Holmes, Kimberly Monique
The purpose of this dissertation study was to explore African-American women's perceptions of undergraduate STEM classroom experiences, and the ways in which those experiences have supported or hindered their persistence in physics majors. The major research question guiding this study was: How do African-American women perceive the climate and…
This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal sci...
Littleford, Linh Nguyen
Undergraduate students (N = 932, 83.8% European Americans, 69.6% women) completed an online survey and reported their definitions of diversity, their attitudes toward incorporating diversity into the curriculum, and their motivations for learning about diversity issues. Findings revealed that students conceptualized diversity primarily in terms of…
Karp, Julie K; Weston, Christine M; King, Karen E
Blood transfusion is the most common procedure performed in American hospitals, and transfusions are commonly ordered by physicians without formal training in transfusion medicine. Several transfusion medicine curricula have been proposed, including those developed through the Transfusion Medicine Academic Awards (TMAA). To our knowledge, no comprehensive study has assessed how transfusion medicine is incorporated into undergraduate medical education. We conducted an online survey to determine the manner in which transfusion medicine is incorporated into American undergraduate medical education. The survey was e-mailed to administrators of medical education at all of the 129 American medical schools accredited by the Association of American Medical Colleges. Eighty-six (67%) of the 129 identified medical school administrators responded. Seventy-one (83%) of the 86 administrators reported that their undergraduate medical education curriculum provides didactic lectures in transfusion medicine, with 48% of medical schools providing 1 or 2 hours of lecture-based instruction. A minority reported small group sessions devoted to transfusion medicine topics. While a slim majority reported the availability of transfusion medicine electives, only one of 84 administrators reported that such a rotation is required. Seventy-six of 83 (92%) administrators were unfamiliar with either the 1989 or the 1995 TMAA transfusion medicine curricula. Transfusion medicine content in American undergraduate medical education is variable and the influence of the TMAA program on contemporary medical school curricula is questionable. Future efforts in this area should focus on standardizing and improving undergraduate medical education in transfusion medicine. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.
In this study, six African American female college students were interviewed to explore perceptions about their college learning environment and the beliefs they have about their own competence and value with regard to others in the college community. Focus group and individual interviews were conducted over the course of the academic year to…
Fouad, Khadija Engelbrecht
A qualitative investigation into American Muslim undergraduates' views on evolution revealed three main positions on evolution: theistic evolution, a belief in special creation of all species, and a belief in special creation of humans with evolution for all non-human species. One can conceive of the manner in which respondents chose their…
George-Jackson, Casey E.
This study uses longitudinal data of undergraduate students from five public land-grant universities to better understand undergraduate students' persistence in and switching of majors, with particular attention given to women's participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields. Specifically, the study examines…
Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.
Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…
Pedone, Maggie Helene
The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a complex problem that continues to persist at the postsecondary level, particularly in computer science and engineering fields. This dissertation explored the pre-college and college level factors that influenced undergraduate women's persistence in STEM. This study also examined and compared the characteristics of undergraduate women who entered STEM fields and non-STEM fields in 2003-2004. The nationally representative Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09) data set was used for analysis. BPS:04/09 study respondents were surveyed three times (NPSAS:04, BPS:04/06, BPS:04/09) over a six-year period, which enabled me to explore factors related to long-term persistence. Astin's Input-Environment-Output (I-E-O) model was used as the framework to examine student inputs and college environmental factors that predict female student persistence (output) in STEM. Chi-square tests revealed significant differences between undergraduate women who entered STEM and non-STEM fields in 2003-2004. Differences in student demographics, prior academic achievement, high school course-taking patterns, and student involvement in college such as participation in study groups and school clubs were found. Notably, inferential statistics showed that a significantly higher proportion of female minority students entered STEM fields than non-STEM fields. These findings challenge the myth that underrepresented female minorities are less inclined to enter STEM fields. Logistic regression analyses revealed thirteen significant predictors of persistence for undergraduate women in STEM. Findings showed that undergraduate women who were younger, more academically prepared, and academically and socially involved in college (e.g., lived on campus, interacted with faculty, participated in study groups, fine arts activities, and school sports) were more likely to persist in STEM
Rudolph, Bonnie; Chavez, Mary; Quintana, Fernando; Salinas, Gilberto
How Mexican American college students perceive responsibility for parental care is important as Mexican American elders' numbers increase. The authors applied mixed methods to investigate the impact of gender and biculturalism within this group. Two hundred and eighty-six Mexican American undergraduates completed the Hamon Filial Responsibility…
Miller, Dorothy L.
Personal rewards for American Indian women in bicultural leadership roles are largely lacking due to the dilemmas rooted in the ambiguity of the two social structures between which they move. Despite strains and pressures, many of these women are making their voices heard on native American issues. (Author/GC)
The Yale Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics was held on January 18th and 19th, 2008. The conference, targeted toward undergraduates in the Northeast, was a huge success. It was well attended by both a slate of impressive speakers including Janet Conrad, Mildred Dresselhaus, Elsa Garmire, Howard Georgi, Liz Rhodes, Meg Urry and Wendy Zhang, and many interested attendees. Talks were on current research, about issues for women in physics, and on the application process for graduate school. There was also a career panel, student talks, and a student poster session. The conference ran concurrently with the third annual conference at USC, as well as a first annual conference at the University of Michigan. Our purpose in creating this conference was to provide a supportive atmosphere for young physicists to connect with peers and with successful women in the field. We hope that from this conference, attendees have become confident and knowledgeable about applying to graduate school and be further inspired to pursue a career in physics. The following describes the conference program, participation and impact, logistics of running the conference and plans for the future.
This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as frameworks to better understand the participants'…
In 2010 women represented half of the US population and over half of current graduates from college (57%) but less than a third of undergraduate degrees in science and engineering (STEM). This underrepresentation is worse in certain fields such as physics (21%), and engineering (22%) compared to 52% in chemistry. This underrepresentation is not only a social and cultural issue, but it is also cause for alarm in regard to the United States' ability to maintain its technological and economic dominance in the global economy. STEM fields provide valuable contributions to the nation's economic and environmental security (Augustine, 2005; Chang, 2009; Riegle-Crumb and King, 2010; Robelen, 2010; Tessler, 2008), paying practitioners well and bringing in revenue for successful businesses and governments (National Science Board [NSB], 2008; Riegle-Crumb and King). Consequently, addressing the underrepresentation of women and increasing their persistence in STEM fields will increase the number of scientists and engineers contributing to these fields, which could, in turn, improve the nation's economy, safety, and technological revenues. Research indicates that there are internal and external factors that affect the ability of women to see future success in STEM and to identify with the STEM and consequently persist. This presentation will summarize the current literature on issues affecting undergraduate women's retention in STEM as well as present strategies to improve this retention. Part of this presentation will draw from my own research studies in this area. The findings from my study and others reveal that only women who participate in redefinition strategies related to their marginalized status are able to persist; those who cannot redefine their marginality in relation to the dominant discourse of STEM begin to lose interest or doubt their competence in the field, resulting in their departure from STEM.
Compared to the literature available on other ethnic groups in the United States, there is very little information about school experiences of Arab Americans (Nieto, 2003). This study examines the ways that Arab American women reported positioning themselves when faced with difficult situations related to stereotypical images of Arabs and Arab…
Young, Christina B; Fang, Daniel Z; Zisook, Sidney
Depression is a serious and often under-diagnosed and undertreated mental health problem in college students which may have fatal consequences. Little is known about ethnic differences in prevalence of depression in US college campuses. This study compares depression severity in Asian-American and Caucasian undergraduate students at the University of California San Diego (UCSD). Participants completed the nine item Patient Health Questionnaire and key demographic information via an anonymous online questionnaire. Compared to Caucasians, Asian-Americans exhibited significantly elevated levels of depression. Furthermore, Korean-American students were significantly more depressed than Chinese-American, other minority Asian-American, and Caucasian students. In general, females were significantly more depressed than males. Results were upheld when level of acculturation was considered. The demographic breakdown of the student population at UCSD is not representative to that of the nation. These findings suggest that outreach to female and Asian-American undergraduate students is important and attention to Korean-American undergraduates may be especially worthwhile. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Mitchell, Karen S; Mazzeo, Suzanne E
Binge eating symptomatology affects African Americans and Caucasians at similar rates. Moreover, compared to anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN), binge eating and BED are more evenly distributed across genders. Undergraduates are likely to be affected by binge eating, yet, relatively few studies have investigated this behavior and its correlates in college samples. This study examined the influence of alexithymia, depression, and anxiety on binge eating among ethnically diverse undergraduates. Results indicated that these variables significantly predicted eating symptomatology among Caucasian and African American women but not among Caucasian men. Further, among Caucasian women, depression was the only unique predictor of eating pathology. In contrast, anxiety was the only unique predictor of disordered eating in African American women. There were no differences between Caucasians and African Americans in severity of disordered eating symptomatology; however, in both ethnic groups, women reported greater eating pathology than men. Eating disorders of all types may be more prevalent among African American undergraduates than previously thought. These results highlight the need to study binge eating and its correlates in this traditionally underserved group.
Park, Heejung; Twenge, Jean M; Greenfield, Patricia M
The Great Recession's influence on American undergraduate students' values was examined, testing Greenfield's and Kasser's theories concerning value development during economic downturns. Study 1 utilised aggregate-level data to investigate (a) population-level value changes between the pre-recession (2004-2006: n = 824,603) and recession freshman cohort (2008-2010: n = 662,262) and (b) overall associations of population-level values with national economic climates over long-term periods by correlating unemployment rates and concurrent aggregate-level values across 1966-2015 (n = 10 million). Study 2 examined individual-level longitudinal value development from freshman to senior year, and whether the developmental trajectories differed between those who completed undergraduate education before the Great Recession (freshmen in 2002, n = 12,792) versus those who encountered the Great Recession during undergraduate years (freshmen in 2006, n = 13,358). Results suggest American undergraduate students' increased communitarianism (supporting Greenfield) and materialism (supporting Kasser) during the Great Recession. The recession also appears to have slowed university students' development of positive self-views. Results contribute to the limited literature on the Great Recession's influence on young people's values. They also offer theoretical and practical implications, as values of this privileged group of young adults are important shapers of societal values, decisions, and policies. © 2016 International Union of Psychological Science.
The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) careers constitutes a major issue in postsecondary science education. Perseverance of women in STEM is linked to a strong science identity. Experiential learning activities, such as undergraduate research, increase science identity and thus should help keep women in STEM. Most studies on research program development are from 4-year institutions, yet many women start at community colleges. The goal of this study was to fill this gap. Science identity and experiential learning theories provided the framework for this case study at a local institution (LECC). Semistructured interviews determined college science faculty and administrators perceptions of advantages and disadvantages of undergraduate research, the viability of developing a research program, and specific research options feasible for LECC. Transcripted data were analyzed through multiple rounds of coding yielding five themes: faculty perception of undergraduate research, authentic experiences, health technologies/nursing programs, LECC students career focus, and the unique culture at LECC. The most viable type of undergraduate research for LECC is course-based and of short timeframe. The project study advocates the use of citizen science (CS) studies in the classroom as they are relatively short-term and can take the place of lab sessions. The true benefit is that students perform authentic science by contributing to an actual scientific research project. CS projects can effect social change by developing science literate citizens, empowering faculty to create authentic learning experiences, and by sparking interest in science and directing women into STEM careers.
Campbell, Doris Williams; Sharps, Phyllis W; Gary, Faye A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Lopez, Loretta M
Violence against African American women, specifically intimate partner abuse, has a significant impact on their health and well being. Intimate partner femicide and near fatal intimate partner femicide are the major causes of premature death and disabling injuries for African American women. Yet, despite this, there is a paucity of research and interventions specific and culturally relevant for these women. This article focuses on issues relevant to intimate partner violence and abuse against African American women by examining existing empirical studies of prevalence and health outcomes of intimate partner violence against women in general, plus what limited research there is about African American women, specifically. It includes a discussion of specific recommendations for research, practice, education, and policy to reduce and prevent intimate partner violence against African American women.
... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...
Varga, Mary Alice; McClam, Tricia M; Hassane, Sofoh
The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of grief among American and Arab female undergraduate students, the effects of their grief, and risk of prolonged grief disorder. A total of 471 female undergraduate students, 308 (65.4%) from the United Arab Emirates and 163 (34.6%) from the United States, completed a survey about their grief experiences. Students experiencing a significant loss also completed the Prolonged Grief Disorder Questionnaire. Findings revealed that overall approximately 38.4% (n = 181) of all 471 students experienced the loss of a significant person in their lives within the past 24 months; a similar percentage was found in each sub group. Students reported various grief effects with American students experiencing more effects related to sleep, relationships, academics, physical well-being, religion/spirituality, and outlook on life than Arab students. Only a small number (10, 5.52%) of students met the criteria for prolonged grief disorder; however, most students were female Arab students. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are provided.
Gillespie, Patti P.
A history of American women dramatists is provided in this paper with emphasis on the period 1960 to 1980. It is noted that by 1960 several American women had earned sizable reputations as dramatists; that prior to 1960, especially in the 1920s and 1930s, they had offered both commercial and experimental pieces; and that, like their male…
... certain medications. Are There Any Special Issues for Asian Women Regarding Bone Health? Recent studies indicate a number ... regard to developing osteoporosis: Compared with Caucasian women, Asian women have been found to consume less calcium. One ...
Preston-Cunningham, Tammie; Boyd, Barry L.; Elbert, Chanda D.; Dooley, Kim E.; Peck-Parrott, Kelli
This study investigates the perceptions of leadership of African American undergraduate males who attend a predominately-White institution in the Southwest after participation in a leadership development program. Research concerning African American undergraduate males in education has been from a deficit-orientated narrative and focused primarily…
Taeuber, C M; Valdisera, V
Striking changes in the economic pursuits and status of women have marked the last 2 decades: 1) more women are in the labor force than ever before, 2) they are more likely to have continuous lifetime work experience, 3) they are better educated, and 4) the law mandates greater opportunity for equal employment. Still, as a group, most women continue to work in traditionally female, low-paying occupations. This report addresses 2 questions: 1) why some economic differences between men and women have narrowed, and 2) why they still continue to narrow. Over the past few years, women have been spending more years prior to marriage supporting themselves; in marriage, they have been contributing more to the household income, and a greater number of divorced women have been rearing children alone, often with little or no financial help. Some of the highlights reported in this study are: 1) in 1985, 31.5 million women held full-time, year-round jobs; 2) younger women are increasingly delaying marriage and childbirth to attend college and establish careers; 3) over 1/2 of all children under 18 had a mother in the labor force in 1985; 4) 48% of women with babies under 1 were in the labor force in 1985 as were over 1/2 the mothers with toddlers under 3; 5) by 1995, 61.4 million women are projected to be in the labor force--a participation rate of 60%; and 6) 13% of women who worked year-round, full-time in 1984 had earnings greater than $25,000 compared with 46% of men.
Miles, Trenia L.
The primary purpose of this study was to identify adult African American women undergraduate students' motivations for enrolling in college as measured by Boshier's (1982) Education Participation Scale (EPS). The secondary purpose was to determine if there were differences in motivations based on choice of institutional enrollment and if…
Alyono, Jennifer C; Jackler, Robert K; Chandrasekhar, Sujana S
To describe the history of women in the American Otological Society (AOS). Biographies of the early women of the AOS were compiled through review of the AOS transactions, their published scholarship, newspaper articles, and memorials. Interviews were conducted with the only two women to have led the society and also with former colleagues and family members of pioneering AOS women members who are no longer with us. The evolving gender composition of the society over time was researched from AOS membership lists and compared with data on surgical workforce composition from multiple sources such as the Association of American Medical Colleges, Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, American Medical Association, and the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. Although American women specialized in otology as far back as 1895, the first woman to be invited to join the AOS as Associate member in 1961 was Dorothy Wolff, PhD. The first female full member was otologic surgeon LaVonne Bergstrom, M.D., who was elected in 1977, 109 years after the foundation of the Society. As of 2017, only two women have served as AOS President. The first was Aina Julianna Gulya, M.D., who took office during the 133rd year in 2001. At the time of the sesquicentennial (2017), 7.5% of AOS members are women including three of eight who serve on the AOS Council. This compares with 15.8% of women among the otolaryngology workforce and a growing 10.9% representation among those who have earned subcertification in neurotology. Gender disparities remain in the AOS, but both participation and scholarly contributions by women in otology have grown substantially since the society's inception 150 years ago, and particularly in the 21st century. Increasing the presence of women in leadership provides role models and mentorship for the future.
