.76 [95%CI: −1.92, 3.52] per 10 ppbv) during the cold period (October–March). The effects were stronger among whites, except for the respiratory effects of O3 that were higher among Blacks/African-Americans. Effect modification patterns by age and sex differed by association. Both pollutants were associated with increases in emergency room visits for hypertension, heart failure and asthma. Effects on cardiovascular and respiratory emergencies were observed during the cold period when particulate matter was dominated by secondary nitrate and wood burning. Conclusion Outdoor particulate pollution during winter had an effect of cardiovascular morbidity in central Arkansas, the region with high stroke and heart disease incidence rates. PMID:26232212

  13. A Regional Guidebook for Conducting Functional Assessments of Forested Wetlands in the Arkansas Valley Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    the Arkansas River was incising into the sedimentary rocks of the valley, and periods in the Holocene when the river was aggrading caused by changes...from the adjacent upland slopes. Slack- water deposits formed from aggradation of the Arkansas River during the Holocene, which in turn caused...tributary streambeds to aggrade , resulting in “drowning” of the tributaries and deposition of thick deposits of fine-grained sediments. This process

  14. Potentiometric surfaces in the Cockfield and Wilcox aquifers of southern and northeastern Arkansas, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatts, Daniel S.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents the results of water-level measurements made at wells in the Cockfield Formation and Wilcox Group of southern and northeastern Arkansas during 2003, and the water levels are displayed in potentiometric-surface maps and hydrographs. During March and April 2003, the water level was measured at 55 wells completed in the Cockfield aquifer, 13 wells completed in the Wilcox aquifer of southern Arkansas, and 43 wells completed in the Wilcox aquifer of northeastern Arkansas. The Cockfield Formation generally consists of discontinuous sand units interbedded with silt, clay, and lignite in southeastern Arkansas. Sand beds near the base of the Cockfield Formation constitute most of the Cockfield aquifer. Withdrawals from the Cockfield aquifer in the study area during 2000 totaled about 9 million gallons per day. The potentiometric surface of the Cockfield aquifer constructed from the 2003 water levels shows that regional direction of ground-water flow generally is towards the east and southeast, away from the outcrop, except in areas of intense ground-water withdrawals. Some local ground-water flow in the outcrop area is toward rivers that have eroded into the Cockfield Formation and deposited alluvium in south Bradley and Calhoun Counties (Ouachita River), and in north Dallas County (Saline River). An evaluation of 20 wells with water-level data from 1983 to 2003 shows that water levels in 15 wells have declined at a rate of -0.04 to -0.97 feet per year, and water levels in 5 wells have risen at a rate of 0.07 to 0.32 feet per year. An evaluation of the same 20 wells from 2000 to 2003 shows that water levels have declined in only 8 wells, and water levels have risen in 12 wells. The Wilcox Group is distributed throughout most of southern and eastern Arkansas. There are two study areas in southern and northeastern Arkansas. The Wilcox Group of the southern study area consists of interbedded clay, sandy clay, sand, and lignite. Thin discontinuous sand

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arkansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arkansas.

  16. 78 FR 72877 - Arkansas Electric Corporation v. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Arkansas Electric Corporation v. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company; Notice... Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Arkansas Electric Corporation (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company...

  17. Potentiometric Surfaces and Water-Level Trends in the Cockfield and Wilcox Aquifers of Southern and Northeastern Arkansas, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, T.P.

    2007-01-01

    calculate the annual rise or decline. Calhoun and Cleveland Counties have mean annual rises from 0.01 to 0.07 feet per year. Arkansas, Ashley, Bradley, Chicot, Columbia, Drew, Lincoln, and Union Counties have mean annual declines from 0.4 to 0.55 feet per year. Desha County has a mean annual decline of about 1.35 feet per year. The direction of ground-water flow in the southwestern study area of the Wilcox Group generally is south and east. The lowest water-level altitude measured in southwestern Arkansas was 147 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 near the Ouachita River in Clark County; the highest water-level altitude measured was 397 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 in the outcrop area of Hempstead County. The direction of ground-water flow in the northeastern study area of the Wilcox Group generally is south and east. The lowest water-level altitude measured in northeastern Arkansas was 120 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 near West Memphis in Crittenden County; the highest water-level altitude measured was 368 feet above the National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 on Crowleys Ridge in Clay County. Hydrographs from 28 wells with historical water levels from 1986 to 2006 were evaluated using linear regression to calculate the annual rise or decline. All 28 wells showed an annual decline from 1986 to 2006. Craighead, Greene, Mississippi, and Poinsett Counties have mean annual declines from 0.27 to 1.00 feet per year. Crittenden, Lee, and St. Francis Counties have mean annual declines from 1.39 to 1.64 feet per year.

  18. 40 CFR 81.139 - Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.139 Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northeast Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northeast Arkansas Intrastate...

  19. 40 CFR 81.140 - Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.140 Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Northwest Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northwest Arkansas Intrastate...

  20. 40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.138 Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Arkansas Intrastate...

  1. 75 FR 66306 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Arkansas Waterway, Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ..., Little Rock, AR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: Drawbridge operations for the Baring Cross Railroad Drawbridge across the Arkansas Waterway at Mile 119.6 at Little Rock, Arkansas... (NPRM) entitled Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Arkansas Waterway, Little ] Rock, AR in the...

  2. Biography of Dr. Eugene W. Smith Arkansas State University President 1984 to 1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Glenda

    2012-01-01

    A president of a university in the state of Arkansas would benefit from researching the roots of the educational system within the state. Even though the state now has a number of universities that have evolved and are on the cutting-edge of advanced technology, Arkansas was slow in growth and development. Since Arkansas was slow to expand public…

  3. Tropical convective systems life cycle characteristics from geostationary satellite and precipitating estimates derived from TRMM and ground weather radar observations for the West African and South American regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiolleau, T.; Roca, R.; Angelis, F. C.; Viltard, N.

    2012-12-01

    In the tropics most of the rainfall comes in the form of individual storm events embedded in the synoptic circulations (e.g., monsoons). Understanding the rainfall and its variability hence requires to document these highly contributing tropical convective systems (MCS). Our knowledge of the MCS life cycle, from a physical point of view mainly arises from individual observational campaigns heavily based on ground radar observations. While this large part of observations enabled the creation of conceptual models of MCS life cycle, it nevertheless does not reach any statistically significant integrated perspective yet. To overcome this limitation, a composite technique, that will serve as a Day-1 algorithm for the Megha-Tropiques mission, is considered in this study. this method is based on a collocation in space and time of the level-2 rainfall estimates (BRAIN) derived from the TMI radiometer onboard TRMM with the cloud systems identified by a new MCS tracking algorithm called TOOCAN and based on a 3-dimensional segmentation (image + time) of the geostationary IR imagery. To complete this study, a similar method is also developed collocating the cloud systems with the precipitating features derived from the ground weather radar which has been deployed during the CHUVA campaign over several Brazilian regions from 2010 up to now. A comparison of the MCSs life cycle is then performed for the 2010-2012 summer seasons over the West African, and South American regions. On the whole region of study, the results show that the temporal evolution of the cold cloud shield associated to MCSs describes a symmetry between the growth and the decay phases. It is also shown that the parameters of the conceptual model of MCSs are strongly correlated, reducing thereby the problem to a single degree of freedom. At the system scale, over both land and oceanic regions, rainfall is described by an increase at the beginning (the first third) of the life cycle and then smoothly decreases

  4. Peak streamflow on selected streams in Arkansas, December 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaker, Brian K.

    2017-01-11

    Heavy rainfall during December 2015 resulted in flooding across parts of Arkansas; rainfall amounts were as high as 12 inches over a period from December 27, 2015, to December 29, 2015. Although precipitation accumulations were highest in northwestern Arkansas, significant flooding occurred in other parts of the State. Flood damage occurred in several counties as water levels rose in streams, and disaster declarations were declared in 32 of the 75 counties in Arkansas.Given the severity of the December 2015 flooding, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), conducted a study to document the meteorological and hydrological conditions prior to and during the flood; compiled flood-peak gage heights, streamflows, and flood probabilities at USGS streamflow-gaging stations; and estimated streamflows and flood probabilities at selected ungaged locations.

  5. Characterization of the structure, clean-sand percentage, dissolved-solids concentrations, and estimated quantity of groundwater in the Upper Cretaceous Nacatoch Sand and Tokio Formation, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillip, Jonathan A.

    2014-01-01

    The West Gulf Coastal Plain, Mississippi embayment, and underlying Cretaceous aquifers are rich in water resources; however, large parts of the aquifers are largely unusable because of large concentrations of dissolved solids. Cretaceous aquifers are known to have large concentrations of salinity in some parts of Arkansas. The Nacatoch Sand and the Tokio Formation of Upper Cretaceous age were chosen for investigation because these aquifers produce groundwater to wells near their outcrops and have large salinity concentrations away from their outcrop areas. Previous investigations have indicated that dissolved-solids concentrations of groundwater within the Nacatoch Sand, 2–20 miles downdip from the outcrop, render the groundwater as unusable for purposes requiring freshwater. Groundwater within the Tokio Formation also exhibits large concentrations of dissolved solids downdip. Water-quality data showing elevated dissolved-solids concentrations are limited for these Cretaceous aquifers because other shallower aquifers are used for water supply. Although not suitable for many uses, large, unused amounts of saline groundwater are present in these aquifers. Historical borehole geophysical logs were used to determine the geologic and hydrogeologic properties of these Cretaceous aquifers, as well as the quality of the groundwater within the aquifers. Based on the interpretation of borehole geophysical logs, in Arkansas, the altitude of the top of the Nacatoch Sand ranges from more than 200 to less than -4,000 feet; the structural high occurs in the outcrop area and the structural low occurs in southeastern Arkansas near the Desha Basin structural feature. The thickness of the Nacatoch Sand ranges from 0 to over 550 feet. The minimum thickness occurs where the formation pinches out in the outcrop area, and the maximum thickness occurs in the southwestern corner of Arkansas. Other areas of large thickness include the area of the Desha Basin structural feature in

  6. Black bears in Arkansas: Characteristics of a successful translocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kimberly G.; Clark, Joseph D.

    1994-01-01

    In 1958, the Arkansas Game and Fish Commission began translocating black bears (Ursus americanus) from Minnesota to the Interior Highlands (Ozark and Ouachita mountains) of Arkansas where bears had been extirpated early in this century. This project continued for 11 years with little public imput, during which time an estimated 254 bears were released. We estimate there are now >2,500 bears in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, making it one of the most successful translocations of a Carnivora. Factors that contributed to the success include use of wild-captured animals, elimination of major factors associated with extirpation, release into prime habitats within the former range, multiple release sites, release of 20–40 animals/year for eight years, and release of mostly males prior to release of mostly females. Studies on two allopatric populations demonstrate that they are now diverging in some demographic characteristics, including litter size, cub survivorship, and adult sex-ratio. Translocation of black bears to the Interior Highlands is successful in terms of numbers of animals, but it will not be truly successful until people accept black bears as part of the regional fauna. To that end, those associated with management and research of bears in Arkansas are now focussing on public education and control of nuisance bears.

  7. State Minimum Core Curricula: Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    State minimum core curricula for two-year and four-year colleges and universities have been approved by the Arkansas Board of Higher Education. Within the framework of the State Minimum Core, each state institution is required to propose 35 semester/credit hours from its institutional general education core to be recognized for purposes of the…

  8. State Minimum Core Curricula: Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    This document provides state minimum core curricula for each two- and four-year institution of higher education in Arkansas, determined by the Department of Higher Education. Courses within this core are to apply toward the general education core curriculum requirements for baccalaureate degrees at state-supported institutions and should be fully…

  9. State Minimum Core Curricula: Arkansas Institutions of Higher Education, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Higher Education, Little Rock.

    In 1990 the Arkansas State Board of Higher Education adopted guidelines for the development of state minimum core curriculum response to state legislation. This legislation provides that courses within the core shall apply to the general education core curriculum requirements for baccalaureate degrees at state-supported institutions and shall be…

  10. Risks, Assets, and Negative Health Behaviors among Arkansas' Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Choudary, Wendie; Kearney, Anne; Piko, Bettina F.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between risk, assets, and negative health behaviors among a large sample of Hispanic adolescents. Data were collected from over 1,000 Hispanic youth in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 attending school in a moderate size school district in Northwest Arkansas. Logistic regression models examined the variation in the odds…

  11. Project CAP. Boston Mountains Educational Cooperative, Greenland, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jack A.; Leffler, Jeanne

    This description of career education activities in Greenland, Arkansas, was prepared as part of a study conducted to identify evaluated, exemplary career education activities which represent the best of the current career education programs and practices referred to in Public Law 93-380. (See CE 018 212 for the final report of this study.) This…

  12. Lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to assess the potential of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas, as a viable source of public-supply water was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Little Rock, District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. An important study component was to identify possible changes in hydrologic conditions following installation of James W. Trimble Lock and Dam 13 (December 1969) on the Arkansas River near the study area. Data were gathered for the study in regard to the lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the aquifer. Lithologic information was obtained from drillers’ logs of wells drilled from 1957 through 1959. Water-quality samples were collected from 10 irrigation wells and analyzed for inorganic constituents and pesticides. To evaluate the potential viability of the alluvial aquifer in the Van Buren area, these data were compared to similar stratigraphic, lithologic, and groundwater-quality data from the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer at Dardanelle, Ark., where the aquifer provides a proven, productive, sole-source of public-supply water.

  13. Multi-site Management Plan Ecoregional Conservation for the Ouachita Ecoregion Arkansas and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    Ecological Studies: Analysis of vertebrates in the Inyo-white Mountains, California . In Proc: Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals...Forests in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas and Oklahoma, Winrock International; 1992. Duncan, Wilbur H. and Leonard E. Foote. Wildflowers of the...Trees, Shrubs and Vines of Arkansas. Ozark Soc. Found.; 1989. Hunter, Carl G. Wildflowers of Arkansas (3rd. ed.). Ozark Soc. Found.; 1992 Hyatt

  14. Middle Claiborne Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Outcrop and subcrop extent of the Middle Claiborne Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee.

  15. Histoplasmosis associated with a bamboo bonfire--Arkansas, October 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselow, Dirk T; Safi, Haytham; Holcomb, David; Smith, Nathaniel; Wagner, Kendall D; Bolden, Branson B; Harik, Nada S

    2014-02-28

    On October 27, 2011, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) was notified by a northeast Arkansas primary care provider of a cluster of three histoplasmosis cases. On November 4, ADH was notified by a pediatric infectious diseases specialist regarding seven potential cases of pulmonary histoplasmosis associated with a family gathering that included a bonfire that burned bamboo from a grove that had been a red-winged blackbird roost. These reports prompted an outbreak investigation to ensure that the persons involved received appropriate medical care, to identify whether any novel exposures were associated with illness, and to determine whether any factors were associated with hospitalization. The investigation found that, among the 19 attendees at the family gathering, seven were confirmed with histoplasmosis, 11 were probable, and one did not have histoplasmosis.

  16. Floods of Selected Streams in Arkansas, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Jaysson E.; Eng, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Floods can cause loss of life and extensive destruction to property. Monitoring floods and understanding the reasons for their occurrence are the responsibility of many Federal agencies. The National Weather Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Geological Survey are among the most visible of these agencies. Together, these three agencies collect and analyze floodflow information to better understand the variety of mechanisms that cause floods, and how the characteristics and frequencies of floods vary with time and location. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored and assessed the quantity of streamflow in our Nation's streams since the agency's inception in 1879. Because of ongoing collection and assessment of streamflow data, the USGS can provide information about a range of surface-water issues including the suitability of water for public supply and irrigation and the effects of agriculture and urbanization on streamflow. As part of its streamflow-data collection activities, the USGS measured streamflow in multiple streams during extreme flood events in Arkansas in the spring of 2008. The analysis of streamflow information collected during flood events such as these provides a scientific basis for decision making related to resource management and restoration. Additionally, this information can be used by water-resource managers to better define flood-hazard areas and to design bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other structures. Water levels (stage) and streamflow (discharge) currently are being monitored in near real-time at approximately 150 locations in Arkansas. The streamflow-gaging stations measure and record hydrologic data at 15-minute or hourly intervals; the data then are transmitted through satellites to the USGS database and displayed on the internet every 1 to 4 hours. Streamflow-gaging stations in Arkansas are part of a network of over 7,500 active streamflow-gaging stations operated by the USGS throughout the United

  17. Environmental Impact Assessment. Overall Training Mission, Fort Chaffee, Arkansas,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-04-01

    Lindane for fleas, and Warfarin for mice. (f) Fire protection and prevention. Fort Chaffee maintains its own fire protection service. At present...Sebastian County have inadequate diets , according to statistics acquired by the Cooperative Extension Service of~ the University of Arkansas, Division...adequate diet or lack knowledge of the basic four food groups. Homemakers lack the knowledge of principles of food cookery. Homemakers lack knowledge

  18. Potentiometric surfaces and water-level trends in the Cockfield (upper Claiborne) aquifer in southern Arkansas and the Wilcox (lower Wilcox) aquifer of northeastern and southern Arkansas, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kirk D.

    2015-01-01

    The Cockfield aquifer, located in southern Arkansas, is composed of Eocene-age sand beds found near the base of the Cockfield Formation of Claiborne Group. The Wilcox aquifer, located in northeastern and southern Arkansas, is composed of Paleocene-age sand beds found in the middle to lower part of the Wilcox Group. The Cockfield and Wilcox aquifers are primary sources of groundwater. In 2010, withdrawals from the Cockfield aquifer in Arkansas totaled 19.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), and withdrawals from the Wilcox aquifer totaled 36.5 Mgal/d.

  19. The West in Early Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Verhoeff investigates the emergence of the western genre, made in the first two decades of cinema (1895-1915). By analyzing many unknown and forgotten films from international archives she traces the relationships between films about the American West, their surrounding films, and other popular medi

  20. Bacteria and Turbidity Survey for Blue Mountain Lake, Arkansas, Spring and Summer, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasker, A. Dwight

    1995-01-01

    Introduction Blue Mountain Lake darn is located at river mile 74.4 on the Petit Jean River in Logan and Yell Counties in west-central Arkansas (fig. 1). Drainage area above the darn is 488 square miles. Blue Mountain Lake is located between two national forests-the Ozark National Forest and the Ouachita National Forest. The primary purpose for Blue Mountain Lake is flood control, but the lake is used for a variety of recreational purposes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.s. Army Corps of Engineers, Little Rock District, conducted a bacterial and turbidity study of the Blue Mountain Lake Basin during the spring and suri1mer 1994. Samples were collected weekly at 11 locations within the lake basin from May through September 1994. Eight sampling sites were located on tributaries to the lake and three sampling sites were located on the lake with one of the sites located at a swim beach (fig. 2; table 1).

  1. Hydrogeology and Physical Characteristics of Water Samples at the Red River Aluminum Site, Stamps, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, J. B.; Stanton, G. P.; Freiwald, D. A.

    2001-12-01

    The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site.

  2. Transport and transformation of nutrients and sediment in two agricultural watersheds in northeast Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture is vital to Arkansas economy as it contributes $20 billion annually, double the average national contribution to the state GDP. Arkansas is ranked in the top 5 in rice, cotton seed and sorghum, and top 20 in soybean, corn for grain, and wheat production nationally. Despite the importance...

  3. 78 FR 27306 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Dermott, Arkansas, and Cleveland, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Dermott, Arkansas, and Cleveland, Mississippi AGENCY... CFR part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant... Delta Radio Network, LLC, substitutes FM Channel 224A for 289A at Dermott, Arkansas, and substitutes...

  4. Association of School-Based Influenza Vaccination Clinics and School Absenteeism--Arkansas, 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquelais, Rachel E.; Safi, Haytham; Butler, Sandra; Smith, Nathaniel; Haselow, Dirk T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a major cause of seasonal viral respiratory illness among school-aged children. Accordingly, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) coordinates >800 school-based influenza immunization clinics before each influenza season. We quantified the relationship between student influenza vaccination in Arkansas public schools…

  5. 78 FR 14319 - Arkansas; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Arkansas; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-4100-DR), dated January 29,...

  6. 76 FR 36142 - Arkansas; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Arkansas; Amendment No. 6 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the State of Arkansas (FEMA-1975-DR), dated May 2, 2011,...

  7. Transcending Communication Barriers with West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampadu, Lena

    Americans doing business with West Africans are limited in their ability to communicate successfully in that part of the world because of language, stereotyping, and ethnocentrism. Americans must become accustomed to British patterns of speech and writing. Stereotypes of Africa, its people, and its cultures perpetuated by the media keep Americans…

  8. Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus surveys in the North American Intermountain West: utilizing citizen scientists to conduct monitoring across a broad geographic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus is an open-country species breeding in the northern United States and Canada, and has likely experienced a long-term, range-wide, and substantial decline. However, the cause and magnitude of the decline is not well understood. We set forth to address the first two of six previously proposed conservation priorities to be addressed for this species: (1 better define habitat use and (2 improve population monitoring. We recruited 131 volunteers to survey over 6.2 million ha within the state of Idaho for Short-eared Owls during the 2015 breeding season. We surveyed 75 transects, 71 of which were surveyed twice, and detected Short-eared Owls on 27 transects. We performed multiscale occupancy modeling to identify habitat associations, and performed multiscale abundance modeling to generate a state-wide population estimate. Our results suggest that within the state of Idaho, Short-eared Owls are more often found in areas with marshland or riparian habitat or areas with greater amounts of sagebrush habitat at the 1750 ha transect scale. At the 50 ha point scale, Short-eared Owls tend to associate positively with fallow and bare dirt agricultural land and negatively with grassland. Cropland was not chosen at the broader transect scale suggesting that Short-eared Owls may prefer more heterogeneous landscapes. On the surface our results may seem contradictory to the presumed land use by a "grassland" species; however, the grasslands of the Intermountain West, consisting largely of invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum, lack the complex structure shown to be preferred by these owls. We suggest the local adaptation to agriculture represents the next best habitat to their historical native habitat preferences. Regardless, we have confirmed regional differences that should be considered in conservation planning for this species. Last, our results demonstrate the feasibility, efficiency, and effectiveness of utilizing public

  9. Genetic analysis of the Yavapai Native Americans from West-Central Arizona using the Illumina MiSeq FGx™ forensic genomics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Frank R; Churchill, Jennifer D; Novroski, Nicole M M; King, Jonathan L; Ng, Jillian; Oldt, Robert F; McCulloh, Kelly L; Weise, Jessica A; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-09-01

    Forensically-relevant genetic markers were typed for sixty-two Yavapai Native Americans using the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit.These data are invaluable to the human identity community due to the greater genetic differentiation among Native American tribes than among other subdivisions within major populations of the United States. Autosomal, X-chromosomal, and Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) and identity-informative (iSNPs), ancestry-informative (aSNPs), and phenotype-informative (pSNPs) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele frequencies are reported. Sequence-based allelic variants were observed in 13 autosomal, 3 X, and 3 Y STRs. These observations increased observed and expected heterozygosities for autosomal STRs by 0.081±0.068 and 0.073±0.063, respectively, and decreased single-locus random match probabilities by 0.051±0.043 for 13 autosomal STRs. The autosomal random match probabilities (RMPs) were 2.37×10-26 and 2.81×10-29 for length-based and sequence-based alleles, respectively. There were 22 and 25 unique Y-STR haplotypes among 26 males, generating haplotype diversities of 0.95 and 0.96, for length-based and sequencebased alleles, respectively. Of the 26 haplotypes generated, 17 were assigned to haplogroup Q, three to haplogroup R1b, two each to haplogroups E1b1b and L, and one each to haplogroups R1a and I1. Male and female sequence-based X-STR random match probabilities were 3.28×10-7 and 1.22×10-6, respectively. The average observed and expected heterozygosities for 94 iSNPs were 0.39±0.12 and 0.39±0.13, respectively, and the combined iSNP RMP was 1.08×10-32. The combined STR and iSNP RMPs were 2.55×10-58 and 3.02×10-61 for length-based and sequence-based STR alleles, respectively. Ancestry and phenotypic SNP information, performed using the ForenSeq™ Universal Analysis Software, predicted black hair, brown eyes, and some probability of East Asian ancestry for all but one sample that clustered between European and

  10. Hard lives, God's help, and struggling through: caregiving in Arkansas Delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerdner, Linda A; Tripp-Reimer, Toni; Simpson, Helen C

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this ethnographic study was to describe the experience of African American adults providing in-home care for a family member with chronic confusion living in the Arkansas Delta. We conducted this study over fourteen months in two rural Delta counties using participant observation and in-depth interviews. The majority of caregivers were adult daughters. Nearly half attributed chronic confusion to a difficult life and emotional stress or "worry;" a third believed it to be a natural component of "old age." Caregivers tended to view their work as an expression of love and devotion that was accompanied by emotional stress and personal sacrifice. While just under half of the caregivers had no other family members willing or available to assist with the physical care of the elder, the majority were able to turn to family members for emotional support. Further they identified strong religious beliefs as the primary force that sustained them in the caregiving role. The centrality of spirituality, faith/religion was noted in nearly all aspects of life. Faith in God was seen as continuing to be an important aspect of the care recipients' lives as well. Recipients' spiritual needs were addressed by accompanying the care recipient to church services and reading Bible passages to them on a regular basis. Selective community services (i.e., adult day care, home health services) were used that supported efforts at maintaining the family caregiver role. Findings are discussed within the context of historical and sociopolitical factors of the geographic region.

  11. Water-quality investigation of the Tyronza River watershed, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, T.E.

    1978-01-01

    The results of a 1-year study of surface-water quality in the Tyronza River Watershed, Arkansas, are presented to document conditions before implementation of Soil Conservation Service Programs. The report includes a general description of the watershed 's topography, geology, and aquifers, and the results of monthly measurements of discharge at five sites, and several physical and chemical parameters, plus quarterly analyses for several ions and semiannual analyses of bottom material for various pesticides. The results indicate that the quality of the water in the streams and ditches samples is normal for an intensely farmed area such as this watershed. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Cultural Resources Intensive Survey and Testing of Mississippi River Levee Berms Crittenden and Desha Counties, Arkansas and Mississippi, Scott, Cape Girardeau and Pemiscot Counties, Missouri. Item R-48.87 A.C. Nash; Missouri, Relief Well Ditches Cape Girardeau and Scott Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    battles between Federal and Confederate troops occurred throughout the state, particularly in the west. In 1862 the battle of PeaI Ridge in Arkansas...constant raids by Southern soldiers collecting supplies as well as raids from citizens who sym- pathized with the South. The Battle of Cape Girardeau...bridge was constructed across the Mississippi River at Thebes on the St. Louis and Southwestern Railroad line (Kochitizky 1906). With the completion of

  13. Woodpecker densities in the big woods of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscier, J.D.; Krementz, David G.

    2010-01-01

    Sightings of the now-feared-extinct ivory-billed woodpecker Campephilus principalis in 2004 in the Big Woods of Arkansas initiated a series of studies on how to best manage habitat for this endangered species as well as all woodpeckers in the area. Previous work suggested that densities of other woodpeckers, particularly pileated Dryocopus pileatus and red-bellied Melanerpes carolinus woodpeckers, might be useful in characterizing habitat use by the ivory-billed woodpecker. We estimated densities of six woodpecker species in the Big Woods during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007 and also during the winter season of 2007. Our estimated densities were as high as or higher than previously published woodpecker density estimates for the Southeastern United States. Density estimates ranged from 9.1 to 161.3 individuals/km2 across six woodpecker species. Our data suggest that the Big Woods of Arkansas is attractive to all woodpeckers using the region, including ivory-billed woodpeckers.

  14. 78 FR 56170 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Magnolia, Arkansas; and Oil City, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Magnolia, Arkansas; and Oil City, Louisiana AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; denial of application for review. SUMMARY: In...

  15. Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Tennessee; 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Outcrop and subcrop extent of the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee.

  16. Middle Claiborne Confining Unit: Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Middle Claiborne Confining Unit in Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee. The hydrogeologic...

  17. Vicksburg-Jackson Confining Unit: Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Vicksburg-Jackson Confining Unit in Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, and Tennessee. The hydrogeologic unit...

  18. Middle Wilcox Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the Middle Wolcox Aquifer in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Mississippi, Tennessee. The hydrogeologic...

  19. Lower Wilcox Aquifer: Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi 2006-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Digital hydrogeologic surface of the in Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi. The hydrogeologic unit dataset contains 414 rows and 394...

  20. 78 FR 48716 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Arkansas Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... Arkansas River Basin, groundwater, climate change, recreation biological resources, human environment, socioeconomics, environmental justice, and historic properties. A Notice of Availability of the Draft EIS was... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  1. An Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration Options for Grand Prairie Region of Arkansas

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options covers the hydrogeomorphic analysis (HGM) for Grand Prairie Region of Arkansas. This three step...

