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Sample records for american west arkansas

  1. Description of Survey Data Regarding the Chemical Repackaging Plant Accident West Helena, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, J.H.; Vogt, B.M.

    1999-03-01

    Shortly after 1:00 p.m. on Thursday, May 8, 1997, clouds of foul-smelling smoke began pouring from an herbicide and pesticide packaging plant in West Helena, Arkansas. An alert was sounded, employees evacuated, and the West Helena fire department was called. As three firefighters prepared to enter the plant, the chemical compounds exploded, collapsing a solid concrete block wall, and killing all three firefighters. As the odorous smoky cloud drifted away from the plant, authorities ordered residents in a 2-mile area downwind of the plant to evacuate and those in the 2- to 3-mile zone to shelter in place. This study examines and compares the responses to a mail survey of those ordered to evacuate and those told to shelter in place. Among the variables examined are compliance with official orders and perceived warnings, threat perception, time and source of first warning, response times, and behavior characteristics for both populations. The findings indicate that 90% of those that were told to evacuate did so but only 27% of those told to shelter-in-place did so, with 68% opting to evacuate instead. The implications of these findings for emergency managers is that people will likely choose to evacuate when both warnings to evacuate and warnings to shelter are issued to residents in close proximity to each other. The findings on warning times closely resemble other findings from evacuations when chemical accidents occur and route notification is used for warning residents.

  2. The Criminal Justice Experience of African American Cocaine Users in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaller, Nickolas; Cheney, Ann M; Curran, Geoffrey M; Booth, Brenda M; Borders, Tyrone F

    2016-10-14

    African Americans are incarcerated at rates much higher than other racial and ethnic groups in the United States. We sought to qualitatively explore the relationships between ongoing involvement in the criminal justice system and continued drug use in a population of urban and rural African American cocaine users in a southern state. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted among African American cocaine users in Arkansas between 2010 and 2012. Participants resided in both rural (two counties located in the eastern Arkansas Mississippi delta region) and urban (the county including the capital city of Little Rock) areas. Numerous important themes emerged from participants' narratives, including chronic involvement with the criminal justice system (being a "career criminal"), continued access to drugs while incarcerated, relapse, and reincarceration and lack of access to effective drug treatment. Conclusion/Importance: The themes which emerged from our data speak to the collective experience that many substance using populations in the United States face in dealing with the criminal justice system. Our findings highlight the need to better, more holistic ways of engaging African American substance users in community based substance use treatment and supportive services.

  3. West Nile virus: North American experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  4. Black-white unions: West Indians and African Americans compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Model, S; Fisher, G

    2001-05-01

    In this research we use 1990 PUMS data to compare the propensity for unions between African Americans and native whites with the propensity for unions between British West Indians and native whites. In addition, we distinguish women and men. Descriptive statistics indicate that West Indians, with the exception of men who arrived as adults, are more likely than African Americans to have white partners. After the introduction of controls for several correlates of intermarriage, however, West Indian men of any generation have lower exogamy rates than African American men, while exogamy rates are higher among West Indian women who arrived as children or who were born in the United States than among African American women. Thus we find no consistent evidence of greater exogamy for British West Indians than for African Americans.

  5. Water Accounting Priorities in the American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanak, E.

    2017-12-01

    In regions facing water scarcity, understanding the water balance sheet—how much there is, who has claims to it, and what is actually being "spent"—is key to effectively managing supplies to meet a wide range of societal goals. This is a common challenge across the American West, a region needing to balance the water demands of large irrigated agricultural sectors, growing urban populations, and declining aquatic ecosystems—in a context of increasingly variable, and in some cases diminishing, water supplies. Many local urban water utilities, and some irrigation water suppliers, have developed sophisticated data systems for tracking water availability and use within their systems. But there are still major gaps in essential metrics at the scale of watersheds and river basins. On the supply side, key issues include understanding groundwater availability and surface-groundwater interactions. On the demand side, the biggest challenges relate to understanding groundwater use and return flows—the water that is returned to rivers or aquifers and is available for reuse. In addition, most states lack consistent accounting and data standards for sharing water availability, claims, and use information—and transparent systems for reporting information to users in ways that facilitates oversight and flexible tools such as water trading. Drawing on a detailed study of water accounting in 12 western states and 2 countries with similar water challenges (Escriva Bou et al. 2016, Accounting for Water in Dry Regions: A Comparative Review, Public Policy Institute of California), this talk provides insights on best practices that can help fill critical water accounting gaps.

  6. American Indians, Place Meanings and the Old/New West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo McAvoy

    2002-01-01

    The American West includes millions of acres of national parks, forests and other protected lands. These landscapes are often associated with sense of place and place meanings for those who live there and for people who go there for recreation and tourism. American Indian place meanings regarding national parks and protected areas are often very different from those of...

  7. The Anguish of Snails: Native American Folklore in the West

    OpenAIRE

    Toelken, Barre

    2003-01-01

    After a career of working and living with Native Americans and studying their traditions, Barre Toelken has written this sweeping study of Native American folklore in the West. Within a framework of performance theory, cultural worldview, and collaborative research, he examines Native American visual arts, dance, oral tradition (story and song), humor, and patterns of thinking and discovery to demonstrate what can be gleaned from Indian traditions by Natives and non-Natives alike. In the proc...

  8. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Forested Wetlands in the West Gulf Coastal Plain Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Seattle, WA. Ms. Elizabeth O. Murray is Coordinator of the Arkansas Multi-Agency Wetland Planning Team, Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, Little Rock, AR...130 VLITTER - Litter cover ..............................................................................130 VLOG - Log biomass... VLOG - Log biomass..........................138 Analyze Field Data

  9. The American Colonization Society's West African Enterprise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Back to Africa enterprises surfaced periodically in American history in response to societal and governmental unwillingness to absorb equitably that portion or the population with African roots. By late 18th Century, the slave population and free blacks were or increasing concern to slave holders, social moderates and ...

  10. Extending West's analogy royce, mead, and american philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Marcelo Viale

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available En The American Evasion of Philosophy Cornell West traza una comparación entre los desarrollos de las filosofías europea y norteamericana. Dos importantes autores norteamericanos, sin embargo, están ausentes en la analogía de West: Josiah Royce and George H. Mead. En este contexto, me propongo en este artículo extender la analogía de West especulando sobre los posibles roles de Royce y Mead. La argumentación es desarrollada en dos partes: por un lado, muestro cómo la literatura secundaria -cuando analiza la vinculación entre Royce y Mead- tiende a reproducir la interpretación meadeana de Royce (presentada principalmente en "The Philosophies of Royce, James and Dewey in their American Setting" (1930; por otro lado, realizo un análisis esquemático de la interpretación meadeana de Royce desde un punto de vista histórico y sistemático.

  11. Bringing the Great American Solar Eclipse to West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesee, A. M.; Williamson, K.; Robertson-Honecker, J.

    2017-12-01

    West Virginia experienced up to 90% coverage during the Great American Solar Eclipse on August 21st. To reach the greatest number of West Virginians, we targeted educators and the 4-H program to provide those community leaders with the tools to help students learn about and safely view the eclipse. We developed a website that consolodated relevant eclipse activities, fact sheets, and outreach videos to train educators and others in the public about the science of the eclipse and how to view a partial eclipse safely. The 4-H Summer Experiement used at all 4-H summer camps and events was designed to focus on the eclipse. We distributed over 20,000 custom designed eclipse glasses. These were distributed to teachers through an online request system and to 4-H members involved in summer activities. We hosted a pre-eclipse event on the campus of West Virginia University for the public to learn about the science of the eclipse, relevant research being conducted at the university, and provide tips for safe viewing. Student volunteers were available on campus during the day of the eclipse to hand out glasses and answer questions. We will present the results of our outreach and events as well as lessons learned for the 2024 eclipse. Support for this project was provided by the WVU Department of Physics and Astronomy, WVU Extension, the WV Space Grant Consortium, a WVU internal grant, the Green Bank Observatory, and individual supporters of a crowdfunding campaign.

  12. MENTOR-BASED EFFORT TO ADVANCE IMPLEMENTATION OF PREFERRED MANAGEMENT PRACTICES (PMPS) FOR OIL PRODUCERS IN SOUTH MIDCONTINENT (OKLAHOMA/ARKANSAS) AND WEST COAST (CALIFORNIA) REGIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald F. Duttlinger; E. Lance Cole

    2004-12-01

    The Petroleum Technology Transfer Council (PTTC) and cooperating Regional Lead Organizations (RLOs) in its South Midcontinent (Oklahoma Geological Survey, Norman, Oklahoma) and West Coast (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California) regions conducted a ''Mentor-Based Effort to Advance Implementation of Preferred Management Practices (PMPs) For Oil Producers'' (DE-FC26-01BC15272) under an award in Phase I of Department of Energy's (DOE's) PUMP (Preferred Upstream Management Practices) program. The project's objective was to enable producers in California, Oklahoma and Arkansas to increase oil production, moderating or potentially reversing production declines and extending the life of marginal wells in the near term. PTTC identified the primary constraints inhibiting oil production through surveys and PUMPer direct contacts in both regions. The leading common constraint was excess produced water and associated factors. Approaches for addressing this common constraint were tailored for each region. For Oklahoma and Arkansas, the South Midcontinent Region developed a concise manual titled ''Produced Water And Associated Issues'' that led to multiple workshops across the region, plus workshops in several other regions. In California, the West Coast Region leveraged PUMP funding to receive an award from the California Energy Commission for $300,000 to systematically evaluate water control solutions for the California geological environment. Products include still-developing remedial action templates to help producers identify underlying causes of excess water production and screen appropriate solutions. Limited field demonstrations are being implemented to build producer confidence in water control technologies. Minor leverage was also gained by providing technology transfer support to a Global Energy Partners project that demonstrated affordable approaches for reducing power consumption. PTTC

  13. Louis L'Amour's American West. A Sound Filmstrip Program. Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, John; Peters, Frances

    Adapted from the motion picture based on two of Louis L'Amour's novels of the American West, "The Daybreakers" and "Sackett," this filmstrip program will help secondary students interpret the meaning of the frontier experience in American history. In the first three filmstrips--"Heading West,""Staking…

  14. 78 FR 24816 - Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY United States Mint Pricing for the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two... United States Mint is announcing the price of the 2013 American Eagle West Point Two-Coin Silver Set. The coin set will be offered for sale at a price of $139.95. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Marc Landry...

  15. 50 CFR 32.23 - Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Highway 33 between Interstate 40 and Highway 18 at Grubbs, Arkansas; Unit III—all refuge lands west of.... Hunters must enter and exit the refuge from designated roads and parking areas. 12. We prohibit hunting... River. 10. Anglers must enter and exit the refuge from designated roads and parking areas. 11. We...

  16. Geographic signatures of North American West Coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmett, Robert; Llansó, Roberto; Newton, Jan; Thom, Ron; Hornberger, Michelle; Morgan, Cheryl; Levings, Colin; Copping, Andrea; Fishman, Paul

    2000-01-01

    West Coast estuaries are geologically young and composed of a variety of geomorphological types. These estuaries range from large fjords to shallow lagoons; from large to low freshwater flows. Natural hazards include E1 Niños, strong Pacific storms, and active tectonic activity. West Coast estuaries support a wide range of living resources: five salmon species, harvestable shellfish, waterfowl and marine birds, marine mammals, and a variety of algae and plants. Although populations of many of these living resources have declined (salmonids), others have increased (marine mammals). West Coast estuaries are also centers of commerce and increasingly large shipping traffic. The West Coast human population is rising faster than most other areas of the U.S. and Canada, and is distributed heavily in southern California, the San Francisco Bay area, around Puget Sound, and the Fraser River estuary. While water pollution is a problem in many of the urbanized estuaries, most estuaries do not suffer from poor water quality. Primary estuarine problems include habitat alterations, degradation, and loss; diverted freshwater flows; marine sediment contamination; and exotic species introductions. The growing West Coast economy and population are in part related to the quality of life, which is dependent on the use and enjoyment of abundant coastal natural resources.

  17. Nihilism and the Roots of Crisis in American Democracy: A Diagnosis of Cornel West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Jeliński

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cornel West’s diagnosis of the crisis of the American democracy is the subject matter of this article. Analyzing the condition of the American democracy of the end of XX and the beginning of XXI centuries, C. West focused on the individual, existential character of the crisis. The diagnosed state had according to him much affect not only on political issues, but first and foremost on the spread of nihilism among American citizens. Nihilism – is understood in the C. West as senselessness of life and low self-esteem is the subject matter of this article.

  18. A comparison of two stem injection treatments applied to American beech in central West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kochenderfer; Gary W. Miller; James N. Kochenderfer

    2012-01-01

    Efficacies for two herbicide stem injection treatments on American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and impacts to nontarget residual trees were evaluated in central West Virginia. The treatments consisted of hack-and-squirt injection of all beech stems ≥1.0 in. to 9.9 in. diameter at breast height (d.b.h.) with either imazapyr as Arsenal...

  19. Weyerhaeuser in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Hearnsberger

    2011-01-01

    Weyerhaeuser Company has undergone many transitions since it was founded in 1900. Changes have occurred in the timberlands and wood products divisions as well as other divisions, based on both the US and global economies. This paper will present a synopsis of the current status of Weyerhaeuser generally, and in Arkansas in particular.

  20. THE MEXICAN CALORIE ALLOCATION AMONG THE WORKING CLASS IN THE AMERICAN WEST, 1870-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Alan Carson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available When measures for material conditions are sparse or unreliable, height and weight measurements are now widely accepted proxies that reflect changing economic conditions. This study uses two biological measurements related to height and weight: the basal metabolic rate (BMR and calorie accounting. BMRs and calories of Mexicans in the American West remained constant, indicating that their diets did not vary with United States economic development, but Mexican BMRs and diets varied with occupations. Farmers and unskilled workers had greater BMRs and received more calories per day than workers in other occupations. During much of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Mexicans born in Mexico received fewer calories in the US than Mexicans born in the West. Mexican nutrition and diets also did not vary by residence within the US, indicating that Mexican diets were similar across western states.

  1. Prevalence and effects of West Nile virus on wild American kestrel (Falco sparverius) populations in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Robert J.; Iko, William M.; Hofmeister, Erik K.; Paul, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    To assess the potential impacts of West Nile virus (WNV) on a wild population of free-ranging raptors, we investigated the prevalence and effects of WNV on American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) breeding along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in northern Colorado. We monitored kestrel nesting activity at 131 nest boxes from March to August 2004. Of 81 nest attempts, we obtained samples from 111 adults and 250 young. We did not detect WNV in sera; however, 97.3% (108/111) of adults tested positive for WNV neutralizing antibodies, which possibly represented passive transfer of maternal antibodies. Clutch size, hatching, and fledging success in our study did not differ from that previously reported for this species, suggesting that previous WNV exposure in kestrels did not have an effect on reproductive parameters measured in the breeding populations we studied in 2004.

  2. My American Dream: The Interplay Between Structure and Agency in West African Immigrants' Educational Experiences in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Michelle G.; Roegman, Rachel; Edstrom, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    This article presents findings of a qualitative, interpretive case study of the experiences of 1.5- and 2nd-generation West African immigrants who self-identify as pursuing the American Dream, defined by them as academic attainment and career success. Employing structuration theory, the authors examine the interplay between structures and agency…

  3. West Nile virus infection in American Robins: new insights on dose response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaci K VanDalen

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a vector-borne pathogen that was first detected in the United States in 1999. The natural transmission cycle of WNV involves mosquito vectors and avian hosts, which vary in their competency to transmit the virus. American robins are an abundant backyard species in the United States and appear to have an important role in the amplification and dissemination of WNV. In this study we examine the response of American robins to infection with various WNV doses within the range of those administered by some natural mosquito vectors. Thirty American robins were assigned a WNV dosage treatment and needle inoculated with 10(0.95 PFU, 10(1.26 PFU, 10(2.15 PFU, or 10(3.15 PFU. Serum samples were tested for the presence of infectious WNV and/or antibodies, while oral swabs were tested for the presence of WNV RNA. Five of the 30 (17% robins had neutralizing antibodies to WNV prior to the experiment and none developed viremia or shed WNV RNA. The proportion of WNV-seronegative birds that became viremic after WNV inoculation increased in a dose dependent manner. At the lowest dose, only 40% (2/5 of the inoculated birds developed productive infections while at the highest dose, 100% (7/7 of the birds became viremic. Oral shedding of WNV RNA followed a similar trend where robins inoculated with the lower two doses were less likely to shed viral RNA (25% than robins inoculated with one of the higher doses (92%. Viremia titers and morbidity did not increase in a dose dependent manner; only two birds succumbed to infection and, interestingly, both were inoculated with the lowest dose of WNV. It is clear that the disease ecology of WNV is a complex interplay of hosts, vectors, and viral dose delivered.

  4. Digital outlines and topography of the glaciers of the American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Andrew G.; Hoffman, Matthew; Jackson, Keith; Basagic, Hassan; Nylen, Thomas; Percy, David

    2007-01-01

    Alpine glaciers have generally receded during the past century (post-“Little Ice Age”) because of climate warming (Oerlemans and others, 1998; Mann and others, 1999; Dyurgerov and Meier, 2000; Grove, 2001). This general retreat has accelerated since the mid 1970s, when a shift in atmospheric circulation occurred (McCabe and Fountain, 1995; Dyurgerov and Meier, 2000). The loss in glacier cover has had several profound effects. First, the shrinkage of glaciers results in a net increase in stream flow, typically in late summer when water supplies are at the lowest levels (Fountain and Tangborn, 1985). This additional water is important to ecosystems (Hall and Fagre, 2003) and to human water needs (Tangborn, 1980). However, if shrinkage continues, the net contribution to stream flow will diminish, and the effect upon these benefactors will be adverse. Glacier shrinkage is also a significant factor in current sea level rise (Meier, 1984; Dyurgerov and Meier, 2000). Second, many of the glaciers in the West Coast States are located on stratovolcanoes, and continued recession will leave oversteepened river valleys. These valleys, once buttressed by ice are now subject to failure, creating conditions for lahars (Walder and Driedger, 1994; O’Connor and others, 2001). Finally, reduction or loss of glaciers reduce or eliminate glacial activity as an important geomorphic process on landscape evolution and alters erosion rates in high alpine areas (Hallet and others, 1996). Because of the importance of glaciers to studies of climate change, hazards, and landscape modification, glacier inventories have been published for Alaska (Manley, in press), China (http://wdcdgg.westgis.ac.cn/DATABASE/Glacier/Glacier.asp), Nepal (Mool and others, 2001), Switzerland (Paul and others, 2002), and the Tyrolian Alps of Austria (Paul, 2002), among other locales. To provide the necessary data for assessing the magnitude and rate of glacier change in the American West, exclusive of Alaska

  5. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo Saldívar-Lucio

    Full Text Available The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress. The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region.

  6. The everyday lives of energy transitions: Contested sociotechnical imaginaries in the American West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica M; Tidwell, Abraham Sd

    2016-06-01

    This article brings together two growing literatures - on sociotechnical imaginaries in science and technology studies and on resource materialities in anthropology - to explore how two energy-producing communities in the American West understand the moral salience of energy systems and the place of labor within them. Studies of energy sociotechnical imaginaries overwhelmingly focus on the role that state and transnational actors play in shaping perceptions of the 'good society', rather than how these imaginaries inform and are transformed in the lived experience of everyday people. We illuminate the contested dimension of sociotechnical imaginaries and their positioning within structures of power that inform visions of moral behavior and social order. Whereas the role of energy in national imaginaries is grounded almost entirely in the consumption it enables, examining the everyday ethics of people who live and work in Colorado's uranium-rich Western Slope and Wyoming's coal-rich Powder River Basin reveals an insistence that 'good' energy systems also provide opportunities for dignified and well-paid blue-collar work. This imaginary, we argue, remains 'bounded' at a local scale rather than circulating more widely to gain national or international traction. Theorizing this boundedness illustrates not only the contested nature of sociotechnical imaginaries, but also the constraints that material assemblages and sediments of the past place on imagined futures.

  7. Detection of West Nile virus in stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) parasitizing juvenile American white pelicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Gregory; Panella, Nicholas; Hale, Kristina; Komar, Nicholas

    2010-11-01

    Stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), an economically important pest of livestock and humans, were observed parasitizing prefledged American white pelicans, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos (Pelecaniformes: Pelecanidae), in a pelican breeding colony in northeastern Montana where die-offs attributed to West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) have occurred since 2002. Engorged and unengorged flies were collected off nine moribund chicks. Of 29 blood-engorged flies testing positive for vertebrate DNA, all 29 contained pelican DNA. Virus isolation was performed on 60 pools (1,176 flies) of unengorged flies using Vero cell plaque assay. Eighteen pools were positive for WNV for an estimated infection rate of 18.0 per 1,000 flies. Fifty-four percent (36/67) of abdomens from blood-engorged flies tested positive for WNV. Pelican viremia levels from the blood-engorged fly abdomens revealed that at least one of the ill pelicans circulated a viremia capable of infecting Culex mosquito vectors. Stable flies may be involved in WNV transmission within the pelican breeding colony by serving as either a mechanical vector or as a source for oral infection if ingested by predators.

  8. 33 CFR 117.123 - Arkansas Waterway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... position of the drawbridge span. (c) Across the Arkansas Waterway, the draw of the Van Buren Railroad Drawbridge, mile 300.8 at Van Buren, Arkansas, is maintained in the open position except as follows: (1) When...

  9. Cretaceous to Recent Assymetrical Subsidence of South American and West African Conjugate Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenning, J.; Mann, P.

    2017-12-01

    Two divergent interpretations have been proposed for South American rifted-passive margins: the "mirror hypothesis" proposes that the rifted margins form symmetrically from pure shear of the lithosphere while upper-plate-lower plate models propose that the rifted margins form asymmetrically by simple shear. Models based on seismic reflection and refraction imaging and comparison of conjugate, rifted margins generally invoke a hybrid stretching process involving elements of both end member processes along with the effects of mantle plumes active during the rift and passive margin phases. We use subsidence histories of 14, 1-7 km-deep exploration wells located on South American and West African conjugate pairs now separated by the South Atlantic Ocean, applying long-term subsidence to reveal the symmetry or asymmetry of the underlying, conjugate, rift processes. Conjugate pairs characterize the rifted margin over a distance of 3500 km and include: Colorado-South Orange, Punta Del Este-North Orange, South Pelotas-Lüderitz and the North Pelotas-Walvis Basins. Of the four conjugate pairs, more rapid subsidence on the South American plate is consistently observed with greater initial rift and syn-rift subsidence rates of >60m/Ma (compared to 100 m/Ma are observed offshore South Africa between approximately 120-80 Ma, compatible with onset of the post-rift thermal sag phase. During this period the majority of burial is completed and rates remain low at Argentina/Uruguay displays more gradual subsidence throughout the Cretaceous, consistently averaging a moderate 15-30m/Ma. By the end of this stage there is a subsequent increase to 25-60 m/Ma within the last 20 Ma, interpreted to reflect lithospheric loading due to increased sedimentation rates during the Cenozoic. This increase in subsidence rate is not seen in the African conjugate section where the majority of sediments bypassed the highly aggraded Cretaceous shelf. Initially greater on the Brazilian margin compared to

  10. 33 CFR 117.121 - Arkansas River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arkansas River 117.121 Section 117.121 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.121 Arkansas River The draw of the...

  11. Implications of the regional haze rule on renewable and wind energy development on native American lands in the west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acker, T.L.; Auberle, W.M.; Duque, E.P.N.; Jeffery, W.D.; LaRoche, D.R.; Masayesva, V.; Smith, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    A study conducted at Northern Arizona University investigated the barriers and opportunities facing Native American tribes in the West when considering development of their renewable energy resources in order to reduce regional haze. This article summarizes some of the findings of that work with special attention to wind energy. Background information is presented concerning the Regional Haze Rule and the Western Regional Air Partnership, and some of the circumstances surrounding development of tribal energy resources. An assessment of tribal energy issues revealed that many Native American tribes are interested in developing their renewable resources. However, this development should occur within the context of maintaining and strengthening their cultural, social, economic and political integrity. Furthermore, it is shown that Native American lands possess an abundant wind resource. A list of potential actions in which tribes may participate prior to or during development of their wind or renewable resources is provided. (author)

  12. Geochemical characterization of critical dust source regions in the American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarons, Sarah M.; Blakowski, Molly A.; Aciego, Sarah M.; Stevenson, Emily I.; Sims, Kenneth W. W.; Scott, Sean R.; Aarons, Charles

    2017-10-01

    The generation, transport, and deposition of mineral dust are detectable in paleoclimate records from land, ocean, and ice, providing valuable insight into earth surface conditions and cycles on a range of timescales. Dust deposited in marine and terrestrial ecosystems can provide critical nutrients to nutrient-limited ecosystems, and variations in dust provenance can indicate changes in dust production, sources and transport pathways as a function of climate variability and land use change. Thus, temporal changes in locations of dust source areas and transport pathways have implications for understanding interactions between mineral dust, global climate, and biogeochemical cycles. This work characterizes dust from areas in the American West known for dust events and/or affected by increasing human settlement and livestock grazing during the last 150 years. Dust generation and uplift from these dust source areas depends on climate and land use practices, and the relative contribution of dust has likely changed since the expansion of industrialization and agriculture into the western United States. We present elemental and isotopic analysis of 28 potential dust source area samples analyzed using Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry (TIMS) for 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd composition and Multi-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) for 176Hf/177Hf composition, and ICPMS for major and trace element concentrations. We find significant variability in the Sr, Nd, and Hf isotope compositions of potential source areas of dust throughout western North America, ranging from 87Sr/86Sr = 0.703699 to 0.740236, εNd = -26.6 to 2.4, and εHf = -21.7 to -0.1. We also report differences in the trace metal and phosphorus concentrations in the geologic provinces sampled. This research provides an important resource for the geochemical tracing of dust sources and sinks in western North America, and will aid in modeling the biogeochemical impacts of increased

  13. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Arkansas single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  14. Influences of geomorphology and geology on alpine treeline in the American West - More important than climatic influences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.R.; Malanson, G.P.; Walsh, S.J.; Fagre, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    The spatial distribution and pattern of alpine treeline in the American West reflect the overarching influences of geological history, lithology and structure, and geomorphic processes and landforms, and geologic and geomorphic factors—both forms and processes—can control the spatiotemporal response of the ecotone to climate change. These influences occur at spatial scales ranging from the continental scale to fine scale processes and landforms at the slope scale. Past geomorphic influences, particularly Pleistocene glaciation, have also left their impact on treeline, and treelines across the west are still adjusting to post-Pleistocene conditions within Pleistocene-created landforms. Current fine scale processes include solifluction and changes on relict solifluction and digging by animals. These processes should be examined in detail in future studies to facilitate a better understanding of where individual tree seedlings become established as a primary response of the ecotone to climate change.

  15. Native American Historic Context for the United States Military Academy, West Point, New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Delaware,” pp 385-387 in Vol 1 of Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico, Frederick W. Hodge, ed. 2 vols. Bureau of American Ethnology ... Ethnology Bulletin 145; and Monique J. Tyndall, 2004, “Ridge Hill Yonkers, New York: Study of the Weckquasgeek Chieftancy and the Present Site Known as...Indian Tribes of North America,” Smithsonian Institution Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145. 33 Swanton, 1952. 14 (site of Peekskill), and

  16. The Vanishing West: 1964-2010--The Disappearance of Western Civilization from the American Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Glenn; Wood, Peter R.; Balch, Stephen H.; Thorne, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    "The Vanishing West" traces the decline and near extinction of the Western Civilization history survey course in America's top colleges and universities from 1964 to 2010. This course, covering classical antiquity to the present, was once part of the undergraduate curriculum's intellectual bedrock, not only because it was often a graduation…

  17. Engineered resistance in Aedes aegypti to a West African and a South American strain of yellow fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, S; Rayner, J O; Olson, K E; Davis, B S; Beaty, B J; Blair, C D

    1998-05-01

    Double subgenomic Sindbis (dsSIN) viruses were engineered to transduce mosquito cells with antisense RNA derived either from the premembrane (prM) or polymerase (NS5) coding regions of the 17D vaccine strain of yellow fever virus (YFV). Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells were infected at high multiplicities of infection (MOI) with each dsSIN virus. Forty-eight hours later, the transduced cells were challenged with an MOI of 0.1 of the Asibi strain of YFV. At 72-hr postchallenge, the cells were assayed by immunofluorescence for the presence of YFV antigen. Cells transduced with prM or NS5 antisense RNAs derived from the YFV genome displayed no YFV-specific antigens. In contrast, cells infected with control dsSIN viruses that expressed no antisense RNA or dengue virus-derived antisense RNAs were permissive for the challenge virus. To analyze resistance in the mosquito, five log10 50% tissue culture infective doses (TCID50) of each dsSIN virus and three log10TCID50 of either a West African (BA-55) or South American (1899/81) strain of wild-type YFV were coinoculated into Ae. aegypti. Mosquitoes transduced with effector RNAs targeting the prM or NS5 gene regions did not transmit West African YFV and poorly transmitted the South American strain of YFV.

  18. West Nile Virus Infection in American Singer Canaries: An Experimental Model in a Highly Susceptible Avian Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K; Lund, Melissa; Shearn Bochsler, Valerie

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries ( Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 10 5 , 10 2 , and 10 1 plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows ( Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 10 5 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 10 1 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 10 10 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 10 5 PFU of virus. In canaries euthanized at 3 days postinoculation, WNV was isolated at >10 7 PFU of virus/100 mg of lung, liver, heart, spleen, and kidney tissues. Pallor of the liver and splenomegaly were the most common macroscopic observations and histologic lesions were most severe in liver, spleen, and kidney, particularly in canaries challenged with 10 2 and 10 1 PFU. Immunoreactivity to WNV was pronounced in the liver and spleen. IgG antibodies to WNV were detected in serum by enzyme immunoassay in 11 of 21 (52%) challenged canaries and, in 4 of 5 (20%) of these sera, neutralization antibodies were detected at a titer ≥ 1:20. American singer canaries provide a useful model as this bird species is highly susceptible to WNV infection.

  19. From the Far East to Near West: Teaching Asian American Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlen, Bard Rogers

    In teaching Asian American literature on the college level, the first consideration is to try to choose works that dispel the dominant stereotypes. One of these stereotypes is the "otherness" myth that Asian American culture is very exotic, distant, mysterious, as in "the mysterious and far East." In reality, Asian Americans…

  20. Updated Arkansas Global Rice Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wailes, Eric J.; Chavez, Eddie C.

    2010-01-01

    The Arkansas Global Rice Model is based on a multi-country statistical simulation and econometric framework. The model consists of six sub regions. These regions are the U.S., South Asia, North Asia and the Middle East, the Americas, Africa and Europe. Each region comprises of several countries and each country model has a supply sector, a demand sector, a trade, stocks and price linkage equations. All equations used in this model were estimated using econometric procedures or identities. Est...

  1. Arkansas Tech University reactor project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankoorikal, J.T.; Culp, R.R.; Hamm, J.R. (Arkansas Tech. Univ., Russellville (United States))

    1991-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the nuclear reactor project at Arkansas Tech University (ATU). The reactor will be a part of the Center for Energy Studies (CES) located on the ATU campus in Russellville, Arkansas. It will be used for education, training, and research. The Arkansas Tech University TRIGA Reactor (ATUTR) is a TRIGA Mark I that will be operated in two basic modes: steady state and pulsing. The maximum power level for steady-state operation is 250 kW(thermal), and the maximum step reactivity insertion will be 2.0$. The inherent safety of this reactor comes from the large negative temperature coefficient of the uranium-zirconium-hydride fuel-moderator elements. Principal design parameters for the reactor are summarized. The application for reactor construction and operating license was submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in November 1989. The review process is continuing. ATU plans to continue to work with local industry and the public to provide a wide variety of services related to nuclear science and engineering.

  2. Culture in Asian American community psychology: beyond the East-West binary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne

    2011-03-01

    In response to a call to better integrate culture in community psychology (O'Donnell in American Journal of Community Psychology 37:1-7 2006), we offer a cultural-community framework to facilitate a collaborative engagement between community psychologists and ethnic minority communities, focusing on Asian American communities as illustrations. Extending Hays' (Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 2008) ADDRESSING framework for considering cultural influences on a counseling relationship, the proposed framework provides a broad but systematic guidepost for considering three major cultural-ecological influences on Asian American communities: Race and Ethnicity (R), Culture (C), and Immigration and Transnational Ties (I). We provide a sequence of steps that incorporate the ADDRESSING and the RCI frameworks to facilitate the collaborative community-based research or social action.

  3. Seroprevalence of CANINE LEISHMANIASIS AND American trypanosomiasis in dogs from Grenada, West Indies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canine leishmaniasis and American trypanosomiasis (AT) are caused by related hemoflagellated parasites, Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi, which share several common host species. Dogs are reservoirs for human infections with both pathogens. We determined the prevalence of antibodies to Leishman...

  4. Arkansas, 2010 forest inventory and analysis factsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Rosson

    2011-01-01

    This annual factsheet is a brief look at some of the basic metrics that describe forest resources in Arkansas. Estimates presented here are for the measurement year 2010 with resource changes compared against the 2009 survey year. Factsheet information is updated every year by means of the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) annualized sample design. Arkansas has about...

  5. A brief history of forests and tree planting in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2012-01-01

    Forests are vital to the socioeconomic well-being of Arkansas. According to one recent report, Arkansas is the eighth leading wood-producing State (Smith and others 2009), providing billions of dollars of economic contributions related to the timber industry (University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture 2009). Additional benefits of Arkansas forests include tourism,...

  6. The Reaction of West Germany to Soviet-American negotiations 1968-1972

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Alexandrovna Borisova

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analyzing of the reaction of Germany to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT in the late 60's - early 70’s. Our attention is paid to the characteristics of executive and legislative authorities’ decisions of Germany. After Berlin and Cuban missiles crisis constant threat of a nuclear missile stability promoted the development of SALT, which should be the basic element of balance of power for the survival of human civilization. For all western countries searching for the formula to avoid the escalation of all-out war had to be based on the main principles of international relations in the context of detent of geo-political tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States. But for a long period of time West Germany still to be on the position of cold war confrontation. Such a policy could lead Germany to political isolation. After first successful steps of soviet-american’s negotiations West Germany began to realize the threat of its isolation and tried to integrate itself in the general process of detent, first of all in the field of European security. Main purpose of this research is analyzing specific mechanisms of transformation of the bilateral relations between United States and Germany, comparing different foreign policies with socialistic block, studying contradictions in the capitalist block and to identify and classify these differences, as well.

  7. Monarch (Danaus plexippus L. Nymphalidae) migration, nectar resources and fire regimes in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Craig Rudolph; Charles A. Ely; Richard R. Schaefer; J. Howard Williamson; Ronald E. Thill

    2006-01-01

    Monarchs (Danaus plexippus) pass through the Ouachita Mountains in large numbers in September and October on their annual migration to overwintering sites in the Transvolcanic Belt of central Mexico. Monarchs are dependent on nectar resources to fuel their migratory movements. In the Ouachita Mountains of west-central Arkansas migrating monarchs...

  8. East vs. West: A Comparison of Mobile Phone Use by Chinese and American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosehfeld, Barbara; O'Connor-Petruso, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    Mobile phones are used around the world, however, there are no definitive rules regarding their appropriate use. In the absence of such codification, the researchers surveyed 225 American and 115 Chinese college students to understand their perceptions of etiquette and appropriate use of mobile phones both in the classroom and in other public…

  9. West Nile virus infection in American singer canaries: An experimental model in a highly susceptible avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Erik K.; Lund, Melissa; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the susceptibility of American singer canaries (Serinus canaria) to West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Adult canaries were inoculated with 105, 102, and 101plaque forming units (PFU) of WNV. All birds became infected and mortality occurred by 5 days postinoculation. The load of viral RNA as determined by RT-qPCR was dose dependent, and was higher at all doses than the level of viral RNA detected in American crows (Corvus brachyrhynchos) challenged with 105 PFU of WNV. In a subset of birds, viremia was detected by virus isolation; canaries inoculated with 101 PFU of WNV developed viremia exceeding 1010 PFU/mL serum, a log higher than American crows inoculated with 105 PFU of virus. In canaries euthanized at 3 days postinoculation, WNV was isolated at >107 PFU of virus/100 mg of lung, liver, heart, spleen, and kidney tissues. Pallor of the liver and splenomegaly were the most common macroscopic observations and histologic lesions were most severe in liver, spleen, and kidney, particularly in canaries challenged with 102 and 101 PFU. Immunoreactivity to WNV was pronounced in the liver and spleen. IgG antibodies to WNV were detected in serum by enzyme immunoassay in 11 of 21 (52%) challenged canaries and, in 4 of 5 (20%) of these sera, neutralization antibodies were detected at a titer ≥ 1:20. American singer canaries provide a useful model as this bird species is highly susceptible to WNV infection.

  10. 75 FR 66306 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Arkansas Waterway, Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Arkansas Waterway, Little Rock, AR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Arkansas Waterway at Mile 119.6 at Little Rock, Arkansas. Vessel operators shall contact the remote... Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Arkansas Waterway, Little [[Page 66307

  11. Arkansas Tech University TRIGA nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankoorikal, J.; Culp, R.; Hamm, J.; Elliott, D.; Hodgson, L.; Apple, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the TRIGA nuclear reactor (ATUTR) proposed for construction on the campus of Arkansas Tech University in Russellville, Arkansas. The reactor will be part of the Center for Energy Studies located at Arkansas Tech University. The reactor has a steady state power level of 250 kW and can be pulsed with a maximum reactivity insertion of $2.0. Experience gained in dismantling and transporting some of the components from Michigan State University, and the storage of these components will be presented. The reactor will be used for education, training, and research. (author)

  12. Dispelling the 'bitter fog': fighting chemical defoliation in the American West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Amy M

    2012-12-01

    Little doubt remains about the influence of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring in changing the consciousness of not just Americans, but citizens around the world, regarding the relationship between human beings and the natural world. Less has been done about the specific ways Carson's book inspired individual activists to continue challenging pesticide policy within the United States in the decades after the book's publication. The stories of three western women fighting the use of Agent Orange herbicides - the phenoxy herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T - illustrate the influence and mixed success of environmental activism after Silent Spring. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrogeologic characteristics and water levels of Wilcox aquifer in southwestern and northeastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Schrader, Tony P.

    2009-01-01

    The Wilcox Group of Eocene and Paleocene age is located throughout most of southern and eastern Arkansas. The Wilcox Group in southern Arkansas is undifferentiated, while in northeastern Arkansas, the Wilcox Group is subdivided into three units: Flour Island, Fort Pillow Sand, and Old Breastworks Formation. The Wilcox Group crops out in southwestern Arkansas in discontinuous, 1 to 3 mi wide bands. In northeastern Arkansas, the Wilcox Group crops out along a narrow, discontinuous, band along the western edge of Crowleys Ridge. The Wilcox aquifer provides sources of groundwater in southwestern and northeastern Arkansas. In 2005, reported withdrawals from the Wilcox aquifer in Arkansas totaled 27.0 million gallons per day, most of which came from the northeastern area. Major withdrawals from the aquifer were for public supplies with lesser but locally important withdrawals for commercial, domestic, and industrial uses. A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey to determine the water levels associated with the Wilcox aquifer in southwestern and northeastern Arkansas. During February 2009, 58 water-level measurements were made in wells completed in the Wilcox aquifer. The results from this study and previous studies are presented as potentiometric-surface maps, water-level difference maps, and long-term hydrographs. The direction of groundwater flow in the southwestern area is affected by two potentiometric-surface mounds, one in the north and the other in the southwest, and a cone of depression in the center. The direction of water flowing off of the northern mound of water is generally to the south and east with some to the north. The direction of water flowing off of the southwestern mound is generally to the south and east. The direction of water flowing into the cone of depression is generally from the north, west, and south. The direction of groundwater flow

  14. Reversal of Long-Term Trend in Baseline Ozone Concentrations at the North American West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, D. D.; Petropavlovskikh, I.; Oltmans, S. J.

    2017-10-01

    Changes in baseline (here understood as representative of continental to hemispheric scales) tropospheric ozone concentrations that have occurred over western North American and eastern North Pacific are analyzed based on data from three measurement records: (1) sites in the U.S. Pacific coast marine boundary layer, (2) an inland, higher altitude site at Lassen Volcanic National Park, CA, and (3) springtime airborne measurements in the free troposphere between 3 and 8 km altitude. Consistent with previously published results, we find increasing ozone prior to the year 2000, but that rate of increase has slowed and now reversed in these data sets in all seasons. The past ozone increase has been identified as a significant difficulty to overcome in achieving U.S. air quality goals; this difficulty has now eased. Global models only poorly reproduce the observed baseline ozone and trends; policy guidance from such models must be considered very cautiously.

  15. Regionally heterogeneous paleoenvironmental responses in the West African and South American monsoon systems on glacial to millennial timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, T. M.; Hughen, K. A.; van Mooy, B.; Overpeck, J. T.; Baker, P. A.; Fritz, S.; Peck, J. A.; Scholz, C. A.; King, J. W.

    2008-12-01

    Although millennial-scale paleoenvironmental changes have been well characterized for high latitude sites, short-term climate variability in the tropics is less well understood. While the Intertropical Convergence Zone may act as an integrator of tropical climate changes, regional factors also play an important role in controlling the tropical response to climate forcing. Understanding these influences, and how they modulate the response to global climate forcing under different mean climate states is thus important for assessing how the tropics may respond to future climate change. Here, we examine new centennial-resolution records of paleoenvironmental change from isotopic and relative abundance data from molecular biomarkers in sediment cores from Lake Bosumtwi and Lake Titicaca. We assess the relative response of the West African and South American monsoon systems to millennial and suborbital-scale climate variability over the last ca. 30,000 years. While there is evidence for synchronous climate variability in the two systems, the dominant paleoenvironmental changes appear largely decoupled, highlighting the importance of regional climatology in controlling the response to climate forcing in tropical regions.

  16. The Genetic Contribution of West-African Ancestry to Protection against Central Obesity in African-American Men but Not Women: Results from the ARIC and MESA Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentidis, Yann C; Arora, Amit; Zhou, Jin; Kittles, Rick; Allison, David B

    2016-01-01

    Over 80% of African-American (AA) women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA) in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual's degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI), waist-circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n = 1611 AA). In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction = 4.14 × 10(-5) in pooled analysis of WHR). In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male gender and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors.

  17. The genetic contribution of West-African ancestry to protection against central obesity in African-American men but not women: results from the ARIC and MESA studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann C Klimentidis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Over 80% of African-American (AA women are overweight or obese. A large racial disparity between AA and European-Americans (EA in obesity rates exists among women, but curiously not among men. Although socio-economic and/or cultural factors may partly account for this race-by-sex interaction, the potential involvement of genetic factors has not yet been investigated. Among 2,814 self-identified AA in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, we estimated each individual’s degree of West-African genetic ancestry using 3,437 ancestry informative markers. We then tested whether sex modifies the association between West-African genetic ancestry and body mass index (BMI, waist-circumference (WC, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR, adjusting for income and education levels, and examined associations of ancestry with the phenotypes separately in males and females. We replicated our findings in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (n=1,611 AA. In both studies, we find that West-African ancestry is negatively associated with obesity, especially central obesity, among AA men, but not among AA women (pinteraction= 1.24 x 10-5 in pooled analysis of WHR. In conclusion, our results suggest that the combination of male sex and West-African genetic ancestry is associated with protection against central adiposity, and suggest that the large racial disparity that exists among women, but not men, may be at least partly attributed to genetic factors.