Amend, Kandace; Hicks, David; Ambrosone, Christine B
Disparities exist between African-American and European-American women in the incidence and nature of breast cancer. African-American women are more often diagnosed with breast cancer at an earlier age and with more aggressive disease, characterized by higher grade and negative estrogen and progesterone receptor status. Recent findings reveal specific gene expression patterns associated with the more aggressive breast cancers observed in African-American women. An overview of the current literature about racial differences in breast cancer prompts questions for future research to elucidate causes for the apparent disparities in tumor biology.
Krebs, Christopher P.; Barrick, Kelle; Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Boyd, Chimi; Bogan, Yolanda
Although research has shown that undergraduate women are at high risk for experiencing sexual assault, little research has been conducted with undergraduate women who are attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). The purpose of this research is to document the prevalence of different types of sexual assault among undergraduate…
Blair, Elizabeth E.
Past research suggests that undergraduate women have faced educational cultures in which their college experience is defined through romantic experiences. This study expands this literature by investigating how heightened achievement expectations for undergraduate women inform their broader conceptions of intimate relationships, by asking the…
Frisby, Cynthia M.
Using the theory of social comparison, the present research explores how exposure to idealized images of physically attractive Caucasian women affects and changes the self-reported esteem levels of African-American undergraduate students. Though research reveals that the number of portrayals of African-Americans in ads is growing, little if any…
Knowles, Debora; Bryant, Rhonda M.
Given their tremendous professional responsibilities, professional counselors face daunting challenges to remaining healthy and avoiding role stress and overload. This article explores the intersection of race, gender, wellness, and spirituality in the self-care of African American women counselors. The authors give particular attention to…
Wambach, Karen; Domian, Elaine Williams; Page-Goertz, Sallie; Wurtz, Heather; Hoffman, Kelli
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hispanic breastfeeding mothers begin early formula supplementation at higher rates than other ethnic groups, which can lead to shorter breastfeeding duration and decreased exclusive breastfeeding. Acculturation, the process of adopting beliefs and behaviors of another culture, appears to influence breastfeeding practices of Hispanic women in the United States. Little is known about Mexican American mothers' formula use and exclusive breastfeeding within the context of acculturation. Our study identified perceived benefits and barriers to exclusive breastfeeding and levels of acculturation among Mexican American women living in a Midwestern city. We used a qualitative descriptive design integrating Pender's Health Promotion Model concepts. Individual interviews were conducted in English or Spanish (N = 21). The revised Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans was used to examine acculturation levels. Acculturation scores indicated that the majority (66%) of the sample was "very Mexican oriented." Most women exclusively breastfed, with a few using early supplementation for "insufficient milk production." Three themes emerged: (1) It is natural that a woman give life and also provide the best food for her baby; (2) Breastfeeding is ultimately a woman's decision but is influenced by tradition, guidance, and encouragement; and (3) Breast milk is superior but life circumstances can challenge one's ability to breastfeed. Strong familial/cultural traditions supported and normalized breastfeeding. Barriers to exclusive breastfeeding were similar to breastfeeding women in general, in the United States. Findings support the need for culturally competent and individualized lactation care. © The Author(s) 2015.
Berg, J A; Taylor, D L
The purpose of this study was to describe the perimenopausal symptom experience of Filipino American midlife women with particular emphasis upon estrogen-related menopause symptoms (day sweats, hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness). A cross-sectional, descriptive survey was used to generate symptom experience data for 165 Filipina Americans between the ages of 35 and 56 who self-identified as Filipina American and were English-language proficient. The community-based sample completed questionnaires composed of sample characteristic questions and a 51-item menstrual symptom checklist with menopause-related symptoms embedded in it. Sample characteristics and symptom experience were compared among age groups of 35 to 39 (n = 39), 40 to 44 (n = 40), 45 to 49 (n = 37), and 50 to 56 (n = 49) and by perimenopausal phase, defined as premenopausal (n = 85), transitional (n = 33), and menopausal/postmenopausal (n = 47). The most reported individual symptoms were "felt energetic" (86.1%) and "well-being" (83.6%). Estrogen-related menopause symptoms were reported as "vaginal dryness" (39.4%), "hot flashes" (37.6%), "day sweats" (27.9%), and "night sweats" (24.2%) by the total sample. Distress associated with estrogen-related menopause symptoms was reported by 17% (n = 28) of all women. Subjects' chi 2 tests indicated that 50-to-56-year-old women were more likely to report fatigue/sleep symptoms, physical symptoms, and estrogen-related menopause symptoms than all other age groups. When compared by perimenopausal phase, transitional women were more likely to report moderate or extreme severity for day sweats. Premenopausal women were more likely to report minimal or mild severity and women in the perimenopausal transition were more likely to report moderate or extreme severity on estrogen-related menopause symptoms. Filipino American midlife women appear to consider the perimenopausal transition in a positive light and experience little distress associated with
Amankwaa, Linda Clark
The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of postpartum depression (PPD) among African-American women. Twelve women, who had experienced PPD within the last three years, were interviewed for approximately one hour at two intervals. Nudist-4 software and the constant comparative method were used to analyze the data. Five themes "Stressing Out," "Feeling Down," "Losing It," "Seeking Help," and "Feeling Better" represented aspects of PPD as experienced by the participants. The last theme, "Dealing with It," represented the cultural ways in which African-American mothers managed their depression. These included Keeping the Faith, Trying to Be a Strong Black Woman, Living with Myths, and Keeping Secrets. Suggestions for future directions in nursing research are included.
Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher P; Lindquist, Christine H
Despite the evidence that young and minority women may be particularly vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV), there is little research on the IPV experiences of minority undergraduate women. This study addresses this gap by estimating the prevalence of IPV and examining factors associated with experiencing IPV among undergraduate women attending Historically Black Colleges or Universities (HBCUs). Findings suggest alarmingly high victimization rates; however, factors associated with IPV among HBCU women are similar to those found in prior research with women in the general population. The results also suggest that some risk factors are differentially associated with experiencing specific types of IPV.
Mincey, Krista; Alfonso, Moya; Hackney, Amy; Luque, John
This study reports findings on views of masculinity with undergraduate Black men, which included interviews and focus groups (N = 46) with participants ranging in age from 18 to 22 years. Specifically, this study explored how Black men define being a man and being a Black man. Undergraduate Black males at a historically Black college and university (N = 25) and a predominately White institution (N = 21) in the Southeastern United States were recruited to participate in this study. Through the use of thematic analysis, findings indicated that three levels of masculinity exist for Black men: what it means to be a man, what it means to be a Black man, and who influences male development. Implications and recommendations for future research and practice are discussed. © The Author(s) 2013.
Schocker, Jessica B.; Woyshner, Christine
This article addresses the dearth of African American women in high school U.S. history textbooks. The authors conducted a content analysis of the images in an African American history textbook and found that black women are underrepresented. Women are found in less than 15 percent of the images in the African American history text, while they…
Goetsch, Lori A.
One of the aims of the Women's Studies Program at Michigan State University (East Lansing) is to augment undergraduate major programs by introducing the experiences of women into the various disciplines and involving students in inter-disciplinary studies. The College of Arts and Letters (ATL) offers a special topic course called "Women in…
Lau, Allison S M; Lum, Sharilyn K; Chronister, Krista M; Forrest, Linda
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of values acculturation and the influence of media on Asian American college women's overall body image. A sample of 59 Asian American women from two large universities completed self-report surveys, which included questions regarding values acculturation, media internalization, and overall body satisfaction. Results showed that Asian American women who identified more strongly with traditional Asian values reported higher levels of body image dissatisfaction. Further, Asian American women who reported higher internalization of media portrayals of beauty ideals reported higher body image dissatisfaction. Research and clinical recommendations are made to enhance psychologists' understanding of Asian American women's body image and acculturation.
Nguyen, William W.
The current study explored the personal and contextual influences that contribute to a Chinese-American undergraduate students' career decision-making process. The goal of the study was to determine if discrimination, personal interests, family conflict, and information seeking behaviors would significantly predict for one's level of career…
Warchal, Judith R.; Ruiz, Ana I.; You, Di
This study focuses on the inclusion of the American Psychological Association's learning goals in the mission statements of undergraduate psychology programs across the US. We reviewed the mission statements available on websites for 1336 psychology programs listed in the Carnegie classification. Results of a content analysis revealed that of the…
Brandt, Carol B.
This case study explores how an American Indian woman experienced scientific discourse and the issues of language, power, and authority that occurred while she was an undergraduate student at a university in the southwestern United States. This ethnographic research, using a phenomenological perspective, describes her experiences as she searched…
Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Kim, Sara Cho; Park, Yong S.
This study examined the influence of acculturation and perception of the university environment on the depressive symptomatology of 228 Korean American undergraduates, with a focus on sex and generational differences. Perceptions of the university environment and perceived barriers were positive predictors of depressive symptomatology in…
Hestick, Henrietta; Perrino, Carrol S.
This study examined perceptions of child sexual abuse and attributions of responsibility in a cross-sectional convenience sample of 384 African-American undergraduates using a scenario manipulating the age of the victim, gender of the victim, and gender of the perpetrator. Multiple interactions of respondent, victim, and perpetrator gender on…
Varty, Alison K.
I aimed to document the online undergraduate course supply in biology to evaluate how well biology educators are serving the diverse and growing population of online students. I documented online biology course offerings in the 2015-2016 academic year at 96 American colleges and universities. I quantified differences in variety, extent, and…
Johnson-Ahorlu, Robin Nicole
Using Critical Race Theory as a framework, this article reveals how racism and stereotypes obstruct the academic success of black students. Through the use of focus groups, African American undergraduates from a large California State University campus, share the ways in which campus racism impacts their achievement potential as well as their…
Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Weishuhn, Amanda S.; Boyd, Clarissa A.
This study had 2 primary aims: (a) to examine the unique relations between maladaptive and adaptive dimensions of perfectionism and bulimic symptoms and (b) to test an interactive model of perfectionism and perceived weight status for bulimic symptoms in a sample of African American female undergraduates. The sample consisted of 97 women at Time 1…
Full Text Available African American men face many socio-cultural, academic, and negative stressors that generate stress experiences and identity conflicts. These stressors, in turn, may lead to psychological pressures that negatively affect relationships that African American men have with African American women, children, other African American men, and the African American community. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that racial identity has on the development of psychological healthy coping strategies among African American males at a predominantly White university in the southeastern United States. The goal of the study was to see what factors helped young African American men at this institution succeed academically.
Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.
Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…
Bourgeois, Monique; Kirby, Dale
The significance of post-secondary education is investigated for rural Newfoundland women enrolled in undergraduate liberal arts degree programs. Data collection for this research involved comprehensive, detailed semi-structured biographical interviews with rural women studying liberal arts disciplines during the 2006-2007 academic year at…
Haight, Lori P.
The purpose of this interpretive case study was to explore the collegiate experiences of undergraduate women participating in a cohort women's-only leadership development program at a coeducational institution. Using a framework based on Kurt Lewin's psycho-social model of behavior being the function of a person interacting with the environment…
Perez, Jessica Ohanian
Women earn bachelor's degrees in engineering at a rate of less than 17% at public universities in California. The purpose of this study was to understand how women experience undergraduate engineering programs at public universities. To understand this lack of attainment, a qualitative methodology and Feminist Poststructuralist perspective were…
Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A
The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population.
Chmaj, Betty E.
The status of American women and women's studies are described. Part 1 of the report covers the status of women in universities and the professions. Part 2, on courses and programs, deals with course syllabi and commentary, programs of women's studies courses at specific institutions, continuing education programs, and a women's history research…
Hensley Alford, Sharon; Schwartz, Kendra; Soliman, Amr; Johnson, Christine Cole; Gruber, Stephen B; Merajver, Sofia D
Data from Arab world studies suggest that Arab women may experience a more aggressive breast cancer phenotype. To investigate this finding, we focused on one of the largest settlements of Arabs and Iraqi Christians (Chaldeans) in the US, metropolitan Detroit- a SEER reporting site since 1973. We identified a cohort of primary breast cancer cases diagnosed 1973-2003. Using a validated name algorithm, women were identified as being of Arab/Chaldean descent if they had an Arab last or maiden name. We compared characteristics at diagnosis (age, grade, histology, SEER stage, and marker status) and overall survival between Arab-, European-, and African-Americans. The cohort included 1,652 (2%) women of Arab descent, 13,855 (18%) African-American women, and 63,615 (80%) European-American women. There were statistically significant differences between the racial groups for all characteristics at diagnosis. Survival analyses overall and for each SEER stage showed that Arab-American women had the best survival, followed by European-American women. African-American women had the poorest overall survival and were 1.37 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.52) times more likely to be diagnosed with an aggressive tumor (adjusting for age, grade, marker status, and year of diagnosis). Overall, Arab-American women have a distribution of breast cancer histology similar to European-American women. In contrast, the stage, age, and hormone receptor status at diagnosis among Arab-Americans was more similar to African-American women. However, Arab-American women have a better overall survival than even European-American women.
Smilowitz, Jennifer B; Avery, Stephen; Gueye, Paul; Sandison, George A
The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) sponsors two summer undergraduate research programs to attract top performing undergraduate students into graduate studies in medical physics: the Summer Undergraduate Fellowship Program (SUFP) and the Minority Undergraduate Summer Experience (MUSE). Undergraduate research experience (URE) is an effective tool to encourage students to pursue graduate degrees. The SUFP and MUSE are the only medical physics URE programs. From 2001 to 2012, 148 fellowships have been awarded and a total of $608,000 has been dispersed to fellows. This paper reports on the history, participation, and status of the programs. A review of surveys of past fellows is presented. Overall, the fellows and mentors are very satisfied with the program. The efficacy of the programs is assessed by four metrics: entry into a medical physics graduate program, board certification, publications, and AAPM involvement. Sixty-five percent of past fellow respondents decided to pursue a graduate degree in medical physics as a result of their participation in the program. Seventy percent of respondents are currently involved in some educational or professional aspect of medical physics. Suggestions for future enhancements to better track and maintain contact with past fellows, expand funding sources, and potentially combine the programs are presented.
Geyfman, Victoria; Force, Christina M.; Davis, Laura M.
This study employs a survey of undergraduate business school freshmen to examine factors that influence their decision to study business and whether these factors differ by gender. Specifically, the study examines internal factors, such as students' perceived aptitudes and interests in the subject; external factors, such as compensation and job…
Taylor, Christina J; Galasso, Rosemarie
The coverage of religion and mythology in undergraduate courses in the Psychology of Women was explored by (a) surveying a sample of undergraduate instructors (N=72); and (b) examining coverage in textbooks on the Psychology of Women (N=95). 48.6% of teachers said they include some coverage, while 43.1% said they never do. The total percentage of coverage in textbooks is small, ranging from a mean of 2.0% in the 1970s to 1.1% in the current decade.
Chadwick, Heather Riley
Heather Switzer, planning, governance, and globalization doctoral student in the School of Public and International Affairs at Virginia Tech, has been named an American Association of University Women American Dissertation Fellow.
Kim, Janna L.
This study used qualitative research methods to investigate the sexual socialization experiences of young Asian American women, a group often overlooked in psychological research on sexuality. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 ethnically diverse young Asian American women to explore their perceptions and interpretations of the direct…
Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn
Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…
This study sought to better understand the academic and social aspirations of undergraduate women in Guam and Japan. A survey question examined whether significant differences existed between Guamanian and Japanese undergraduate women in status aspirations and occupational ethics and in their life course selection. The questionnaire's five…
Bent-Goodley, Tricia B.