  2. The fishes of Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, B.G.; Petersen, James C.

    2005-01-01

    A fish inventory was conducted at Pea Ridge National Military Park, Arkansas, during base-flow conditions in September 2003. Six sites including four streams and two ponds were sampled using conventional electrofishing equipment (a seine also was used at one site). There were 653 individuals collected comprising 18 species (plus 1 hybrid) and 15 genera. The number of species collected at the four stream sites ranged from 1 16. Most fish species collected generally are associated with small streams in the Ozark Plateaus. The two most common species were the banded sculpin and the southern redbelly dace. Three species and a sunfish hybrid were collected from the quarry pond. No fish were collected from the unnamed pond. A preliminary expected species list incorrectly listed 42 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. One species not on the original list was added to the revised list. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 18 the 40 species (45 percent) and 1 hybrid. No previous fish inventories have been completed for park but some observations can be made relative to species distributions. There were only five fish species collected in three headwater streams, and it is unlikely that many other species would occur in these three streams because of constraints imposed on the fish community by stream size. Little Sugar Creek, a medium-sized stream, had the most species collected, and it is likely that additional species would be collected from this stream if additional sampling were to occur. Distribution records indicate that all 18 species occur in the general area. Although no species collected in this study are federallylisted threatened or endangered species, three species collected at Pea Ridge National Military Park may be of some special interest to National Park Service managers and others. Two the species collected (cardinal shiner and stippled darter) are endemic to the Ozark Plateaus; both are rather common in certain

  3. The Arkansas AHEC model of community-oriented primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, M S; Landis, B J

    1999-07-01

    This article explicates the Arkansas Area Health Education Center (AHEC) model of community-oriented primary care (COPC) and the role of the family nurse practitioner (FNP) in its implementation. The AHECs collaborate with local agencies to provide comprehensive, accessible, quality health care to specific patient populations, and offer learning opportunities to a wide variety of health professions students. The FNP demonstrates organizational and role competencies that include directing patient care, providing professional leadership, and developing the advanced practice nursing role. Two case studies are used to illustrate the FNPs' approach to COPC: (1) selection of interdisciplinary, multidisciplinary, and transdisciplinary approaches to management of a patient with chronic illnesses, and (2) the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiners Training Project.

  4. West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  5. Folic acid and the decline in neural tube defects in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Bridget S; Hobbs, Charlotte A; Flowers, Bettye S; Smith, Veronica; Robbins, James M

    2007-04-01

    Folic acid has been shown to reduce the risk of pregnancies affected by neural tube defects (NTDs) by as much as 70%. Cereal grains sold in the U.S. have been fortified with folic acid since 1998. The Arkansas Reproductive Health Monitoring System and the Arkansas Folic Acid Coalition have encouraged use of folic acid and monitored the impact of increased consumption of folic acid among Arkansans. NTDs in Arkansas have declined 40% since intervention programs were implemented. The greatest decline has been observed among white and Hispanic women. Efforts to encourage folic acid consumption should continue to target Arkansas women. NTDs include anencephaly and spina bifida. These birth defects result from incomplete closure of the fetal neural tube during the first month of pregnancy. Infants with anencephaly are born without all or most of their brain and die within a few days of life. Infants with spina bifida have varying degrees of impairment ranging from little noticeable disability to severe, lifelong disability. Folic acid, when taken in supplement form has been shown to reduce the risk of a pregnancy affected by a neural tube defect by as much as 70%. As a result of this finding, the U.S. Federal Drug Administration mandated that cereal grains sold in this country be fortified with at least 140 mcg of folic acid per 100 grams of grain by January 1, 1998. Prior to mandatory fortification, the March of Dimes and the U.S. Public Health Service released statements encouraging all women of reproductive age who are capable of becoming pregnant to take 400 mcg 'of synthetic folic acid daily. The Arkansas Reproductive Health Monitoring System (ARHMS) has monitored rates of NTDs in Arkansas since 1980. ARHMS is the lead agency of the Arkansas Folic Acid Coalition whose mission is to encourage folic acid use among all Arkansas women of reproductive age. In this report, we summarize efforts by ARHMS and the Arkansas Folic Acid Coalition to increase the awareness and

  6. Hydrogeology and physical characteristics of water samples at the Red River aluminum site, Stamps, Arkansas, April 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, John B.; Stanton, Gregory P.; Freiwald, David A.

    2001-01-01

    The Red River Aluminum site near Stamps, Arkansas, contains waste piles of salt cake and metal byproducts from the smelting of aluminum. The waste piles are subjected to about 50 inches of rainfall a year, resulting in the dissolution of the salts and metal. To assess the potential threat to underlying ground-water resources at the site, its hydrogeology was characterized by measuring water levels and field parameters of water quality in 23 wells and at 2 surface-water sites. Seventeen of these monitor wells were constructed at various depths for this study to allow for the separate characterization of the shallow and deep ground-water systems, the calculation of vertical gradients, and the collection of water samples at different depths within the flow system. Lithologic descriptions from drill-hole cuttings and geophysical logs indicate the presence of interbedded sands, gravels, silts, and clays to depths of 65 feet. The regionally important Sparta aquifer underlies the site. Water levels in shallow wells indicate radial flow away from the salt-cake pile located near the center of the site. Flow in the deep system is to the west and southwest toward Bodcau Creek. Water-level data from eight piezometer nests indicate a downward hydraulic gradient from the shallow to deep systems across the site. Values of specific conductance (an indicator of dissolved salts) ranged from 215 to 196,200 microsiemens per centimeter and indicate that saline waters are being transported horizontally and vertically downward away from the site

  7. The fishes of Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.

    2005-01-01

    Fish communities were sampled from eight sites within Hot Springs National Park. Fish were collected by seining and electrofishing during base-flow periods in July and October 2003. All individuals were identified to species. More than 1,020 individuals were collected, representing 24 species. The number of species collected at the sites ranged from 5 to 19. Central stoneroller, orangebelly darter, and longear sunfish were among the more abundant fish species at most sites. These species are typical of small streams in this area. An expected species list incorrectly listed 35 species because of incorrect species range or habitat requirements. Upon revising this list, the inventory yielded 24 of the 51 expected species (47 percent). No species collected in 2003 were federally-listed threatened or endangered species. However, two species collected at Hot Springs National Park may be of special interest to National Park Service managers and others. The Ouachita madtom is endemic to the Ouachita Mountains and is listed as a species of special concern by the Arkansas Natural Heritage Commission. The grass carp, which is a native of eastern Asia, is present in Ricks Pond; one individual was collected and no other grass carp were observed. The introduction of grass carp into the United States is a controversial issue because of possible (but undocumented) harmful effects on native species and habitats.

  8. A rare Uroglena bloom in Beaver Lake, Arkansas, spring 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, William R.; Hufhines, Brad

    2017-01-01

    A combination of factors triggered a Uroglena volvox bloom and taste and odor event in Beaver Lake, a water-supply reservoir in northwest Arkansas, in late April 2015. Factors contributing to the bloom included increased rainfall and runoff containing increased concentrations of dissolved organic carbon, followed by a stable pool, low nutrient concentrations, and an expansion of lake surface area and littoral zone. This was the first time U. volvox was identified in Beaver Lake and the first time it was recognized as a source of taste and odor. Routine water quality samples happened to be collected by the US Geological Survey and the Beaver Water District throughout the reservoir during the bloom—. Higher than normal rainfall in March 2015 increased the pool elevation in Beaver Lake by 2.3 m (by early April), increased the surface area by 10%, and increased the littoral zone by 1214 ha; these conditions persisted for 38 days, resulting from flood water being retained behind the dam. Monitoring programs that cover a wide range of reservoir features, including dissolved organic carbon, zooplankton, and phytoplankton, are valuable in explaining unusual events such as this Uroglena bloom.

  9. Circuits of Spectacle: The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Alison

    2012-01-01

    The Miller Brothers' 101 Ranch Real Wild West show ran from 1906 to 1931, outlasting the famous Buffalo Bill's Wild West show by more than a decade. From its beginnings in Oklahoma Territory, the Real Wild West show traveled national and international circuits and built a broad roster of performers, including more than 150 American Indians. During…

  10. Sadness, suicide, and bullying in Arkansas: results from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey -- 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindrick, Kristi; Castro, Juan; Messias, Erick

    2013-10-01

    Bullying is a common exposure in high school and more recently cyberbullying has become prevalent among teens. We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of school bullying and cyberbullying and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 11.6% of students reported only school bullying, 6.2% only cyberbullying, and 10.2% both forms of bullying. We determined "feeling unsafe at school" was a significant risk factor for depression and all suicide questions. We also found that being a victim of school bullying, cyberbullying, or both, increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, and plan.

  11. Geologic map of the Murray Quadrangle, Newton County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2016-07-06

    This map summarizes the geology of the Murray quadrangle in the Ozark Plateaus region of northern Arkansas. Geologically, the area is on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, an uplift that has the oldest rocks exposed at its center, in Missouri. Physiographically, the Murray quadrangle is within the Boston Mountains, a high plateau region underlain by Pennsylvanian sandstones and shales. Valleys of the Buffalo River and Little Buffalo River and their tributaries expose an approximately 1,600-ft-thick (488-meter-thick) sequence of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly deformed by a series of faults and folds. The Buffalo National River, a park that encompasses the Buffalo River and adjacent land that is administered by the National Park Service is present at the northwestern edge of the quadrangle.Mapping for this study was carried out by field inspection of numerous sites and was compiled as a 1:24,000 geographic information system (GIS) database. Locations and elevation of sites were determined with the aid of a global positioning satellite receiver and a hand-held barometric altimeter that was frequently recalibrated at points of known elevation. Hill-shade relief and slope maps derived from a U.S. Geological Survey 10-meter digital elevation model as well as orthophotographs were used to help trace ledge-forming units between field traverses within the Upper Mississippian and Pennsylvanian part of the stratigraphic sequence. Strike and dip of beds were typically measured along stream drainages or at well-exposed ledges. Structure contours, constructed on the top of the Boone Formation and the base of a prominent sandstone unit within the Bloyd Formation, were drawn based on the elevations of field sites on these contacts well as other limiting information for their minimum elevations above hilltops or their maximum elevations below valley bottoms.

  12. The Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Ninth-Grade Students in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Shellie Lyne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose, scope, and method of study. The purpose of this study was to determine if and to what degree a relationship existed between physical fitness and the academic achievement of ninth-grade public school students in Arkansas. A sample of 152 students from four different schools participated in the study. The dependent variable was academic…

  13. Sadness, suicide, and sexual behavior in Arkansas: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick

    2013-12-01

    We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.

  14. Implications of Teacher Motivation and Renewal Indicators in Arkansas toward Professional Growth and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Lary D.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to determine if the teaching population in the state of Arkansas had a more favorable attitude toward specific motivational theories and practices; and to determine if that attitude significantly affected the teacher retention rate and the quality of work produced. The literature reviewed included the role of…

  15. Characterizing irrigation water requirements for rice production from the Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated rice irrigation water use in the University of Arkansas Rice Research Verification Program between the years of 2003 and 2011. Irrigation water use averaged 747 mm (29.4 inches) over the nine years. A significant 40% water savings was reported for rice grown under a zero gr...

  16. Utilizing Professional Learning Community Concepts and Social Networking for State Advocacy: The Arkansas Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albritton, Shelly; Chadwick, Mona; Bangs, David; Holt, Carleton; Longing, Jeff; Duyar, Ibrihim

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) state affiliate, Arkansas Professors of Educational Administration's (ARPEA), activities, accomplishments, and advocacy efforts. Faced with numerous changes being implemented in education in the state, it became imperative for ARPEA's…

  17. Arkansas Public Higher Education Personal Services Recommendations, 2011-2013 Biennium. 7-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Department of Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication lists "non-classified" personal services recommendations of the Arkansas Higher Education Coordinating Board, and "classified" positions recommended by the Office of Personnel Management, Department of Finance and Administration for public institutions of higher education for the 2011-13 biennium. The Office of…

  18. Arkansas Public Higher Education Personal Services Recommendations: Fiscal Year 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Department of Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This publication lists non-classified personal services recommendations of the Arkansas Higher Education Coordinating Board for the Fiscal Year 2010-11. Due to the implementation of the pay plan study, the Office of Personnel Management of the Department of Finance and Administration (OPM) did not make recommendations for classified positions.…

  19. 76 FR 76971 - Cross-Media Electronic Reporting: Authorized Program Revision Approval, State of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... its 40 CFR Part 272--Approved State Hazardous Waste Management EPA-authorized program for electronic reporting of annual hazardous waste information submitted under 40 CFR parts 262, 264, and 265 is being... Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (AR DEQ) submitted an application for its Hazardous...

  20. What Factors Relate to Student Performance in Arkansas College Gateway Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rick; Butler, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    In higher education in the state of Arkansas, two courses are considered to be gateway courses to obtaining a college degree--College Algebra and English Composition I. While students may obtain Certificates of Proficiency and Technical Certificates without taking these courses, few, if any, can earn an Associate's or Bachelor's degree without…

  1. Ready to Lead? A Study of Arkansas and Louisiana Charter School Principals' Leadership Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Creshun Anjal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of Arkansas and Louisiana district conversion and open-enrollment charter school principals' background characteristics, leadership skills, and school success. A quantitative methodology was used to test the research questions prescribed in the study. Data was collected using a survey. The…

  2. Field evaluation of four spatial repellent devices against Arkansas rice-land mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four commercially available spatial repellent devices were tested in a rice land habitat near Stuttgart, Arkansas after semi-field level assessments had been made at the Center for Medical, Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, ARS, USDA in Gainesville, FL. OFF! Clip-On® (a.i. metofluthrin, S.C....

  3. Impact of Spina Bifida on Parental Caregivers: Findings from a Survey of Arkansas Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D.; Flores, Alina L.; Ouyang, Lijing; Robbins, James M.; Tilford, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The well-being of caregivers of children with spina bifida and other conditions is an important topic. We interviewed the primary caregivers of 98 children aged 0-17 years with spina bifida sampled from a population-based birth defects registry in Arkansas and the caregivers of 49 unaffected children. Measures of caregiver well-being were compared…

  4. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  5. Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas (NPS, GRD, GRI, HOSP, HOSP digital map) adapted from the interim Arkansas Geological Survey DGM-HSR-003 by Johnson and Hanson (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Unpublished Interim Digital Geologic Map of Hot Springs National Park and Vicinity, Arkansas is composed of GIS data layers complete with ArcMap 9.3 layer (.LYR)...

  6. West Nile virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... West Nile encephalitis or meningitis may lead to brain damage and death. 1 in 10 people with brain inflammation do ... Complications from severe West Nile virus infection include: Brain damage Permanent muscle weakness (sometimes similar to polio ) Death

  7. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2011-01-01

    muscle fibre type I. Skeletal muscle fibre type II is less oxidative and more glycolytic than skeletal muscle fibre type I. Lower oxidative capacity is associated with lower fat oxidation and a higher disposal of lipids, which are stored as muscular adipose tissue in higher amounts in Black compared......In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2...... diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. We hypothesize that the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in African Americans (as compared to White Americans) is facilitated by an inherited higher percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type II and a lower percentage of skeletal...

  8. Surface waters of Illinois River basin in Arkansas and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, L.L.

    1959-01-01

    The estimated runoff from the Illinois River basin of 1,660 square miles has averaged 1,160,000 acre-feet per year during the water years 1938-56, equivalent to an average annual runoff depth of 13.1 inches. About 47 percent of the streamflow is contributed from drainage in Arkansas, where an average of 550,000 acre-ft per year runs off from 755 square miles, 45.5 percent of the total drainage area. The streamflow is highly variable. Twenty-two years of record for Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla., shows a variation in runoff for the water year 1945 in comparison with 1954 in a ratio of almost 10 to 1. Runoff in 1927 may have exceeded that of 1945, according to records for White River at Beaver, Ark., the drainage basin just east of the Illinois River basin. Variation in daily discharge is suggested by a frequency analysis of low flows at the gaging station near Tahlequah, Okla. The mean flow at that site is 901 cfs (cubic feet per second), the median daily flow is 350 cfs, and the lowest 30-day mean flow in a year probably will be less than 130 cfs half of the time and less than 20 cfs every 10 years on the average. The higher runoff tends to occur in the spring months, March to May, a 3-month period that, on the average, accounts for almost half of the annual flow. High runoff may occur during any month in the year, but in general, the streamflow is the lowest in the summer. The mean monthly flow of Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla., for September is about 11 percent of that for May. Records show that there is flow throughout the year in Illinois River and its principal tributaries Osage Creek, Flint Creek and Barren Fork. The high variability in streamflow in this region requires the development of storage by impoundment if maximum utilization of the available water supplies is to be attained. For example, a 120-day average low flow of 22 cfs occurred in 1954 at Illinois River near Tahlequah, Okla. To have maintained the flow at 350 cfs, the median daily

  9. Arkansas: a leading laboratory for health care payment and delivery system reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachrach, Deborah; du Pont, Lammot; Lipson, Mindy

    2014-08-01

    As states' Medicaid programs continue to evolve from traditional fee-for-service to value-based health care delivery, there is growing recognition that systemwide multipayer approaches provide the market power needed to address the triple aim of improved patient care, improved health of populations, and reduced costs. Federal initiatives, such as the State Innovation Model grant program, make significant funds available for states seeking to transform their health care systems. In crafting their reform strategies, states can learn from early innovators. This issue brief focuses on one such state: Arkansas. Insights and lessons from the Arkansas Health Care Payment Improvement Initiative (AHCPII) suggest that progress is best gained through an inclusive, deliberative process facilitated by committed leadership, a shared agreement on root problems and opportunities for improvement, and a strategy grounded in the state's particular health care landscape.

  10. A demographic comparison of two black bear populations in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    1994-01-01

    The Ozark and Ouachita mountain regions of western Arkansas, collectively known as the Interior Highlands, historically supported large numbers of black bears (Ursus americanus). Indiscriminate killing of bears by early settlers and subsequent habitat reductions due to extensive logging and changes in land use resulted in their decline (Smith et al. 1991). By the late 1940's, bears had been extirpated from both regions (Holder 1951).

  11. Field Evaluation of Four Spatial Repellent Devices Against Arkansas Rice-Land Mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    FIELD EVALUATION OF FOUR SPATIAL REPELLENT DEVICES AGAINST ARKANSAS RICE-LAND MOSQUITOES DAVID A. DAME,1 MAX V. MEISCH,2 CAROLYN N. LEWIS,2 DANIEL L... mosquitoes to locate a host. There are many commercially available spatial repellent products currently on the market. These products include...a large rice growing area where late-spring and summer agricultural irriga- tion generates dense mosquito populations. Spatial repellent devices

  12. Molecular Detection of Rickettsia Species Within Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) Collected from Arkansas United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout Fryxell, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L; Billingsley, P M; Williamson, P C

    2015-05-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), caused by the etiological agent Rickettsia rickettsii, is the most severe and frequently reported rickettsial illness in the United States, and is commonly diagnosed throughout the southeast. With the discoveries of Rickettsia parkeri and other spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) in ticks, it remains inconclusive if the cases reported as RMSF are truly caused by R. rickettsii or other SFGR. Arkansas reports one of the highest incidence rates of RMSF in the country; consequently, to identify the rickettsiae in Arkansas, 1,731 ticks, 250 white-tailed deer, and 189 canines were screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the rickettsial genes gltA, rompB, and ompA. None of the white-tailed deer were positive, while two of the canines (1.1%) and 502 (29.0%) of the ticks were PCR positive. Five different tick species were PCR positive: 244 (37%) Amblyomma americanum L., 130 (38%) Ixodes scapularis Say, 65 (39%) Amblyomma maculatum (Koch), 30 (9%) Rhipicephalus sanguineus Latreille, 7 (4%) Dermacentor variabilis Say, and 26 (44%) unidentified Amblyomma ticks. None of the sequenced products were homologous to R. rickettsii. The most common Rickettsia via rompB amplification was Rickettsia montanensis and nonpathogenic Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii, whereas with ompA amplification the most common Rickettsia was Ca. R. amblyommii. Many tick specimens collected in northwest Arkansas were PCR positive and these were commonly A. americanum harboring Ca. R. amblyommii, a currently nonpathogenic Rickettsia. Data reported here indicate that pathogenic R. rickettsii was absent from these ticks and suggest by extension that other SFGR are likely the causative agents for Arkansas diagnosed RMSF cases.

  13. Distributing medical expertise: the evolution and impact of telemedicine in arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Curtis L; Bronstein, Janet M; Benton, Tina L; Fletcher, David A

    2014-02-01

    Arkansas's telemedicine system has evolved since 2003 from a support mechanism for high-risk pregnancy consultations to an initiative that spans medical specialties, including asthma care, pediatric cardiology, gynecology, and mental health. The system has also expanded care to diverse populations, including incarcerated women and people with HIV/AIDS. This article describes the system's evolution, organization, and diverse activities. It also shows how telemedicine can have a positive impact on a rural state and how such a state can become an engine for change regionally. The Arkansas telemedicine system faced classic challenges to uptake and function, in building and sustaining funding, in obtaining insurance reimbursement for services, and in educating patients and providers. The system's impacts on health outcomes and medical practice culture have also reached beyond patient care and provider support. The existing yet continually evolving telemedicine infrastructure and partnerships in Arkansas will respond to the state's inevitable health care reform adaptations from the Affordable Care Act and could provide direction for other states seeking to adopt or expand their telemedicine efforts.

  14. Methods and applications of electrical simulation in ground-water studies in the lower Arkansas and Verdigris River Valleys, Arkansas and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Reed, J.E.; Wells, C.J.; Swafford, B.F.

    1970-01-01

    The Arkansas River Multiple-Purpose Plan will provide year-round navigation on the Arkansas River from near its mouth to Muskogee, Okla., and on the Verdigris River from Muskogee to Catoosa, Okla. The altered regimen in the Arkansas and Verdigris Rivers will affect ground-water conditions in the adjacent alluvial aquifers. In 1957 the U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Army Corps of Engineers entered into a cooperative agreement for a comprehensive ground-water study of the lower Arkansas and Verdigris River valleys. At the request of the Corps of Engineers, the Geological Survey agreed to provide (1) basic ground-water data before, during, and after construction of the Multiple-Purpose Plan and (2) interpretation and projections of postconstruction ground-water conditions. The data collected were used by the Corps of Engineers in preliminary foundation and excavation estimates and by the Geological Survey as the basis for defining the hydrologic properties of, and the ground-water conditions in, the aquifer. The projections of postconstruction ground-water conditions were used by the Corps of Engineers in the planning, design, construction, and operation of the Multiple-Purpose Plan. Analysis and projections of ground-water conditions were made by use of electrical analog models. These models use the analogy between the flow of electricity in a resistance-capacitance circuit and the flow of a liquid in a porous and permeable medium. Verification provides a test of the validity of the analog to perform as the aquifer would, within the range of historic forces. The verification process consists of simulating the action of historic forces which have acted upon the aquifer and of duplicating the aquifer response with the analog. The areal distribution of accretion can be treated as an unknown and can be determined by analog simulation of the piezometric surface in an aquifer. Comparison of accretion with depth to piezometric surface below land surface shows that

  15. A Study of the School Principal Labor Market in Arkansas: Implications for Incentive-Based Compensation Policies to Improve Principal Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Marc Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Improving principal quality in Arkansas may be a partial solution to the public policy problem of low performing public schools. Just as policymakers in other states are beginning to explore incentive-based compensation policies to improve principal quality, education policymakers in Arkansas should look to these policies as a way to align goals…

  16. Call From China West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Guo Jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ The 12th East-West China Cooperation and Investment and Trade Fair was held from April 5 to 8 at the International Conference and Exhibition Center in Qu-jiang,Xi'an.Shaanxi province,in the west of China.

  17. Translating West African Strategy with Airpower Means: A Qualitative Comparison of Tactical Airlift Shaping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Africa directly affect the global economy. In this context, the United States’ foreign strategy directly corresponds to the protection of American...TRANSLATING WEST AFRICAN STRATEGY WITH AIRPOWER MEANS: A QUALITATIVE COMPARISON OF TACTICAL AIRLIFT SHAPING OPERATIONS A thesis...Translating West African Strategy with Airpower Means: A Qualitative Comparison of Tactical Airlift Shaping Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  18. Recalibration of a ground-water flow model of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer of northeastern Arkansas, 1918-1998, with simulations of water levels caused by projected ground-water withdrawals through 2049

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Thomas B.

    2003-01-01

    the model. Areally specified recharge rates ranged from 0 to about 30 inches and total recharge increased from 1972 to 1998 by a factor of about four. Water levels caused by projected ground-water withdrawals were simulated using the calibrated model. Simulations represented a period of 50 years into the future in three scenarios with either unchanged pumpage, pumpage increased by historic trends, or pumpage increased by historic trends except in two areas of the Grand Prairie. If pumping remains at 1997 rates, this produces extreme water-level declines (areas where model cells have gone dry or where the water level in the aquifer is equal to or less than the original saturated thickness, assuming confined conditions in the aquifer everywhere in the formation in predevelopment times) in the aquifer in two areas of the aquifer (one in the Grand Prairie area between the Arkansas and White Rivers and the other west of Crowleys Ridge along the Cache River) with about 400 square miles going dry. Increasing the pumping rates to that which would be projected using historic data led to increased extreme water-level declines in both areas with about 1,300 square miles going dry. Declines in both scenarios generally occurred most rapidly between 2009 and 2019. Reducing the pumping rates to 90 percent of that used for projected historic rates in areas between the Arkansas and White Rivers relating to two diversion projects of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and other agencies did little to decrease the extreme water-level declines. However, these pumpage reductions are small (amounting to about 16 percent of the reductions that could result from implementation of these diversion projects).

  19. Teaching in West Africa: Dig beneath the Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briam, Carol

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience teaching English to adult learners at the American Cultural Center in Dakar, Senegal, a poor, primarily Muslim country and former French colony in West Africa. Her class was composed of about 30 students, whose age ranged from about 18 to 50. They were mostly men and mostly Senegalese, along with a…

  20. Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Tangy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.

  1. Purge at West Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Warren

    1977-01-01

    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  2. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  3. Dracaena in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus descriptio

  4. West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Respond to Pre-Award Requests Manage Your Award Negotiation & Initial Award After Award ... New Trial Launched in West Africa to Evaluate Three Vaccination Strategies , April 6, 2017 Monoclonal Antibody Cures Marburg Infection ...

  5. Eastern Culture Gone West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    THE implication of one of British 19th century writer Rudyard Kipling's most famous quotations: “East is East,West is West and never the twain shall meet” is endorsed by contemporary scholar Dr Samuel Huntington in his work The Clash of Civilizations, in which he asserts that future wars will not be between individual states and political unions but between differing civilizations.

  6. Genetic relatedness of dengue viruses in Key West, Florida, USA, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Santiago, Gilberto A; Margolis, Harold; Stark, Lillian

    2013-04-01

    Sequencing of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) strains isolated in Key West/Monroe County, Florida, indicate endemic transmission for >2 years of a distinct and predominant sublineage of the American-African genotype. DENV-1 strains isolated elsewhere in Florida grouped within a separate Central American lineage. Findings indicate endemic transmission of DENV into the continental United States.

  7. Japanese Shame Culture and American Guilt Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Weijie

    2016-01-01

    Culture is an important factor contributing to the success of intercultural communication. In the east and west, there are many different cultures, among which Japanese shame culture and American guilt culture are two typical ones. Influenced by different cultures, these two countries have different characteristics, which reminds us that in intercultural communication culture should be paid much attention to.

  8. Habitat use of woodpeckers in the Big Woods of eastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krementz, David G.; Lehnen, Sarah E.; Luscier, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Big Woods of eastern Arkansas contain some of the highest densities of woodpeckers recorded within bottomland hardwood forests of the southeastern United States. A better understanding of habitat use patterns by these woodpeckers is a priority for conservationists seeking to maintain these high densities in the Big Woods and the Lower Mississippi Alluvial Valley as a whole. Hence, we used linear mixed-effects and linear models to estimate the importance of habitat characteristics to woodpecker density in the Big Woods during the breeding seasons of 2006 and 2007 and the winter of 2007. Northern flicker Colaptes auratus density was negatively related to tree density both for moderate (. 25 cm diameter at breast height) and larger trees (>61 cm diameter at breast height). Red-headed woodpeckers Melanerpes erythrocephalus also had a negative relationship with density of large (. 61 cm diameter at breast height) trees. Bark disfiguration (an index of tree health) was negatively related to red-bellied woodpecker Melanerpes carolinus and yellow-bellied sapsucker Sphyrapicus varius densities. No measured habitat variables explained pileated woodpecker Dryocopus pileatus density. Overall, the high densities of woodpeckers observed in our study suggest that the current forest management of the Big Woods of Arkansas is meeting the nesting, roosting, and foraging requirements for these birds.