  18. Intergenerational differences in smoking among West Indian, Haitian, Latin American, and African blacks in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tod G. Hamilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due in large part to increased migration from Africa and the Caribbean, black immigrants and their descendants are drastically changing the contours of health disparities among blacks in the United States. While prior studies have examined health variation among black immigrants by region of birth, few have explored the degree of variation in health behaviors, particularly smoking patterns, among first- and second- generation black immigrants by ancestral heritage. Using data from the 1995–2011 waves of the Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS, we examine variation in current smoking status among first-, second-, and third/higher- generation black immigrants. Specifically, we investigate these differences among all black immigrants and then provide separate analyses for individuals with ancestry from the English-speaking Caribbean (West Indies, Haiti, Latin America, and Africa—the primary sending regions of black immigrants to the United States. We also explore differences in smoking behavior by gender. The results show that, relative to third/higher generation blacks, first-generation black immigrants are less likely to report being current smokers. Within the first-generation, immigrants who migrated after age 13 have a lower probability of smoking relative to those who migrated at or under age 13. Disparities in smoking prevalence among the first-generation by age at migration are largest among black immigrants from Latin America. The results also suggest that second-generation immigrants with two foreign-born parents are generally less likely to smoke than the third/higher generation. We find no statistically significant difference in smoking between second-generation immigrants with mixed nativity parents and the third or higher generation. Among individuals with West Indian, Haitian, Latin American, and African ancestry, the probability of being a current smoker increases with each successive generation

  19. A Case of Asynchronous Media Change in the 1950s: How US-American TV Series Came to Early West German Television

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Dechert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of radio and cinema on the first television program designs in West Germany, and other nations, can be explained by a theory which has recently been put forward by communication scholar Gabriele Balbi. According to Balbi, in a first step new media imitate old media in manifold ways before they develop characteristics of their own and become a truly new medium. However, the ‘producers’ of early West German national television were not only looking to radio or cinema for clues on how to design the program of Deutsches Fernsehen (DFS, West Germany’s first and only national television channel from 1954 to 1961/63. DFS’ executives and executive employees were also looking to other nations, particularly to those – like the United States – that were years ahead in television’s evolution. Especially the implementation of the entertainment series in West German television is strongly rooted in visits to the United States and newly gathered information and impressions. To exemplify this argument, I delve into examples which demonstrate that West German television executives and executive employees were either creating television series on the basis of US-American television series or were broadcasting the latter after synchronization. In this context, major findings of diffusion research constitute a useful addition to current theories on media change.

  20. Quantifying the Impacts of Droughts on the Electricity Sector and its Associated Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the American West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Estrada, J. E.; Sheffield, J.

    2016-12-01

    The electricity sector relies heavily on water, as it is needed for hydroelectric generation and to cool thermoelectric power plants. Droughts decrease river and reservoir levels, reducing the affected region's capacity for electricity generation. These cuts in electricity supply have to be replaced by more expensive alternatives with potentially higher associated greenhouse gas emissions (e.g. coal, natural gas, or imports) to meet the region's demand. To date, the quantification of the impacts of droughts on the electricity sector tends to be restricted to individual events, such as the recent California drought. In this work, the impacts of droughts on electricity prices paid by consumers and on greenhouse gas emissions from the electricity sector are calculated over the American West from 2001 to 2014 using monthly data. This region was selected because it falls within the Western Interconnection power grid, because of its important reliance on hydropower, and because it has large areas that are vulnerable to droughts due to their semi-arid climates. Furthermore, this regional approach allows us to quantify the effects of non-local droughts, i.e. droughts in neighboring states that affect electricity imports into a given state. Results show large heterogeneities in the effects of droughts across the region, given the diversity of energy sources used in each state. As expected, the effect of a local drought event on hydroelectricity is largest in California, Oregon, and Washington since they have the highest hydropower capacity. California and Oregon tend to replace a large portion of their lost hydroelectricity with natural gas, while Washington appears to rely more on imports from its neighbors. On the other hand, Montana, Nevada, and Utah, tend to rely more heavily on coal. The results also show that consumers in the residential, commercial, and industrial sectors may sometimes pay millions of dollars more for their electricity use at the state level due to

  1. Why museums matter: a tale of pinworms (Oxyuroidea: Heteroxynematidae) among pikas (Ochotona princeps and O. collaris) in the American west.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberg, E P; Pilitt, P A; Galbreath, K E

    2009-04-01

    Permanent and well-supported museum or natural history collections provide a solid foundation for the process of systematics research through creation of an empirical record which validates our understanding of the biosphere. We explore the role of museums in ongoing studies of the complex helminth fauna characteristic of pikas (Ochotona spp.) in the American west. These studies address the taxonomy for pinworms of the Labiostomatinae and the problems associated with the absence of adequate type series and vouchers and with misidentifications in original descriptions. We demonstrate that the types for Labiostomum (Labiostomum) coloradensis are identical to some specimens in the syntype series representing L. (Eugenuris) utahensis, although the published descriptions are in disagreement. Both are identical to L. (Eugenuris) talkeetnaeuris and, as a consequence, are reduced as junior synonyms. Only 2 species of large pinworms, namely L. (Labiostomum) rauschi and L. (Eugenuris) talkeetnaeuris, are widely distributed in Ochotona collaris and O. princeps. Although this serves to clarify the taxonomy for species in these genera, prior records remain confused, as representative voucher specimens from all major surveys in North America were never submitted to museum collections. We strongly suggest that type and voucher series should not be held in private or personal collections, where such are eventually lost, discarded, or destroyed through neglect due to inattention and the absence of curation. The potential to accumulate meaningful baselines for assessment of environmental change is jeopardized if materials from survey and inventory are not routinely submitted to museum collections. The capacity of museum repositories, as a focus for systematics, ecology, and evolutionary studies and for the development of resources for biodiversity informatics, continues to be undervalued and poorly utilized by a cadre of scientists who are dependant on accurate and definitive

  2. Association of School-Based Influenza Vaccination Clinics and School Absenteeism--Arkansas, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquelais, Rachel E; Safi, Haytham; Butler, Sandra; Smith, Nathaniel; Haselow, Dirk T

    2016-04-01

    Influenza is a major cause of seasonal viral respiratory illness among school-aged children. Accordingly, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) coordinates >800 school-based influenza immunization clinics before each influenza season. We quantified the relationship between student influenza vaccination in Arkansas public schools and school absenteeism during the 2012-2013 influenza season. The relationship between the percent of students vaccinated in Arkansas public schools during ADH-facilitated clinics and the average daily percent of students absent from school during the 2012-2013 influenza season was quantified using linear regression modeling. The effect of increasing vaccination coverage among students on absentee days in the Arkansas public school system was estimated. For every 1% higher vaccination coverage, 0.027% fewer absenteeism days were predicted. Larger school size was associated with higher absenteeism and predicted decreases in absenteeism were larger in magnitude for larger schools compared with smaller schools. Extrapolation of the model showed that a 10% higher vaccination level was associated with a reduction of 16-163 student absentee days per school over a 12-week influenza season. Influenza vaccination is an effective tool to reduce school absenteeism. School-based clinics are a feasible way to target influenza vaccinations to school-aged children. © 2016, American School Health Association.

  3. The Dietary guideline 2005 and physical activities role in weight management of University Arkansas at Pine Bluff

    Science.gov (United States)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the weight loss initiative, researchers at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff conducted an obesity prevention intervention based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans approach. A 12 month study was conducted that focused on interventions to improve physical ...

  4. A founder mutation in LEPRE1 carried by 1.5% of West Africans and 0.4% of African Americans causes lethal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Wayne A; Barnes, Aileen M; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Cushing, Kelly; Chitayat, David; Porter, Forbes D; Panny, Susan R; Gulamali-Majid, Fizza; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Gueye, Serigne M; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E; Brody, Lawrence C; Rotimi, Charles N; Marini, Joan C

    2012-05-01

    Deficiency of prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1, encoded by LEPRE1, causes recessive osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). We previously identified a LEPRE1 mutation exclusively in African Americans and contemporary West Africans. We hypothesized that this allele originated in West Africa and was introduced to the Americas with the Atlantic slave trade. We aimed to determine the frequency of carriers for this mutation among African Americans and West Africans, and the mutation origin and age. Genomic DNA was screened for the mutation using PCR and restriction digestion, and a custom TaqMan genomic single-nucleotide polymorphism assay. The mutation age was estimated using microsatellites and short tandem repeats spanning 4.2 Mb surrounding LEPRE1 in probands and carriers. Approximately 0.4% (95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.68%) of Mid-Atlantic African Americans carry this mutation, estimating recessive OI in 1/260,000 births in this population. In Nigeria and Ghana, 1.48% (95% confidence interval: 0.95-2.30%) of unrelated individuals are heterozygous carriers, predicting that 1/18,260 births will be affected with recessive OI, equal to the incidence of de novo dominant OI. The mutation was not detected in Africans from surrounding countries. All carriers shared a haplotype of 63-770 Kb, consistent with a single founder for this mutation. Using linkage disequilibrium analysis, the mutation was estimated to have originated between 650 and 900 years before present (1100-1350 CE). We identified a West African founder mutation for recessive OI in LEPRE1. Nearly 1.5% of Ghanians and Nigerians are carriers. The estimated age of this allele is consistent with introduction to North America via the Atlantic slave trade (1501-1867 CE).

  5. Ridgetop fire history of an oak-pine forest in the Ozark Mountains of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear L. Engbring; Eric Heitzman; Martin A. Spetich

    2008-01-01

    A total of 53 fire-scarred Pinus echinata (shortleaf pine) trees were examined to reconstruct a ridgetop fi re chronology of an oak-pine forest in the Ozark Mountains of north-central Arkansas. This process yielded 104 fire scars dating to 61 separate fire years. Fire frequency was greatest during the Euro-American Settlement Period (1820–1900), when...

  6. 2015 Fact Book: Arkansas Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Department of Higher Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides governmental and higher education decision-makers a statewide perspective of Arkansas public higher education finance for the 2015-17 biennium, as well as trends for the past several years. It also contains a detailed financial profile of each institution and presents a basis for comparative assessments of revenue sources…

  7. SOMETIMES IT GOT WILD IN ARKANSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    EGERTON, JOHN

    THIS ARTICLE DISCUSSES THE NATIONAL TEACHING CORPS TRAINING PROGRAM IN ARKANSAS, WHICH CONSISTS OF 24 INTERNS AND 9 MASTER TEACHERS, SEVERAL ECONOMISTS, PSYCHOLOGISTS, SOCIOLOGISTS, ELEMENTARY EDUCATION SPECIALISTS, COUNSELING SPECIALISTS, AND AN AUDIOVISUAL EXPERT. FOR 10 WEEKS THE GROUP HELD A SEMINAR ON THE EDUCATION OF THE DISADVANTAGED,…

  8. Arkansas' High School Dropouts: Voluntary and Involuntary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Max; Peel, Evelyn

    This report is concerned with students who either dropped out or were dismissed from grades 9 through 12 during 1983-84 in 14 school systems in Arkansas. It is intended for use by state government, the State Department of Education, state and local policymakers, school administrators and staffs, parents, and young people. The data presented in…

  9. Roost characteristics of hoary bats in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2007-01-01

    We radiotracked nine hoary bats (Lasiurus cinereus) and characterized 12 roosts during late spring and early summer in the Ouachita Mountains of central Arkansas. Hoary bats generally roosted on the easterly sides of tree canopies in the foliage of white oaks (Quercus alba), post oaks (Q. stellata) and shortleaf pines (Pinus...

  10. Cytotoxicity of medicinal plants of the West-Canadian Gwich׳in Native Americans towards sensitive and multidrug-resistant cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadeniz, Asuman; Alexie, Gladys; Greten, Henry Johannes; Andersch, Kai; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-06-20

    Traditional medicine of the Native Americans has a long tradition of medicinal plants, which also influenced modern oncology. For instance, podophyllotoxin the active ingredient of Podophyllum peltatum L. (Berberidaceae) used by Native Americans to treat warts led to the development of etoposide and teniposide. In the present investigation, we studied 10 medicinal plants used by the Gwich׳in First Nation of West-Canada, which have been used against diverse diseases including cancer. Sensitive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) tumor cell lines expressing various ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (P-glycoprotein/ABCB1/MDR1, MRP1/ABCC1, or BCRP/ABCG2) have been used. Cytotoxicity was determined by the resazurin assay. Arctium minus Bernh. (Asteraceae). Lysichiton americanus Hultén & St. John (Araceae), and Maianthemum dilatatum (Alph.Wood) A.Nelson & J.F.Macbr.(Asparagaceae) were cytotoxic with IC50 values ranging from 2.40 to 86.35 µg/mL. The MDR cell lines did not exert cross-resistance to these extracts. As these medicinal plants of the West-Canadian Gwich׳in First Nation were not involved in classical drug resistance mechanisms and might therefore be valuable to bypass anticancer drug resistance in refractory tumors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. 2011 Updated Arkansas Global Rice Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wailes, Eric J.; Chavez, Eddie C.

    2011-01-01

    The Arkansas Global Rice Model is based on a multi-country statistical simulation and econometric framework. The model is disaggregated by five world regions: Africa, the Americas, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. Each region includes country models which have a supply sector, a demand sector, a trade, stocks and price linkage equations. All equations used in this model are estimated using econometric procedures or identities. Estimates are based upon a set of explanatory variables including exogen...

  12. The woody biomass resource of Arkansas, 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    James F. Rosson

    1993-01-01

    Data from the 1988 Arkansas forest survey were used to derive fresh and dry biomass estimates for all trees, on timberland, greater than 1.0 inch in diameter at breast height (d.b.h). There are 383.2 million fresh tons in softwood species and 939.7 million fresh tons in hardwood species. Most of this biomass is in the stem portion of the trees—85 percent for softwoods...

  13. Dietary Fat and Vitamin E in Prostate Cancer Risk Among African Americans and West Africans: A Case-Control Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ukoli, Flora A; Smith, Ernest; Malin, Alecia; Zhao, Barbara; Osime, Usifo; Stain, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The role of dietary fat and vitamin E in prostate cancer risk among African-Americans, African migrants and Africans is being investigated using a dietary assessment tool and by measuring plasma fatty...

  14. 78 FR 48466 - Hewlett Packard Conway, Arkansas; Notice of Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Conway, Arkansas; Notice of Investigation Pursuant to... and former workers of Hewlett Packard, Conway, Arkansas. On January 25, 2013, the Department issued a...

  15. Arkansas Department of Education Home School Report, 2006-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report presents data on home schooling in the state of Arkansas that covers: students withdrawn from home school; home school student count by county, district, and grade level; and home school enrollments by grade and gender. The report contains the texts of the Arkansas Code Annotated Section 6-15-501 through Section 6-15-508 Home School…

  16. Arkansas Department of Education Home School Report, 2005-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report presents data on home schooling in the state of Arkansas that covers: students withdrawn from home school; home school student count by county, district, and grade level; and home school enrollments by grade and gender. The report contains the texts of the Arkansas Code Annotated Section 6-15-501 through Section 6-15-508 Home School…

  17. 78 FR 61251 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Heber Springs, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ...] Radio Broadcasting Services; Heber Springs, Arkansas. AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... Allison Sugg, proposing the allotment of Channel 270C3 at Heber Springs, Arkansas, as the community's third local service. Channel 270C3 can be allotted to Heber Springs consistent with the minimum distance...

  18. Exploring Arkansas's Private Education Sector. School Survey Series #6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catt, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    This report synthesizes information about Arkansas's private schools from two separate surveys conducted by the Friedman Foundation and the U.S. Department of Education (USDOE). If the Friedman Foundation survey data are representative of the state's private schools, then Arkansas's private schools have enough empty seats to increase current…

  19. Population genomics reveals that an anthropophilic population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in West Africa recently gave rise to American and Asian populations of this major disease vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jacob E; Alves, Joel M; Palmer, William J; Day, Jonathan P; Sylla, Massamba; Ramasamy, Ranjan; Surendran, Sinnathamby N; Black, William C; Pain, Arnab; Jiggins, Francis M

    2017-02-28

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. This major disease vector is thought to have arisen when the African subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus evolved from being zoophilic and living in forest habitats into a form that specialises on humans and resides near human population centres. The resulting domestic subspecies, Ae. aegypti aegypti, is found throughout the tropics and largely blood-feeds on humans. To understand this transition, we have sequenced the exomes of mosquitoes collected from five populations from around the world. We found that Ae. aegypti specimens from an urban population in Senegal in West Africa were more closely related to populations in Mexico and Sri Lanka than they were to a nearby forest population. We estimate that the populations in Senegal and Mexico split just a few hundred years ago, and we found no evidence of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes migrating back to Africa from elsewhere in the tropics. The out-of-Africa migration was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in effective population size, resulting in a loss of genetic diversity and rare genetic variants. We conclude that a domestic population of Ae. aegypti in Senegal and domestic populations on other continents are more closely related to each other than to other African populations. This suggests that an ancestral population of Ae. aegypti evolved to become a human specialist in Africa, giving rise to the subspecies Ae. aegypti aegypti. The descendants of this population are still found in West Africa today, and the rest of the world was colonised when mosquitoes from this population migrated out of Africa. This is the first report of an African population of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes that is closely related to Asian and American populations. As the two subspecies differ in their ability to vector disease, their existence side by side in West Africa may have important implications for disease transmission.

  20. Population genomics reveals that an anthropophilic population of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in West Africa recently gave rise to American and Asian populations of this major disease vector

    KAUST Repository

    Crawford, Jacob E.

    2017-02-20

    BackgroundThe mosquito Aedes aegypti is the main vector of dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever viruses. This major disease vector is thought to have arisen when the African subspecies Ae. aegypti formosus evolved from being zoophilic and living in forest habitats into a form that specialises on humans and resides near human population centres. The resulting domestic subspecies, Ae. aegypti aegypti, is found throughout the tropics and largely blood-feeds on humans.ResultsTo understand this transition, we have sequenced the exomes of mosquitoes collected from five populations from around the world. We found that Ae. aegypti specimens from an urban population in Senegal in West Africa were more closely related to populations in Mexico and Sri Lanka than they were to a nearby forest population. We estimate that the populations in Senegal and Mexico split just a few hundred years ago, and we found no evidence of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes migrating back to Africa from elsewhere in the tropics. The out-of-Africa migration was accompanied by a dramatic reduction in effective population size, resulting in a loss of genetic diversity and rare genetic variants.ConclusionsWe conclude that a domestic population of Ae. aegypti in Senegal and domestic populations on other continents are more closely related to each other than to other African populations. This suggests that an ancestral population of Ae. aegypti evolved to become a human specialist in Africa, giving rise to the subspecies Ae. aegypti aegypti. The descendants of this population are still found in West Africa today, and the rest of the world was colonised when mosquitoes from this population migrated out of Africa. This is the first report of an African population of Ae. aegypti aegypti mosquitoes that is closely related to Asian and American populations. As the two subspecies differ in their ability to vector disease, their existence side by side in West Africa may have important implications for

  1. Arab American College Students' Physical Activity and Body Composition: Reconciling Middle East-West Differences Using the Socioecological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I conducted focus group interviews with 21 Arab American college students (9 men, 12 women; 9 Muslims, 12 non-Muslims), who were selected for extreme manifestation of religiosity or acculturation, to explore their beliefs and attitudes toward socioecological (SE) factors that facilitated and hindered their individual physical…

  2. Arkansas' Anemometer Loan Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando Vego

    2012-10-11

    The measurement campaign had one year duration from 04/01/2011 to 03/31/2012 and was taken at 20m and 34m with NRG instrumentation. The data was analyzed weekly to check inconsistencies and validity and processed using Excel, Flexpro and Windographer standard Edition Version 2.04. The site analyzed is located in the Waldron, Arkansas in Scott County. It is an open site for most of the direction sectors with immediate roughness class of 1.5. It has seasonally directional winds, of which the most energetic come from the southern direction. The vertical wind profile shows moderate wind shear that varies by season as well.

  3. DNA barcoding and the differentiation between North American and West European Phormia regina (Diptera, Calliphoridae, Chrysomyinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaens, Kurt; Sonet, Gontran; Braet, Yves; De Meyer, Marc; Backeljau, Thierry; Goovaerts, Frankie; Bourguignon, Luc; Desmyter, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Phormia regina (the black fly) is a common Holarctic blow fly species which serves as a primary indicator taxon to estimate minimal post mortem intervals. It is also a major research model in physiological and neurological studies on insect feeding. Previous studies have shown a sequence divergence of up to 4.3% in the mitochondrial COI gene between W European and N American P. regina populations. Here, we DNA barcoded P. regina specimens from six N American and 17 W European populations and confirmed a mean sequence divergence of ca. 4% between the populations of the two continents, while sequence divergence within each continent was a ten-fold lower. Comparable mean mtDNA sequence divergences were observed for COII (3.7%) and cyt b (5.3%), but mean divergence was lower for 16S (0.4–0.6%). Intercontinental divergence at nuclear DNA was very low (≤ 0.1% for both 28S and ITS2), and we did not detect any morphological differentiation between N American and W European specimens. Therefore, we consider the strong differentiation at COI, COII and cyt b as intraspecific mtDNA sequence divergence that should be taken into account when using P. regina in forensic casework or experimental research. PMID:24453556

  4. West Greenlandic Eskimo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann; Fortescue, Michael David

    the principal economic activity. Research projects and language initiatives currently in progress within Greenland will be touched upon, as will the possibilities of communication with North American Inuit. West Greenlandic is unique among the native languages of the North American Arctic and Sub......West Greenlandic Eskimo. The current situation of the West Greenlandic language as principal means of communication among the majority Greenlandic population will be presented with special emphasis on the northwest hunting district of Upernavik, where traditional marine mammal hunting is still...

  5. An evaluation of uneven-aged cutting methods in even-aged oak-hickory stands in the Boston mountains of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Graney; Paul A. Murphy

    1997-01-01

    A test of group-selection and single-tree selection cutting methods was installed in 80-year-old even-aged oak-hickory stands in the Boston Mountains of northern Arkansas. Twenty-four 11-ac study plots were installed in well stocked stands representing north or east and south or west aspects. Stands between group openings were cut to residual basal areas of 65 and 85...

  6. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2 genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Raul Sandoval

    Full Text Available Mannose-binding lectin (MBL is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2 influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249 (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno, and Ecuador (n = 182 (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados. The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80, Amantani (0.80 and Anapia (0.58 islander communities of the Lake Titicaca, but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest, as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  7. Extreme high prevalence of a defective mannose-binding lectin (MBL2) genotype in native South American West Andean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval, José Raul; Madsen, Hans O; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Descailleaux-Dulanto, Jaime; Velazquez-Reinoso, Margarita; Ñique, Cesar; Fujita, Ricardo; Garred, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is one of the five recognition molecules in the lectin complement pathway. Common variant alleles in the promoter and structural regions of the human MBL gene (MBL2) influence the stability and serum concentration of the protein. Epidemiological studies have shown that MBL2 variant alleles are associated with susceptibility to and the course of different types of infectious and inflammatory conditions. However, it has been suggested that these alleles are maintained in different populations due to selected advantages for carriers. We investigated the MBL2 allelic variation in indigenous individuals from 12 different West Central South America localities spanning from the desert coast, high altitude Andean plates and the Amazon tropical forest within the territories of Peru (n = 249) (Departments of Loreto, Ucayali, Lambayeque, Junin, Ayacucho, Huancayo and Puno), and Ecuador (n = 182) (Region of Esmeraldas and Santo Domingo de los Colorados). The distribution of MBL2 genotypes among the populations showed that the defective variant LYPB haplotype was very common. It showed the highest frequencies in Puno (Taquile (0.80), Amantani (0.80) and Anapia (0.58) islander communities of the Lake Titicaca), but lower frequencies of 0.22 in Junin (Central Andean highland) and Ucayali (Central Amazonian forest), as well as 0.27 and 0.24 in the Congoma and Cayapa/Chachis populations in the Amazonian forest in Ecuador were also observed. Our results suggest that the high prevalence of the MBL2 LYPB variant causing low levels of functional MBL in serum may mainly reflect a random distribution due to a population bottleneck in the founder populations.

  8. Aquifers of Arkansas: protection, management, and hydrologic and geochemical characteristics of groundwater resources in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Merriman, Katherine R.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Fugitt, D. Todd; Spellman, Jane L.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Blackstock, Joshua M.; Battreal, James L.

    2014-01-01

    Sixteen aquifers in Arkansas that currently serve or have served as sources of water supply are described with respect to existing groundwater protection and management programs, geology, hydrologic characteristics, water use, water levels, deductive analysis, projections of hydrologic conditions, and water quality. State and Federal protection and management programs are described according to regulatory oversight, management strategies, and ambient groundwater-monitoring programs that currently (2013) are in place for assessing and protecting groundwater resources throughout the State.

  9. A survey of parasites identified in the feces of eastern spotted skunks (Spilogale putorius) in western Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmeister, Damon B; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Wade, Susan E; Gompper, Matthew E

    2008-10-01

    The endoparasite community of the eastern spotted skunk (Spilogale putorius) is poorly known. We surveyed parasites found in the feces of 29 eastern spotted skunks captured between March 2005 and January 2007 from a population in west-central Arkansas as part of a broader study of the ecology of the species. We identified 13 species (nine nematodes, four protozoa) from 82 fecal samples. Mean (+/-SD) number of species per individual skunk was 4.1+/-2.1, although this is likely an underestimate because some individuals were sampled more intensively than others. Most of the identified parasite species were also found in other skunk species or in other small carnivore species.

  10. Arab American college students' physical activity and body composition: reconciling Middle East-West differences using the socioecological model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, David

    2011-03-01

    In this study, I conducted focus group interviews with 21 Arab American college students (9 men, 12 women; 9 Muslims, 12 non-Muslims), who were selected for extreme manifestation of religiosity or acculturation, to explore their beliefs and attitudes toward socioecological (SE) factors that facilitated and hindered their individual physical activity (PA) and body composition (I also considered body image and food and eating behavior). To analyze responses, I used a combination of deductive coding, which used levels of the SE model and demographic variable groupings, and inductive coding, to search for common themes among participants within and between research questions. Results revealed that (a) the context of physical activity participation differed by gender; (b) ideal body image was conflicted and varied by gender; and (c) consumption of cultural foods diminished along with Arab social customs related to eating. Interpersonal and cultural/community levels of the SE model were identified as primary influences, with parents regulating and instilling values backed by cultural norms to preserve Arab identity, especially in women. Finally, I identified an indeterminate adjustment period, during which immigrants transitioned between physical activity purpose/form in the Middle East and the United States.

  11. Role of sediment denitrification in water column oxygen dynamics: comparison of the North American East and West Coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bianucci

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Low oxygen concentrations, either natural or anthropogenically driven, can severely affect coastal marine ecosystems. A deeper understanding of oxygen dynamics is required in order to improve numerical models, eventually to predict the timing and severity of hypoxia. In this study we investigate the effect of sediment denitrification on oxygen concentrations in bottom waters over the continental shelf. We used two coupled physical-biological models based on the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS to compare summer simulations with and without denitrification within the sediments for two North American shelves: the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB and the Vancouver Island Shelf (VIS. These regions belong to western and eastern boundary current systems, respectively, and are characterized by different physical and biological dynamics. Both models assume coupled nitrification-denitrification within the sediments. Denitrification represents a loss of bioavailable nitrogen through the production of dinitrogen gas, with the potential to affect biogeochemical cycles. In our MAB model, this loss of regenerated nutrients through denitrification within the sediments significantly affects primary production, since recycled nitrogen supports most of the primary production in that region. The diminished primary production and consequent decrease of organic matter flux to the seafloor leads to less sediment oxygen consumption and higher oxygen concentrations in bottom waters. However, changes in regenerated nitrogen on the VIS barely affect primary production due to the efficient supply of new nutrients through wind-driven upwelling during summer and the nutrient-rich coastal current. We recommend that modelling experiments focusing on oxygen dynamics (as well as oxygen budget calculations should include sediment denitrification in coastal regions where regenerated primary production dominates productivity.

  12. Role of sediment denitrification in water column oxygen dynamics: comparison of the North American East and West Coasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianucci, L.; Fennel, K.; Denman, K. L.

    2012-07-01

    Low oxygen concentrations, either natural or anthropogenically driven, can severely affect coastal marine ecosystems. A deeper understanding of oxygen dynamics is required in order to improve numerical models, eventually to predict the timing and severity of hypoxia. In this study we investigate the effect of sediment denitrification on oxygen concentrations in bottom waters over the continental shelf. We used two coupled physical-biological models based on the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS) to compare summer simulations with and without denitrification within the sediments for two North American shelves: the Middle Atlantic Bight (MAB) and the Vancouver Island Shelf (VIS). These regions belong to western and eastern boundary current systems, respectively, and are characterized by different physical and biological dynamics. Both models assume coupled nitrification-denitrification within the sediments. Denitrification represents a loss of bioavailable nitrogen through the production of dinitrogen gas, with the potential to affect biogeochemical cycles. In our MAB model, this loss of regenerated nutrients through denitrification within the sediments significantly affects primary production, since recycled nitrogen supports most of the primary production in that region. The diminished primary production and consequent decrease of organic matter flux to the seafloor leads to less sediment oxygen consumption and higher oxygen concentrations in bottom waters. However, changes in regenerated nitrogen on the VIS barely affect primary production due to the efficient supply of new nutrients through wind-driven upwelling during summer and the nutrient-rich coastal current. We recommend that modelling experiments focusing on oxygen dynamics (as well as oxygen budget calculations) should include sediment denitrification in coastal regions where regenerated primary production dominates productivity.

  13. Water levels and selected water-quality conditions in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in Eastern Arkansas, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, T.P.

    2010-01-01

    During the spring of 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey, measured 670 water levels in 659 wells completed in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas. Groundwater levels are affected by groundwater withdrawals resulting in potentiometric-surface depressions. In 2008, the lowest water-level altitude was 69 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 in the center of Arkansas County. The highest water-level altitude was 288 feet above National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929 in northeastern Clay County on the west side of Crowleys Ridge. Two large depressions in the potentiometric surface are located in Arkansas, Lonoke, and Prairie Counties and west of Crowleys Ridge in Craighead, Cross, Lee, Monroe, Poinsett, St. Francis, and Woodruff Counties. The elongated depression in Arkansas, Lonoke, and Prairie Counties has two areas that have changed in horizontal area or depth when compared to previous conditions of the aquifer. The area in Arkansas County in the southeastern half of the depression has not expanded horizontally from recent years, although the center of the depression has deepened. The area in Lonoke and Prairie Counties in the northwestern half of the depression has not expanded and water level in the deeper part of the depression has risen. In Lonoke and Prairie Counties in the northwestern half of the depression, the 90-foot contour shown on the 2006 potentiometric-surface map is not shown on the 2008 potentiometric-surface map. Along the west side of Crowleys Ridge, the area enclosed by 140-foot contour in Cross and Poinsett Counties has expanded further south into Cross County. The 130-foot contour in Poinsett County expanded north in 2008. The 130-foot contour is shown in Cross County, which was not evident in previous years. The 130-foot contour in St. Francis, Monroe, and Woodruff Counties in 2006 is not shown on the 2008

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arkansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arkansas.

  15. 77 FR 61592 - Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation; Mississippi Delta Energy Agency; Clarksdale Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation; Mississippi Delta Energy Agency; Clarksdale Public Utilities Commission; Public Service Commission of Yazoo City; South Mississippi Electric... (FPA), 16 USC 824(e) and Sec. 825(h), Arkansas Electric Cooperative Corporation, Mississippi Delta...

  16. Spread of natural gas lines in Arkansas hurts LPG marketers anew

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This article discusses the marketing of LP gas in Arkansas. The reaction of natural gas marketers in the state is described. Federal subsidation, through the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, of utilities in Arkansas is described.

  17. First collection of rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Cyprinidae), in the New River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, R.S.; Orth, D.J.; Burkhead, N.M.

    1993-01-01

    We collected the first rudd, Scardinius erythrophthalmus (Cyprinidae), from the New (Kanawha) River drainage, West Virginia. The rudd has now been reported from 12 states (Arkansas, Kansas, Illinois, Massachusetts, Maine, Missouri, New York, Oklahoma, Virginia, Wisconsin, and West Virginia) and several major river systems. The rapid spread of the rudd has apparently been facilitated by bait dealers. Despite its widespread distribution, there have been no investigations of potential interactions with native aquatic fauna.

  18. Countering Irregular Activity in Civil War Arkansas -- A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-27

    the minds of many from early in the war. Lincoln, in a letter to Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton in July 1863, wrote "as the rebellion grows...carcasses into them. Daniel E. Sutherland , “1864: A Strange, Wild Time,” in Rugged and Sublime: The Civil War in Arkansas, ed. Mark K. Christ...Activities/Arkansas/HubPages/CommentaryPage.asp?Co mmentary=Opt10; Internet; accessed 4 December 2006. 13 Sutherland , 143. 14 Mackey, 71. 15 Ibid, 29

  19. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Arkansas . The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  20. Estimating fuel consumption during prescribed fires in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virginia L. McDaniel; James M. Guldin; Roger W. Perry

    2012-01-01

    While prescribed fire is essential to maintaining numerous plant communities, fine particles produced in smoke can impair human health and reduce visibility in scenic areas. The Arkansas Smoke Management Program was established to mitigate the impacts of smoke from prescribed fires. This program uses fuel loading and consumption estimates from standard fire-behavior...

  1. Arkansas Solar Retrofit Guide. Greenhouses, Air Heaters and Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiles, Albert; Rose, Mary Jo

    Solar retrofits are devices of structures designed to be attached to existing buildings to augment their existing heating sources with solar energy. An investigation of how solar retrofits should be designed to suit the climate and resources of Arkansas is the subject of this report. Following an introduction (section 1), section 2 focuses on…

  2. Herpetological Habitat Relations in the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle L. Crosswhite; Stanley F Fox; Ronald E. Thill

    2004-01-01

    Abstract - We studied habitat relationships of the herpetofauna inhabiting managed pine-oak woodlands of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas. We used drift fence arrays with pitfall and double-ended funnel traps to sample two replications each of three treatments: young clearcuts, selectively harvested stands, and late-rotation untreated controls. Our...

  3. Arkansas State & UNVL Earn the 2010 Award for Excellence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facilities Manager, 2010

    2010-01-01

    APPA's highest institutional honor, the Award for Excellence in Facilities Management (AFE), recognizes those educational institutions whose facilities management organizations demonstrate quality in overall operations and effectiveness. The two most recent recipients, Arkansas State University-Jonesboro (ASU-J) and the University of Nevada-Las…

  4. Upland forest vegetation of the Ozark Mountains in Northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Stephenson; Harold S. Adams; Cynthia D. Huebner

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative data on structure and composition of all strata of vegetation were collected from 20 study sites in the Boston Mountains Subsection of the Ozark Mountains of northwestern Arkansas in June 2004. All study sites were located at upper slope or ridgetop positions and occurred at elevations > 457 m. Oaks (Quercus spp.) were dominants in...

  5. Trends in Arkansas motorcycle trauma after helmet law repeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Gregory H; Li, Guohua

    2005-04-01

    This study aimed to assess the impact of the 1997 Arkansas helmet law repeal on motorcycle registrations, crash and fatality risks, and alcohol involvement in motorcycle crashes. Annual motorcycle registration data for the years 1990 through 2001 were obtained from the Arkansas Department of Finance and Administration. These motorcycle registration data were complemented by the motorcycle crash data from the Arkansas State Police Highway Safety Office and motorcycle fatality data for the state of Arkansas from the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. The impact of the repeal on crash rates, helmet usage, and alcohol involvement was assessed through comparisons of data from before (1993 to 1996) and after (1998 to 2001) the repeal. After the repeal, an increase in motorcycle registrations correlated with a marked rise in the total number of crashes and fatalities; however, fatalities per crash remained virtually the same. The proportion of motorcycle fatalities that were not wearing a helmet increased from 47.0% (47/100) before the repeal to 78.2% (104/133) after the repeal (P = 0.001). The overall percentage of fatal motorcycle crashes involving alcohol use remained unchanged after the repeal (37.6% [29/77] to 38.5% [40/104], P = 0.91), but the percentage of fatal crashes involving drinking nonhelmeted drivers increased from 14.2% (11/77) to 33.6% (35/104) (P = 0.003). Inebriated motorcyclists killed in crashes were overwhelmingly non-helmeted (87.5%, 35/40) after the repeal, up from 37.9% (11/29) before the repeal (P helmet law in Arkansas has had a significant adverse effect on road safety.

  6. 25 Years Later: A History of the McClellan-Kerr Arkansas River Navigation System in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    River. The Arkansas River floated a few dugout canoes , rafts, flatboats, and keelboats in the first decades of the century, but it became an...9, 1995; Telephone interview with Conrad Miller, Hydropower Branch, July 12, 1995. 22. Data supplied by Art Maldonado , Hydro- power Branch. ~ter

  7. 78 FR 28003 - In the Matter of Entergy Arkansas and Entergy Operations, Arkansas Nuclear One, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-13

    ... limited liability company, Entergy Arkansas, LLC (EAL). The applicants also requested approval of... new intermediate company, Entergy Utilities Holdings, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, will..., each of the Entergy subsidiaries will become a new limited liability company with the same assets...

  8. Lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresse, Timothy M.; Westerman, Drew A.; Hart, Rheannon M.

    2015-01-01

    A study to assess the potential of the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer in the vicinity of Van Buren, Arkansas, as a viable source of public-supply water was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Little Rock, District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. An important study component was to identify possible changes in hydrologic conditions following installation of James W. Trimble Lock and Dam 13 (December 1969) on the Arkansas River near the study area. Data were gathered for the study in regard to the lithology, hydrologic characteristics, and water quality of the aquifer. Lithologic information was obtained from drillers’ logs of wells drilled from 1957 through 1959. Water-quality samples were collected from 10 irrigation wells and analyzed for inorganic constituents and pesticides. To evaluate the potential viability of the alluvial aquifer in the Van Buren area, these data were compared to similar stratigraphic, lithologic, and groundwater-quality data from the Arkansas River Valley alluvial aquifer at Dardanelle, Ark., where the aquifer provides a proven, productive, sole-source of public-supply water.

  9. Water levels and water quality in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Tony P.

    2015-01-01

    During the spring of 2012, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission and the Arkansas Geological Survey, measured water levels in 342 wells completed in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas. The Arkansas Natural Resources Commission measured water levels in 11 wells, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Natural Resources Conservation Service measured water levels in 239 wells completed in the alluvial aquifer and provided these data to the Arkansas Natural Resources Commission. In 2010, estimated water withdrawals from the alluvial aquifer in Arkansas totaled about 7,592 million gallons per day. Withdrawals more than doubled between 1985 and 2010, about a 115-percent increase.

  10. Summary of annual records of chemical quality of water of the Arkansas River in Oklahoma and Arkansas; 1945-52, a progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dover, Tyrus B.; Geurin, James Walter

    1955-01-01

    The Arkansas River is subject to many types of pollution downstream from the Oklahoma-Kansas State line, and its inferior quality together with its erratic flow pattern has caused it to be largely abandoned as a source of municipal and industrial water supply. Currently, the Arkansas River is not directly used as a source of public supply in any part of the basin in either Oklahoma or Arkansas. In general, the chemical concentration of the river water increases downstream from the Oklahoma-Kansas State line to Tulsa because of tributary inflow from the Salt Fork Arkansas River and the Cimarron River, both streams being sources of large amounts of natural salts and industrial wastes. A decrease in concentration of dissolved solids is noted downstream from Tulsa due to tributary inflow from the Verdigris, Neosho, and Illinois Rivers; another increase in concentration occurs with tributary inflow from the Canadian River, which is largely oilfield wastes. A progressive decrease in concentration is noted as the river flows through Arkansas to the Mississippi River, because all major tributaries below the Canadian River have a dilution effect upon the chemical concentration of the Arkansas River water. Proposals for storage and regulating reservoirs on the Arkansas River in both Oklahoma and Arkansas have been made by the Corps of Engineers and others. Additional proposals are being considered in the present Arkansas-White-Red River Basin Inter-Agency Sub-Committee studies. If constructed, these reservoirs will provide an opportunity for control of flow and beneficial use of Arkansas River water both at and downstream from these sites. Impoundment alone will greatly reduce the extremes in water quality, and by reasonable control of municipal and industrial wastes, the water at some points on the river would be comparable in quality to many existing municipal and industrial supplies in the basin.

  11. Right: Left:: East: West. Evidence that individuals from East Asian and South Asian cultures emphasize right hemisphere functions in comparison to Euro-American cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozin, Paul; Moscovitch, Morris; Imada, Sumio

    2016-09-01

    We present evidence that individuals from East or South Asian cultures (Japanese college students in Japan and East or South Asian born and raised college students in the USA) tend to exhibit default thinking that corresponds to right hemisphere holistic functions, as compared to Caucasian individuals from a Western culture (born and raised in the USA). In two lateralized tasks (locating the nose in a scrambled face, and global-local letter task), both Asian groups showed a greater right hemisphere bias than the Western group. In a third lateralized task, judging similarity in terms of visual form versus functional/semantic categorizations, there was not a reliable difference between the groups. On a classic, ambiguous face composed of vegetables, both Eastern groups displayed a greater right hemisphere (holistic face processing) bias than the Western group. These results support an "East - Right Hemisphere, West - Left Hemisphere" hypothesis, as originally proposed by Ornstein (1972). This hypothesis is open as to the degree to which social-cultural forces were involved in hemispheric specialization, or the opposite, or both. Our aim is to encourage a more thorough analysis of this hypothesis, suggesting both lateralization studies corresponding to documented East-West differences, and East-West studies corresponding to lateralization differences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Potentiometric surfaces and water-level trends in the Cockfield (upper Claiborne) aquifer in southern Arkansas and the Wilcox (lower Wilcox) aquifer of northeastern and southern Arkansas, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kirk D.

    2015-01-01

    The Cockfield aquifer, located in southern Arkansas, is composed of Eocene-age sand beds found near the base of the Cockfield Formation of Claiborne Group. The Wilcox aquifer, located in northeastern and southern Arkansas, is composed of Paleocene-age sand beds found in the middle to lower part of the Wilcox Group. The Cockfield and Wilcox aquifers are primary sources of groundwater. In 2010, withdrawals from the Cockfield aquifer in Arkansas totaled 19.2 million gallons per day (Mgal/d), and withdrawals from the Wilcox aquifer totaled 36.5 Mgal/d.

  13. Access to and Use of Eye Care Services in Rural Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Greta; Bynum, LaTonya; Balamurugan, Appathurai

    2010-01-01

    Context: Rural residents are more likely to be uninsured and have low income. Purpose: To determine if rural residents in Arkansas have decreased access to eye care services and use them less frequently than urban residents. Methods: Data from the 2006 Visual Impairment and Access to Eye Care Module from the Arkansas Behavioral Risk Factor…

  14. Genetic diversity of weedy red rice (Oryza sativa) in Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weedy red rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a problematic weed in rice. About 50% of US rice is produced in Arkansas and 60% of these fields have some red rice infestation. Red rice populations are morphologically and phenologically diverse. We hypothesize that red rice in Arkansas has high genetic diversit...

  15. 75 FR 30750 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Arkansas Waterway, Little Rock, AR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ...-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Arkansas Waterway, Little Rock, AR AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... procedures on the Baring Cross Railroad Drawbridge across the Arkansas Waterway at mile 119.6 at Little Rock....123(b) state that the draw of the Baring Cross Railroad Drawbridge, mile 119.6, at Little Rock, AR is...

  16. 78 FR 27306 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Dermott, Arkansas, and Cleveland, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Dermott, Arkansas, and Cleveland, Mississippi AGENCY... Delta Radio Network, LLC, substitutes FM Channel 224A for 289A at Dermott, Arkansas, and substitutes FM... CFR part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Assistant...