Although empirical research has accumulated over the past 20 years regarding African Americans and domestic violence, many questions remain about African American perceptions of domestic violence. This article explores African American women's perceptions about domestic violence through three focus groups held at a New York social services agency.…
Liang, Belle; Tracy, Allison; Kauh, Tina; Taylor, Catherine; Williams, Linda M.
This study examines differences in the mentoring relationships of Asian American and Euro-American college women. Findings showed that the groups view mentoring as equally important but that fewer Asians report having a mentor. However, those who have mentors find them to be just as valuable as do their Euro-American counterparts. (Contains 2…
Cates, Willard, Jr.
Reviews various aspects of legal abortion, including attitudes, practices, mortality and effects, as they relate to black American women. States that black women have shared in the health benefits accompanying the increased availability of legal abortion, probably to an even greater extent than white women. (Author/GC)
Ghazal Read, Jen'nan
Using data from a national survey of 501 Arab American women, this study examines the extent to which family behavior mediates the influence of religion on women's labor force activity. Prior research on families has largely overlooked the role of religion in influencing women's labor force decisions, particularly at different stages of the life…
Gayles, Joy Gaston; Ampaw, Frim
This study examined factors that influenced undergraduates' decision to enter, leave, or stay within science majors. In addition, we sought to understand if such decisions differed by gender and type of science major. Using Beginning Postsecondary Students (BPS) longitudinal survey data, we found that women were less likely to select a science…
Chalk, Holly M.; Miller, Sarah E.; Roach, Megan E.; Schultheis, Kara S.
This study examined predictors of obligatory exercise in college undergraduates ("N"= 172). Regression models indicated that internalization of Western attitudes toward appearance predicted exercise fixation and commitment in women, whereas perceived pressure from dating partners predicted exercise commitment in men. Findings suggest…
Concannon, James P.; Barrow, Lloyd H.
This is a quantitative study of 493 undergraduate engineering majors' intentions to persist in their engineering program. Using a multiple analysis of variance analysis, men and women had one common predictor for their intentions to persist, engineering career outcome expectations. However, the best sociocognitive predictor for men's persistence…
Fox, Mary Frank; Sonnert, Gerhard; Nikiforova, Irina
This article focuses upon programs for undergraduate women in science and engineering, which are a strategic research site in the study of gender, science, and higher education. The design involves both quantitative and qualitative approaches, linking theory, method, questions, and analyses in ways not undertaken previously. Using a comprehensive,…
Smith, Kathleen N.; Gayles, Joy Gaston
Using social cognitive career theory and the cognitive information processing model as frameworks, in this constructivist case study we examined the career-related experiences and decisions of 10 women engineering undergraduate seniors who accepted full-time positions. From the data analysis 3 major themes emerged: critical undergraduate…
Fischer, E. V.; Adams, A. S.; Barnes, R.; Bloodhart, B.; Burt, M. A.; Clinton, S. M.; Godfrey, E. S.; Pollack, I. B.; Hernandez, P. R.
Women are substantially underrepresented in the earth and environmental sciences, and that underrepresentation begins at the undergraduate level. In fall 2015, an interdisciplinary team including expertise in the broader geosciences as well as gender and quantitative educational psychology began a project focused on understanding whether mentoring can increase the interest, persistence, and achievement of undergraduate women in the geosciences. The program focuses on mentoring 1st and 2nd year female undergraduate students from five universities in Colorado and Wyoming and four universities in North and South Carolina. The mentoring program includes a weekend workshop, access to professional women across geoscience fields, and both in-person and virtual peer networks. We have found that undergraduate women with large mentoring networks, that include faculty mentors, are more likely to identify as scientists and are more committed to pursuing the geosciences. Our presentation will provide an overview of the major components of our effective and scalable program. We will include a discussion of our first published results in the context of larger social science research on how to foster effective mentoring relationships. We will offer a list of successes and challenges, and we will provide the audience with online links to the materials needed to adopt our model (https://geosciencewomen.org/materials/).
Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher P.; Settles-Reaves, Beverlyn
Objective: To document the sexual assault disclosure experiences of historically black college or university (HBCU) students. Participants: A total of 3,951 female, undergraduate students at 4 HBCUs. Methods: All women at the participating schools were recruited in November 2008 to participate in a Web-based survey including both closed- and…
Moloney, Mairead Eastin; Pelehach, Lisa
Sociologists have developed compelling pedagogical strategies to focus the undergraduate gaze on problems of gender and sexuality. Nested within the social construction of gender norms, the sexualization of girls and women negatively impacts individual, interpersonal, and societal levels of social interaction. Nevertheless, this important issue…
Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)
Miles, Jennifer M.
Women attend college to further themselves through education, but are confronted with traditional concepts of beauty and stereotypes regarding physical appearance. For many women, college is a paradox between the serious nature of intellectual curiosity and the pull to conform to societal expectations. These expectations can be powerful forces as…
Ko, Celine M.
Cancer is the number one cause of death among Asian Americans, and Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian American group in number. Filipino American women have relatively low rates of breast and colorectal cancer screening compared to their White counterparts; however, they experience higher numbers of late-stage diagnoses and mortality rates. Thus, early detection of cancer and maintenance of healthy prevention behaviors are very important. Little is known about this community's pr...
Ho, Ivy K; Dinh, Khanh T
The incidence of cervical cancer is high among Southeast Asian American women, but their participation in preventive cervical cancer screening is alarmingly low. This paper reviews the literature on factors associated with participation in cervical cancer screening among women of Vietnamese, Cambodian and Hmong descent in the United States. These factors include acculturation, age, marital status, knowledge about cervical cancer, apprehension about cervical cancer screening, financial concerns, access to health care, and physician characteristics and recommendation. Suggestions for future research include the need to investigate the role of physicians treating Southeast Asian American women, the need for more extensive up-to-date studies on the current generation of young Southeast Asian American women, and the use of more advanced assessments of acculturation. Overall, much more work is needed in order to deepen our understanding of the various ways to improve the rate of cervical cancer screening among Southeast Asian American women.
The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore African American undergraduate college students' intentions and reasons for participation in study abroad programs. The study involved gathering data from recorded and transcribed semi-structured interviews with 20 African American volunteer participants. Data analysis…
Concern over limited numbers of women entering medicine lead to study to determine factors explaining career changes during college among girls whose initial preference was medicine. Responses were varied, but role stereotypes seen most often responsible for altered decisions. (CJ)
Osvold, Lise Leigh; Sodowsky, Gargi Roysircar
Considers eating attitudes and behaviors related to anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and obesity of white American, African-American, Native American, and some international women from the point of view of cultural influences such as sex role, the media, socioeconomic class, and acculturation to Western society. (Author/NB)
Abdolsalehi-Najafi, Emon; Beckman, Linda J
Although the experience of sex guilt has been considered among a variety of ethnic groups, the area has not yet been empirically explored among Iranian American women. The present study investigated the relationship between sexual self-schema (i.e., beliefs about the sexual aspects of oneself), acculturation, and sex guilt, and it further examined the association between sex guilt and life satisfaction in Iranian American women. A total of 65 Iranian American women, with a mean age of 31.3 years (SD = 11.7), completed five self-administered questionnaires. Findings indicated a significant inverse correlation between sexual self-schema and sex guilt. More specifically, women who endorsed negative self-views regarding their sexual self reported higher levels sex guilt. Results revealed that acculturation was unrelated to sex guilt, when the effect of being Muslim or non-Muslim was controlled. Women with high sex guilt reported significantly lower levels of life satisfaction. Moreover, analyses for mediation effects supported sex guilt as a partially mediating variable between sexual self-schema and life satisfaction. Levels of sex guilt were higher among Muslim women when compared to women of other religious affiliations. Additionally, Muslim women appeared to be significantly less acculturated to Western ideals than other religious groups. The present findings suggest that mental health professionals who provide services to Iranian American women need to consider the negative effects of sex guilt, particularly among Muslim women.
James, Gary D; Bovbjerg, Dana H; Hill, Leah A
The purpose of this study was to compare the daily inter- and intra-situational ambulatory blood pressure (BP) variation by ethnicity in women. The African-American (N = 82; Age = 39.7 + 8.9), Hispanic-American (N = 25; age = 37.5 + 9.4), Asian-American (N = 22; Age = 35.2 + 8.6), and European-American (N = 122; Age = 37.2+ 9.4) women in this study all worked in similar positions at two major medical centers in NYC. Each wore an ambulatory monitor during the course of one mid-week workday. Proportional BP changes from work or home to sleep, intra-situational BP variation (standard deviation [SD]) and mean situational BP levels were compared among the groups using ANOVA models. African-American and Asian-American women had significantly smaller proportional work-sleep systolic changes than either European- (P women, but the Asian-American women's changes tended to be smallest. The variability (SD) of diastolic BP at work was significantly greater among African- and Hispanic-American women compared to Asian- and European-American women (all P women had greater sleep variability than European-American women (P Asian-American women had the highest level of sleep diastolic pressure (all comparisons P Asian-American women have an attenuated proportional BP decline from waking environments to sleep compared to European-American and Hispanic-American women. Asian-American nocturnal BP may be elevated relative to all other groups. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:932-935, 2016. © 2016Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Lord, Thomas R.
Contemporary investigations indicate that men generally perform significantly better in tasks involving visuo-spatial awareness than do women. Researchers have attempted to explain this difference through several hypotheses but as yet the reason for the dimorphism has not been established. Further, contemporary studies have indicated that enhancement of mental image formation and manipulation is possible when students are subjected to carefully designed spatial interventions. Present research was conducted to see if women in the sciences were as spatial perceptively accurate as their male counterparts. The researcher also was interested to find if the women that received the intervention excercises improved in their visuo-spatial awareness as rapidly as their male counterparts.The study was conducted on science majors at a suburban two year college. The population was randomly divided into groups (experimental, placebo, and control) each containing approximately the same number of men and women. All groups were given a battery of spatial perception tests (Ekstrom et al, 1976) at the onset of the winter semester and a second version of the battery at the conclusion of the semester. An analysis of variance followed by Scheffe contrasts were run on the results. The statistics revealed that the experimental group significantly outperformed the nonexperimental groups on the tests. When the differences between the mean scores for the women in the experimental group were statistically compared to those of the men in the experimental group the women were improving at a more rapid rate. Many women have the capacity to develop visuo-spatial aptitude and although they may start out behind men in spatial ability, they learn quickly and often catch up to the men's level when given meaningful visuo-spatial interventions.
.... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCAl/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...
Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A
This article provides evidence of a culturally specific dance intervention to decrease obesity as measured by body fat and body mass index (BMI) in African American women. A community partnership was formed with two African American churches to develop an intervention to address the issue of obesity. The culturally specific dance intervention was delivered two times per week for 8 weeks, choreographed to gospel music selected by the experimental group participants, and taught by an African American woman. Body fat and BMI were assessed at three time points and revealed significant differences between the two groups. Attending a minimum of 7 classes was enough to show an observed dose effect and the intervention was found to be culturally specific by understanding their roles as African American women. This community partnership was an effective way to promote a church-based, culturally specific dance intervention to improve the health of African American women.
Nghiem, Van T.; Davies, Kalatu R.; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D.; Cantor, Scott B.
Purpose We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Methods Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with/without age-stratification). Results Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (pAsian American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared with white women. Asian American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (p=0.004 and p=0.013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (p=0.049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio=0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68–0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Conclusions Although Asian American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. PMID:26552330
Nghiem, Van T; Davies, Kalatu R; Chan, Wenyaw; Mulla, Zuber D; Cantor, Scott B
We compared overall survival and influencing factors between Asian-American women as a whole and by subgroup with white women with cervical cancer. Cervical cancer data were from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry; socioeconomic information was from the Area Health Resource File. We used standard tests to compare characteristics between groups; the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test to assess overall survival and compare it between groups; and Cox proportional hazards models to determine the effect of race and other covariates on overall survival (with and/or without age stratification). Being 3.3 years older than white women at diagnosis (P Asian-American women were more likely to be in a spousal relationship, had more progressive disease, and were better off socioeconomically. Women of Filipino, Japanese, and Korean origin had similar clinical characteristics compared to white women. Asian-American women had higher 36- and 60-month survival rates (P = .004 and P = .013, respectively), higher overall survival rates (P = .049), and longer overall survival durations after adjusting for age and other covariates (hazard ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.68-0.86). Overall survival differed across age strata between the two racial groups. With the exception of women of Japanese or Korean origin, Asian-American women grouped by geographic origin had better overall survival than white women. Although Asian-American women, except those of Japanese or Korean origin, had better overall survival than white women, their older age at cervical cancer diagnosis suggests that they have less access to screening programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Todem, David; Hammad, Adnan; Hill-Ashford, Yolanda; Hamade, Hiam; Palamisono, Gloria; Robinson-Lockett, Murlisa; Zambrana, Ruth E
We examined differences in knowledge and socioeconomic factors associated with 3 types of breast cancer screening (breast self-examination, clinical breast examination, and mammogram) among African American, Arab, and Latina women. Community health workers used a community-based intervention to recruit 341 women (112 Arab, 113 Latina, and 116 African American) in southeastern Michigan to participate in a breast cancer prevention intervention from August through October 2006. Before and after the intervention, women responded to a previously validated 5-item multiple-choice test on breast cancer screening (possible score range: 0 to 5) in their language of preference (English, Spanish, or Arabic). We used generalized estimating equations to analyze data and to account for family-level and individual correlations. Although African American women knew more about breast cancer screening at the baseline (pretest median scores were 4 for African American, 3 for Arab and 3 for Latina women), all groups significantly increased their knowledge after participating in the breast cancer prevention intervention (posttest median scores were 5 for African American and 4 for Arab and Latina women). Generalized estimating equations models show that Arab and Latina women made the most significant gains in posttest scores (P American, Arab, and Latina women to promote adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.
Seven activist Women of Color shared experiences of racism in feminist activism and provided strategies for building a more inclusive movement through this narrative study. A history of exclusion in the feminist movement and examples of marginalization provide a context for this study. Critical race feminism and intersectionality theory inform the…
Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary
Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…
Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane
Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…
The history of the film industry is in many ways a reflection of the thwarted emergence in society of feminism and full equal civil rights for women. Commercial films have traditionally relied upon the charm and sexual allure of actresses to assure economic success at the box office. Victorian mores heavily influenced the way women were treated in…
Women were not considered in preliminary discussions concerning the events, designation of participants, competitive attire, and problems relating to amateurism in the first Olympic games. Golf was the first sport in which women participated in the Olympics, and the first woman to achieve Olympic recognition for the United States did so by winning…
Muus, Kyle J.; Baker-Demaray, Twyla B.; Bogart, T. Andy; Duncan, Glen E.; Jacobsen, Clemma; Buchwald, Dedra S.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.
Purpose: Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated…
Vernon, Irene S.
Discusses risk factors for AIDS among Native women: rates of infected male partners, biological factors affecting vulnerability, other sexually transmitted diseases, poverty, access to health services, relationships with partners, lack of trust in health care providers, and intravenous drug use. Describes the work of the Native American Women's…
Williams, Monnica T.; Bonner, Laura
Attitudes and outcomes of sex education received by North American women are examined via an Internet survey (N = 1,400). Mean age was 19.5, with 24% reporting one or more unplanned pregnancies. Women were more satisfied with sex education from informal sources than from parents, schools, and physicians. Those receiving sex education from parents…
Chavez, Mary R.; Rudolph, Bonnie A.