  9. Curriculum alignment and higher order thinking in introductory biology in Arkansas public two-year colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Elizabeth Diane

    This dissertation identified the cognitive levels of lecture objectives, lab objectives, and test questions in introductory majors' biology. The study group included courses offered by 27 faculty members at 18 of the 22 community colleges in Arkansas. Using Bloom's Taxonomy to identify cognitive levels, the median lecture learning outcomes were at level 2 (Comprehension) and test assessments at Level 1 (Knowledge). Lab learning outcomes were determined to have a median of level 3 (Analysis). A correlation analysis was performed using SPSS software to determine if there was an association between the Bloom's level of lecture objectives and test assessments. The only significant difference found was at the Analysis level, or Bloom's level 4 (p=.043). Correlation analyses were run for two other data sets. Years of college teaching experience and hours of training in writing objectives and assessments were compared to the Bloom's Taxonomy level of lecture objectives and test items. No significant difference was found for either of these independent variables. This dissertation provides Arkansas two-year college biology faculty with baseline information about the levels of cognitive skills that are required in freshman biology for majors courses. It can serve to initiate conversations about where we are compared to a national study, where we need to be, and how we get there.

  10. The Effect of Performance-Pay in Little Rock, Arkansas on Student Achievement. Working Paper 2008-02

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Marcus; Greene, Jay P.; Ritter, Gary; Marsh, Ryan

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines evidence from a performance-pay program implemented in five Little Rock, Arkansas elementary schools between 2004 and 2007. Using a differences-in-differences approach, the evidence shows that students whose teachers were eligible for performance pay made substantially larger test score gains in math, reading, and language than…

  11. 76 FR 67175 - Riverbank Hydro No. 2 LLC, Lock Hydro Friends Fund XXXVI, Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corp...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... Engineers' (Corps) Joe Hardin Lock & Dam No. 3, located on the Arkansas River in Lincoln and Jefferson...), and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus water from the Joe Hardin Lock & Dam No. 3, as directed by... 196.358 GWh, and operate run-of-river utilizing surplus ] water from the Joe Hardin Lock & Dam No....

  12. EPSPS gene amplification in glyphosate-resistant in Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) populations from Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas, USA in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations was studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify altern...

  13. 33 CFR 207.275 - McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River navigation system: use, administration, and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River navigation system: use, administration, and navigation. 207.275 Section 207.275 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE NAVIGATION REGULATIONS §...

  14. Knowledge and Perceptions of Visual Communications Curriculum in Arkansas Secondary Agricultural Classrooms: A Closer Look at Experiential Learning Integrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Kristin; Calico, Carley; Edgar, Leslie D.; Edgar, Don W.; Johnson, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    The University of Arkansas developed and integrated visual communications curriculum related to agricultural communications into secondary agricultural programs throughout the state. The curriculum was developed, pilot tested, revised, and implemented by selected secondary agriculture teachers. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate…

  15. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  16. Geodatabase of the available top and bottom surface datasets that represent the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase contains the spatial datasets that represent the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in the States of Arkansas, Oklahoma, and Texas. Included are: (1)...

  17. From the West Memory:Five American Missionaries in the Nanjing Massacre%来自西方的记忆:南京大屠杀中的五位美籍传教士

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓阳

    2015-01-01

    On the eve of Nanjing massacre, more than 20 foreigners who participated in the creation of the In-ternational Safety Zone Nanjing Committee, and did a lot of hard efforts to protect the Chinese refugees in the re-gion.At the same time ,as the personages experienced the Nanjing massacre personally, they witnessed the atroci-ties in Nanjing committed by Japanese invaders, they recorded these atrocities with diaries, letters even the photo-graphs and tried their best to deliver these materials to the outside of Nanjing,they became the precious first hand materials to expose the Japanese atrocities.This paper described the typical five American missionaries during the Nanjing Massacre ,who made treatment of refugees, exposed Japanese atrocities and other activities, in order to fully understand the contribution of westerners staying in Nanjing to protect Nanjing refugees, and rescue Japanese atrocities during the Nanjing Massacre, Reproduction of living conditions of refugees in Nanjing, restored the truth of Japanese atrocities and deepen the Nanjing Massacre study, which provide a new perspective.%南京大屠杀前夕,20多位在宁外籍人士参与创建了南京安全区国际委员会,并在安全区内做了大量艰苦的工作保护中国难民。与此同时,他们作为南京大屠杀的亲历者,亲眼目睹了日军在宁暴行,用日记、书信或者摄影的形式做了记录,并想方设法将这些资料传递到南京之外的地区,成为揭露日军暴行和见证南京大屠杀的珍贵的第一手资料。本文通过描述其中典型的五位美籍传教士在南京大屠杀期间所做出的救治难民、揭露日军暴行等活动,以此全面了解南京大屠杀期间留在南京的西方人士为保护、救治、救助南京难民及抗议日军暴行等方面的贡献,再现南京大屠杀期间南京难民的生存状态,还原日军暴行真相,并为深化南京大屠杀史研究提供了一个新的视角。

  18. West Virginia Community Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eldon L.; Dziagwa, Constance E.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses efforts over the past 25 years to formalize the role of West Virginia's community colleges in the context of the state's rural character and low college graduation rates. Describes a reorganization following a 1987 study by the Carnegie Foundation and state legislation designed to fine tune the colleges' mission. (10 citations) (AJL)

  19. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  20. Invigorating West China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The once-poor west China is growing at a faster rate than the east. The trend is set to continue over the next few years. This is good news for China as the country gears up to shrink the economic divide between eastern and western regions.

  1. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron ... Dizziness. Pregnancy and childbirth complications. Stress. Anemia. Insomnia. Gastritis. Impotence. Fever. Hangover symptoms. Headaches. Swine flu. Aging. ...

  2. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  3. Geochemical and geostatistical evaluation, Arkansas Canyon Planning Unit, Fremont and Custer Counties, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, E.F.; Connors, R.A.; Robinson, M.L.; Lindemann, J.W.; Meyer, W.T.

    1982-01-01

    A mineral assessment of the Arkansas Canyon Planning Unit was undertaken by Barringer Resources Inc., under the terms of contract YA-553-CTO-100 with the Bureau of Land Management, Colorado State Office. The study was based on a geochemical-geostatistical survey in which 700 stream sediment samples were collected and analyzed for 25 elements. Geochemical results were interpreted by statistical processing which included factor, discriminant, multiple regression and characteristic analysis. The major deposit types evaluated were massive sulfide-base metal, sedimentary and magmatic uranium, thorium vein, magmatic segregation, and carbonatite related deposits. Results of the single element data and multivariate geostatistical analysis indicate that limited potential exists for base metal mineralization near the Horseshoe, El Plomo, and Green Mountain Mines. Thirty areas are considered to be anomalous with regard to one or more of the geochemical parameters evaluated during this study. The evaluation of carbonatite related mineralization was restricted due to the lack of geochemical data specific to this environment.

  4. Chesterian davidsoniacean and orthotetacean brachiopods, Ozark region of Arkansas and Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, T.W.; Gordon, M.

    1985-01-01

    Three species of orthotetaceans and one species of davidsoniacean are among the strophomenid brachiopods from Chesterian (Upper Mississippian) rocks of northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma. Type material from the Fayetteville Shale, Orthotetes subglobosus and O. subglobosus var. protensus, is figured for the first time. We regard these species, and O. subglobosus var. batesvillensis Girty from the Batesville Sandstone, as distinct species, for which we are selecting lectotypes. We describe a fourth species, O. stenopsis n.sp., from the Pitkin Limestone. Another species, described from the Pitkin as Streptorhynchus suspectum, has an impunctate shell and is thus not an orthotetacean. This bizarre species generally has a long twisted beak, high interarea, and large forked cardinal process; a myophragm may occur in either valve, but more commonly is in the brachial valve alone. We designate a lectotype for this species and propose a new genus Adectorhynchus and a new family Adectorhynchidae, under the Davidsoniacea, for this taxon.-from Authors

  5. Interpreting temporal variations in river response functions: an example from the Arkansas River, Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookfield, A. E.; Stotler, R. L.; Reboulet, E. C.

    2017-02-01

    Groundwater/surface-water interactions can play an important role in management of water quality and quantity, but the temporal and spatial variability of these interactions makes them difficult to incorporate into conceptual models. There are simple methods for identifying the presence of groundwater/surface-water interactions; however, identifying flow mechanisms and pathways can be challenging. More complex methods are available to better identify these mechanisms and pathways but are often too time consuming or costly. In this work, a simple method for interpreting and identifying flow mechanisms and sources using temporal variations of river response functions is presented. This approach is demonstrated using observations from two sites along the Arkansas River in Kansas, USA. A change in flow mechanisms between the rising and falling limbs of river hydrographs was identified, along with a second surface-water source to the aquifer, a finding that was validated with stable isotope analyses.

  6. Changes in school environments with implementation of Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Martha M; Raczynski, James M; West, Delia S; Pulley, LeaVonne; Bursac, Zoran; Gauss, C Heath; Walker, Jada F

    2010-02-01

    Changes in school nutrition and physical activity policies and environments are important to combat childhood obesity. Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 was among the first and most comprehensive statewide legislative initiatives to combat childhood obesity through school-based change. Annual surveys of principals and superintendents have been analyzed to document substantial and important changes in school environments, policies, and practices. For example, results indicate that schools are more likely to require that healthy options be provided for student parties (4.5% in 2004, 36.9% in 2008; P students in cafeterias (white milk: 26.1% in 2004, 41.0% in 2008, P chocolate milk: 9.0% in 2004, 24.0% in 2008, P Arkansas Act 1220 of 2003 is associated with a number of changes in school environments and policies, resulting from both statewide and local initiatives spawned by the Act.

  7. The road to tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis elimination in Arkansas; a re-examination of risk groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Berzkalns

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to generate knowledge useful for developing public health interventions for more effective tuberculosis control in Arkansas. METHODS: The study population included 429 culture-confirmed reported cases (January 1, 2004-December 31, 2010. Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotyping data were used to identify cases likely due to recent transmission (clustered versus reactivation (non-clustered. Poisson regression models estimated average decline rate in incidence over time and assessed the significance of differences between subpopulations. A multinomial logistic model examined differences between clustered and non-clustered incidence. RESULTS: A significant average annual percent decline was found for the overall incidence of culture-confirmed (9%; 95% CI: 5.5%, 16.9%, clustered (6%; 95% CI: 0.5%, 11.6%, and non-clustered tuberculosis cases (12%; 95% CI: 7.6%, 15.9%. However, declines varied among demographic groups. Significant declines in clustered incidence were only observed in males, non-Hispanic blacks, 65 years and older, and the rural population. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the Arkansas tuberculosis control program must target both traditional and non-traditional risk groups for successful tuberculosis elimination. The present study also demonstrates that a thorough analysis of TB trends in different population subgroups of a given geographic region or state can lead to the identification of non-traditional risk factors for TB transmission. Similar studies in other low incidence populations would provide beneficial data for how to control and eventually eliminate TB in the U.S.

  8. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  9. West Candor Chasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    During its examination of Mars, the Viking 1 spacecraft returned images of Valles Marineris, a huge canyon system 5,000 km long, up to 240 km wide, and 6.5 km deep, whose connected chasma or valleys may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. The view shows west Candor Chasma, one of the connected valleys of Valles Marineris; north toward top of frame. The image is a composite of Viking high-resolution (about 80 m/pixel or picture element) images in black and white and low resolution (about 250 m/pixel) images in color. The Viking 1 craft landed on Mars in July of 1976. West Candor Chasma occupies the westernmost part of the large west-northwest-trending trough of Candor Chasma. This section is about 150 km wide. West Candor Chasma is bordered on the north and south by straight-walled cliffs, most likely faults, and on its west by two segments of north-northeast-trending cliffs. The north wall is dissected by landslide scars forming reentrants filled with landslide debris. The south wall shows spur-and-gully morphology and smooth sections. The high-standing central mesa, informally dubbed Red Mesa has several curvilinear reentrants carved into the caprock, whose anomalously colored layers were interpreted to be caused by young hydrothermal alteration products (Geissler et al., 1993, Icarus, v. 106, p. 380-391). Light-colored lobes flow away from the top of the interior stack and then flow around and embay the same layered stack from which they originated. One of these apparent flow features is composed of at least two or perhaps even three huge, superposed, vaguely layered, very rugged, light-colored lobes as much as 100 km long, 20 km wide, and over 2 km thick. The layered deposits below the caprock also merge with a chaotic material that has local lobate fronts and overlaps landslide deposits. Hummocky material, similar in hue to wall rock, fills the southwestern-most region of west Candor Chasma and is perhaps as much as 3

  10. Teaching Literacy behind Barbed Wire in WWII: Elementary Schools in Japanese-American Internment Camps in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Millions of children around the world are out of school due to conflict, poverty, lack of education systems and infrastructure, and other issues. Educating children living in difficult contexts is the best way to empower them with the knowledge and competencies to rise to their full potential despite the challenges they face. Dedicated and…

  11. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    was no tabula rasa politically. He had worked with EEC Commissioners Sicco Mansholt and Henri Simonet, had represented the Young Socialists in the...OF GERMANY Civil-Military Facilitator Role Proposed for Territorial Army (Hans-Lothar Stegmann; TRUPPENPRAXIS, Mar 87) 80 FRANCE GIAT Problems...supportable. The attitude that Mikhail Gorbachev represents the same type of evil helps them to formulate a specific West German role in the Western world

  12. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-02-26

    WEST EUROPE REPORT CONTENTS POLITICAL EUROPEAN AFFAIRS Tindemans on Problems of Belgian EC Presidency ( Leo Tindemans Interview; LA LIBRE BELGIQUE...Interview with Minister of Foreign Relations Leo Tindemans; date and place not given] [Text] [Question] The implementation of the "Single Act," reform of...Izeboud was reelected in the party executive of 55 members, as were former members of the chamber Ina Brouwer , Marius Ernsting and Evelien Eshuis

  13. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  14. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  15. A Postmodernist Reading of Sam Shepard’s True West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Hossein Joodaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to render some vivid postmodernist features in Shepard’s True West (1980, which is inspired by myths of American life and popular culture. Shepard’s True West suggests so many interesting postmodern elements. With a departure from conventional norms of character, dialogue and narrative; the elements of pastiche, subjective irony, and savage humor have become hallmarks of most of his works. These features and some of the basic traces of postmodern literature, including Lyotard’s theory of the end of meta-narratives and language game, Derrida’s deconstruction and Baudrillard’s simulation, as well as language fragmentation, uncertainty and duality,  altogether, have given Shepard’s True West a postmodern atmosphere. Keywords: Postmodernist Literature; Grand Narratives; Duality; Self Reflexivity; Language Game; Binary oppositions; Simulacrum

  16. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  17. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....

  18. Statistical summary of selected water-quality data (water years 1975 through 1985) for Arkansas rivers and streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, J.C.

    1988-01-01

    Descriptive statistics were calculated for selected water quality data for 116 water quality stations on Arkansas rivers and streams. Water quality properties summarized included pH, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, total hardness, common dissolved constituents, phosphorus, nitrogen, biochemical oxygen demand, bacteria, turbidity, suspended sediment, and several trace metals. Regression equations and related statistics describing the relation between specific conductance and total alkalinity and several dissolved constituents also were calculated. Typical water quality (based upon median values at individual stations) of physiographic sections and major rivers of Arkansas also is discussed. Discernible differences in water quality exist between sections and major rivers. The regression analysis indicated that the usefulness of specific conductance as a predictor of other water quality values is variable. The relation between specific conductance and the other property is not statistically significant (p>0.05) about 30% of the time. (USGS)

  19. Do Place and Time Make a Difference? Examining Quality of Life Among Homeless Persons in Northwest Arkansas and Birmingham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Gail; Fitzpatrick, Kevin

    2016-07-26

    This study examines the role that life chances and choices play in determining quality of life among homeless people. Given the prominent negative impact of homelessness, this paper specifically examines the impact of length of time homeless and location on adverse quality of life. OLS regression examined quality of life among 264 homeless adults living in Northwest Arkansas and Birmingham, Alabama. Analysis shows no significant impact of life choices on quality of life but a significant impact of life chances including strong social ties and mastery of fate, on adverse quality of life. Length of time homeless was related to adverse quality of life, but location was not, indicating that the homeless experience with regards to subjective quality of life did not vary significantly between Birmingham and Northwest Arkansas.

  20. Illicit Drug Trafficking in West Africa -- Primary Surveillance Radar Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    rich-quick message and a devaluation of traditional values which have always kept these societies cohesive and united. This tension breeds violence...commodities, such as kola and cannabis . Imported American rum, French brandy and Dutch gin was also traded along these coasts for more than 500 5 years...Kola stimulant, cannabis and alcohol were all legally traded between Europe, the Middle East and the Sahara. Given West Africa’s long history of

  1. Testicular histology and germ cell cytology during spermatogenesis in the Mississippi map turtle, Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii, from Northeast Arkansas

    OpenAIRE

    Lancaster, Kelsey; Trauth, Stanley E; Gribbins, Kevin M

    2015-01-01

    The testicular histology and cytology of spermatogenesis in Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii were examined using specimens collected between July 1996 and May 2004 from counties in northeastern Arkansas. A histological examination of the testes and germ cell cytology indicates a postnuptial testicular cycle of spermatogenesis and a major fall spermiation event. The majority of the germ cell populations in May and June specimens are represented by resting spermatogonia, type A spermatogonia,...

  2. Tall Tales: The Simpsons deconstructing the american myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Betina Götz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the episode Tall Tales from the series The Simpsons that revisits legends of the American folklore. The TV series pays homage to both the time of the pioneers in their travels to the Far West in the nineteenth century, as well as to one of the most iconic and folk characters of the American culture from that period: the Hobo was a beggar, a figure of the American folklore during the Great Depression. It is also interesting to focus on the American imaginary in order to understand how the authors of The Simpsons perform these recreations in contemporary times

  3. American mines, methods and men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, S.C.A. (Thames Water Utilities (UK))

    1992-04-01

    The paper is based on the author's visits to a number of American mines, to see their mining machinery and to discuss with mine management their industrial relations problems. The paper gives a brief review of American mines, methods and men and is in the form of a diary. Mines visited are: Ohio Valley Coal Company; Big John Mine; Pittsburgh Research Center of the US Bureau of Mines; Martinka Mine; Robin Hood Complex No 9 Mine (Boone County, West Virginia), Green Briar Mine (Virginia); Martin County Coal (Kentucky); Wabash Mine (Keensburgh, Illinois); Galatia Mine (Harrisburgh, Illinois); and William Station Mine (Sturgis, Kentucky). Details given include mining methods productivity and staffing levels. The mining machinery is described in detail in a separate article. 5 figs.

  4. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-19

    policy, which would slow the process up. "But if Finland is to look after its interests, we must be active," he went on to say. " Isolationism works...Italian shipyard is a double success, since it had to cope with a firm American protectionism . Intermarine had competed in the first contest for the

  5. The Challenge of Drug Trafficking to Democratic Governance and Human Security in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    transformation. In the same spirit of bold curiosity that compelled the men and women who, like Letort, settled the American west, the Strategic...and methamphetamines, ecstasy, and ketamine from West Africa toward Asia (and Australia); these often tran- sit via Malaysia or Indonesia, to Japan...traders and business people: A successful individual entrepreneur invites one or more junior relatives or dependents to join him or her in a business

  6. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  7. Irregular Warfare in the American West: The Geronimo Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    sustain the fight. Crook’s protege , Lieutenant Charles B. Gatewood, located and convinced Geronimo to surrender in the summer of 1886, a task many...escaped en route to the United States from Mexico in January 1886. Eight i:nonths later, Crook’s protege , Lieutenant Charles B. Gatewood, finally...one of the few Army officers known to every Apache in Geronimo’s band. The lieutenant was a protege of Crook with a special aptitude for dealing

  8. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  9. JPRS Report, West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    in French 24 Jun 87 p 2 [Article by Ch. B.] [Text] A crisis? In the PSC? You’re dreaming . Or else you are seeking to destroy stability in the...partners. The ups and downs of recent weeks have done him harm, and it said that he dreams of distancing himself somewhat. If only Willy De Clercq were...a lucid and objective account of his subject matter. It is still quite common for more or less well-informed West Europeans to use the term

  10. Using Paid Radio Advertisements to Promote Physical Activity Among Arkansas Tweens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Appathurai Balamurugan, MD, MPH

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The level of physical activity among children is a growing concern. Evidence shows that many children aged 9 to 13 years (tweens do not participate in any organized physical activity during their nonschool hours, and some do not engage in any free-time physical activity. Physical inactivity is associated with a host of chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Paid media advertisements have been an effective method of promoting physical activity. Methods From March 10, 2003, through June 29, 2003, we aired paid radio advertisements in six major Arkansas metropolitan areas to promote physical activity among tweens. In September 2003, we surveyed 295 Arkansas tweens by telephone to assess their exposure to the advertisements and the impact of the advertisements on their intent to participate in physical activity. In the same telephone survey, we also asked questions about the respondents’ physical activity level. The data were weighted so that the results would be representative of the areas surveyed. The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS, version 11.5 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill. Results Of the tweens surveyed, 56.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.7%–62.1% reported hearing the radio advertisements. Of the tweens who heard the advertisement messages, 76.1% (95% CI, 69.4%–82.8% said the messages made them more likely to get involved in physical activity. Younger tweens (aged 9 and 10 years were less likely to have heard the advertisements than older tweens (aged 11 to 13 years. However, the advertisements were more likely to cause younger tweens to want to get involved in physical activity (odds ratio [OR] = 6.89, P = .003 than older tweens. Of the tweens surveyed, 74.9% (95% CI, 70.0%–79.8% reported that they were involved in nonschool-sponsored sports, and 45.3% (95% CI, 39.6%–51.0% were involved in school-sponsored sports. Conclusion Paid media advertisements may be an effective way to

  11. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Joseph R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  12. Factors related to achievement in sophomore organic chemistry at the University of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Harriet Arlene

    The purpose of this study was to identify the significant cognitive and non-cognitive variables that related to achievement in the first semester of organic chemistry at the University of Arkansas. Cognitive variables included second semester general chemistry grade, ACT composite score, ACT English, mathematics, reading, and science reasoning subscores, and spatial ability. Non-cognitive variables included anxiety, confidence, effectance motivation, and usefulness. Using a correlation research design, the individual relationships between organic chemistry achievement and each of the cognitive variables and non-cognitive variables were assessed. In addition, the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and combinations of these independent variables were explored. Finally, gender- and instructor-related differences in the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables were investigated. The samples consisted of volunteers from the Fall 1999 and Fall 2000 sections of Organic Chemistry I at the University of Arkansas. All students in each section were asked to participate. Data for spatial ability and non-cognitive independent variables were collected using the Purdue Visualization of Rotations test and the modified Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales. Data for other independent variables, including ACT scores and second semester general chemistry grades, were obtained from the Office of Institutional Research. The dependent variable, organic chemistry achievement, was measured by each student's accumulated points in the course and consisted of scores on quizzes and exams in the lecture section only. These totals were obtained from the lecture instructor at the end of each semester. Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression analyses were used to measure the relationships between organic chemistry achievement and the independent variables. Prior performance in chemistry as measured by second semester general

  13. JPRS Report, West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    compares Finland’s political parties to Coca - Cola and Pepsi- Cola . There is just about as much differ- ence in taste. Korhonen coolly classified the United...differ from each other about as much as Pepsi- Cola does from Coca - Cola . Finland is becoming Americanized, and it annoys the Kainuu-born man of the...Sallaberger, central-secretary-designate, "it is a question of caring about workers and employees." Vranitzky represents what his followers are advertising

  14. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Arkansas. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  15. Helminth parasites of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) from north-central Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D J; Owen, W B; Snyder, D E

    1992-02-01

    Twenty-three species of helminths (4 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 14 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans) were found in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, pancreas, tongue, urinary bladder, and subcutaneous tissues of 30 live-trapped or hunter-shot raccoons from north-central Arkansas between November 1989 and April 1990. Helminths were not detected in the brain, diaphragm, gallbladder, heart, liver, reproductive system, or trachea. Each raccoon examined was infected with 3 or more of the following helminths: Brachylaima virginiana, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Pharyngostomoides procyonis, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides spp., Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria plica, Capillaria procyonis, Capillaria putorii, Crenosoma goblei, Cruzia americana, Dirofilaria tenuis, Dracunculus insignis, Enterobius sp., Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis, Centrorhynchus wardae, Macracanthorhynchus ingens, and Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa. All helminths collected with the exception of D. insignis constitute new geographic distribution records. Occurrences of C. aerophila, C. wardae, and O. tortuosa are new host records. One nymphal pentastome, Porocephalus crotali, was found in the liver of 1 raccoon, constituting a new host record.

  16. Detection of Lead (Pb) in Three Environmental Matrices of the Cache River Watershed, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Mary K; Bouldin, Jennifer L

    2016-06-01

    Water bodies contaminated with lead (Pb) represent a considerable threat to both human and environmental health. The Cache River, located in northeastern Arkansas has been listed as impaired on the 303(d) list due to Pb contamination. However, historical data for the watershed is limited in both sampled waterways and analyses performed. This study measures concentrations of Pb in three environmental matrices of the Cache River Watershed; dissolved in the water column, total Pb (dissolved + particulate), and sediment-bound Pb. A variety of waterways were sampled including main channel and tributary sites. Frequency of detection and mean concentrations were compared to values for the entire Lower Mississippi Watershed. In general, no significant differences were found for the CRW when compared to the LMRW, with the exception of total Pb which was detected more frequently but at lower concentrations in the CRW than in the LMRW, and sediment Pb, which was detected at a significantly lower frequency in the CRW than the LMRW.

  17. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  18. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  19. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    MERCAD0, 5-11 Jun 87) 107 Categories Responsible for Trade Deficit (ACTUALIDAD ECONOMICA , 11-17 May 87) 109 TURKEY USSR Natural Gas Delayed...the reason the pro-government newspapers excessivly played up the Greek-American " crisis " at the expense of the shocking events of the day. This is...the credit of time which is needed to bring the economy out of the crisis . If, on the contrary, power is acquired with a policy which is nothing more

  20. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  1. The Arabic Story: Mirror of a Culture a Curriculum for the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mallakh, Olfat

    2007-01-01

    For so long the Americans did not see the need to learn a foreign language. They did not perceive this dire need. Speaking a language is not about making a noise of different sounds. It is about culture, mannerism, history, literature, customs, religion (s), mentality, and wisdom that translate into a language. Today, the West is forced to learn…

  2. Spatially Explicit West Nile Virus Risk Modeling in Santa Clara County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A geographic information systems model designed to identify regions of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission risk was tested and calibrated with data collected in Santa Clara County, California. American Crows that died from WNV infection in 2005, provided spatial and temporal ground truth. When the mo...

  3. Susceptibility of carrion crows to experimental infection with lineage 1 and 2 West Nile viruses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Lim (Stephanie); A.C. Brault (Aaron); G. van Amerongen (Geert); A.M. Bosco-Lauth (Angela M.); H. Romo (Hannah); V.D. Sewbalaksing (Varsha); R.A. Bowen (Richard A.); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. Koraka (Penelope); B.E.E. Martina (Byron)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWest Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in North America have been characterized by substantial die-offs of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). In contrast, a low incidence of bird deaths has been observed during WNV epidemic activity in Europe. To examine the susceptibility of the western E

  4. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  5. Identity Theft: Gentrification, Latinidad, and American Girl Marisol Luna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Jennifer Domino

    2009-01-01

    Released by Mattel in 2005, American Girl doll Marisol Luna quickly provoked controversy. The doll's accompanying narrative depicts her Chicago neighborhood of Pilsen as "dangerous" and recounts her family's move to the suburbs. Pilsen, located just south and west of downtown Chicago, has a long history as a Mexican (im)migrant port of…

  6. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  7. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  8. [West Nile virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Ruiz, Mercedes; Gámez, Sara Sanbonmatsu; Clavero, Miguel Angel Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus usually transmitted by mosquitoes. The main reservoirs are birds, although the virus may infect several vertebrate species, such as horses and humans. Up to 80% of human infections are asymptomatic. The most frequent clinical presentation is febrile illness, and neuroinvasive disease can occur in less than 1% of cases. Spain is considered a high-risk area for the emergence of WNV due to its climate and the passage of migratory birds from Africa (where the virus is endemic). These birds nest surrounding wetlands where populations of possible vectors for the virus are abundant. Diagnosis of human neurological infections can be made by detection of IgM in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstration of a four-fold increase in IgG antibodies between acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples, or by detection of viral genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (especially useful in transplant recipients). Since WNV is a biosafety level 3 agent, techniques that involve cell culture are restricted to laboratories with this level of biosafety, such as reference laboratories. The National Program for the Surveillance of WNV Encephalitis allows the detection of virus circulation among birds and vectors in areas especially favorable for the virus, such as wetlands, and provides information for evaluation of the risk of disease in horses and humans.