  17. Charter Schools' Impact on Traditional Public School Performance: Evidence from Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalulu, Mavuto; Snyder, Thomas; Ouattara, Saliou N.

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the effects of open-enrollment charter schools on student performance in traditional public schools in Arkansas. The paper examines the change in Iowa Assessment scores for first and second graders across Arkansas school districts between the 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 school years. The ordinary least-squares regression estimates…

  18. Payback Periods for Student Financial Aid in Postsecondary Education in Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyd, Britt

    This report presents study results concerning student financial aid and the payback periods for state grants, federal grants, and federal loans to the State of Arkansas and to the Federal Government. The study reveals that student aid for postsecondary education in Arkansas has significant, positive effects on the state's tax revenue and on the…

  19. Association of School-Based Influenza Vaccination Clinics and School Absenteeism--Arkansas, 2012-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquelais, Rachel E.; Safi, Haytham; Butler, Sandra; Smith, Nathaniel; Haselow, Dirk T.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Influenza is a major cause of seasonal viral respiratory illness among school-aged children. Accordingly, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) coordinates >800 school-based influenza immunization clinics before each influenza season. We quantified the relationship between student influenza vaccination in Arkansas public schools…

  20. A qualitative analysis of oral health care needs in arkansas nursing facilities: the professional role of the dental hygienist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardgraves, Virginia M; Mitchell, Tanya Villalpando; Hanson, Carrie-Carter; Simmer-Beck, Melanie

    2014-12-01

    Frail elders and nursing home residents are vulnerable to poor oral health and frequently lack access to dental care. The purpose of this study was to determine why residents in Arkansas skilled nursing facilities have limited access to oral health care. This study utilized qualitative research methodology. Data was collected from oral health care personnel through open-ended responses in a written survey (n=23) and through telephone interviews (n=21). The investigators applied the constant comparative method to analyze and unitize the data and ultimately reach consensus. Data analysis resulted in consensus on 2 emergent themes: policy and access. This qualitative case study suggests access to oral health care for residents living in both long-term care (LTC) and assisted living I and II facilities in Arkansas is affected by public and facility policies and access to oral health care as a function of the patient's health status and availability of oral health care providers. Access for residents residing in assisted living I and II facilities is also limited by the residents' inability to assume responsibility for accessing oral health care. The outcomes from this study may serve to inform policymakers and advocates for access to oral health care as they develop new policies to address this growing need. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  1. From East to West: A Phenomenological Study of Indonesian Graduate Students' Experiences on the Acculturation Process at an American Public Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukminin, Amirul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry was to describe and understand the lived experiences of the acculturative process of the Indonesian graduate students at an American public university. The primary focus here was on better understanding how some events or changes become sources of difficulties, problems, or culture shock in Indonesian graduate students'…

  2. Geologic map of the upper Arkansas River valley region, north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Ruleman, Chester A.; Bohannon, Robert G.; McIntosh, William C.; Premo, Wayne R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Moscati, Richard J.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2017-11-17

    This 1:50,000-scale U.S. Geological Survey geologic map represents a compilation of the most recent geologic studies of the upper Arkansas River valley between Leadville and Salida, Colorado. The valley is structurally controlled by an extensional fault system that forms part of the prominent northern Rio Grande rift, an intra-continental region of crustal extension. This report also incorporates new detailed geologic mapping of previously poorly understood areas within the map area and reinterprets previously studied areas. The mapped region extends into the Proterozoic metamorphic and intrusive rocks in the Sawatch Range west of the valley and the Mosquito Range to the east. Paleozoic rocks are preserved along the crest of the Mosquito Range, but most of them have been eroded from the Sawatch Range. Numerous new isotopic ages better constrain the timing of both Proterozoic intrusive events, Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary intrusive events, and Eocene and Miocene volcanic episodes, including widespread ignimbrite eruptions. The uranium-lead ages document extensive about 1,440-million years (Ma) granitic plutonism mostly north of Buena Vista that produced batholiths that intruded an older suite of about 1,760-Ma metamorphic rocks and about 1,700-Ma plutonic rocks. As a result of extension during the Neogene and possibly latest Paleogene, the graben underlying the valley is filled with thick basin-fill deposits (Dry Union Formation and older sediments), which occupy two sub-basins separated by a bedrock high near the town of Granite. The Dry Union Formation has undergone deep erosion since the late Miocene or early Pliocene. During the Pleistocene, ongoing steam incision by the Arkansas River and its major tributaries has been interrupted by periodic aggradation. From Leadville south to Salida as many as seven mapped alluvial depositional units, which range in age from early to late Pleistocene, record periodic aggradational events along these streams that are

  3. Fluvial sediment in the little Arkansas River basin, Kansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, C.D.; Stramel, G.J.

    1966-01-01

    Characteristics and transport of sediment in the Little Arkansas River basin in south-central Kansas were studied to determine if the water from the river could be used as a supplemental source for municipal supply or would provide adequate recharge to aquifers that are sources of municipal and agricultural water supplies. During periods when overland 1low contributed a significant amount to streamflow, the suspended sediment in the Little Arkansas River at Valley Center averaged about 85 percent of clay, about 13 percent of silt, and about 2 percent of sand. The average annual suspended-sediment discharge for the water years 1958, 1959, 1960, and 1961 was about 306,000 tons, and about 80 percent of the load was transported during 133 days of the 1,461-day period. The average daily water discharge of 352 cubic feet per second for the period 1958-61 was more than the long-term (i}9-year) average of 245 cfs; therefore, the average annual sediment load for 1958-61 was probably greater than the average annual load for the same long-term period. Studies of seepage in a part of the channel of Kisiwa Creek indicated that an upstream gravel-pit operation yielded clays which, when deposited in the channel, reduced seepage. A change in plant operation and subsequent runoff that removed the deposited clays restored natural seepage conditions. Experiments by the Wichita Water Department showed that artificial recharge probably cannot be accomplished by using raw turbid water that is injected into wells or by using pits. Recharge by raw turbid water on large permeable areas or by seepage canals may be feasible. Studies of chemical quality of surface water at several sites in the Little Arkansas River basin indicate that Turkey. Creek is a major contributor of chloride and other dissolved solids to the Little Arkansas River and that the dissolved-solids content is probably highest during low-flow periods when suspended-sediment concentration is low. Data collected by the Wichita

  4. Use of Planalog at Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit One

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, T.

    1979-01-01

    The outage management system of the Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit one is summarized. With limited manpower the outage procedure must be streamlined but still be able to meet the requirements and needs of both the plant structure and the corporate structure. The functions and responsibilities of the outage coordinator are outlined. Outage preparation and control using the Planalog system are discussed. According to the author, even with the disadvantages of the Planalog system listed, it remains a field-proven, reliable tool for major outage activity control. 6 figures

  5. Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus surveys in the North American Intermountain West: utilizing citizen scientists to conduct monitoring across a broad geographic scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Short-eared Owl (Asio flammeus is an open-country species breeding in the northern United States and Canada, and has likely experienced a long-term, range-wide, and substantial decline. However, the cause and magnitude of the decline is not well understood. We set forth to address the first two of six previously proposed conservation priorities to be addressed for this species: (1 better define habitat use and (2 improve population monitoring. We recruited 131 volunteers to survey over 6.2 million ha within the state of Idaho for Short-eared Owls during the 2015 breeding season. We surveyed 75 transects, 71 of which were surveyed twice, and detected Short-eared Owls on 27 transects. We performed multiscale occupancy modeling to identify habitat associations, and performed multiscale abundance modeling to generate a state-wide population estimate. Our results suggest that within the state of Idaho, Short-eared Owls are more often found in areas with marshland or riparian habitat or areas with greater amounts of sagebrush habitat at the 1750 ha transect scale. At the 50 ha point scale, Short-eared Owls tend to associate positively with fallow and bare dirt agricultural land and negatively with grassland. Cropland was not chosen at the broader transect scale suggesting that Short-eared Owls may prefer more heterogeneous landscapes. On the surface our results may seem contradictory to the presumed land use by a "grassland" species; however, the grasslands of the Intermountain West, consisting largely of invasive cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum, lack the complex structure shown to be preferred by these owls. We suggest the local adaptation to agriculture represents the next best habitat to their historical native habitat preferences. Regardless, we have confirmed regional differences that should be considered in conservation planning for this species. Last, our results demonstrate the feasibility, efficiency, and effectiveness of utilizing public

  6. Predation of Lesser Nacked-backed bats by a pair of American kestrels on the Island of Marie-Galante, French West Indies.

    OpenAIRE

    Lenoble, Arnaud; Bochaton, Corentin; Bos, Teddy; Discamps, Emmanuel; Queffelec, Alain

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Here we report the predation on a colony of Lesser naked-backed bat (Pteronotus davyi) by a pair of American Kestrel (Falco sparverius) based on observations over a 16 day period. Kestrels preyed on bats in the evening as they were leaving their roost with two factors controlling hunting efficiency, namely: (1) meteorological conditions, and (2) the time of flock formation. The frequency of occurrence is 93.8% and the success rate is 16.4%. We estimate that bats provid...

  7. The West in Early Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, Nanna

    2006-01-01

    Verhoeff investigates the emergence of the western genre, made in the first two decades of cinema (1895-1915). By analyzing many unknown and forgotten films from international archives she traces the relationships between films about the American West, their surrounding films, and other popular

  8. West Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ing to the timing of a future adoption of a single currency by the West African states. In doing so, ... tures and almost all these countries depend on donor funds to finance their budgets, the risk that ... national currencies co-exist with a common currency, and a full monetary union where a common central bank exists to for-.

  9. Central Arkansas Energy Project. Coal to medium-Btu gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The Central Arkansas Energy Project has as its objective the conversion of coal in a central location to a more readily usable energy source, medium Btu gas (MBG), for use at dispersed locations as fuel for power production and steam generation, or as a feedstock for chemical processing. The project elements consist of a gasification facility to produce MBG from coal, a pipeline to supply the MBG to the dispersed sites. The end of line users investigated were the repowering or refueling of an existing Arkansas Power and Light Co. Generating station, an ammonia plant, and a combined cycle cogeneration facility for the production of steam and electricity. Preliminary design of the gasification plant including process engineering design bases, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, system description, project engineering design, equipment specifications, plot plan and section plot plans, preliminary piping and instrument diagrams, and facilities requirements. Financial analyses and sensitivities are determined. Design and construction schedules and manpower loadings are developed. It is concluded that the project is technically feasible, but the financial soundness is difficult to project due to uncertainty in energy markets of competing fuels.

  10. Bone mineral density levels of college-aged women in northwest Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Kate; Ford, Mary Allison; Turner, Lori Waite; Denny, George

    2003-11-01

    Osteoporosis has affected more than 20 million American, women, completely altering their way of life. Osteoporosis is highly preventable if steps are taken to build healthy bone; however, many college students do not have lifestyle habits that have a positive effect on their bones. For this study, a questionnaire was used to investigate childhood dairy consumption, high school sport participation, dieting behaviors, eating behaviors and bone mineral density levels of college women at the University of Arkansas in Fayetteville. Eighty percent of the participants were Caucasian or of Asian descent, while 20% were of other races; 34% of the participants consumed three or more servings of milk a day as children, while current calcium consumption was at an average of 16 servings a week. Many of the participants were active in high school, as 67% participated in high school sports. Fifty-two percent of the college women in the sample had dieted in the past year, and 44% perceived they were not at a desirable weight. Forty-five percent skip more than three meals a week. Of the participants, two had osteoporosis and 23 had osteopenia. Clearly, development of osteoporosis is not limited to older adults, and college women are in need of education related to bone health.

  11. Genetic analysis of the Yavapai Native Americans from West-Central Arizona using the Illumina MiSeq FGx™ forensic genomics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Frank R; Churchill, Jennifer D; Novroski, Nicole M M; King, Jonathan L; Ng, Jillian; Oldt, Robert F; McCulloh, Kelly L; Weise, Jessica A; Smith, David Glenn; Kanthaswamy, Sreetharan; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-09-01

    Forensically-relevant genetic markers were typed for sixty-two Yavapai Native Americans using the ForenSeq™ DNA Signature Prep Kit.These data are invaluable to the human identity community due to the greater genetic differentiation among Native American tribes than among other subdivisions within major populations of the United States. Autosomal, X-chromosomal, and Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) and identity-informative (iSNPs), ancestry-informative (aSNPs), and phenotype-informative (pSNPs) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele frequencies are reported. Sequence-based allelic variants were observed in 13 autosomal, 3 X, and 3 Y STRs. These observations increased observed and expected heterozygosities for autosomal STRs by 0.081±0.068 and 0.073±0.063, respectively, and decreased single-locus random match probabilities by 0.051±0.043 for 13 autosomal STRs. The autosomal random match probabilities (RMPs) were 2.37×10-26 and 2.81×10-29 for length-based and sequence-based alleles, respectively. There were 22 and 25 unique Y-STR haplotypes among 26 males, generating haplotype diversities of 0.95 and 0.96, for length-based and sequencebased alleles, respectively. Of the 26 haplotypes generated, 17 were assigned to haplogroup Q, three to haplogroup R1b, two each to haplogroups E1b1b and L, and one each to haplogroups R1a and I1. Male and female sequence-based X-STR random match probabilities were 3.28×10-7 and 1.22×10-6, respectively. The average observed and expected heterozygosities for 94 iSNPs were 0.39±0.12 and 0.39±0.13, respectively, and the combined iSNP RMP was 1.08×10-32. The combined STR and iSNP RMPs were 2.55×10-58 and 3.02×10-61 for length-based and sequence-based STR alleles, respectively. Ancestry and phenotypic SNP information, performed using the ForenSeq™ Universal Analysis Software, predicted black hair, brown eyes, and some probability of East Asian ancestry for all but one sample that clustered between European and

  12. 77 FR 6711 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arkansas; Infrastructure Requirements for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Analysis Branch, 5301 Northshore Drive, North Little Rock, Arkansas 72118. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT..., they may include some outmoded provisions and historical artifacts that, while not fully up to date...

  13. Proposed Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Red Cedar Gathering Company - Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proposed Synthetic Minor NSR Permit, statement of basis, public notice bulletin, and administrative docket (application and other supporting documents) for Red Cedar Gathering Company - Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants.

  14. Synthetic Minor NSR Permit: Red Cedar Gathering Company - Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the response to public comments and the final synthetic minor NSR permit for the Red Cedar Gathering Company, Arkansas Loop and Simpson Treating Plants, located on the Southern Ute Indian Reservation in La Plata County, CO.

  15. 77 FR 47779 - Arkansas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ...: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revision AGENCY: Environmental..., 1985) to implement its Base Hazardous Waste Management program. Arkansas received authorization for... Ecology Commission Regulation Number 23 (Hazardous Waste Management), adopted on April 25, 2008 and April...

  16. Effects of periodic fire on composition and long-term dynamics of Arkansas upland hardwood forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich

    2005-01-01

    Prescribed fire (at historic periodic fire frequencies) is seen as an important but little understood tool in the assortment of management techniques that could help restore oak to Arkansas upland hardwood forests and facilitate the maintenance of these keystone species.

  17. Arkansas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Arkansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. This report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arkansas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arkansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arkansas

  18. Arkansas State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive-waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The Arkansas State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Arkansas. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Arkansas. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Arkansas

  19. Annual Statistical Report of the Public School of Arkansas and Education Service Cooperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    In compliance with the provisions of A.C.A.§§6-20-2201 et seq., the Annual Statistical Report of the Public Schools of Arkansas, Public Charter Schools, and Education Service Cooperatives, 2014-2015 Actual and 2015-2016 Budgeted, (ASR) is presented here. The Rankings of Selected Items of the Public Schools of Arkansas, 2014-2015 Actual, (Rankings)…

  20. The effects of Arkansas master settlement spending on disparities in smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hao; Scharf, Deborah; Engberg, John; Schultz, Dana

    2012-04-01

    We assessed the effect of Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) spending on smoking disparities in Arkansas, which distinguished itself from other states by investing all of its MSA funds in health-related programs. In 1996-2009 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, we specified multivariate logistic models to examine gender and racial/ethnic disparities in smoking rates within Arkansas (a pre-post analysis) and between Arkansas and its 6 neighboring states. Before the MSA programs started in 2001, male Arkansans smoked more than did female Arkansans (P < .05). After the programs, smoking declined significantly among men (but not women), eliminating the gender disparity by 2009. Smoking among men in Arkansas also declined more than it did in neighboring states (P < .05). Hispanics showed a greater decline in smoking than did non-Hispanic Whites in Arkansas (but not in neighboring states). In 2001, Hispanic Arkansans smoked more than did non-Hispanic Whites (P < .05); by 2009, Hispanic Arkansans smoked significantly less than did non-Hispanic Whites (P < .05). MSA-funded programs were more effective in some segments of the Arkansas population than in others. Policymakers should consider targeting future MSA tobacco control programs to populations most resistant to change.

  1. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jannie; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2...

  2. Go West, Young Man (and Woman)!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites on the American West, the Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, Gold Rush, Donner Party, mountain men and the fur trade, Native Americans, cowboys, and western folklore. Lists related books, activity books, and CD-ROMs on cowboys, migration, and settling. (PEN)

  3. Habitats and Natural Areas--Some Applications of the 1995-96 Forest Survey of Arkansas on the Conservation of Biodiversity in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas Zollner

    2001-01-01

    The conservation status and trend of rare species groups should be better in landscapes with more forest cover due to the presence of quantitatively more habitat, and in the case of aquatic species,qualitatively better habitat. Arkansas provides habitat for 97 species of plants and animals considered critically imperiled globally or imperiled globally.T hese 97 species...

  4. Effects of Potential Changes in Groundwater Withdrawals from the Sparta Aquifer on Water-Level Altitudes in Jefferson County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, John B.

    2009-01-01

    A groundwater-flow model of the Sparta aquifer was used to evaluate changes in water-level altitudes associated with the withdrawal of groundwater at varying rates from a well field near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, in Jefferson County. Water-level altitudes at three different model cell locations from five different scenarios for varying withdrawal rates from the well field were compared for the period 1998 to 2048. The three model cells used for the comparison were located (1) near the center of the well field, (2) near the center of the city of Pine Bluff (about 5 miles west of the center of the well field), and (3) about 15 miles north of the well field. Pumping rates at the well field were varied from 7.2 million gallons per day to 27 million gallons per day for the five scenarios analyzed, and water-level hydrographs were constructed for each scenario for each of the three model cell locations. Water-level altitudes near the center of the well field changed the most of the three model cell locations analyzed. Water-level altitudes were approximately 90 feet higher for the 7.2 million gallon per day scenario in 2048 compared to the baseline scenario of 25.4 million gallons per day. Whereas, water-level altitudes at the same location were 9 feet lower for the 27 million gallon per day scenario in 2048 compared to the baseline scenario.

  5. Demonstrating Impact through Replicable Analysis: Implications of an Evaluation of Arkansas's Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Josh; Brite-Lane, Allison; Crook, Tina; Hakkak, Reza; Fuller, Serena

    2017-01-01

    The evaluation described in this article focused on the effectiveness of Arkansas's Extension-based Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) but demonstrates an analytic approach that may be useful across Extension programs. We analyzed data from 1,810 Arkansas EFNEP participants' entry and exit Behavior Checklists to assess…

  6. 75 FR 51448 - Withdrawal of Notice for Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Arkansas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... sustainable solutions for reducing head-cutting and scouring in the Ark-White Cutoff area. The two rivers are... Preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Arkansas White River Cutoff Study AGENCY... Impact Statement (EIS) for the Arkansas White River Cutoff Study. The original Notice of Intent (NOI) was...

  7. New records and notes on the ecology of the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.B. Sasse; M.L. Caviness; M.J. Harvey; J.L. Jackson; P.N. Jordan; T.L. Klotz; P.R. Moore; R.W. Perry; R.K. Redman; T.S. Risch; D.A. Saugey; J.D. Wilhide

    2014-01-01

    The northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) has been a common insectivorous bat in much of eastern North America, including Arkansas, which is located near the southwestern edge of its range. While this species is expected to occur throughout the Ozarks and Ouachita Mountains, it has only been previously documented in 19 of 75 Arkansas...

  8. Examining Perceptions over the Effectiveness of Professional Development and Available Resources on the Common Core State Standards Implementation in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Julie Trammell

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study is to examine the perceptions of teachers and curriculum specialists over the effectiveness of professional development and available resources of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) implementation process in Arkansas. Arkansas divided the implementation process into three stages: Phase I implemented…

  9. 75 FR 11939 - Arkansas Lamp Manufacturing, Including On-Site Leased Workers From TEC, Van Buren, AR; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-71,714] Arkansas Lamp Manufacturing, Including On-Site Leased Workers From TEC, Van Buren, AR; Notice of Termination of Investigation... Manufacturing, Van Buren, Arkansas. The worker group includes on-site leased workers from TEC. The petitioner...

  10. Rural Industralization and Population Growth: The Case of Arkansas. ORNL-HUD-4, Civil Defense Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Alfred W.

    Utilizing available 1966 statistical data and U.S. Census figures, the State of Arkansas was examined for purposes of analyzing: (1) the extent to which recent population gains in states such as Arkansas and Oklahoma is occurring in rural areas rather than as an extension of urbanization; (2) the extent to which U.S. manufacturing is beginning to…

  11. Arkansas: State supports availability of contraceptives to all persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-04-01

    With Governor Dale Bumpers' approval on March 7, Arkansas formally adopted as a state policy the availability of "all medically acceptable contraceptive procedures, supplies and information ... through legally recognized channels to each and every person desirous of the same regardless of sex, race, age, income, number of children, marital status, citizenship or motive (Act 235, Laws 1973)." The new law further declares that the dissemination of contraceptive information in state and county health and welfare departments, in medical facilities, and at institutions of higher learning is consistent with the state's public policy. The newly enacted bill, sponsored by Representative Boyce Alford, specifically gives any persone 18 and older the authority to consent to voluntary sterilization. Persons under 18 may also consent to the operation if they are married. It gives any institution, doctor, or pharmacist the right to refuse to furnish contraceptive information or supplies and it does not require them to refer the patient elsewhere for services. The bill passed the legislature by votes of 62-0 in the House on February 7 and 26-1 in the Senate on February 20. full text

  12. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and Child Care Providers: Increasing Service Access for Young Children with Disabilities and Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parette, Phil

    This presentation addresses aspects of the Americans with Disabilities Act of relevance to day care centers in Arkansas. First, Title I of the Act which addresses discrimination in employment is summarized including definition of "individual with a disability," reasonable accommodations, identifying essential functions, want ads,…

  13. Water-level trends and potentiometric surfaces in the Nacatoch Aquifer in northeastern and southwestern Arkansas and in the Tokio Aquifer in southwestern Arkansas, 2014–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Kirk D.

    2017-09-20

    The Nacatoch Sand in northeastern and southwestern Arkansas and the Tokio Formation in southwestern Arkansas are sources of groundwater for agricultural, domestic, industrial, and public use. Water-level altitudes measured in 51 wells completed in the Nacatoch Sand and 42 wells completed in the Tokio Formation during 2014 and 2015 were used to create potentiometric-surface maps of the two areas. Aquifers in the Nacatoch Sand and Tokio Formation are hereafter referred to as the Nacatoch aquifer and the Tokio aquifer, respectively.Potentiometric surfaces show that groundwater in the Nacatoch aquifer flows southeast toward the Mississippi River in northeastern Arkansas. Groundwater flow direction is towards the south and southeast in Hempstead, Little River, and Nevada Counties in southwestern Arkansas. An apparent cone of depression exists in southern Clark County and likely alters groundwater flow from a regional direction toward the depression.In southwestern Arkansas, potentiometric surfaces indicate that groundwater flow in the Tokio aquifer is towards the city of Hope. Northwest of Hope, an apparent cone of depression exists. In southwestern Pike, northwestern Nevada, and northeastern Hempstead Counties, an area of artesian flow (water levels are at or above land surface) exists.Water-level changes in wells were identified using two methods: (1) linear regression analysis of hydrographs from select wells with a minimum of 20 years of water-level data, and (2) a direct comparison between water-level measurements from 2008 and 2014–15 at each well. Of the six hydrographs analyzed in the Nacatoch aquifer, four indicated a decline in water levels. Compared to 2008 measurements, the largest rise in water levels was 35.14 feet (ft) in a well in Clark County, whereas the largest decline was 14.76 ft in a well in Nevada County, both located in southwestern Arkansas.Of the four hydrographs analyzed in the Tokio aquifer, one indicated a decline in water levels, while

  14. Design and construction of the liner plate for the Arkansas and Midland containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedner, K.; Shah, G.H.; Chang-Lo, P.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents the design criteria and features of the containment liner plate systems utilized for the Arkansas and Midland Nuclear Power Plant. For the Arkansas project, the liner plate system was erected in circumferential rings approximately 3 m high, and the penetration assemblies were welded into the liner after erection. For the Midland project, the liner plate system was erected in vertical segments approximately 6 m wide x 24 m high, and the penetration assemblies were welded into the liner prior to erection. The differences between the schemes are discussed. (author)

  15. Simpson reservoirs in Arkoma basin and Ouachita Mountains, Oklahoma and Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhm, R.W.

    1983-08-01

    The Simpson Group and its equivalents are shown to have reservoir potential in the Arkoma basin and Ouachita overthrust region of Oklahoma and Arkansas. The Simpson in Oklahoma, the Everton/St. Peter in Arkansas, and the Crystal Mountain/Mazarn/Blakely of the Ouachitas were studied in outcrop, and from well cuttings and logs to derive an understanding of 1) their stratigraphic relationships, 2) the nature and distribution of Simpson reservoir sands, 3) depositional and source environments, and 4) geologic history. Regional cross sections, sand distribution maps, and paleogeographic maps are used to illustrate these ideas and to point out areas favorable for oil and gas exploration.

  16. Geologic map of the Murray Quadrangle, Newton County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2016-07-06

    This map summarizes the geology of the Murray quadrangle in the Ozark Plateaus region of northern Arkansas. Geologically, the area is on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, an uplift that has the oldest rocks exposed at its center, in Missouri. Physiographically, the Murray quadrangle is within the Boston Mountains, a high plateau region underlain by Pennsylvanian sandstones and shales. Valleys of the Buffalo River and Little Buffalo River and their tributaries expose an approximately 1,600-ft-thick (488-meter-thick) sequence of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly deformed by a series of faults and folds. The Buffalo National River, a park that encompasses the Buffalo River and adjacent land that is administered by the National Park Service is present at the northwestern edge of the quadrangle.Mapping for this study was carried out by field inspection of numerous sites and was compiled as a 1:24,000 geographic information system (GIS) database. Locations and elevation of sites were determined with the aid of a global positioning satellite receiver and a hand-held barometric altimeter that was frequently recalibrated at points of known elevation. Hill-shade relief and slope maps derived from a U.S. Geological Survey 10-meter digital elevation model as well as orthophotographs were used to help trace ledge-forming units between field traverses within the Upper Mississippian and Pennsylvanian part of the stratigraphic sequence. Strike and dip of beds were typically measured along stream drainages or at well-exposed ledges. Structure contours, constructed on the top of the Boone Formation and the base of a prominent sandstone unit within the Bloyd Formation, were drawn based on the elevations of field sites on these contacts well as other limiting information for their minimum elevations above hilltops or their maximum elevations below valley bottoms.

  17. Water Quality Assessment of the Buffalo River, Arkansas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolin, K. L.; Ruhl, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    The Buffalo River was established as a National River by the U.S. Congress in 1972, and runs approximately 150 miles from Newton County, Arkansas to Baxter County where it joins the White River. The Buffalo National River is the one of the last free flowing rivers in the continental U.S. with a rich cultural and political history surrounding it. The geology surrounding the river can be characterized by its karst environment, which has led to the many caves, depressions, and sinkholes found along the river. Karst environments are more susceptible to groundwater pollution so drainage from septic systems is a major concern for towns along the river. There are also numerous abandoned mines in the Buffalo River watershed, especially in the Rush area, which was mined for lead and zinc. Additionally, an increase in livestock production in the area is also a concern for increased nitrate and phosphate, along with fertilizer runoff from agricultural areas. The purpose of this study was to determine the water quality changes along the Buffalo River from human and environmental influences. Samples at six different locations along the river were collected along with parameters such as pH, conductivity, salinity, and temperature during several trips in the summer of 2017. Water samples were analyzed for cations and anions by IC, trace metals by ICPMS, and Escherichia coli with agar plate colony counts. The results were used to map geochemical changes in the Buffalo River watershed, and calculate enrichment factors of constituents (like nitrate, phosphate, and trace elements) as the water flowed downstream.

  18. Sediment retention in a bottomland hardwood wetland in Eastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiss, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    One of the often-stated functions of wetlands is their ability to remove sediments and other particulates from water, thus improving water quality in the adjacent aquatic system. However, actual rates of suspended sediment removal have rarely been measured in freshwater wetland systems. To address this issue, suspended sediment dynamics were measured in a 85-km2 bottomland hardwood (BLH) wetland adjacent to the highly turbid Cache River in eastern Arkansas during the 1988-1990 water years. A suspended sediment mass balance was calculated using depth-integrated, flow-weighted daily measurements at wetland inflow and outflow points. Over the three-year period, suspended sediment load decreased an average of 14% between upstream and downstream sampling points. To test the idea that the suspended sediments were retained by the adjacent wetland and to determine what portion of the BLH forest was most responsible for retaining the suspended sediments, concurrent measurements of sediment accretion were made at 30 sites in the wetland using feldspar clay marker horizons, sedimentation disks, the 137cesium method, and dendrogeomorphic techniques. Sedimentation rates exceeding 1 cm/yr were measured in frequently flooded areas dominated by Nyssa aquatica and Taxodium distichum. Maximum sedimentation rates did not occur on the natural levee, as would be predicted by classical fluvial geomorphology, but in the "first bottom," where retention time of the water reached a maximum. Multiple regression was used to relate sedimentation rates with several physical and biological factors. A combination of distance from the river, flood duration, and tree basal area accounted for nearly 90% of the variation in sedimentation rates.

  19. Evidence of avian metapneumovirus subtype C infection of wild birds in Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas and Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, E A; Stallknecht, D E; Slemons, R D; Zsak, L; Swayne, D E

    2008-06-01

    Metapneumoviruses (MPVs) were first reported in avian species (aMPVs) in the late 1970s and in humans in 2001. Although aMPVs have been reported in Europe and Asia for over 20 years, the virus first appeared in the United States in 1996, leaving many to question the origin of the virus and why it proved to be a different subtype from those found elsewhere. To examine the potential role of migratory waterfowl and other wild birds in aMPV spread, our study focused on determining whether populations of wild birds have evidence of aMPV infection. Serum samples from multiple species were initially screened using a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibodies to aMPVs were identified in five of the 15 species tested: American coots, American crows, Canada geese, cattle egrets, and rock pigeons. The presence of aMPV-specific antibodies was confirmed with virus neutralization and western blot assays. Oral swabs were collected from wild bird species with the highest percentage of aMPV-seropositive serum samples: the American coots and Canada geese. From these swabs, 17 aMPV-positive samples were identified, 11 from coots and six from geese. Sequence analysis of the matrix, attachment gene and short hydrophobic genes revealed that these viruses belong to subtype C aMPV. The detection of aMPV antibodies and the presence of virus in wild birds in Georgia, South Carolina, Arkansas and Ohio demonstrates that wild birds can serve as a reservoir of subtype C aMPV, and may provide a potential mechanism to spread aMPVs to poultry in other regions of the United States and possibly to other countries in Central and South America.

  20. Ready to Lead? A Study of Arkansas and Louisiana Charter School Principals' Leadership Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Creshun Anjal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of Arkansas and Louisiana district conversion and open-enrollment charter school principals' background characteristics, leadership skills, and school success. A quantitative methodology was used to test the research questions prescribed in the study. Data was collected using a survey. The…

  1. 78 FR 72877 - Arkansas Electric Corporation v. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Electric Corporation v. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on November... Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Arkansas Electric Corporation (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company (Respondents), alleging that the Respondent's Production Formula...

  2. Quantity and quality of Japanese honeysuckle on Arkansas Ozark food plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles A. Segelquist; Mitch Rogers; Fred D.  Ward

    1971-01-01

    In the spring of 1968 Japanese honeysuckle was planted on four wildlife food plots in the Arkansas Ozarks. Two years later, with moderate fertilization and occasional mowing, this evergreen species produced 239 ovendry pounds of winter forage per acre, 12 times more than the surrounding forest. The nutrient quality of leaves was consistently high throughout the year....

  3. Teacher Pension Incentives, Retirement Behavior, and Potential for Reform in Arkansas. Conference Paper 2009-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.; McGee, Josh B.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present an analysis of the Arkansas Teacher Retirement System (ATRS) pension plan and an empirical investigation of the behavioral response to that plan, as well as to a possible reform plan. We begin by describing the plan parameters and discussing the incentives these parameters create. We then estimate the effect of pension…

  4. Teacher Pension Incentives, Retirement Behavior, and Potential for Reform in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costrell, Robert M.; McGee, Josh B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze the Arkansas teacher pension plan and empirically gauge the behavioral response to incentives embedded in that plan and to possible reforms. The pattern of pension wealth accrual creates sharp incentives to work until eligible for early or normal retirement, often in one's early fifties, and to separate shortly thereafter. We…

  5. 77 FR 47797 - Arkansas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 271 [EPA-R06-RCRA-2010-0307; FRL-9713-2] Arkansas: Final Authorization of State Hazardous Waste Management Program Revisions AGENCY: Environmental... authorization of the changes to its hazardous waste program under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  6. Temporal patterns in capture rate and sex ratio of forest bats in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; S. Andrew Carter; Ronald E. Thill

    2010-01-01

    We quantified changes in capture rates and sex ratios from May to Sept. for eight species of bats, derived from 8 y of extensive mist netting in forests of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas. Our primary goal was to determine patterns of relative abundance for each species of bat captured over forest streams and to determine if these patterns were similar to patterns of...

  7. 76 FR 19741 - Draft Environmental Assessment; Giant Miscanthus in Arkansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-08

    ... BCAP activity to significantly impact the environment, or (2) Additional environmental analyses in the... Miscanthus in Arkansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Pennsylvania AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation and Farm...: We will consider comments that we receive by May 7, 2011. The Farm Service Agency (FSA) will consider...

  8. School garden and farm to school research and development in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Delta Garden Study (DGS), a cooperative agreement between Arkansas Children's Hospital Research Institute and the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, is a childhood obesity prevention research study examining the impact of a year-long school garden program on middle school students' fruit and ve...

  9. Profile of State College and Career Readiness Assessments (CCR) Policy. Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center on Education Policy, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This individual profile provides information on Arkansas' college and career readiness assessment policy. Some of the categories presented include: (1) CCR assessment policy; (2) Purpose; (3) Major changes in CCR assessment policy since the 2009-10 school year for financial reasons; (4) State financial support for students to take the CCR…

  10. Sample Grade Level Benchmarks, Grades 5-8, Based on the 1998 Arkansas State Mathematics Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This document presents the application and use of mathematics learning proposed by the Arkansas curriculum frameworks for grades 5-8. The standards are presented in chart form and organized into five strands: (1) number sense, properties, and operations; (2) geometry and spatial sense; (3) measurement; (4) data analysis, statistics, and…

  11. 78 FR 56170 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Magnolia, Arkansas; and Oil City, Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Magnolia, Arkansas; and Oil City, Louisiana AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; denial of application for review. SUMMARY: In this...

  12. The Association of Athletic Expenditures with Student Academic Achievement in Arkansas Secondary Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Data on public secondary schools in Arkansas were gathered for two separate school years, 2005-2006 (N = 278) and 2006-2007 (N = 279), to determine if there was an association between athletic expenditures and student academic achievement. Prior to this research, there was little empirical evidence demonstrating any effect that athletic spending…

  13. What Factors Relate to Student Performance in Arkansas College Gateway Courses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Rick; Butler, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    In higher education in the state of Arkansas, two courses are considered to be gateway courses to obtaining a college degree--College Algebra and English Composition I. While students may obtain Certificates of Proficiency and Technical Certificates without taking these courses, few, if any, can earn an Associate's or Bachelor's degree without…

  14. Relative Impacts of Ice Storms on Loblolly Pine Plantations in Central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Michael G. Shelton; Eric Heitzman

    2004-01-01

    Catastrophic ice storms can inflict widespread damage to forests in the Southeastern United States. Two severe ice storms struck Arkansas in December 2000, resulting in heavy losses to loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantations. We assessed the type and magnitude of damage in four loblolly pine plantation conditions: unthinned 11- to 12-year-old...

  15. Utilizing Professional Learning Community Concepts and Social Networking for State Advocacy: The Arkansas Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albritton, Shelly; Chadwick, Mona; Bangs, David; Holt, Carleton; Longing, Jeff; Duyar, Ibrihim

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of National Council of Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) state affiliate, Arkansas Professors of Educational Administration's (ARPEA), activities, accomplishments, and advocacy efforts. Faced with numerous changes being implemented in education in the state, it became imperative for ARPEA's…

  16. Impact of Spina Bifida on Parental Caregivers: Findings from a Survey of Arkansas Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Scott D.; Flores, Alina L.; Ouyang, Lijing; Robbins, James M.; Tilford, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The well-being of caregivers of children with spina bifida and other conditions is an important topic. We interviewed the primary caregivers of 98 children aged 0-17 years with spina bifida sampled from a population-based birth defects registry in Arkansas and the caregivers of 49 unaffected children. Measures of caregiver well-being were compared…

  17. The Association of Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms in Rural Communities of Missouri, Tennessee, and Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen Jen; Salas, Joanne; Habicht, Katherine; Pien, Grace W.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the association between sleep duration and depressive symptoms in a rural setting. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from Wave 3 of the Walk the Ozarks to Wellness Project including 12 rural communities in Missouri, Arkansas, and Tennessee (N = 1,204). Sleep duration was defined based on average…

  18. Checklist of Major Plant Species in Ashley County, Arkansas Noted by General Land Office Surveyors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2002-01-01

    The original General Land Office (GLO) survey notes for the Ashley County, Arkansas, area were examined to determine the plant taxa mentioned during the 1818 to 1855 surveys. While some challenges in identifying species were encountered, at least 39 families and approximately 100 species were identified with reasonable certainty. Most references were for trees used to...

  19. The Relationship between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Ninth-Grade Students in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Shellie Lyne

    2009-01-01

    Purpose, scope, and method of study. The purpose of this study was to determine if and to what degree a relationship existed between physical fitness and the academic achievement of ninth-grade public school students in Arkansas. A sample of 152 students from four different schools participated in the study. The dependent variable was academic…

  20. Sadness, suicide, and sexual behavior in Arkansas: results from the youth risk behavior survey 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindrick, Clint; Gathright, Molly; Cisler, Josh M; Messias, Erick

    2013-12-01

    We used the 2011 Arkansas Youth Risk Behavior Survey to estimate the prevalence of risky sexual behavior and sexual assault and to measure its association with teen suicidality. In Arkansas, 50.3% of students reported ever having sexual intercourse, 26% onset at 14 or younger, 36 % having had more than one partner, and 10.2% having been physically forced to have sex. "Being forced to have sex" was a risk factor for depression and all components of the suicide continuum. Additionally, early onset of sexual activity and having more than one partner increased the risk for depression, suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt. Suicide is a grievous and preventable tragedy, sadly standing among the leading causes of death for teens.' In this series, we examine risk factors for suicidality among Arkansas high school students; in this installment, we examine sexual behavior. A previous study utilizing the Rhode Island Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) found an association between having forced sexual intercourse and suicide. Furthermore, an association between psychiatric disorders and risky sexual behaviors, including both early onset and number of partners was found in a birth cohort study revealed. We hypothesize that Arkansas' teens reporting risky sexual behavior and sexual assault are at higher risk of depression and suicidality as well.

  1. Insect infestations crop development and evolving management approaches on a northeast Arkansas cotton farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    COTMAN information, cotton production records and insect scouting reports for Wildy Farms in Mississippi County, Arkansas were organized into large databases and studied for variability among years and fields in a wide range of crop and insect indices. The study included records from 126 individual...

  2. An overview of prescribed fire in Arkansas and Oklahoma over the last 40 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger D. Fryar

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 40 years, prescribed fire programs on National Forest lands have grown from relatively insignificant to a major emphasis area of natural resource management. During this same period, social, economic, and cultural values have greatly changed. The public's environmental awareness has likewise grown. How prescribed fire programs in Arkansas and...

  3. Arkansas's timber industry-an assessment of timber product output and use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    James W. Bentley; Michael Howell; Tony G. Johnson

    2008-01-01

    In 2005, roundwood output from Arkansas's forests totaled 749 million cubic feet. Mill byproducts generated from primary manufacturers were 354 million cubic feet. Almost all plant residues were used, primarily for fuel and fiber products. Saw logs were the leading roundwood product at 390 million cubic feet; pulpwood ranked second at 235 million cubic feet; and...

  4. Conformance to Regulatory Guide 1.97, Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoffel, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    This EG and G Idaho, Inc., report reviews the submittals for Regulatory Guide 1.97 for Unit No. 1 of Arkansas Nuclear One and identifies areas of nonconformance to the regulatory guide. Exceptions to Regulatory Guide 1.97 are evaluated and those areas where sufficient basis for acceptability is not provided are identified

  5. 77 FR 52365 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Arkansas Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... are analyzed in the Draft EIS: (1) Construct and operate the Arkansas Valley Conduit (AVC) and enter... and delivery purposes, the proposed actions are independent of each other. The AVC was authorized by... annual federal funding as necessary for constructing AVC, and included a cost sharing plan with 65...

  6. Trends in American kestrel counts from the North American Breeding Bird Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, M.R.; Bystrak, D.; Robbins, C.S.; Patterson, R.M.; Bird, David M.; Bowman, Reed

    1987-01-01

    A 15-year summary of the BBS data suggests that continental numbers of American Kestrels have increased during 1966-1979. According to analyses of physiographic and state/province strata, some areas are largely responsible for the increase in the U.S. and southern Canada and that only in Illinois and Arkansas have kestrels declined. BBS data are too few in Florida to detect trends concerning F. s. paulus. Surveying on special Raptor Routes, on which volunteers looked specifically for raptors while retracing their BBS route, did not significantly increase the kestrel counts, but did improve detection rates.

  7. Do biofilm communities respond to the chemical signatures of fracking? A test involving streams in North-central Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Wilson H; Douglas, Marlis R; Lewis, Jeffrey A; Stuecker, Tara N; Carbonero, Franck G; Austin, Bradley J; Evans-White, Michelle A; Entrekin, Sally A; Douglas, Michael E

    2017-02-03

    Unconventional natural gas (UNG) extraction (fracking) is ongoing in 29 North American shale basins (20 states), with ~6000 wells found within the Fayetteville shale (north-central Arkansas). If the chemical signature of fracking is detectable in streams, it can be employed to bookmark potential impacts. We evaluated benthic biofilm community composition as a proxy for stream chemistry so as to segregate anthropogenic signatures in eight Arkansas River catchments. In doing so, we tested the hypothesis that fracking characteristics in study streams are statistically distinguishable from those produced by agriculture or urbanization. Four tributary catchments had UNG-wells significantly more dense and near to our sampling sites and were grouped as 'potentially-impacted catchment zones' (PICZ). Four others were characterized by significantly larger forested area with greater slope and elevation but reduced pasture, and were classified as 'minimally-impacted' (MICZ). Overall, 46 bacterial phyla/141 classes were identified, with 24 phyla (52%) and 54 classes (38%) across all samples. PICZ-sites were ecologically more variable than MICZ-sites, with significantly greater nutrient levels (total nitrogen, total phosphorous), and elevated Cyanobacteria as bioindicators that tracked these conditions. PICZ-sites also exhibited elevated conductance (a correlate of increased ion concentration) and depressed salt-intolerant Spartobacteria, suggesting the presence of brine as a fracking effect. Biofilm communities at PICZ-sites were significantly less variable than those at MICZ-sites. Study streams differed by Group according to morphology, land use, and water chemistry but not in biofilm community structure. Those at PICZ-sites covaried according to anthropogenic impact, and were qualitatively similar to communities found at sites disturbed by fracking. The hypothesis that fracking signatures in study streams are distinguishable from those produced by other anthropogenic effects

  8. Stand model for upland forests of Southern Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, D.L.; Shugart, H.H.; West, D.C.