Personality traits of 178 Mexican American college students were surveyed to test applicability of the Five Factor Model of personality and to investigate gender differences within this bicultural group. Results revealed atypical gender differences on neuroticism. Men scored significantly higher than did women, which is opposite cross-cultural…
Eliason, M J
African American women's health has been neglected in the nursing and other health care literature, in spite of evidence that they are among the most vulnerable populations in the United States today. In this article, I highlight the health disparities between African American and European American women, discuss possible reasons for the disparities, and propose that nursing as a profession has been complicit in perpetuating the racism of health care and society. Although the focus is on nursing research and practice, it is likely that other health care disciplines perpetuate racism in similar ways.
McMahon, Tracey R.; Griese, Emily R.; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete
With growing evidence demonstrating the impact of undergraduate research experiences on educational persistence, efforts are currently being made to expand these opportunities within universities and research institutions throughout the United States. Recruiting underrepresented students into these programs has become an increasingly popular method of promoting diversity in science. Given the low matriculation into postsecondary education and completion rates among Native Americans, there is a great need for Native American undergraduate research internships. Although research has shown that Western education models tend to be less effective with Native populations, the implementation of indigenous epistemologies and pedagogies within higher education, including research experiences, is rare. This study explores the applicability of a cognitive apprenticeship merged with an indigenous approach, the Circle of Courage, to build a scientific learning environment and enhance the academic and professional development of Native students engaged in an undergraduate research experience in the health sciences. Data were drawn from focus groups with 20 students who participated in this program in 2012-2014. Questions explored the extent to which relational bonds between students and mentors were cultivated as well as the impact of this experience on the development of research skills, intellectual growth, academic and professional self-determination, and the attachment of meaning to their research experiences. Data were analyzed via deductive content analysis, allowing for an assessment of how the theoretical constructs inherent to this model (belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity) impacted students. Findings suggest that engaging Native students in research experiences that prioritize the needs of belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity can be a successful means of fostering a positive learning environment, in which students felt like significant members
Awad, Germine H; Norwood, Carolette; Taylor, Desire S; Martinez, Mercedes; McClain, Shannon; Jones, Bianca; Holman, Andrea; Chapman-Hilliard, Collette
The current study examined body image concerns among African American women. In recent years, there has been an attempt to include ethnic minority samples in body image studies (e.g., Grabe & Hyde, 2006; Hrabosky & Grilo, 2007; Lovejoy, 2001) but few specifically examine unique issues pertaining to beauty and body image for African American college age women. A total of 31 African American women participated in one of five focus groups on the campus of a large Southwestern University to examine beauty and body image. Data were analyzed using a thematic approach and several themes were identified. The majority of themes pertained to issues related to hair, skin tone, body type, and message sources. Themes included: sacrifice, ignorance/racial microaggressions, and validation and invalidation by others, thick/toned/curvy as optimal, hypersexualization, and being thin is for White women. Findings of the current study suggest a reconceptualization of body image for African American women where relevant characteristics such as hair and skin tone are given more priority over traditional body image concerns often associated with European American women.
Spurlock, Wanda Raby; Cullins, Leah S
Despite significant advances in science, medicine, and technology African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer than Caucasian women. There is a growing body of literature that describes strategies to improve breast cancer screening among African American women. However, data suggest that African American women, compared to Caucasian women, are less likely to participate in regular breast cancer screening. The belief that a diagnosis of cancer will result in death has been identified as a potential barrier to cancer screening in African American population groups. However, research examining the degree to which perceptions of fatalism influence breast cancer screening in culturally and ethnically diverse population groups is scant. This repot describes the outcomes of a study undertaken to examine relationships between perceptions of cancer fatalism and breast cancer screening in African American women. Findings support the postulation that fatalism negatively influences health promoting practices such as breast cancer screening. However, contrary to prior research findings age was observed to be inversely associated with cancer fatalism.
Wasylkiw, Louise; Butler, Nicole A
Undergraduate women (N = 143) completed self-reports on exercise behavior, body orientation, body appreciation, and body-related talk. Results showed that conversations about weight loss/dieting and conversations about exercise differentially predicted body appreciation. Importantly, multiple regression analyses showed that the relationship between talk type and body appreciation was explained by the object-process dichotomy: Conversations about exercise oriented women to consider what their bodies can do which, in turn, predicted appreciation of one's body. In contrast, the relationship between conversations about weight loss/dieting and body appreciation was mediated by negative attitudes about one's body but not by an object orientation. © The Author(s) 2013.
Gaston, Marilyn Hughes; Porter, Gayle K; Thomas, Veronica G
To examine the relationship among socioeconomic status, psychological factors (ie, health locus of control, health satisfaction), and health behaviors (ie, physical exercise, eating patterns) in a volunteer sample of mid-life African American women residing within Washington, DC. The study's sample included 351 African American women who participated in the 12-week Prime Time Sister Circles (PTSC) intervention and completed the initial self-report survey. Of the women completing the baseline survey, clinical assessments were taken on 277 participants. The majority (64.4%) of the women were either obese or extremely obese based upon their body mass index (BMI). Fewer than one-third of the women were satisfied with their weight. Despite these outcomes, most (61.8%) of the sample rated their health, in comparison to other African American women, as either good or very good. Further, more than one-half of the women were somewhat to very satisfied with their health knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and their physical, emotional, and spiritual health. There was no significant relationship between obesity level and socioeconomic status, as measured by education, personal income, and total household income. Additionally, there were no significant differences in weight or eating behaviors by education, personal income, and total household income. The findings revealed a significant difference in the number of days the women reported engaging in physical exercise by personal income (p < .01) and total household income (p = .05), surprisingly, with the women in the lower-income categories reporting engaging in more days of physical exercise than women in the higher-income categories. This study documents the paradox of obesity in mid-life African American women related to socioeconomic status inasmuch as there were no differences observed in the prevalence of obesity by socioeconomic status indicators. The obese women of lower socioeconomic status reported exercising more than
Frillman, Sharron Ann
This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in…
Blockus, Linda Helen
The purpose of this study is to describe and explore some of the social and academic experiences of successful African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities with the expectation of conceptualizing emerging patterns for future study. The study surveyed 80 upperclass African Americans at 11 public research universities about their perceptions of the influences that affect their educational experiences and career interests in science. The mailed survey included the Persistence/ voluntary Dropout Decision Scale, the Cultural Congruity Scale and the University Environment Scale. A variety of potential influences were considered including family background, career goals, psychosocial development, academic and social connections with the university, faculty relationships, environmental fit, retention factors, validation, participation in mentored research projects and other experiences. The students' sources of influences, opportunities for connection, and cultural values were considered in the context of a research university environment and investigated for emerging themes and direction for future research. Results indicate that performance in coursework appears to be the most salient factor in African American students' experience as science majors. The mean college gpa was 3.01 for students in this study. Challenging content, time demands, study habits and concern with poor grades all serve to discourage students; however, for most of the students in this study, it has not dissuaded them from their educational and career plans. Positive course performance provided encouragement. Science faculty provide less influence than family members, and more students find faculty members discouraging than supportive. Measures of faculty relations were not associated with academic success. No evidence was provided to confirm the disadvantages of being female in a scientific discipline. Students were concerned with lack of minority role models
Coker, Angela D.; Huang, Hsin-Hsin; Kashubeck-West, Susan
The authors briefly explore literature related to recruiting African American research participants, reflect on their experiences conducting body image research with a sample of African American college women in an earlier study (S. Kashubeck-West et al., 2008), and discuss some methodological and cultural challenges that they encountered during…
Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.
The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…
Lund, Terese J.; Chan, Pauline; Liang, Belle
Research consistently demonstrates elevated rates of depression among college-aged women, yet evidence of racial differences in depression among this population are poorly understood. Moreover, the correlates of depression among Asian American women are also understudied. In this exploratory analysis, we examined mean differences in depression…
Walcott-McQuigg, J A; Zerwic, J J; Dan, A; Kelley, M A
Physical activity in women has assumed increasing significance as a policy issue as a result of the release of the 1996 Surgeon General's Report on Physical Activity and Health. This report revealed that women in the United States were less likely than men to adhere to the recommended guidelines for physical activity. African American women are less likely than white women to participate in leisure time physical activity across age, occupational, and income groups. The purpose of this study was to use the Ecological Model of Health Promotion to explore policy, environmental, and individual factors influencing physical activity of middle- to older-aged African American women in a mixed income community in a large midwestern city. Focus group discussions were held with 3 groups of women -- administrators/community leaders, exercisers, and nonexercisers. Thirty-three women between the ages of 40 and 78 participated in the study. The women identified 6 themes influencing physical activity: perceptions of physical activity and exercise; perceived barriers to exercise; perceived benefits of and motivators to exercise; past and present opportunities for exercise; factors that enhance the successful delivery of an exercise program; and coalition building to deliver an exercise program to women in the community. The results of this study reveal that to successfully increase physical activity in an ethnic urban community, researchers and other concerned individuals need to collaborate at multiple ecological levels, with an initial emphasis on establishing coalitions between institutions, community groups, policy makers, and individuals.
Sadler, Georgia Robins; Gonzalez, Jenny; Mumman, Manpreet; Cullen, Lisa; Lahousse, Sheila F; Malcarne, Vanessa; Conde, Viridiana; Riley, Natasha
The dearth of evidence-based clinical trial education programs may contribute to the under-representation of African American and Hispanic American women in cancer research studies. This study used focus group-derived data from 80 women distributed among eight Spanish- and English-language focus groups. These data guided the researchers' adaptation and refinement of the National Cancer Institute's various clinical trials education programs into a program that was specifically focused on meeting the information needs of minority women and addressing the barriers to study participation that they perceived. A "sisterhood" theme was adopted and woven throughout the presentation.
Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson
Factors influencing persistence decisions among 346 racial/ethnic minority and 813 European American freshman and sophomore undergraduates were explored. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in centrality and public regard of racial/ethnic identity. Perceptions of the university environment and self-beliefs predicted persistence…
Martínez-Fernández, J. Reinaldo; Vermunt, Jan D.
The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the learning patterns of higher education students from Spain and three Latin-American countries (Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela). For this purpose Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) was translated into Spanish and tested. The participants were 456 undergraduates enrolled in a teacher…
This descriptive qualitative case study explored undergraduate degree attainment by African American males in football and basketball at a National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I institution in the Southwest. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four participants at the institution to uncover experiences that helped or…
Stroud, George H.
Some African American undergraduate men attending Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) are adversely affected by perception of institutional barriers, such as negative stereotypes, that may exist on campus. The awareness of the possibility of being stereotyped can have a negative impact on a student's academic performance. This phenomenon is…
Coleman, M. Nicole; Chapman, Stephanie; Wang, David C.
This study examined the role of color-blind racial ideology among a sample of 152 African American undergraduate students in relation to race-related stress. We hypothesized that those who endorsed relatively higher color-blind racial attitudes would experience greater race-related stress because experiences with racism would be interpreted as…
Jefferson, Deana L.; Stake, Jayne E.
African American (AA) women have reported less body image disturbance than European American (EA) women, but questions remain about the nature and extent of this difference. This study examined differences in the body image of 80 AA women and 89 EA women with an improved methodology that controlled for body size, distinguished between satisfaction…
Williams, Armenia; Wold, Judith; Dunkin, Jeri; Idleman, Lynda; Jackson, Cennette
Using Pender's Health Promotion Model, this study tested a work site cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor reduction intervention among low-income African American (LAAW) women. Individual CVD risk profiles were identified at the work site through (1) health risk appraisal, (2) blood pressure measurement, (3) body mass index calculation, (4) individual interviews about diet and exercise behaviors, and (5) total cholesterol analysis. Two LAAW groups, one urban and one rural, exhibited higher or similar pretest CVD relative risks (RR) when statistically compared with a national sample of African American women. The LAAW study samples were younger and more educated. Pretest cholesterol and fat intake for the rural women were higher than for the urban women (<.05). Posttest changes in cholesterol and fat intake risks were more significant in rural LAAW than in urban LAAW (<.05).
Vu, Milkie; Azmat, Alia; Radejko, Tala; Padela, Aasim I
Delayed care seeking is associated with adverse health outcomes. For Muslim women, delayed care seeking might include religion-related motivations, such as a preference for female clinicians, concerns about preserving modesty, and fatalistic beliefs. Our study assesses associations between religion-related factors and delayed care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Surveys were distributed to Muslim women attending mosque and community events in Chicago. Survey items included measures of religiosity, religious fatalism, discrimination, modesty, and alternative medicine utilization and worship practices. The outcome measure asked for levels of agreement to the statement "I have delayed seeking medical care when no woman doctor is available to see me." Two hundred fifty-four women completed the survey with nearly equal numbers of African Americans (26%), Arab Americans (33%), and South Asians (33%). Fifty-three percent reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. In multivariate analysis adjusting for sociodemographic factors, higher religiosity (odds ratio [OR] = 5.2, p 20 years (OR = 0.22, p Muslim women reported delays in care seeking due to a perceived lack of female clinicians. Women with higher levels of modesty and self-rated religiosity had higher odds of delaying care. Women who had lived in the United States for longer durations had lower odds of delaying care. Our research highlights the need for gender-concordant providers and culturally sensitive care for American Muslims.
Unlu, Hayriye; Beduk, Tülin; Duyan, Veli
This study was conducted to determine the attitudes of undergraduate nursing students towards lesbian women and gay men. Nursing education in Turkey is conducted holistically; in other words, it is an integration of the physical, spiritual, mental and social realms. Students are therefore expected to not express any discrimination due to factors such as religion, language, race and gender. However, some serious problems still exist in terms of the practical applications of that philosophy. This study was descriptive. This study included 964 students. The Attitudes towards Lesbian Women and Gay Men scale and a questionnaire were used to learn about the attitudes of undergraduate nursing students regarding gay men and lesbian women. Results of this study have indicated that the attitudes of religiously educated and/or conservative students towards lesbian women and gay men were negative. Female students from families with high incomes and highly educated families attended social activities and read more than other female students. The students with free life choice options expressed very positive attitudes towards gay men. The nursing education curriculum should cover information about patients with diverse sexual orientations and their absolute rights for equally optimal healthcare. Strategies to discourage traditional gender role stereotypes and educational and media experiences for better acceptance of sexual minorities need to be developed by educational policy makers. Antidiscrimination policies protecting lesbian women and gay men should be developed by the legislative authorities and then taught to students during their nursing education. Getting familiar with diverse sexual orientations might create awareness among nursing students and reduce their attitudinal and behavioural prejudices and biases. To provide equal healthcare services for all patients, nurses must have accurate information about lesbian women, gay men and modify their attitude and behaviour
Bahrassa, Nazneen F; Syed, Moin; Su, Jenny; Lee, Richard M
This three-study investigation examined risk and protective factors for poor academic performance among Asian American first-year undergraduates. Students were surveyed prior to starting college and their GPA was collected after their first semester in college. Family conflict as a significant risk factor for poor academic performance was examined in all three studies. The results indicate that higher family conflict prior to college was related to lower first-semester college GPA, after controlling for standardized test scores and high school rank (Studies 1-3). Even though psychological distress was related to both family conflict and GPA, it did not mediate the relationship between family conflict and GPA (Studies 2 and 3). In terms of protective factors, the results indicate that life satisfaction buffered the negative effects of family conflict on first-semester college GPA (Study 3). Together, these findings support the need to take into account family variables and psychological well-being in the academic performance of Asian American students as they transition from high school to college.
Kim, Karen A.; Fann, Amy J.; Misa-Escalante, Kimberly O.
Building on research that identifies and addresses issues of women's underrepresentation in computing, this article describes promising practices in undergraduate research experiences that promote women's long-term interest in computer science and engineering. Specifically, this article explores whether and how REU programs include programmatic…
Golden, Richard L
Almost a century ago, William Osler, the foremost physician of his time, was approached by a leading periodical to write a series of articles on the health of the American woman. Osler, then the Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford, wrote an essay dealing with the psychological stresses affecting the "new woman" of the early 20th century at varying stages of her development and the "nervousness" that ensued. The article was never published as a result of his belated reservations on the propriety of a professional writing for a lay journal. Osler's thinking frequently reflected the spirit of his Victorian-Edwardian era, although at times he demonstrated advanced and prescient ideas about sexuality, not often the subject of discussion, even in circumspect form, in contemporary nonprofessional literature.