  9. Purpura fulminans associated with acute West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sheevam; Fite, Laura Paul; Lane, Natalie; Parekh, Palak

    2016-02-01

    Purpura fulminans is a progressive thrombotic disorder that presents with widespread purpura due to deficiency or dysfunction of protein C or protein S. Lesions present as well-demarcated erythematous macules that progress to irregular areas of hemorrhagic necrosis.West Nile virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family transmitted to humans through the bite of various mosquito species. It manifests as West Nile fever in 25% of those infected and less commonly as neuroinvasive disease. An African American man in his fortiespresented with altered mental status and was noted to have evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation according to his lab data. He then developed dusky skin discoloration and systemic flaccid bullae with desquamation. Biopsy was consistent with purpura fulminans and the patient eventually developed symmetric peripheral gangrene, requiring amputations of all four extremities. Infectious work up revealed positive testing for IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid leading to the diagnosis of acute West Nile Virus encephalitis. We present this case to describe the rarely reported association of purpura fulminans with West Nile Virus infection.

  10. Discourse Between East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The first Chinese-hosted cultural dialogue between the East and the West was held in Nishan, Shandong Province The first Nishan Forum on World Civilizations kicked off on September 26 at Nishan Mountain, 25 km southeast

  11. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline Raymondi; de Medeiros, Larissa Campos; dos Reis, Vinícius Pinho; Chávez, Juliana Helena; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; Borges, Gustavo Puia; Soares, Otavio Augusto Brioschi; de Campos, Carlos Henrique Coelho; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Faria, Joice Lara Maia; da Silva, Edson Elias; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country. PMID:24037110

  12. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Raymondi Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country.

  13. Why the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de cómo "Occidente" llegó a dominar el mundo durante la era moderna se ha debatido recientemente entre los historiadores. El debate se ha polarizado entre quienes ven en la "modernidad" como resultado de un 'milagro', el proceso cultural único generado en el seno del mismo Occidente, y aquellos que cuestionan este "milagro" como paradigma eurocéntrico, y buscan otros factores para entender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. La literatura tradicional, representada por David Landes en su reciente “La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones”, atribuye el éxito europeo a sus valores culturales únicos, a sus instituciones sociales y sus prácticas políticas. Este éxito fue completamente "impulsado desde dentro” por estas características. Recientemente, varios historiadores han cuestionado este "paradigma del milagro" como eurocéntrica, y miran a otros factores para comprender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. Después de examinar los recientes trabajos de los historiadores frente a este problema, este artículo trata de colocar la expansión europea en un contexto global, y la comprensión de la Revolución Industrial como una transformación global. Esta perspectiva nos permite entender los cambios tecnológicos y económicos Europeos en el contexto más amplio de patrones de interacción económica y cultural de todo el mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The traditional narrative, represented by David

  14. Landscape evolution of West Kunlun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Chang, Hong

    2010-05-01

    Constituting the northwestern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the present-day Western Kunlun is a spectacular mountain range, extending from the Pamir Plateau in the west to the Altyn Tagh fault and the Eastern Kunlun Range in the east. Dramatic climate variations have a significant control on the fluvial dissection, glacial erosion and wind transport. The West Kunlun Mountains is one of the key regions for understanding the uplift history of the Plateau and the climate change of Central Asia. The activities of tectonic and erosion make the topography of West Kunlun Mountains complex and varied. However, due to its remote location, there is still limited knowledge about the geomorphologic and geological features in West Kunlun Mountains .This paper tries to figure out the geomorphologic and geological features of this region qualitatively through studying the data of Shuttle Reader Topography Mission (SRTM) and topographic maps by digital elevation models (DEMs) and constructing profiles, aiming to make clear what functions the tectonics and climate exert on the topography of the West Kunlun Mountains. The West Kunlun Mountains, the northwestern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, have strong tectonic activities. From south to north,West Kunlun Mountains developed three major faults: Kangxiwar fracture, North West Kunlun fault and Iron Creek fault. At about 25 Ma B.P., the West Kunlun began to uplift, and from about 5 Ma B.P., the West Kunlun began to grow rapidly. By using topographic analyzing software to make more than 10 vertical profiles across the main faults from south to north, it is obvious that there is a height difference between the upper and lower plate fracture, and the elevation of terrain profiles generally decreases from south to north. There is ~4,500m elevation difference between the main ridge of the West Kunlun Mountains out of Kangxiwar (5500-6000m) and the northern foot of the Tarim Basin (1200-1300m). The same progressively decreasing

  15. Methods for estimating annual exceedance probability discharges for streams in Arkansas, based on data through water year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel M.; Krieger, Joshua D.; Veilleux, Andrea G.

    2016-08-04

    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study to update regional skew, annual exceedance probability discharges, and regional regression equations used to estimate annual exceedance probability discharges for ungaged locations on streams in the study area with the use of recent geospatial data, new analytical methods, and available annual peak-discharge data through the 2013 water year. An analysis of regional skew using Bayesian weighted least-squares/Bayesian generalized-least squares regression was performed for Arkansas, Louisiana, and parts of Missouri and Oklahoma. The newly developed constant regional skew of -0.17 was used in the computation of annual exceedance probability discharges for 281 streamgages used in the regional regression analysis. Based on analysis of covariance, four flood regions were identified for use in the generation of regional regression models. Thirty-nine basin characteristics were considered as potential explanatory variables, and ordinary least-squares regression techniques were used to determine the optimum combinations of basin characteristics for each of the four regions. Basin characteristics in candidate models were evaluated based on multicollinearity with other basin characteristics (variance inflation factor equations apply only to locations on streams in Arkansas where annual peak discharges are not substantially affected by regulation, diversion, channelization, backwater, or urbanization. The applicability and accuracy of the regional regression equations depend on the basin characteristics measured for an ungaged location on a stream being within range of those used to develop the equations.

  16. A New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Green Frog, Lithobates clamitans (Anura: Ranidae) from Arkansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcallister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Bursey, Charles R; Trauth, Stanley E; Connior, Matthew B; Robison, Henry W

    2014-07-01

    Between April and October 2012, 20 juvenile and adult green frogs (Lithobates clamitans) were collected by hand or dipnet from 3 counties of Arkansas and examined for coccidial parasites. A single frog (5%) was found to be passing oocysts of a new eimerian species. Oocysts of Eimeria menaensis n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 25.4 × 15.6 (23-27 × 13-17) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.6. A micropyle was absent but an oocyst residuum and polar granule were present. Sporocysts were spheroidal to subspheroidal and measured 5.0 × 5.0 (4-6) µm with L/W of 1.1. An indistinct Stieda body was present, but sub-and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of condensed granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate and attenuated at both ends with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the second report of coccidia from L. clamitans and the first time a coccidian has been reported from a green frog from Arkansas.

  17. Remote sensing of forest decline and Enaphalodes rufulus outbreak in the Arkansas Ozarks, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, John Joseph

    A widespread oak decline event was reported in the Arkansas Ozarks during the late 1990's. Ground-based monitoring attempts have been successful at recording the progression of this event, but are extremely laborious and as a result are only possible in a few locations. Remote sensing technologies offer the ability to substantially decrease labor and time required to collect large-scale forest biophysical data. Remote sensors allow continuous samples to be acquired across large tracts of land that would only be represented by a few widely spaced sampling points in traditional terrestrial sampling schemes. Remotely sensed data from large study areas can be acquired in minutes or hours, which greatly reduces cost compared to long-term field sampling activities. Additionally, changes of biophysical variables ongoing during long-term data collection can be avoided. Sampling bias caused by multiple individuals collecting field data is also reduced. Geographically-referenced digital remote sensor data from the Arkansas Ozarks have been acquired using two fundamentally different remote sensor systems: a hand held spectroradiometer, and aerial LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). Spectroradiometer data were used to identify the spectral signatures of northern red oak decline, and methods for applying this information to aerial imagery were described. LIDAR data were used to estimate total aboveground biomass. Biomass estimates will allow subsequent remote sensing and hazard modeling to estimate quantifiable changes in biomass at the landscape level.

  18. Archaeological Investigations at the Lewis Site (3LE266): A Twentieth- Century Black Owned Farmstead on the St. Francis Floodway, Lee County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    Arkansas Archeological Survey Research Series 21. Fayetteville. Stine, Linda France 1990 Social Inequality and Turn-of-the-Century Farmsteads: Issues of...University, Pullman , Washington. 1989 - M.A., Anthropology, Memphis State University, Memphis, Tennessee. I Areas of Specialization Ceramic and Lithic Analysis...Department of Anthropology, Washington State University, Pullman , Washington. 1988a Perspectives on Emerging Chiefdoms: A Comparative Analysis. Paper

  19. Cultural Conflicts and Compatibility between the East and the West in The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王瑾

    2007-01-01

    Via a study of The Joy Luck Club, Amy Tan's first effort, this essay discusses the cultural conflicts and compatibility between the East and the West as manifested by the conflicts and compatibility between two generations of Chinese Americans in the novel. The paper argues that different living environments, different cultural heritages of the East and the West as well as different values are the main causes of the mother-daughter conflicts in the novel. The paper concludes that these causes could also be regarded as the root of the cultural conflicts between the East and the West in general. More importantly, after a series of efforts, the two generations are in harmony, which stands for the cultural compatibility between the East and the West.

  20. Quality Characteristics of Ground Water in the Ozark Aquifer of Northwestern Arkansas, Southeastern Kansas, Southwestern Missouri, and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, L.M.; Mehl, H.E.; Coiner, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Because of water quantity and quality concerns within the Ozark aquifer, the State of Kansas in 2004 issued a moratorium on most new appropriations from the aquifer until results were made available from a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kansas Water Office. The purposes of the study were to develop a regional ground-water flow model and a water-quality assessment of the Ozark aquifer in northwestern Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma (study area). In 2006 and 2007, water-quality samples were collected from 40 water-supply wells completed in the Ozark aquifer and spatially distributed throughout the study area. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, dissolved solids and major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and selected isotopes. This report presents the results of the water-quality assessment part of the cooperative study. Water-quality characteristics were evaluated relative to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. Secondary Drinking-Water Regulations were exceeded for dissolved solids (11 wells), sulfate and chloride (2 wells each), fluoride (3 wells), iron (4 wells), and manganese (2 wells). Maximum Contaminant Levels were exceeded for turbidity (3 wells) and fluoride (1 well). The Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for lead (0 milligrams per liter) was exceeded in water from 12 wells. Analyses of isotopes in water from wells along two 60-mile long ground-water flow paths indicated that water in the Ozark aquifer was at least 60 years old but the upper age limit is uncertain. The source of recharge water for the wells along the flow paths appeared to be of meteoric origin because of isotopic similarity to the established Global Meteoric Water Line and a global precipitation relation. Additionally, analysis of hydrogen-3 (3H) and carbon-14 (14C) indicated that there was possible leakage of younger ground water into the lower part of the Ozark aquifer. This may

  1. Anglo-American views of Gavrilo Princip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markovich Slobodan G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with Western (Anglo-American views on the Sarajevo assassination/attentat and Gavrilo Princip. Articles on the assassination and Princip in two leading quality dailies (The Times and The New York Times have particularly been analysed as well as the views of leading historians and journalists who covered the subject including: R. G. D. Laffan, R. W. Seton-Watson, Winston Churchill, Sidney Fay, Bernadotte Schmitt, Rebecca West, A. J. P. Taylor, Vladimir Dedijer, Christopher Clark and Tim Butcher. In the West, the original general condemnation of the assassination and its main culprits was challenged when Rebecca West published her famous travelogue on Yugoslavia in 1941. Another Brit, the remarkable historian A. J. P. Taylor, had a much more positive view on the Sarajevo conspirators and blamed Germany and Austria-Hungary for the outbreak of the Great War. A turning point in Anglo-American perceptions was the publication of Vladimir Dedijer’s monumental book The Road to Sarajevo (1966, which humanised the main conspirators, a process initiated by R. West. Dedijer’s book was translated from English into all major Western languages and had an immediate impact on the understanding of the Sarajevo assassination. The rise of national antagonisms in Bosnia gradually alienated Princip from Bosnian Muslims and Croats, a process that began in the 1980s and was completed during the wars of the Yugoslav succession. Although all available sources clearly show that Princip, an ethnic Serb, gradually developed a broader Serbo-Croat and Yugoslav identity, he was ethnified and seen exclusively as a Serb by Bosnian Croats and Bosniaks and Western journalists in the 1990s. In the past century imagining Princip in Serbia and the West involved a whole spectrum of views. In interwar Anglo-American perceptions he was a fanatic and lunatic. He became humanised by Rebecca West (1941, A. J. P. Taylor showed understanding for his act (1956, he was fully

  2. African-American Biography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Ron

    1995-01-01

    Suggests sources of information for African American History Month for library media specialists who work with students in grades four through eight. Gale Research's "African-American Reference Library," which includes "African-America Biography,""African-American Chronology," and "African-American Almanac,"…

  3. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Forested Wetlands in the West Gulf Coastal Plain Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    shrub species in reference standard sites, but may dominate in degraded systems Carya illinoensis Carya cordiformis Carpinus caroliniana Carya ovata...americana sedges Carex spp. ironwood Carpinus caroliniana water hickory Carya aquatica bitternut hickory Carya cordiformis pecan Carya illinoensis ...and water hickory ( Carya aquatica). Less flooded sites are often dominated by green ash, Nuttall oak (Q. nuttallii), or willow oak, and the driest

  4. Analysis and Interpretation of Artifact Collections from four Archaeological Sites within the Country Club Gardens Permit Area, West Memphis, Crittenden County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    description ofI the culture history of the central Mississippi valley focusing on Crittenden County is presented in a period by period format . I THE...by Don Manual Gayoso de Lemos, Spanish Governor of Louisiana, as a agent to the Chickasaw. In 1797 he moved from Ft. San Fernando de las Barrancas in...reports of vestigatior, shall be subwitted iii a form suitable for publication and bc epared in a format reflecting contemporary organizational and

  5. Engineering geologic conditions at the sinkhole entrance to Logan Cave, Benton County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, William H.; McKenna, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    Logan Cave, located in Benton County, Arkansas, is inhabited by several endangered and threatened species. The cave and surrounding area was designated a National Wildlife Refuge under the control of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) in 1989. Cave researchers access the cave through a steep-sided sinkhole entrance, which also is one of the two access points used by endangered bats. There is evidence of instability of one of the entrance slopes that has raised concerns that the entrance could close if slope failure was to occur. At the request of USFWS, we performed an engineering geologic investigation of the sinkhole to evaluate stability of this slope, which is comprised of soil, and other mechanisms of sediment transport into the cave entrance. The investigation included engineering geologic mapping, sampling and laboratory testing of subsurface geologic materials, and slope-stability analysis. We found that the sinkhole slope that extends into the entrance of the cave is comprised of sandy and gravelly soil to the depths explored (6.4 meters). This soil likely was deposited as alluvium within a previous, larger sinkhole. Based on properties of the alluvium, geometry of the slope, and results of finite-element slope-stability analyses, we conclude that the slope is marginally stable. Future failures of the slope probably would be relatively thin and small, thus several would be required to completely close the cave entrance. However, sediment is accumulating within the cave entrance due to foot traffic of those accessing the cave, surface-water erosion and transport, and shallow slope failures from the other sinkhole slopes. We conclude that the entrance will be closed by sediment in the future, similar to another entrance that we identified that completely closed in the past. Several measures could be taken to reduce the potential for closure of the cave entrance, including periodic sediment removal, installation of materials that reduce erosion by

  6. Constituent concentrations, loads, and yields to Beaver Lake, Arkansas, water years 1999-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Susan E.; De Lanois, Jeanne L.; Green, W. Reed

    2010-01-01

    Beaver Lake is a large, deep-storage reservoir used as a drinking-water supply and considered a primary watershed of concern in the State of Arkansas. As such, information is needed to assess water quality, especially nutrient enrichment, nutrient-algal relations, turbidity, and sediment issues within the reservoir system. Water-quality samples were collected at three main inflows to Beaver Lake: the White River near Fayetteville, Richland Creek at Goshen, and War Eagle Creek near Hindsville. Water-quality samples collected over the period represented different flow conditions (from low to high). Constituent concentrations, flow-weighted concentrations, loads, and yields from White River, Richland Creek, and War Eagle Creek to Beaver Lake for water years 1999-2008 were documented for this report. Constituents include total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus), total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, total organic carbon, and suspended sediment. Linear regression models developed by computer program S-LOADEST were used to estimate loads for each constituent for the 10-year period at each station. Constituent yields and flow-weighted concentrations for each of the three stations were calculated for the study. Constituent concentrations and loads and yields varied with time and varied among the three tributaries contributing to Beaver Lake. These differences can result from differences in precipitation, land use, contributions of nutrients from point sources, and variations in basin size. Load and yield estimates varied yearly during the study period, water years 1999-2008, with the least nutrient and sediment load and yields generally occurring in water year 2006, and the greatest occurring in water year 2008, during a year with record amounts of precipitation. Flow-weighted concentrations of most constituents were greatest at War Eagle Creek near Hindsville

  7. Geodatabase of the datasets used to represent the six subunits of the Texas Coastal Uplands and Mississippi Embayment aquifer system, Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, and Texas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase includes spatial datasets that represent the Texas Coastal Uplands and Mississippi Embayment aquifer system in the States of Alabama, Arkansas,...

  8. A Cultural Resources Survey of the River Trace Permit Area Marion, Crittenden County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    and Mixing 17 Vernacular Architecture and Disappearing Structures 17 Site Formation and Preservation Factors 18 Archival and Field Methods 18...Crittenden County is presented in a period by period format . Paleoindian Period The Paleoindian period (ca. 11,500-9800 B.P.) represents the earliest human...to the Chickasaw. In 1797 he moved from Ft. San Fernando de las Barrancas (present day Memphis) to a new fort3 on the west bank of the Mississippi

  9. ESSEA On-Line Courses and the WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognier, E.

    2001-12-01

    The WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC) is in its second year of offering two Earth Systems Science On-line Graduate courses from IGES - one for High School teachers, and one for Middle School teachers. These high-quality courses support WERC's commitment to "supporting increased scientific and mathematical literacy among our nation's youth through services and other support aimed at enhancing the efforts of those who provide K-12 science and mathematics education." WERC has been able to use its EdGateway online community network to offer these courses to environmental education and science teachers nationwide. Through partnerships with the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE), the National Environmental Education Advancement Project (NEEAP), and other regional, state and local science and environmental education organizations, WERC has a broad reach in connecting with science educators nationwide. WERC manages several state and national listservs, which enable us to reach thousands of educators with information about the courses. EdGateway also provides a private online community in which we offer the courses. WERC partners with two Master Teachers from Utah, who facilitate the courses, and with the Center for Science and Mathematics Education at Weber State University, who provides low-cost graduate credit for the courses. Our students have included classroom teachers from upper elementary through high school, community college science teachers, and environmental science center staff who provide inservice for teachers. Educators from Hawaii to New Jersey have provided diverse personal experiences of Earth Systems Science events, and add richness to the online discussions. Two Earth Science Experts, Dr. Rick Ford from Weber State University, and Dr. Art Sussman from WestEd also contribute to the high caliber of learning the students experience in the courses. (Dr. Sussman's book, Dr. Art's Guide to Planet Earth, is used as one of

  10. An analysis of the design and implementation of elementary science methods class instruction in colleges and universities in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Carole K.

    This study aims to understand the design and implementation of elementary methods classes focused in science instruction by teacher educators in the colleges and universities in the state of Arkansas. All 18 institutions with an Early Childhood Education program approved by the Arkansas Department of Education were reviewed with interviews, site visits and data analysis. The research questions are: (1) What goals do teacher educators express with respect to the preparation of preservice elementary teachers for the teaching of science? (2) What components of methods classes for teaching of elementary science examined relate to each of Feiman-Nemser's conceptual orientations in teacher education? (3) What challenges do teacher educators state that they encounter when they plan and teach the methods classes for teaching elementary science? (4) What specific scientific knowledge or skills are emphasized in the methods classes? Enrollment data of the Early Childhood Education program of the 18 institutions were sought. Data collected from the interviews of 16 teacher educators were transcribed according to Feiman-Nemser's five conceptual orientations in teacher education. The findings reveal the complexities and diverse nature of the science-focused method classes as they are affected by the perceptions and academic backgrounds of the teacher educators, the field experiences that preservice teachers have to teach science in the elementary schools, and the science teaching pedagogy and content knowledge provided by the teacher educators. Results show that not all methods classes are focused mainly in science teaching methods and science knowledge; some are an integration of mathematics and science or a blended curriculum with several disciplines. Most institutions do not provide science-related field experiences for preservice teachers. One common theme that emerges in the lesson observations is that all teacher educators use hands-on activities to illustrate the

  11. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species.

  12. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, K. F.

    1982-08-01

    A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite, copper, lead, and zinc are present. The following parameters were determined: pH, conductivity, alkalinity, U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, V, Al, Dy, NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, and PO/sub 4/. The minerals appear to significantly affect the chemistry of the ground water. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation.

  13. Analysis and inundation mapping of the April-May 2011 flood at selected locations in northern and eastern Arkansas and southern Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Drew A.; Merriman, Katherine R.; De Lanois, Jeanne L.; Berenbrock, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Precipitation that fell from April 19 through May 3, 2011, resulted in widespread flooding across northern and eastern Arkansas and southern Missouri. The first storm produced a total of approximately 16 inches of precipitation over an 8-day period, and the following storms produced as much as 12 inches of precipitation over a 2-day period. Moderate to major flooding occurred quickly along many streams within Arkansas and Missouri (including the Black, Cache, Illinois, St. Francis, and White Rivers) at levels that had not been seen since the historic 1927 floods. The 2011 flood claimed an estimated 21 lives in Arkansas and Missouri, and damage caused by the flooding resulted in a Federal Disaster Declaration for 59 Arkansas counties that received Federal or State assistance. To further the goal of documenting and understanding floods, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers–Little Rock and Memphis Districts, and Arkansas Natural Resources Commission, conducted a study to summarize meteorological and hydrological conditions before the flood; computed flood-peak magnitudes for 39 streamgages; estimated annual exceedance probabilities for 37 of those streamgages; determined the joint probabilities for 11 streamgages paired to the Mississippi River at Helena, Arkansas, which refers to the probability that locations on two paired streams simultaneously experience floods of a magnitude greater than or equal to a given annual exceedance probability; collected high-water marks; constructed flood-peak inundation maps showing maximum flood extent and water depths; and summarized flood damages and effects. For the period of record used in this report, peak-of-record stage occurred at 24 of the 39 streamgages, and peak-of-record streamflow occurred at 13 of the 30 streamgages where streamflow was determined. Annual exceedance probabilities were estimated to be less than 0.5 percent at three

  14. 2016 American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, Patrick [Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA (United States)

    2017-02-09

    The 8th American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) was held July 10-14, 2016 in Long Beach California, marking the first time the meeting has been held on the west coast. The meeting was coordinated by the Neutron Scattering Society of America (NSSA), and attracted 285 attendees. The meeting was chaired by NSSA vice president Patrick Woodward (the Ohio State University) assisted by NSSA president Stephan Rosenkranz (Argonne National Laboratory) together with the local organizing chair, Brent Fultz (California Institute of Technology). As in past years he Materials Research Society assisted with planning, logistics and operation of the conference.

  15. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  16. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  17. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  18. Suggested revision for west mexican archeological sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S V; Taylor, R E

    1966-12-16

    A review of the radiocarbon dates and published and unpublished archeological data from the West Mexican states of Sinaloa, Nayarit, Jalisco, and Colima has resulted in a revised tentative chronology for West Mexico.

  19. West Indian Prose Fiction in the Sixties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Edward

    1971-01-01

    A Review and critical discussion of the West Indian prose fiction in the sixties by one of the best-known poets of the Carribean and a member of the faculty of the University of West Indies, Jamaica. (JM)

  20. Ecological response to hydrological variability and catchment development: Insights from a shallow oxbow lake in Lower Mississippi Valley, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Ruchi; Hausmann, Sonja; Hubeny, J Bradford; Gell, Peter; Black, Jessica L

    2016-11-01

    The ecological response of shallow oxbow lakes to variability in hydrology and catchment development in large river floodplain ecosystems (RFE) in Arkansas remains largely unknown. Investigating these responses will advance our understanding of ecological evolution of oxbow lakes in response to the major environmental drivers, which will establish baseline conditions required to develop effective management practices for RFE. In this pilot study, we examined the potential of using a dated surface sediment core from Adams Bayou, a floodplain lake located within the Cache-Lower White River Ramsar site in SE Arkansas. Stratigraphic records of diatoms and sediment geochemistry were used to ascertain variation in Adams Bayou's ecological condition. During 1968-2008, in response to hydrological and anthropogenic changes, Adams Bayou's diatom assemblages progressed from predominantly benthic (Gomphonema parvulum and Meridion circulare) to primarily planktonic assemblage (Aulacoseira granulata and Cyclotella meneghiniana), along with a decrease in magnetic susceptibility (k) and % silt. Statistical analyses reveled that during 1968-2000, higher hydrological connectivity and catchment alterations drove Adams Bayou's ecosystem. After 2000, lower hydrological connectivity and increase in cultivation were the major drivers. The potential impact of increasing air temperature was also noted. The shift in Adams Bayou from a connected, clear, mesotrophic state to a relatively isolated, turbid and nutrient enriched state is consistent with regime shift models and highlights its sensitivity to a combination of environmental stresses prevalent in the catchment. Although fluvial systems pose challenges in establishing clear chronologies, oxbow lake sediments can be a effective paleoecological archives. Our work provides clear evidence for the change in the ecological character of this wetland of international significance and flags the need for a wider assessment of water bodies

  1. ‘In love, she remains whole’: Heterosexual Love in Contemporary Arab American Poetry Written by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bosch Vilarrubias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heterosexual love made by Arab American women in their poetry (including Mohja Kahf, Suheir Hammad and Pauline Kaldas, this article will examine the potential political use of poetry.

  2. Two cubic phases in kimzeyite garnet from the type locality Magnet Cove, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antao, Sytle M.; Cruickshank, Laura A.

    2016-11-08

    The crystal structure of an optically anisotropic kimzeyite garnet from Magnet Cove, Arkansas, USA, where it was first discovered, was refined with the Rietveld method, cubic space group, Ia\\overline 3 d, and monochromatic [λ = 0.41422 (2) Å] synchrotron high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction (HRPXRD) data. The Rietveld refinement reduced χ2and overallR(F2) values are 1.840 and 0.0647, respectively. The sample, with the general garnet formula[8]X3[6]Y2[4]Z3[4]O12, contains an intergrowth of two cubic phases that occur initially as oscillatory growth zoning, and patchy intergrowths arise later from fluid-enhanced dissolution and re-precipitation. The two compositions obtained with electron-probe microanalyses (EPMA) are Ca3.00(Zr1.31Ti4+0.46Fe3+0.22Mn3+0.01)Σ2[Al0.76Fe3+1.01Si1.23]Σ3O12for phase 1aand Ca2.99(Zr1.48Ti4+0.37Fe3+0.15)Σ2[Al0.87Fe3+0.98Si1.15]Σ3O12for phase 1b. The weight percentage, unit-cell parameter (Å), distances (Å), and site occupancy factors (s.o.f.s) for phase 1aare as follows: 42.6 (2)%,a= 12.46553 (3) Å, average <X—O> = 2.482,Y—O = 2.059 (2),Z—O = 1.761 (2) Å, Ca (Xs.o.f.) = 0.960 (4), Zr (Ys.o.f.) = 0.809 (3), and Fe (Zs.o.f.) = 0.623 (2). The corresponding values for phase 1bare 57.4 (2)%,a= 12.47691 (2) Å, average <

  3. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Key West, Florida during the Key West World Championship, a series of high-speed boat races. The...

  4. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice... sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No. 14929) on March 26, 2010. Dated: March...

  5. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.;

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....

  6. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile...

  7. American Vitiligo Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... life can acquire vitiligo Welcome to The American Vitiligo Foundation 2017 AVRF Calendars Order your calendar with ... animal testing. Please Visit Our Donations Page American Vitiligo Research Foundation "We Walk By Faith, Not By ...

  8. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  9. American Hospice Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Hospice Foundation Skip to content Home Caregiving Learning About Hospice Grief Grieving Children Grief at School Grief at ... for all who come after us. The American Hospice Foundation (AHF) closed its doors in June 2014. ...