    1978-06-01

    A forest stand growth and composition simulator (FORAR) was developed by modifying a stand growth model by Shugart and West (1977). FORAR is a functional stand model which used ecological parameters to relate individual tree growth to environment rather than using Markov probability matrices or differential equations to determine single tree or species replacement rates. FORAR simulated tree growth and species composition of upland forests of Union County, Ark., by considering 33 tree species on a /sup 1///sub 12/ ha circular plot.

  9. 75 FR 43160 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Final Agency Action on One Arkansas Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... taking final agency action on the following TMDL for waters located within the State of Arkansas: Segment-reach Waterbody name Pollutant 11070208-901 Town Branch..... Total Phosphorus. EPA requested the public...

  10. 75 FR 20351 - Clean Water Act Section 303(d): Availability of One Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... TMDL for waters located within the State of Arkansas: Segment-reach Waterbody name Pollutant 11070208-901 Town Branch........ Total Phosphorus EPA requests that the public provide EPA with any significant...

  11. 76 FR 54766 - Notice of FERC Staff Attendance at a Hearing Before the Arkansas Public Service Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ... Arkansas, Inc. (EAI) in Docket No. 10-011-U beginning at 8:30 a.m. on September 7, 2011. The hearing involves issues surrounding EAI's membership in the Entergy System Agreement, or any successor agreement...

  12. To Bill or Not to Bill: Medicaid Billing for Special Education Related Services in Arkansas Public Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Myra Kay Davis

    1997-01-01

    TO BILL OR NOT TO BILL: MEDICAID BILLING FOR SPECIAL EDUCATION RELATED SERVICES IN ARKANSAS PUBLIC SCHOOLS Myra Kay Davis Smith (ABSTRACT) Medicaid is a complicated system for educators to access. LEAs can access Medicaid funds by: billing through a contracted service, establishing their own billing system, or may choose not billing Medicaid. The purpose of this study was to investigate the Medicaid billing processes used in Arkansas public schools. The study ...

  13. Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of Three-toed Box Turtles, Terrapene carolina triunguis (Reptilia: Testudines), from Arkansas and Oklahoma

    OpenAIRE

    McAllister, C.T.; Motriuk-Smith, D.; Seville, R.S.; Hudson, C.; Connior, M.B.; Robison, H.W.

    2015-01-01

    We collected 50 three-toed box turtles (Terrapene carolina triunguis) from 9 counties of Arkansas and 4 counties of Oklahoma, and examined their feces for coccidial parasites. Nine of 24 (38%) turtles from Arkansas and 8 of 26 (31%) from Oklahoma were found to be passing oocysts of Eimeria ornata. This represents two new geographic distributional records for this coccidian. Measurements of individual isolates of E. ornata as well as morphological characteristics are provided with comparison t...

  14. Groundwater-flow model of the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, northwestern Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, John B.; Gillip, Jonathan A.; Jones, Perry M.; Yeatts, Daniel S.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the effect that increased water use is having on the long-term availability of groundwater within the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system, a groundwater-flow model was developed using MODFLOW 2000 for a model area covering 7,340 square miles for parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. Vertically the model is divided into five units. From top to bottom these units of variable thickness are: the Western Interior Plains confining unit, the Springfield Plateau aquifer, the Ozark confining unit, the Ozark aquifer, and the St. Francois confining unit. Large mined zones contained within the Springfield Plateau aquifer are represented in the model as extensive voids with orders-of-magnitude larger hydraulic conductivity than the adjacent nonmined zones. Water-use data were compiled for the period 1960 to 2006, with the most complete data sets available for the period 1985 to 2006. In 2006, total water use from the Ozark aquifer for Missouri was 87 percent (8,531,520 cubic feet per day) of the total pumped from the Ozark aquifer, with Kansas at 7 percent (727,452 cubic feet per day), and Oklahoma at 6 percent (551,408 cubic feet per day); water use for Arkansas within the model area was minor. Water use in the model from the Springfield Plateau aquifer in 2005 was specified from reported and estimated values as 569,047 cubic feet per day. Calibration of the model was made against average water-level altitudes in the Ozark aquifer for the period 1980 to 1989 and against waterlevel altitudes obtained in 2006 for the Springfield Plateau and Ozark aquifers. Error in simulating water-level altitudes was largest where water-level altitude gradients were largest, particularly near large cones of depression. Groundwater flow within the model area occurs generally from the highlands of the Springfield Plateau in southwestern Missouri toward the west, with localized flow occurring towards rivers and pumping centers including the five largest pumping centers near Joplin

  15. A Regional Guidebook for Conducting Functional Assessments of Forested Wetlands in the Arkansas Valley Region of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    species—American elm ( Ulmus americana), green ash, and sugarberry—have little site fidelity and occur nearly everywhere. As a result, off-channel forests...Green ash, persimmon (Diospyros virginiana), American elm, box elder, cedar elm ( Ulmus crassifolia) and sugarberry, all common on the Delta, are...falcata Quercus nigra Ulmus alata Quercus nuttallii Quercus phellos Quercus stellata Calculations Using the dominant species circled

  16. Physical stream habitat dynamics in Lower Bear Creek, northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Joanna M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Elliott, Caroline M.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the roles of geomorphic and hydrologic dynamics in determining physical stream habitat in Bear Creek, a stream with a 239 km2 drainage basin in the Ozark Plateaus (Ozarks) in northern Arkansas. During a relatively wet 12-month monitoring period, the geomorphology of Bear Creek was altered by a series of floods, including at least four floods with peak discharges exceeding a 1-year recurrence interval and another flood with an estimated 2- to 4-year recurrence interval. These floods resulted in a net erosion of sediment from the study reach at Crane Bottom at rates far in excess of other sites previously studied in the Ozarks. The riffle-pool framework of the study reach at Crane Bottom was not substantially altered by these floods, but volumes of habitat in riffles and pools changed. The 2- to 4-year flood scoured gravel from pools and deposited it in riffles, increasing the diversity of available stream habitat. In contract, the smaller floods eroded gravel from the riffles and deposited it in pools, possibly flushing fine sediment from the substrate but also decreasing habitat diversity. Channel geometry measured at the beginning of the study was use to develop a two-dimensional, finite-element hydraulic model at assess how habitat varies with hydrologic dynamics. Distributions of depth and velocity simulated over the range of discharges observed during the study (0.1 to 556 cubic meters per second, cms) were classified into habitat units based on limiting depths and Froude number criteria. The results indicate that the areas of habitats are especially sensitive to change to low to medium flows. Races (areas of swift, relatively deep water downstream from riffles) disappear completely at the lowest flows, and riffles (areas of swift, relatively shallow water) contract substantially in area. Pools also contract in area during low flow, but deep scours associated with bedrock outcrops sustain some pool area even at the lowest modeled flows. Modeled

  17. Ambient conditions and fate and transport simulations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate in Beaver Lake, Arkansas, 2006--10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, W. Reed

    2013-01-01

    Beaver Lake is a large, deep-storage reservoir located in the upper White River Basin in northwestern Arkansas, and was completed in 1963 for the purposes of flood control, hydroelectric power, and water supply. Beaver Lake is affected by point and nonpoint sources of minerals, nutrients, and sediments. The City of Fayetteville discharges about half of its sewage effluent into the White River immediately upstream from the backwater of the reservoir. The City of West Fork discharges its sewage effluent into the West Fork of the White River, and the City of Huntsville discharges its sewage effluent into a tributary of War Eagle Creek. A study was conducted to describe the ambient conditions and fate and transport of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations in Beaver Lake. Dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate are components of wastewater discharged into Beaver Lake and a major concern of the drinking water utilities that use Beaver Lake as their source. A two-dimensional model of hydrodynamics and water quality was calibrated to include simulations of dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate for the period January 2006 through December 2010. Estimated daily dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate loads were increased in the White River and War Eagle Creek tributaries, individually and the two tributaries together, by 1.2, 1.5, 2.0, 5.0, and 10.0 times the baseline conditions to examine fate and transport of these constituents through time at seven locations (segments) in the reservoir, from upstream to downstream in Beaver Lake. Fifteen dissolved solids, chloride, and sulfate fate and transport scenarios were compared to the baseline simulation at each of the seven downstream locations in the reservoir, both 2 meters (m) below the surface and 2 m above the bottom. Concentrations were greater in the reservoir at model segments closer to where the tributaries entered the reservoir. Concentrations resulting from the increase in loading became more diluted

  18. Public health professionals as policy entrepreneurs: Arkansas's childhood obesity policy experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Rebekah L; Felix, Holly C; Walker, Jada F; Phillips, Martha M

    2010-11-01

    In response to a nationwide rise in obesity, several states have passed legislation to improve school health environments. Among these was Arkansas's Act 1220 of 2003, the most comprehensive school-based childhood obesity legislation at that time. We used the Multiple Streams Framework to analyze factors that brought childhood obesity to the forefront of the Arkansas legislative agenda and resulted in the passage of Act 1220. When 3 streams (problem, policy, and political) are combined, a policy window is opened and policy entrepreneurs may advance their goals. We documented factors that produced a policy window and allowed entrepreneurs to enact comprehensive legislation. This historical analysis and the Multiple Streams Framework may serve as a roadmap for leaders seeking to influence health policy.

  19. West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The topic “West-East” has a clear cultural and historical meaning. Orthodox temples face East. The way from West to East and from East to West is tens of thousands of kilometers long and has a special meaning. It differs from the way from North to South: the horizontal axes connect regions, while the vertical axis (Earth-Sky connects the worlds. The expansion of Eurasian tribes occurred along the East-West axis – the world horizontal way. Today the cultural memory of people in the East and West finds itself in the theatre of new dramas of existence and new forces. With the advances in electronic technologies, the world movements seem to have sunk in the depth of the chthonian past to come up anew to the surface of fantastic speeds and momentary connections. A new type of planetary landscape-space relation appears, giving no place for West and East.

  20. Ebola Virus Epidemic in West Africa and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar G Gómez-Duarte

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Is there a reason to fear that an Ebola outbreak may strike Latin America? The fear may not be unreasonable taking into account the history of epidemics that have affected the American continent since colonization times in 1492. Old World small pox epidemics spread and killed millions of Native Americans north and south from the equator. Imported West Nile virus infections reported in New York in 1999 dramatically spread East to West of the United States. Most recently, Chikungunya virus arrived to Central America in 2013 and has already infected close to 1 million people in Mexico, Central American countries, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyanas, Paraguay, and Venezuela.

  1. Utilization of the Arkansas Prescription Monitoring Program to combat prescription drug abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Rittenhouse, Rebecca; Wei, Feifei; Robertson, Denise; Ryan, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The Arkansas Prescription Monitoring Program (AR PMP) was implemented in 2013 to combat prescription drug abuse. All enrollees were invited to participate in a user survey available in February 2014, to identify makeup of users, utilization of the program, and changes made to health care practices after implementation of the program. Methods: Of the 3694 individual enrollees invited to participate, 1541 (41.7%) completed the survey. Data collected were analyzed to identify chang...

  2. A demographic comparison of two black bear populations in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joseph D.; Smith, Kimberly G.

    1994-01-01

    The Ozark and Ouachita mountain regions of western Arkansas, collectively known as the Interior Highlands, historically supported large numbers of black bears (Ursus americanus). Indiscriminate killing of bears by early settlers and subsequent habitat reductions due to extensive logging and changes in land use resulted in their decline (Smith et al. 1991). By the late 1940's, bears had been extirpated from both regions (Holder 1951).

  3. Recovery of planted loblolly pine 5 years after severe ice storms in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Michael G. Shelton

    2010-01-01

    Following a severe ice storm, one of a landowner’s first considerations regarding the future of their damaged stands should be on the recovery potential of injured crop trees. The ice storms that struck Arkansas in December 2000 provided an opportunity to monitor 410 injured loblolly pines (Pinus taeda L.), representing a wide range of damage in 18 –20-year-old...

  4. Improving Student Success: Arkansas State’s Partnership With Credo and Regional High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Jeff; Sheppard, April; Singer, Ian

    2017-01-01

    In this “out of the box” session, two librarians from Arkansas State University (A-State) and Credo’s chief content officer discussed their innovative collaboration in which A-State and Credo are working together to bring information literacy resources and instruction to local high schools in support of college readiness. The session covered several issues, including how the library engaged and garnered administrative support, the challenges in establishing meaningful partnerships with loc...

  5. Tree species composition and structure in an old bottomland hardwood forest in south-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Roy Lockhart; James M. Guldin; Thomas Foti

    2010-01-01

    Tree species composition and structure was determined for an old bottomland hardwood forest located in the Moro Creek Bottoms Natural Area in south-central Arkansas. Diversity for this forest was high with species richness ranging from 33 for the overstory and sapling strata to 26 for the seedling stratum and Shannon-Weiner values of 2.54 to 1.02 for the overstory and...

  6. Medical tourism in the backcountry: alternative health and healing in the Arkansas Ozarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Justin M; Schneider, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    Tourists travel to Arkansas' mountain regions to experience, appreciate, and consume multiple aspects of otherness, including sacred sites and pristine and authentic peoples and environments. A largely unexplored aspect of this consumption of authenticity is alternative medicine, provided to tourists and day travelers in search of physical and emotional restoration. Traditional forms of medicine are deeply rooted in women's social roles as community healers in the region and are perpetuated in part because of the lack of readily accessible forms of so-called modern medicine. Contemporary medical tourism in Arkansas has promoted access to folk health systems, preserving them by incorporating them into tourists' health care services, and also has attracted new and dynamic alternative medical practices while encouraging the transformation of existing forms of traditional medicine. Ultimately, the blend of alternative, folk, and conventional medicine in the Arkansas highlands is evidence of globalizing forces at work in a regional culture. It also serves to highlight a renewed appreciation for the historic continuity and the efficacy of traditional knowledge in the upper South.

  7. STOCKING RATE MEDIATES GROWTH AND PROFITABILITY OF MID-ROTATION LOBLOLLY PINE IN WEST-CENTRAL ARKANSAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth and financial returns of 13 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) plantation designs (i.e., stocking rates in trees ha-1 [TPH]) at mid-rotation (14 years old) were measured to 1) determine loblolly pine growth responses, and 2) develop an economic model to estimate financial outputs. Plantations wer...

  8. Coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of Three-toed Box Turtles,Terrapene carolina triunguis(Reptilia: Testudines), from Arkansas and Oklahoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, C T; Motriuk-Smith, D; Seville, R S; Hudson, C; Connior, M B; Robison, H W

    We collected 50 three-toed box turtles ( Terrapene carolina triunguis ) from 9 counties of Arkansas and 4 counties of Oklahoma, and examined their feces for coccidial parasites. Nine of 24 (38%) turtles from Arkansas and 8 of 26 (31%) from Oklahoma were found to be passing oocysts of Eimeria ornata . This represents two new geographic distributional records for this coccidian. Measurements of individual isolates of E. ornata as well as morphological characteristics are provided with comparison to its original description and to another Terrapene coccidian, Eimeria carri . In addition, we noted an adelid pseudoparasite being passed by a single T. c. triunguis from Oklahoma that likely represents a parasite of arthropods.

  9. Land use change detection with LANDSAT-2 data for monitoring and predicting regional water quality degradation. [Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, H.; Steele, K. (Principal Investigator); Waite, W.; Rice, R.; Shinn, M.; Dillard, T.; Petersen, C.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Comparison between LANDSAT 1 and 2 imagery of Arkansas provided evidence of significant land use changes during the 1972-75 time period. Analysis of Arkansas historical water quality information has shown conclusively that whereas point source pollution generally can be detected by use of water quality data collected by state and federal agencies, sampling methodologies for nonpoint source contamination attributable to surface runoff are totally inadequate. The expensive undertaking of monitoring all nonpoint sources for numerous watersheds can be lessened by implementing LANDSAT change detection analyses.

  10. Hydrogeologic characteristics of four public drinking-water supply springs in northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Joel M.

    2004-01-01

    In October 2000, a study was undertaken by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Arkansas Department of Health to determine the hydrogeologic characteristics, including the extent of the recharge areas, for Hughes Spring, Stark Spring, Evening Shade Spring, and Roaring Spring, which are used for public-water supply in northern Arkansas. Information pertaining to each spring can be used to enable development of effective management plans to protect these water resources and public health. An integrated approach to determine the ground-water characteristics and the extent of the local recharge areas of the four springs incorporated tools and methods of hydrology, structural geology, geomorphology, geophysics, and geochemistry. Analyses of discharge, temperature, and water quality were completed to describe ground-water flow characteristics, source-water characteristics, and connectivity of the ground-water system with surface runoff. Water-level contour maps were constructed to determine ground-water flow directions and ground-water tracer tests were conducted to determine the extent of the recharge areas and ground-water flow velocities. Hughes Spring supplies water for the city of Marshall, Arkansas, and the surrounding area. The mean annual discharge for Hughes Spring was 2.9 and 5.2 cubic feet per second for water years 2001 and 2002, respectively. Recharge to the spring occurs mainly from the Boone Formation (Springfield Plateau aquifer). Ground-water tracer tests indicate the recharge area for Hughes Spring generally coincides with the surface drainage area (15.8 square miles) and that Hughes Spring is connected directly to the surface flow in Brush Creek. The geochemistry of Hughes Spring demonstrated variations with flow conditions and the influence of surface-runoff in the recharge area. Calcite saturation indices, total dissolved solids concentrations, and hardness demonstrate noticeable differences with flow conditions reflecting the

  11. WEST Physics Basis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  12. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  13. West African monsoon 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Cornforth, Rosalind J.

    2013-01-01

    Living up to its reputation as a highly variable climate system, the West African Monsoon (WAM) 2012 contrasted strikingly with the previous year. In 2011, the West African rainy season was delayed, patchy, and irregular. In 2012, whilst it was anomalously wet in many area, the Guinea coastal countries and some crucial agricultural regions remained very dry, persisting from the previous year. As a result, 2012 generated the third big food crisis to hit the region in the last seven years. The ...

  14. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-24

    East Attiki and West Attiki, as well as the Market Inspection Directorate, Traffic Directorate, Immediate Action Directorate, Police Operations...subdirectorates are established in the West Attiki Police Directorate. Seven market inspection branches come under the Market Inspection Directorate...Banca (18) I Organizac . >nes empresari .’flos (19) ’SIMS Seguridad (yn\\ ii £•’*> \\ ■Hfl sodai K UJ r^;-; 26IS1I11 Par,idos (21

  15. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Journal of Medicine is owned by the West African College of Physicians and the West African College of Surgeons. Aims: The aims of the Journal are: To provide a medium for international dissemination of information about medical science in West Africa and elsewhere. To furnish a means whereby ...

  16. NSSS design and cycle 1 operating history data for Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit-2. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, P.A.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains design and cycle 1 operating data for the Arkansas Nuclear One, Unit-2 nuclear steam supply system. The design data include descriptions of the reactor core, reactor coolant system, and control systems which are a part of the nuclear steam supply system. Operating history data are provided for the period of December 1978 through January 1980. The most important operating history data provided include reactor power, cumulative fuel burnup, control rod position, primary coolant temperature, and a series of power distribution state points

  17. National environmental/energy workforce assessment. Arkansas. Final report on phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-12-01

    This study is one of 70 volumes assessing the workforce needs (manpower needs) for pollution control and abatement in the United States for the five-year period of 1976 through 1981. Seven fields for pollution control -- air, noise, pesticides, potable water, radiation, solid waste, and wastewater -- are analyzed, together with energy-related programs currently accentuated by the national effort to solve energy supply problems. The report identifies existing workforce levels, training programs, career opportunities, and future staffing level projections (1976 to 1982) based on the information available for the state of Arkansas

  18. Geology of the Devonian Marcellus Shale--Valley and Ridge province, Virginia and West Virginia--a field trip guidebook for the American Association of Petroleum Geologists Eastern Section Meeting, September 28-29, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enomoto, Catherine B.; Coleman, James L.; Haynes, John T.; Whitmeyer, Steven J.; McDowell, Ronald R.; Lewis, J. Eric; Spear, Tyler P.; Swezey, Christopher S.

    2012-01-01

    Detailed and reconnaissance field mapping and the results of geochemical and mineralogical analyses of outcrop samples indicate that the Devonian shales of the Broadtop Synclinorium from central Virginia to southern Pennsylvania have an organic content sufficiently high and a thermal maturity sufficiently moderate to be considered for a shale gas play. The organically rich Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale is present throughout most of the synclinorium, being absent only where it has been eroded from the crests of anticlines. Geochemical analyses of outcrop and well samples indicate that hydrocarbons have been generated and expelled from the kerogen originally in place in the shale. The mineralogical characteristics of the Marcellus Shale samples from the Broadtop Synclinorium are slightly different from the averages of samples from New York, Pennsylvania, northeast Ohio, and northern West Virginia. The Middle Devonian shale interval is moderately to heavily fractured in all areas, but in some areas substantial fault shearing has removed a regular "cleat" system of fractures. Conventional anticlinal gas fields in the study area that are productive from the Lower Devonian Oriskany Sandstone suggest that a continuous shale gas system may be in place within the Marcellus Shale interval at least in a portion of the synclinorium. Third-order intraformational deformation is evident within the Marcellus shale exposures. Correlations between outcrops and geophysical logs from exploration wells nearby will be examined by field trip attendees.

  19. Multiple-serotype salmonella outbreaks in two state prisons--Arkansas, August 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicquelais, Rachel E; Morris, Jamae F; Matthews, Stewart; Gladden, Linda; Safi, Haytham; Grayson, Carla; Slayton, Rachel B; Newton, Anna E; Bordonaro, Rebecca; Wheeler, J Gary; Smith, Nathaniel; Bosch, Stacey A; Haselow, Dirk T

    2014-02-28

    In August 2012, the Arkansas Department of Health (ADH) was notified of gastrointestinal illness outbreaks in two Arkansas state prisons. ADH investigated the outbreaks and conducted case-control studies to identify the source of the illnesses. This report describes the results of these investigations, which identified 528 persons with onset of diarrhea during August 2-18, 2012. Results from the prison A investigation identified chicken salad as the most likely vehicle. At prison B, person-to-person transmission and contamination of multiple foods likely contributed to illness. Analysis of stool specimens from inmates identified eight serotypes and 15 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns of Salmonella. Isolates of Salmonella from eggs produced at prison B matched two outbreak patterns. An additional 69 inmates were positive by culture but were not interviewed or did not report diarrhea, making the total case count 597. Sanitarians identified problems with food preparation, hand washing, and food safety training. ADH tested inmate kitchen workers, excluded infected inmates from work, and provided food safety training. Prison kitchen staff should follow guidelines consistent with state regulations for safe food preparation and pass sanitarian inspection.

  20. Educational strategies to enhance placement and retention of nurse practitioners in rural Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippenbrock, Thomas; Stacy, Annette; Gilbert-Palmer, Deborah

    2004-03-01

    To examine the factors and incentives enhancing nurse practitioners' (NPs') long-term employment in rural areas. The participants were 121 master's prepared or higher educated NPs located in rural Arkansas. A survey about role preparation and employment factors was mailed to the participants. We found that 10% of all respondents were not currently employed in the role of an NP. The majority of rural-employed NPs had didactic content focusing on rural-practice opportunities and engaged in rural practicums while in graduate school. Rural NPs were much more likely to have graduated from research-intensive universities. Nearly 90% of NPs reported they were somewhat to very well prepared for practice in rural Arkansas. IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION: The shortage of health care providers remains one of the most irresolvable problems in the U.S. health care delivery system. Compounding the shortage is the unequal distribution of health care practitioners in rural areas. Evidence indicates that NP students engaged in rural clinical practicums were more likely to practice in rural areas. In light of this information, nurse educators should expand the NP educational process beyond rurally located practicums to deliver the entire educational process to the NP students' rural homes.

  1. Curriculum alignment and higher order thinking in introductory biology in Arkansas public two-year colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Elizabeth Diane

    This dissertation identified the cognitive levels of lecture objectives, lab objectives, and test questions in introductory majors' biology. The study group included courses offered by 27 faculty members at 18 of the 22 community colleges in Arkansas. Using Bloom's Taxonomy to identify cognitive levels, the median lecture learning outcomes were at level 2 (Comprehension) and test assessments at Level 1 (Knowledge). Lab learning outcomes were determined to have a median of level 3 (Analysis). A correlation analysis was performed using SPSS software to determine if there was an association between the Bloom's level of lecture objectives and test assessments. The only significant difference found was at the Analysis level, or Bloom's level 4 (p=.043). Correlation analyses were run for two other data sets. Years of college teaching experience and hours of training in writing objectives and assessments were compared to the Bloom's Taxonomy level of lecture objectives and test items. No significant difference was found for either of these independent variables. This dissertation provides Arkansas two-year college biology faculty with baseline information about the levels of cognitive skills that are required in freshman biology for majors courses. It can serve to initiate conversations about where we are compared to a national study, where we need to be, and how we get there.

  2. Falls and comorbid conditions among community dwelling Arkansas older adults from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Masil; Azhar, Gohar; Kilmer, Greta; Miller, Sabra; Bynum, LaTonya; Balamurugan, Appathurai

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of self-reported falls and associated comorbid conditions among community dwelling Arkansas older adults (ages 65 years and older) was estimated using data from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. 1,653 Arkansas older adults were surveyed. Eighteen percent of them had sustained a fall at least once in the past three months prior to the survey period. After adjusting for age, general health, coronary heart disease, diabetes status and quality rest or sleep in a multinomial logistic regression, we found that older adults with visual impairment (OR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.12), and those who use special equipment (OR = 2.85; 95% CI: 1.94, 4.19) were more likely to have sustained a fall. An integrated multidisciplinary approach in caring for older adults is imperative for preventing falls and fall-related injuries. This can also reduce-fall-related hospitalizations and potentially result in substantial cost savings as well as improve the quality of life of older Arkansans.

  3. Water quality of least-impaired lakes in eastern and southern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, B.

    2010-01-01

    A three-phased study identified one least-impaired (reference) lake for each of four Arkansas lake classifications: three classifications in the Mississippi Alluvial Plain (MAP) ecoregion and a fourth classification in the South Central Plains (SCP) ecoregion. Water quality at three of the least-impaired lakes generally was comparable and also was comparable to water quality from Kansas and Missouri reference lakes and Texas least-impaired lakes. Water quality of one least-impaired lake in the MAP ecoregion was not as good as water quality in other least-impaired lakes in Arkansas or in the three other states: a probable consequence of all lakes in that classification having a designated use as a source of irrigation water. Chemical and physical conditions for all four lake classifications were at times naturally harsh as limnological characteristics changed temporally. As a consequence of allochthonous organic material, oxbow lakes isolated within watersheds comprised of swamps were susceptible to low dissolved oxygen concentrations to the extent that conditions would be limiting to some aquatic biota. Also, pH in lakes in the SCP ecoregion was trophic state indices may be less effective for assessing water quality for shallow lakes (<2 m) than for deep lakes because there is an increased exposure of sediment (and associated phosphorus) to disturbance and light in the former. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. 5th Bionanotox and Applications International Research Conference, Peabody, Little Rock, Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabb, Taneicie; Chowdhury, Parimal

    2011-06-01

    "BioNanoTox and Toxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery" was this year's theme at the 5th BioNanoTox and Applications International Research Conference held at the Peabody Hotel, Little Rock, Arkansas on November 4-5th, 2010. This year, the international participation in this conference increased to 25 countries spanning the globe. The conference began with opening remarks by Paul Howard, Associate Director of the National Center for Toxicological Research, Food and Drug Administration, Jefferson, Arkansas, United States. Two keynote speakers, Dr. Ananth V. Annapragada and Dr. Merle G. Paule presented lectures on "Toxicity of Novel Nanoparticles for CT imaging" and "The Biology of Neurotoxicity: using Technology to Advance Discovery", respectively. Teachers, students, faculty, and scientists presented oral and poster presentations on fundamental and translational research related to BioNanoTox and related fields of science. Six presentation sessions were held over the two-day conference. There were 31 presentations and 39 posters from disciplines ranging from biology to chemistry, toxicology, nanotechnology, computational sciences, mathematics, engineering, plant science, and biotechnology. Poster presentation awards were presented to three high school students, three high school teachers, and three college students. In addition to poster awards a memorial, travel, and BioNanoTox award were presented. This year's meeting paved the way for a more outstanding meeting for the future.

  5. Arkansas Fine Arts Curriculum Framework. Strands: Visual Arts-Revised 2001; Music-Revised 2001; Dance; Theatre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Dept. of Education, Little Rock.

    This curriculum framework exists to guide the fine arts curriculum in grades K-12 in Arkansas public schools. The framework's student learning expectations are specific to what all students in those grades should know and be able to do in the arts (visual arts, music, dance, theater) during that span of years. The framework's content standards…

  6. Use of group-selection and seed-tree cuts by three early-successional migratory species in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn E. Alterman; James C. Bednarz; Ronald E. Thill

    2005-01-01

    Silviculture in the Ouachita National Forest in Arkansas and Oklahoma has shifted in recent years from mostly even-aged management to a mix of even- and uneven-aged regeneration systems, including group-selection. Researchers have described presence/absence of early-successional bird species in forest openings created by even- and uneven-aged silviculture, but few have...

  7. Actinobdella inequinnulata (Annelida: Hirudinida:Rhynchobdellida:Glossiphoniidae) from White Crappie, Pomoxis annularis (Perciformes: Centrarchidae), in Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of 4 (25%) white crappie, Pomoxis annularis from the Ouachita River, Dallas County, Arkansas, was found to be infested with 8 glossiphoniid leeches, Actinobdella inequiannulata Moore, 1901. Leeches were removed from within the oeprculum on gills and gill arches. This leech i...

  8. Individual-tree Green Weight Equations for Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.) Sawtimber in the Coastal Plain of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis E. Posey; Paul F. Doruska; David W. Patterson

    2005-01-01

    Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) weight equations were developed to predict outside-bark, green bole weight to a 4-inch diameter-inside-bark (dib) top and an 8-inch dib top in southeast Arkansas. Trees were sampled from 8 different tracts over the first half of 2002: 4 tracts during winter and spring, respectively. The sampled trees ranged from 10 to...

  9. Small-mammal responses to pine regeneration treatments in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill

    2005-01-01

    We compared the initial effects of four forest regeneration treatments (single-tree selection, group selection, shelterwood, and clearcut), and unharvested controls (mature, second-growth forest) on relative abundance of small mammals and small-mammal habitat throughout the Ouachita Mountains of western Arkansas and eastern Oklahoma. We compared small-mammal capture...

  10. Knowledge and Perceptions of Visual Communications Curriculum in Arkansas Secondary Agricultural Classrooms: A Closer Look at Experiential Learning Integrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Kristin; Calico, Carley; Edgar, Leslie D.; Edgar, Don W.; Johnson, Donald M.

    2015-01-01

    The University of Arkansas developed and integrated visual communications curriculum related to agricultural communications into secondary agricultural programs throughout the state. The curriculum was developed, pilot tested, revised, and implemented by selected secondary agriculture teachers. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate…

  11. Composition, structure, and dynamics of a mature, unmanaged, pine-dominated old-field stand in southeastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Eric Heitzman

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the composition and structure of a mature, second-growthPinus taeda (Loblolly Pine) and Pinus echinata (Shortleaf Pine)-dominatedold-field stand. Now owned by the University of Arkansas, this 22.5-ha parcel justoutside of the city of Monticello, AR, has been protected as a de facto natural area

  12. Individual-tree basal area growth, survival, and total height models for upland hardwoods in the Boston Mountains of Arkansa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Murphy; David L. Graney

    1988-01-01

    Models were developed for individual-tree basal area growth, survival, and total heights for different species of upland hardwoods in the Boston Mountains of north Arkansas. Data used were from 87 permanent plots located in an array of different sites and stand ages; the plots were thinned to different stocking levels and included unthinned controls. To test these...

  13. Vaccines in Development against West Nile Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic Tangy

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available West Nile encephalitis emerged in 1999 in the United States, then rapidly spread through the North American continent causing severe disease in human and horses. Since then, outbreaks appeared in Europe, and in 2012, the United States experienced a new severe outbreak reporting a total of 5,387 cases of West Nile virus (WNV disease in humans, including 243 deaths. So far, no human vaccine is available to control new WNV outbreaks and to avoid worldwide spreading. In this review, we discuss the state-of-the-art of West Nile vaccine development and the potential of a novel safe and effective approach based on recombinant live attenuated measles virus (MV vaccine. MV vaccine is a live attenuated negative-stranded RNA virus proven as one of the safest, most stable and effective human vaccines. We previously described a vector derived from the Schwarz MV vaccine strain that stably expresses antigens from emerging arboviruses, such as dengue, West Nile or chikungunya viruses, and is strongly immunogenic in animal models, even in the presence of MV pre-existing immunity. A single administration of a recombinant MV vaccine expressing the secreted form of WNV envelope glycoprotein elicited protective immunity in mice and non-human primates as early as two weeks after immunization, indicating its potential as a human vaccine.

  14. Research with African Americans: Lessons Learned about Recruiting African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…

  15. Islam and the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Kamal Hassan

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The scientific and technological developments during the 18th and' the 19th centuries ensured material progress of the West, as well as emergence of the West as the dominating power which colonized the rest of the world. During the post-colonial phase, Islam emerged as a revitalized sociopolitical force. This has been mistaken as a threat by the West, and Islam has been portrayed as the "new enemy after the demise of communism. This is partly an effort to establish a Western identity, which is disintegrating due to lack of a challenge; and partly a reflection of the failure of Muslims to realize the social and ethical ideals of Islam.

  16. The great West Road

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    From right to centre the 'Nationale 84' relying Meyrin to Saint-Genis. The fence limits Lab I on that side. From bottom the road leading to the double inclined tunnel linking Lab I and Lab II. On the foreground the ISR building (left) and the West Hall (centre).

  17. West Indian Gallery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsaran, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews the poetry of Derek Walcott, a native of the West Indies, whose new volume 'Another Life' more resembles the poet-artists commentary on a gallery of scenes and portraits in Melvin Tolson's 'The Harlem Gallery' than anything else that has come from the English speaking Caribbean in the post-war period. (Author/JM)

  18. West African Antislavery Movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahonou, Eric Komlavi; Pelckmans, Lotte

    2011-01-01

    In the context of liberalization of West African political regimes, the upsurge of audacious political entrepreneurs who want to end chattel slavery in their nation-state, resulted in the legal criminalisation of slavery in both Mauritania (2007) and Niger (2003) and in a proposal to revise...

  19. Haitian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanese, Anthony V.

    1998-01-01

    Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)

  20. Size distribution of planktonic autotrophy and microheterotrophy in DeGray Reservoir, Arkansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, B.L.; Groeger, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    Naturally occurring assemblages of phytoplankton and bacterioplankton were radiolabelled with sodium 14 C-bicarbonate and sodium 3 H-acetate and size fractionated to determine the size structure of planktonic autotrophy and microheterotrophy in DeGray Reservoir, an oligotrophic impoundment of the Caddo River in south-central Arkansas. Size distributions of autotrophy and microheterotrophy were remarkably uniform seasonally, vertically within the water column, and along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir despite significant changes in environmental conditions. Planktonic autotrophy was dominated by small algal cells with usually >50% of the photosynthetic carbon uptake accounted for by organisms 75% of the planktonic microheterotrophy. Longitudinal patterns in autotrophic and microheterotrophic activities associated with >3-μm and >1-μm size fractions, respectively, suggest an uplake to downlake shift from riverine to lacustrine environmental influences within the reservoir. 83 references, 7 figures

  1. Quality aspects in nuclear engineering courses at the University of Arkansas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, L.

    1993-01-01

    Although quality assurance and total quality management are well-established programs in industry, almost all university academic programs lack formally organized programs for development, demonstration, and maintenance of high quality. Many academic programs do have many facets of a quality assurance program, it is simply handled as a part of the usual management of the academic program. These quality assurance programs inevitably are aimed at management of the instructor, with little or no emphasis on the ongoing quality of student work. This paper describes how the concept of quality is directed toward the entire aspect of nuclear engineering classes at the University of Arkansas, from overall university management of the instructor to details concerning instructor contact with students to improve the quality of the student's own work. One particular new concept is introduced: the use of quality points by the author in grading all students work

  2. Detailed lithologic log of the Dow Chemical #1 B.L. Garrigan Drill Hole, Mississippi County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Donley S.; Skipp, Gary L.

    1995-01-01

    The geology and tectonic setting of the New Madrid region in southeastern Missouri has received considerable attention because of the area's high seismic activity. The largest recorded earthquakes in this area occurred in the winter of 1811-1812. These earthquakes has estimated magnitudes as large as 8.0 on the Richter scale (Johnsonton and Kanter, 1990) and affected an area of about 1 million square miles (Fuller, 1912). Today, an area of continuously high seismic activity defines the New Madrid seismic zone, which extends from northeastern Arkansas into southeastern Missouri and northwestern Tennessee. Seismicity is locally concentrated along two subsurface archers--the Blytheville and Pascola (Hildenbrand and others, 1977; Crone and others, 1985; Hildenbrand, 1985; McKeown, 1988). The Padcola arch is not pertinent to this study and, therefore will not be discusses further. The Blytheville arch is located in and is subparallel to the axis of the northeast-southwest-trending Reelfoot structural basin, which formed during early Paleozoic rifting (Ervin and McGinnis, 1975; fig. 1). The Reelfoot basin is filled with Cambrian and Ordovician sedimentary rocks (Grohskopf, 1955; Howe, 1984; Houseknevht, 1989; Collins and others, 1992) that are uncomfortably overlain by Cretacaous and Tertiary sedimentary rocks and underlain by crystalline rocks of the eastern granite-rhyolite province (see Bickford and others, 1986). The presence of some Late Proterozoic sedimentary rocks in the Reelfoot basin currently cannot be ruled out. The Dow Chemical #1 B.L. Garrigan drill hole (hereafter, Garrigan) penetrated Paleozoic rocks on the Blytheville arch. The Garrigan is locted in the Reelfoot basin in the NW1/4, NW1/4 sec. 28, T. 15 N., R. 10 E., Mississippi County, Arkansas (fig. 1) and was completed to a total depth of 12,038 ft from a ground elevation of 239 ft on April 11, 1982 (Swolfs, 1991). The Garrigan is the only reported drill hole that penetrates the subsurface Blytheville

  3. Symptoms, social stratification and self-responsibility for health in the United States and West Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockerham, W C; Kunz, G; Leuschen, G; Spaeth, J L

    1986-01-01

    This study compares the responses of a sample of Americans in Illinois and West Germans in North-Rhine Westphalia on the basis of symptom perception, symptom experience, physician utilization and health-locus-of-control. The hypothesis that as socioeconomic status increases, the more likely the individual is to manifest and behavior favorable toward self-control and acceptance of personal responsibility in health care matters was tested. The hypothesis was supported by the American data, but not the West German. Possible trends in West German society accounting for a significant lack of socioeconomic variance in illness behavior are discussed.

  4. Effects of recent climate variability on groundwater levels in eastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, John B.; Schrader, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Water-level fluctuations in wells completed in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in eastern Arkansas were compared to variability in annual precipitation, an indicator of climate variability. The wettest year on record in Little Rock, Arkansas, occurred in 2009 with 81.79 inches of precipitation compared to an average of 47.1 inches per year. In contrast, 2005 and 2010 were the 7th and 14th driest years on record with 34.55 and 36.52 inches per year, respectively. This variability in precipitation was reflected in water-level altitude changes between 2004 and 2008 and 2006 and 2010. Generally, drier conditions between 2004 and 2008 led to an average decline in water levels of 1.62 feet, whereas wetter conditions between 2006 and 2010 led to an average rise in water levels of 1.36 feet. Drier periods likely resulted in less recharge compared to wetter periods. Groundwater use from the alluvial aquifer peaked in 2000 and has since declined, in part, because of conservation measures and substantial reduction in aquifer saturated thickness. Groundwater-flow model results showed some areas of the alluvial aquifer simulated as dry in 2010, indicating a reduced capacity of the alluvial aquifer to produce water in those areas. Additional factors affecting groundwater use include the types of crops grown in an area and the availabitiliy of crop subsidies. Real-time continuous water-level measurements in wells allow for a more accurate assessment of the effect of variability in precipitation and water use than periodic water-level measurements.

  5. Water-quality assessment of White River between Lake Sequoyah and Beaver Reservoir, Washington County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J.E.; Morris, E.E.; Bryant, C.T.

    1982-01-01

    The Arkansas Department of Pollution Control and Ecology and U.S. Geological Survey conducted a water quality assessment be made of the White River and, that a steady-state digital model be calibrated and used as a tool for simulating changes in nutrient loading. The city of Fayetteville 's wastewater-treatment plant is the only point-source discharger of waste effluent to the river. Data collected during synoptic surveys downstream from the wastewater-treatment plan indicate that temperature, dissolved oxygen, dissolved solids, un-ionized ammonia, total phosphorus, and floating solids and depositable materials did not meet Arkansas stream standards. Nutrient loadings below the treatment plant result in dissolved oxygen concentrations as low as 0.0 milligrams per liter. Biological surveys found low macroinvertebrate organism diversity and numerous dead fish. Computed dissolved oxygen deficits indicate that benthic demands are the most significant oxygen sinks in the river downstream from the wastewater-treatment plant. Benthic oxygen demands range from 2.8 to 11.0 grams per meter squared per day. Model projections indicate that for 7-day, 10-year low-flow conditions and water temperature of 29 degrees Celsius, daily average dissolved oxygen concentrations of 6.0 milligrams per liter can be maintained downstream from the wastewater-treatment plant if effluent concentrations of ultimate carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand and ammonia nitrogen are 7.5 (5.0 5-day demand) and 2 milligrams per liter respectively. Model sensitivity analysis indicate that dissolved oxygen concentrations were most sensitive to changes in stream temperature. (USGS)

  6. Assembling Aarhus West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Mads

    2017-01-01

    -geographical marginalization into the Danish popular music and cultural mainstream. In this article, I present Aarhus West as a case study to discuss (sub)generic developments within hip hop as a global phenomenon. While considering current developments in popular music genre theory, I argue that predominant notions......Aarhus West rap music constitutes a dominant trend within Danish hip-hop. Throughout the 2000s, a number of rappers with a common background in a specific area in the western part of Aarhus rose to national fame, setting sales records while bringing issues of ethnic and socio...... of “glocalized” rap as ‘resistance vernaculars’ or ‘global noise’ (cf. Hawkins et al. 2004, Mitchell 2001) risk maintaining overly homogenous understandings of genre. In particular, I appeal to the Deleuzian concept of assemblage to highlight heterogeneity – and more specifically continuous de- and re...

  7. The West Heslerton Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Powlesland

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The excavation of the Early Anglo-Saxon or Anglian Settlement at West Heslerton, North Yorkshire, between 1986 and 1995, represents one of the largest excavations conducted in Britain in the last two decades. The project, funded by English Heritage, combined the fundamental needs of rescue and research archaeology. The excavation has produced a wealth of new evidence which is forcing us to re-evaluate much that has been said about the formative period of the English nation.