Hinojosa, Tamara J.; Carney, JoLynn V.
The authors used narrative inquiry and Anzaldúa's (1999) bordlerlands theory to understand the cultural experiences of 5 Mexican American women in doctoral programs accredited by the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs. Results indicated that participants navigated multiple cultural spheres and that the…
.... The objectives of this study were to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCA1/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...
Schulz, Constance B.
American stereographs of the late 19th and early 20th centuries are discussed in the context of the Victorian stylized stereotype of women which they so graphically capture. Stereograph cards and early motion pictures from the Library of Congress were the major sources studied. Stereograph cards were as ubiquitous in their time as television is…
Jane, Dulce M.; Hunter, George C.; Lozzi, Bettina
This study examined the dual roles of continued close ties with the Cuban community and culture of origin, as well as influences of print and broadcast media, in the development of attitudes toward both type and propensity toward eating disorders among young Cuban-American women. Continued exclusive or primary use of Spanish language in the home,…
This book contends that in the United States, manner of speech and educational background reflect cultural status, and it attempts to prove through interviews with six American women that what is described as illiteracy is in fact shutting down in response to those in positions of power. After an introduction, "Language, Literacy, and…
.... The objectives of this study are to develop a Culturally Tailored Genetic (CTGC) protocol for African American women and evaluate its impact on decision-making and satisfaction about BRCA1/2 testing, quality of life, and cancer control practices...
Varty, Alison K
I aimed to document the online undergraduate course supply in biology to evaluate how well biology educators are serving the diverse and growing population of online students. I documented online biology course offerings in the 2015-2016 academic year at 96 American colleges and universities. I quantified differences in variety, extent, and availability of courses offered by different kinds of academic institutions and characterized 149 online biology courses offered. Although there was no relationship between an institution's enrollment size and any measure of its online biology offerings, I found significantly more online biology course options at 2-year public compared with 4-year public and 4-year private schools. Courses offered for nonmajors, including students pursuing healthcare-related degrees, were three times as common as those intended for biology majors, who were more likely to be offered hybrid courses with face-to-face laboratories. These data indicate some deficiencies in online biology course options; options for students majoring in biology are limited at all types of institutions examined with a minority of 4-year institutions having any online options in biology. Significant investment of institutional resources in faculty training and technological support are necessary to develop online biology courses that will benefit a larger student population. © 2016 A. K. Varty. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Baruth, Meghan; Sharpe, Patricia A; Magwood, Gayenell; Wilcox, Sara; Schlaff, Rebecca A
Understanding body size perceptions and discrepancies among African American women may have implications for effective weight-loss interventions. The purpose of this study is to examine body size perceptions of economically disadvantaged, overweight and obese African American women. Cross-sectional using baseline data from a randomized controlled trial. 18 census tracts in a central South Carolina city where ≥ 25% of residents were below poverty income. 147 economically disadvantaged, overweight and obese African American women. Using Pulvers' figure rating scale, participants chose the figure: 1) closest to their current figure; 2) they would be satisfied with; and 3) with a body weight that would be a health problem for the average person. Mean body mass indices corresponding to each figure were compared with those in a large sample of White women. Most participants wanted to be smaller (mean=2.6 figures smaller) than their current size. A majority (67%) chose the largest figure as representing a body size that could lead to a health problem, and most (60%) chose a current figure smaller than the figure they believed would be associated with health problems. The mean body mass index for women selecting any given figure as their current size was significantly larger (5.2-10.8 kg/m(2) larger, Phealth consequences. Body size misperceptions and/or satisfaction may pose barriers for effective weight-loss.
Muturi, Nancy; An, Soontae
African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS compared with other ethnicities, accounting for two-thirds (67%) of all women diagnosed with HIV. Despite their increased risk of HIV infection, few studies have been conducted to understand culture-specific factors leading to their vulnerability. Given the central role of religious organizations in African American communities, this study explored whether and to what extent religiosity plays a role in stigma toward HIV/AIDS. Results of hierarchical regression showed that after controlling for key factors, religiosity was a significant factor predicting the level of religious stigma. Those with high religiosity displayed significantly higher stigma, associating HIV/AIDS with a curse or punishment from God. Verbatim responses to an open-ended question also revealed seemingly ingrained prejudice against HIV/AIDS from a religious perspective. The findings point to the important role of faith-based organizations (FBOs) in addressing HIV/AIDS issues within African American communities.
Shenk, D; Zablotsky, D; Croom, M B
This paper is based on the findings of small group discussions with self-defined successful African American women age 60+ in Charlotte, North Carolina. These women, who lived through the Jim Crow era and thrived in spite of the obstacles, continue to seek meaning in their lives through the roles they play in their families, churches, and communities. They feel strongly that there is a core of key values that continue to hold meaning and struggle to impart these values to those whose lives they touch. The key values identified include education, religion, work, and giving back to the community, and illustrate the integration of both traditional and nontraditional definitions of success. Mentoring is proposed as an important concept for understanding the lives of African American women in later life.
Peters, Rosalind M; Benkert, Ramona; Templin, Thomas N; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E
Significant racial disparities exist in pregnancy outcomes, but few researchers have examined the relationship between trust in providers and pregnancy outcomes. The Trust in Physician Scale (TPS), the most widely used tool, has not been tested in pregnancy. We assessed the psychometric properties of the TPS and identified correlates of trust in 189 pregnant African American women. Evidence supports internal consistency reliability (>.85) and internal structure of the TPS (CFI = .97; RMSEA = .05; χ(2) (42) = 65.93, p = .001), but TPS scores did not predict pregnancy outcomes. African American women reported a high level of trust in obstetric providers. Trust did not differ by provider type (physician or midwife) but was related to the women's history of perceived racism and strength of ethnic identity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Greenberg, J A; Manson, J E; Tinker, L; Neuhouser, M L; Garcia, L; Vitolins, M Z; Phillips, L S
Recent long-term prospective cohort studies found inverse associations between chocolate consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, but provided conflicting evidence on the nature of the association among women. To assess this association in a large cohort of American women. Multivariable Cox regression was used with the data from 92 678 postmenopausal women in the prospective Women's Health Initiative study. Chocolate intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Incidence of type 2 diabetes was determined by self-report of the first treatment with oral medication or insulin. Among women free of diabetes at baseline, there were 10 804 cases, representing an incidence rate of 11.7% during 13.1 years and 1 164 498 person-years of follow-up. There was no significant linear association between long-term chocolate intake and type 2 diabetes risk, but there was significantly reduced risk at moderate levels of intake. Compared to women who ate 1 oz. of chocolate chocolate consumption and type 2 diabetes at moderate levels of consumption in two subgroups of postmenopausal women in the Women's Health initiative cohort.
There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and such a former lack of historical attention upon them, little analysis has been done on how the Manhattan Project might have influenced the prospectus of women scientists after the war. This talk has two aims: 1) to recount some of the technical and scientific contributions of women to the Manhattan Project, and 2) to examine what effects these contributions had on the women's careers as scientists. In other words, I intend offer a preliminary explanation of the extent to which the Manhattan Project acted both as a boon and as a detriment to American women scientists. And finally, I will address what this historical analysis could imply about the effects of current efforts to recruit women into science.
Sally Barr Ebest
Full Text Available Numerous books have been written about American feminism and its influence on education and society. But none have recognized the key role played by Irish American women in exposing injustice and protecting their rights. Certainly their literary heritage, inherent knowledge of English, and membership in the single largest ethnic group gave them an advantage. But their dual positions as colonized, second-class citizens of their country and their religion gave them their political edge, a trait that has been evident since the Irish first stepped off the boat and that continues to this day. This essay focuses on the first wave of these feminist messages by introducing Irish American writers and activists who emerged between the 1830s and 1960s. It locates Irish American women’s influence in three different, yet overlapping milieus—political activism, journalism, and literature.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality from breast cancer has increased among American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN women. Despite this alarming reality, AI/AN women have some of the lowest breast cancer screening rates. Only 37% of eligible AI/AN women report a mammogram within the last year and 52% report a mammogram within the last two years compared to 57% and 72% for White women. The experiences and satisfaction surrounding mammography for AI/AN women likely are different from that of women of other racial/ethnic groups, due to cultural differences and limited access to Indian Health Service sponsored mammography units. The overall goals of this study are to identify and understand the mammography experiences and experiential elements that relate to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with mammography services in an AI/AN population and to develop a culturally-tailored AI/AN mammography satisfaction survey. Methods and Design The three project aims that will be used to guide this work are: 1 To compare the mammography experiences and satisfaction with mammography services of Native American/Alaska Native women with that of Non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and Black women, 2 To develop and validate the psychometric properties of an American Indian Mammography Survey, and 3 To assess variation among AI/AN women's assessments of their mammography experiences and mammography service satisfaction. Evaluations of racial/ethnic differences in mammography patient satisfaction have received little study, particularly among AI/AN women. As such, qualitative study is uniquely suited for an initial examination of their experiences because it will allow for a rich and in-depth identification and exploration of satisfaction elements. Discussion This formative research is an essential step in the development of a validated and culturally tailored AI/AN mammography satisfaction assessment. Results from this project will provide a springboard from which a maximally
Frillman, Sharron Ann
This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, a traditionally White institution. Interviews provided insights into the "lived" experiences of these young women and the factors they believe have contributed to their success in their respective engineering programs. Data analysis involved coding each participant's responses to interview questions using Atlas.ti, a powerful qualitative data analysis tool. This generated 181 codes that were further categorized into nine emergent themes, indicating the potential for extensive associations among the variables. The emergent themes are as follows: (1) Demographic information/special circumstances, (2) Personal attributes and characteristics, (3) Personal insights, (4) Sense of mission, (5) Sources of negative stress, (6) Success strategies, (7) Various forms of support, (8) Would/would not have made it to where she is now, and (9) Being African American and female in engineering. Analysis of these themes and their relationships led to the development of the Frillman Model of Emergent Themes in Female African American Engineering Students. Success. In addressing similarities and differences, three overriding theme categories emerged. These were: (1) Four personhood themes and dual social identity theme; (2) Environmental input and response theme; and (3) Outcome emergent theme of Would/Would not have made it to where she is now. Recommendations were made for future research to expand upon this exploratory study.
Hall, Alfred L., II
Previous research studies indicated that African Americans remain severely underrepresented in the field of science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET), making up only 3% of that workforce, while representing 11.1% of all professional and related workers and 12.6% of the general population. As this country moves towards a more culturally diverse population, then representation of African Americans in SMET-related fields must be addressed in order to ensure our nation's competitiveness in a global market. This research study analyzed characteristics of African American undergraduate SMET majors participating in the Alliance for Minority Participation (AMP) program in six different states located in the Southeast region of the United States. These states consisted of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina. AMP program participants completed a survey questionnaire, which collected information about potential factors that could affect their matriculation in SMET programs of studies at their respective institutions. Follow-up interviews and focus group sessions were also conducted with AMP participants to provide supplemental information to the survey data. The results of student responses were analyzed according to the type of institution the students attended (Historically Black College or University and Majority White Institution) as well as by the statewide Alliance program in which the students were involved. The students responded to survey questions that asked for their reasons for majoring in their field of study, their level of satisfaction with their institution, their impressions of student support programs and persons, their impressions of faculty and advisors, their reasons for thinking of switching majors, and their level of high school preparation. Statistical analyses of the student responses found that African American AMP students attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities differed from those
Rice, M M; LaCroix, A Z; Lampe, J W; van Belle, G; Kestin, M; Sumitani, M; Graves, A B; Larson, E B
In a sample of older Japanese American women, we aimed to: (1) describe the most commonly consumed soy foods, (2) estimate dietary soy isoflavone intake, (3) describe characteristics associated with dietary soy isoflavone intake, and (4) compare our estimates with previously published estimates in other Japanese samples. A 14-item soy food-frequency questionnaire was administered to older Japanese American women and responses were converted to quantitative estimates of soy isoflavones (genistein plus daidzein). Multiple regression was used to examine characteristics associated with dietary soy isoflavone intake, including self-reported lifestyle and cultural factors and dietary intake of various foods ascertained from a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire. To compare our estimates with other samples, a review of the literature was conducted. Data are from 274 women aged 65+ years, recruited from a longitudinal cohort study of Japanese Americans in King County, Washington State. The soy foods most commonly consumed were tofu (soybean curd), miso (fermented soybean paste) and aburaage (fried thin soybean curd). The mean intake of dietary soy isoflavones was 10.2 (standard deviation (SD), 12.4) mg day(-1), approximately a quarter to a half that of previously published estimates in Japanese samples. Dietary soy isoflavone intake was positively associated with speaking Japanese, the consumption of traditional Japanese dishes (kamaboko, manju and mochi), low-fat/non-fat milk and yellow/red vegetables, vitamin E supplement use, and walking several blocks each day. Dietary soy isoflavone intake was negatively associated with the consumption of butter. The estimated dietary soy isoflavone intake in Japanese American women living in King County, Washington State was about a quarter to a half that of women living in Japan. Dietary soy isoflavone intake was associated with speaking Japanese and healthy lifestyle and dietary habits.
Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.
McNutt, L A; van Ryn, M; Clark, C; Fraiser, I
To examine the relationship between intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and patient satisfaction with medical encounters among an African-American population. Cross-sectional, self-administered, anonymous survey. Community-based, primary care center. Consecutive African-American women recruited from an urban health center. A total of 102 women provided sufficient information to reveal whether they were currently experiencing IPV and to allow us to assess their experiences in their most recent primary care encounter. Patients' perceptions of their most recent encounter using questions adopted from the Medical Interview Satisfaction Scale and Consultation Satisfaction Questionnaire. We used the Conflicts Tactics Scale, supplemented with questions measuring sexual violence and emotional abuse, to assess IPV "in the past year." Women who reported current IPV rated several aspects of the encounter more negatively than did women who did not report current abuse. The IPV victims were less likely to report that they felt respected and accepted during the encounter, and they provided lower ratings of the quality of communication with their providers. It is unclear why victims of partner violence experience medical encounters as less satisfactory. Researchers need to expand studies of medical encounters as experienced by abused women to determine whether IPV status adversely affects general medical care.
Ford, M. T.; McGehee, T. L.
Over the past ten years, the Geosciences Program at Texas A&M University-Kingsville has increased the number of Geology majors 400%, and in the past five years we have graduated 62 students, an increase of 800%. Of these graduates, 37% were Hispanic or African-American and 26% were women. Our graduates are high-achievers with 13% also graduating from the Honor's College (campus-wide rate is less than 1.5%) and that included three women and two Hispanic graduates. Two of these recent graduates are doctoral candidates and eleven are master's candidates at major universities. Of these, three master's candidates are Hispanic, including two women, and one doctoral candidate is a Hispanic woman. The recent productivity and quality changes in this program are attributed to our shift toward an undergraduate, student-centered focus. The increases in productivity resulted from the development of strong relationships with community colleges across the state and significant efforts in recruitment and retention. The major changes in quality included implementation of a strong field-oriented focus with full faculty participation, a strong undergraduate research program, a well-developed recruitment and retention plan, a GIS Certification incorporated into the geology degree, and a culture change to further student professional development. We have maintained over 50 majors in our program for the past three years through increased faculty presentations at high-schools and community colleges, a good University recruiting staff, and quarterly newsletters, focused on student achievements, sent to all prospective students and parents inquiring about the geology major. The resurgence of the oil and gas industry and the retirement of geoscientists have provided a steady stream of job opportunities for our graduates. The 79% that are not pursuing a graduate education accepted jobs after graduation. These include oil and gas entry level jobs, mining jobs, teaching jobs, and geospatial
Kirsten F. Nigro
Full Text Available In recent years, Latin American women have begun to appropriate and fill a space once empty of their presence. This essay looks at the work of four such women, (Diana Raznovich and Cristina Escofet of Argentina, Raquel Araujo of Mexico and the Peruvian Sara Joffre, to see how they give substance and voice to their particular concerns. In the process, this essay focusses on: 1 the notion of gender as performance; 2 the feminist deconstruction of narrative; 3 the female body in theatrical space; and 4 new, postmodern ways of doing feminist political theatre.
Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci
Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target’s race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes. PMID:27821904
Jinan C. Banna
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding views about what constitutes a healthy diet in diverse populations may inform design of culturally tailored behavior change interventions. The objective of this study was to describe perspectives on healthy eating among Chinese and American young adults and identify similarities and differences between these groups. Methods Chinese (n = 55 and American (n = 57 undergraduate students in Changsha, Hunan, China and Honolulu, Hawai’i, U.S.A. composed one- to two-paragraph responses to the following prompt: “What does the phrase ‘a healthy diet’ mean to you?” Researchers used content analysis to identify predominant themes using Dedoose (version 5.2.0, SocioCultural Research Consultants, LLC, Los Angeles, CA, 2015. Three researchers independently coded essays and grouped codes with similar content. The team then identified themes and sorted them in discussion. Two researchers then deductively coded the entire data set using eight codes developed from the initial coding and calculated total code counts for each group of participants. Results Chinese students mentioned physical outcomes, such as maintaining immunity and digestive health. Timing of eating, with regular meals and greater intake during day than night, was emphasized. American students described balancing among food groups and balancing consumption with exercise, with physical activity considered essential. Students also stated that food components such as sugar, salt and fat should be avoided in large quantities. Similarities included principles such as moderation and fruits and vegetables as nutritious, and differences included foods to be restricted and meal timing. While both groups emphasized specific foods and guiding dietary principles, several distinctions in viewpoints emerged. Conclusions The diverse views may reflect food-related messages to which participants are exposed both through the media and educational systems in their
Banna, Jinan C; Gilliland, Betsy; Keefe, Margaret; Zheng, Dongping
Understanding views about what constitutes a healthy diet in diverse populations may inform design of culturally tailored behavior change interventions. The objective of this study was to describe perspectives on healthy eating among Chinese and American young adults and identify similarities and differences between these groups. Chinese (n = 55) and American (n = 57) undergraduate students in Changsha, Hunan, China and Honolulu, Hawai'i, U.S.A. composed one- to two-paragraph responses to the following prompt: "What does the phrase 'a healthy diet' mean to you?" Researchers used content analysis to identify predominant themes using Dedoose (version 5.2.0, SocioCultural Research Consultants, LLC, Los Angeles, CA, 2015). Three researchers independently coded essays and grouped codes with similar content. The team then identified themes and sorted them in discussion. Two researchers then deductively coded the entire data set using eight codes developed from the initial coding and calculated total code counts for each group of participants. Chinese students mentioned physical outcomes, such as maintaining immunity and digestive health. Timing of eating, with regular meals and greater intake during day than night, was emphasized. American students described balancing among food groups and balancing consumption with exercise, with physical activity considered essential. Students also stated that food components such as sugar, salt and fat should be avoided in large quantities. Similarities included principles such as moderation and fruits and vegetables as nutritious, and differences included foods to be restricted and meal timing. While both groups emphasized specific foods and guiding dietary principles, several distinctions in viewpoints emerged. The diverse views may reflect food-related messages to which participants are exposed both through the media and educational systems in their respective countries. Future studies may further examine themes that may
This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools. Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 1/15/2014.
Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace
Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry F...
higher BMI and more body fat than Caucasian women but significantly lower levels of disinhibition of control over eating . Dietary restraint was not...disinhibition of control over eating and body mass index (BMI; kg/m2), in primarily Caucasian samples [7, 8]. African American college  and community...Disorder Diagnostic Scale  is a 22-item scale that is useful as a screening tool for Anorexia Nervosa, Bulimia Nervosa, and Binge Eating Disorder
Riggs, E. M.; Sexton, J. M.; Pugh, K.; Bergstrom, C.; Parmley, R.; Phillips, M.
The proportion of women earning undergraduate geoscience degrees has remained about 40% for over a decade. Little research has investigated why women select and persist in a geoscience major. This study addresses why students major in the geosciences and why some programs are more successful at recruiting and retaining female students. We collected interview and survey data from faculty and students at six public US universities. Four sites had a low proportion of female degree recipients ( 48%). 408 students (64% female) completed surveys. Interviews were conducted with 49 faculty members and 151 students. Survey data analysis showed that interest/identity and transformative experiences were significant predictors of students' decision to major in geoscience. Institutional barriers and supports were significant predictors of confidence in the major while connection to instructor predicted students' intent to major. Analysis of pre- and post-course surveys show that students with a greater connection to instructors and students whose instructors expressed more passion for the content also reported higher levels of transformative experiences. This effect was especially pronounced for women and was a significant predictor of persistence in the major. Qualitative data show differences in departmental practices and climate between low and high female graduation sites. High sites used many student-centered approaches to teaching, had extensive opportunities for and a high number of undergraduate students involved in research, and had many opportunities for faculty-student interaction outside of class. Low sites had few of these practices. Qualitative data also showed differences in the gendered equity climate between high and low sites. High sites had more positive gender equity climates and low sites had more negative gender equity climates. At this time, we do not fully understand the causal relationships among all of these findings and higher female graduation rates
Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace
The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry Ford Hospital Department of Dermatology Multicultural Dermatology Center. The Hair Care Assessment Survey was distributed at church-related functions at predominantly African American metropolitan Detroit churches. Two hundred African American women from metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, aged 21 to 83. The Hair Care Assessment Survey collected data relating to hair loss and hair care, psychosocial experiences relating to hair loss, and hair care as it relates to exercise and body weight management. Data was collected on doctor-patient hair-related medical visits and experiences with commercially available ethnic hair care products. More than 50 percent reported excessive hair loss. Twenty-eight percent had visited a physician to discuss hair issues, but only 32 percent felt their physician understood African American hair. Forty-five percent reported avoiding exercise because of hair concerns, and 22 percent felt that their hair impeded maintaining healthy body weight. Hair loss affects a compelling number of African American women, and a significant number express dissatisfaction in hair-related physician encounters. Additionally, hair styling problems present a serious impediment to physical activity and weight management among this already high-risk population.
Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah
Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder…
Evans, Kathy M.; Herr, Edwin L.
Combined effects of racism and sexism in the workplace subject African-American woman to more discrimination than either Black men or White women. Examines racism and sexism in employment practices and in the career development and aspirations of African-American women. Identifies coping system of African-American women who avoid career fields in…
DeCoteau, Lanelia Irene
Historically Native American women have experienced barriers in their rise to Pk-12 educational leadership positions. There is limited research available on Native American women in educational leadership. Therefore, the purpose for this survey study was to discover what inspired current Pk-12 Native American women educational leaders to choose…
Fettweis, Jennifer M; Brooks, J Paul; Serrano, Myrna G; Sheth, Nihar U; Girerd, Philippe H; Edwards, David J; Strauss, Jerome F; The Vaginal Microbiome Consortium; Jefferson, Kimberly K; Buck, Gregory A
Women of European ancestry are more likely to harbour a Lactobacillus-dominated microbiome, whereas African American women are more likely to exhibit a diverse microbial profile. African American women are also twice as likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis and are twice as likely to experience preterm birth. The objective of this study was to further characterize and contrast the vaginal microbial profiles in African American versus European ancestry women. Through the Vaginal Human Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis was used to compare the microbiomes of vaginal samples from 1268 African American women and 416 women of European ancestry. The results confirmed significant differences in the vaginal microbiomes of the two groups and identified several taxa relevant to these differences. Major community types were dominated by Gardnerella vaginalis and the uncultivated bacterial vaginosis-associated bacterium-1 (BVAB1) that were common among African Americans. Moreover, the prevalence of multiple bacterial taxa that are associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity and preterm birth, including Mycoplasma, Gardnerella, Prevotella and Sneathia, differed between the two ethnic groups. We investigated the contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including pregnancy, body mass index, diet, smoking and alcohol use, number of sexual partners, and household income, to vaginal community composition. Ethnicity, pregnancy and alcohol use correlated significantly with the relative abundance of bacterial vaginosis-associated species. Trends between microbial profiles and smoking and number of sexual partners were observed; however, these associations were not statistically significant. These results support and extend previous findings that there are significant differences in the vaginal microbiome related to ethnicity and demonstrate that these differences are pronounced even in healthy women
Foreman, F E
The purpose of this study was to understand and describe the safer sex decision-making processes of a group of African American college women. The study participants consisted of 15 women aged 19 to 33, who were full-time students attending a four-year university in Texas. The women self-identified as having been sexually active with at least one male partner within the past year. Semi-structured in-depth interviews lasting approximately 1.5 hours provided data. Theme and domain analysis of the interviews and field notes revealed that women employed both emotional and philosophical strategies to determine their safer sex behaviour. These strategies involved the use of a 'self-defined' sexual arrangements hierarchy. This hierarchy served to define the way women ordered and valued different types of sexual arrangement, from casual to committed. The resulting hierarchy also guided the safer sex behaviour of these women. The implications for intervention programmes that are targeted at increasing safer sex behaviour and HIV risk reduction are discussed in light of these findings.
Corneille, Maya A.; Zyzniewski, Linda E.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
Though HIV prevention efforts have focused on young adult women, women of all ages may engage in HIV risk behaviors and experience barriers to condom use. This article examines the effect of age on sexual risk and protective attitudes and behaviors among African American women. Unmarried heterosexual African American women between the ages of 18…
Pitts, Kevin T. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
This document is the program for the 6th Annual Midwest Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics, which was held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on January 18-20, 2013. The goals of the conference were to foster a culture in which undergraduate women are encouraged and supported to pursue, and also to succeed in, higher education in physics; to provide career information to students in physics and related fields; to give women the resources, motivation, and confidence to apply to graduate school and successfully complete a Ph.D. program in Physics; to provide information and dispel misconceptions about the application process for graduate school and the diverse employment opportunities in physics and related fields, enabling women to make more informed decisions about their goals and attain them; and to connect female physics students with successful female physicists to whom they can relate and who can act as inspirational role models and mentors.
Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa; Vang, Suzanne; DeWolfe, Jessica; Kim, Nam Keol; Lee, Do Kyung; Yeung, Miriam
Purpose: Low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women need to be addressed, particularly given the high incidence of cervical cancer in this population. The current study aims to investigate predictors of HPV vaccination in young AAPI and non-Latina white (NLW) women. Methods: A…
Aycock, Lauren M.; Brewe, Eric; Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Hazari, Zarha; Hodapp, Theodore
The field of physics lags behind most other scientific fields in gender parity of students earning bachelor's degrees. The transition from enrollment in high school physics to graduating with physics degree represents the biggest decrease in the proportion of female students for any step in physics educational attainment. Sexual harassment contributes to an unwelcome climate. It is unknown how prevalent sexual harassment is in the field of physics and whether it's a contributing factor to the field's inability to recruit and retain female students. Our goal was to measure a quantitative baseline for sexual harassment--associated with physics--observed and experienced by a sample of female undergraduate students. As part of a larger conference evaluation survey, we conducted an internet-based survey (n = 632) of attendees of the APS Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics to measure the extent to which they personally experienced or observed sexual harassment in a context associated with physics. We will present results from this survey. Opinions, findings, or conclusions expressed in this work do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF, DOE, or APS. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (PHY-1346627) and by the Department of Energy (DE-SC0011076).
Zucker, Alyssa N; Fitz, Caroline C; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y
Young women of color (among others) face both subtle and overt discrimination on a regular basis, but few studies have examined relations between discrimination and sexual outcomes using quantitative tools. We surveyed 154 self-identified undergraduate women of color to examine connections between race- and sex-based discrimination and subjective sexual well-being (i.e., condom use self-efficacy and sexual life satisfaction) and also tested whether sexual autonomy mediated these relations. When examined individually, each form of discrimination was related negatively to condom use self-efficacy and sexual life satisfaction, such that as women reported more discrimination, they reported poorer sexual well-being. However, when examining both racism and sexism as joint predictors, only racism remained significant and there were no racism × sexism interaction effects. In a path model, sexual autonomy mediated the relation between racism and each measure of subjective sexual well-being; racism was negatively related to sexual autonomy, which in turn was positively related to both condom use self-efficacy and sexual life satisfaction. These findings are consistent with the broader literature on the negative impact of discrimination on various aspects of mental and physical health. They also reinforce the position that redressing social inequality is a vital component of promoting individual health.
Guendelman, Sylvia D; Ritterman-Weintraub, Miranda L; Fernald, Lia C H; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha
We assessed the association between birthplace, residence, or years in the United States and actual weight (body mass index), perceived weight accuracy, or provider screens for overweight or obesity among Mexican immigrant women. We used linked data from Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2001-2006 and 2006 National Mexican Health and Nutrition Survey to compare 513 immigrants with 9527 women in Mexico and 342 US-born Mexican American women. Immigrants were more likely than women in Mexico to be obese and to perceive themselves as overweight or obese after adjustment for confounders. Recent immigrants had similar weight-related outcomes as women in Mexico. Immigrants were less likely to be obese than were US-born Mexican Americans. Within the overweight or obese population, reported provider screens were higher among immigrants than among women in Mexico, but lower than among US-born Mexican Americans. US residency of at least 5 years but less than 20 years and reporting insufficient provider screens elevated obesity risk. Mexican-origin women in the United States and Mexico are at risk for overweight and obesity. We found no evidence of a "healthy immigrant" effect.
Lan-Pidhainy, Xiaomiao; Nohr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M
BACKGROUND: In Danish data, the tradeoffs between mother and infant in the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes were reached at lower gestational weight gain (GWG) among multiparous than among primiparous women. It is unknown whether the same difference exists among American women. OBJECTIVE......: The objective was to determine whether these tradeoffs also differ by parity among women in a contemporary American birth cohort. DESIGN: Data from 822 primiparous and 2055 multiparous American women who participated in the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (2005-2007), a national cohort study, were analyzed......: These findings extend the concept of a lower optimal GWG among multiparous than primiparous women to American women....
Berg, J A
To describe the biologic, psychological, social, and cultural (biopsychosociocultural) dimensions of the perimenopausal transition of Filipino American midlife women. A community-based sample of 165 women (a) self-identified as Filipino American, (b) ages 35 to 56 years, and (c) English language proficient was recruited from churches and social groups. Women in the study were born in the Philippines (93.3%), had lived in the United States an average of 18.4 +/- 8.7 years, were married or partnered (74.6%), had completed college (62.8%) or a graduate degree (15.9%), worked (full-time, 77.9%; part-time, 12.9%), had household incomes greater than $50,000 (>58%). Menopause ages were calculated from reports of last menstrual periods (natural, 48.9 +/- 4.9 years; surgical, 42.2 +/- 5.7 years). Neither the age at menarche nor the number of pregnancies and children born was significantly related to age at menopause. Calcium from food sources was generally low, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) revealed a 24.8% depression rate. The low prevalence of physical health problems confirms previous research that foreign-born individuals have better health than those born in the United States. The profile of this understudied group identified calcium intake, osteoporosis morbidity, and prevalence of depression as key areas for future study.
Hussein Hasan Zeidanin
Full Text Available This paper explores the emancipatory potentials of American women writers of color for victims of gender, class, and the ethnocentric ideologies of racism, colonialism and nationalism. Their struggle against multiple oppressors, on one hand, drive them to form alliances with different oppressed groups such as laborers, homosexuals, the colonized people, immigrants and various ethnic minorities. On the other hand, cultural and ethnic identities are redefined on the basis of heterogeneity rather than homogeneity to cultivate tolerance, interdependence and mutual respect; gender roles are reconsidered in the light of an androgynous ideology, which views men and women as equal partners who should live in harmony but not in conflict; social classes are deconstructed to redress the injustices women and laborers have endured because of their gender, ethnic or racial differences. The plurality and heterogeneity of cultural, ethnic and gendered identities which women writers of color develop are extended to their writing whose language, content, and style are innovated and used as effective strategies to empower and emancipate subaltern groups. Their writing, therefore, assumes an inclusive character in which sexual, cultural and ethnic boundaries disappear, and interracial, intercultural, interethnic and intersexual dialogue is promoted.