  10. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  11. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  12. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy ...

  13. American Urogynecologic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Site » PFD Registry » Contact Us American Urogynecologic Society 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 670 Silver Spring, MD ... Us | Privacy Policy | HONcode Accredited © 2016 American Urogynecologic Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Asthma and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Asthma Asthma and Hispanic Americans In 2014, 2.1 million Hispanics reported that they currently have asthma. Puerto Rican Americans have almost twice the asthma ...

  15. Two-dimensional simulation of the June 11, 2010, flood of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreational Area, Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    In the early morning hours of June 11, 2010, substantial flooding occurred at Albert Pike Recreation Area in the Ouachita National Forest of west-central Arkansas, killing 20 campers. The U.S. Forest Service needed information concerning the extent and depth of flood inundation, the water velocity, and flow paths throughout Albert Pike Recreation Area for the flood and for streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The two-dimensional flow model Fst2DH, part of the Federal Highway Administration’s Finite Element Surface-water Modeling System, and the graphical user interface Surface-water Modeling System (SMS) were used to perform a steady-state simulation of the flood in a 1.5-mile reach of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreation Area. Peak streamflows of the Little Missouri River and tributary Brier Creek served as inputs to the simulation, which was calibrated to the surveyed elevations of high-water marks left by the flood and then used to predict flooding that would result from streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The simulated extent of the June 11, 2010, flood matched the observed extent of flooding at Albert Pike Recreation Area. The mean depth of inundation in the camp areas was 8.5 feet in Area D, 7.4 feet in Area C, 3.8 feet in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 12.5 feet in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. The mean water velocity was 7.2 feet per second in Area D, 7.6 feet per second in Area C, 7.2 feet per second in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 7.6 feet per second in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. A sensitivity analysis indicated that varying the streamflow of the Little Missouri River had the greatest effect on simulated water-surface elevation, while varying the streamflow of tributary Brier Creek had the least effect. Simulated water-surface elevations were lower than those modeled by the U.S. Forest Service using the standard-step method, but the

  16. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  17. Water Quality in the Equus Beds Aquifer and the Little Arkansas River Before Implementation of Large-Scale Artificial Recharge, South-Central Kansas, 1995-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Andrew C.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Finn, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Artificial recharge of the Equus Beds aquifer using runoff from the Little Arkansas River in south-central Kansas was first proposed in 1956 and was one of many options considered by the city of Wichita to preserve its water supply. Declining aquifer water levels of as much as 50 feet exacerbated concerns about future water availability and enhanced migration of saltwater into the aquifer from past oil and gas activities near Burrton and from the Arkansas River. Because Wichita changed water-management strategies and decreased pumping from the Equus Beds aquifer in 1992, water storage in the aquifer recovered by about 50 percent. This recovery is the result of increased reliance on Cheney Reservoir for Wichita water supply, decreased aquifer pumping, and larger than normal precipitation. Accompanying the water-level recovery, the average water-level gradient in the aquifer decreased from about 12 feet per mile in 1992 to about 8 feet per mile in January 2006. An important component of artificial recharge is the water quality of the receiving aquifer and the water being recharged (source water). Water quality within the Little Arkansas River was defined using data from two real-time surface-water-quality sites and discrete samples. Water quality in the Equus Beds aquifer was defined using sample analyses collected at 38 index sites, each with a well completed in the shallow and deep parts of the Equus Beds aquifer. In addition, data were collected at diversion well sites, recharge sites, background wells, and prototype wells for the aquifer storage and recovery project. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, radionuclides, organic compounds, and bacterial and viral indicators. Water-quality constituents of concern for artificial recharge are those constituents that frequently (more than 5 percent of samples) may exceed Federal [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)] and State drinking-water criteria in water samples from the receiving

  18. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora: a skeletal muscle fibre type distribution hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J; Christensen, D L

    2011-08-01

    In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. We hypothesize that the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in African Americans (as compared to White Americans) is facilitated by an inherited higher percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type II and a lower percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type I. Skeletal muscle fibre type II is less oxidative and more glycolytic than skeletal muscle fibre type I. Lower oxidative capacity is associated with lower fat oxidation and a higher disposal of lipids, which are stored as muscular adipose tissue in higher amounts in Black compared to White Americans. In physically active individuals, the influence of muscle fibre composition will not be as detrimental as in physically inactive individuals. This discrepancy is caused by the plasticity in the skeletal muscle fibre characteristics towards a higher activity of oxidative enzymes as a consequence of physical activity. We suggest that a higher percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type II combined with physical inactivity has an impact on insulin sensitivity and high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Blacks of West African ancestry.

  19. Employment, race and poverty in West Virginia: implications for practicing physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frumkin, R M

    1994-02-01

    Since West Virginia became a state in 1863 and slavery was abolished, poverty has been a persistent problem for black Americans. Although blacks have become increasingly a part of the total workforce, moving from the lowest level, lowest paid jobs to higher level, better paying ones, unemployment, poverty, and their common sequelae still persist and significantly differentiate black from white Americans. While racial discrimination has been a factor in black poverty for many decades, another critical factor responsible for black poverty today and in the past, is something which both blacks and physicians can help to change--unplanned parenthood.

  20. Trends of Non-Accidental, Cardiovascular, Stroke and Lung Cancer Mortality in Arkansas Are Associated with Ambient PM2.5 Reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Cecile G. Chalbot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular and stroke mortality rates in Arkansas are among the highest in the USA. The annual trends of stroke and cardiovascular mortality are barely correlated to smoking cessation; while the prevalence of risk factors such as obesity; cholesterol and hypertension increased over the 1979–2007 period. The study determined the effect of chronic exposure to PM2.5 on non-accidental; cardiovascular; stroke and lung cancer mortality in Arkansas over the 2000–2010 period using the World Health Organization’s log-linear health impact model. County chronic exposures to PM2.5 were computed by averaging spatially-resolved gridded concentrations using PM2.5 observations. A spatial uniformity was observed for PM2.5 mass levels indicating that chronic exposures were comparable throughout the state. The reduction of PM2.5 mass levels by 3.0 μg/m3 between 2000 and 2010 explained a significant fraction of the declining mortality. The effect was more pronounced in southern and eastern rural Arkansas as compared to the rest of the state. This study provides evidence that the implementation of air pollution regulations has measurable effects on mortality even in regions with high prevalence of major risk factors such as obesity and smoking. These outcomes are noteworthy as efforts to modify the major risk factors require longer realization times.

  1. Characterization of peak streamflows and flood inundation of selected areas in Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Mississippi from flood of March 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaker, Brian K.; Watson, Kara M.; Ensminger, Paul A.; Storm, John B.; Rose, Claire E.

    2016-11-29

    Heavy rainfall occurred across Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Mississippi in March 2016 as a result of a slow-moving southward dip in the jetstream, funneling tropical moisture into parts of the Gulf Coast States and the Mississippi River Valley. The storm caused major flooding in the northwestern and southeastern parts of Louisiana and in eastern Texas. Flooding also occurred in the Mississippi River Valley in Arkansas and Mississippi. Over 26 inches of rain were reported near Monroe, Louisiana, over the duration of the storm. In March 2016, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) hydrographers made more than 500 streamflow measurements in Louisiana, Texas, Arkansas, and Mississippi. Many of those streamflow measurements were made to verify the accuracy of stage-streamflow relations at gaging stations operated by the USGS. Peak streamflows were the highest on record at 14 locations, and streamflows at 29 locations ranked in the top five for the period of record at USGS streamflow-gaging stations analyzed for this report. Following the storm, USGS hydrographers documented 451 high-water marks in Louisiana and on the western side of the Sabine River in Texas. Many of these high-water marks were used to create 19 flood-inundation maps for selected areas of Louisiana and Texas that experienced flooding in March 2016.

  2. Relations between continuous real-time physical properties and discrete water-quality constituents in the Little Arkansas River, south-central Kansas, 1998-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Patrick P.; Eslick, Patrick J.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2016-08-11

    Water from the Little Arkansas River is used as source water for artificial recharge of the Equus Beds aquifer, one of the primary water-supply sources for the city of Wichita, Kansas. The U.S. Geological Survey has operated two continuous real-time water-quality monitoring stations since 1995 on the Little Arkansas River in Kansas. Regression models were developed to establish relations between discretely sampled constituent concentrations and continuously measured physical properties to compute concentrations of those constituents of interest. Site-specific regression models were originally published in 2000 for the near Halstead and near Sedgwick U.S. Geological Survey streamgaging stations and the site-specific regression models were then updated in 2003. This report updates those regression models using discrete and continuous data collected during May 1998 through August 2014. In addition to the constituents listed in the 2003 update, new regression models were developed for total organic carbon. The real-time computations of water-quality concentrations and loads are available at http://nrtwq.usgs.gov. The water-quality information in this report is important to the city of Wichita because water-quality information allows for real-time quantification and characterization of chemicals of concern (including chloride), in addition to nutrients, sediment, bacteria, and atrazine transported in the Little Arkansas River. The water-quality information in this report aids in the decision making for water treatment before artificial recharge.

  3. Developing a dissemination model to improve intervention reach among West Virginia youth smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly eHorn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Not-On-Tobacco program is an evidence-based teen smoking cessation program adopted by the American Lung Association (ALA. Although widely disseminated nationally via ALA Master Trainers, in recent years, adoption and implementation of the N-O-T program in West Virginia has slowed. West Virginia, unfortunately, has one of the highest smoking rates in the US. Although it is a goal of public health science, dissemination of evidence-based interventions is woefully understudied. The present manuscript reviews a theoretical model of dissemination of the Not-On-Tobacco program in West Virginia. Based on social marketing, diffusion of innovations, and social cognitive theories, the nine-phase model incorporates elements of infrastructure development, accountability, training, delivery, incentives, and communication. The model components as well as preliminary lessons learned from initial implementation are discussed.

  4. Future Hegemonic Rivalry Between China and the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Weede

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a unipolar distribution of power. The United States reigns supreme. Russia's economic power will remain insufficient to underwrite a renewed attempt to establish global leadership. While the European Community still commands sufficient resources for exercising global leadership, it lacks the political foundation for unitary action. Moreover, the European addiction to the welfare state undermines European competitiveness. Japan is too much of a "trading state" and unlikely to become a first-rate military power, before she is overtaken by China in economic size. So, count Russia, Europe and Japan out as conceivable challengers to United States hegemony. China is the only plausible candidate. Its economic growth rate is nothing less than spectacular. Moreover, the Chinese government seems capable of extracting the necessary resources for waging a hegemonic rivalry from a society that is likely to remain quite poor for at least another generation. There are a number of conceivable scenarios for the emerging American-Chinese relationship. The future will depend on the relative speed of the American decline and the rise of China as well as on the openness of the global economy. The more open the global economy, the better the prospects for rising per capita incomes in China become, the better the prospects for some mellowing or even democratization of the Chinese regime. Only if the West sticks together under American leadership and if creeping capitalism in China leads to creeping democratization later, is hegemonic rivalry likely to remain benign and peaceful.

  5. African American Perspectives and Experiences of Domestic Violence in a Rural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valandra; Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Higgins, Brandon M; Brown, Lucy M

    2016-09-21

    Relatively few studies have explored domestic violence from a multiplicity of African American perspectives, experiences, and socio-demographic backgrounds within rural African American communities. Community-based participatory action research methods were used to explore domestic violence perceptions of African Americans with heterogeneous backgrounds and experiences of violence. Ten focus groups were held throughout the community with 52 diverse women (n = 33) and men (n = 19) living in the northwest region of Arkansas. Demographic data were collected from 47 women (n = 28) and men (n = 19) participating in focus groups regarding their perceptions and experiences of domestic violence, media messages, help-seeking behaviors, and services. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Three major themes emerged, including (a) a heightened awareness of race, gender, and class differences; (b) imbalanced and mixed messages from media; and (c) multi-systemic dynamics influencing abusive behavior and relationships. Results indicate that study participants' perspectives and experiences with domestic violence reflect a complex interrelated gamut of societal, community, familial, and individual dynamics. Participant recommendations related to interpersonal dynamics, media messages, and societal influences are reported with implications for practice, policy, and future research.

  6. West Nile Virus Antibodies in Permanent Resident and Overwintering Migrant Birds in South-Central Kansas

    OpenAIRE

    Shelite, Thomas R.; Rogers, Christopher M.; Litzner, Brandon R.; Johnson, R. Roy; Schneegurt, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted serological studies, using epitope-blocking ELISAs directed at West Nile virus (WNV) and flavivirus antibodies, of wild birds in south-central Kansas, the first for this state, in the winters of 2003–04 through 2005–06. Overwintering migratory species (primarily the American tree sparrow and dark-eyed junco) consistently showed significantly lower seropositivity than permanent residents (primarily the northern cardinal). The cardinal showed annual variation in seropositivity betw...

  7. Sediment Quality and Comparison to Historical Water Quality, Little Arkansas River Basin, South-Central Kansas, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juracek, Kyle E.; Rasmussen, Patrick P.

    2008-01-01

    The spatial and temporal variability in streambed-sediment quality and its relation to historical water quality was assessed to provide guidance for the development of total maximum daily loads and the implementation of best-management practices in the Little Arkansas River Basin, south-central Kansas. Streambed-sediment samples were collected at 26 sites in 2007, sieved to isolate the less than 63-micron fraction (that is, the silt and clay), and analyzed for selected nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus), organic and total carbon, 25 trace elements, and the radionuclides beryllium-7, cesium-137, lead-210, and radium-226. At eight sites, streambed-sediment samples also were collected and analyzed for bacteria. Particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon concentrations in the streambed sediment varied substantially spatially and temporally, and positive correlations among the three constituents were statistically significant. Along the main-stem Little Arkansas River, streambed-sediment concentrations of particulate nitrogen and phosphorus generally were larger at and downstream from Alta Mills, Kansas. The largest particulate nitrogen concentrations were measured in samples collected in the Emma Creek subbasin and may be related to livestock and poultry production. The largest particulate phosphorus concentrations in the basin were measured in samples collected along the main-stem Little Arkansas River downstream from Alta Mills, Kansas. Particulate nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon content in the water and streambed-sediment samples typically decreased as streamflow increased. This inverse relation may be caused by an increased contribution of sediment from channel-bank sources during high flows and (or) increased particle sizes transported by the high flows. Trace element concentrations in the streambed sediment varied from site to site and typically were less than threshold-effects guidelines for possible adverse biological effects

  8. Nutrient Concentrations, Loads, and Yields in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin, Arkansas and Oklahoma, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortorelli, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    The City of Tulsa, Oklahoma, uses Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake in the Eucha-Spavinaw basin in northwestern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma for public water supply. Taste and odor problems in the water attributable to blue-green algae have increased in frequency. Changes in the algae community in the lakes may be attributable to increases in nutrient levels in the lakes, and in the waters feeding the lakes. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Tulsa, investigated and summarized nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations and provided estimates of nitrogen and phosphorus loads, yields, and flow-weighted concentrations in the Eucha-Spavinaw basin for three 3-year periods - 2002-2004, 2003-2005, and 2004-2006, to update a previous report that used data from water-quality samples for a 3-year period from January 2002 through December 2004. This report provides information needed to advance knowledge of the regional hydrologic system and understanding of hydrologic processes, and provides hydrologic data and results useful to multiple agencies for interstate agreements. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were significantly greater in runoff samples than in base-flow samples for all three periods at Spavinaw Creek near Maysville, Arkansas; Spavinaw Creek near Colcord, Oklahoma, and Beaty Creek near Jay, Oklahoma. Runoff concentrations were not significantly greater than base-flow concentrations at Spavinaw Creek near Cherokee, Arkansas; and Spavinaw Creek near Sycamore, Oklahoma except for phosphorus during 2003-2005. Nitrogen concentrations in base-flow samples significantly increased downstream in Spavinaw Creek from the Maysville to Sycamore stations then significantly decreased from the Sycamore to the Colcord stations for all three periods. Nitrogen in base-flow samples from Beaty Creek was significantly less than in samples from Spavinaw Creek. Phosphorus concentrations in base-flow samples significantly increased from the Maysville to

  9. Comparing the 2000 and 2005 factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, T R; Barham, B L

    2007-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine how factors affecting the selling price of feeder calves changed from 2000 to 2005 and to examine the perception that discounts narrow or even disappear as calf supplies decrease and selling prices increase. Data from weekly Arkansas livestock auctions were collected from January 1 to December 31 in 2000 and 2005. Data included calf sex, breed type, color, muscle score, horn status, frame score, fill, condition, health, and BW. Mean selling prices for 2000 and 2005 were $92.91 +/- 15.05 and $118.32 +/- 15.13 (mean +/- SD; $/45.45 kg), respectively. Individual price observations were subtracted from the respective annual means and became the dependent variable. The selling prices for feeder calves sold in groups of 2 to 5 calves and in groups of >/= 6 calves were greater in 2005 than 2000 (P x Hereford, Angus, Angus x Charolais, and Brahman (P Brahman Cross, Charolais, Charolais x Limousin, Hereford x Limousin, Limousin, Limousin x one-fourth Brahman, Longhorn, Saler and Simmental. Yellow-white face, black-white face, black, and gray feeder calves received an increase in selling price from 2000 to 2005 (P < 0.001). Although fewer horned feeder calves were sold in 2005 (P < 0.01), they received greater discounts in 2005 than 2000 (-$2.86 +/- 0.16 and -$0.51 +/- 0.09; P < 0.001). In 2005, large-framed feeder calves did not receive the premium detected in 2000, but medium-framed feeder calves in 2005 received a greater selling price compared with 2000. Feeder calves with a muscle score of 1 received a greater premium in 2005 compared with 2000 ($2.58 +/- 0.06 and $0.02 +/- 0.09, respectively; P < 0.001). Feeder calves with a muscle score of 2 were discounted in both years, but the discount in 2005 was not as great as in 2000 (P < 0.001). Full and tanked feeder calves received greater discounts in 2005 than in 2000 (P < 0.001). Discounts for fleshy and fat feeder calves were greater in 2005 than in 2000. Most factors

  10. Potential for Optical Sensor-Based Nitrogen Fertilization in Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Rodriguez, Kamil

    Ground-based active-optical (GBAO) crop sensors have become an effective tool to improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to predict yield early in the growing season, particularly for grass crops. Commercially available canopy sensors calculate the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) by emitting light in the red and near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The NDVI is used to evaluate vigor status and to estimate yield potential. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the performance of commercially available sensors. Therefore, a study was conducted using the most common crop canopy sensors: i) N-Tech's GreenSeeker(TM) (GS), ii) Holland Scientific's Crop Circle(TM) (CC), and iii) Minolta's SPAD-502 chlorophyll content meter (CCM). The objective of this study was to find the optimum time for sensing and compare the relative performance of the sensors in estimating the yield potential of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Treatments included six levels of N fertilization (0, 37, 74, 111, 148, and 185 kg N/ ha), applied in a single split 20 days after planting (DAP). Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replications, in four locations in Arkansas, during 2012 and 2013. Sensors readings at vegetative growth stages V3, 4, 5 and 6. Results from simple regression analysis showed that the V3-V4 growth stage correlated better with grain yield than readings collected and any other time. In season estimated yield (INSEY) obtained at V3 captured 41, 57, 78, and 61% of the variation in grain sorghum yield when red NDVI of GS, red NDVI of CC, red edge for CC and CCM, respectively, were used. Results from these studies suggest that the CC sensor has a better potential for in-season site-specific N application in Arkansas than the GS sensor. The GS reflectance values appear to saturate after the V3 stage, in contrast with CC values that allow for discrimination past the V3 Stage. Therefore, the red

  11. A provisional fish index of biotic integrity for assessing Ouachita Mountains streams in Arkansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauwalter, Daniel C; Jackson, John R

    2004-02-01

    Multimetric indices are often used to monitor aquatic-resource conditions. We used existing fish-collection data from streams to develop an Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), which is a multimetric index, for the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion in Arkansas, U.S.A. Each fish-collection site was categorized as reference or non-reference. We examined 62 candidate IBI metrics, and selected 12 non-redundant metrics that differentiated best between reference and non-reference sites. The selected metrics were: Percent (of individuals) as Black Bass; Percent as Benthic Feeders; Percent as Centrarchids; Percent as Cyprinids; Percent as Ictalurids; Percent as Mineral, Site-Prep Spawners; Percent as Mineral, Site-Prep, Parental-Care Spawners; Percent as Simple, Mineral Substrate Spawners; Percent as Miscellaneous, Site-Prep, Parental-Care Spawners; Total Number of Centrarchid Species; Total Number of Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality (ADEQ) Ouachita Mountains Indicator Species; and Total Number of ADEQ Ouachita Mountains Key Species. We standardized each metric to score from 0 to 10 by using linear equations and threshold limits. Some selected IBI metrics had their scoring criteria adjusted to account for watershed size (i.e., stream size). We standardized the IBI to score from 0 to 100. In addition, we determined that our Percent as Black Bass and Percent as Benthic Feeders metrics contributed most to IBI scores in reference conditions, but their contributions decreased with decreasing stream conditions. Reproductive metrics contributed most in degraded stream conditions. Furthermore, we identified relations between IBI metrics and water-quality and land-use variables; some relations were counterintuitive. Unexpected relations may be random observations explained by limited ranges of land-use and water-quality variables. When select water-quality and land-use variables were included in a principal component analysis, a composite Land Use Intensity variable explained

  12. Methods for estimating annual exceedance probability discharges for streams in Arkansas, based on data through water year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel M.; Krieger, Joshua D.; Veilleux, Andrea G.

    2016-08-04

    In 2013, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study to update regional skew, annual exceedance probability discharges, and regional regression equations used to estimate annual exceedance probability discharges for ungaged locations on streams in the study area with the use of recent geospatial data, new analytical methods, and available annual peak-discharge data through the 2013 water year. An analysis of regional skew using Bayesian weighted least-squares/Bayesian generalized-least squares regression was performed for Arkansas, Louisiana, and parts of Missouri and Oklahoma. The newly developed constant regional skew of -0.17 was used in the computation of annual exceedance probability discharges for 281 streamgages used in the regional regression analysis. Based on analysis of covariance, four flood regions were identified for use in the generation of regional regression models. Thirty-nine basin characteristics were considered as potential explanatory variables, and ordinary least-squares regression techniques were used to determine the optimum combinations of basin characteristics for each of the four regions. Basin characteristics in candidate models were evaluated based on multicollinearity with other basin characteristics (variance inflation factor < 2.5) and statistical significance at the 95-percent confidence level (p ≤ 0.05). Generalized least-squares regression was used to develop the final regression models for each flood region. Average standard errors of prediction of the generalized least-squares models ranged from 32.76 to 59.53 percent, with the largest range in flood region D. Pseudo coefficients of determination of the generalized least-squares models ranged from 90.29 to 97.28 percent, with the largest range also in flood region D. The regional regression equations apply only to locations on streams in Arkansas where annual peak discharges are not substantially affected by regulation, diversion, channelization, backwater, or urbanization

  13. Close relationships between Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans.

  14. West Nile virus and "poliomyelitis".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sejvar, James J

    2004-07-27

    West Nile virus (WNV) has recently been associated with a syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis. Most cases of WNV-associated weakness have clinical, histopathologic, and electrophysiologic characteristics indistinguishable from those of poliomyelitis caused by infection with poliovirus. There is debate about the nomenclature of this manifestation of WNV infection. An historical perspective of the term "poliomyelitis" suggests that the term "WNV poliomyelitis" seems appropriate, but members of the neurologic and infectious disease communities should engage in discussion regarding the terminology of this syndrome.

  15. Potential for New York mosquitoes to transmit West Nile virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M; Oliver, J

    2000-03-01

    We evaluated the potential for several North American mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced West Nile (WN) virus. Mosquitoes collected in the New York City Metropolitan Area during the recent (1999) WN outbreak were allowed to feed on chickens infected with WN virus isolated from a crow that had died during this outbreak. These mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 weeks later to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Culex pipiens mosquitoes were highly susceptible to infection, and nearly all individuals with a disseminated infection did transmit WN virus by bite. In contrast, Aedes vexans were only moderately susceptible to oral infection; however, those individuals inoculated with WN virus did transmit virus by bite.

  16. Altitudes and thicknesses of hydrogeologic units of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Drew A.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Richards, Joseph M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Clark, Brian R.

    2016-09-29

    A hydrogeologic framework was constructed to represent the altitudes and thicknesses of hydrogeologic units within the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system as part of a regional groundwater-flow model supported by the U.S. Geological Survey Water Availability and Use Science Program. The Ozark Plateaus aquifer system study area is nearly 70,000 square miles and includes parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Nine hydrogeologic units were selected for delineation within the aquifer system and include the Western Interior Plains confining system, the Springfield Plateau aquifer, the Ozark confining unit, the Ozark aquifer, which was divided into the upper, middle, and lower Ozark aquifers to better capture the spatial variation in the hydrologic properties, the St. Francois confining unit, the St. Francois aquifer, and the basement confining unit. Geophysical and well-cutting logs, along with lithologic descriptions by well drillers, were compiled and interpreted to create hydrologic altitudes for each unit. The final compiled dataset included more than 23,000 individual altitude points (excluding synthetic points) representing the nine hydrogeologic units within the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system.

  17. Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

  18. Three-Dimensional Geologic Framework Model for a Karst Aquifer System, Hasty and Western Grove Quadrangles, Northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kenzie J.; Hudson, Mark R.; Murray, Kyle E.; Mott, David N.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding ground-water flow in a karst aquifer benefits from a detailed conception of the three-dimensional (3D) geologic framework. Traditional two-dimensional products, such as geologic maps, cross-sections, and structure contour maps, convey a mental picture of the area but a stronger conceptualization can be achieved by constructing a digital 3D representation of the stratigraphic and structural geologic features. In this study, a 3D geologic model was created to better understand a karst aquifer system in the Buffalo National River watershed in northern Arkansas. The model was constructed based on data obtained from recent, detailed geologic mapping for the Hasty and Western Grove 7.5-minute quadrangles. The resulting model represents 11 stratigraphic zones of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian age. As a result of the highly dissected topography, stratigraphic and structural control from geologic contacts and interpreted structure contours were sufficient for effectively modeling the faults and folds in the model area. Combined with recent dye-tracing studies, the 3D framework model is useful for visualizing the various geologic features and for analyzing the potential control they exert on the ground-water flow regime. Evaluation of the model, by comparison to published maps and cross-sections, indicates that the model accurately reproduces both the surface geology and subsurface geologic features of the area.

  19. EPSPS Gene Amplification in Glyphosate-Resistant Italian Ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) Populations from Arkansas (United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Reiofeli A; Scott, Robert C; Dayan, Franck E; Burgos, Nilda R

    2015-07-01

    Glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass was detected in Arkansas (United States) in 2007. In 2014, 45 populations were confirmed resistant in eight counties across the state. The level of resistance and resistance mechanisms in six populations were studied to assess the severity of the problem and identify alternative management approaches. Dose-response bioassays, glyphosate absorption and translocation experiments, herbicide target (EPSPS) gene sequence analysis, and gene amplification assays were conducted. The dose causing 50% growth reduction (GR50) was 7-19 times higher for the resistant population than for the susceptible standard. Uptake and translocation of (14)C-glyphosate were similar in resistant and susceptible plants, and no mutation in the EPSPS gene known to be associated with resistance to glyphosate was detected. Resistant plants contained from 11- to >100-fold more copies of the EPSPS gene than the susceptible plants, whereas the susceptible plants had only one copy of EPSPS. Plants surviving the recommended dose of glyphosate contained at least 10 copies. The EPSPS copy number was positively related to glyphosate resistance level (r = 80). Therefore, resistance to glyphosate in these populations is due to multiplication of the target site. Resistance mechanisms could be location-specific. Suppressing the mechanism for gene amplification may overcome resistance.

  20. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  1. Surface winds over West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromwich, David

    1993-01-01

    Five winter months (April-August 1988) of thermal infrared satellite images were examined to investigate the occurrence of dark (warm) signatures across the Ross Ice Shelf in the Antarctic continent. These features are inferred to be generated by katabatic winds that descend from southern Marie Byrd Land and then blow horizontally across the ice shelf. Significant mass is added to this airstream by katabatic winds blowing from the major glaciers that flow through the Transantarctic Mountains from East Antarctica. These negatively buoyant katabatic winds can reach the northwestern edge of the shelf - a horizontal propagation distance of up to 1,000 km - 14 percent of the time. Where the airstream crosses from the ice shelf to the ice-covered Ross Sea, a prominent coastal polynya is formed. Because the downslope buoyancy force is near zero over the Ross Ice Shelf, the northwestward propagation of the katabatic air mass requires pressure gradient support. The study shows that the extended horizontal propagation of this atmospheric density current occurred in conjunction with the passage of synoptic cyclones over the southern Amundsen Sea. These cyclones can strengthen the pressure gradient in the interior of West Antarctica and make the pressure field favorable for northwestward movement of the katabatic winds from West Antarctica across the ice shelf in a geostrophic direction. The glacier winds from East Antarctica are further accelerated by the synoptic pressure gradient, usually undergo abrupt adjustment beyond the exit to the glacier valley, and merge into the mountain-parallel katabatic air mass.