  8. JPRS Report West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-22

    INFORMATIONSERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA 22161 Dnc QUALETS rasesQESffl I to Scfi West Europe JPRS- WER-88-045 CONTENTS 22 A UGUST1988 POLITICAL... Europe (without arms or with restrictions on arms). "This latter line, which omits the claim for a nuclear-free zone, expresses a realistic and...notorious person allegedly involved in much-discussed corrupt practices related to the procurement of military equipment. According to certain

  9. West Europe Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-26

    ASIA yellow NEAR EAST Q SOUTH ASIA ...blue LATIN AMERICA P*nk WEST EUROPE lvory AFRICA (SUB-SAHARA) tan SCIENCE P, TECHNOLOGY gray WORLUWIDES...in industry and the payment of benefits in a very lucid manner. But there is a much greater problem, a much more sensitive problem, for the CDA as...it a mere desire to gain power that had escaped him? Without question, Gomez had long dreamed of imposing his authority in this sector of weapons

  10. West Virginia Forests 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall S. Morin; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Jim Westfall; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The annual inventory of West Virginia's forests, completed in 2013, covers nearly 12.2 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,300 cubic feet per acre. This report is based data collected from 2,808 plots located across the State. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies 74 percent of total forest...

  11. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-31

    064 31 JULY 1987 WEST EUROPE CONTENTS POLITICAL BELGIUM Brugge’s Mayor Van Acker’s Views, Position Examined (Jos Grobben; KNACK, 20 May 87...87) 83 NORWAY Europe Report: Country Must Adapt to EC Internal Market (AFTENPOSTEN, various dates) 88 - c - Country Must Increase Ties...split the party if the executive committee insisted that he be overturned. "He only needs to find a weakling in the group and to bribe him with a

  12. JPRS Report, West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-16

    Even in the cities of Prato, Carpi, Faenza, Reggio Emilia , and Pesaro, which have a high percentage of artisans and particularly older popu- lations...party cards that vary between 2.5 and 2 percent: Alberto Ciampaglia (Naples), Angelo Tansini ( Emilia West), Bruno Corti (Brescia), Antonio Cariglia...Under 2 percent are Anselmo Martoni ( Emilia East), Paolo Correale (Salerno), Luigi Preti (Ferrara), Alessandro Ghinami (Cagliari), Gianni Moroni (Rieti

  13. West Virginia's Forests 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  14. An Economic Evaluation of Optimal Intermodal Soybean Flows in Arkansas with Projected Effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Grain marketing may be defined as "the performance of all business activities that coordinate the flow of goods and services from grain producers to consumers and users." This analysis examines the transportation component of the grain marketing syst...

  15. Do Place and Time Make a Difference? Examining Quality of Life Among Homeless Persons in Northwest Arkansas and Birmingham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Gail; Fitzpatrick, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the role that life chances and choices play in determining quality of life among homeless people. Given the prominent negative impact of homelessness, this paper specifically examines the impact of length of time homeless and location on adverse quality of life. OLS regression examined quality of life among 264 homeless adults living in Northwest Arkansas and Birmingham, Alabama. Analysis shows no significant impact of life choices on quality of life but a significant impact of life chances including strong social ties and mastery of fate, on adverse quality of life. Length of time homeless was related to adverse quality of life, but location was not, indicating that the homeless experience with regards to subjective quality of life did not vary significantly between Birmingham and Northwest Arkansas.

  16. Turtles From an Arkadelphia Formation—Midway Group Lag Deposit (Maastrichtian—Paleocene, Hot Spring County, Arkansas, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin A. Becker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Arkadelphia Formation—Midway Group (Maastrichtian—Paleocene contact near Malvern, Arkansas preserves a K-Pg boundary assemblage of turtle species consisting of skull, shell, and non-shell postcranial skeletal elements. The Malvern turtles are preserved within a coquina lag deposit that comprises the basalmost Midway Group and also contains an abundance of other reptiles, as well as chondrichthyans, osteichthyans, and invertebrates. This coquina lag deposit records a complex taphonomic history of exhumation and reburial of vertebrate skeletal elements along a dynamic ancestral shoreline in southwestern Arkansas during the late Cretaceous-early Paleocene. Based on stratigraphic occurrence, the Malvern turtle assemblage indicates that these marine reptiles were living at or near the time of the K-Pg mass extinction and represent some of the latest Cretaceous turtles yet recovered from the Gulf Coastal Plain of the United States.

  17. American = Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-09-01

    U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream. Yet it is a less good characterization of the selves of the majority of Americans who are working-class and/or people of color. A cultural psychological approach reveals that much of North American psychology is still grounded in an independent model of the self and, as such, neglects social contexts and the psychologies of a majority of Americans. Given the prominence of independence in American ideas and institutions, the interdependent tendencies that arise from intersections of national culture with social class, race, and ethnicity go unrecognized and are often misunderstood and stigmatized. This unseen clash of independence and interdependence is a significant factor in many challenges, including those of education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and political polarization.

  18. Cultural Resources and Geomorphological Reconnaissance of the McClellan-Kerr, Arkansas River Navigation System. Pools 1 through 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    within which past human occupants of the project area chose site locations, but also to understand what may have happened to these sites subsequent to...inch hardware cloth. The investigators contended that, It frequently happens , as we shall show, that a homogeneous deposit, without observable soil...Power and Light Company, Pocahontas -Datto-Coming 161 KV Transmission Line. Archeological Assessments Report No. 27. Submitted to the Arkansas Power and

  19. Cultural Resource Investigations in the L’Anguille River Basin, Lee, St. Francis, Cross and Poinsett Counties, Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Davidson 1983 Mapping and Calibration of Modern Pollen-Vegetation Relationships in the Southeastern United States. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 39:1...inventory/catalog, state site forms, and other project records that were produced during the investigations. A review of local environmental conditions... PALYNOLOGICAL AND PLANT-MACROFOSSIL ANALYSIS: HOOD LAKE, POINSETI COUNTY, ARKANSAS. 16 (Hazel R. Delcourt, and Paul A. Delcourt) Introduction 16

  20. Short-Term Effects of Understory and Overstory Management on Breeding Birds in Arkansas Oak-Hickory Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul G. Rodewald; Kimberly G. Smith

    1998-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the effects of uneven-aged forest management practices on eastern forest birds, despite the fact that such methods are now commonly practiced. In 1993-94, we studied the short-term effects of uneven-aged forest management on bird communities in oak-hickory forests of north-western Arkansas. We estimated bird abundance in mature forests...

  1. Distribution of the Long-Horned Beetle, Dectes texanus, in Soybeans of Missouri, Western Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, Kelly V.; Stewart, Scott; Musser, Fred; Lorenz, Gus; Bailey, Wayne; House, Jeff; Henry, Robert; Hastings, Don; Wallace, Milus; Fothergill, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The long-horned beetle, Dectes texanus LeConte (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a stem-boring pest of soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merrill (Fabales: Fabaceae). Soybean stems and stubble were collected from 131 counties in Arkansas, Mississippi, Missouri, and Tennessee and dissected to determine D. texanus infestation rates. All states sampled had D. texanus present in soybeans. Data from Tennessee and Arkansas showed sample infestations of D. texanus averaging nearly 40%. Samples from Missouri revealed higher infestation in the twelve southeastern counties compared to the rest of the state. Data from Mississippi suggested that D. texanus is not as problematic there as in Arkansas, Missouri, and Tennessee. Infestation rates from individual fields varied greatly (0–100%) within states. In Tennessee, second crop soybeans (i.e. soybeans planted following winter wheat) had lower infestations than full season soybeans. A map of pest distribution is presented that documents the extent of the problem, provides a baseline from which changes can be measured, contributes data for emergency registration of pesticides for specific geographic regions, and provides useful information for extension personnel, crop scouts, and growers. PMID:21062147

  2. Field science in the Railroad Era: the tools of knowledge empire in the American West, 1869-1916 Pesquisas de campo na era das ferrovias: os instrumentos do império dos conhecimentos no Oeste dos Estados Unidos, 1869-1916

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Vetter

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the field sciences during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, this paper analyzes how railroads served as tools of knowledge empire in the American West. The political economy of this region, shaped by the rise of Populism and capitalist development with federal and state government support, provided the context for cooperation between field scientists and railroad companies. Early on, the displacement of American Indians and their concentration on reservations was intertwined with the research of the Bureau of Ethnology under John Wesley Powell. Later, railroad companies became important patrons of field research, primarily through their provision of free or reduced-fare passes for travel. This research ranged from state universities undertaking research in horticulture and irrigation engineering to metropolitan natural history museums whose field work in paleontology had cultural or symbolic value.Ao analisar pesquisas de campo realizadas no final do século XIX e início do XX, o artigo mostra como as estradas de ferro foram instrumentos do império dos conhecimentos no Oeste dos Estados Unidos. A economia política da região foi modelada pela ascensão do populismo e pelo desenvolvimento do capitalismo com o apoio dos governos estaduais e federal. Criaram-se assim as condições para a cooperação entre cientistas e companhias ferroviárias. Num primeiro momento, o deslocamento dos índios e sua concentração em reservas estiveram relacionados às pesquisas do Escritório de Etnologia, então dirigido por John Wesley Powell. As companhias ferroviárias tornaram-se importantes patrocinadoras de pesquisas de campo fornecendo passagens gratuitas ou a custos reduzidos para as viagens dos cientistas, desde aqueles ligados a universidades públicas que promoviam estudos sobre horticultura e engenharia da irrigação, até museus metropolitanos de história natural, cujos trabalhos de campo em paleontologia tinham

  3. Survey of Borreliae in ticks, canines, and white-tailed deer from Arkansas, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryxell Rebecca T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Eastern and Upper Midwestern regions of North America, Ixodes scapularis (L. is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans and the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, whereas in the southeastern region Amblyomma americanum (Say is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans but cannot transmit B. burgdorferi. Surveys of Borreliae in ticks have been conducted in the southeastern United States and often these surveys identify B. lonestari as the primary Borrelia species, surveys have not included Arkansas ticks, canines, or white-tailed deer and B. lonestari is not considered pathogenic. The objective of this study was to identify Borrelia species within Arkansas by screening ticks (n = 2123, canines (n = 173, and white-tailed deer (n = 228 to determine the identity and locations of Borreliae endemic to Arkansas using PCR amplification of the flagellin (flaB gene. Methods Field collected ticks from canines and from hunter-killed white-tailed were identified to species and life stage. After which, ticks and their hosts were screened for the presence of Borrelia using PCR to amplify the flaB gene. A subset of the positive samples was confirmed with bidirectional sequencing. Results In total 53 (21.2% white-tailed deer, ten (6% canines, and 583 (27.5% Ixodid ticks (252 Ixodes scapularis, 161 A. americanum, 88 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 50 Amblyomma maculatum, 19 Dermacentor variabilis, and 13 unidentified Amblyomma species produced a Borrelia flaB amplicon. Of the positive ticks, 324 (22.7% were collected from canines (151 A. americanum, 78 R. sanguineus, 43 I. scapularis, 26 A. maculatum, 18 D. variabilis, and 8 Amblyomma species and 259 (37.2% were collected from white-tailed deer (209 I. scapularis, 24 A. maculatum, 10 A. americanum, 10 R. sanguineus, 1 D. variabilis, and 5 Amblyomma species. None of the larvae were PCR positive. A majority of the flaB amplicons were homologous with B

  4. Occurrence of organic wastewater and other contaminants in cave streams in northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidwell, Joseph R.; Becker, C.; Hensley, S.; Stark, R.; Meyer, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of organic wastewater compounds in surface waters of the United States has been reported in a number of recent studies. In karstic areas, surface contaminants might be transported to groundwater and, ultimately, cave ecosystems, where they might impact resident biota. In this study, polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCISs) and semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were deployed in six caves and two surface-water sites located within the Ozark Plateau of northeastern Oklahoma and northwestern Arkansas in order to detect potential chemical contaminants in these systems. All caves sampled were known to contain populations of the threatened Ozark cavefish (Amblyopsis rosae). The surface-water site in Oklahoma was downstream from the outfall of a municipal wastewater treatment plant and a previous study indicated a hydrologic link between this stream and one of the caves. A total of 83 chemicals were detected in the POCIS and SPMD extracts from the surface-water and cave sites. Of these, 55 chemicals were detected in the caves. Regardless of the sampler used, more compounds were detected in the Oklahoma surface-water site than in the Arkansas site or the caves. The organic wastewater chemicals with the greatest mass measured in the sampler extracts included sterols (cholesterol and ??-sitosterol), plasticizers [diethylhexylphthalate and tris (2-butoxyethyl) phosphate], the herbicide bromacil, and the fragrance indole. Sampler extracts from most of the cave sites did not contain many wastewater contaminants, although extracts from samplers in the Oklahoma surfacewater site and the cave hydrologically linked to it had similar levels of diethylhexyphthalate and common detections of carbamazapine, sulfamethoxazole, benzophenone, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (DEET), and octophenol monoethoxylate. Further evaluation of this system is warranted due to potential ongoing transport of wastewaterassociated chemicals into the cave. Halogenated organics

  5. Urbanization Effects on Floodplain Sediments in the Fourche Creek Wetlands in Little Rock, Arkansas, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, J.; Ruhl, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    Jason Simmons and Laura S. Ruhl As Earth's population continues to grow, is it expected that by the year 2030, sixty percent of all people will be housed in urban cities. Although these urban areas are of the utmost importance socially, culturally and economically, they also have an adverse impact on the geochemical makeup of the natural landscape. Rapid urbanization has profound hydrological, chemical, physical, and ecological impacts on watersheds near urban areas. Trace metals, and other organic and inorganic contaminants from industrialization, car exhaust, overflow of sewage lines, and excess storm drain runoff are found in this surface water. In Little Rock, Arkansas, runoff from seventy-three percent of the city's surface area empties into Fourche Creek, then its urban wetlands, before it is further transported to the Arkansas River. Previous studies have revealed that the Fourche Creek wetlands mitigate flooding and remove contaminants from the water column. In this study, we examined the effects of urbanization by examining the geochemical makeup of the wetland sediment that drains most of Little Rock. Sediment samples were collected along transects of Fourche Creek at three locations, beginning at the water's edge and moving out distances between seventy to one hundred feet into the wetland. Sediments were dried, homogenized, and then sieved for grain size distribution. Leaching experiments were performed to determine the trace element concentration adsorbed to the surface, which could be easily mobilized. In these experiments, ultrapure deionized water and homogenized soil were combined in centrifuge tubes at a 10:1 liquid to solid ratio, and rotated for twenty-four hours allowing the mixture to properly combine and react. The leachate was filtered, then analyzed using Ion Chromatography (IC) to determine cations and anions, and ICPMS to determine trace metals present in the soil. Results were compiled, and a map was created showing grain sizes present

  6. The Diabetic Health of African American Grandmothers Raising their Grandchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Carthron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. Design Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. Methods To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. Results Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure ( t = −3.42, P = 0.001 and diastolic pressure ( t = −3.790, P = 0.000 and urine protein ( W = 294.00, P = 0.000 were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. Conclusion Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women.

  7. the american colonization society's west african enterprise--colonial

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Africa and transport to it free blacks from every state. New Englanders envisioned the sending of .... health delivery were either non-existent or deplorable and remained so until World War II. Government was at .... passenger service on African routes, in addition to providing logistics for military traffic. Civilian personnel at the ...

  8. A Postmodernist Reading of Sam Shepard’s True West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdol Hossein Joodaki

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to render some vivid postmodernist features in Shepard’s True West (1980, which is inspired by myths of American life and popular culture. Shepard’s True West suggests so many interesting postmodern elements. With a departure from conventional norms of character, dialogue and narrative; the elements of pastiche, subjective irony, and savage humor have become hallmarks of most of his works. These features and some of the basic traces of postmodern literature, including Lyotard’s theory of the end of meta-narratives and language game, Derrida’s deconstruction and Baudrillard’s simulation, as well as language fragmentation, uncertainty and duality,  altogether, have given Shepard’s True West a postmodern atmosphere.

  9. American Ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron in the blood (anemia), diabetes, insulin resistance related to HIV treatments, cancer-related fatigue, high blood pressure, trouble sleeping (insomnia), ...

  10. JPRS Report West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    of military high technology that the Americans had prom- ised. CAMBIO 16 has seen an "internal memo" of the Empresa Nacional Santa Barbara de...where there was comment that if "we can’t even produce the ammunition, they’re hardly going to let us have the advanced software pro- grams that are

  11. Forests of West Virginia, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Widmann

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the forest resources in West Virginia based upon inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Information about the FIA program is available online at http://fia.fs.fed.us. Since 2004, FIA has implemented an annual inventory in West Virginia. For...

  12. City of West Liberty, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the City of West Liberty, Iowa, a municipality with a mailing address of 409 North Calhoun Street, West Liberty, IA 52776, for alleged violations of the Clean Water Act.

  13. West African Journal of Radiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The West African Journal of Radiology is an annual publication and the official organ of the Association of Radiologists of West Africa. The Journal accepts for publication, original work in the Science and Technology of Radiology, clinical case reports, discoveries and engineering design/fabrication reports related to any ...

  14. Utilization of the Arkansas Prescription Monitoring Program to Combat Prescription Drug Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Rebecca; Wei, Feifei; Robertson, Denise; Ryan, Kevin

    The Arkansas Prescription Monitoring Program (AR PMP) was implemented in 2013 to combat prescription drug abuse. All enrollees were invited to participate in a user survey available in February 2014, to identify makeup of users, utilization of the program, and changes made to health care practices after implementation of the program. Of the 3,694 individual enrollees invited to participate, 1,541(41.7%) completed the survey. Data collected were analyzed to identify changes in health care practices by program frequency of use and user profession. Medical doctors, advanced practice nurses, and pharmacists are the professions who use the program most frequently. Daily AR PMP users are considerably more likely than infrequent users to be prompted to access the program by the involvement of a controlled substance (CS) prescription or by office/facility policy requirements. Increased frequency of use of the AR PMP results in positive impacts on CS prescribing and dispensing practices. Compelling more users of the AR PMP to be prompted to access the program by the involvement of a CS prescription or by requirements per office/facility policy may increase frequency of use of the program and thereby changes in health care practices to combat prescription drug abuse.

  15. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Arkansas. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  16. Feasibility assessment: Lake Frances power generation facilities for the city of Siloam Springs, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-04-01

    The feasibility of developing the power potential of the Illinois River at the Lake Frances Dam for utilization by the city of Siloam Springs, Arkansas, was studied. It was found that the average annual power production potential of this site is 3.8 MWh; the cost saving produced by the proposed hydropower project will not support any remedial rehabilitation costs of the entire dam structure; development and operation of this hydropower project would save nonrenewal types of energy; if the capital cost can be fixed at present day prices, the development will become economically feasible when electric costs increase by 43%; and there will be no significant adverse environmental impact resulting from either the construction or operation of the hydropower facilities. It was concluded that the hydropower facilities should be constructed, owned and operated by the city of Siloam Springs, provided the dam safety can be assured and sources of funding can be made available so that the annual costs will not exceed the annual savings. (LCL)

  17. Helminth parasites of the raccoon (Procyon lotor) from north-central Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, D J; Owen, W B; Snyder, D E

    1992-02-01

    Twenty-three species of helminths (4 trematodes, 2 cestodes, 14 nematodes, and 3 acanthocephalans) were found in the gastrointestinal tract, lungs, pancreas, tongue, urinary bladder, and subcutaneous tissues of 30 live-trapped or hunter-shot raccoons from north-central Arkansas between November 1989 and April 1990. Helminths were not detected in the brain, diaphragm, gallbladder, heart, liver, reproductive system, or trachea. Each raccoon examined was infected with 3 or more of the following helminths: Brachylaima virginiana, Eurytrema procyonis, Fibricola cratera, Pharyngostomoides procyonis, Atriotaenia procyonis, Mesocestoides spp., Arthrocephalus lotoris, Capillaria aerophila, Capillaria plica, Capillaria procyonis, Capillaria putorii, Crenosoma goblei, Cruzia americana, Dirofilaria tenuis, Dracunculus insignis, Enterobius sp., Gnathostoma procyonis, Molineus barbatus, Physaloptera rara, Trichinella spiralis, Centrorhynchus wardae, Macracanthorhynchus ingens, and Oligacanthorhynchus tortuosa. All helminths collected with the exception of D. insignis constitute new geographic distribution records. Occurrences of C. aerophila, C. wardae, and O. tortuosa are new host records. One nymphal pentastome, Porocephalus crotali, was found in the liver of 1 raccoon, constituting a new host record.

  18. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Six. Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D A; Weaver, C L

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is given of the laws and programs of the State of Arkansas governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  19. Phylogenetics and population genetics of the louse fly, Lipoptena mazamae, from Arkansas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, R T; Steelman, C D; Szalanski, A L

    2010-09-01

    Louse flies, also known as deer keds (Lipoptena mazamae Rondani), infest cervids such as white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus and vector pathogens such as Anaplasma and Bartonella schoenbuchensis to cattle and humans, respectively. The population genetic structure of 30 L. mazamae collected from white-tailed deer in four regions of Arkansas, U.S.A., designated by county boundaries, was examined using DNA sequences of a 259-bp region of the mitochondrial DNA rRNA 16S gene. Of the 259 nucleotide characters, 33 were variable and 6 haplotypes were identified. Two haplotypes occurred only once (haplotype 3 and 4), whereas two other haplotypes occurred in 43% (haplotype 1 in two regions) and 40% (haplotype 6 in three regions) of the samples. Phylogenetic relationships of the six L. mazamae haplotypes were constructed with other Hippoboscid and Glossinid samples and two clades resulted. Clade 1 was located in the north and western Ozarks whereas clade 2 was found in the northern and eastern Ozarks. Results from the present study indicate that Lipoptena may be a polyphyletic genus; consequently, more research into genetic variation within this genus is necessary.

  20. Size distribution of planktonic autotrophy and microheterotrophy in DeGray Reservoir, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, B.L.; Groeger, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    Naturally occurring assemblages of phytoplankton and bacterioplankton were radiolabelled with sodium /sup 14/C-bicarbonate and sodium /sup 3/H-acetate and size fractionated to determine the size structure of planktonic autotrophy and microheterotrophy in DeGray Reservoir, an oligotrophic impoundment of the Caddo River in south-central Arkansas. Size distributions of autotrophy and microheterotrophy were remarkably uniform seasonally, vertically within the water column, and along the longitudinal axis of the reservoir despite significant changes in environmental conditions. Planktonic autotrophy was dominated by small algal cells with usually >50% of the photosynthetic carbon uptake accounted for by organisms <8.0 ..mu..m. Microheterotrophic activity in the 0.2- to 1.0-..mu..m size fraction, presumably associated with free-living bacterioplankton not attached to suspended particles, usually accounted for >75% of the planktonic microheterotrophy. Longitudinal patterns in autotrophic and microheterotrophic activities associated with >3-..mu..m and >1-..mu..m size fractions, respectively, suggest an uplake to downlake shift from riverine to lacustrine environmental influences within the reservoir. 83 references, 7 figures.

  1. Resistance to PPO‐inhibiting herbicide in Palmer amaranth from Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Reiofeli A; Tranel, Patrick J; Singh, Shilpa; Glasgow, Les; Scott, Robert C; Nichols, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND The widespread occurrence of ALS inhibitor‐ and glyphosate‐resistant Amaranthus palmeri has led to increasing use of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)‐inhibiting herbicides in cotton and soybean. Studies were conducted to confirm resistance to fomesafen (a PPO inhibitor), determine the resistance frequency, examine the resistance profile to other foliar‐applied herbicides and investigate the resistance mechanism of resistant plants in a population collected in 2011 (AR11‐LAW B) and its progenies from two cycles of fomesafen selection (C1 and C2). RESULTS The frequency of fomesafen‐resistant plants increased from 5% in the original AR11‐LAW‐B to 17% in the C2 population. The amounts of fomesafen that caused 50% growth reduction were 6‐, 13‐ and 21‐fold greater in AR11‐LAW‐B, C1 and C2 populations, respectively, than in the sensitive ecotype. The AR11‐LAW‐B population was sensitive to atrazine, dicamba, glufosinate, glyphosate and mesotrione but resistant to ALS‐inhibiting herbicides pyrithiobac and trifloxysulfuron. Fomesafen survivors from C1 and C2 populations tested positive for the PPO glycine 210 deletion previously reported in waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus). CONCLUSION These studies confirmed that Palmer amaranth in Arkansas has evolved resistance to foliar‐applied PPO‐inhibiting herbicide. © 2016 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26817647

  2. Socio-economic impacts of nuclear generating stations: Arkansas Nuclear One Station case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pijawka, K.D.

    1982-07-01

    This report documents a case study of the socio-economic impacts of the construction and operation of the Arkansas Nuclear One nuclear power station. It is part of a major post-licensing study of the socio-economic impacts at twelve nuclear power stations. The case study covers the period beginning with the announcement of plans to construct the reactor and ending in the period 1980 to 1981. The case study deals with changes in the economy, population, settlement patterns and housing, local government and public services, social structure, and public response in the study area during the construction/operation of the reactor. A regional modeling approach is used to trace the impact of construction/operation on the local economy, labor market, and housing market. Emphasis in the study is on the attribution of socio-economic impacts to the reactor or other causal factors. As part of the study of local public response to the construction/operation of the reactor, the effects of the Three Mile Island accident are examined

  3. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  4. Geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  5. Collision physics going west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The centroid of proton-antiproton physics is moving west across the Atlantic concluded Luigi Di Leila of CERN in his summary talk at the Topical Workshop on Proton-Antiproton Collider Physics, held at Fermilab in June. Previous meetings in this series had been dominated by results from CERN's big proton-antiproton collider, dating back to 1981. However last year saw the first physics run at Fermilab's collider, and although the number of collisions in the big CDF detector was only about one thirtieth of the score so far at CERN, the increased collision energy at Fermilab of 1.8 TeV (1800 GeV, compared to the routine 630 GeV at CERN) is already paying dividends

  6. Ordovician of the Sauk megasequence in the Ozark region of northern Arkansas and parts of Missouri and adjacent states: Chapter 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethington, Raymond L.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Exposures of Ordovician rocks of the Sauk megasequence in Missouri and northern Arkansas comprise Ibexian and lower Whiterockian carbonates with interspersed sandstones. Subjacent Cambrian strata are exposed in Missouri but confined to the subsurface in Arkansas. The Sauk-Tippecanoe boundary in this region is at the base of the St. Peter Sandstone. Ulrich and associates divided the Arkansas section into formations early in the 20th century, principally based on sparse collections of fossil invertebrates. In contrast, the distribution of invertebrate faunas and modern studies of conodonts will be emphasized throughout this chapter. Early workers considered many of the stratigraphic units to be separated by unconformities, but modern analysis calls into question the unconformable nature of some of their boundaries. The physical similarity of the several dolomites and sandstones, complex facies relations, and lack of continuous exposures make identification of individual formations difficult in isolated outcrops.

  7. Illicit Drug Trafficking in West Africa -- Primary Surveillance Radar Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    governance and development.1 The illicit drug trade transiting West Africa is a transnational threat as described by General Carter F. Ham before...commodities, such as kola and cannabis. Imported American rum, French brandy and Dutch gin was also traded along these coasts for more than 500 5 years...Four were Venezuelans, two were Dutch , one was a Mexican citizen and another Nigerian. They were arrested the previous summer in possession of over

  8. The Forest as a Resource: From Prehistory to History in the Arkansas Ozarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    George Sabo; Jami Joe Lockhart; Jerry E. Hilliard

    2004-01-01

    Study of past human land use in the Lee Creek Unit of the Ozark National Forest challenges the existence of "pristine" forests predating the arrival of historic Americans. The distribution of early nineteenth century American settlements corresponds closely to the distribution of late prehistoric Native American archeological sites. One explanation for this...

  9. JPRS Report West Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-12

    Democratic Front of Brussels French Speakers] senator. Indifferent to luxury, but a connoisseur of game cuisine , the PS’ intellectual sometimes tries...project that would run counter to their interests. After killing the Israeli Lavi program and muzzling the Japanese MSX, they are trying to entice the...cooperation with Japanese and American researchers. The report by researchers Tomas Ries and Johnny Skorve, published 2 years ago, aroused great interest

  10. Simulated effects of existing and proposed surface-water impoundments and gas-well pads on streamflow and suspended sediment in the Cypress Creek watershed, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Rheannon M.

    2014-01-01

    Cypress Creek is located in central Arkansas and is the main tributary to Brewer Lake, which serves as the primary water supply for Conway, Arkansas, and the surrounding areas. A model of the Cypress Creek watershed was developed and calibrated in cooperation with Southwestern Energy Company using detailed precipitation, streamflow, and discrete suspended-sediment data collected from 2009 through 2012. These data were used with a Hydrologic Simulation Program—FORTRAN model to address different potential gas-extraction activities within the watershed.

  11. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....

  12. Alien smuggling: East to West.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, J H

    1987-01-01

    This year untold millions of illegal aliens will enter Western Europe, Canada, and the US; in 1986, the US alone made 1.7 million apprehensions. Because of the numbers involved and the hard currency exchanged, alien smuggling has become big business--a lucrative track in desparate human beings. West Germany's open door asylum policy has been a boon to the smugglers, and West Berlin is currently a favored port of entry. The government provides social benefits--apartments, food, a stipend, and clothing--for asylum seekers. Smuggling operations appear to fit 3 categories: 1) state-sponsored alien smugglers, with a sub-category of terrorists; 2) ethnic smugglers with a history of terrorist spinoffs; and 3) independent smugglers, who are profit oriented, and willing to handle ethnic aliens and terrorists. In West Germany, immigration investigations begin at the border. West German officials often know that as they cause the Eastern border to be tightened, the flow will gravitate south toward Austria. Redirecting the trasit of Third Worlders from East Berlin away from West Germany, Sweden, and Denmark will be a stop-gap measure at best. Part of West Germany's immigration problem can be traced to the Basic Law that provides asylum for those who claim persecution (political, racial, ethnic, or religious). Yet, any attempt to change asylum would result in an admission of defeat in the quest for a unified Germany. Should Austria move to tighten its immigration laws, agreements similar to those between East and West Germany will likely follow.

  13. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  14. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  15. American Illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected such monarch......Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected...... such monarchial pomp and adapted spectacular lighting to their democratic, commercial culture. In American Illuminations, David Nye explains how they experimented with gas and electric light to create illuminated cityscapes far brighter and more dynamic than those of Europe, and how these illuminations became......, commercial lighting that defined distinct zones of light and glamorized the city’s White Ways, skyscrapers, bridges, department stores, theaters, and dance halls. Poor and blighted areas disappeared into the shadows. American illuminations also became integral parts of national political campaigns...

  16. DMD and West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardas, Ruxandra; Iliescu, Catrinel; Butoianu, Nina; Seferian, Andreea; Gataullina, Svetlana; Gargaun, Elena; Nectoux, Juliette; Bienvenu, Thierry; Craiu, Dana; Gidaro, Teresa; Servais, Laurent

    2017-10-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is the most frequent muscular dystrophy in childhood, with a worldwide incidence of one in 5000 live male births. It is due to mutations in the dystrophin gene leading to absence of full-length dystrophin protein. Central nervous system involvement is well-known in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. The multiple dystrophin isoforms expressed in brain have important roles in cerebral development and functioning. The association of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy with seizures has been reported, and there is a higher prevalence of epilepsy in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients (between 6.3% and 12.3%) than in the general pediatric population (0.5-1%). Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients may present with focal seizures, generalized tonic-clonic seizures or absences. We report on two boys in whom Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is associated with epileptic spasms and hypsarrhythmia that fulfil the criteria for West syndrome, thus extending the spectrum of seizure types described in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Factors affecting settling, survival, and viability of black bears reintroduced to Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, B.J.; Eastridge, R.; Clark, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry and population modeling techniques to examine factors related to population establishment of black bears (Ursus americanus) reintroduced to Felsenthal National Wildlife Refuge (NWR), Arkansas. Our objectives were to determine whether settling (i.e., establishment of a home range at or near the release site), survival, recruitment, and population viability were related to age class of reintroduced bears, presence of cubs, time since release, or number of translocated animals. We removed 23 adult female black bears with 56 cubs from their winter dens at White River NWR and transported them 160 km to man-made den structures at Felsenthal NWR during spring 2000–2002. Total movement and average circuity of adult females decreased from 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year post-emergence (F2,14 =19.7, P bears was 0.624 (SE = 0.110, SEinterannual = 0.144), and the survival rate of their cubs was 0.750 (SE = 0.088, SEinterannual = 0.109). The homing rate (i.e., the proportion of bears that returned to White River NWR) was 13%. Annual survival for female bears that remained at the release site and survived >1-year post-release increased to 0.909 (SE = 0.097, SEinterannual=0.067; Z=3.5, P bear population at Felsenthal NWR is at or above the number after which extinction risk declines dramatically, although additional releases of bears could significantly decrease time to population reestablishment. Poaching accounted for at least 3 of the 8 adult mortalities that we documented; illegal kills could be a significant impediment to population re-establishment at Felsenthal NWR should poaching rates escalate.

  18. LIDAR-based characterization and conservation of the first theropod dinosaur trackways from Arkansas, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian F Platt

    Full Text Available LIDAR-based analyses of the first theropod dinosaur trackways known from the state of Arkansas, USA are reported. The trackways were found on a limestone bedding plane in the Albian De Queen Formation in an active gypsum quarry. Because limited access precluded thorough field study, fieldwork focused on preserving the entire site digitally with ground-based LIDAR, and detailed measurements were later taken digitally from point cloud data. The site contains eight tridactyl trackways associated with sauropod trackways and numerous isolated tracks. Although there appear to be two different tridactyl morphotypes, we show that the tracks are all likely from a single species of trackmaker. We apply a simple method of estimating substrate consistency by comparing the differences between true track dimensions and apparent track dimensions. The tridactyl tracks at the southern end of the site are preserved with significantly greater differences in true vs. apparent dimensions and are shallower than the rest of the tridactyl tracks at the site, which we interpret as the result of outward expansion of the soft tissues of the foot upon contact with a firm substrate. We interpret the firm substrate as having high bulk density and high shear strength, which also explain associated manus-only sauropod tracks. We show that the tridactyl tracks are likely from theropod trackmakers and that footprint lengths, trackway paces, stride lengths, and pace angulations of the De Queen trackways are statistically indistinguishable from equivalent measurements of theropod trackways in the Glen Rose Formation. The Glen Rose tracks are attributed to the large-bodied theropod, Acrocanthosaurus and we likewise attribute the De Queen tracks to Acrocanthosaurus, which is known from skeletal remains in temporally equivalent units and from the mine itself.

  19. LIDAR-based characterization and conservation of the first theropod dinosaur trackways from Arkansas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Brian F; Suarez, Celina A; Boss, Stephen K; Williamson, Malcolm; Cothren, Jackson; Kvamme, Jo Ann C

    2018-01-01

    LIDAR-based analyses of the first theropod dinosaur trackways known from the state of Arkansas, USA are reported. The trackways were found on a limestone bedding plane in the Albian De Queen Formation in an active gypsum quarry. Because limited access precluded thorough field study, fieldwork focused on preserving the entire site digitally with ground-based LIDAR, and detailed measurements were later taken digitally from point cloud data. The site contains eight tridactyl trackways associated with sauropod trackways and numerous isolated tracks. Although there appear to be two different tridactyl morphotypes, we show that the tracks are all likely from a single species of trackmaker. We apply a simple method of estimating substrate consistency by comparing the differences between true track dimensions and apparent track dimensions. The tridactyl tracks at the southern end of the site are preserved with significantly greater differences in true vs. apparent dimensions and are shallower than the rest of the tridactyl tracks at the site, which we interpret as the result of outward expansion of the soft tissues of the foot upon contact with a firm substrate. We interpret the firm substrate as having high bulk density and high shear strength, which also explain associated manus-only sauropod tracks. We show that the tridactyl tracks are likely from theropod trackmakers and that footprint lengths, trackway paces, stride lengths, and pace angulations of the De Queen trackways are statistically indistinguishable from equivalent measurements of theropod trackways in the Glen Rose Formation. The Glen Rose tracks are attributed to the large-bodied theropod, Acrocanthosaurus and we likewise attribute the De Queen tracks to Acrocanthosaurus, which is known from skeletal remains in temporally equivalent units and from the mine itself.

  20. Chlorine gas release associated with employee language barrier--Arkansas, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-07

    On June 27, 2011, a worker at a poultry processing plant in Arkansas began to pour sodium hypochlorite into a 55-gallon drum that contained residual acidic antimicrobial solution. When the sodium hypochlorite reacted with the solution, greenish-yellow chlorine gas was released into the small room where the drum was located and then spread into the plant, where approximately 600 workers were present. These workers promptly were evacuated. Chlorine is a respiratory irritant and can produce symptoms ranging from mild eye, nose, and throat irritation to severe inflammation of the lung, which can lead to death. Of the approximately 600 workers who were evacuated; 545 were later interviewed, 195 reported seeking medical treatment, 152 reported being hospitalized, and the plant nurse reported that five were admitted to intensive-care units. The next day, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) asked for technical assistance from CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to evaluate health effects of the release and make recommendations to prevent future occurrences. This report describes the results of that evaluation, including findings from two follow-up site visits conducted approximately 4 and 6 months after the release. Of the 545 workers who participated in the evaluation, three developed reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS), an irritant-induced form of asthma that can persist for life. The worker who inadvertently mixed the two solutions indicated that the drum was labeled in English but he could only read Spanish. This incident underscores the danger posed by chlorine gas and the importance of employers providing adequate training and communication of health and safety precautions to employees.

  1. Spatial and temporal consumption dynamics of trout in catch-and-release areas in Arkansas tailwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinders, John M.; Magoulick, Daniel D.

    2017-01-01

    Restrictive angling regulations in tailwater trout fisheries may be unsuccessful if food availability limits energy for fish to grow. We examined spatial and temporal variation in energy intake and growth in populations of Brown Trout Salmo trutta and Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss within three catch-and-release (C-R) areas in Arkansas tailwaters to evaluate food availability compared with consumption. Based on bioenergetic simulations, Rainbow Trout fed at submaintenance levels in both size-classes (≤400 mm TL, >400 mm TL) throughout most seasons. A particular bottleneck in food availability occurred in the winter for Rainbow Trout when the daily ration was substantially below the minimum required for maintenance, despite reduced metabolic costs associated with lower water temperatures. Rainbow Trout growth rates followed a similar pattern to consumption with negative growth rates during the winter periods. All three size-classes (400 mm TL) of Brown Trout experienced high growth rates and limited temporal bottlenecks in food availability. We observed higher mean densities for Rainbow Trout (47–342 fish/ha) than for Brown Trout (3–84 fish/ha) in all C-R areas. Lower densities of Brown Trout coupled with an ontogenetic shift towards piscivory may have allowed for higher growth rates and sufficient consumption rates to meet energetic demands. Brown Trout at current densities were more effective in maintaining adequate growth rates and larger sizes in C-R areas than were Rainbow Trout. Bioenergetic simulations suggest that reducing stocking levels of Rainbow Trout in the tailwaters may be necessary in order to achieve increased catch rates of larger trout in the C-R areas.

  2. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urgence, Services d'Ambulances,. Traumatisme, Lagos, Nigeria. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: Emergency medical care is designed to overcome the factors most commonly implicated ...

  3. West Virginia 511 feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Procedure for requesting a copy of the full report : Please submit your request, in writing, directly to the contact provided below. : Director of the Traffic Engineering Division : West Virginia Department of Transportation, Division of Highways : B...

  4. [Hormonal treatment in West syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, E D; Shulyakova, I V; Ohapkina, T G

    2016-01-01

    West syndrome is one of the most well-known epileptic encephalopathies, a catastrophic epilepsy syndrome with onset in the first year of life. Prognosis of this condition depends on the etiology and adequate treatment. The authors review the hormonal treatment of West syndrome. Adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) is used in USA and its synthetic analogue tetracosactide is used in Europe. Both of the drugs are not registered in the Russian Federation. The data on the efficacy of corticosteroids, including prednisolone, are contradictory. Recent results have demonstrated the high efficacy of prednisolone in the treatment of West syndrome. The authors discuss different aspects of hormonal treatment of West syndrome: possible mechanisms, choice of medication, hormone doses, its duration, efficacy ant tolerability.

  5. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and... and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical device... has exempted them from preemption: West Virginia Code, sections 30-26-14 (b) and (c) and section 30-26...

  6. West syndrome: response to valproate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Surabhi; Bhave, Anupama; Bhargava, Roli; Kumar, Chandrakanta; Kumar, Rashmi

    2012-01-01

    Management of West syndrome is unsatisfactory. In our clinic we observed that a significant proportion of patients respond to usual dose of valproate. To prospectively assess the efficacy of valproate in controlling infantile spasms in West syndrome. Consecutive patients presenting with West syndrome to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic or general outpatient department (OPD) were enrolled for study. Those who were not on any treatment were given valproate in a dose of 30 mg/kg/day while awaiting investigations. Patients were followed up every 2 weeks. Predefined criteria for definition of West syndrome and response were used. Those showing partial/poor response or relapse on valproate were given hormonal therapy. One hundred children with West syndrome were enrolled. Ninety one children were started on valproate. Of these 36 (39.5%) showed a good response, but seven later relapsed while on same dose of valproate and three were lost to follow up. Later age at onset and typical hypsarrhythmia on EEG were associated with good sustained response to valproate while a history of delayed cry at birth was associated with partial or poor response. Sixty two patients who responded poorly to or relapsed on valproate were put on hormonal treatment in addition. Of these 36 (58.1%) had a good response but 11 later relapsed after stopping treatment and two were lost to follow up. Valproate may have a role in treatment of West syndrome in a selected group of patients.

  7. West Syndrome: Response to valproate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surabhi eChandra

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Management of West syndrome is unsatisfactory. In our clinic we observed that a significant proportion of patients respond to usual dose of valproate. Objective: To prospectively assess the efficacy of valproate in controlling infantile spasms in West syndromeMethods: Consecutive patients presenting with West syndrome to the Pediatric Neurology Clinic or general OPD were enrolled for study. Those who were not on any treatment were given valproate in a dose of 30 mg/kg/day while awaiting investigations. Patients were followed up every 2 weeks. Predefined criteria for definition of West syndrome and response were used. Those showing partial/poor response or relapse on valproate were given hormonal therapy.Results: One hundred children with West syndrome were enrolled. Ninety one children were started on valproate. Of these 36 (39.5% showed a good response, but 7 later relapsed while on same dose of valproate and 3 were lost to follow up. Later age at onset and typical hypsarrythmia on EEG were associated with good sustained response to valproate while a history of delayed cry at birth was associated with partial or poor response. Sixty two patients who responded poorly to or relapsed on valproate were put on hormonal treatment in addition. Of these 36 (58.1% had a good response but 11 later relapsed after stopping treatment and 2 were lost to follow up. Conclusions: Valproate may have a role in treatment of West syndrome in a selected group of patients.

  8. 78 FR 48716 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Arkansas Valley...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-09

    ... because of the beneficiaries' inability to repay the construction costs. In 2009, Congress amended the... southeastern Colorado water providers. Forty towns and rural domestic water providers in Pueblo, Crowley, Otero... locations: Bureau of Reclamation, Eastern Colorado Area Office, 11056 West County Road 18E, Loveland...