Trinh, Sarah L
In the current study I used mixed methods to explore the messages that undergraduate women ( n = 415) reported receiving from their male and female friends regarding sex and romantic relationships. Reports of friends' messages varied widely and entailed both support for and criticism of sexual gatekeeping and sex positivity (e.g., sexual agency) and advice regarding sex and romantic relationships. Four individuals, including the author, developed codes to examine this wide range of responses to sexual expectations and prohibitions and independently and reliably coded the data. Response patterns illustrate that reports of female friends' messages were typically longer and more nuanced than reports of male friends' messages. Sex-positive messages and sexual gatekeeping messages were frequently reported simultaneously, and this pattern of co-occurrence illustrates the tensions between diverse discourses regarding women's sexuality. The diversity in reports of friends' messages challenges popular notions that friends' influences are wholly problematic and highlights a need for more gender-focused sex education curricula.
Jones, Lauren Ila
In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the…
Brooks Greaux, Lisa
Even in an era when the country elected an African American man as President of the United States, there is still a paucity of African American women executives within Fortune 500 companies. Although more African American women have joined the ranks of corporate management over the last two decades, the numbers, when compared to those of White…
Robbins, J A; Qi, L; Garcia, L; Younger, J W; Seldin, M F
African Americans are reported to be more sensitive to pain than European Americans. Pain sensitivity has been shown to be genetically linked in animal models and is likely to be in humans. Exactly, 11,239 self-identified African American post-menopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative had percentage African ancestry determined by ancestry informative markers, "Pain Construct" measurements and covariate information. They answered five questions about specific types and location of pain, such as joint, neck, low back, headache and urinary. They also answered two questions which were used to derive a "Pain Construct", a measure of general pain scored on a scale of 1-100. Associations were tested in linear regression models adjusting for age, self-reported medical conditions, neighbourhood socio-economic status, education and depression. In the unadjusted model of the five specific types of pain measures, greater pain perception was associated with a higher proportion of African ancestry. However, some of the specific types of pain measures were no longer associated with African ancestry after adjustment for other study covariates. The Pain Construct was statistically significantly associated with African ancestry in both the unadjusted [β = -0.132, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -099 to -0.164; r = -0.075, 95% CI -0.056 to -0.093] and the adjusted models (β = -0.069 95% CI = -0.04 to -0.10). Greater African ancestry was associated with higher levels of self-reported pain, although this accounted for only a minor fraction of the overall variation in the Pain Construct. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®
Abelmann, Nancy; Kang, Jiyeon
In this article, we analyze the U.S. media discourse on Chinese international undergraduate students, the largest international student group since 2009. The discourse describes a market "exchange", but reveals a struggle between: on the one hand, "a fair exchange"--between excellent Chinese students and world-class American…
Ricketts, Glenn; Wood, Peter R.; Balch, Stephen H.; Thorne, Ashley
"The Vanishing West" traces the decline and near extinction of the Western Civilization history survey course in America's top colleges and universities from 1964 to 2010. This course, covering classical antiquity to the present, was once part of the undergraduate curriculum's intellectual bedrock, not only because it was often a graduation…
The document, one in a series of four on women in American history, discusses the role of women during and after the Civil War (1860-1890). Designed to supplement high school U.S. history textbooks, the book is comprised of five chapters. Chapter I describes the work of Union and Confederate women ln the Civil War. Topics include the army nursing…
McLaughlin, Elizabeth A; Campos-Melady, Marita; Smith, Jane Ellen; Serier, Kelsey N; Belon, Katherine E; Simmons, Jeremiah D; Kelton, Katherine
Mexican American women are disproportionately affected by overweight/obesity and the health complications accompanying them, but weight loss treatments are less successful in this ethnic group. High levels of familism, a value reflecting obligation to family that supersedes attention to oneself, interfere with weight loss for Mexican American women. This mixed methods study investigated overweight Mexican American women's beliefs about how familism, and Mexican American culture, might hinder weight loss success, and how treatments might be culturally adapted. Results suggest a need to support women in their commitment to family while also helping them make changes. Recommendations for culturally adapted treatments are made.
Angtuaco, Teresita L; Macura, Katarzyna J; Lewicki, Ann M; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Rumack, Carol M
On the 25th anniversary of the American Association for Women Radiologists (AAWR), the association's accomplishments in promoting the careers of women radiologists were reviewed. Programs that feature opportunities for women to balance their careers and their personal lives have contributed greatly to promoting networking opportunities at national meetings. Highlights of women's accomplishments in national radiology organizations underline how far women have advanced in the specialty. Future initiatives for the organization center on increasing women's involvement in recruiting and mentoring other women in radiology. (c) RSNA, 2008
Griese, Emily R; McMahon, Tracey R; Kenyon, DenYelle Baete
The majority of research examining Undergraduate Research Experiences focuses singularly on student-reported outcomes, often overlooking assessment of the mentor role in student learning and outcomes following these experiences. The goal of the current study was to examine the student-mentor dyad at the beginning and end of a 10-week summer research experience for American Indian undergraduates utilizing a series of actor-partner interdependence models within SEM. Participants included 26 undergraduate interns (50% American Indian; 50% American Indian and White; M age = 24) and 27 mentors (89% White; M age = 47). Findings indicated that in accounting for all potential paths between students and mentors, the partner path between mentor beliefs at the beginning of the program and students' skills related to autonomy (β =.59, p = .01) and academic resilience (β =.44, p = .03) at the end of the program were significant. These findings suggest the important impact of mentor beliefs on student outcomes, a relationship that should be adequately assessed and continue to be important focus of undergraduate research experiences. Findings further indicate the important role of mentors for American Indian undergraduates.
Abrams, Jasmine A; Javier, Sarah J; Maxwell, Morgan L; Belgrave, Faye Z; Nguyen, Boa Anh
Research attempting to identify similarities or disentangle differences in ethnic minority gender role beliefs has been largely absent in the literature, and a gap remains for qualitative examinations of such phenomena. The purpose of this study is to fill this gap in the literature by providing a qualitative examination of the differences and similarities of gender role beliefs among African American and Vietnamese American women. Thematic analyses were conducted with data gathered from 8 focus groups with 44 African American women (mean age = 44 years) and 4 focus Groups 47 Vietnamese American women (mean age = 42 years). Women were diverse in generational, religious, and educational backgrounds. Two similar primary themes emerged: (a) women's roles as chief caretakers and (b) women's responsibility to fulfill multiple roles. There were also similar experiences of a need to convey strength and be self-sacrificial. Two distinct differences that emerged from the focus groups were beliefs about interpersonal interactions and perceptions of societal expectations. This study demonstrates that the conceptualization of gender role beliefs, although at times similar, diverges among culturally different groups. To account for these and other culturally nuanced differences, measures of gender role beliefs should be culturally tailored and culturally specific. However, researchers have largely excluded ethnic minority women in the development of the most widely used measures of gender role beliefs in the U.S. The inclusion of diverse women in research will help prevent pitfalls of conflating and ignoring intragroup differences among different groups of marginalized women. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Yola Damayanti Gani
Full Text Available The portrayal of urban upper middle class American women's community in Sex and the City-SATC-is built upon constructed symbols related to the position of urban upper middle class American Women's community and how cosmopolitan the women are. The symbol's construction is characterized by singleness, upper middle class social status, well-established career, alienation, consumptiveness, independence, gender consciousness, and open mindedness in their sexual knowledge. Television has helped to fracture traditional conventions about how women should place themselves in the midst of their society and constructed urban upper middle class American women's image and identity.
Brown Speights, Joedrecka S; Nowakowski, Alexandra C H; De Leon, Jessica; Mitchell, M Miaisha; Simpson, Ivana
To explore the success of community-based participatory research [CBPR] in engaging African American women to achieve health equity by elucidating community, trust, communication and impact. Recommendations helpful for researchers interested in engaging communities to achieve health equity in the USA are included. African American women experience health disparities of multifactorial etiology and are underrepresented in research. CBPR is a collaborative approach that incorporates perspectives, which address the intricate determinants of health and has been reported as an effective means to address health disparities. Yet, the science of CBPR seems elusive to researchers in the medical field. The opportunity exists to better understand and expand the use of the principles of engagement, replication, and sustainability in engaging African American women in health research. A variety of literature regarding engaging African American women in community-based participatory research was reviewed. CBPR focused on robust engagement of marginalized groups continues to be validated as a vital approach to the elimination of disparities and improved health for all, especially ethnic and racial minority populations. However, limited evidence of focused engagement of African American women was found. Making specific outreach to African American women must be a community and patient engagement priority to achieve health equity. Continued research is needed which specifically focuses on building and sustaining engagement with African American women and their communities. This research can transform healthcare access, experiences and outcomes by yielding actionable information about what African American women need and want to promote wellness for themselves and their communities. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Schwartz, Kendra; Fakhouri, Monty; Bartoces, Monina; Monsur, Joseph; Younis, Amani
Mammography screening behavior has not been well studied among Middle Eastern immigrant women. We conducted a telephone survey of 365 Arab American women residing in metropolitan Detroit, home to one of the largest populations of Middle Eastern immigrants in the US, to determine prevalence of factors associated with mammography, and attitudes and beliefs regarding mammography screening. Of 365 participants, only five were born in the US. Mean age was 53.2 years (SD 10.8). Two hundred twelve (58.1%) reported having mammogram every 1-2 years; 70% ever had mammogram. Age 50-64 years, having health insurance, married status, being in the US over 10 years, and being Lebanese were associated with mammography every 1-2 years. After adjusting for demographic factors, perceived seriousness of disease, general health motivation, and having fewer barriers were associated with more frequent screening. Appropriate mammography screening is decreased in this group. Targeted outreach regarding screening is appropriate for this population; however, lack of insurance may prevent adequate follow-up.
Teresa A. Marshall
Full Text Available Objectives: American Indian (AI children are at risk for chronic diseases associated with marginal early nutrition environments. We describe nutrient intakes and beverage patterns of AI women during the early postnatal period to identify nutritional adequacy and beverage habits. Methods: 24 hour recalls and beverage frequency questionnaires were administered to AI mothers (n = 239 from a Northern Plains Tribal community 1 month postpartum. 24 hour recalls were analyzed using Nutritionist PRO(R software, and intakes were compared to Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. Results: The percentage of AI women reporting nutrient intakes below the EAR was 97% for vitamin D, 96% for vitamin E, 69% for vitamin A, 55% for vitamin C, 73% for calcium and 79% for magnesium. Median (25th, 75th percentile beverage intakes reported by beverage consumers were 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz milk, 8.0(3.4, 16.0 oz 100% juice, 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz juice drinks, 18.6(7.4, 28.0 oz regular pop, 9.1(4.6, 18.3oz sports drinks, 12.0(5.1, 22.0oz sugared flavored water and 48.0(24.0, 96.0 oz water. Conclusions: The low nutrient and high sugared beverage intakes increased risk of chronic malnutrition. The nutritional environment predisposes AI children to chronic diseases including obesity and dental caries through early metabolic programming and later modeling behaviors.
Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.
Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…
Patt, Madhavi Reddy; Yanek, Lisa R.; Moy, Taryn F.; Becker, Diane M.
To better understand obesity and overweight among urban African American women, the authors examined sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychological factors within body mass index (BMI) categories. A total of 496 women were recruited for cardiovascular risk factor screening from 20 urban African American churches. Study participants had a mean age…
Rogers Wood, Nikel A.; Petrie, Trent A.
Initial research suggested that only European American women developed eating disorders (Garner, 1993), yet recent studies have shown that African American women do experience them (e.g., Lester & Petrie, 1998b; Mulholland & Mintz, 2001) and also may be negatively affected by similar sociocultural variables. In this study, we examined a…
Evans, Gina L.; McNeil, Lorna H.; Laufman, Larry; Bowman, Sharon L.
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore midlife African American women's low-fat eating habits in the context of health attitudes, social support, and food preferences. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Settings: One Midwestern and 1 national African American women's organization were targeted for data collection.…
Liang, Jia; Peters-Hawkins, April L.
Purpose: Little research exists that examines the leadership experiences of Asian American women in public schools. This study sought to understand the meanings Asian American women school administrators have constructed out of their professional lives given the intersection of gender, race-ethnicity, and leadership. Research Method/Approach: Data…
Miville, Marie L.; Constantine, Madonna G.
The authors explored the extent to which Asian American college women's perceived stigma about counseling mediated the relationship between their adherence to Asian cultural values and intentions to seek counseling, Participants, 201 Asian American college women (age range = 18-24 years), completed measures of Asian cultural values, perceived…
This study examined the experiences of African American women in engineering technology programs in community colleges. There is a lack of representation of African American women in engineering technology programs throughout higher education, especially in community/technical colleges. There is also lack of representation of African American…
Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina
This is the final report of the National Council of La Raza's (NCLR) Focus Study examining the opinions, attitudes, and needs of Mexican American single women, relating to implementation of national welfare reform legislation. Over a 2-year period NCLR staff held focus groups with Mexican American women in four communities: Phoenix, Arizona; Mora,…
There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…
Miles Brown, Tammy Melitta
This narrative case study research project focused on African American women principals and the leadership qualities and competencies that they bring to an urban school setting. The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experiences of African American women principals and examine the influence of this past experience, identify common…
Jackson, Alicia D.
African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…
Conway-Phillips, Regina; Janusek, Linda Witek
The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain understanding of the definition, meaning, and function of spirituality to African American women. Four categories emerged that add insight for nurses to develop innovative spiritual-based strategies to promote African American women's positive health behaviors. Implications for promoting breast health behaviors are described.
Pollack, I. B.; Adams, A. S.; Barnes, R. T.; Burt, M. A.; Clinton, S. M.; Godfrey, E.; Hernandez, P.; Bloodhart, B.; Donaldson, L.; Henderson, H.; Sayers, J.; Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Bowker, C.; Fischer, E. V.
In the United States, men outnumber women in many science and engineering fields by nearly 3 to 1. In fields like physics or the geosciences, the gender gap can be even wider. Previous studies have identified the early college years as a critical point where many women exit STEM disciplines. An interdisciplinary team including experts in the geosciences, psychology, education, and STEM persistence have recently begun a 5-year project focused on understanding whether mentoring can increase the interest, persistence, and achievement of undergraduate women in the geosciences. The program focuses on mentoring first and second year female undergraduate students from three universities in Colorado and Wyoming and four universities in North and South Carolina. The mentoring program includes a weekend workshop, access to professional women across geoscience fields and both in-person and virtual peer networks. The first weekend workshops will be held in October 2015. We will present an overview of the major components and lessons learned from these workshops and showcase the web center, including the online peer-networking forum.
van Hedel, Karen; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Avendaño, Mauricio; Sabbath, Erika L; Berkman, Lisa F; Mackenbach, Johan P; van Lenthe, Frank J
To investigate whether less-healthy work-family life histories contribute to the higher cardiovascular disease prevalence in older American compared with European women. We used sequence analysis to identify distinct work-family typologies for women born between 1935 and 1956 in the United States and 13 European countries. Data came from the US Health and Retirement Study (1992-2006) and the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (2004-2009). Work-family typologies were similarly distributed in the United States and Europe. Being a lone working mother predicted a higher risk of heart disease, stroke, and smoking among American women, and smoking for European women. Lone working motherhood was more common and had a marginally stronger association with stroke in the United States than in Europe. Simulations indicated that the higher stroke risk among American women would only be marginally reduced if American women had experienced the same work-family trajectories as European women. Combining work and lone motherhood was more common in the United States, but differences in work-family trajectories explained only a small fraction of the higher cardiovascular risk of American relative to European women.
van Hedel, Karen; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Avendaño, Mauricio; Sabbath, Erika L.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Mackenbach, Johan P.