  2. West Nile Virus and wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, P.P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; McLean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A.P.; Kramer, Laura; Novak, R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

  3. 78 FR 79061 - Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Noise Exposure Map Notice; Key West International Airport, Key West, FL... Administration (FAA) announces its determination that the Noise Exposure Maps submitted by Monroe County for the Key West International Airport under the provisions of the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act...

  4. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the...

  5. The natural history of West Nile virus infection presenting with West Nile virus meningoencephalitis in a man with a prolonged illness: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood James B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Estimates indicate that West Nile virus infects approximately one and a half million people in the United States of America. Up to 1% may develop West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease, in which infected patients develop any combination of meningitis, encephalitis, or acute paralysis. Case presentation A 56-year-old African-American man presented to our hospital with headache, restlessness, fever, myalgias, decreased appetite, and progressive confusion. A cerebrospinal fluid examination showed mild leukocytosis and an elevated protein level. Testing for routine infections was negative. Brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans showed marked enlargement of caudate nuclei and increased intensity within the basal ganglia and thalami. A West Nile virus titer was positive, and serial brain magnetic resonance imaging scans showed resolving abnormalities that paralleled his neurological examination. Conclusion This report is unusual as it portrays the natural history and long-term consequences of West Nile virus meningoencephalitis diagnosed on the basis of serial brain images.

  6. A review of North American Recent Radiolucina (Bivalvia, Lucinidae with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Garfinkle

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available North American members in the genus Radiolucina are reviewed. A lectotype for the type species, Radiolucina amianta, is designated and descriptions and illustrations are provided. A description of a new species, Radiolucina jessicae, from the west coast of Mexico is presented. Key diagnostic species characteristics are outlined and compared among members of the genus.

  7. Are African-American High School Students Less Motivated to Learn Spanish than Other Ethnic Groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Comfort

    2012-01-01

    Although there is some evidence in the vague literature available to indicate that African Americans are underrepresented in foreign language studies, this issue has never been investigated with a focus on Spanish. Six hundred and thirty-one students enrolled in high school Spanish in a racially diverse school district in West Texas were surveyed…

  8. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2009-01-01

    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  9. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  10. American Studies in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  11. Writing American Indian History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  12. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  13. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  14. The Japanese American Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukei, Budd

    This book presents a view of the Japanese American experience from the time of their immigration to this country in the 1800s to their acculturation into American society in the 1970s. Topics dealt with include the prejudice and mistrust experienced by the Japanese immigrants in this country, particularly their evacuation and internment in…

  15. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  16. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  17. The Wild West Visits Mississippi: (Mis)Using the Western Myth in Lewis Nordan's The Sharpshooter Blues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the many ways in which Lewis Nordan plays with the myths of the American West. I start out by discussing the historical similarities as well as differences between the South and West and outline the emergence of the Western myth, better known as the Frontier Myth, from James......’s fiction has been shaped by the aesthetics of the Western. Nordan’s novel The Shapshooter Blues (1995) takes place in the Mississippi Delta of the 1950s. Yet the appearance of a bona fide Western hero, the sharpshooter Morgan, provides an interesting discussion about the power of the cowboy myth as well...

  18. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic......, Kangerlussuaq, Sisimiut and Nuuk. They are situated in continuous, discontinuous and sporadic permafrost zones. We will show examples of detoriation of permafrost related to present local scale climate observations and large scale climate and permafrost simulations modeled numerically with the GIPL model driven...... by HIRHAM climate projections for Greenland up to 2075. The engineering modelling is based on a risk assessment methodology based on a flow diagram which classify the risk of permafrost degradation causing settlement and stability problems for buildings and infrastructures based on relatively simple...

  19. Water quality of the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds Aquifer before and concurrent with large-scale artificial recharge, south-central Kansas, 1995-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappa, Daniel J.; Lanning-Rush, Jennifer L.; Klager, Brian J.; Hansen, Cristi V.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2015-01-01

    The city of Wichita artificially recharged about 1 billion gallons of water into the Equus Beds aquifer during 2007–2012 as part of Phase I recharge of the Artificial Storage and Recovery project. This report, prepared in cooperation by the U.S. Geological Survey and the city of Wichita, Kansas, summarizes Little Arkansas River (source-water for artificial recharge) andEquus Beds aquifer water quality before (1995–2006) and during (2007–2012) Artificial Storage and Recovery Phase I recharge. Additionally, aquifer water-quality distribution maps are presented and water-quality changes associated with Phase I recharge timing are described.

  20. Effects of aquifer storage and recovery activities on water quality in the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds Aquifer, south-central Kansas, 2011-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Garrett, Jessica D.; Poulton, Barry C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2016-07-18

    The Equus Beds aquifer in south-central Kansas is aprimary water source for the city of Wichita. The Equus Beds aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project was developed to help the city of Wichita meet increasing current (2016) and future water demands. The Equus Beds ASR project pumps water out of the Little Arkansas River during above-base flow conditions, treats it using drinking-water quality standards as a guideline, and recharges it into the Equus Beds aquifer for later use. Phase II of the Equus Beds ASR project currently (2016) includes a river intake facility and a surface-water treatment facility with a 30 million gallon per day capacity. Water diverted from the Little Arkansas River is delivered to an adjacent presedimentation basin for solids removal. Subsequently, waste from the surface-water treatment facility and the presedimentation basin is returned to the Little Arkansas River through a residuals return line. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Wichita, developed and implemented a hydrobiological monitoring program as part of the ASR project to characterize and quantify the effects of aquifer storage and recovery activities on the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds aquifer water quality.Data were collected from 2 surface-water sites (one upstream and one downstream from the residuals return line), 1 residuals return line site, and 2 groundwater well sites (each having a shallow and deep part): the Little Arkansas River upstream from the ASR facility near Sedgwick, Kansas (upstream surface-water site 375350097262800), about 0.03 mile (mi) upstream from the residuals return line site; the Little Arkansas River near Sedgwick, Kans. (downstream surface-water site 07144100), about 1.68 mi downstream from the residuals return line site; discharge from the Little Arkansas River ASR facility near Sedgwick, Kansas (residuals return line site 375348097262800); 25S 01 W 07BCCC01 SMW–S11 near CW36 (MW–7 shallow groundwater well

  1. The use of instant medical history in a rural clinic. Case study of the use of computers in an Arkansas physician's office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, B

    2000-05-01

    This study evaluated the acceptance of using computers to take a medical history by rural Arkansas patients. Sex, age, race, education, previous computer experience and owning a computer were used as variables. Patients were asked a series of questions to rate their comfort level with using a computer to take their medical history. Comfort ratings ranged from 30 to 45, with a mean of 36.8 (SEM = 0.67). Neither sex, race, age, education, owning a personal computer, nor prior computer experience had a significant effect on the comfort rating. This study helps alleviate one of the concerns--patient acceptance--about the increasing use of computers in practicing medicine.

  2. 76 FR 5193 - Felsenthal/Overflow National Wildlife Refuges, Ashley, Desha, Union, and Bradley Counties, AR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Petersen, Project Leader, South Arkansas National Wildlife Refuge Complex, 5531 Highway 82 West, Crossett... southeast Arkansas, approximately 8 miles west of the town of Crossett. This 65,000-acre refuge is named...

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娟; 黄舜

    2007-01-01

    The large scale colonization of America by British settlers took place in the seventeenth century.During the process,the immigrants brought English to America.They desert great influence to the development of American English.After the civil war,American got political independence,and then there arose a tendency to develop an American brand of English.Famous persons like Thomas Jeffe,Benjamin,Franklin,and Noah Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own.

  4. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  5. Guadalupian studies in West Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, R.E.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Rohr, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Murchison established the Permian System in the Ural Mountains of Russia in 1841. The first North American Permian fossils were discovered by Hall (1856) about 15 years later. The fossils, which were collected in New York State, were initially described as Carboniferous (Hall, 1856) but were subsequently recognized as Permian by Girty (1902). Benjamin F. Shumard (1858), however, was the first to place an unequivocal Permian designation on some North American fossils, which has been collected by his brother George G. Shumard from the Guadalupe Mountains in Texas. A half a century passed before Girty (1908) made known an extensive Guadalupian fauna, although his field work in Texas and his study of this fauna already lead him to propose a Guadalupian "period" (Girty, 1902). Girty's suggestion was accepted only when it was formalized as the Guadalupe Series by Adams et al. (1939). The "Guadalupian fauna" was based upon fossils that Girty collected in 1901 on an expedition headed by Robert T. Hill, a revered figure in Texas geology.

  6. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  7. Religious Authority in African American Churches: A Study of Six Churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congregational culture of female-headed vs. male-headed churches. Among male-headed congregations, views of gender and leadership were complex, with beliefs ranging from no support to full support for female-headed congregations. Two congregational cultures emerged from the data: Congregations with a Social Activist orientation focused on meeting the social needs of the community through Christ, whereas congregations with a Teach the Word orientation stressed the importance of meeting the spiritual needs of the community through knowing the Word of God. Although aspects of both congregational cultures were present to some extentin all six congregations studied, the Social Activist culture played a more dominant narrative in female-headed congregations, whereas the Teach the Word culture was more evident in male-headed congregations. This study reports preliminary information about gender and religious authority in rural African American churches by revealing the different clergy training requirements and church placements of female and male clergy, a myriad of views about female religious authority in the African American faith community, and through uncovering two distinct congregational cultures. This study also enhances understanding on the role of gender in Black churches’ perceptions and interactions with rural, socioeconomically challenged communities.

  8. Intraspecific variation in the thermal biology of Rabidosa rabida (Araneae: Lycosidae) (Walckenaer) from the mountains of Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, Ryan

    2012-12-01

    Temperature affects all levels of biological organization and multiple aspects of ecological performance and fitness. Descriptions of thermal biology are, therefore, essential pieces of information for studying ecology in varying thermal environments. This paper describes the thermal biology of the spider Rabidosa rabida by using three common descriptive measures. Spiders were collected from two populations on mountains in Arkansas that share similar climate and vegetation. Maximum sprint speed across temperature was used to calculate an estimate of thermal sensitivity of locomotor ability. Spiders were placed in a thermal gradient to determine thermal preference. Spiders' body temperatures were increased or decreased until the ability to move was lost. Results were compared between the populations to describe intraspecific variation. Maximum sprint speed increased across temperatures showing moderate sensitivity (Q(10 all spiders) = between 1.74 and 2) except at the highest temperatures in males, and the lowest temperatures in both sexes. Maximum sprint speeds differed between populations (P thermal maximum was shown to be 42.9°C ± 0.70. The critical thermal minimum was estimated at 0°C. Thermal preference of R. rabida was determined to be 31.9°C ± 0.44 showing no significant variation between populations. This study provides a first description of thermal biology in an ecologically important spider, and shows evidence of variation between thermal biology measures between populations with similar climate but no gene flow. Having adapted to various and changing conditions in the past, this spider and others like it can provide many ecologically and evolutionarily interesting lines of inquiry.

  9. Regional potentiometric surface of the Ozark aquifer in Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma, November 2014–January 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nottmeier, Anna M.

    2015-12-21

    The Ozark aquifer, within the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (herein referred to as the “Ozark system”), is the primary groundwater source in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province (herein referred to as the “Ozark Plateaus”) of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Groundwater from the Ozark system has historically been an important part of the water resource base, and groundwater availability is a concern in some areas; dependency on the Ozark aquifer as a water supply has caused evolving, localized issues. The construction of a regional potentiometric-surface map of the Ozark aquifer is needed to aid assessment of current and future groundwater use and availability. The regional potentiometric-surface mapping is part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Groundwater Resources Program initiative (http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/gwrp/activities/regional.html) and the Ozark system groundwater availability project (http://ar.water.usgs.gov/ozarks), which seeks to quantify current groundwater resources, evaluate changes in these resources over time, and provide the information needed to simulate system response to future human-related and environmental stresses.The Ozark groundwater availability project objectives include assessing (1) growing demands for groundwater and associated declines in groundwater levels as agricultural, industrial, and public supply pumping increases to address needs; (2) regional climate variability and pumping effects on groundwater and surface-water flow paths; (3) effects of a gradual shift to a greater surface-water dependence in some areas; and (4) shale-gas production requiring groundwater and surface water for hydraulic fracturing. Data compiled and used to construct the regional Ozark aquifer potentiometric surface will aid in the assessment of those objectives.

  10. Testicular histology and germ cell cytology during spermatogenesis in the Mississippi map turtle, Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii, from Northeast Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kelsey; Trauth, Stanley E; Gribbins, Kevin M

    2014-01-01

    The testicular histology and cytology of spermatogenesis in Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii were examined using specimens collected between July 1996 and May 2004 from counties in northeastern Arkansas. A histological examination of the testes and germ cell cytology indicates a postnuptial testicular cycle of spermatogenesis and a major fall spermiation event. The majority of the germ cell populations in May and June specimens are represented by resting spermatogonia, type A spermatogonia, type B spermatogonia, pre-leptotene spermatocytes, and numerous Sertoli cell nuclei near the basement membrane. The start of proliferation is evident as spermatogonia in metaphase are present near the basal lamina and many of these germ cells have entered meiosis in June seminiferous tubules. Major spermatogenic events occur in the June and July specimens and result in an increased height of the seminiferous epithelium and increased diameter of the seminiferous tubules. The germ cell population during this time is represented by spermatogonia (type A, B, and resting), hypertrophic cells, large populations of early primary spermatocytes, and early round spermatids. By September, the major germ cell population has progressed past meiosis with abundant round and early elongating spermatids dominating the seminiferous epithelium. October seminiferous epithelia are marked by a decreas in height and mature spermatozoa fill the luminal space. Round and elongating spermatids constitute the largest portion of the germ cell population. Following the spermiation event, the testes enter a period of quiescence that lasts till the next spermatogenic cycle, which begins in the subsequent spring. Based on the cytological development of the seminiferous tubules revealed by our study, Graptemys pseudogeographica kohnii demonstrates a temporal germ cell development strategy similar to other temperate reptiles. A single major generation of germ cells progresses through spermatogenesis each year

  11. Assessment of Local Recharge Area Characteristics of Four Caves in Northern Arkansas and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2004-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2009-01-01

    A study was conducted from 2004 to 2007 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to assess the characteristics of the local recharge areas of four caves in northern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma that provide habitat for a number of unique organisms. Characterization of the local recharge areas are important because the caves occur in a predominately karst system and because land use proximal to the caves, including areas suspected to lie within the local recharge areas, may include activities with potentially deleterious effects to cave water quality. An integrated approach was used to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of Civil War Cave, January-Stansbury Cave, Nesbitt Spring Cave, and Wasson's Mud Cave. This approach incorporated methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, and geochemistry. Continuous water-level and water-temperature data were collected at each cave for various periods to determine recharge characteristics. Field investigations were conducted to determine surficial controls affecting the groundwater flow and connections of the groundwater system to land-surface processes in each study area. Qualitative groundwater tracing also was conducted at each cave to help define the local recharge areas. These independent methods of investigation provided multiple lines of evidence for effectively describing the behavior of these complex hydrologic systems. Civil War Cave is located near the city of Bentonville in Benton County, Arkansas, and provides habitat for the Ozark cavefish. Civil War Cave is developed entirely within the epikarst of the upper Boone Formation, and recharge to Civil War Cave occurs from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). The daily mean discharge for the period of study was 0.59 cubic feet per second and ranged from 0.19 to 2.8 cubic feet per second. The mean water temperature for Civil War Cave was 14

  12. Americanization of Non-American Storiesin Disney Films

    OpenAIRE

    Beta Setiawati

    2016-01-01

    The study is intended to know the Disney’s animation films characteristics which are adapted from non American stories that contain Americanization in order to be American popular culture products. This qualitative and library research is carried out within the field of American Studies. Disney’s animated films which are regarded as artifacts in order to identify American society and culture is used as her primary data. She then compares those Disney films with the original stories to discove...

  13. American Nephrology Nurses' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Join/Renew Jobs Contact Corporate Shop American Nephrology Nurses' Association About ANNA Association About ANNA Strategic ... Activities CExpress Events National Events Chapter / Local Events Nephrology Nurses Week ANNA Education Modules CKD Modules Education ...

  14. American Academy of Audiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tools Publications Audiology Today Journal of the American Academy of Audiology Books Brochures Multimedia Guidelines and Standards ... INVEST IN YOUR FUTURE Registration and housing for Academy members is OPEN NOW. SUBMIT YOUR POSTER IDEA ...

  15. American Behcet's Disease Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Behcet's Awareness Day Behcet's Disease Awareness Share your story and educate others about Behcet's: www.rareconnect.org/en/community/behcet-s-syndrome Upcoming Events American Behcet's Disease Association PO BOX 80576 Rochester, MI ...

  16. American Migraine Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... YouTube Follow us on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY About Migraine Patient Registry Corporate Roundtable ... YouTube Follow us on Pinterest Follow us on Instagram DONATE TODAY Freedom From Pain The American Migraine ...

  17. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latest News American Lung Association Pledges to Fight Trump Administration Assault on Clean Air and Climate Protections March 28, 2017 In response to President Trump's announcement on climate change, Harold P. Wimmer, National ...

  18. American Association of Orthodontists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... step for patients wishing to resolve issues of crowding, misalignment and the burden of feeling self-conscious ... The American Association of Orthodontists does not provide funding for orthodontic treatment. There are several programs that ...

  19. American Sleep Apnea Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself ...

  20. American Society of Nephrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stay safe! – @ASNKidney on Twitter ASN News Feed Society Events Interact With ASN rss Facebook Twitter YouTube ... Podcast ASN Communities Share ASN User Login © American Society of Nephrology top Text Size + - Translate Sitemap Terms ...

  1. American Geriatrics Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travel Award for Research Symposium on Pharmacotherapy and Older Adults with CVD November 10th, 2016 Need Help Understanding MACRA? Check Out this Free Toolkit ... © 2016 The American Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. Privacy Policy . Copyright & Permissions . Disclaimer .

  2. General American: An Ambiguity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Riper, William R.

    1973-01-01

    Disputes use of the term General American'' because of the excessive breadth of its scope and its indefiniteness; article is part of Lexicography and Dialect Geography, Festgabe for Hans Kurath''. (DD)

  3. American Samoa Longline Logbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data system contains the logbook data of vessels unloading in American Samoa. In 1992, the logbooks of three longline trips conducting an experiment to test the...

  4. Pan American Health Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Google Tag Pan American Health Organization | Organización Panamericana de la Salud Skip to content English Español Menu Home Health Topics Programs Media Center Publications Data Countries and Centers About PAHO question  ...

  5. American Sleep Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Disorders Book Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Changing Bad Sleep Habits Asthma and Sleep ...

  6. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to a friend by ... and eventually, in developing more effective treatments. Does glaucoma treatment differ? Although treatment varies for all individuals, ...

  7. On American Individualism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李谷雨

    2016-01-01

    Among those American symbols like multiculturalism, hi-tech and its powerful status in the world, an important representative one is its individualism. This paper will briefly discuss it based on daily matters.

  8. West Nile virus and the climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, P R

    2001-06-01

    West Nile virus is transmitted by urban-dwelling mosquitoes to birds and other animals, with occasional "spillover" to humans. While the means by which West Nile virus was introduced into the Americas in 1999 remain unknown, the climatic conditions that amplify diseases that cycle among urban mosquitoes, birds, and humans are warm winters and spring droughts. This information can be useful in generating early warning systems and mobilizing timely and the most environmentally friendly public health interventions. The extreme weather conditions accompanying long-term climate change may also be contributing to the spread of West Nile virus in the United States and Europe.

  9. The Formation of American Hegemonism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琦灵

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, American culture permeates in our life. It seems that all the things in the world are in relation to the United States. This thesis discusses hegemonism in America from three aspects: the definition of hegemony, the origin of American hegemony and the interaction between American values. The purpose of this thesis is to get a comprehensive understanding of American hegemonism,

  10. American Pet Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海焰

    2007-01-01

    In America you can find dogs,cats, horses,monkeys, snakes and even pigs in almost every family.They are their pets.Americans love pets and look on them as a part of the family.Sometimes pet owners dress their pets in fashionable clothes.They even buy toys for their pets.Americans love their pets as their children, sometimes even better.

  11. American Outlaws in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    An aspect of the diffusion of American popular culture is examined in this research drawing upon national survey data. Measuring Australians¡¯ knowledge of American and Australian outlaws, we found that Jesse James and Billy the Kid are better known in Australia than any of the local outlaws, or bushrangers, with the exception of Ned Kelly. While a relatively large proportion of Australians identified Ned Kelly, Ben Hall, Jesse James and Billy the Kid as outlaws, few identified other Australi...

  12. Terrorism: American Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-01

    individuals "willfully" violating the executive edict . (24:19) As explained above, certain actions can be (and were) legally taken by the U.S. in response...34Terrorism: How the West Can Win." Time, 14 April 1986, pp. 48-59. 20. Nordland, Rod with Zofia Smardz, Richard Sandz, John Walcott, and Milan J. Kubic

  13. The landscape of recombination in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinch, Anjali G; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G; Akylbekova, Ermeg L; Aldrich, Melinda C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V; Berndt, Sonja I; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J; Bock, Cathryn H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cai, Qiuyin; Caporaso, Neil; Casey, Graham; Cupples, L Adrienne; Deming, Sandra L; Diver, W Ryan; Divers, Jasmin; Fornage, Myriam; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Glessner, Joseph; Harris, Curtis C; Hu, Jennifer J; Ingles, Sue A; Isaacs, William; John, Esther M; Kao, W H Linda; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Larkin, Emma; Le Marchand, Loic; McNeill, Lorna H; Millikan, Robert C; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Nyante, Sarah; Papanicolaou, George J; Press, Michael F; Psaty, Bruce M; Reiner, Alex P; Rich, Stephen S; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Rotter, Jerome I; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Schwartz, Ann G; Signorello, Lisa B; Spitz, Margaret; Strom, Sara S; Thun, Michael J; Tucker, Margaret A; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K; Witte, John S; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yamamura, Yuko; Zanetti, Krista A; Zheng, Wei; Ziegler, Regina G; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Redline, Susan; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Henderson, Brian E; Taylor, Herman A; Price, Alkes L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Chanock, Stephen J; Haiman, Christopher A; Wilson, James G; Reich, David; Myers, Simon R

    2011-07-20

    Recombination, together with mutation, gives rise to genetic variation in populations. Here we leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantly, and we identify about 2,500 recombination hotspots that are active in people of West African ancestry but nearly inactive in Europeans. The probability of a crossover at these hotspots is almost fully controlled by the alleles an individual carries at PRDM9 (P value < 10(-245)). We identify a 17-base-pair DNA sequence motif that is enriched in these hotspots, and is an excellent match to the predicted binding target of PRDM9 alleles common in West Africans and rare in Europeans. Sites of this motif are predicted to be risk loci for disease-causing genomic rearrangements in individuals carrying these alleles. More generally, this map provides a resource for research in human genetic variation and evolution.

  14. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  15. West Nile virus in Tennessee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Timothy F; Gottfried, Kristy L; McCauley, Tracy A; Swinger, Gary L

    2003-01-01

    WNV is a mosquito-borne virus that generally causes asymptomatic or mild illness in humans. Less than 1% of infected persons will develop severe disease. Because there is no specific treatment for the disease, mildly ill persons seldom require testing for WNV. Widespread media coverage may contribute to misperceptions about the incidence and severity of the disease, and many patients may benefit from reassurance and information which helps them understand the true risk of WNV compared with many more common but less sensational public health threats. For example, approximately 34,000 Americans die each year from firearms, and 20,000 die from influenza (a vaccine-preventable disease). Common-sense personal protective measures to avoid mosquito bites can substantially reduce an individuals' risk of acquiring WNV.

  16. A new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from tri-colored bats, Perimyotis subflavus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae), from the Ouachitas of Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Arlen, Robert; Connior, Matthew B

    2014-10-01

    Between February 2013 and October 2013, eleven tri-colored bats, Perimyotis subflavus were collected from Marion, Polk, and Searcy counties, Arkansas, and their faeces examined for coccidian parasites. Two of eleven (18%) harboured an eimerian that we describe here as new. Oocysts of Eimeria mcdanieli sp. n. were ellipsoidal to elongate with a bi-layered wall and measured (length × width, L × W) 28.3 × 17.9 μm, with an L/W ratio of 1.6. A micropyle and oocyst residuum were absent but a single polar granule was present. Sporocysts were ovoidal, 12.6 × 8.3 μm, with an L/W ratio of 1.5. A pronounced, nipple-like Stieda body was present as well as a substieda body. A sporocyst residuum was present as dispersed bubble-like granules. This is the third coccidian described from tri-colored bats and the sixth species reported from Arkansas chiropterans. In addition, both infected bats harbored a concurrent infection of Eimeria heidti McAllister, Burt, Seville, and Robison, 2011.

  17. Health Complaints Associated with Poor Rental Housing Conditions in Arkansas: The Only State Without a Landlord’s Implied Warranty of Habitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bachelder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Arkansas is the only U.S. state that does not have a landlord’s implied warranty of habitability, meaning tenants have a requirement for maintaining their rental properties at certain habitability standards, but landlords are not legally required to contribute to those minimum health and safety standards. This project assessed the possibility that this lack of landlord responsibility affects tenants’ perceived health. Using surveys and interviews, we collected self-reported data on the prevalence and description of problems faced by renters who needed household repairs from their landlords. Of almost 1000 renters, one third of them had experienced a problem with their landlord making needed repairs; and one-quarter of those had a health issue they attributed to their housing conditions. Common issues included problems with plumbing, heating or cooling systems, and pest or rodent control. Reported health problems included elevated stress levels, breathing problems, headaches, high blood pressure and bites or infections. Hispanic respondents and those with less than a high school education were both significantly more likely to report problems with their landlords not making repairs as requested. The data suggest that the lack of landlord requirements may negatively impact the condition of rental properties, and therefore may negatively impact the health of Arkansas renters.

  18. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  19. DOLLY SODS WILDERNESS, WEST VIRGINIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Kenneth J.; Hill, James J.

    1984-01-01

    Coal, the principal mineral resource of the Dolly Sods Wilderness, West Virginia is in at least seven beds of low- to medium-volatile bituminous rank. Of these beds, four are of sufficient thickness, quality, and extent to contain demonstrated coal resources which are estimated to total about 15. 5 million short tons in areas of substantiated coal resource potential. A Small-scale development of the coal resources of the Dolly Sods Wilderness has been by several shallow adits which provided fuel for locomotives during early logging operations and by a one truck mine. All mine entries are now abandoned. Peat, shale, clay, and sandstone, occur in the area but because of remoteness of markets and inaccessability they are not classified as resources in this report. Natural gas may occur in rocks underlying the area, but because of a lack of subsurface information an estimate of resource potential has not been made. No evidence of metallic-mineral resources was found during this investigation.

  20. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  1. Drought May Beckon Bigger West Nile Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163495.html Drought May Beckon Bigger West Nile Outbreaks Dry environment ... found that epidemics were larger during years of drought. There were also bigger outbreaks in areas that ...

  2. Libraries in West Virginia: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/westvirginia.html Libraries in West Virginia To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Bridgeport United Hospital Center Health Sciences Library 327 Medical Park Dr Bridgeport, WV 26330 681- ...

  3. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  4. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  5. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  6. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  7. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  8. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  9. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  10. Countercurrents from the West: “blue-eyed” Zen masters, Vipassanā meditation, and Buddhist psychotherapy in contemporary Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongseok Joo, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    One surprising and yet relatively unknown aspect of contemporary Korean Buddhism is the significant influence of American and European Buddhism. Between 1989 and 2009, South Koreans witnessed well-educated “blue-eyed” monastic residents via the Korean media, and the emergence of new bestsellers by authors like Thich Nhat Hahn and Jack Kornfield, written initially for Western audiences but since translated into Korean. The new teachings from the West have inspired a sudden growth of interest in vipassanā meditation as an “alternative” to Kanhwa Sŏn practice, and the emergence of a new academic field: Buddhist psychotherapy. This new wave of transnational influence from the West has changed not only the way Koreans practice Buddhism but also how they perceive Buddhist history and their own identities. In addition, the perceived “prestige” of Buddhism in the West has provided a new rhetorical strategy to defend Buddhism against other religions, particularly Korean evangelical Christianity.