  9. Why the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Ferguson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La cuestión de cómo "Occidente" llegó a dominar el mundo durante la era moderna se ha debatido recientemente entre los historiadores. El debate se ha polarizado entre quienes ven en la "modernidad" como resultado de un 'milagro', el proceso cultural único generado en el seno del mismo Occidente, y aquellos que cuestionan este "milagro" como paradigma eurocéntrico, y buscan otros factores para entender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. La literatura tradicional, representada por David Landes en su reciente “La riqueza y la pobreza de las naciones”, atribuye el éxito europeo a sus valores culturales únicos, a sus instituciones sociales y sus prácticas políticas. Este éxito fue completamente "impulsado desde dentro” por estas características. Recientemente, varios historiadores han cuestionado este "paradigma del milagro" como eurocéntrica, y miran a otros factores para comprender y explicar el dominio occidental del mundo económico y político. Después de examinar los recientes trabajos de los historiadores frente a este problema, este artículo trata de colocar la expansión europea en un contexto global, y la comprensión de la Revolución Industrial como una transformación global. Esta perspectiva nos permite entender los cambios tecnológicos y económicos Europeos en el contexto más amplio de patrones de interacción económica y cultural de todo el mundo._____________ABSTRACT:The question of how 'the West' came to dominate the globe during the modern era has been debated recently among historians. The debate has been polarized between those who view 'modernity' as the result of a 'European miracle', the culturally unique and internally generated project of the West, and those who question this 'European miracle' paradigm as Eurocentric, and look to other factors to understand and explain Western economic and political world dominance. The traditional narrative, represented by David

  10. 76 FR 68314 - Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Key West World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Key West, FL AGENCY: Coast... regulations on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean located southwest of Key West, Florida during the Key West... unless authorized by the Captain of the Port Key West or a designated representative. DATES: This rule is...

  11. A Spreadsheet Algorithm for Determining the Economic Feasibility of Micro-CHP Systems in the Arkansas Manufacturing Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewallen, Ford

    Combined heat and power (CHP) systems are not new to the market. However, advances in technology, specifically MicroTurbines, have presented new opportunities for installations of micro-CHP units - defined as 50 kWe to 300 kWe, specifically at small- to medium-sized industrial facilities. One pressing concern is whether or not an industrial plant has a high enough process thermal load requirement to fully utilize the energy output. This thesis will discuss simulations that were run on several actual electric and thermal load combinations, which correspond to types of manufacturing facilities commonly found in Arkansas. Analysis of the plant usage profiles will identify economically feasible scenarios from CHP production based on electric and thermal loads, electric demand and energy costs, the cost of natural gas, and CHP unit size and efficiencies. The spreadsheet algorithm will be written in a form to allow a user to select utility rate structures from major utility companies in Arkansas, or customize their own rate schedule, and enter their monthly energy usages and demands. The user can then compare and contrast costs and savings of different CHP units, and then make informed decisions on whether a company would benefit from installing a CHP system.

  12. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Data report: Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fay, W M; Sargent, K A; Cook, J R

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. The following samples were collected: Arkansas-3292 stream sediments, 5121 ground waters, 1711 stream waters; Louisiana-1017 stream sediments, 0 ground waters, 0 stream waters; Misissippi-0 stream sediments, 814 ground waters, 0 stream waters; Missouri-2162 stream sediments, 3423 ground waters 1340 stream waters; Oklahoma-2493 stream sediments, 2751 ground waters, 375 stream waters; and Texas-279 stream sediments, 0 ground waters, 0 stream waters. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. The results of mass spectroscopic analysis for He are given for 563 ground water sites in Mississippi. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Oak Ridge National Laboratory analyzed sediment samples which were not analyzed by Savannah River Laboratory neutron activation.

  13. Transforming a Traditional Personnel Preparation Program in Orientation and Mobility into an Online Program at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, William H.

    2005-01-01

    The University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) has offered a personnel preparation program in orientation and mobility (O&M) since 1975. Since that time, nearly 400 individuals from the United States and numerous foreign countries have either received degrees or have become eligible for national U.S. certification in O&M. However, it…

  14. Changes in plant species composition along an elevation gradient in an old-growth bottomland hardwood-Pinus taeda forest in southern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian G. Grell; Michael G. Shelton; Eric Heitzman

    2005-01-01

    Old-growth bottomland hardwood-Pinus taeda L. forests are rare in Arkansas, and the complex relationships between plant communities and environmental conditions have not been well described in these forests. To investigate these relationships, a digital elevation model was developed for a 16.2 ha old-growth bottomland hardwood-Pinus taeda forest in...

  15. Financial rates of return on thinned and unthinned stands, using large-scale forest inventory data in Mississippi and Arkansas, 1977 to 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew J. Hartsell

    2010-01-01

    Providing landowners and natural resource managers information on financial rates of return (ROR) plays a vital role in providing and promoting forest management. I combined Timber Mart-South stumpage price data with forest inventory data spanning 17 years from the Southern Research Station, Forest Inventory and Analysis work unit for the States of Arkansas and...

  16. Additions to the Flora of Cleveland County, Arkansas: Collections From Moro Bottoms Natural Area, A State-Protected Old-Growth Bottomland Hardwood Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danny Skojac; Margaret S. Devall; Bernard R. Parresol

    2003-01-01

    An annotated list of 38 additions to the vascular flora of Cleveland County, Arkansas is presented. The additions presented were collected from Moro Bottoms Natural Area, a state-protected old-growth bottomland hardwood forest located in the northwest region of the county.

  17. Longitudinal measurements of tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) susceptibility to insecticides in Arkansas, Louisiana and Mississippi: Associations with insecticide use and insect control recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose-response assays were conducted from 2008 through 2015 to measure the susceptibility of field populations of Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) from the Delta regions of Arkansas, Louisiana and Mississippi to acephate, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, permethrin and sulfoxaflor. A total of 229 fi...

  18. Quality Characteristics of Ground Water in the Ozark Aquifer of Northwestern Arkansas, Southeastern Kansas, Southwestern Missouri, and Northeastern Oklahoma, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, L.M.; Mehl, H.E.; Coiner, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Because of water quantity and quality concerns within the Ozark aquifer, the State of Kansas in 2004 issued a moratorium on most new appropriations from the aquifer until results were made available from a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Kansas Water Office. The purposes of the study were to develop a regional ground-water flow model and a water-quality assessment of the Ozark aquifer in northwestern Arkansas, southeastern Kansas, southwestern Missouri, and northeastern Oklahoma (study area). In 2006 and 2007, water-quality samples were collected from 40 water-supply wells completed in the Ozark aquifer and spatially distributed throughout the study area. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, dissolved solids and major ions, nutrients, trace elements, and selected isotopes. This report presents the results of the water-quality assessment part of the cooperative study. Water-quality characteristics were evaluated relative to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards. Secondary Drinking-Water Regulations were exceeded for dissolved solids (11 wells), sulfate and chloride (2 wells each), fluoride (3 wells), iron (4 wells), and manganese (2 wells). Maximum Contaminant Levels were exceeded for turbidity (3 wells) and fluoride (1 well). The Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for lead (0 milligrams per liter) was exceeded in water from 12 wells. Analyses of isotopes in water from wells along two 60-mile long ground-water flow paths indicated that water in the Ozark aquifer was at least 60 years old but the upper age limit is uncertain. The source of recharge water for the wells along the flow paths appeared to be of meteoric origin because of isotopic similarity to the established Global Meteoric Water Line and a global precipitation relation. Additionally, analysis of hydrogen-3 (3H) and carbon-14 (14C) indicated that there was possible leakage of younger ground water into the lower part of the Ozark aquifer. This may

  19. A Regional Guidebook for Applying the Hydrogeomorphic Approach to Assessing Wetland Functions of Forested Wetlands in the West Gulf Coastal Plain Region of Arkansas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Klimas, Charles V; Murray, Elizabeth O; Pagan, Jody; Langston, Henry; Foti, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    .... The HGM Approach was initially designed to be used in the context of the Clean Water Act Section 404 Regulatory Program permit review process to analyze project alternatives, minimize impacts, assess...

  20. Analysis and Interpretation of Artifact Collections from four Archaeological Sites within the Country Club Gardens Permit Area, West Memphis, Crittenden County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    includes soybeans, milo, wheat, rice, alfalfa, sorghum , and pastureI characterizes most farms in the county. Machinery began to replace livestock as the...was recovered from all of the sites (Appendices 1 and 2; Table 1). W•hile most early glass was free-blown, mold -blown and machine made bottles becane...common during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Mold -blown glass occurs after ca. 1818. Machine made bottles were used in commercial production

  1. Purpura fulminans associated with acute West Nile virus encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sheevam; Fite, Laura Paul; Lane, Natalie; Parekh, Palak

    2016-02-01

    Purpura fulminans is a progressive thrombotic disorder that presents with widespread purpura due to deficiency or dysfunction of protein C or protein S. Lesions present as well-demarcated erythematous macules that progress to irregular areas of hemorrhagic necrosis.West Nile virus is a member of the Flaviviridae family transmitted to humans through the bite of various mosquito species. It manifests as West Nile fever in 25% of those infected and less commonly as neuroinvasive disease. An African American man in his fortiespresented with altered mental status and was noted to have evidence of disseminated intravascular coagulation according to his lab data. He then developed dusky skin discoloration and systemic flaccid bullae with desquamation. Biopsy was consistent with purpura fulminans and the patient eventually developed symmetric peripheral gangrene, requiring amputations of all four extremities. Infectious work up revealed positive testing for IgM and IgG antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid leading to the diagnosis of acute West Nile Virus encephalitis. We present this case to describe the rarely reported association of purpura fulminans with West Nile Virus infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Pechatnov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Founding fathers" of American Studies at MGIMO are considered to be A.V. Efimov and L.I. Clove. Alexey Efimov - Corresponding Member of the USSR Academy of Sciences since 1938, Head of the Department of Modern and Contemporary History and Dean of the Historical School at the Moscow State University - one of the first professors of the Faculty of International Relations MGIMO. Efimov distinguished himself by a broad vision and scope of scientific interests. Back in 1934 he published a monograph "On the history of capitalism in the United States," which initiated a series of research culminating in the fundamental work "The United States. The path of capitalist development (pre-imperialist era". Alexey was not only a great scientist but also a great teacher, whose lectures was popular throughout Moscow. His lecture courses, given at the end of the 1940s at MGIMO, became the basis for the first post-war history textbooks USA - "Essays on the history of the United States." At least as colorful a figure was Professor Leo Izrailevich Zubok - a man of unusual destiny. As a teenager he emigrated to the United States with his parents, where he soon joined the American revolutionary movement in the 1920s and was forced to leave the country. He came to MGIMO being already an experienced scientists. His research interests were very wide: from the study of American foreign policy expansion to the history of the labor movement in the United States. Zubok's fundamental works still have not lost its scientific significance. He has successfully combined scientific work with teaching. Tutorials that are based on his lectures were very popular not only among students of MGIMO.

  3. Constituent concentrations, loads, and yields to Beaver Lake, Arkansas, water years 1999-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolyard, Susan E.; De Lanois, Jeanne L.; Green, W. Reed

    2010-01-01

    Beaver Lake is a large, deep-storage reservoir used as a drinking-water supply and considered a primary watershed of concern in the State of Arkansas. As such, information is needed to assess water quality, especially nutrient enrichment, nutrient-algal relations, turbidity, and sediment issues within the reservoir system. Water-quality samples were collected at three main inflows to Beaver Lake: the White River near Fayetteville, Richland Creek at Goshen, and War Eagle Creek near Hindsville. Water-quality samples collected over the period represented different flow conditions (from low to high). Constituent concentrations, flow-weighted concentrations, loads, and yields from White River, Richland Creek, and War Eagle Creek to Beaver Lake for water years 1999-2008 were documented for this report. Constituents include total ammonia plus organic nitrogen, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus), total phosphorus, total nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, total organic carbon, and suspended sediment. Linear regression models developed by computer program S-LOADEST were used to estimate loads for each constituent for the 10-year period at each station. Constituent yields and flow-weighted concentrations for each of the three stations were calculated for the study. Constituent concentrations and loads and yields varied with time and varied among the three tributaries contributing to Beaver Lake. These differences can result from differences in precipitation, land use, contributions of nutrients from point sources, and variations in basin size. Load and yield estimates varied yearly during the study period, water years 1999-2008, with the least nutrient and sediment load and yields generally occurring in water year 2006, and the greatest occurring in water year 2008, during a year with record amounts of precipitation. Flow-weighted concentrations of most constituents were greatest at War Eagle Creek near Hindsville

  4. Alternate Wetting and Drying as an Effective Management Practice to Reduce Methane in Arkansas Rice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkle, B.; Smith, S. F.; Suvocarev, K.; Reba, M. L.

    2015-12-01

    Approximately 15% of the global 308 Tg CH4 emitted by anthropogenic sources is currently attributed to rice cultivation. Arkansas, the leading state in rice cultivation, produces over 42% of the total rice and represents over 43% of total land planted to rice in the US. Although rice production is generally water-intensive, some rice producers have adopted a conservation practice, 'Alternate Wetting and Drying' (AWD), in which the flood is released periodically during the growing season. In addition, implementing AWD can reduce CH4 emissions though the introduction of aerobic conditions. To assess the magnitude of this reduction, conventionally flooded (CONV) and AWD fields were identically instrumented for the 2015 season and fluxes of CH4 were measured with an open path IRGA. Other biophysical variables were monitored to determine the relative dominance of potential drivers. Half-hourly CH4 fluxes from the AWD and CONV fields during their similar initial flood (DOY 138-161) were well correlated (R2 = 0.762), indicating similar mechanisms controlling CH4 emissions in both fields. After the initial drydown event in the AWD field (162 DOY), daily median CH4 fluxes continued to rise to 7.80 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 on 163 DOY before subsiding to a local minimum of 0.162 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 on 171 DOY. Daily median CH4 fluxes between 9.24 and 16.0 mg CH4 m-2 h-1 were observed in the CONV field during this same period. Cumulative emissions from both fields following the drydown event and prior to rewetting demonstrated a reduction in CH4 emissions by the AWD treatment by 82%. The substantial decrease in CH4 emissions by AWD in the early growing season supports and expands upon previous chamber-based research and offers strong evidence for the efficacy of AWD in reducing CH4 emissions in AR rice production. The presentation will also assess the latter portion of the growing season, currently underway, and will provide process-based relationships between biophysical parameters and CH

  5. Evaluation of infectious bronchitis virus Arkansas-type vaccine failure in commercial broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Ha-Jung; Hilt, Deborah A; Williams, Susan M; Jackwooda, Mark W

    2013-06-01

    Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) causes an upper respiratory tract disease in chickens and is highly contagious. Many different types of the virus exist, but only a few types are used as attenuated live vaccines in the commercial poultry industry. Of the vaccine types used, the Arkansas (Ark)-type virus is most frequently reisolated from vaccinated broilers. Previous research has suggested that incomplete clearance of Ark-type vaccine virus plays a role in the inadequate protection observed when vaccinated broilers are challenged with pathogenic Ark virus. In this study, we examine routes of vaccine administration using multiple IBV types including Ark in an effort to understand why Ark vaccines do not provide good protection and persist in commercial broilers. We found that interference between different types of IBV vaccines was not occurring when combined and administered using a commercial hatchery spray cabinet. Also, Ark vaccine virus was not efficacious in 1-day-old broilers when sprayed using a hatchery spray cabinet, but it gave good protection when administrated by eyedrop inoculation. We also found that the amount of Ark vaccine virus was low or undetectable in choanal swabs out to 35 days postvaccination when vaccine was administered by eyedrop or drinking water. Alternatively, a subpopulation of the Ark vaccine isolated from a vaccinated bird, Ark-RI-EP1, showed a peak titer at 7-10 days of age when given by the same routes, suggesting that the Ark-RI-EP1 was more fit with regard to infection, replication in the birds, or both. Moreover, we found that detection of IBV vaccine virus early after administration, regardless of strain or route, correlated with protection against homologous challenge and may thus be a good indicator of vaccine efficacy in the field because humoral antibody titers are typically low or undetectable after vaccination. These experiments provided key findings that can be used to direct efforts for improving the efficacy of IBV

  6. A Cultural Resources Survey of the River Trace Permit Area Marion, Crittenden County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Virgin Islands, as well as Derbyshire, U.K., Rota, Mariana Islands, Micronesia and Barbados, West Indies. Publications and Major Manuscripts I Foster...Archaeological Data Recovery at La Iglesia de Maraquez (Site PO-39), Ponce, Puerto Rico: Phase I Report. Garrow & Associates, Inc. Draft report 1......J,4- Jc...Garrow & Associates, Inc., Atlanta. 3 1988b "Stone and Coral Tools." In Archaeological Investigations on Rota, Mariana Islands, Micronesia, edited by

  7. Politeness: West and East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Джеффри Лич

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper was planned for this issue of our journal, which Geoffrey Leech and I intended to devote to Politeness phenomena across cultures. It is based on his article titled “Politeness: Is there an East-West Divide?” (2005 which he suggested as a theoretical framework and includes results of our discussions held during our personal meetings and our epistolary exchange. Unfortunately the final version of the paper was never read by Geoffrey Leech for the reasons we all sadly know. Nevertheless I decided to publish it as a tribute to him in the knowledge that the result was not going to have the degree of excellence it would have had if he were still with us today. I therefore apologise for any mistakes or misinterpretations of his thoughts that might be found in the paper. The aim of this article is to sum up the main ideas of Politeness Theory presented earlier in Leech 1983, 2003, 2005, and other publications and discuss how that theory applies (or fails to apply to other languages, with the main emphasis on the Russian language and culture. The term ‘maxim’ used in Principles of Pragmatics (Leech 1983 is avoided here as much as possible, as it implies some kind of moral imperative, rather than a pragmatic constraint. Instead, a single constraint, which comprehends all the maxims (the Maxims of Tact, Generosity, Approbation, Modesty, Agreement, Sympathy, and is called the Grand Strategy of Politeness (GSP, is used. The GSP says: In order to be polite, S expresses or implies meanings which place a high value on what pertains to O- his/her wants, qualities, obligation, opinion, feelings (O = other person[s], [mainly the addressee, i.e. H = hearer] or place a low value on what pertains to S (S = self, speaker. The essential point is that these are not separate, independent constraints or maxims: they are instances of the operation of the GSP as ‘super-maxim’ which is an overarching framework for studying linguistic politeness

  8. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...

  9. Early-season soybean as a trap crop for stink bugs (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Arkansas' changing system of soybean production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J F; Luttrell, R G; Greene, J K; Tingle, C

    2009-04-01

    Early-season soybean, Glycine max L. Merrill, was evaluated in Arkansas soybean fields as a trap crop for a complex of stink bug species that included Nezara viridula L., Acrosternum hilare (Say), and Euschistus servus (Say). Early-season soybean production systems (ESPSs) are composed of indeterminate soybean cultivars planted in April. In the first year of a 2-yr study, field-scale trap crops ( approximately 0.5-1.0 ha) of maturity group (MG) III and IV soybean were planted adjacent to production fields of MG V soybean. Stink bugs were attracted first to the ESPS trap crops and were twice treated with insecticide, yet damaging populations developed later in the MG V soybean adjacent to the trap crops. General sampling and observations of low stink bug densities in commercial fields of soybean and corn across the study area suggested that stink bugs were widely distributed across the agricultural landscape. These observations and the subsequent discovery of additional ESPS fields outside the study area suggested that developing populations in the adjacent MG V soybean probably did not originate from the trap crops. However the source of the populations colonizing MG V soybean could not be determined, and we concluded that the scale of future experiments should be increased to better control stink bugs dispersing from other ESPSs outside the study area. In the second year of the study, the experiment was expanded in size to a farm- or community-scale project where entire fields of ESPSs (8-32 ha) were used as trap crops. Insecticide was applied to the trap-crop fields and other fields of ESPSs within a 0.8-km radius of targeted response fields, yet again there was no apparent effect on subsequent populations of stink bugs in the MG V response fields. With the recent expansion of ESPSs in Arkansas, it may be difficult to use ESPSs as a trap crop to lower stink bug populations across large enough areas to suppress populations in late-season soybean. Also, multiple

  10. Inventory analysis of West African cattle breeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belemsaga, D.M.A.; Lombo, Y.; Sylla, S.; Thevenon, S.

    2005-01-01

    The improvement of livestock productivity and the preservation of their genetic diversity to allow breeders to select animals adapted to environmental changes, diseases and social needs, require a detailed inventory and genetic characterization of domesticated animal breeds. Indeed, in developing countries, the notion of breed is not clearly defined, as visual traits are often used and characterization procedures are often subjective. So it is necessary to upgrade the phenotypic approach using genetic information. At CIRDES, a regional centre for subhumid livestock research and development, such studies have been conducted. This paper focuses on cattle breed inventory in seven countries of West Africa as a tool for genetic research on cattle improvement. Data collection was done using a bibliographical study, complemented by in situ investigations. According to phenotypic description and concepts used by indigenous livestock keepers, 13 local cattle breeds were recognized: N'dama, Kouri, the Baoule-Somba group, the Lagoon cattle group, zebu Azawak, zebu Maure, zebu Touareg, zebu Goudali, zebu Bororo, zebu White Fulani, zebu Djelli, zebu Peuhl soudanien and zebu Gobra (Toronke). Nine exotic breeds, (American Brahman, Gir, Girolando, Droughtmaster, Santa Gertrudis, Holstein, Montbeliarde, Jersey and Brown Swiss) and five typical cross-breeds (Holstein x Goudali; Montbeliarde x Goudali; Holstein x Azawak; Brown Swiss x Azawak; and Brown Swiss x zebu peuhl soudanien) were also found. From this initial investigation, the areas of heavy concentration of herds and the most important breeds were described. The review has also indicated the necessity for a balance between improving livestock productivity and the conservation of trypanotolerant breeds at risk of extinction in West Africa. (author)

  11. 76 FR 64185 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arkansas; Regional Haze State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ..., organic carbon, elemental carbon, and soil dust) and their precursors (e.g., SO 2, nitrogen oxides (NO X... measures that provide for greater reasonable progress than BART. 40 CFR 51.308(e). \\9\\ In American Corn...

  12. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Raymondi Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country.

  13. West nile virus anti-body surveillance in three Sierra Nevada raptors of conservation concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Hull; J.J. Keane; L.A. Tell; H.B. Ernest

    2010-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) infection has caused high levels of mortality in North American hawks and owls. To investigate the extent of infection among raptors of conservation concern in the Sierra Nevada, we tested 62 Northern Goshawks (Accipiter gentilis), 209 Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis), and 22 Great Gray Owls (...

  14. The Great Migration and African-American Genomic Diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Baharian

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.

  15. Water Quality and Biological Characteristics of the Middle Fork of the Saline River, Arkansas, 2003-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Joel M.; Petersen, James C.; Shelby, Erica L.; Wise, Jim A.

    2008-01-01

    The Middle Fork of the Saline River has many qualities that have been recognized by State and Federal agencies. The Middle Fork provides habitat for several rare aquatic species and is part of a larger stream system (the Upper Saline River) that is known for relatively high levels of species richness and relatively high numbers of species of concern. Water-quality samples were collected and streamflow was measured by the U.S. Geological Survey at three sites in the Middle Fork Basin between October 2003 and October 2006. The Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality collected discrete synoptic water-quality samples from eight sites between January 2004 and October 2006. The Arkansas Department of Environmental Quality also sampled fish (September-October 2003) and benthic macroinvertebrate communities (September 2003-December 2005) at five sites. Streamflow varied annually among the three streamflow sites from October 2003 to October 2006. The mean annual streamflow for Brushy Creek near Jessieville (MFS06) was 0.72 cubic meters per second for water years 2004-2006. The Middle Fork below Jessieville (MFS05) had a mean annual streamflow of 1.11 cubic meters per second for water years 2004-2006. The Middle Fork near Owensville (MFS02), the most downstream site, had a mean annual streamflow of 3.01 cubic meters per second. The greatest streamflows at the three sites generally occurred in the winter and spring and the least in the summer. Nutrient dynamics in the Middle Fork are controlled by activities in the basin and processes that occur in the stream. Point sources and nonpoint sources of nutrients occur in the Middle Fork Basin that could affect the water-quality. Nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations generally were greatest in Mill Creek (MFS04E) and in the Middle Fork immediately downstream from the confluence with Mill Creek (MFS04) with decreasing concentrations at sites farther downstream in Middle Fork. The site in Mill Creek is located downstream from a

  16. Hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment reconnaissance, orientation study, Ouachita Mountain area, Arkansas. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, K. F.

    1982-08-01

    A hydrogeochemical ground water orientation study was conducted in the multi-mineralized area of the Ouachita Mountains, Arkansas in order to evaluate the usefulness of ground water as a sampling medium for uranium exploration in similar areas. Ninety-three springs and nine wells were sampled in Clark, Garland, Hot Springs, Howard, Montgomery, Pike, Polk, and Sevier Counties. Manganese, barite, celestite, cinnabar, stibnite, copper, lead, and zinc are present. The following parameters were determined: pH, conductivity, alkalinity, U, Br, Cl, F, He, Mn, Na, V, Al, Dy, NO/sub 3/, NH/sub 3/, SO/sub 4/, and PO/sub 4/. The minerals appear to significantly affect the chemistry of the ground water. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation.

  17. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the use of manual vacuum aspiration for uterine evacuation9. Uterine evacuation is one of the most commonly performed procedures in our center and procured abortion With its numerous complications. West African Journal of Medicine Vol. 26, N o. 4. Treatment Outcome of Asherman's Syndrome is a particular problem in ...

  18. Upgrading of the West Area

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The rejigged main hall (EHW1) in the West Area: on background, below the crane, is the brown yoke of the Omega magnet which had been resited. The upgrading was completed by the time in July when 400 GeV protons arrived. See Annual Report 1983 p. 107.

  19. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Goitre in the West African sub-region is caused by iodine deficiency and goitrogens in the diet. Supplementary iodine nutrition on a mass scale was started in Ghana in 1996. In areas where iodine deficiency have been corrected the histological pattern of goitre changes and this influences surgical decision.

  20. West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    _ WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE. CLINI CAL PRA CTI CE. Pain Management inAdult Acute Sickle Cell Pain Crisis: A Viewpoint. Chagriner la direction dans la crise de douleur de cellule de faucille adulte: un point de Vue . E. Udezue*, E. HerreraT. ABSTRACT. BACKGROUND: The acute pain crisis of sickle cell ...

  1. West Nile Virus Neuroinvasive Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological features of West Nile Virus (WNV disease among children (<18 years of age reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention from 1999 through 2007 were analyzed and compared with those of adult WNV neuroinvasive disease (WNND, in a study at CDC&P, Fort Collins, CO.

  2. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Duvie SOA, Endeley EML, Danniya. MH. Urolithiasis in Maiduguri: The. Nigerian Savannah belt Experience. West. Afri Med. 1988; 7: 148–61. 10. Hassan I, Mohammed I. Urethral calculi: a review. East Afr Med J. 1993;. 70: 523–5. 11. Ahmed A, Saeed NM. Experience with the management of urethral stones presenting with ...

  3. Verbal aspects in West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2017-01-01

    In this article, lexical aspectual types in West Greenlandic are investigated in the five aspectual types, states, achievements, semelfactives, activities and accomplishments. It is shown that derivational verbalizing affixes include aspectual type congruent with the lexical aspect and how the as...

  4. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  5. The myth of the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onelio Olivera Blanco

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The next job leads to some reflections on one of the oldest myths of humanity: the myth of the cultural superiority of what bourgeois historiography called the West as opposed to the alleged low level of development than the same conception calls East. Illustrative examples the fallacy of this view is shown.

  6. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    Kaushik B, Samiran B. Prevalence of underweight and stunting among school children in West Bengal. Indian J. Pediatr. 2008; 75: 1272. 16. Jafar TH, Qadri Z, Islam M, Hatcher J,. Bhutta ZA, Chaturvedi N. Rise in childhood obesity with persistently high rates of undernutrition among urban school-aged Indo-Asian children.

  7. Librarianship in Francophone West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguolu, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the current level of library development and librarianship in francophone West Africa, taking Senegal as a case in point. The topics addressed include the impact of colonialism on library development, the structure of library services, the role of UNESCO seminars in library development, and the education of library personnel. (JL)

  8. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    West African Journal of Medicine Vol. 30, No. 2 March–April, 2011. INTRODUCTION. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood. (AHC) is a rare neurological disorder that goes undiagnosed in many cases. It has a prevalence of about one case per million.1 It was first described by Vernot and Steele in 1971.2 Within this diagnosis.

  9. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user1

    West African Journal of Medicine Vol. 30, No. 2 March–April, 2011. A. E. Fawibe and Associates. Unilateral Tuberculous Lung Destruction. INTRODUCTION. Unilateral lung destruction is a .... occasional low grade fever associated with weight loss despite good .... right ventricular diastolic dysfunction and moderate tricuspid ...

  10. 77 FR 65015 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: American Museum of Natural History... Resources, American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024... after that date if no additional claimants come forward. The American Museum of Natural History is...

  11. The future of transit in West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The Future of Transit in West Virginia is a study of the current system of public transportation in West Virginia and : an examination of issues, priorities and projections of the public transportation network in the coming years. The : purpose...

  12. West Indian Prose Fiction in the Sixties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Edward

    1971-01-01

    A Review and critical discussion of the West Indian prose fiction in the sixties by one of the best-known poets of the Carribean and a member of the faculty of the University of West Indies, Jamaica. (JM)

  13. Team West Virginia/Rome Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korakakis, Dimitris [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Overall, the team, West Virginia University (WVU) and University of Rome Tor Vergata (UTV), has a goal of building an attractive, low-cost, energy-efficient solar-powered home that represents both the West Virginian and Italian cultures.

  14. Mechanisms of Vowel Variation in African American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster

    2018-02-15

    This research explored mechanisms of vowel variation in African American English by comparing 2 geographically distant groups of African American and White American English speakers for participation in the African American Shift and the Southern Vowel Shift. Thirty-two male (African American: n = 16, White American controls: n = 16) lifelong residents of cities in eastern and western North Carolina produced heed,hid,heyd,head,had,hod,hawed,whod,hood,hoed,hide,howed,hoyd, and heard 3 times each in random order. Formant frequency, duration, and acoustic analyses were completed for the vowels /i, ɪ, e, ɛ, æ, ɑ, ɔ, u, ʊ, o, aɪ, aʊ, oɪ, ɝ/ produced in the listed words. African American English speakers show vowel variation. In the west, the African American English speakers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift and hod fronting of the African American Shift. In the east, neither the African American English speakers nor their White peers are participating in the Southern Vowel Shift. The African American English speakers show limited participation in the African American Shift. The results provide evidence of regional and socio-ethnic variation in African American English in North Carolina.

  15. Preliminary assessment of a previously unknown fault zone beneath the Daytona Beach sand blow cluster near Marianna, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odum, Jackson K.; Williams, Robert; Stephenson, William J.; Tuttle, Martitia P.; Al-Shukri, Hadar

    2016-01-01

    We collected new high‐resolution P‐wave seismic‐reflection data to explore for possible faults beneath a roughly linear cluster of early to mid‐Holocene earthquake‐induced sand blows to the south of Marianna, Arkansas. The Daytona Beach sand blow deposits are located in east‐central Arkansas about 75 km southwest of Memphis, Tennessee, and about 80 km south of the southwestern end of the New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ). Previous studies of these sand blows indicate that they were produced between 10,500 and 5350 yr B.P. (before A.D. 1950). The sand blows are large and similar in size to those in the heart of the NMSZ produced by the 1811–1812 earthquakes. The seismic‐reflection profiles reveal a previously unknown zone of near‐vertical faults imaged in the 100–1100‐m depth range that are approximately coincident with a cluster of earthquake‐induced sand blows and a near‐linear surface lineament composed of air photo tonal anomalies. These interpreted faults are expressed as vertical discontinuities with the largest displacement fault showing about 40 m of west‐side‐up displacement at the top of the Paleozoic section at about 1100 m depth. There are about 20 m of folding on reflections within the Eocene strata at 400 m depth. Increasing fault displacement with depth suggests long‐term recurrent faulting. The imaged faults within the vicinity of the numerous sand blow features could be a causative earthquake source, although it does not rule out the possibility of other seismic sources nearby. These newly located faults add to a growing list of potentially active Pleistocene–Holocene faults discovered over the last two decades that are within the Mississippi embayment region but outside of the historical NMSZ.

  16. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to the authority contained in... Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for Key West Bank, Key West, Florida, (OTS No...

  17. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its...

  18. ESSEA On-Line Courses and the WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rognier, E.

    2001-12-01

    The WestEd Eisenhower Regional Consortium (WERC) is in its second year of offering two Earth Systems Science On-line Graduate courses from IGES - one for High School teachers, and one for Middle School teachers. These high-quality courses support WERC's commitment to "supporting increased scientific and mathematical literacy among our nation's youth through services and other support aimed at enhancing the efforts of those who provide K-12 science and mathematics education." WERC has been able to use its EdGateway online community network to offer these courses to environmental education and science teachers nationwide. Through partnerships with the North American Association for Environmental Education (NAAEE), the National Environmental Education Advancement Project (NEEAP), and other regional, state and local science and environmental education organizations, WERC has a broad reach in connecting with science educators nationwide. WERC manages several state and national listservs, which enable us to reach thousands of educators with information about the courses. EdGateway also provides a private online community in which we offer the courses. WERC partners with two Master Teachers from Utah, who facilitate the courses, and with the Center for Science and Mathematics Education at Weber State University, who provides low-cost graduate credit for the courses. Our students have included classroom teachers from upper elementary through high school, community college science teachers, and environmental science center staff who provide inservice for teachers. Educators from Hawaii to New Jersey have provided diverse personal experiences of Earth Systems Science events, and add richness to the online discussions. Two Earth Science Experts, Dr. Rick Ford from Weber State University, and Dr. Art Sussman from WestEd also contribute to the high caliber of learning the students experience in the courses. (Dr. Sussman's book, Dr. Art's Guide to Planet Earth, is used as one of

  19. West African Journal of Radiology: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The West African Journal of Radiology is the official publication of Association of Radiologists of West Africa. The Association was formed in the year 1963 while the Journal of West African Radiology was officially lunched in 1982. Membership consists of diagnostic, therapy radiologists, interventional ...

  20. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.349 Section 81.349... Virginia. West Virginia—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary standards Does not meet secondary... district in Berkeley County X Remainder of State X West Virginia—SO2 Designated area Does not meet primary...

  1. Population Structure of West Greenland Narwhals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riget, F.; Dietz, R.; Møller, P.

    The hypothesis that different populations of narwhals in the West Greenland area exist has been tested by different biomarkers (metal and organochlorine concentrations, stable isotopes and DNA). Samples of muscle, liver, kidney, blubber and skin tissues of narwhals from West Greenland have been...... isotopes could not support the population structure with two West Greenland populations suggested by the genetic study....

  2. AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Andreea Pirnuta

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In an interconnected world where foreign relations matter not only for resources or military alliances but also for cultural relationships, it is highly important to have a better understanding of the power relations among nations. The information carries certain meanings that have important outcomes thus defining the power of a given nation. Foreign policy is the channel through which global politics is exercised. International politics is a hierarchy of power being determined by important cultural, economic as well as geographical aspects. The reasons and strategies that are used in order to reach the outcomes in global politics represent the focus of the present paper. The United States has been the leader in international politics since the early 20th century due to its vast resources and wealth as well as its cultural output. America’s interest in preserving a democratic and free world has its foundation in the beliefs and values it stands for the aim of this paper is to question whether or not there is a concrete premise for the idea of American exceptionalism.

  3. Title I: African-American Studies Program. Student Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Linda

    This is a student workbook in African American studies used in the Detroit, Michigan public schools in 1978-79. The workbook contains student exercises in African history, culture, geography, languages, architecture, folktales, food, and artifacts. The continent of Africa is covered in units on Egypt, North Africa, West Africa, Central Africa, and…

  4. Identity Theft: Gentrification, Latinidad, and American Girl Marisol Luna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Jennifer Domino

    2009-01-01

    Released by Mattel in 2005, American Girl doll Marisol Luna quickly provoked controversy. The doll's accompanying narrative depicts her Chicago neighborhood of Pilsen as "dangerous" and recounts her family's move to the suburbs. Pilsen, located just south and west of downtown Chicago, has a long history as a Mexican (im)migrant port of…

  5. U. S. Forest Service American Chestnut Cooperators' Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay H. Smith

    1981-01-01

    On January 8 and 9, 1980, a 2-day meeting of U.S. Forest Service American chestnut cooperators was held at Pipestem State Park, Pipestem, West Virginia. A total of 43 talks were given a t this meeting. All speakers provided short abstracts of their talks; these abstracts are presented here.

  6. Pictures at an exhibition - or : the art of American politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böss, Michael

    Denne konferencepaper beskriver og analyserer kunstudstillingen 'The West as America' på The National Gallery of American Art i Washington i anledning af fejringen af 500-året for Columbus' opdagelse af Amerika. Specielt vies der opmærksomhed på de folkelige, kunstkritiske og politiske reaktioner...

  7. Two-dimensional simulation of the June 11, 2010, flood of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreational Area, Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    In the early morning hours of June 11, 2010, substantial flooding occurred at Albert Pike Recreation Area in the Ouachita National Forest of west-central Arkansas, killing 20 campers. The U.S. Forest Service needed information concerning the extent and depth of flood inundation, the water velocity, and flow paths throughout Albert Pike Recreation Area for the flood and for streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The two-dimensional flow model Fst2DH, part of the Federal Highway Administration’s Finite Element Surface-water Modeling System, and the graphical user interface Surface-water Modeling System (SMS) were used to perform a steady-state simulation of the flood in a 1.5-mile reach of the Little Missouri River at Albert Pike Recreation Area. Peak streamflows of the Little Missouri River and tributary Brier Creek served as inputs to the simulation, which was calibrated to the surveyed elevations of high-water marks left by the flood and then used to predict flooding that would result from streamflows corresponding to annual exceedence probabilities of 1 and 2 percent. The simulated extent of the June 11, 2010, flood matched the observed extent of flooding at Albert Pike Recreation Area. The mean depth of inundation in the camp areas was 8.5 feet in Area D, 7.4 feet in Area C, 3.8 feet in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 12.5 feet in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. The mean water velocity was 7.2 feet per second in Area D, 7.6 feet per second in Area C, 7.2 feet per second in Areas A, B, and the Day Use Area, and 7.6 feet per second in Lowry’s Camp Albert Pike. A sensitivity analysis indicated that varying the streamflow of the Little Missouri River had the greatest effect on simulated water-surface elevation, while varying the streamflow of tributary Brier Creek had the least effect. Simulated water-surface elevations were lower than those modeled by the U.S. Forest Service using the standard-step method, but the

  8. American Missionary Universities in China and the Middle East and American Philanthropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the interacting soft power of two important categories of American transnational actors: American missionary universities in China and the Middle East and American religious, foundation and individual philanthropy. These transnational actors have had and have soft power...... in Chinese and Middle East societies based on academic excellence and biculturalism. However, this transnational actor soft power has historically been limited by religious proselytising, unequal treaties between China and the West, the humiliation of China, and American China and Middle East policy....... The universities have had and continue to have reverse soft power in the USA attracting resources and advocating on behalf of China and the Middle East. Philanthropic support for the educational, research, healthcare and social development work of these universities has contributed to university soft power...

  9. Winter in the Ouachitas--a severe winter storm signature in Pinus echinata in the Ouachita Mountains of Oklahoma and Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas J. Stevenson; Thomas B. Lynch; Pradip Saud; Robert Heineman; Randal Holeman; Dennis Wilson; Keith Anderson; Chris Cerny; James M. Guldin

    2016-01-01

    Each year severe winter storms (≈ice storms) damage trees throughout the southern USA. Arkansas and Oklahoma have a history of severe winter storms. To extend that history back beyond the reach of written records, a distinctive tree ring pattern or signature is needed. Storm-caused breakage, branch loss and bending stress provide that signature. We found a severe storm...

  10. Final Environmental Assessment, Construct Antenna Parts Storage Facility, Upgrade Perimeter Security Fence and Demolish Camera Shed, Red River Air Force Space Surveillance Station (AFSSS), Lewisville, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    antenna parts storage facility. The facility would be a mini - mum of 325 square feet with a facility length of 25 feet. A facility length of 25 feet...affected. Wetlands Wetlands in Arkansas are commonly referred to as swamps, sloughs, shallow lakes, ponds and river-overflow lands. Within the Red River...Branch-Bodcau Creek subwatershed is a small pond located 225 feet north of the Installation boundary. Arkansas’s Department of Environmental Quality

  11. Pre- and Post- Wage Differences of Trade Adjustment Assistance Job Training Participants in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Kimberley Hall

    2012-01-01

    A number of costs are associated with the implementation of trade agreements not the least of which is the cost to the American workforce. The information age ushered in an era of globalization unlike anything the world economy had experienced before. As countries raced forward to dominate emerging markets and grow market share, millions of…

  12. Archaeological Investigations of The Little Cypress Bayou Site (3CT50) Crittenden County, Arkansas. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    out." Through time the economic base becomes gradually more limited (Cleland 1976:66). The introduction of maize and beans from MesoAmerica , and the...Randon House, Chicago. Sanders, William T. 1962 Cultural ecology of nuclear Mesoamerica . American Anthropologist 64:34-44. Saucier, Roger T. 1981 Current

  13. Potential seaways across West Antarctica

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, David G.; Barnes, David K. A.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Bingham, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    The West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) has long been considered vulnerable to rapid retreat and today parts are rapidly losing ice. Projection of future change in WAIS is, however, hampered by our poor understanding of past changes, especially during interglacial periods that could be analogs for the future, but which undoubtedly provide an opportunity for testing predictive models. We consider how ice-loss would open seaways across WAIS; these would likely alter Southern Ocean circulation and c...

  14. Monsoon rains over West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schupelius, Gert-Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    Potential mechanisms producing high or low seasonal rainfall in tropical West Africa are investigated for the period 1963–74 using monthly data of precipitation, surface pressure in the South Atlantic and rawinsondes, mainly in Africa. Contrary to widespread opinion, the South Atlantic pressures yielded no correlation; the best connection was between rainfall and upper-level African observations.DOI: 10.1111/j.2153-3490.1976.tb00700.x

  15. Trends of Non-Accidental, Cardiovascular, Stroke and Lung Cancer Mortality in Arkansas Are Associated with Ambient PM2.5 Reductions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Cecile G. Chalbot

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular and stroke mortality rates in Arkansas are among the highest in the USA. The annual trends of stroke and cardiovascular mortality are barely correlated to smoking cessation; while the prevalence of risk factors such as obesity; cholesterol and hypertension increased over the 1979–2007 period. The study determined the effect of chronic exposure to PM2.5 on non-accidental; cardiovascular; stroke and lung cancer mortality in Arkansas over the 2000–2010 period using the World Health Organization’s log-linear health impact model. County chronic exposures to PM2.5 were computed by averaging spatially-resolved gridded concentrations using PM2.5 observations. A spatial uniformity was observed for PM2.5 mass levels indicating that chronic exposures were comparable throughout the state. The reduction of PM2.5 mass levels by 3.0 μg/m3 between 2000 and 2010 explained a significant fraction of the declining mortality. The effect was more pronounced in southern and eastern rural Arkansas as compared to the rest of the state. This study provides evidence that the implementation of air pollution regulations has measurable effects on mortality even in regions with high prevalence of major risk factors such as obesity and smoking. These outcomes are noteworthy as efforts to modify the major risk factors require longer realization times.

  16. [Differential diagnoses of West syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejerman, Natalio

    2013-09-06

    This study describes the clinical and electroencephalographic characteristics of epileptic spasms, and more especially those that occur during the first two years of life (infantile spasms). West syndrome has been clearly defined as the association between infantile spasms with an electroencephalographic pattern of hypsarrhythmia. Although intellectual deficit appears in almost all cases in which infantile spasms are not controlled with medication, this is a developmental aspect of the condition and not a manifestation that must necessarily be present in order to define the syndrome. The analysis of the interictal and ictal electroencephalogram readings, together with the clinical characteristics of the spasms and the neurological examination of patients, provides some orientation as regards the causations. Despite the spectrum that the title of this work focuses on, the study does not cover the treatment of early infants with West syndrome. Emphasis is placed on the differential diagnoses of West syndrome with other epileptic syndromes that manifest in the first two years of life, and more especially with a series of abnormal non-epileptic motor phenomena that occur in early infants. All these last non-epileptic disorders are displayed in a table, but benign myoclonus of early infancy or Fejerman syndrome is given as a paradigmatic example for the differential diagnosis. The primordial aim is to prevent neurologically healthy early infants from receiving antiepileptic drugs and even adrenocorticotropic hormone or corticoids due to a mistaken diagnosis.

  17. Native Americans with Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Native Americans with Diabetes Better diabetes care can decrease kidney failure Language: ... between 1996 and 2013. Problem Kidney failure from diabetes was highest among Native Americans. Native Americans are ...

  18. Antibody response of five bird species after vaccination with a killed West Nile virus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Danelle M; Llizo, Shirley Yeo; Miller, Christine L; Glaser, Amy L

    2007-06-01

    West Nile virus has been associated with numerous bird mortalities in the United States since 1999. Five avian species at three zoological parks were selected to assess the antibody response to vaccination for West Nile virus: black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus), little blue penguins (Eudyptula minor), American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber), Chilean flamingos (Phoenicopterus chilensis), and Attwater's prairie chickens (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri). All birds were vaccinated intramuscularly at least twice with a commercially available inactivated whole virus vaccine (Innovator). Significant differences in antibody titer over time were detected for black-footed penguins and both flamingo species.

  19. Final Environmental Assessment for Installation Development at Little Rock Air Force Base Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-18

    Environmental Quality ADSL average daily student load AETC Air Education and Training Command AF Air Force AFB Air Force Base AFCESA Air Force Civil...load ( ADSL ) in Fiscal Year (FY) 2010 but level back to current programmed ADSL . • U.S. Marine C-130 Training. This is the expansion of current C...American Landing Zone ADSL Average Daily Student Load AETC Air Education and Training Command AFB Air Force Base AGL above ground level AMC Air

  20. Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality in Barbados, West Indies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm J. M. Hennis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe prostate cancer incidence and mortality in Barbados, West Indies. We ascertained all histologically confirmed cases of prostate cancer during the period July 2002 to December 2008 and reviewed each death registration citing prostate cancer over a 14-year period commencing January 1995. There were 1101 new cases for an incidence rate of 160.4 (95% Confidence Interval: 151.0–170.2 per 100,000 standardized to the US population. Comparable rates in African-American and White American men were 248.2 (95% CI: 246.0–250.5 and 158.0 (95% CI: 157.5–158.6 per 100,000, respectively. Prostate cancer mortality rates in Barbados ranged from 63.2 to 101.6 per 100,000, compared to 51.1 to 78.8 per 100,000 among African Americans. Prostate cancer risks are lower in Caribbean-origin populations than previously believed, while mortality rates appeared to be higher than reported in African-American men. Studies in Caribbean populations may assist understanding of disparities among African-origin populations with shared heredity.

  1. Hydrogeologic characteristics and geospatial analysis of water-table changes in the alluvium of the lower Arkansas River Valley, southeastern Colorado, 2002, 2008, and 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Michael J.

    2017-05-15

    The U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Lower Arkansas Valley Water Conservancy District measures groundwater levels periodically in about 100 wells completed in the alluvial material of the Arkansas River Valley in Pueblo, Crowley, Otero, Bent, and Prowers Counties in southeastern Colorado, of which 95 are used for the analysis in this report. The purpose of this report is to provide information to water-resource administrators, managers, planners, and users about groundwater characteristics in the alluvium of the lower Arkansas Valley extending roughly 150 miles between Pueblo Reservoir and the Colorado-Kansas State line. This report includes three map sheets showing (1) bedrock altitude at the base of the alluvium of the lower Arkansas Valley; (2) estimated spring-to-spring and fall-to-fall changes in water-table altitude between 2002, 2008, and 2015; and (3) estimated saturated thickness in the alluvium during spring and fall of 2002, 2008, and 2015, and thickness of the alluvium in the lower Arkansas Valley. Water-level changes were analyzed by geospatial interpolation methods.Available data included all water-level measurements made between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2015; however, only data from fall and spring of 2002, 2008, and 2015 are mapped in this report. To account for the effect of John Martin Reservoir in Bent County, Colorado, lake levels at the reservoir were assigned to points along the approximate shoreline and were included in the water-level dataset. After combining the water-level measurements and lake levels, inverse distance weighting was used to interpolate between points and calculate the altitude of the water table for fall and spring of each year for comparisons. Saturated thickness was calculated by subtracting the bedrock surface from the water-table surface. Thickness of the alluvium was calculated by subtracting the bedrock surface from land surface using a digital elevation model.In order to analyze the response

  2. Potential for Optical Sensor-Based Nitrogen Fertilization in Grain Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) in Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales Rodriguez, Kamil

    Ground-based active-optical (GBAO) crop sensors have become an effective tool to improve nitrogen (N) use efficiency and to predict yield early in the growing season, particularly for grass crops. Commercially available canopy sensors calculate the normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) by emitting light in the red and near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The NDVI is used to evaluate vigor status and to estimate yield potential. However, few studies have been conducted to compare the performance of commercially available sensors. Therefore, a study was conducted using the most common crop canopy sensors: i) N-Tech's GreenSeeker(TM) (GS), ii) Holland Scientific's Crop Circle(TM) (CC), and iii) Minolta's SPAD-502 chlorophyll content meter (CCM). The objective of this study was to find the optimum time for sensing and compare the relative performance of the sensors in estimating the yield potential of grain sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench). Treatments included six levels of N fertilization (0, 37, 74, 111, 148, and 185 kg N/ ha), applied in a single split 20 days after planting (DAP). Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with five replications, in four locations in Arkansas, during 2012 and 2013. Sensors readings at vegetative growth stages V3, 4, 5 and 6. Results from simple regression analysis showed that the V3-V4 growth stage correlated better with grain yield than readings collected and any other time. In season estimated yield (INSEY) obtained at V3 captured 41, 57, 78, and 61% of the variation in grain sorghum yield when red NDVI of GS, red NDVI of CC, red edge for CC and CCM, respectively, were used. Results from these studies suggest that the CC sensor has a better potential for in-season site-specific N application in Arkansas than the GS sensor. The GS reflectance values appear to saturate after the V3 stage, in contrast with CC values that allow for discrimination past the V3 Stage. Therefore, the red

  3. Comparing the 2000 and 2005 factors affecting the selling price of feeder cattle sold at Arkansas livestock auctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troxel, T R; Barham, B L

    2007-12-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine how factors affecting the selling price of feeder calves changed from 2000 to 2005 and to examine the perception that discounts narrow or even disappear as calf supplies decrease and selling prices increase. Data from weekly Arkansas livestock auctions were collected from January 1 to December 31 in 2000 and 2005. Data included calf sex, breed type, color, muscle score, horn status, frame score, fill, condition, health, and BW. Mean selling prices for 2000 and 2005 were $92.91 +/- 15.05 and $118.32 +/- 15.13 (mean +/- SD; $/45.45 kg), respectively. Individual price observations were subtracted from the respective annual means and became the dependent variable. The selling prices for feeder calves sold in groups of 2 to 5 calves and in groups of >/= 6 calves were greater in 2005 than 2000 (P Brahman (P Brahman Cross, Charolais, Charolais x Limousin, Hereford x Limousin, Limousin, Limousin x one-fourth Brahman, Longhorn, Saler and Simmental. Yellow-white face, black-white face, black, and gray feeder calves received an increase in selling price from 2000 to 2005 (P < 0.001). Although fewer horned feeder calves were sold in 2005 (P < 0.01), they received greater discounts in 2005 than 2000 (-$2.86 +/- 0.16 and -$0.51 +/- 0.09; P < 0.001). In 2005, large-framed feeder calves did not receive the premium detected in 2000, but medium-framed feeder calves in 2005 received a greater selling price compared with 2000. Feeder calves with a muscle score of 1 received a greater premium in 2005 compared with 2000 ($2.58 +/- 0.06 and $0.02 +/- 0.09, respectively; P < 0.001). Feeder calves with a muscle score of 2 were discounted in both years, but the discount in 2005 was not as great as in 2000 (P < 0.001). Full and tanked feeder calves received greater discounts in 2005 than in 2000 (P < 0.001). Discounts for fleshy and fat feeder calves were greater in 2005 than in 2000. Most factors affecting the selling price of Arkansas feeder

  4. ‘In love, she remains whole’: Heterosexual Love in Contemporary Arab American Poetry Written by Women

    OpenAIRE

    Bosch Vilarrubias, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heter...

  5. Alternating current for the West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the reactor EPR construction in the Manche, the authors wonder on the pertinence of this energy choice for the economy and the environment of the West France. They show that there is an alternative to this choice. In a first part a state of the situation concerning the electricity supply and demand in the region is detailed. Then from the local potential of renewable electric power production and the electricity conservation, they propose many concrete actions. (A.L.B.)

  6. Permafrost degradation in West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foged, Niels Nielsen; Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Important aspects of civil engineering in West Greenland relate to the presence of permafrost and mapping of the annual and future changes in the active layer due to the ongoing climatically changes in the Arctic. The Arctic Technology Centre (ARTEK) has worked more than 10 years on this topic...... parameters. It is planned as decision and planning tool for town planners and engineers in local municipality governments and to consulting engineers and contractors in Greenland, which also may be used in other arctic regions. Risk is classified in four categories: Low, Limited, Medium and High based...

  7. K West Basin canister survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A survey was conducted of the K West Basin to determine the distribution of canister types that contain the irradiated N Reactor fuel. An underwater camera was used to conduct the survey during June 1998, and the results were recorded on videotape. A full row-by-row survey of the entire basin was performed, with the distinction between aluminum and stainless steel Mark 1 canisters made by the presence or absence of steel rings on the canister trunions (aluminum canisters have the steel rings). The results of the survey are presented in tables and figures. Grid maps of the three bays show the canister lid ID number and the canister type in each location that contained fuel. The following abbreviations are used in the grid maps for canister type designation: IA = Mark 1 aluminum, IS = Mark 1 stainless steel, and 2 = Mark 2 stainless steel. An overall summary of the canister distribution survey is presented in Table 1. The total number of canisters found to contain fuel was 3842, with 20% being Mark 1 Al, 25% being Mark 1 SS, and 55% being Mark 2 SS. The aluminum canisters were predominantly located in the East and West bays of the basin

  8. Geophysical characterization of the Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, using capacitively coupled resistivity, coring, and direct push logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillip, Jonathan A.; Payne, Jason

    2011-01-01

    A geophysical characterization of Lollie Levee near Conway, Arkansas, was conducted in February 2011. A capacitively coupled resistivity survey (using Geometric's OhmMapper) was completed along the top and toe of the 6.7-mile levee. Two-dimensional inversions were conducted on the geophysical data. As a quality-control measure, cores and direct push logs were taken at approximately 1-mile intervals along the levee. The capacitively coupled resistivity survey, the coring, and the direct push logs were used to characterize the geologic materials. Comparison of the cores and the direct push log data, along with published resistivity values, indicates that resistivity values of 200 Ohm-meters or greater represent relatively clean sand, with decreasing resistivity values occurring with increasing silt and clay content. The cores indicated that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of sand, silt, and clay. The capacitively coupled resistivity sections confirm that the levee is composed of a heterogeneous mixture of high and low resistivity materials and show that the composition of the levee varies spatially. The geologic materials underlying the levee vary spatially as a result of the geologic processes that deposited them. In general, the naturally deposited geologic materials underlying the levee contain a greater amount of low resistivity materials in the southern extent of the levee.

  9. Anatomical and physiologic characteristics to predict football ability. Report of study methods and correlations, University of Arkansas, 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J A; Brown, B; Micheli, R P; Coker, T P

    1980-01-01

    In a prospective study of 56 scholarship players at the University of Arkansas in 1976, 14 anatomical and physiologic measurements were carried out on each of the 56 players, to include certain orthopaedic strength, power, and balance tests, and compared to the coaches' subjective ratings of football ability in an effort to determine which characteristics best correlate to the athlete's true performance. The correlation matrix for the criterion measure and the predictor variables of selected anatomical strength, balance, and power measures are presented, and the results of the study indicate that genu varum (0.445) and tibial torsion (-0.33) had the highest correlation with the coaching criterion variable. The average tibial torsion was 42.6 for these scholarship athletes, while normal average tibial torsion among a nonscholarship group was 27.40 degrees. Other anatomical characteristics measured, as well as strength and power measure, could not reach the critical level of +/- 0.263 to be significant at the 0.05 level, although horsepower was close (0.255). The Margaria-Kalamen power test was significantly related to the 40-yard dash, and a moderately good measure of football ability.

  10. Participant satisfaction with a school telehealth education program using interactive compressed video delivery methods in rural Arkansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bynum, Ann B; Cranford, Charles O; Irwin, Cathy A; Denny, George S

    2002-08-01

    Socioeconomic and demographic factors can affect the impact of telehealth education programs that use interactive compressed video technology. This study assessed program satisfaction among participants in the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences' School Telehealth Education Program delivered by interactive compressed video. Variables in the one-group posttest study were age, gender, ethnicity, education, community size, and program topics for years 1997-1999. The convenience sample included 3,319 participants in junior high and high schools. The School Telehealth Education Program provided information about health risks, disease prevention, health promotion, personal growth, and health sciences. Adolescents reported medium to high levels of satisfaction regarding program interest and quality. Significantly higher satisfaction was expressed for programs on muscular dystrophy, anatomy of the heart, and tobacco addiction (p Education Program, delivered by interactive compressed video, promoted program satisfaction among rural and minority populations and among junior high and high school students. Effective program methods included an emphasis on participants' learning needs, increasing access in rural areas among ethnic groups, speaker communication, and clarity of the program presentation.

  11. An 1800-yr record of decadal-scale hydroclimatic variability in the upper Arkansas River basin from bristlecone pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, C.A.; Pederson, G.T.; Gray, S.T.

    2011-01-01

    Bristlecone pine trees are exceptionally long-lived, and with the incorporation of remnant material have been used to construct multi-millennial length ring-width chronologies. These chronologies can provide valuable information about past temperature and moisture variability. In this study, we outline a method to build a moisture-sensitive bristlecone chronology and assess the robustness and consistency of this sensitivity over the past 1200. yr using new reconstructions of Arkansas River flow (AD 1275-2002 and 1577-2002) and the summer Palmer Drought Sensitivity Index. The chronology, a composite built from parts of three collections in the central Rocky Mountains, is a proxy for decadal-scale moisture variability for the past 18 centuries. Since the sample size is small in some portions of the time series, the chronology should be considered preliminary; the timing and duration of drought events are likely the most robust characteristics. This chronology suggests that the region experienced increased aridity during the medieval period, as did much of western North America, but that the timing and duration of drought episodes within this period were somewhat different from those in other western locations, such as the upper Colorado River basin. ?? 2010 University of Washington.

  12. Measurements on spent-fuel assemblies at Arkansas Nuclear One using the Fork system. Final report, January 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.I.; Bronowski, D.R.; Bosler, G.E.; Siebelist, R.; Priore, J.; Hansford, C.H.; Sullivan, S.

    1997-03-01

    The Fork measurement system has been used to examine spent-fuel assemblies at the two reactors of Arkansas Nuclear One, operated by Entergy Operations, Inc. The Unit 1 reactor is a Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) design, and the Unit 2 reactor is a Combustion Engineering (CE) design. The neutron and gamma-ray emissions from individual spent-fuel assemblies were measured in the storage pools by raising each assembly pathway out of the storage rack and performing a measurement near the center of the assembly. The overall accuracy of the measurements after corrections is about 2%. Thirty-four assemblies were examined at Unit 1, and forty-one assemblies at Unit 2. The average deviation of the burnup measurements from the calibration was 3.0% at Unit 1 and 3.5% at Unit 2, indicating 2 to 3% random variation among the reactor records. There was no indication of clearly anomalous assemblies. Axial Scans of the variation in neutron and gamma ray emission were obtained by collecting data at several locations along the length of three assemblies at Unit 2. Two of these assemblies were nonstandard in that each contained a small neutron source. The sources were detected by the axial scans. The test program was a cooperative effort involving Sandia National Laboratories, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Entergy Operations, Inc., the Electric Power Research Institute, and the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management of the US Department of Energy

  13. Disposal of chemical agents and munitions stored at Pine Bluff Arsenal, Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Final phase 1, Environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ensminger, J.T.; Hillsman, E.L.; Johnson, R.D.; Morrisey, J.A.; Staub, W.P.; Boston, C.R.; Hunsaker, D.B.; Leibsch, E.; Rickert, L.W.; Tolbert, V.R.; Zimmerman, G.P.

    1991-09-01

    The Pine Bluff Arsenal (PBA) near Pine Bluff, Arkansas, is one of eight continental United States (CONUS) Army installations where lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions are stored and where destruction of agents and munitions is proposed under the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP). The chemical agent inventory at PBA consists of approximately 12%, by weight, of the total US stockpile. The destruction of the stockpile is necessary to eliminate the risk to the public from continued storage and to dispose of obsolete and leaking munitions. In 1988 the US Army issued a Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (FPEIS) for the CSDP that identified on-site disposal of agents and munitions as the environmentally preferred alternative (i.e., the alternative with the least potential to cause significant adverse impacts). The purpose of this report is to examine the proposed implementation of on-site disposal at PBA in light of more recent and more detailed data than those on which the FPEIS is based. New population data were used to compute fatalities using the same computation methods and values for all other parameters as in the FPEIS. Results indicate that all alternatives are indistinguishable when the potential health impacts to the PBA community are considered. However, risks from on-site disposal are in all cases equal to or less than risks from other alternatives. Furthermore, no unique resources with the potential to prevent or delay implementation of on-site disposal at PBA have been identified.

  14. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ...-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final Rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a special local regulation on the Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the...

  15. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Coast... Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013...

  16. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6. Kaplan C, Benirschke K. The acardiac anomaly: new case reports and current status. Acta Genetica Medica. Gemellologica. 1979; 28: 51–59. 7. Lewi L, Valencia C, Gonzalez E, et al. The outcome of twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence diagnosed in the first trimester. American Journal of. Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Briefing : West Africa and its oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.

    2003-01-01

    The US war on terrorism and preparations for war against Iraq have enormously increased the strategic value of West African oil reserves. This comes at a time when there have been massive new discoveries in offshore waters. This article focuses on the increased US interests in West African oil. It

  18. Archives: West African Journal of Applied Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 30 of 30 ... Archives: West African Journal of Applied Ecology. Journal Home > Archives: West African Journal of Applied Ecology. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue ...

  19. West African Journal of Applied Ecology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The focus of the West African Journal of Applied Ecologyis on ecology, agriculture and water pollution. It aims to serve as an avenue for lecturers and researchers in West Africa to publish their work. Other websites related to this journal are http://apps.ug.edu.gh/wajae/.

  20. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Virginia. 81.435 Section 81.435 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal...

  1. Archives: West African Journal of Medicine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 40 of 40 ... Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Journal Home > Archives: West African Journal of Medicine. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 40 of ...

  2. West African Journal of Radiology: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The West African Journal of Radiology (WAJR) is a publication and the official organ of the Association of Radiologists of West Africa. It is enlisted on AJOL (African Journals on-line). The Journal accepts for publication, original work in the science and technology of radiology, radiotherapy allied subjects, ...

  3. West Africanisms in Limonese Creole English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Elizabeth Grace; Obeng, Samuel Gyasi

    2000-01-01

    Discusses West Africanisms in Limonese Creole (LC), an English based creole language spoken in Costa Rica that shows substrate influence from the Kwa languages of West Africa, in particular from Akan (spoken in Ghana). Substrate influence is demonstrated through a comparison of LC and Akan morphophonology, morphosyntax, and lexicon. (Author/VWL)

  4. Installation Restoration Program. Phase II - Confirmation/Quantification. Stage 1 for American Lake Garden Tract, Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-20

    SITE DESCRIPTION American Lke. Location:. Approximately 50 feet south of the cobblestone - - .4 &1 ’odni Tract 1’ gate monument at the west end of...of the &P cobblestone gate monument at the west end of Rainier Ave., * ~ ~ %//’..in the woods at the Fort Lewis Logistics Center. -Mount Rainier...reusable rubber earplugs or earmuff type noise attenuators. D. SAIC’s field geologist or project manager will be on site and will be the job site

  5. The longitudinal variability of equatorial electrojet and vertical drift velocity in the African and American sectors

    OpenAIRE

    E. Yizengaw; M. B. Moldwin; E. Zesta; C. M. Biouele; B. Damtie; A. Mebrahtu; B. Rabiu; C. F. Valladares; R. Stoneback

    2014-01-01

    While the formation of equatorial electrojet (EEJ) and its temporal variation is believed to be fairly well understood, the longitudinal variability at all local times is still unknown. This paper presents a case and statistical study of the longitudinal variability of dayside EEJ for all local times using ground-based observations. We found EEJ is stronger in the west American sector and decreases from west to east longitudinal sectors. We also confirm the presence of signi...

  6. Trends in precipitation, streamflow, reservoir pool elevations, and reservoir releases in Arkansas and selected sites in Louisiana, Missouri, and Oklahoma, 1951–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Daniel M.; Krieger, Joshua D.; Merriman, Katherine R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) conducted a statistical analysis of trends in precipitation, streamflow, reservoir pool elevations, and reservoir releases in Arkansas and selected sites in Louisiana, Missouri, and Oklahoma for the period 1951–2011. The Mann-Kendall test was used to test for trends in annual and seasonal precipitation, annual and seasonal streamflows of 42 continuous-record USGS streamflow-gaging stations, annual pool elevations and releases from 16 USACE reservoirs, and annual releases from 11 dams on the Arkansas River. A statistically significant (p≤0.10) upward trend was observed in annual precipitation for the State, with a Sen slope of approximately 0.10 inch per year. Autumn and winter were the only seasons that had statistically significant trends in precipitation. Five of six physiographic sections and six of seven 4-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC) regions in Arkansas had statistically significant upward trends in autumn precipitation, with Sen slopes of approximately 0.06 to 0.10 inch per year. Sixteen sites had statistically significant upward trends in the annual mean daily streamflow and were located on streams that drained regions with statistically significant upward trends in annual precipitation. Expected annual rates of change corresponding to statistically significant trends in annual mean daily streamflows, which ranged from 0.32 to 0.88 percent, were greater than those corresponding to regions with statistically significant upward trends in annual precipitation, which ranged from 0.19 to 0.28 percent, suggesting that the observed trends in regional annual precipitation do not fully account for the observed trends in annual mean daily streamflows. Trends in annual maximum daily streamflows were similar to trends in the annual mean daily streamflows but were only statistically significant at seven sites. There were more statistically significant trends (28 of 42 sites) in the

  7. Human Rights in the West

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgen S. Nielsen

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the areas of conflict between Islam and the West in today’s world is the concern for human rights. This has sometimes been criticized in the Muslim world as a form of neo-imperialism. It is therefore necessary to understand the various dimensions of human rights, and the various phases through which this concern has grown. In the earliest form, it was an assertion of the rights of the landed aristocracy against those of the monarch. The French revolution, with its emphasis on "liberty, equality and fraternity," for all individuals, provided another dimension. There were many occasions on which individual and organized religion came into conflict during the Middle Ages. The experience of World War II, particularly the atrocities of the Nazis, led to the internationalization of individual rights.

  8. Westing in New Poems and three Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Doğu

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Turkısh literature completes a long period effected by İslamic culture and cıvılızatıon in 19th century when it has tendency to west. Like empire, poets and writers also focus on west. They benefits from west in terms of literature and culture. In this way, they realize innovations in the field of literature and culture as beuracracy realizes in military, financial, administrative and maarif fields. This group of people who interest in the private journal sector in cultural field, French literature styles in literature and some sozcial topics evaluate “west issue” in the perspective of current political and social developments. In this context, Tevfik Fikret is in the favour of extention of borders related to westernism. He thinks of adopting west not only in terms of science, art and techniques but also in all social institutions. With the awakening of nation and nationalism, in the perod of National Literature emerging after II. Mesrutiyet besides the rejection of westernism (alafranga, westernism called civilization (muasırlaşma is also emphized. In this article west is evaluated from the point of view of Ziya Gökalp. According to Ziya Gökalp, west is a civilization circle which should be included in. Turkısh people should take their place in this circle by protecting national culture. Mehmet Akif, living in the same period and follwing Islamic style in his works, emphasizes that there should be limitations on the ınnovations taken from west. According to M. Akif, west can only be a model only in terms of science, art and technique. After 1912, M. Akif criticises west more severely

  9. Future Hegemonic Rivalry Between China and the West?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Weede

    1995-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently there is a unipolar distribution of power. The United States reigns supreme. Russia's economic power will remain insufficient to underwrite a renewed attempt to establish global leadership. While the European Community still commands sufficient resources for exercising global leadership, it lacks the political foundation for unitary action. Moreover, the European addiction to the welfare state undermines European competitiveness. Japan is too much of a "trading state" and unlikely to become a first-rate military power, before she is overtaken by China in economic size. So, count Russia, Europe and Japan out as conceivable challengers to United States hegemony. China is the only plausible candidate. Its economic growth rate is nothing less than spectacular. Moreover, the Chinese government seems capable of extracting the necessary resources for waging a hegemonic rivalry from a society that is likely to remain quite poor for at least another generation. There are a number of conceivable scenarios for the emerging American-Chinese relationship. The future will depend on the relative speed of the American decline and the rise of China as well as on the openness of the global economy. The more open the global economy, the better the prospects for rising per capita incomes in China become, the better the prospects for some mellowing or even democratization of the Chinese regime. Only if the West sticks together under American leadership and if creeping capitalism in China leads to creeping democratization later, is hegemonic rivalry likely to remain benign and peaceful.

  10. Comparison of load estimation techniques and trend analysis for nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment in the Eucha-Spavinaw Basin, northwestern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esralew, Rachel A.; Andrews, William J.; Allen, Monica L.; Becker, Carol J.

    2011-01-01

    The City of Tulsa, Oklahoma, uses water from Lake Eucha and Spavinaw Lake in the Eucha-Spavinaw basin of northwestern Arkansas and northeastern Oklahoma for public water supply. Increases in algal biomass, which cause taste and odor problems in drinking water produced from the lakes, may be attributable to increases in nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in the lakes and in streams discharging to the lakes. To evaluate transport of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment in this basin, loads and temporal trends were evaluated for five streamflow-gaging stations in the Spavinaw and Beaty Creek basins.

  11. The use of instant medical history in a rural clinic. Case study of the use of computers in an Arkansas physician's office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, B

    2000-05-01

    This study evaluated the acceptance of using computers to take a medical history by rural Arkansas patients. Sex, age, race, education, previous computer experience and owning a computer were used as variables. Patients were asked a series of questions to rate their comfort level with using a computer to take their medical history. Comfort ratings ranged from 30 to 45, with a mean of 36.8 (SEM = 0.67). Neither sex, race, age, education, owning a personal computer, nor prior computer experience had a significant effect on the comfort rating. This study helps alleviate one of the concerns--patient acceptance--about the increasing use of computers in practicing medicine.

  12. Salt budget for West Pond, Utah, April 1987 to June 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, S.R.; Waddell, K.M.

    1994-01-01

    During operation of the West Desert pumping project, April 10. 1987, to June 30, 1989, data were collected as part of a monitoring program to evaluate the effects of pumping brine from Great Salt Lake into West Pond in northern Utah. The removal of brine from Great Sail was part of an effort to lower the level of Great Salt Lake when the water level was at a high in 1986. These data were used to prepare a salt budget that indicates about 695 million tons of salt or about 14.2 percent of salt contained in Great Salt Lake was pumped into West Pond. Of the 695 million tons of salt pumped into West Pond, 315 million tons (45 percent) were dissolved in West Pond, 71 million tons (10.2 percent) formed a salt crust at the bottom of the pond, 10 million tons (1.4 percent) infiltrated the subsurface areas inundated by storage in the pond, 88 million tons (12.7 percent) were withdrawn by American Magnesium Corporation, and 123 million tons (17.7 percent) discharged from the pond through the Newfoundland weir. About 88 million tons (13 percent) of the salt pumped from the lake could not be accounted for in the salt budget. About 94 million tons of salt (1.9 percent of the total salt in Great Salt Lake) flowed back to Great Salt Lake.

  13. Glucose intolerance in the West African Diaspora: a skeletal muscle fibre type distribution hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, J; Christensen, D L

    2011-08-01

    In the United States, Black Americans are largely descendants of West African slaves; they have a higher relative proportion of obesity and experience a higher prevalence of diabetes than White Americans. However, obesity rates alone cannot explain the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction. We hypothesize that the higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in African Americans (as compared to White Americans) is facilitated by an inherited higher percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type II and a lower percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type I. Skeletal muscle fibre type II is less oxidative and more glycolytic than skeletal muscle fibre type I. Lower oxidative capacity is associated with lower fat oxidation and a higher disposal of lipids, which are stored as muscular adipose tissue in higher amounts in Black compared to White Americans. In physically active individuals, the influence of muscle fibre composition will not be as detrimental as in physically inactive individuals. This discrepancy is caused by the plasticity in the skeletal muscle fibre characteristics towards a higher activity of oxidative enzymes as a consequence of physical activity. We suggest that a higher percentage of skeletal muscle fibre type II combined with physical inactivity has an impact on insulin sensitivity and high prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Blacks of West African ancestry. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Physiologica © 2011 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  14. American Macular Degeneration Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Policy Disclaimer Contact Us Donate Store The American Macular Degeneration Foundation The American Macular Degeneration Foundation (AMDF) is ... Ed Asner Video Clip An Inspiring Her-story Macular Degeneration is the leading cause of vision loss, affecting ...

  15. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Renew Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy Awards, Grants, ...

  16. Depression and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here Home » Depression And African Americans Depression And African Americans Not “Just the Blues” Clinical ... or spiritual communities. Commonly Asked Questions about Clinical Depression How do I get help for clinical depression? ...

  17. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Americans are still unknown. However, research shows that African Americans are genetically more at risk for glaucoma, making early detection and treatment all the more important. In studies such as the Baltimore Eye Survey and the ...

  18. Unlearning American Patriotism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Richard W.

    2007-01-01

    Immoral excesses of American foreign policy are so severe and so deep-rooted that American patriotism is now a moral burden. This love, which pulls toward amnesia, wishful thinking and inattention to urgent foreign interests, should be replaced by commitment to a global social movement that seeks to hem in the American empire. Teachers can advance…

  19. Inverse geochemical modeling of groundwater evolution with emphasis on arsenic in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, Arkansas (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.U.; Davis, R.K.; Steele, K.F.; Kim, B.; Kresse, T.M.; Fazio, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Inverse geochemical modeling (PHREEQC) was used to identify the evolution of groundwater with emphasis on arsenic (As) release under reducing conditions in the shallow (25-30 m) Mississippi River Valley Alluvial aquifer, Arkansas, USA. The modeling was based on flow paths defined by high-precision (??2 cm) water level contour map; X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopic (SEM), and chemical analysis of boring-sediments for minerals; and detailed chemical analysis of groundwater along the flow paths. Potential phases were constrained using general trends in chemical analyses data of groundwater and sediments, and saturation indices data (MINTEQA2) of minerals in groundwater. Modeling results show that calcite, halite, fluorite, Fe oxyhydroxide, organic matter, H2S (gas) were dissolving with mole transfers of 1.40E - 03, 2.13E - 04, 4.15E - 06, 1.25E + 01, 3.11, and 9.34, respectively along the dominant flow line. Along the same flow line, FeS, siderite, and vivianite were precipitating with mole transfers of 9.34, 3.11, and 2.64E - 07, respectively. Cation exchange reactions of Ca2+ (4.93E - 04 mol) for Na+ (2.51E - 04 mol) on exchange sites occurred along the dominant flow line. Gypsum dissolution reactions were dominant over calcite dissolution in some of the flow lines due to the common ion effect. The concentration of As in groundwater ranged from rate of reduction of Fe oxyhydroxide over SO42 - with co-precipitation of As into sulfide is the limiting factor controlling dissolved As in groundwater. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. On-farm irrigation reservoirs for surface water storage in eastern Arkansas: Trends in construction in response to aquifer depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaeger, M. A.; Reba, M. L.; Massey, J. H.; Adviento-Borbe, A.

    2017-12-01

    On-farm surface water storage reservoirs have been constructed to address declines in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial aquifer, the primary source of irrigation for most of the row crops grown in eastern Arkansas. These reservoirs and their associated infrastructure represent significant investments in financial and natural resources, and may cause producers to incur costs associated with foregone crop production and long-term maintenance. Thus, an analysis of reservoir construction trends in the Grand Prairie Critical Groundwater Area (GPCGA) and Cache River Critical Groundwater Area (CRCGA) was conducted to assist future water management decisions. Between 1996 and 2015, on average, 16 and 4 reservoirs were constructed per year, corresponding to cumulative new reservoir surface areas of 161 and 60 ha yr-1, for the GPCGA and the CRCGA, respectively. In terms of reservoir locations relative to aquifer status, after 1996, 84.5% of 309 total reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and 91.0% of 78 in the CRCGA were located in areas with remaining saturated aquifer thicknesses of 50% or less. The majority of new reservoirs (74% in the GPCGA and 63% in the CRCGA) were constructed on previously productive cropland. The next most common land use, representing 11% and 15% of new reservoirs constructed in the GPCGA and CRCGA, respectively, was the combination of a field edge and a ditch, stream, or other low-lying area. Less than 10% of post-1996 reservoirs were constructed on predominately low-lying land, and the use of such lands decreased in both critical groundwater areas during the past 20 years. These disparities in reservoir construction rates, locations, and prior land uses is likely due to groundwater declines being first observed in the GPCGA as well as the existence of two large-scale river diversion projects under construction in the GPCGA that feature on-farm storage as a means to offset groundwater use.

  1. The Religious and Spiritual Dimensions of Cutting Down and Stopping Cocaine Use: A Qualitative Exploration Among African Americans in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Ann M.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Booth, Brenda M.; Sullivan, Steve; Stewart, Katharine; Borders, Tyrone F.

    2014-01-01

    This study qualitatively examines the religious and spiritual dimensions of cutting down and stopping cocaine use among African Americans in rural and urban areas of Arkansas. The analyses compare and contrast the narrative data of 28 current cocaine users living in communities where the Black church plays a fundamental role in the social and cultural lives of many African Americans, highlighting the ways that participants used religious symbols, idiomatic expression, and Biblical scriptures to interpret and make sense of their substance-use experiences. Participants drew on diverse religious and spiritual beliefs and practices, including participation in organized religion, reliance on a personal relationship with God, and God’s will to cut down and stop cocaine use. Our findings suggest that culturally sensitive interventions addressing the influence of religion and spirituality in substance use are needed to reduce cocaine use and promote recovery in this at-risk, minority population. PMID:25364038

  2. [Arboviruses also have an American dream].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2017-08-01

    Some arboviruses that originated in the Old World have been introduced by humans into the American continent. The first of them was the yellow fever virus, coming from the West African coast with slaves in the 17th-19th centuries, followed by dengue viruses, which were always prevalent within the Americas. Next was theWest Nile virus, introduced in New York in 1999, that spread in only a few years over the whole continent. Then, Chikungunya virus arrived on Saint Martin Island in 2013 after its outbreak in Polynesia; it is now widespread in the Caribbean Islands and on the American continent from the United States to Brazil. Finally, Zika virus, already active in Asia and in the South Pacific region, was introduced in Brazil and spread between the southern part of United States and south Brazil. These unexpected emergences are the consequence of the generalization of transoceanic trading; so, it is humans who are truly responsible for such transportation of viruses from the African and Asian continents. The mechanisms of virus establishment in unusual ecosystems have to be analyzed in order to understand the conditions for the circulation of the viruses, which supposes an adaptation to new hosts and vectors that are sometimes local species (like Culex vectors of West Nile virus) but mainly previously introduced mosquitoes (like Aedes aegypti and/or Aedes albopictus). Over time, all these vectors developed a strong anthropophily and, most of them, a remarkable adaptation to urban environment; hence, these arboviruses can disseminate both in rural and urban context. This type of arboviral emergences will certainly continue in the following years and we must imperatively develop preventive strategies by detecting virus mutations with capacity for emergence, enhancing the sensibility and rapidity of epidemiological surveillance, and becoming ready to face such events that cause a truly international health crisis.

  3. The natural history of West Nile virus infection presenting with West Nile virus meningoencephalitis in a man with a prolonged illness: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wood James B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Estimates indicate that West Nile virus infects approximately one and a half million people in the United States of America. Up to 1% may develop West Nile virus neuroinvasive disease, in which infected patients develop any combination of meningitis, encephalitis, or acute paralysis. Case presentation A 56-year-old African-American man presented to our hospital with headache, restlessness, fever, myalgias, decreased appetite, and progressive confusion. A cerebrospinal fluid examination showed mild leukocytosis and an elevated protein level. Testing for routine infections was negative. Brain T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans showed marked enlargement of caudate nuclei and increased intensity within the basal ganglia and thalami. A West Nile virus titer was positive, and serial brain magnetic resonance imaging scans showed resolving abnormalities that paralleled his neurological examination. Conclusion This report is unusual as it portrays the natural history and long-term consequences of West Nile virus meningoencephalitis diagnosed on the basis of serial brain images.

  4. An Inquiry-based Astronomy Summer School in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Linda; Okere, Bonaventure; Chibueze, James; Lepo, Kelly; White, Heidi; Zhang, Jielai; Okoh, Daniel; Reid, Mike; Hunter, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    In October 2013 over 75 undergraduate science students and teachers from Nigeria and Ghana attended the week-long West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers. The school was organized by a collaboration of astronomers from the University of Toronto, the University of Nigeria, and the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency. We designed and led activities that taught astronomy content, promoted students' self-identity as scientists, and encouraged students to think critically and figure out solutions themselves. I will describe the inquiry-based and active learning techniques used in the school, share results from the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of student performance, and describe future plans for holding the school in 2015, supporting our alumni, and building a sustainable partnership between North American and Nigerian universities.

  5. The West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strubbe, Linda; Okere, Bonaventure I.; Chibueze, James; Lepo, Kelly; White, Heidi; Zhang, Jielai; Izuikedinachi Okoh, Daniel; Reid, Michael; Hunter, Lisa; EKEOMA Opara, Fidelis

    2015-08-01

    In October 2013 over 75 undergraduate science students and teachers from Nigeria and Ghana attended the week-long West African International Summer School for Young Astronomers. We expect an even broader audience for the second offering of the school (to be held July 2015), supported by a grant from the OAD (TF1). These schools are organized by a collaboration of astronomers from the University of Toronto, the University of Nigeria, and the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency. We design and lead activities that teach astronomy content, promote students' self-identity as scientists, and encourage students to think critically and figure out solutions themselves. Equally important, we design intertwined evaluation strategies to assess the effectiveness of our programs. We will describe the broader context for developing astronomy in West Africa, the inquiry-based and active learning techniques used in the schools, and results from the qualitative and quantitative evaluations of student performance. We will also describe longer-term plans for future schools, supporting our alumni, and building a sustainable partnership between North American and Nigerian universities.

  6. West Nile Virus workshop: scientific considerations for tissue donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Scott A; Robert Rigney, P

    2012-08-01

    This report contains selected excerpts, presented as a summary, from a public workshop sponsored by the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB) held to discuss West Nile Virus (WNV) and scientific considerations for tissue donors. The daylong workshop was held 9 July 2010 at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel at Tyson's Corner in McLean, Virginia, United States (U.S.). The workshop was designed to determine and discuss scientific information that is known, and what is not known, regarding WNV infection and transmission. The goal is to determine how to fill gaps in knowledge of WNV and tissue donation and transplantation by pursuing relevant scientific studies. This information should ultimately support decisions leading to appropriate tissue donor screening and testing considerations. Discussion topics were related to identifying these gaps and determining possible solutions. Workshop participants included subject-matter experts from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada, AATB-accredited tissue banks including reproductive tissue banks, accredited eye banks of the Eye Bank Association of America, testing laboratories, and infectious disease and organ transplantation professionals. After all presentations concluded, a panel addressed this question: "What are the scientific considerations for tissue donors and what research could be performed to address those considerations?" The slide presentations from the workshop are available at: http://www.aatb.org/2010-West-Nile-Virus-Workshop-Presentations.

  7. African American Perspectives and Experiences of Domestic Violence in a Rural Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valandra; Murphy-Erby, Yvette; Higgins, Brandon M; Brown, Lucy M

    2016-09-01

    Relatively few studies have explored domestic violence from a multiplicity of African American perspectives, experiences, and socio-demographic backgrounds within rural African American communities. Community-based participatory action research methods were used to explore domestic violence perceptions of African Americans with heterogeneous backgrounds and experiences of violence. Ten focus groups were held throughout the community with 52 diverse women ( n = 33) and men ( n = 19) living in the northwest region of Arkansas. Demographic data were collected from 47 women ( n = 28) and men ( n = 19) participating in focus groups regarding their perceptions and experiences of domestic violence, media messages, help-seeking behaviors, and services. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methods. Three major themes emerged, including (a) a heightened awareness of race, gender, and class differences; (b) imbalanced and mixed messages from media; and (c) multi-systemic dynamics influencing abusive behavior and relationships. Results indicate that study participants' perspectives and experiences with domestic violence reflect a complex interrelated gamut of societal, community, familial, and individual dynamics. Participant recommendations related to interpersonal dynamics, media messages, and societal influences are reported with implications for practice, policy, and future research.

  8. West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony d. Kauders

    2010-01-01

    The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; a...

  9. The American Dream

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with the deceptive nature of The American Dream and its place in American culture in the first six decades of the 20th century, namely in the three quintessential novels The Great Gatsby, The Grapes of Wrath and Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas. With the aid of Jim Cullen's The American Dream – A short history of an idea that shaped a nation and Lawrence Samuel's The American Dream – A cultural history the different types of American Dreams are investigated, as well as how the...

  10. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  11. West Nile Virus Drug Discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Pheng Lim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV in 1999 in the USA, and its continued spread throughout the Americas, parts of Europe, the Middle East and Africa, underscored the need for WNV antiviral development. Here, we review the current status of WNV drug discovery. A number of approaches have been used to search for inhibitors of WNV, including viral infection-based screening, enzyme-based screening, structure-based virtual screening, structure-based rationale design, and antibody-based therapy. These efforts have yielded inhibitors of viral or cellular factors that are critical for viral replication. For small molecule inhibitors, no promising preclinical candidate has been developed; most of the inhibitors could not even be advanced to the stage of hit-to-lead optimization due to their poor drug-like properties. However, several inhibitors developed for related members of the family Flaviviridae, such as dengue virus and hepatitis C virus, exhibited cross-inhibition of WNV, suggesting the possibility to re-purpose these antivirals for WNV treatment. Most promisingly, therapeutic antibodies have shown excellent efficacy in mouse model; one of such antibodies has been advanced into clinical trial. The knowledge accumulated during the past fifteen years has provided better rationale for the ongoing WNV and other flavivirus antiviral development.