  11. Nathanael West: The Art of His Life. By Jay Martin. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux 1970. 435 pp. Nathanael West: The Art of His Life. By Jay Martin. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux 1970. 435 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Ryan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1930, Nathanael West was 26 years old and had just finished his first novel, The Dream Life of Balso Snell. He worked as night manager at the Kenmore Hall Hotel, a glorified rooming house in Manhattan, which was partially owned by his uncle. Later that year he was hired as manager of the Sutton Hotel, which gave him the opportunity to observe the life of the masses, with whom he had a great propensity to identify. In a sense, these hotels became West's laboratory, his imaginative Paris. They evoked a vivid personal response in him and were a fertile source of fantasy. In the thirties when, like West, a great number of Americans escaped the horrors of the depression through fantasy, the author dealt in fiction with mass life on the deepest possible and most relevant level by concentrating on the fantasies of the masses. In 1930, Nathanael West was 26 years old and had just finished his first novel, The Dream Life of Balso Snell. He worked as night manager at the Kenmore Hall Hotel, a glorified rooming house in Manhattan, which was partially owned by his uncle. Later that year he was hired as manager of the Sutton Hotel, which gave him the opportunity to observe the life of the masses, with whom he had a great propensity to identify. In a sense, these hotels became West's laboratory, his imaginative Paris. They evoked a vivid personal response in him and were a fertile source of fantasy. In the thirties when, like West, a great number of Americans escaped the horrors of the depression through fantasy, the author dealt in fiction with mass life on the deepest possible and most relevant level by concentrating on the fantasies of the masses.

  12. NGA-West 2 GMPE average site coefficients for use in earthquake-resistant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Site coefficients corresponding to those in tables 11.4–1 and 11.4–2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (Standard ASCE/SEI 7-10) are derived from four of the Next Generation Attenuation West2 (NGA-W2) Ground-Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). The resulting coefficients are compared with those derived by other researchers and those derived from the NGA-West1 database. The derivation of the NGA-W2 average site coefficients provides a simple procedure to update site coefficients with each update in the Maximum Considered Earthquake Response MCER maps. The simple procedure yields average site coefficients consistent with those derived for site-specific design purposes. The NGA-W2 GMPEs provide simple scale factors to reduce conservatism in current simplified design procedures.

  13. West Nile virus and the climate

    OpenAIRE

    Epstein, Paul R.

    2001-01-01

    West Nile virus is transmitted by urban-dwelling mosquitoes to birds and other animals, with occasional “spillover” to humans. While the means by which West Nile virus was introduced into the Americas in 1999 remain unknown, the climatic conditions that amplify diseases that cycle among urban mosquitoes, birds, and humans are warm winters and spring droughts. This information can be useful in generating early warning systems and mobilizing timely and the most environmentally friendly public h...

  14. Molecular evolution of American field strains of bluetongue and epizootic haemorrhagic disease viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, William C; Gaudreault, Natasha N; Jasperson, Dane C; Johnson, Donna J; Ostlund, Eileen N; Chase, Christopher L; Ruder, Mark G; Stallknecht, David E

    2015-01-01

    Recent Orbivirus occurrences in the Americas have been investigated using whole genome amplification and sequencing followed by phylogenetic analysis. The bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) whole genomes were amplified without prior sequence knowledge and deep sequenced. This technology was applied to evaluate BTV‑3 isolates spanning 4 decades from Florida, Arkansas, Mississippi, South Dakota, Central America, and the Caribbean basin. The results of the dataset analysis are consistent with the hypothesis that these viruses were introduced into the United States from Central America and the Caribbean basin. A similar analysis has been performed on a recent BTV‑2 isolate from California. It indicates that the BTV‑2 strain was likely introduced into Florida and then moved South to the Caribbean and West to California. A historical (1955‑2012) molecular characterisation of EHDV strains was also completed, and subsequently used as reference sequence for comparison of genomes from recent 2012 cattle isolates associated with clinical disease. Finally, this analysis was performed on BTV‑11 isolated from 2 canine cases and demonstrated that the genome sequences of the virus isolates from these cases were almost identical. These studies indicate the value of this technology in understanding virus epidemiology and ecology.

  15. 西方之眼——论《看见十九世纪台湾》的知识生产%The Eyes of the West:——On the Knowledge Production in Curious Investigations:19th-century American and European Impressions of Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计璧瑞

    2014-01-01

    本文以《看见十九世纪台湾——十四位西方旅行者的福尔摩沙故事》(Curious Investigations:19th-century American and European Impressions of Taiwan)为主要分析对象,将西方人讲述的台湾故事当做西方对东方的观看和关于台湾的知识生产,探讨何种事物被选择为讲述对象,考察来自西方的“凝视”(gaze)究竟产生了怎样的台湾图景.首先,将西方旅行者对台湾自然事物的发现与19世纪西方的科学发展相联系,说明对未知世界的探险、科学化的叙述和世界范围内的知识传播是由西方主导的.而旅行者对台湾人文景观的记录则表现为观察与被观察、控制与被控制的权力关系,是西方主体对东方他者的认知投射.第二,借用文化与社会关键词的论述,将旅行者对台湾人文与社会的讲述集中于一些有代表性的词汇中,如“野蛮人”、汉人与儒家文化等,这些词汇体现了西方主体的意识与观念,呈现了当时西方眼中的台湾知识地图.原住民被作为讲述中心可能与西方眼中的文明位阶相关;汉人和儒家文化受到贬抑是中华文明衰落和西方文明崛起的世界格局所决定的.

  16. Potential seaways across West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, David G.; Barnes, David K. A.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Bingham, Robert G.

    2011-10-01

    The West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) has long been considered vulnerable to rapid retreat and today parts are rapidly losing ice. Projection of future change in WAIS is, however, hampered by our poor understanding of past changes, especially during interglacial periods that could be analogs for the future, but which undoubtedly provide an opportunity for testing predictive models. We consider how ice-loss would open seaways across WAIS; these would likely alter Southern Ocean circulation and climate, and would broadly define the de-glacial state, but they may also have left evidence of their existence in the coastal seas they once connected. We show the most likely routes for such seaways, and that a direct seaway between Weddell and Ross seas, which did not pass through the Amundsen Sea sector, is unlikely. Continued ice-loss at present rates would open seaways between Amundsen and Weddell seas (A-W), and Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas (A-B), in around one thousand years. This timescale indicates potential future vulnerability, but also suggests seaways may have opened in recent interglacial periods. We attempt to test this hypothesis using contemporary bryozoan species assemblages around Antarctica, concluding that anomalously high similarity in assemblages in the Weddell and Amundsen seas supports recent migration through A-W. Other authors have suggested opening of seaways last occurred during Marine Isotope Stage 7a (209 ka BP), but we conclude that opening could have occurred in MIS 5e (100 ka BP) when Antarctica was warmer than present and likely contributed to global sea levels higher than today.

  17. On Universal Telecommunication Service and West China Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at studying the relationship between universal telecommunication service and West China development. It, firstly, introduces our country's demands for universal telecommunication service; secondly, analyses the demand of West China development for the universal telecommunication service; thirdly, depicts the development status of telecommunication industry of the west region; fourthly, points out the significance of universal telecommunication service to the west area; and lastly, brings forward the connotation of universal telecommunication service of west area.

  18. Distribution and variability of redox zones controlling spatial variability of arsenic in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, southeastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.U.; Davis, R.K.; Steele, K.F.; Kim, B.; Hays, P.D.; Kresse, T.M.; Fazio, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty one of 118 irrigation water wells in the shallow (25-30??m thick) Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the Bayou Bartholomew watershed, southeastern Arkansas had arsenic (As) concentrations (oxide, organic, and hot HNO3-leachable fraction of As and other compounds in sediments. The Chao reagent (0.25??M hydroxylamine hydrochloride in 0.25??M HCl) removes amorphous Fe and Mn oxides and oxyhydroxides (present as coatings on grains and amorphous minerals) by reductive dissolution and is a measure of reducible Fe and Mn in sediments. The hot HNO3 extraction removes mostly crystalline metal oxides and all other labile forms of As. Significant total As (20%) is complexed with amorphous Fe and Mn oxides in sediments. Arsenic abundance is not significant in carbonates or organic matter. Significant (40-70????g/kg) exchangeable As is only present at shallow depth (0-1??m below ground surface). Arsenic is positively correlated to Fe extracted by Chao reagent (r = 0.83) and hot HNO3 (r = 0.85). Arsenic extracted by Chao reagent decreases significantly with depth as compared to As extracted by hot HNO3. Fe (II)/Fe (the ratio of Fe concentration in the extracts of Chao reagent and hot HNO3) is positively correlated (r = 0.76) to As extracted from Chao reagent. Although Fe (II)/Fe increases with depth, the relative abundance of reducible Fe decreases noticeably with depth. The amount of reducible Fe, as well as As complexed to amorphous Fe and Mn oxides and oxyhydroxides decreases with depth. Possible explanations for the decrease in reducible Fe and its complexed As with depth include historic flushing of As and Fe from hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) by microbially-mediated reductive dissolution and aging of HFO to crystalline phases. Hydrogeochemical data suggests that the groundwater in the area falls in the mildly reducing (suboxic) to relatively highly reducing (anoxic) zone, and points to reductive dissolution of HFO as the dominant As release mechanism

  19. Association between high expression macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) alleles and West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rituparna; Loughran, Kerry; Murchison, Charles; Qian, Feng; Leng, Lin; Song, Yan; Montgomery, Ruth R; Loeb, Mark; Bucala, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Infection with mosquito-borne West Nile virus (WNV) is usually asymptomatic but can lead to severe WNV encephalitis. The innate cytokine, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), is elevated in patients with WNV encephalitis and promotes viral neuroinvasion and mortality in animal models. In a case-control study, we examined functional polymorphisms in the MIF locus in a cohort of 454 North American patients with neuroinvasive WNV disease and found patients homozygous for high-expression MIF alleles to be >20-fold (p=0.008) more likely to have WNV encephalitis. These data indicate that MIF is an important determinant of severity of WNV neuropathogenesis and may be a therapeutic target.

  20. The Next American Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    forces emphasizlng global mobl ]ity, technological superlority, an~ high quality for intervention in regional conflicts at the expense of active...to be on the verge of a further technological leap :n civilian and military technology . The Soviet military ceallzed as early as 1982, despite its...dominance of the heights of £he Soviet economy, it possessed inadequate resources to compete with the West in a new technological -military revolution

  1. Evolution of the West Siberian Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyssotski, A.V. [Chevron, 1500 Louisiana Street, Houston (United States); Vyssotski, V.N. [TNK-BP, 1 Arbat St, Moscow 119019 (Russian Federation); Nezhdanov, A.A. [OOO TyumenNIIgiprogas, 2 Vorovskogo Str., Tyumen 625019 (Russian Federation)

    2006-01-01

    The West Siberian Basin is one of the largest intra-cratonic basins of the world and an important hydrocarbon province of Russia. Perhaps the most important geologic event in Siberia was the emplacement of basalts around {approx} 250Ma (i.e. Permo-Triassic boundary) covering an area of about 5x10{sup 6} km{sup 2}. This volcanism may be responsible for a mass extinction that occurred around Permian-Triassic time. The pre-basaltic rifting event was limited to the north-northeastern sector of the basin. Initial basin wide subsidence took place in the Jurassic as a result of which the western part of Siberia became the West Siberian Basin bounded by uplifts to the east and to the west. One of the surprising aspects of the West Siberian Basin is the abundance of sub-vertical faults believed to be result of strike-slip movement. While intra-plate inversions and fault reactivation structures have been observed in many cratons, sub-vertical faults observed in the West Siberian Basin are unique because of their geometries and abundance. The differentiation between the effects of tectonics and eustasy in cratonic basins is simple-the global eustatic signal is basin-wide with regional and local tectonics playing an overprinting role. Thus, the Middle Jurassic-Turonian 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order cycles in the West Siberian Basin were primarily driven by eustasy. The Middle Jurassic-Turonian series can be subdivided into two second-order and 16 third-order transgressive-regressive cycles (within dataset extent). Fourth-order cycles appear to be controlled by delta shifting. Although extensively studied, a number of fundamental questions regarding the origin and evolution of the West Siberian Basin remain unresolved or poorly documented in the literature. [Author].

  2. The American Armies: 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    terrorism and crime that accompany it. The dynamic of the U.S. relationship with Latin American countries has also changed. This is most evident in...have already found it.... The inter-American order was not built by hatred and terror . It has been paved by the endless and effective work of men of...Peru’s armed forces." They also discuss the collapsed talks between former President Bush and Mr. Fujimori over attempts to get coca farmers to grow other

  3. MODERN AMERICAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    With China’s open door policy advocating that Chinese people study abroad, primarily in English-speaking countries, a text tailored to preparing these students is needed. Modern American English, (MAE) composed jointly by Chinese and American linguists, attempts to fill the void. The book’s introduction states a twofold purpose: to help Chinese students learn situational English and to introduce Western culture and society. By assessing MAE’s strength’s and weaknesses it is my intention to provide the publisher with some feedback that may be of some help for forthcoming revisions.

  4. CHROMOSOMES OF AMERICAN MARSUPIALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIGGERS, J D; FRITZ, H I; HARE, W C; MCFEELY, R A

    1965-06-18

    Studies of the chromosomes of four American marsupials demonstrated that Caluromys derbianus and Marmosa mexicana have a diploid number of 14 chromosomes, and that Philander opossum and Didelphis marsupialis have a diploid number of 22. The karyotypes of C. derbianus and M. mexicana are similar, whereas those of P. opossum and D. marsupialis are dissimilar. If the 14-chromosome karyotype represents a reduction from a primitive number of 22, these observations suggest that the change has occurred independently in the American and Australasian forms.

  5. Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas M. Richardson

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Reviewed: Grizzly West: A Failed Attempt to Reintroduce Grizzly Bears in the Mountain West. By Michael M. Dax. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2015. x + 289 pp. US$ 37.50. ISBN 978-0-8032-6673-5.

  6. 77 FR 56125 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ..., EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for West Virginia. 77 FR 10423. The ] NPR proposed... adopted a PSD program under 45 CSR 14, and the program became part of the West Virginia SIP. See 51 FR... review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  7. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the triathlon. The special local...

  8. The Relationships of Racial Identity and Gender Role Conflict to Self-Esteem of Asian American Undergraduate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Yen Ling; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted using a sample of Asian American male college students (N = 173) from one east coast public, research institution and one west coast public, research institution to explore the relationships of racial identity and gender role conflict with self-esteem. The study employed the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale,…

  9. Blooming Seas West of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries

  10. Political struggle and West Indies cricket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay R. Mandle

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] An Area of Conquest: Popular Democracy and West Indies Cricket Supremacy. HILARY McD BECKLES (ed.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xviii + 154 pp. (Paper n.p. Liberation Cricket: West Indies Cricket Culture. HILARY McD BECKLES & BRIAN STODDART (eds.. Kingston: Ian Randle, 1995. xii + 403 pp. (Paper n.p. We discovered cricket's importance in the English-speaking Caribbean nearly thirty years ago when we took up our first post in the West Indies. Exploring the Mona campus of the University of the West Indies, we were alarmed to observe so many people who appeared to be hearing-disabled. Wherever we went we found people with ear-pieces who were slightly distracted and at the same time prone to violent mood swings, ranging from the depths of despair to enormous elation. Uncertain about the meaning of what we observed, but reluctant, as newcomers, to reveal our ignorance of public health problems in the region, we delayed inquiring about hearing disabilities until we could confide our concerns to a trusted friend. At first convulsed with laughter, she finally recovered sufficiently to assure us that the people of the West Indies did not suffer disproportionately from hearing loss. Rather, the large numbers of people with ear-pieces were listening to a cricket test match!

  11. American Academy of Sleep Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the field of sleep medicine. Join the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to further your career and ... MD Sept. 21 - As president of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine, I am keenly aware of ...

  12. Native Americans' Interest in Horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Mary Hockenberry

    1999-01-01

    Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)

  13. Job satisfaction of Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, C N; Hinson, S

    2000-04-01

    Since Asian Americans have demographic and labor force characteristics more similar to Euro-Americans than African Americans, one might predict that their job satisfaction would be more like the former than the latter. And, because Asian Americans originating from different countries are heterogeneous in language, culture, and recency of immigration, one might predict that they may report obtaining different amounts of satisfaction from their jobs. However, data from 21 nationally representative opinion surveys from 1972 through 1996 suggest the opposite. Asian Americans (n = 199) reported job satisfaction more like African Americans (n = 1,231) than Euro-Americans (n = 10,709), and Asian Americans from China (n = 53), Japan (n = 44), India (n = 55), and the Philippines (n = 47) reported similar job satisfaction. These differences persisted when age, education, occupation, and personal income were held constant.

  14. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Mental Health Mental Health and African Americans Poverty level affects mental health ... compared to 120% of non-Hispanic whites. 1 MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  15. Robert Dirks, Food in the Gilded Age; What Ordinary Americans Ate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Alan CARSON

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Robert Dirks offers an important contribution to food and nutrition history in his book Food in the Gilded Age: What Ordinary Americans Ate. The book spans a broad swath of late 19th century US nutrition history using available dietaries from diverse sources and multiple ethnic groups. Early Mexican-Americans represent one of the earliest ethnic groups in the US. During the Gilded Age, the children of Native-Mexicans with early white European explorers –Mestizos-reflectthe most pre-developed diets in the West. Dirks summarizes their diets using Mexican-American households in Las Cruces, New Mexico and the Rio Grande Valley, Texas that were transitioning into Southwestern economies.Keywords. Food policy, Economic hitory, Americans ate.JEL. B10, L66, Q18.

  16. American Academy of Ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of ...

  17. Delusion of American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘云芳

    2014-01-01

    Martin Eden by Jack London and The Great Gatsby by F.Scott Fitzergald are both stories describing the delusion of American dream. They share much in common for they are discussing the same themes actually. By analyzing the two protagonists’life experience and deaths respectively,we try to explore the profound meaning hidden under the surface.

  18. Arab American Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Loretta

    Through speeches, newspaper accounts, poems, memoirs, interviews, and other materials by and about Arab Americans, this collection explores issues central to what it means to be of Arab descent in the United States today. Each of the entries is accompanied by an introduction, biographical and historical information, a glossary for the selection,…

  19. Cultural Vignette: Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of a 10-member research team about various elements of Mexican-American culture. The areas covered are: (1) historical background on the Mexican heritage of the United States from pre-colonial times to the present…

  20. Saga of American Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, John A.; Smith, Ronald A.

    This history of sports and athletic activities in America covers a time span from the close of the sixteenth century to the present time. It is divided into three major sections. The first, "Colonial and Early American Sport," narrates the early moral and ethical attitudes of the Puritans and follows the changes in attitudes and introduction of…

  1. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... combined with facial expressions and postures of the body. It is the primary language of many North Americans who are deaf and ... their eyebrows, widening their eyes, and tilting their bodies forward. Just as with other languages, specific ways of expressing ideas in ASL vary ...

  2. American Dream / Anu Raat

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raat, Anu

    2010-01-01

    Uuritakse sõnapaari "American dream" tähendust, kuidas ja millal see unelmalugu tekkis, miks see on ameerikalik nähtus, samuti 1950-ndate moeloomingut, eriti Christian Diori oma Euroopas ja Ameerikas, selle põhjusi ja mõjusid seoses massilise tarbimisega

  3. American Board of Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Suite 860 Philadelphia, PA 19103 215.568.4000 Facebook Twitter Site Map © 2003-2017 American Board of Surgery, Inc. All rights reserved. Training & Certification Toggle navigation arrow Becoming Certified Dates & Fees Taking a Computer Exam International Training & Visas For Residency & Fellowship Programs ...

  4. American Society of Neuroradiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASNR American Society of Neuroradiology Forgot username or password ? .: International Day Of Radiology :. Tues, Nov 8 is International Day of Radiology. ... you celebrate, #neurorad? #IDoR2016 Once again, the European Society of Radiology has created a wonderful ... Tues, Nov ...

  5. Cultural Vignette: Vietnamese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mary Ellen; And Others

    This booklet, developed as part of a multicultural research project conducted in the San Diego Community College District, presents the findings of a nine-member research team on various aspects of the history and culture of Vietnamese Americans. The areas covered are: (1) the Vietnamese as immigrant, which includes a discussion of the trauma and…

  6. The American Oyster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Nancy E.

    The Maryland Marine Science Education Project has produced a series of mini-units in marine science education for the junior high/middle school classroom. This unit focuses on the American oyster. Although the unit specifically treats the Chesapeake Bay, it may be adapted for use with similar estuarine systems. In addition, the unit may be…

  7. Grant Wood: "American Gothic."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Diane M.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan which exposes students in grades 10-12 to the visual symbols and historical references contained in Grant Wood's "American Gothic." Includes background information on the artist and the painting, instructional strategies, a studio activity, and evaluation criteria. (GEA)

  8. English for American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slager, William R., Ed.; Madsen, Betty M., Ed.

    The present issue of "English for American Indians" follows the format and approach of the Spring 1970 issue. (See ED 040 396.) In the lead article, Evelyn Hatch surveys some of the research in first language acquisition and points out its implications for second language teaching. Her main thesis is that with the best of intentions,…

  9. Latin American cheeses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latin American (or Hispanic-style) cheeses are a category of cheeses that were developed in Mexico, Latin America, and the Caribbean and have become increasingly popular in the U.S. Although research has been conducted on some of the cheeses, quantitative information on the quality traits of most L...

  10. BYD's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese automaker BYD Co.Ltd.repeated its goal of selling electric vehicles in the United States during its third appearance at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit this year.But unlike previous years,BYD gained ground in its efforts to promote electric cars.

  11. Cultural Resources and Geomorphological Reconnaissance of the McClellan-Kerr, Arkansas River Navigation System. Pools 1 through 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    34 obtained by peeling stratified layers (Phillips, Ford, and Griffin 1951: 241). Phillips addressed this method of excavation again in 1970: There is a... maize in the late Mississippian period. Native Americans and European Exploration In closing we refer to several ongoing studies which have focused on

  12. Medical Science Meets 'Development Aid' Transfer and Adaptation of West German Microbiology to Togo, 1960-1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensch, Carola; Bruchhausen, Walter

    2017-01-01

    After losing the importance it had held around 1900 both as a colonial power and in the field of tropical medicine, Germany searched for a new place in international health care during decolonisation. Under the aegis of early government 'development aid', which started in 1956, medical academics from West German universities became involved in several Asian, African and South American countries. The example selected for closer study is the support for the national hygiene institute in Togo, a former German 'model colony' and now a stout ally of the West. Positioned between public health and scientific research, between 'development aid' and academia and between West German and West African interests, the project required multiple arrangements that are analysed for their impact on the co-operation between the two countries. In a country like Togo, where higher education had been neglected under colonial rule, having qualified national staff became the decisive factor for the project. While routine services soon worked well, research required more sustained 'capacity building' and did not lead to joint work on equal terms. In West Germany, the arrangement with the universities was a mutual benefit deal for government officials and medical academics. West German 'development aid' did not have to create permanent jobs at home for the consulting experts it needed; it improved its chances to find sufficiently qualified German staff to work abroad and it profited from the academic renown of its consultants. The medical scientists secured jobs and research opportunities for their postgraduates, received grants for foreign doctoral students, gained additional expertise and enjoyed international prestige. Independence from foreign politics was not an issue for most West German medical academics in the 1960s.

  13. Medical Science Meets ‘Development Aid’ Transfer and Adaptation of West German Microbiology to Togo, 1960–1980

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rensch, Carola; Bruchhausen, Walter

    2017-01-01

    After losing the importance it had held around 1900 both as a colonial power and in the field of tropical medicine, Germany searched for a new place in international health care during decolonisation. Under the aegis of early government ‘development aid’, which started in 1956, medical academics from West German universities became involved in several Asian, African and South American countries. The example selected for closer study is the support for the national hygiene institute in Togo, a former German ‘model colony’ and now a stout ally of the West. Positioned between public health and scientific research, between ‘development aid’ and academia and between West German and West African interests, the project required multiple arrangements that are analysed for their impact on the co-operation between the two countries. In a country like Togo, where higher education had been neglected under colonial rule, having qualified national staff became the decisive factor for the project. While routine services soon worked well, research required more sustained ‘capacity building’ and did not lead to joint work on equal terms. In West Germany, the arrangement with the universities was a mutual benefit deal for government officials and medical academics. West German ‘development aid’ did not have to create permanent jobs at home for the consulting experts it needed; it improved its chances to find sufficiently qualified German staff to work abroad and it profited from the academic renown of its consultants. The medical scientists secured jobs and research opportunities for their postgraduates, received grants for foreign doctoral students, gained additional expertise and enjoyed international prestige. Independence from foreign politics was not an issue for most West German medical academics in the 1960s. PMID:27998330

  14. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders among Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ISORDERS A MONG N ATIVE A MERICANS Native American cultures, which encompass American Indian, Alaska Native and Native ... among American Indians: The mythical and real properties. American Indian Culture and Research Journal 18(2):121-143. www. ...

  15. Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > American Indian/Alaska Native > Asthma Asthma and American Indians/Alaska Natives In 2014, 218, ... Native American adults reported that they currently have asthma. American Indian/Alaska Native children are 30% more ...

  16. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract West Greenlandic, a polysynthetic language, belongs to Inuit languages. In Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic (Inuit languages) tense is marked by optional tense suffixes and in both languages the temporal systems are based on a future/ non-future opposition. In Inuktitut the tense......, and it is used when none of the others can be used. It seems that some of the tense suffixes i.e. past (-sima, perfective, perfect, preterite) and future (-ler, begin, be about to, near future) originally had a more or less concrete aspectual meanings and have developed into more abstract tense meanings...... suffixes have developed a complicated remoteness system. In West Greenlandic the future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future, and the past time suffixes have developed different perfect meanings. In Iñupiaq (Alaska), the temporal system is based on an opposition between...

  17. Demythologizing the Mexican American Father

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    This review presents recent studies on Mexican American fathers in the United Sates to provide researchers with an understanding of contemporary fatherhood of Mexican American individuals. It describes the myths that create methodological and conceptual problems in conducting research studies to characterize Mexican American fathers. It also…

  18. Who Stole Native American Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Native American Studies has failed to develop into an academic discipline because of the continued influence of postcolonial theories, attempts to discredit Native American scholars, politically determined research agendas, and the ideology of the "New Historicism." Native American Studies must seek autonomy from other opportunistic…

  19. Native American Loyalists and Patriots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsh, Russel Lawrence

    1977-01-01

    Many American Indians experienced the American Revolution differently; Western tribes fearful of American expansionism tended to become loyalists, while east coast tribes already submerged in English society generally saw the rebellion as an opportunity to prove themselves deserving of full political equality via loyalty to their patriot…

  20. The Wealth of Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb-Clark, Deborah A.; Hildebrand, Vincent A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the sources of disparities in the relative wealth position of Mexican Americans. Results reveal that--unlike the racial wealth gap--Mexican Americans' wealth disadvantage is in large part not the result of differences in wealth distributions conditional on the underlying determinants of wealth. Rather, Mexican Americans' wealth…

  1. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  2. User's guide for PRISM (Plant Risk Status Information Management System) Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit 1: Volume 1, Program for inspectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.J.; Guthrie, V.H.; Kirchner, J.R.; Kirkman, J.Q.; Paula, H.M.; Ellison, B.C.; Dycus, F.M.; Farquharson, J.A.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    This user's guide is a two-volume document designed to teach NRC inspectors and NRC regulators how to access probabilistic risk assessment information from the two Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIM) programs developed for Arkansas Nuclear One -- Unit One (ANO-1). This document, Volume 1, describes how the PRA information available in Version 1.0 of PRISIM is useful for planning inspections. Using PRISIM, inspectors can quickly access PRA information and use that information to update risk analysis results, reflecting a plant's status at any particular time. Both volumes are stand-alone documents, and each volume presents several sample computer sessions designed to lead the user through a variety of PRISIM applications used to obtain PRA-related information for monitoring and controlling plant risk.

  3. User's guide for PRISIM (Plant Risk Status Information Management System) Arkansas Nuclear One--Unit 1: Volume 2, Program for regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.J.; Guthrie, V.H.; Kirchner, J.R.; Kirkman, J.Q.; Paula, H.M.; Ellison, B.C.; Dycus, F.M.; Farquharson, J.A.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    This user's guide is a two-volume document designed to teach NRC inspectors and NRC regulators how to access probabilistic risk assessment information from the two Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIM) programs developed for Arkansas Nuclear One--Unit One (ANA-1). This document, Volume 2, describes how the PRA information available in Version 2.0 of PRISIM is useful as an evaluation tool for regulatory activities. Using PRISIM is useful as an evaluation tool for regulatory activities. Using PRISIM, regulators can both access PRA information and modify the information to assess the impact these changes may have on plant safety. Each volume is a stand-alone document.

  4. Susceptibility of Carrion Crows to Experimental Infection with Lineage 1 and 2 West Nile Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Stephanie M; Brault, Aaron C; van Amerongen, Geert; Bosco-Lauth, Angela M; Romo, Hannah; Sewbalaksing, Varsha D; Bowen, Richard A; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Koraka, Penelope; Martina, Byron E E

    2015-08-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in North America have been characterized by substantial die-offs of American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos). In contrast, a low incidence of bird deaths has been observed during WNV epidemic activity in Europe. To examine the susceptibility of the western European counterpart of American crows, we inoculated carrion crows (Corvus corone) with WNV strains isolated in Greece (Gr-10), Italy (FIN and Ita09), and Hungary (578/10) and with the highly virulent North American genotype strain (NY99). We also inoculated American crows with a selection of these strains to examine the strains' virulence in a highly susceptible bird species. Infection with all strains, except WNV FIN, resulted in high rates of death and high-level viremia in both bird species and virus dissemination to several organs. These results suggest that carrion crows are highly susceptible to WNV and may potentially be useful as part of dead bird surveillance for early warning of WNV activity in Europe.

  5. Career perspective: John B West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2012-11-07

    I have been fortunate to work in two areas of extreme physiology and medicine: very high altitude and the microgravity of spaceflight. My introduction to high altitude medicine was as a member of Sir Edmund Hillary's Silver Hut Expedition in 1960-1961 when a small group of physiologists spent the winter and spring at an altitude of 5,800 m just south of Mt. Everest. The physiological objective was to obtain a better understanding of the acclimatization process of lowlanders during exposure to a very high altitude for several months. As far as we knew, no one had ever spent so long at such a high altitude before. The success of this expedition prompted me to organize the 1981 American Medical Research Expedition to Everest where the scientific objective was to determine the physiological changes that allow humans to survive in the extreme hypoxia of the highest point on earth. There is good evidence that this altitude is very near the limit of human tolerance to oxygen deprivation. Much novel information was obtained including an extraordinary degree of hyperventilation which reduced the alveolar partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2) to about 8 mmHg (1.1 kPa) on the summit, and this in turn allowed the alveolar partial pressure of oxygen, PO2, to be maintained at a viable level of about 35 mmHg (4.7 kPa). The low Pco2 caused a severe degree of respiratory alkalosis with an arterial pH exceeding 7.7. These were the first physiological measurements to be made on the Everest summit, and essentially, none has been made since. The second extreme environment is microgravity. We carried out an extensive series of measurements on astronauts in the orbiting laboratory known as SpaceLab in the 1990s. Many aspects of pulmonary function are affected by gravity, so it was not surprising that many changes were found. However, overall gas exchange remained efficient. Some of the findings such as an anomalous behavior of inhaled helium and sulfur hexafluoride have still not

  6. Assessing the impact of forest fragmentation due to natural gas development on wild turkey nesting success in Van Buren County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, James Kendall

    Natural gas exploration and production has caused large scale changes to portions of the Arkansas landscape. Well pad site construction, access roads, and pipelines utilized to extract and transport natural gas have fragmented forested areas. The forest fragmentation resulting from these rapid changes could be contributing to the documented decline in nesting success of the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). This study quantified temporal changes in forest fragmentation in terms of the number of forest patches, mean forest patch area, and forest edge length. The correlation between these fragmentation variables and nesting success data was explored to test the hypotheses of this study that 1) the number of forest patches is negatively correlated to nesting success, that 2) forest patch size is positively correlated to nesting success, and that 3) forest edge habitat length is negatively correlated to nesting success. There were 838 wells added within Van Buren County during the years 2000 through 2009. These wells resulted in a total forest loss of about 1.5% area from the initial inventory of forest in 2000. Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC) values ranging from -0.19 to 0.17 suggests relationships exist between poults per hen and forest fragmentation due to natural gas development. These PPMC values and their respective directions confirm the hypothesis. However, their p-values were all greater than 0.5 which suggests the correlations may not be statistically significant. A stronger regression model, giving adjusted R squared value of 0.766, was constructed which takes into account annual precipitation, previous year's wild turkey harvest, along with the number of conifer forest patches. This study concludes that the low wild turkey nesting success may not be directly influenced by forests lost due to natural gas development within the study area Van Buren County Arkansas.

  7. The Power Behind the Controversy: Understanding Local Policy Elites' Perceptions on the Benefits and Risks Associated with High Voltage Power Line Installation in the State of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Rachael M.

    Following a proposal for the installation of high voltage power lines in northwest Arkansas, a controversial policy debate emerged. Proponents of the transmission line argue that such an installation is inevitable and necessary to efficiently and reliably support the identified electric load in the region. Opponents claim that the lines will degrade the natural environment and hamper the tourism-based local economy in affected regions, notably in Ozark Mountain areas. This study seeks to understand how local policy elites perceive the benefits and risks associated with proposed transmission lines, which is a critical step in comprehending the formation and changes of related government policies. First, based upon the dual process theory of judgment, this study systematically investigates the triadic relationships between (a) more profound personal value predispositions, (b) affects and feelings, and (c) perceived benefits and risks related to the proposed installation of high voltage power lines among local policy elites in the state of Arkansas. Next, this study focuses more specifically on the role of value predispositions, specific emotional dimensions of affect heuristics, and perceptions pertaining to high voltage power line risks and benefits. Using original data collected from a statewide Internet survey of 420 local leaders and key policymakers about their opinions on the related issues, other factors claimed by previous literature, including trust, knowledge level, and demographic characteristics are considered. Analytical results suggest that grid-group cultural predispositions, as deeply held core values within local policy elites' individual belief systems, both directly and indirectly -- through affective feelings -- shape perceived utility associated with the installation of high voltage power lines. Recognizing that risk perceptions factor into policy decisions, some practical considerations for better designing policy addressing controversial issues

  8. Surface complexation modeling for predicting solid phase arsenic concentrations in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.S.U.; Davis, R.K.; Steele, K.F.; Kim, B.; Hays, P.D.; Kresse, T.M.; Fazio, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The potential health impact of As in drinking water supply systems in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the state of Arkansas, USA is significant. In this context it is important to understand the occurrence, distribution and mobilization of As in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. Application of surface complexation models (SCMs) to predict the sorption behavior of As and hydrous Fe oxides (HFO) in the laboratory has increased in the last decade. However, the application of SCMs to predict the sorption of As in natural sediments has not often been reported, and such applications are greatly constrained by the lack of site-specific model parameters. Attempts have been made to use SCMs considering a component additivity (CA) approach which accounts for relative abundances of pure phases in natural sediments, followed by the addition of SCM parameters individually for each phase. Although few reliable and internally consistent sorption databases related to HFO exist, the use of SCMs using laboratory-derived sorption databases to predict the mobility of As in natural sediments has increased. This study is an attempt to evaluate the ability of the SCMs using the geochemical code PHREEQC to predict solid phase As in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in Arkansas. The SCM option of the double-layer model (DLM) was simulated using ferrihydrite and goethite as sorbents quantified from chemical extractions, calculated surface-site densities, published surface properties, and published laboratory-derived sorption constants for the sorbents. The model results are satisfactory for shallow wells (10.6. m below ground surface), where the redox condition is relatively oxic or mildly suboxic. However, for the deep alluvial aquifer (21-36.6. m below ground surface) where the redox condition is suboxic to anoxic, the model results are unsatisfactory. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. American Studies in Belarus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Stulov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of cultures is becoming an ever growing factor in the world of today. 1989 was the year that promised tremendous changes in the relations between countries and nations. The barriers that had separated people in the East and in the West were smashed, and it seemed that the future was going to be a straight thoroughfare leading to mutual understanding and prosperity. People on both sides of the Berlin Wall suddenly realized how many things they had to share and how much they cou...

  10. Spatial air pollution modelling for a West-African town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirak Zenebe Gebreab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Land use regression (LUR modelling is a common approach used in European and Northern American epidemiological studies to assess urban and traffic related air pollution exposures. Studies applying LUR in Africa are lacking. A need exists to understand if this approach holds for an African setting, where urban features, pollutant exposures and data availability differ considerably from other continents. We developed a parsimonious regression model based on 48-hour nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentrations measured at 40 sites in Kaédi, a medium sized West-African town, and variables generated in a geographic information system (GIS. Road variables and settlement land use characteristics were found to be important predictors of 48-hour NO2 concentration in the model. About 68% of concentration variability in the town was explained by the model. The model was internally validated by leave-one-out cross-validation and it was found to perform moderately well. Furthermore, its parameters were robust to sampling variation. We applied the model at 100 m pixels to create a map describing the broad spatial pattern of NO2 across Kaédi. In this research, we demonstrated the potential for LUR as a valid, cost-effective approach for air pollution modelling and mapping in an African town. If the methodology were to be adopted by environmental and public health authorities in these regions, it could provide a quick assessment of the local air pollution burden and potentially support air pollution policies and guidelines.

  11. Data Integration for Climate Vulnerability Mapping in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex de Sherbinin

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability mapping reveals areas that are likely to be at greater risk of climate-related disasters in the future. Through integration of climate, biophysical, and socioeconomic data in an overall vulnerability framework, so-called “hotspots” of vulnerability can be identified. These maps can be used as an aid to targeting adaptation and disaster risk management interventions. This paper reviews vulnerability mapping efforts in West Africa conducted under the USAID-funded African and Latin American Resilience to Climate Change (ARCC project. The focus is on the integration of remotely sensed and socioeconomic data. Data inputs included a range of sensor data (e.g., MODIS NDVI, Landsat, SRTM elevation, DMSP-OLS night-time lights as well as high-resolution poverty, conflict, and infrastructure data. Two basic methods were used, one in which each layer was transformed into standardized indicators in an additive approach, and another in which remote sensing data were used to contextualize the results of composite indicators. We assess the benefits and challenges of data integration, and the lessons learned from these mapping exercises.

  12. History of Asian American psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie

    2009-10-01

    An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology.

  13. Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Karr, Jonathan D.; Jackson, R.B.; Vengosh, Avner

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of unconventional natural gas reservoirs such as impermeable shale basins through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has changed the energy landscape in the USA providing a vast new energy source. The accelerated production of natural gas has triggered a debate concerning the safety and possible environmental impacts of these operations. This study investigates one of the critical aspects of the environmental effects; the possible degradation of water quality in shallow aquifers overlying producing shale formations. The geochemistry of domestic groundwater wells was investigated in aquifers overlying the Fayetteville Shale in north-central Arkansas, where approximately 4000 wells have been drilled since 2004 to extract unconventional natural gas. Monitoring was performed on 127 drinking water wells and the geochemistry of major ions, trace metals, CH4 gas content and its C isotopes (δ13CCH4), and select isotope tracers (δ11B, 87Sr/86Sr, δ2H, δ18O, δ13CDIC) compared to the composition of flowback-water samples directly from Fayetteville Shale gas wells. Dissolved CH4 was detected in 63% of the drinking-water wells (32 of 51 samples), but only six wells exceeded concentrations of 0.5 mg CH4/L. The δ13CCH4 of dissolved CH4 ranged from −42.3‰ to −74.7‰, with the most negative values characteristic of a biogenic source also associated with the highest observed CH4 concentrations, with a possible minor contribution of trace amounts of thermogenic CH4. The majority of these values are distinct from the reported thermogenic composition of the Fayetteville Shale gas (δ13CCH4 = −35.4‰ to −41.9‰). Based on major element chemistry, four shallow groundwater types were identified: (1) low ( 100 mg/L and Ca–HCO3 dominated, (3) TDS > 100 mg/L and Na–HCO3dominated, and (4) slightly saline groundwater with TDS > 100 mg/L and Cl > 20 mg/L with elevated Br/Cl ratios (>0.001). The Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7097

  14. Influence of Locally Derived Recharge on the Water Quality and Temperature of Springs in Hot Springs National Park, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Richard W.; Hays, Phillip D.

    2007-01-01

    The hot springs of Hot Springs National Park consist of a mixture of water from two recharge components: a primary hot-water component and a secondary cold-water component. Widespread distribution of fractures enables mixing of the hot- and cold-water components of flow near the discharge area for the springs. Urbanization in the area near the hot springs of Hot Springs National Park has increased the potential for degradation of the quality of surface-water runoff and locally derived ground-water recharge to the hot springs. Previous studies by the U.S. Geological Survey have indicated that water from some cold-water springs and wells in the vicinity of Hot Springs, Arkansas, showed evidence of contamination and that water from locally derived cold-water recharge might contribute 25 percent of the total flow to the hot springs after storms. Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions at nine hot springs and two cold-water springs in September 2000. Nine hot springs and one cold-water spring were resampled in October 2001 after a storm that resulted in a measurable decrease in water temperature in selected hot springs. Water samples were analyzed for a variety of dissolved chemical constituents (nutrients, major ions, trace elements, pesticides, semivolatile compounds, isotopes, and radiochemicals), physical properties, field measurements, and bacteria. Comparison of analyses of samples collected during base-flow conditions from the springs in 2000 and during a storm event in 2001 with the results from earlier studies dating back to the late 1800's indicates that little change in major, minor, and trace constituent chemistry has occurred and that the water continues to be of excellent quality. Water-quality data show distinguishable differences in water chemistry of the springs during base-flow and stormflow conditions, indicating changing input of cold-water recharge relative to hot-water recharge. Silica, total dissolved solids, strontium, barium

  15. Advertising and Adulation:East and West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In the United States, Americans are constantly focusing their attention and admiration on successful people. Everyone avidly reads about and talks about popular stars, musicians and heroes. Michael Phelps, Madonna, and President Barack

  16. Remarks on American Taboos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘娟

    2013-01-01

    Language serves as the tool of communication between people.In any language persons,things and activities that are ta⁃boos should not be talked about or should be mentioned in a roundabout way. it is not only a linguistic phenomenon but also a social phenomenon.The origin of taboo is deeply rooted in the social and cultural background. Today in the increasingly frequent cross-cultural communication, if you do not understand the language taboos, it will hinder the smooth communication. This pa⁃per will talk about American taboos from two aspects.It is designed to help English learners understand American culture and im⁃prove competence of cross-cultural communication.

  17. Effects of aquifer storage and recovery activities on water quality in the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds Aquifer, south-central Kansas, 2011-14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mandy L.; Garrett, Jessica D.; Poulton, Barry C.; Ziegler, Andrew C.

    2016-07-18

    The Equus Beds aquifer in south-central Kansas is aprimary water source for the city of Wichita. The Equus Beds aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) project was developed to help the city of Wichita meet increasing current (2016) and future water demands. The Equus Beds ASR project pumps water out of the Little Arkansas River during above-base flow conditions, treats it using drinking-water quality standards as a guideline, and recharges it into the Equus Beds aquifer for later use. Phase II of the Equus Beds ASR project currently (2016) includes a river intake facility and a surface-water treatment facility with a 30 million gallon per day capacity. Water diverted from the Little Arkansas River is delivered to an adjacent presedimentation basin for solids removal. Subsequently, waste from the surface-water treatment facility and the presedimentation basin is returned to the Little Arkansas River through a residuals return line. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Wichita, developed and implemented a hydrobiological monitoring program as part of the ASR project to characterize and quantify the effects of aquifer storage and recovery activities on the Little Arkansas River and Equus Beds aquifer water quality.Data were collected from 2 surface-water sites (one upstream and one downstream from the residuals return line), 1 residuals return line site, and 2 groundwater well sites (each having a shallow and deep part): the Little Arkansas River upstream from the ASR facility near Sedgwick, Kansas (upstream surface-water site 375350097262800), about 0.03 mile (mi) upstream from the residuals return line site; the Little Arkansas River near Sedgwick, Kans. (downstream surface-water site 07144100), about 1.68 mi downstream from the residuals return line site; discharge from the Little Arkansas River ASR facility near Sedgwick, Kansas (residuals return line site 375348097262800); 25S 01 W 07BCCC01 SMW–S11 near CW36 (MW–7 shallow groundwater well

  18. American Scholars Visited SCUN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuChengfa

    2004-01-01

    On October 18, South-Central University for Nationalities (SCUN)welcomed an American academic delegation headed by Professor David Van Buren, vice chancellor of Platteville Campus of University of Wisconsin(UW-P). At the reception ceremony,Professor Li Buhai, Party Chairman of SCUN, and Professor Chen Dayun,president of the university made a brief introduction to the school, and then both parties reached a preliminary agreement on the cooperative education.

  19. Baseball and American Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    byJillMoss; 朱汉昌

    2004-01-01

    棒球在传统上被称之为美国的国家娱乐活动。那私,农业经济是如何起源和发展的呢?为什么美国人对棒球的兴趣没有以前浓了呢?Basball and American Culture一支将告诉你这一切。

  20. American Studies in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Antsyferova

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  1. Latin American Insurgencies,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    poses one of the great ironies of recent military history. In an era when rapid technological development can render state- of-the- art prototypes...linked to Sali a- dor-ati terrorist operat ik s m orking through lhe Re’ olutionar\\ [) art \\ of’ Central American Workers-1.1dOUNteL11 \\\\fillh Cuban- N...Revolutionary Army Frente Urbano Zapatista (FUZ). See Zapatista Urban Front FAR. See Rebel Armed Forces FSLN. See Sandinista National Farabundo Marti

  2. American and British English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波

    2004-01-01

    @@ The difficulty for the nonnative learner of English is there is no standard English form. He is confronted(面对) with two English dialects (方言) to learn: British English and American English (leaving aside Australian,Indian, South African English ete.) And despite the many cross-cultural influences, it seems that the vocabularies, spellings and pronunciations of these two dialects are diverging year by year.

  3. Education and Koranic Literacy in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Easton, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The note examines the practical, and literate skills that students acquire at different levels in West African Koranic schools. It is a long-standing parallel system of education, yet, relatively unknown to development planers, thus seldom taken into explicit account in their policies, and strategies. Islamic educational systems have been present since the seventh century, and by the tenth ...

  4. West Point student drops out / Jorgen Johansson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Johansson, Jorgen

    2001-01-01

    Läti kohus mõistis välja kahjutasu Juris Matusevics'ilt, kes rikkus Läti kaitsejõududega sõlmitud kokkulepet, mis kohustas teda pärast USA West Pointi sõjaväeakadeemia lõpetamist teenima viis aastat Läti armees

  5. Hangzhou:EAST CITY,WEST LAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ View over West Lake,Hangzhou is in Zhejiang Province,eastern coast area of China.It is one of the most important tourism cities here,famous for its natural beauty and historical and cultural heritages,and the political,economic and cultural center of Zhejiang province as well.

  6. West Virginia State Budgeting for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meckley, Richard

    County school districts in West Virginia are facing a funding crisis. Significant outmigration resulting in decreased school enrollment has caused the state legislature to change the state school aid formula, forcing school districts to lay off large numbers of low-seniority employees. The state legislature's perception that public schools are…

  7. Writing the New West: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Paul; Meehan, Katharine; Gosnell, Hannah; Gilbertz, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    A vast and growing interdisciplinary research effort has focused on the rise of the so-called New West, purportedly the product of regional socioeconomic, political, and ecological upheavals in states like Montana and Colorado. Reviewing the growing research on this problem in sociology, economics, geography, and conservation science, this article…

  8. West Indian Sojourners in Guatemala and Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald N. Harpelle

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Race, Nation, and West Indian Immigration to Honduras, 1890-1940. Glenn A. Chambers. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2010. xii +202 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00Black Labor Migration in Caribbean Guatemala, 1882-1923. Frederick Douglass Opie. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2009. 145 pp. (Cloth US$ 65.00

  9. Design and manufacturing of WEST Baffle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batal, Tristan, E-mail: tristan.batal@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Firdaouss, Mehdi; Richou, Marianne; Ferlay, Fabien; Larroque, Sébastien; Gargiulo, Laurent [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Dupas, Timothée [SODITECH Ingénierie SA, 1 bis allée des gabians, 06150 Cannes la Bocca (France); Verger, Jean-Marc; Doceul, Louis; Samaille, Franck; Bucalossi, Jérôme [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Salami, Michael [AVANTIS groupe, 12 route de Saint Mathieu, 06130 Grasse (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Disruption's torque in the PFC was simulated thanks to ANSYS. • The ANSYS thermal results comply with WEST project requirements. • The cycling analysis complies with WEST project requirements. • 316L components comply with A level RCC-MRx criteria. - Abstract: The Tore Supra tokamak is being transformed in an X-point divertor fusion device in the frame of the WEST project, launched in support to the Iter tungsten divertor strategy. The WEST Baffle aims to evacuate particles by creating a toroidal pumping throat. It also protects the lower divertor cooling pipes and the passive stabilization plate from heat fluxes. The Baffle is made of actively cooled plasma facing components (PFCs), with underneath a passive stabilization plate and a support beam. The Baffle design is presented in a first part. In a second time the different ANSYS simulations are described: electromagnetic, thermal and mechanical results are presented. The design choices are justified for the different results obtained thanks to the simulation. In a final part, some aspects of the PFC manufacturing are presented.

  10. Epidemiology: Malaria in a warmer West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, C.; Jones, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    Malaria risk in West Africa is expected to fall (western region) or remain the same (eastern region) in response to climate change over the twenty-first century. This is primarily due to extreme temperature conditions projected under a high greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  11. The lithospheric mantle below southern West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand, Karina Krarup; Waight, Tod Earle; Pearson, D. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Geothermobarometry of primarily garnet lherzolitic xenoliths from several localities in southern West Greenland is applied to address the diamond potential, pressure and temperature distribution and the stratigraphy of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle ~600 Ma ago. The samples are from kimbe...... into the reworked Archean North of the Naqssugtoqidian deformation front....

  12. Why We Need West Nile Virus Testing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-09-27

    Dr. Rodrigo Hasbun, a professor of infectious diseases at McGovern Medical School at UT Health, discusses the need for West Nile virus testing in Texas.  Created: 9/27/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 9/27/2016.

  13. 76 FR 37996 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... surface coal mining and reclamation operations on non- Federal and non-Indian lands within its borders by... of approval of the West Virginia program in the January 21, 1981, Federal Register (46 FR 5915). You... actual language of State regulatory programs and program amendments because each program is drafted...

  14. West Florida shelf upwelling: Origins and pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Robert H.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Liu, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    Often described as oligotrophic, the west Florida continental shelf supports abundant fisheries, experiences blooms of the harmful alga, Karenia brevis, and exhibits subsurface chlorophyll maxima evident in shipboard and glider surveys. Renewal of inorganic nutrients by the upwelling of deeper ocean water onto the shelf may account for this, but what are the origins and pathways by which such new water may broach the shelf break and advance toward the shoreline? We address these questions via numerical model simulations of pseudo-Lagrangian, isopycnic water parcel trajectories. Focus is on 2010, when the west Florida shelf was subjected to an anomalously protracted period of upwelling caused by Gulf of Mexico Loop Current interactions with the shelf slope. Origins and pathways are determined by integrating trajectories over successive 45 day intervals, beginning from different locations along the shelf break and at various locations and depths along the shelf slope. Waters upwelling across the shelf break are found to originate from relatively shallow depths along the shelf slope. Even for the anomalous 2010 year, much of this upwelling occurs from about 150 m and above, although waters may broach the shelf break from 300 m depth, particularly in the Florida Panhandle. Such interannual renewal of west Florida shelf waters appears to have profound effects on west Florida shelf ecology.

  15. Large Acrobatic Play Pilgrimage to the West

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洁

    2006-01-01

    Hosted by Ministry of Culture and Guangzhou Municipal People's Government,Guangzhou Bureau of Culture organized a list of first-class singing and dancing and acrobatic plays in Guangzhou in September 2006. Among these plays, large original acrobatic play Pilgrimage to the West of Guangzhou Acrobatic Troupe went on the stage during October 12th and November 5th.

  16. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected†notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  17. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa fever, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kouassi Kan, Stéphane; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-12-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans.

  18. A review of the genus Oosternum Sharp of the West Indies (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Deler-Hernández

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The representatives of the genus Oosternum Sharp, 1882 occurring in the West Indies are revised. Ten species are recorded, of which seven are here described as new: Oosternum andersoni sp. n. (Cuba, O. bacharenge sp. n. (Dominican Republic, O. cercyonoides sp. n. (Jamaica, O. insulare sp. n. (Jamaica, O. luciae sp. n. (Saint Lucia, O. megnai sp. n. (Cuba and O. pecki sp. n. (Dominican Republic. Diagnoses and detailed distributional data are also provided for O. sharpi Hansen, 1999 (widespread throughout both Greater and Lesser Antilles, O. latum Fikáček, Hebauer & Hansen, 2009 (endemic to St. Vincent and an undescribed species from the Bahamas. A key to the West Indian Oosternum is provided and important diagnostic characters are illustrated. The West Indian fauna of Oosternum contains representatives of five different species groups and likely originated by multiple independent colonizations from the American continent. Within the study region, the highest diversity is known from the Greater Antilles, where two endemic species each in Cuba, Jamaica, and Hispaniola. The populations of O. sharpi were found to consist exclusively of females on all islands with the exception Puerto Rico.

  19. Coeliac disease in children of West Indian origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, J C; Phillips, A D; Walker-Smith, J A

    1995-01-01

    Coeliac disease is uncommon in populations of non-European origin. Two English born West Indian children with coeliac disease are presented. The diagnosis should be considered in children of West Indian origin with chronic diarrhoea.

  20. Characteristics of waves off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    Directional wave measurements were carried out using Datawell directional waverider buoy off Goa along west coast of India during the south west monsoon period in 1996 and the results are presented. Theoretical joint distribution of wave height...

  1. HYDROLOGY, Lawrence County, ARKANSAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  2. HYDROLOGY, GREENE County, ARKANSAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a Flood Insurance...

  3. HYDRAULICS, LAWRENCE COUNTY, ARKANSAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  4. HYDRAULICS, GREENE COUNTY, ARKANSAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  5. TERRAIN, LAWRENCE COUNTY, ARKANSAS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describes the digital topographic data that was used to create...

  6. Arkansas Regional Lab (ARL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Program Capabilities Food Chemistry Laboratory ARLqaodmasdkwaspemas1ajkqlsmdqpakldnzsdflss Food Chemistry Laboratory consists of the Food Sanitation Laboratory, the...

  7. West Coast DA Event data - West Coast Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in the spring of 2015 the US West Coast began to experience the most wide-spread toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom to date, after approximately eight years...

  8. 78 FR 59841 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; West Virginia's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ..., disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable and legally permissible methods, under... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide, Particulate... Environmental Protection, Division of Air Quality, 601 57th Street SE., Charleston, West Virginia 25304....

  9. 77 FR 10423 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... address, as appropriate, disproportionate human health or environmental effects, using practicable and... preempt tribal law. List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control...; Amendments to West Virginia's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  10. Optimal for difficult roofs. East-west orientation; Optimal fuer schwierige Daecher. Ost-West-Ausrichtung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouattour, Mohamed Ali [Solar Frontier Europe GmbH, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    With the help of CIS solar modules the unfavorable east-west roofs can be also use efficiently and profitably, since the good weak-light performance almost compensates the weak light components characterized irradiation conditions. [German] Mit Hilfe der CIS-Solarmodule lassen sich auch die unguenstige Ost-West-Daecher effizient und profitabel nutzen, da das gute Schwachlichtverhalten die hier von schwachen Lichtanteilen gepraegten Einstrahlungsverhaeltnisse nahezu kompensiert.

  11. West Virginia Interpretive Guide Training: A Collaborative Effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcarczyk, Kelly; McKenney, Kathryn; Smaldone, Dave; Arborgast, Doug

    2013-01-01

    West Virginia University's Extension Service partnered with the Recreation, Parks, and Tourism Resources Program to improve guide performance in West Virginia's tourism industry. The result of this partnership is a West Virginia Interpretive Guide Training program aimed at providing low-cost, widely available training to guides…

  12. 78 FR 51199 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4132-DR), dated July 26, 2013...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  13. 75 FR 18517 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1893-DR), dated March 29... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  14. 75 FR 25873 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1903-DR), dated April 23... Act''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  15. 75 FR 39560 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1918-DR), dated June 24, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting...

  16. 77 FR 46103 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-02

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4071-DR), dated July 23, 2012...''), as follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West...

  17. 77 FR 76061 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-4093-DR), dated November 27... West Virginia resulting from Hurricane Sandy during the period of October 29 to November 8, 2012, is...

  18. 75 FR 11902 - West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency West Virginia; Major Disaster and Related Determinations... Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the State of West Virginia (FEMA-1881-DR), dated March 2, 2010... follows: I have determined that the damage in certain areas of the State of West Virginia resulting from...

  19. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012). Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.

  20. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kuo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.