  12. When Will East Meet West?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, Joseph C.

    2003-01-01

    Many countries follow or adopt completely the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and use the Systme International (SI). Western European countries for the most part have incorporated the recommendations of ICRP Publication 60 (2) into their national legislation. One exception to this trend can be found by looking southward to that other large North American country, the United States. ICRP Publication 60 (2) was issued over a decade ago, but the US still uses the recommendations of ICRP Publication 26 (3), in a modified form

  13. Health Complaints Associated with Poor Rental Housing Conditions in Arkansas: The Only State Without a Landlord’s Implied Warranty of Habitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bachelder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Arkansas is the only U.S. state that does not have a landlord’s implied warranty of habitability, meaning tenants have a requirement for maintaining their rental properties at certain habitability standards, but landlords are not legally required to contribute to those minimum health and safety standards. This project assessed the possibility that this lack of landlord responsibility affects tenants’ perceived health. Using surveys and interviews, we collected self-reported data on the prevalence and description of problems faced by renters who needed household repairs from their landlords. Of almost 1000 renters, one third of them had experienced a problem with their landlord making needed repairs; and one-quarter of those had a health issue they attributed to their housing conditions. Common issues included problems with plumbing, heating or cooling systems, and pest or rodent control. Reported health problems included elevated stress levels, breathing problems, headaches, high blood pressure and bites or infections. Hispanic respondents and those with less than a high school education were both significantly more likely to report problems with their landlords not making repairs as requested. The data suggest that the lack of landlord requirements may negatively impact the condition of rental properties, and therefore may negatively impact the health of Arkansas renters.

  14. A New Species ofEimeria(Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Green Frog,Lithobates clamitans(Anura: Ranidae) from Arkansas, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcallister, Chris T; Seville, R Scott; Bursey, Charles R; Trauth, Stanley E; Connior, Matthew B; Robison, Henry W

    2014-07-01

    Between April and October 2012, 20 juvenile and adult green frogs ( Lithobates clamitans ) were collected by hand or dipnet from 3 counties of Arkansas and examined for coccidial parasites. A single frog (5%) was found to be passing oocysts of a new eimerian species. Oocysts of Eimeria menaensis n. sp. were ellipsoidal to subspheroidal with a bilayered wall and measured (L × W) 25.4 × 15.6 (23-27 × 13-17) µm, with a L/W ratio of 1.6. A micropyle was absent but an oocyst residuum and polar granule were present. Sporocysts were spheroidal to subspheroidal and measured 5.0 × 5.0 (4-6) µm with L/W of 1.1. An indistinct Stieda body was present, but sub-and para-Stieda bodies were absent. The sporocyst residuum consisted of condensed granules dispersed between sporozoites. Sporozoites were elongate and attenuated at both ends with spheroidal anterior and posterior refractile bodies. This represents the second report of coccidia from L. clamitans and the first time a coccidian has been reported from a green frog from Arkansas.

  15. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity

  16. 2012 OLC Lidar DEM: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  17. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  18. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  19. West Bank Gaza Geo-MIS System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Geo-MIS System is USAID/West Bank and Gaza's primary system for capturing and managing projectrelated information. Its purpose is to assist USAID and its...

  20. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2016. In this Table, provisional* cases of selected† notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  1. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile to Zika - 2018. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year), and...

  2. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2015.In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding year),...

  3. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  4. 2012 OLC Lidar: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  5. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  6. NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table II. West Nile virus disease - 2017. In this Table, provisional cases of selected notifiable diseases (≥1,000 cases reported during the preceding...

  7. Future markers of the West Greenlandic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trondhjem, Naja Blytmann

    2010-01-01

    Abstract West Greenlandic, a polysynthetic language, belongs to Inuit languages. In Inuktitut (Canada) and West Greenlandic (Inuit languages) tense is marked by optional tense suffixes and in both languages the temporal systems are based on a future/ non-future opposition. In Inuktitut the tense...... suffixes have developed a complicated remoteness system. In West Greenlandic the future tense suffixes have a distinction between vague and inevitable future, and the past time suffixes have developed different perfect meanings. In Iñupiaq (Alaska), the temporal system is based on an opposition between...... past, present and future, where tense is marked in the flectional morpheme, but only in the indicative mood. There are only a few tense suffixes. The meanings of these tense suffixes are the same as those of the West Greenlandic tense suffixes. My current work is a typological investigation about...

  8. Microbial keratitis in West and East Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Vanitha Ratnalingam; Thiageswari Umapathy; Kala Sumugam; Hanida Hanafi; Shamala Retnasabapathy

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the epidemiological and etiological factors of microbial keratitis seen in tertiary hospitals in West and East Malaysia.METHODS: A total of 207 patients were enrolled. Patients referred for microbial keratitis to Sungai Buloh Hospital and Kuala Lumpur Hospital in West Malaysia and Queen Elizabeth Hospital and Kuching General Hospital in East Malaysia were recruited. Risk factors were documented. Corneal scrapings for microscopy and culture were performed.RESULTS: The most com...

  9. Wildlife resources of the West African savanna

    OpenAIRE

    Bie, de, S.

    1991-01-01

    The wild fauna in Africa is a renewable resource and its overexploitation has led to the depletion of animal populations. This thesis focusses on the ecological characterization of the ungulate community of the West African savanna, with special reference to the Biosphere Reserve 'Boucle du Baoulé' in Mali, and makes a contribution to the ecological knowledge required for the conservation and management of West African savanna ecosystems.

    Part I contains background informatio...

  10. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenney, B.L.; McGrain, M.; Hogan, J.T.; Porkolab, M.; Thomassen, K.I.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  11. ‘In love, she remains whole’: Heterosexual Love in Contemporary Arab American Poetry Written by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bosch Vilarrubias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heterosexual love made by Arab American women in their poetry (including Mohja Kahf, Suheir Hammad and Pauline Kaldas, this article will examine the potential political use of poetry.

  12. Retention of fish larvae in a fjord system - a seasonal study of the larval life in a West Greenlandic fjord

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swalethorp, Rasmus; Munk, Peter; Nielsen, Torkel Gissel

    The Godthåbsfjord is the largest fjord system on the West Greenlandic coast and an important spawning site for several fish species. It houses the largest inshore stock of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) on the west coast but also key species like Capelin (Mallotus villosus) and American plaice...... (Hippoglossoides platessoides) are abundant. The innermost part of the fjord branch Kapisigdlit is the principal spawning site for the fjord population of Atlantic cod, and in 2010 a seasonal study was carried out on the early life of this population. Abundance and distribution of this and other occurring fish...

  13. [Rationalization of Protestant nursing. A comparison of Deaconess Motherhouses in West Germany and the United States, 1945-1970].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzer, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Protestant Deaconess Motherhouses emerged as a German nursing organization in the nineteenth century to be later exported to many other countries including the United States. The motherhouse principle could not be simply transferred without being adapted to the situation prevailing in each of those countries. The essay investigates the conception and transformation of Protestant nursing by comparing a West German and American deaconess motherhouse each in their particular context. It shows that the deaconesses in the United States developed their own, more scientifically oriented understanding of nursing and were therefore more open to the rationalization of nursing than their West German counterpart.

  14. Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-25

    common perception, the early 20th century was a period of significant intellectual development in American military theory. Organizational changes in...Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists A Monograph by MAJ Russell McKelvey United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2016 – MAY 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Rediscovering Interwar American Theorists 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER

  15. American Youth in Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Harold H.

    1976-01-01

    This article, a revision of a paper presented at the West Virginia Statewide Bicentennial Conference last summer, discusses the problems of youth--in school and at work. These are of the first order in today's America. The author presents a kind of solution and pays his respects to the constraints. (Editor)

  16. Using stable isotopes of carbon to investigate the seasonal variation of carbon transfer in a northwestern Arkansas cave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Katherine J.; Pollock, Erik; Hays, Phillip D.; Khojasteh, Jam

    2015-01-01

    Stable-isotope analyses are valuable in karst settings, where characterizing biogeochemical cycling of carbon along groundwater flow paths is critical for understanding and protecting sensitive cave and karst water resources. This study quantified the seasonal changes in concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C) of aqueous and gaseous carbon species—dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2)—to characterize sources and transfer of these species along a karst flow path, with emphasis on a cave environment. Gas and water samples were collected from the soil and a cave in northwestern Arkansas approximately once a month for one year to characterize carbon cycling along a conceptual groundwater flow path. In the soil, as the DIC concentration increased, the isotopic composition of the DIC became relatively lighter, indicating an organic carbon source for a component of the DIC and corroborating soil DIC as a proxy for soil respiration. In the cave, a positive correlation between DIC and surface temperature was due to increased soil respiration as the organic carbon signal from the soil was transferred to the cave environment via the aqueous phase. CO2 concentration was lowest in the cave during colder months and increased exponentially with increasing surface temperature, presumably due to higher rates of soil respiration during warmer periods and changing ventilation patterns between the surface and cave atmosphere. Isotopic disequilibrium between CO2 and DIC in the cave was greatest when CO2 concentration was changing during November/ December and March/April, presumably due to the rapid addition or removal of gaseous CO2. The isotopic disequilibrium between DIC and CO2 provided evidence that cave CO2 was a mixture of carbon from several sources, which was mostly constrained by mixture between atmospheric CO2 and soil CO2. The concentration and isotopic composition of gaseous and aqueous carbon species were controlled by month

  17. Simulated Ground-Water Withdrawals by Cabot WaterWorks from the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer, Lonoke County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Cabot WaterWorks, located in Lonoke County, Arkansas, plans to increase ground-water withdrawals from the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer from a 2004 rate of approximately 2.24 million gallons per day to between 4.8 and 8 million gallons per day by the end of 2049. The effects of increased pumping from several wells were simulated using a digital model of ground-water flow. The proposed additional withdrawals by Cabot WaterWorks were specified in three 1-square-mile model cells with increased pumping beginning in 2007. Increased pumping was specified at various combined rates for a period of 44 years. In addition, augmented pumping from wells owned by Grand Prairie Water Users Association, located about 2 miles from the nearest Cabot WaterWorks wells, was added to the model beginning in 2007 and continuing through to the end of 2049 in 10 of the 16 scenarios analyzed. Eight of the scenarios included reductions in pumping rates in model cells corresponding to either the Grand Prairie Water Users Association wells or to wells contained within the Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project. Drawdown at the end of 44 years of pumping at 4.8 million gallons per day from the Cabot WaterWorks wells ranged from 15 to 25 feet in the three model cells; pumping at 8 million gallons per day resulted in water-level drawdown ranging from about 15 to 40 feet. Water levels in those cells showed no indication of leveling out at the end of the simulation period, indicating non-steady-state conditions after 44 years of pumping. From one to four new dry cells occurred in each of the scenarios by the end of 2049 when compared to a baseline scenario in which pumping was maintained at 2004 rates, even in scenarios with reduced pumping in the Grand Prairie Area Demonstration Project; however, reduced pumping produced cells that were no longer dry when compared to the baseline scenario at the end of 2049. Saturated thickness at the end of 2049 in the three Cabot WaterWorks wells

  18. Evidence for Upward Flow of Saline Water from Depth into the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial Aquifer in Southeastern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, D.; Paul, J.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater salinization is occurring in the Mississippi River Valley Alluvial (MRVA) aquifer in southeastern Arkansas (SE AR). Water samples from the MRVA aquifer in Chicot and Desha counties have yielded elevated Cl-concentrations with some as high as 1,639 mg/L. Considering that the MRVA aquifer is the principle source of irrigation water for the agricultural economy of SE AR, salinization needs to be addressed to ensure the sustainability of crop, groundwater, and soil resources in the area. The origin of elevated salinity in MRVA aquifer was investigated using spatial and factor analysis of historical water quality data, and sampling and tracer analysis of groundwater from irrigation, municipal, and flowing industrial wells in SE AR. Spatial analysis of Cl- data in relation to soil type, geomorphic features and sand-blow density indicate that the Cl- anomalies are more closely related to the sand-blow density than soil data, suggesting an underlying tectonic control for the distribution of salinity. Factor analysis of historical geochemical data from the MRVA and underlying Sparta aquifer shows dilute and saline groups, with saline groups weighted positively with Cl- or Na+ and Cl-. Tracer data suggest a component of evaporatively evolved crustal water of pre-modern age has mixed with younger, fresher meteoric sources in SE AR to create the saline conditions in the MRVA aquifer. Stable hydrogen and oxygen values of waters sampled from the Tertiary Sparta and MRVA aquifers deviate from the global and local meteoric water lines along an evaporative trend (slope=4.4) and mixing line with Eocene Wilcox Group groundwaters. Ca2+ and Cl- contents vary with Br- along mixing trends between dilute MRVA water and Jurassic Smackover Formation pore fluids in southern AR. Increasing Cl- content with C-14 age in MRVA aquifer groundwater suggests that the older waters are more saline. Helium isotope ratios decrease with He gas content for more saline water, consistent with

  19. Gone with the Wind of Tarot: John Starr Cooke and the Esoteric Tradition in the US West

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elias, Camelia

    2013-01-01

    Many angry folks of the 60s counterculture tried to escape the oppression of a disintegrating American dream by replacing social insanity with spiritual insanity. As American history has shown such replacements of systems of thoughts and beliefs often occurred with a transversal movement. For exa......Many angry folks of the 60s counterculture tried to escape the oppression of a disintegrating American dream by replacing social insanity with spiritual insanity. As American history has shown such replacements of systems of thoughts and beliefs often occurred with a transversal movement....... In the East the word is heard and then penned down. In the West the word is seen, and then communicated directly through image. My essay takes a look at one of the central figures in American spiritualism, John Starr Cooke, and his significant contribution to cultural and geographical manifestations...

  20. A Report of Archaeological Testing at Site 3CT263 Within the Proposed Edmondson Wastewater Pond, Crittendon County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Mariana Islands, Micronesia and Barbados, West Indies. Publications and Major Manuscripts Foster, Lee A., and Guy G. Weaver 1990 A Cultural...Harrisburg, Illinois. Garrow & Associates, Inc., Atlanta. Weaver, Guy G. 1989 Archaeological Data Recovery at La Iglesia de Maraquez (Site P0-39...34 In Archaeological Investigations on Rota, Mariana Islands, Micronesia, edited by Brian Butler, pp. 255-278. Micronesian Archaeological Survey Report

  1. Analysis and Interpretation of Artifact Collections from Site 3CT271, Randolph Estate Development, Crittenden County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-02-01

    U.K., Rota, Mariana Islands, Micronesia and Barbados, West Indies. I Publications and Major Manuscripts Weaver, Guy G., and John L. Hopkins 1991 Data...Recovery at La Iglesia de Maraquez (Site P0-39), Ponce, Puerto Rico: Phase I Report. Garrow & Associates, Inc. Report submitted to the Jacksonville...Inc., Atlanta. 1988b "Stone and Coral Tools." In Archaeological Investigations on Rota, Mariana Islands, Micronesia, edited by Brian Butler, pp. 255

  2. 78 FR 70509 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ...: Modification of fishing seasons; request for comments. SUMMARY: NOAA Fisheries announces 23 inseason actions in... allowing fishers access to the available fish at the time the fish were available while ensuring that.... 130108020-3409-01] RIN 0648-XC964 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast...

  3. American Indian Influence on the American Pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    The first U.S. Pharmacopeia, issued in 1820, listed 296 substances of animal, mineral, or vegetable origin in its primary and secondary lists. Of these 130, nearly all of vegetable origin, represented drugs used by American Indians. The number grew at each decennial revision during the 19th century, though some drugs were listed only for a decade.…

  4. Microevolution of African American dental morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, Heather J H

    2007-04-01

    The African American (AA) gene pool is primarily the result of gene flow between two biologically disparate groups: West Africans (WA) and Americans of western European descent (EA). This research utilizes characteristics of dental morphology to trace genetic relationships among WA, western Europeans (EU), AA, and European Americans. Dental morphological traits are useful for this purpose because they are heritable, do not remodel during life (although they can be lost to wear or pathology), and can be compared equally among samples from past and present populations. The results of this research provide new information about human microevolution through time and space in a biocultural setting. The mean measure of divergence is used to analyze dental morphological data from 1,265 individuals in 25 samples grouped by ancestry and time. Three hypotheses associated with admixture in AA are tested. When compared with known history, results from dental morphological data are equivocal in documenting admixture in AA. Dental morphological traits do appear to reflect admixture in AA. However, changes in trait frequencies do not closely correspond with important cultural events and trends such as the institutionalized racism of the Civil War and Jim Crow era. Results are mixed concerning whether AA with greater admixture were more likely to take part in the Great Migration to southern urban centers and to the North.

  5. American Studies in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nye, David

    Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies.......Papers first given at a conference the previous year in Fåborg, Denmark, with a dual focus on 20th century America and new methods in American Studies....

  6. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, 1,908 (80. ... rate of 9.23 per 100,000). The suicide rate for females was 1.99 per 100, ...

  7. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  8. Writing American Indian History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noley, Grayson B.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to critique the manner in which history about American Indians has been written and propose a rationale for the rethinking of what we know about this subject. In particular, histories of education as regards the participation of American Indians is a subject that has been given scant attention over the years and when…

  9. Teaching American Indian Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchell, Dick

    1991-01-01

    Reviews "Native American Architecture," by Nabokov and Easton, an encyclopedic work that examines technology, climate, social structure, economics, religion, and history in relation to house design and the "meaning" of space among tribes of nine regions. Describes this book's use in a college course on Native American architecture. (SV)

  10. Ectomycorrhizal characterization of an American chestnut (Castanea dentata)-dominated community in Western Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan M. Palmer; Daniel L. Lindner; Thomas J. Volk

    2008-01-01

    Circa 1900, a farmer from the eastern US planted 11 American chestnut (Castanea dentata) seeds on a newly established farm near West Salem in western Wisconsin. These trees were very successful, producing a large stand of over 6,000 trees. Since this area is well outside the natural range of chestnut, these trees remained free from chestnut blight...

  11. African American Women Scholars and International Research: Dr. Anna Julia Cooper's Legacy of Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Stephanie Y.

    2009-01-01

    EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…

  12. The American market for uranium enrichment and its effects on the world market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jelinek-Fink, P.

    1992-01-01

    DOE as the sole supplier of the West dominated the market for a long time. The Russian supplier TENEX brought some movement into the world market. Urenco want to build a plant in the USA with American partners, in order to have a foot in the door of the largest market in the world. The authorisation process is proceeding. (DG) [de

  13. Laboratory Jet Erosion Tests on the Lower American River Soil Samples, Sacramento, CA- Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Bridge, Guy West Bridge, H Street Bridge, and Paradise Beach/Glenn Hall Park. 1.1 Purpose The purpose of this study was to perform Jet Erosion...American Society of Agricultural Engineers Paper No. 992133. In Proceedings, Mini-Conference on Advances in Water Quality Modeling, 18-21 July, Toronto

  14. Asian American Theater Workshop--Alive and Well in San Francisco!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Ben

    1977-01-01

    This article reports on the development and activities of an Asian American theater group on the West Coast. The author interviewed actors and organizers about how Asian social and political experiences, including the Vietnam war, are manifesting themselves in modern drama. (GC)

  15. West German Jewry: Guilt, Power and Pluralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony d. Kauders

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The essay will address the history of West German Jewry using the concept of guilt as its guiding theme. Jews in West Germany had a bad conscience on account of living in the “land of the murderers.” This bad conscience not only distinguished them from other Jewish communities, it also explains much of what characterized West German Jewry from 1945 to 1989: its particular economic structure; its especially close ties to Israel; its preoccupation with democratization; its power arrangements; and its communal life. The essay will address these issues, and trace a development that led from a close-knit, ideologically homogeneous group to one that became ever more pluralistic in the 1970s and 1980s.

  16. West African spatial patterns of economic activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier; Howard, Allen; Retaillé, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, two different bodies of literature developed by both US historians and francophone geographers have moved toward similar conclusions regarding West African economic spatial patterns. Despite their different backgrounds, both the ‘spatial factor’ approach promoted by histor......Over the last 30 years, two different bodies of literature developed by both US historians and francophone geographers have moved toward similar conclusions regarding West African economic spatial patterns. Despite their different backgrounds, both the ‘spatial factor’ approach promoted...... traders, and where their differences lie. Finally, we show how a combined approach can make a significant contribution to the scholarly study of space in West Africa. We argue that continuing dialogue among fields can contribute to a reassessment of development policies....

  17. Lessons from the Arkansas Cash and Counseling program: how the experiences of diverse older consumers and their caregivers address family policy concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Antonio, Patricia; Simon-Rusinowitz, Lori; Loughlin, Dawn; Eckert, J Kevin; Mahoney, Kevin J; Ruben, Kathleen Ann Depretis

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses four family policy questions that policy makers often ask about consumer-directed services, examining issues such as quality, suitability, and fraud and abuse. Responses to these questions evolved from the experiences of diverse elder consumers and their caregivers who participated in IndependentChoices, the Arkansas site of the Cash and Counseling Demonstration and Evaluation (CCDE) program. Building on CCDE evaluation survey data, this analysis of in-home interviews with participants discussing their experiences of receiving, giving, and managing care demonstrates how the program allows consumers choices so they receive the services they want. At the same time, program flexibility allows policy makers to safeguard both consumers and program resources through the use of supports such as representatives, state consultants, and fiscal intermediaries. This article demonstrates how the Cash and Counseling model can address the needs of both consumers with diverse disabilities and policy makers.

  18. User's guide for PRISIM (Plant Risk Status Information Management System) Arkansas Nuclear One--Unit 1: Volume 2, Program for regulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.J.; Guthrie, V.H.; Kirchner, J.R.; Kirkman, J.Q.; Paula, H.M.; Ellison, B.C.; Dycus, F.M.; Farquharson, J.A.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    This user's guide is a two-volume document designed to teach NRC inspectors and NRC regulators how to access probabilistic risk assessment information from the two Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIM) programs developed for Arkansas Nuclear One--Unit One (ANA-1). This document, Volume 2, describes how the PRA information available in Version 2.0 of PRISIM is useful as an evaluation tool for regulatory activities. Using PRISIM is useful as an evaluation tool for regulatory activities. Using PRISIM, regulators can both access PRA information and modify the information to assess the impact these changes may have on plant safety. Each volume is a stand-alone document.

  19. User's guide for PRISM (Plant Risk Status Information Management System) Arkansas Nuclear One-Unit 1: Volume 1, Program for inspectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.J.; Guthrie, V.H.; Kirchner, J.R.; Kirkman, J.Q.; Paula, H.M.; Ellison, B.C.; Dycus, F.M.; Farquharson, J.A.; Flanagan, G.F.

    1988-03-01

    This user's guide is a two-volume document designed to teach NRC inspectors and NRC regulators how to access probabilistic risk assessment information from the two Plant Risk Status Information Management System (PRISIM) programs developed for Arkansas Nuclear One -- Unit One (ANO-1). This document, Volume 1, describes how the PRA information available in Version 1.0 of PRISIM is useful for planning inspections. Using PRISIM, inspectors can quickly access PRA information and use that information to update risk analysis results, reflecting a plant's status at any particular time. Both volumes are stand-alone documents, and each volume presents several sample computer sessions designed to lead the user through a variety of PRISIM applications used to obtain PRA-related information for monitoring and controlling plant risk.

  20. Nathanael West: The Art of His Life. By Jay Martin. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux 1970. 435 pp. Nathanael West: The Art of His Life. By Jay Martin. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux 1970. 435 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Ryan

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1930, Nathanael West was 26 years old and had just finished his first novel, The Dream Life of Balso Snell. He worked as night manager at the Kenmore Hall Hotel, a glorified rooming house in Manhattan, which was partially owned by his uncle. Later that year he was hired as manager of the Sutton Hotel, which gave him the opportunity to observe the life of the masses, with whom he had a great propensity to identify. In a sense, these hotels became West's laboratory, his imaginative Paris. They evoked a vivid personal response in him and were a fertile source of fantasy. In the thirties when, like West, a great number of Americans escaped the horrors of the depression through fantasy, the author dealt in fiction with mass life on the deepest possible and most relevant level by concentrating on the fantasies of the masses. In 1930, Nathanael West was 26 years old and had just finished his first novel, The Dream Life of Balso Snell. He worked as night manager at the Kenmore Hall Hotel, a glorified rooming house in Manhattan, which was partially owned by his uncle. Later that year he was hired as manager of the Sutton Hotel, which gave him the opportunity to observe the life of the masses, with whom he had a great propensity to identify. In a sense, these hotels became West's laboratory, his imaginative Paris. They evoked a vivid personal response in him and were a fertile source of fantasy. In the thirties when, like West, a great number of Americans escaped the horrors of the depression through fantasy, the author dealt in fiction with mass life on the deepest possible and most relevant level by concentrating on the fantasies of the masses.

  1. Health status among elderly Hungarians and Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, T F; Beres, C; Hofstetter, C R; Pomidor, A

    1994-07-01

    Selected health status data for elderly populations from similar industrial cities-Youngstown, Ohio, USA, and Debrecen, Hungary-were compared. Because of their impoverished health care system, unregulated heavily industrialized society, and unhealthful life-styles Hungarians were hypothesized to have poorer health status than Americans, even after taking into account demographic mediating factors. The study provides a health status baseline for elderly Hungarians shortly after communism's fall in 1989-1990 and shows how great a gap exists between Hungarian health status and that in the West. Hungarians were in much poorer health as measured by functional status, symptomatology, medical condition, depression, and subjective health status. Distinctions persisted when controlling for gender, age, and education. Poverty-level (and income) did not explain health status differences. The paper concludes that Hungary should pay more attention to health promotion, prevention, and primary care, as well as to reforming patient management in hospitals, nursing homes, and home care programs.

  2. 2016 American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The 8th American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) was held July 10-14, 2016 in Long Beach California, marking the first time the meeting has been held on the west coast. The meeting was coordinated by the Neutron Scattering Society of America (NSSA), and attracted 285 attendees. The meeting was chaired by NSSA vice president Patrick Woodward (the Ohio State University) assisted by NSSA president Stephan Rosenkranz (Argonne National Laboratory) together with the local organizing chair, Brent Fultz (California Institute of Technology). As in past years the Materials Research Society assisted with planning, logistics and operation of the conference. The science program was divided into the following research areas: (a) Sources, Instrumentation, and Software; (b) Hard Condensed Matter; (c) Soft Matter; (d) Biology; (e) Materials Chemistry and Materials for Energy; (f) Engineering and Industrial Applications; and (g) Neutron Physics.

  3. 2016 American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodward, Patrick [Materials Research Society, Warrendale, PA (United States)

    2017-02-09

    The 8th American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) was held July 10-14, 2016 in Long Beach California, marking the first time the meeting has been held on the west coast. The meeting was coordinated by the Neutron Scattering Society of America (NSSA), and attracted 285 attendees. The meeting was chaired by NSSA vice president Patrick Woodward (the Ohio State University) assisted by NSSA president Stephan Rosenkranz (Argonne National Laboratory) together with the local organizing chair, Brent Fultz (California Institute of Technology). As in past years the Materials Research Society assisted with planning, logistics and operation of the conference. The science program was divided into the following research areas: (a) Sources, Instrumentation, and Software; (b) Hard Condensed Matter; (c) Soft Matter; (d) Biology; (e) Materials Chemistry and Materials for Energy; (f) Engineering and Industrial Applications; and (g) Neutron Physics.

  4. Spatio-Temporal Trends of Oak Decline and Mortality under Periodic Regional Drought in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R. Shifley

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available At the forest landscape/region level, based on annual Forest Inventory and Analysis plot data from 1999 to 2010, oak decline and mortality trends for major oak species (groups were examined in the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri. Oak decline has elevated cumulative mortality of red oak species to between 11 and 15 percent in terms of relative density and basal area of standing dead oak trees, respectively. These values are three to five times higher than for white oak group and non-oak species. Oak decline and associated escalating mortality have occurred primarily in red oak species while the white oak group has maintained a relatively stable mortality rate that is comparable to non-oak species. Cross-correlation analyses indicate that mortality in the red oak group was significantly correlated with the growing season Palmer drought severity index (PDSI and usually lagged two to three years following single drought events. Moreover, based on the past 17 years PDSI data, it appears that the cumulative impacts of drought may last up to 10 years. The Ozark Highlands experienced a severe drought extending from 1998 to 2000 and another milder drought from 2005 to 2006. These drought events triggered the escalation of mortality starting around year 2000. Spatially, high red oak mortality sites (hot spots with proportional basal area mortality > 0.12 initially occurred in the central Ozarks and spread gradually over most of the Ozark Highlands as regional droughts continued. In contrast, sites with elevated white oak and non-oak mortality occurred sporadically, mainly in the southern portion (Arkansas of the Ozark Highlands. During the most recent inventory period (2006–2010, over 60%, 7% and 5% of red oak, white oak and non-oak groups, respectively, had relative mortality rates of > 12%.

  5. Assessing the impact of forest fragmentation due to natural gas development on wild turkey nesting success in Van Buren County, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, James Kendall

    Natural gas exploration and production has caused large scale changes to portions of the Arkansas landscape. Well pad site construction, access roads, and pipelines utilized to extract and transport natural gas have fragmented forested areas. The forest fragmentation resulting from these rapid changes could be contributing to the documented decline in nesting success of the wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). This study quantified temporal changes in forest fragmentation in terms of the number of forest patches, mean forest patch area, and forest edge length. The correlation between these fragmentation variables and nesting success data was explored to test the hypotheses of this study that 1) the number of forest patches is negatively correlated to nesting success, that 2) forest patch size is positively correlated to nesting success, and that 3) forest edge habitat length is negatively correlated to nesting success. There were 838 wells added within Van Buren County during the years 2000 through 2009. These wells resulted in a total forest loss of about 1.5% area from the initial inventory of forest in 2000. Pearson product moment correlation (PPMC) values ranging from -0.19 to 0.17 suggests relationships exist between poults per hen and forest fragmentation due to natural gas development. These PPMC values and their respective directions confirm the hypothesis. However, their p-values were all greater than 0.5 which suggests the correlations may not be statistically significant. A stronger regression model, giving adjusted R squared value of 0.766, was constructed which takes into account annual precipitation, previous year's wild turkey harvest, along with the number of conifer forest patches. This study concludes that the low wild turkey nesting success may not be directly influenced by forests lost due to natural gas development within the study area Van Buren County Arkansas.

  6. The Initial Stages of the Guy-Greenbrier, Arkansas, Earthquake Sequence: Induced by Both Wastewater Injection and Hydraulic Fracturing Amid Natural Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, C. E.; Huang, Y.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Beroza, G. C.

    2016-12-01

    The Guy-Greenbrier, Arkansas, earthquake sequence, which occurred from July 2010 through October 2011, was potentially induced by injection of wastewater from nearby hydraulic fracturing operations into disposal wells (Horton, 2012). To gain insight into the initial stages of this earthquake sequence, we detected and located earthquakes during a three month time period from 2010-06-01 to 2010-08-31, spanning a time interval before and after the beginning of the sequence in July 2010. We then examined spatial and temporal correlations between seismicity, wastewater injection, and hydraulic fracture stimulation of production wells. Although the Arkansas seismic network is sparse, the Fingerprint And Similarity Thresholding (FAST) method (Yoon et al., 2015) enabled comprehensive detection of 14,000 low-magnitude earthquakes ranging from M -1 to 1.8 in continuous seismic data from a single 3-component station WHAR. We then located the largest 756 (M > 0) earthquakes with data from two additional stations, ARK1 and ARK2, in a small local network, using the velocity model from Ogwari et al. (2016). The majority of these earthquakes are located at the north end of the Guy-Greenbrier Fault, a previously unknown fault that would later be illuminated by hundreds of thousands of earthquakes in 2010-2011. By comparing the stimulation and disposal history of wells in the area with precise earthquake locations, we find that many of the earthquakes are closely correlated in space and time with either hydraulic fracturing operations or wastewater injection. We also observe minor seismicity off the Guy-Greenbrier Fault, which we are currently unable to associate with wastewater injection or hydraulic fracturing, that may be natural background seismicity. Our retrospective analysis indicates that high accuracy earthquake locations with low magnitude detection thresholds can provide new insights into sources of potentially induced seismicity.

  7. The Power Behind the Controversy: Understanding Local Policy Elites' Perceptions on the Benefits and Risks Associated with High Voltage Power Line Installation in the State of Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Rachael M.

    Following a proposal for the installation of high voltage power lines in northwest Arkansas, a controversial policy debate emerged. Proponents of the transmission line argue that such an installation is inevitable and necessary to efficiently and reliably support the identified electric load in the region. Opponents claim that the lines will degrade the natural environment and hamper the tourism-based local economy in affected regions, notably in Ozark Mountain areas. This study seeks to understand how local policy elites perceive the benefits and risks associated with proposed transmission lines, which is a critical step in comprehending the formation and changes of related government policies. First, based upon the dual process theory of judgment, this study systematically investigates the triadic relationships between (a) more profound personal value predispositions, (b) affects and feelings, and (c) perceived benefits and risks related to the proposed installation of high voltage power lines among local policy elites in the state of Arkansas. Next, this study focuses more specifically on the role of value predispositions, specific emotional dimensions of affect heuristics, and perceptions pertaining to high voltage power line risks and benefits. Using original data collected from a statewide Internet survey of 420 local leaders and key policymakers about their opinions on the related issues, other factors claimed by previous literature, including trust, knowledge level, and demographic characteristics are considered. Analytical results suggest that grid-group cultural predispositions, as deeply held core values within local policy elites' individual belief systems, both directly and indirectly -- through affective feelings -- shape perceived utility associated with the installation of high voltage power lines. Recognizing that risk perceptions factor into policy decisions, some practical considerations for better designing policy addressing controversial issues

  8. Hydrologic and landscape database for the Cache and White River National Wildlife Refuges and contributing watersheds in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, Gary R.; Wehmeyer, Loren L.; Calhoun, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    A hydrologic and landscape database was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, for the Cache River and White River National Wildlife Refuges and their contributing watersheds in Arkansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma. The database is composed of a set of ASCII files, Microsoft Access® files, Microsoft Excel® files, an Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI) ArcGIS® geodatabase, ESRI ArcGRID® raster datasets, and an ESRI ArcReader® published map. The database was developed as an assessment and evaluation tool to use in examining refuge-specific hydrologic patterns and trends as related to water availability for refuge ecosystems, habitats, and target species; and includes hydrologic time-series data, statistics, and hydroecological metrics that can be used to assess refuge hydrologic conditions and the availability of aquatic and riparian habitat. Landscape data that describe the refuge physiographic setting and the locations of hydrologic-data collection stations are also included in the database. Categories of landscape data include land cover, soil hydrologic characteristics, physiographic features, geographic and hydrographic boundaries, hydrographic features, regional runoff estimates, and gaging-station locations. The database geographic extent covers three hydrologic subregions—the Lower Mississippi–St Francis (0802), the Upper White (1101), and the Lower Arkansas (1111)—within which human activities, climatic variation, and hydrologic processes can potentially affect the hydrologic regime of the refuges and adjacent areas. Database construction has been automated to facilitate periodic updates with new data. The database report (1) serves as a user guide for the database, (2) describes the data-collection, data-reduction, and data-analysis methods used to construct the database, (3) provides a statistical and graphical description of the database, and (4) provides detailed information on

  9. Surface complexation modeling for predicting solid phase arsenic concentrations in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer, Arkansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, M.S.U.; Davis, R.K.; Steele, K.F.; Kim, B.; Hays, P.D.; Kresse, T.M.; Fazio, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    The potential health impact of As in drinking water supply systems in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in the state of Arkansas, USA is significant. In this context it is important to understand the occurrence, distribution and mobilization of As in the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer. Application of surface complexation models (SCMs) to predict the sorption behavior of As and hydrous Fe oxides (HFO) in the laboratory has increased in the last decade. However, the application of SCMs to predict the sorption of As in natural sediments has not often been reported, and such applications are greatly constrained by the lack of site-specific model parameters. Attempts have been made to use SCMs considering a component additivity (CA) approach which accounts for relative abundances of pure phases in natural sediments, followed by the addition of SCM parameters individually for each phase. Although few reliable and internally consistent sorption databases related to HFO exist, the use of SCMs using laboratory-derived sorption databases to predict the mobility of As in natural sediments has increased. This study is an attempt to evaluate the ability of the SCMs using the geochemical code PHREEQC to predict solid phase As in the sediments of the Mississippi River Valley alluvial aquifer in Arkansas. The SCM option of the double-layer model (DLM) was simulated using ferrihydrite and goethite as sorbents quantified from chemical extractions, calculated surface-site densities, published surface properties, and published laboratory-derived sorption constants for the sorbents. The model results are satisfactory for shallow wells (10.6. m below ground surface), where the redox condition is relatively oxic or mildly suboxic. However, for the deep alluvial aquifer (21-36.6. m below ground surface) where the redox condition is suboxic to anoxic, the model results are unsatisfactory. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. NGA-West 2 GMPE average site coefficients for use in earthquake-resistant design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, Roger D.

    2015-01-01

    Site coefficients corresponding to those in tables 11.4–1 and 11.4–2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (Standard ASCE/SEI 7-10) are derived from four of the Next Generation Attenuation West2 (NGA-W2) Ground-Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). The resulting coefficients are compared with those derived by other researchers and those derived from the NGA-West1 database. The derivation of the NGA-W2 average site coefficients provides a simple procedure to update site coefficients with each update in the Maximum Considered Earthquake Response MCER maps. The simple procedure yields average site coefficients consistent with those derived for site-specific design purposes. The NGA-W2 GMPEs provide simple scale factors to reduce conservatism in current simplified design procedures.

  11. American Elm (Ulmus americana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Andrew E; Schrodt, Franziska; Maynard, Charles A; Powell, William A

    2006-01-01

    American elm (Ulmus americana) is a valuable and sentimental tree species that was decimated by Dutch elm disease in the mid-20th century. Therefore, any methods for modifying American elm or enhancing disease resistance are significant. This protocol describes transformation and tissue culture techniques used on American elm. Leaf pieces containing the midvein and petiole are used for explants. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 is used for transformation, with the binary vector pSE39, containing CaMV35S/nptII as a selectable marker, ACS2/ESF39A as a putative resistance enhancing gene, and CaMV35S/GUS as a reporter.

  12. Lolita - the American nightmare

    OpenAIRE

    GRISELDA (ABAZAJ) DANGLLI

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of Lolita seen through the lenses of the American society and norms of today. We will see that many observations of the American way of behaving and social norms still hold true even nowadays years after this novel was written. Nabokov, on the other hand, never accepted the fact that this novel probed into the very depths of American life and that his intentions were purely aesthetic. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of pedophilia, obvious in the book, is a po...

  13. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  14. Is There Really A North American Plate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krill, A.

    2011-12-01

    Lithospheric plates are typically identified from earthquake epicenters and evidence such as GPS movements. But no evidence indicates a plate boundary between the North American and South American Plates. Some plate maps show them separated by a transform boundary, but it is only a fracture zone. Other maps show an "undefined plate boundary" or put no boundary between these two plates (check Google images). Early plate maps showed a single large American Plate, quite narrow east of the Caribbean Plate (Le Pichon 1968, Morgan 1968). The North and South American Plates became established by the leading textbook Earth (Press & Siever 1974). On their map, from a Scientific American article by John Dewey (1972), these new plates were separated by an "uncertain plate boundary." The reasons for postulating a North American Plate were probably more psychological than geological. Each of the other continents of the world had its own plate, and North American geologists naturally wanted theirs. Similarly, European geographers used to view Europe as its own continent. A single large plate should again be hypothesized. But the term American Plate would now be ambiguous ("Which plate, North or South?") Perhaps future textbook authors could call it the "Two-American Plate." Textbook authors ultimately decide such global-tectonic matters. I became aware of textbook authors' opinions and influence from my research into the history of Alfred Wegener's continental drift (see Fixists vs. Mobilists by Krill 2011). Leading textbook author Charles Schuchert realized that continental drift would abolish his cherished paleogeographic models of large east-west continents (Eria, Gondwana) and small oceans (Poseiden, Nereis). He and his junior coauthors conspired to keep drift evidence out of their textbooks, from the 1934-editions until the 1969-editions (Physical Geology by Longwell et al. 1969, Historical Geology by Dunbar & Waage 1969). Their textbooks ruled in America. Textbooks

  15. Geochemical and isotopic variations in shallow groundwater in areas of the Fayetteville Shale development, north-central Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Nathaniel R.; Kresse, Timothy M.; Hays, Phillip D.; Down, Adrian; Karr, Jonathan D.; Jackson, R.B.; Vengosh, Avner

    2013-01-01

    Exploration of unconventional natural gas reservoirs such as impermeable shale basins through the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has changed the energy landscape in the USA providing a vast new energy source. The accelerated production of natural gas has triggered a debate concerning the safety and possible environmental impacts of these operations. This study investigates one of the critical aspects of the environmental effects; the possible degradation of water quality in shallow aquifers overlying producing shale formations. The geochemistry of domestic groundwater wells was investigated in aquifers overlying the Fayetteville Shale in north-central Arkansas, where approximately 4000 wells have been drilled since 2004 to extract unconventional natural gas. Monitoring was performed on 127 drinking water wells and the geochemistry of major ions, trace metals, CH4 gas content and its C isotopes (δ13CCH4), and select isotope tracers (δ11B, 87Sr/86Sr, δ2H, δ18O, δ13CDIC) compared to the composition of flowback-water samples directly from Fayetteville Shale gas wells. Dissolved CH4 was detected in 63% of the drinking-water wells (32 of 51 samples), but only six wells exceeded concentrations of 0.5 mg CH4/L. The δ13CCH4 of dissolved CH4 ranged from −42.3‰ to −74.7‰, with the most negative values characteristic of a biogenic source also associated with the highest observed CH4 concentrations, with a possible minor contribution of trace amounts of thermogenic CH4. The majority of these values are distinct from the reported thermogenic composition of the Fayetteville Shale gas (δ13CCH4 = −35.4‰ to −41.9‰). Based on major element chemistry, four shallow groundwater types were identified: (1) low ( 100 mg/L and Ca–HCO3 dominated, (3) TDS > 100 mg/L and Na–HCO3dominated, and (4) slightly saline groundwater with TDS > 100 mg/L and Cl > 20 mg/L with elevated Br/Cl ratios (>0.001). The Sr (87Sr/86Sr = 0.7097

  16. The Changing Tides of the Type 2 Diabetes Epidemic-Smooth Sailing or Troubled Waters Ahead? Kelly West Award Lecture 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Edward W

    2017-10-01

    The Kelly West Award for Outstanding Achievement in Epidemiology is given in memory of Kelly M. West, widely regarded as the "father of diabetes epidemiology," to an individual who has made significant contributions to the field of diabetes epidemiology. Edward W. Gregg, PhD, of the Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, received the prestigious award at the American Diabetes Association's 76th Scientific Sessions, 10-14 June 2016, in New Orleans, LA. He presented the Kelly West Award Lecture, "Changing Tides of the Type 2 Diabetes Epidemic-Smooth Sailing or Troubled Waters Ahead?" on Sunday, 12 June 2016. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  17. Religious Authority in African American Churches: A Study of Six Churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congregational culture of female-headed vs. male-headed churches. Among male-headed congregations, views of gender and leadership were complex, with beliefs ranging from no support to full support for female-headed congregations. Two congregational cultures emerged from the data: Congregations with a Social Activist orientation focused on meeting the social needs of the community through Christ, whereas congregations with a Teach the Word orientation stressed the importance of meeting the spiritual needs of the community through knowing the Word of God. Although aspects of both congregational cultures were present to some extentin all six congregations studied, the Social Activist culture played a more dominant narrative in female-headed congregations, whereas the Teach the Word culture was more evident in male-headed congregations. This study reports preliminary information about gender and religious authority in rural African American churches by revealing the different clergy training requirements and church placements of female and male clergy, a myriad of views about female religious authority in the African American faith community, and through uncovering two distinct congregational cultures. This study also enhances understanding on the role of gender in Black churches’ perceptions and interactions with rural, socioeconomically challenged communities.

  18. Mental Health and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Mental Health Mental Health and Asian Americans Suicide was the 9th leading ... Americans is half that of the White population. MENTAL HEALTH STATUS Serious psychological distress among adults 18 years ...

  19. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profiles > Black/African American > Infant Health & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 ... to receive late or no prenatal care. Infant Mortality Rate Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live ...

  20. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...