Objectives. To investigate whether less-healthy work–family life histories contribute to the higher cardiovascular disease prevalence in older American compared with European women. Methods. We used sequence analysis to identify distinct work–family typologies for women born between 1935 and 1956 in the United States and 13 European countries. Data came from the US Health and Retirement Study (1992–2006) and the Survey of Health, Aging, and Retirement in Europe (2004–2009). Results. Work–family typologies were similarly distributed in the United States and Europe. Being a lone working mother predicted a higher risk of heart disease, stroke, and smoking among American women, and smoking for European women. Lone working motherhood was more common and had a marginally stronger association with stroke in the United States than in Europe. Simulations indicated that the higher stroke risk among American women would only be marginally reduced if American women had experienced the same work–family trajectories as European women. Conclusions. Combining work and lone motherhood was more common in the United States, but differences in work–family trajectories explained only a small fraction of the higher cardiovascular risk of American relative to European women. PMID:27310346
Brown, Eve Lorane
This intersectional, qualitative life history based narrative study explores the impact of stigma on the lives 10 African American women ages 21-55. All 10 women in the study also identify as transgender, transsexual, and transwomen. All of the women also primarily identified as women. Thus, one of the goals of this feminist investigation is to examine, position, and normalize these transwomen as women in contemporary research literature and in society in total. A culturally competent questio...
Nunn, Amy; Dickman, Samuel; Cornwall, Alexandra; Kwakwa, Helena; Mayer, Kenneth H; Rana, Aadia; Rosengard, Cynthia
African American women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. Concurrent sexual partnerships may contribute to racial disparities in HIV infection. Little is known about attitudes and practices related to concurrency among African American women, or the social, structural and behavioural factors influencing concurrency. We recruited 19 heterosexual African American women engaging in concurrent sexual partnerships from a public clinic in Philadelphia in 2009. We conducted interviews exploring social norms, attitudes and practices about concurrency, and the structural, social and behavioural factors influencing concurrent sexual partnerships, guided by grounded theory. Seventeen women reported one main and one or more non-main partners; two reported no main partners. Many women used condoms more frequently with non-main than main partners, noting they trust main partners more than non-main partners. Social factors included social normalisation of concurrency, inability to negotiate partners' concurrent partnerships, being unmarried, and not trusting partners. Lack of trust was the most commonly cited reason that women engaged in concurrent partnerships. Structural factors included economic dependence on partners, partners' dependence on women for economic support and incarceration that interrupted partnerships. Behavioural factors included alcohol and cocaine use. Social, structural and behavioural factors strongly influenced these African American women's concurrent sexual partnerships. Many HIV interventions disseminated by the CDC focus largely on behavioural factors and may fail to address the social and structural factors influencing African American women's sexual networks. Novel HIV prevention interventions that address the social determinants of African American women's HIV risks are urgently needed.
Stampley, Cheryl D; Mallory, Caroline; Gabrielson, Marcena
HIV occurs among African American women at rates exceeding those among White women, and the prevalence of HIV/AIDS is rising disproportionately among African American adults over 40. The literature between 1987 and 2003 was reviewed for data on prevention and risk taking behavior regarding HIV transmission among midlife African American women. A search of relevant databases revealed four reports specifically targeting African American women aged 40-65. Five reports including this population also included men and other ethnic/racial groups. Content analysis revealed that factors related to risk for HIV included socioeconomic factors, knowledge, perceived vulnerability, sexual assertiveness, and risk taking behavior. Findings suggest that further research on the relationships between sociocultural variables and individual factors may explain prevention and risk taking behaviors in midlife African American women. (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pittiglio, Laura; Jackson, Frances; Florio, Ann
In the United States, African-American women are at disproportionate risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and face the most profound burden of HIV infection. Reducing the risk of exposure to HIV in African-American women is a priority for health-care providers. The findings of this study add to the existing literature by examining the relationship of self-esteem and risky sexual behaviors in young African-American women. Lack of self-esteem was one of the themes that emerged from a larger study that investigated how African-American women define HIV-risky behavior. In the current study, quantitative and qualitative data were collected from a convenience sample of 33 African-American women (N = 33) from three metropolitan regions within Michigan. Findings highlight the importance of understanding the relationship between self-esteem and its implications for HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention.
Kulwicki, Anahid; Ballout, Suha; Kilgore, Colleen; Hammad, Adnan; Dervartanian, Hermine
How intimate partner violence (IPV), depression, and barriers to services affect Arab American women in the United States is not very well documented. This cross-sectional exploratory descriptive study examines (a) the relationship between depression and IPV and (b) whether living in the United States 10 or more years decreases barriers to reporting intimate partner violence and depression in a sample (N = 312) of Arab American women 19 years and older. Findings demonstrate significant relationships between women who were at risk for IPV and depression scores (r = .44, p Arab American women experiencing IPV and depression. © The Author(s) 2014.
.... The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women hold toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women held toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
.... The purpose of the current study was to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women held toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
.... The purpose of the current study is to elaborate the beliefs and culturally embedded meanings that a population of low income, uninsured African American women hold toward breast cancer and breast cancer screening...
Nypaver, Cynthia F; Shambley-Ebron, Donna
In the United States, African American babies die more than twice as often as White babies. The cause for this difference remains elusive, yet is likely complex with one factor being inadequate cultural care of pregnant African American women. The purpose of this study was to explore African American women's perspectives of meaningful prenatal care. Community-based participatory research was employed for this study using photovoice. The sample included 11 African American mothers in an urban community in Midwestern United States. Five themes were abstracted from the data: (1) Access to Care; (2) Soul Nourishment; (3) Companionship; (4) Help Me, Teach Me; and (5) The Future. Meaningful prenatal care is influenced by culture. African American women need physical, social, and soulful support to enhance meaningfulness of care during pregnancy. The findings support that meaningfulness of prenatal care for African American women may be enhanced by accessible and uniquely designed, culturally congruent models of prenatal care. © The Author(s) 2015.
African-American women are disproportionately affected by impaired fertility. The literature reflects a number of potential behavioral risks associated with fertility impairment. However, few researchers have investigated these risks in African-American women. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between behavioral factors and impaired fertility in African-American women. A secondary analysis of data was employed from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) and multiple logistic regression techniques were used to develop an explanatory model of impaired fertility in a sample of 364 African-American women of childbearing age. Findings from this current study suggested that factors directly related to impaired fertility included increasing age, current smoking, self-reported health status, and a history of gynecologic problems. Protective effects were associated with previous condom use. Using the knowledge of behavioral threats to fertility, women's health-care providers can screen and assist women in modifying their fertility risks.
Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A.; Menon, Usha
Objectives: Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. Participants: A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during…
Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.
This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…
Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar
The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…
Ward, Earlise C.; Heidrich, Susan M.
We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, ...
Mehta, Laxmi S; Beckie, Theresa M; DeVon, Holli A; Grines, Cindy L; Krumholz, Harlan M; Johnson, Michelle N; Lindley, Kathryn J; Vaccarino, Viola; Wang, Tracy Y; Watson, Karol E; Wenger, Nanette K
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in American women. Since 1984, the annual cardiovascular disease mortality rate has remained greater for women than men; however, over the last decade, there have been marked reductions in cardiovascular disease mortality in women. The dramatic decline in mortality rates for women is attributed partly to an increase in awareness, a greater focus on women and cardiovascular disease risk, and the increased application of evidence-based treatments for established coronary heart disease. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on acute myocardial infarction in women. Sex-specific differences exist in the presentation, pathophysiological mechanisms, and outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence of the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcomes of women with acute myocardial infarction. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Liang, Christopher T. H.; Nathwani, Anisha; Ahmad, Sarah; Prince, Jessica K.
The relationship between coping strategies used by South Asian American women and subjective well-being (SWB) was studied. Second-generation women were found to use more support compared with 1st-generation women. Problem-solving coping was inversely related to age. Avoidance coping was found to predict SWB when controlling for age and…
Verble, Sedelta D.; Walton, M. Frances
The training manual provides self-help in six areas of leadership development for American Indian and Alaska Native women. Following an introduction describing how to use the manual are six chapters focusing on the theories and development of leadership skills, the vulnerability of Indian women to poverty, nontraditional careers for Indian women,…
Yates, Heather N.
This narrative qualitative study focused on the experiences of four women pursuing undergraduate engineering degrees and how the experiences affect their self-efficacy and in turn persistence in the degree. The use of narrative methodologies allowed the addition of the voice of the women engineering students to the study providing a more robust…
Buchwald, Dedra; Muller, Clemma; Bell, Maria; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf
Background: American Indian women in the Northern Plains have a high incidence of cervical cancer. We assessed attitudes on vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in this population. Method: In partnership with two tribal communities, from 2007 to 2009, we surveyed women 18 to 65 years old attending two reservation clinics ("n" =…
Sartor, Carolyn E.; Grant, Julia D.; Duncan, Alexis E.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Calvert, Wilma J.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.
Objective The aim of the current study was to determine whether the higher rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) but lower rates of cigarette smoking in African-American vs. European-American women can be explained in part by a lower magnitude of association between CSA and smoking in African-American women. Methods Data were drawn from a same-sex female twin study of substance use (n=3,521; 14.3% African-American). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses using CSA to predict smoking initiation and progression to regular smoking were conducted separately by race/ethnicity. Co-twin status on the smoking outcome was used to adjust for familial influences on smoking (which may overlap with family-level influences on CSA exposure). Results After adjusting for co-twin status, CSA was associated with smoking initiation in European Americans (hazards ratio (HR)=1.43, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.26–1.62) and with smoking initiation ≤16 in African Americans (HR=1.70, CI: 1.26–2.29). CSA was associated with regular smoking onset ≤15 in European Americans (HR=1.63, CI:1.21–2.18), with no change in HR after adjusting for co-twin status. In the African-American subsample, the HR for CSA was reduced to non-significance after adjusting for co-twin status (from HR=3.30, CI:1.23–8.89 to HR=1.16, CI:0.71–1.92 for regular smoking ≤15). Conclusions CSA is associated with moderate elevation in risk for initiating smoking among African-American and European-American women. By contrast, CSA is associated with elevated risk for (adolescent onset) regular smoking only in European-American women. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between risk conferred by CSA and familial influences on regular smoking in African-American but not European-American women. PMID:27131220
The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. National figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...
Steele, Sharon L; Lewis-Jack, Ometha
The breast cancer death rate is high for African American women compared to U.S. national figures and an explanation is that African American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced breast cancer disease...
Williams, Richard Allen
To review the current status of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in African American women compared to Caucasian women in regards to 4 categories of CVD: coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, stroke, and congestive heart failure (CHF), and to call attention to the need to place more emphasis on the need to increase awareness of CVD as the greatest killer of African American females in the United States. A review of the recent literature on the subject of CVD in women over the past several years was conducted with a focus on CVD in African American women. Statistical data on incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality of CAD, hypertension, stroke, and CHF in black and white women were compared. Statistical data gathered over the past several years indicate that African American women have greater mortality than Caucasian women from CAD, hypertension, stroke, and CHF. The mortality rate from CAD is 69% higher in black women than in white women. Mortality for black females from hypertension is 352% higher than for white females. Age-adjusted stroke death rates are 54% higher in African American than in Caucasian women, and the age-adjusted mortality rate per 100,000 is 113.4 vs. 97.5 for black and white women, respectively. Incidence, prevalence, and morbidity figures for CAD, hypertension, stroke, and CHF are all higher for African American females than for Caucasian females. African American women are at exceptional risk for CVD, and more recognition of this fact as well as greater awareness of the problem should be promulgated and distributed by means of public education programs. Physicians who treat black patients also need to be encouraged to be more aggressive in their efforts to detect patients at risk and to initiate therapy early on in the course of CVD in this sub-population.
Smith, Brandi Patrice; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep
Residential characteristics in urban neighborhoods impact health and might be important factors contributing to health disparities, especially in the African American population. The purpose of this systematic review is to understand the relationship between urban neighborhood and residential factors and breast cancer incidence and prognosis in African American women. Using PubMed and Web of Science, the existing literature was reviewed. Observational, cross-sectional, cohort, and prospective studies until February 2017 were examined. Studies including populations of African American women, setting in "urban" areas, and a measure of a neighborhood or residential factor were reviewed. Four parameters related to neighborhood or residential factors were extracted including: neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), residential segregation, spatial access to mammography, and residential pollution. Our analysis showed that African American women living in low nSES have greater odds of late stage diagnosis and mortality. Furthermore, African American women living in segregated areas (higher percentage of Blacks) have higher odds of late stage diagnosis and mortality compared to White and Hispanic women living in less segregated areas (lower percentage of Blacks). Late stage diagnosis was also shown to be significantly higher in areas with poor mammography access and areas with higher Black residential segregation. Lastly, residential pollution did not affect breast cancer risk in African American women. Overall, this systematic review provides a qualitative synthesis of major neighborhood and residential factors on breast cancer outcomes in African American women.
Sumlin, Lisa L; Garcia, Alexandra A
The purpose of this systematic review is to synthesize research that tested culturally competent food-related interventions designed for African American women with type 2 diabetes, to review the current state of the literature and suggest recommendations for future research. Many African American women with type 2 diabetes are challenged to change their culturally rooted food habits to achieve diabetes control. Diabetes educators and clinicians who work with African American women need knowledge of effective interventions to assist their clients. Online databases and research articles' reference lists were searched for relevant studies published from 1989 to 2010 that tested culturally competent type 2 diabetes management interventions for African American women, that included at least 1 educational session on diet or nutrition, and that addressed a physiologic outcome, such as glycosylated hemoglobin or fasting blood glucose. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Among them, 64% to 100% of the participants were African Americans, and 65% to 100% were women. Six studies showed significant improvements in food practices, and 8 showed significant improvements in glycemic control as a result of the interventions. Few studies focused solely on helping African American women make culturally relevant dietary changes to control type 2 diabetes. Most interventions addressed food habits as one of many components for diabetes control, perhaps overwhelming research participants with large amounts of varied information. Targeted interventions are recommended that focus on dietary changes as the foundation for diabetes self-management education for African American women.
Tyler, Indira D
A review of published studies reveals a serious deficit in scope of eating disorders among African American women. While the "Prevalence of Eating Disorders Among African American Women" (Mulholland & Mintz, 2001), and "A Comparison of Black and White Women With Binge Eating Disorder" (Pike, Dohm, Stiegel-Moore, Wilfley, & Fairburn, 2001) offer substantial findings in an area of under representation, the findings of these studies leave many vacancies in the true picture of eating disorders among African American women. Sufficient examination of the relationship of familial roles, cultural influences, and unique stressors to African American women are not prevalent in the available studies and are not evaluated as substantial influences on maladaptive eating regulation responses.
Witt, Dawn R; Lindquist, Ruth; Treat-Jacobson, Diane; Boucher, Jackie L; Konety, Suma H; Savik, Kay
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for women, and disproportionally so for African American and Latina women. CVD is largely preventable and many risks can be attributable to health behaviors, implementing and sustaining positive health behaviors is a challenge. Motivational interviewing is one promising intervention for initiating behavior change. The purpose of this review was to identify, synthesize, and critically analyze the existing literature on the use of motivational interviewing as a behavioral intervention to reduce CVD risk among African American and Latina women. Seven studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. Results of this review suggest that motivational interviewing has mixed results when used to reduce cardiovascular risk factors in African American and Latina women. More research using a standardized motivational interviewing approach is needed to definitively determine if it is an effective behavioral intervention to reduce CVD risk when used in populations of African American and Latina women.
Von Ah, Diane M.; Russell, Kathleen M.; Carpenter, Janet; Monahan, Patrick O.; Zhao, Qianqian; Tallman, Eileen; Ziner, Kim Wagler; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Miller, Kathy D.; Giesler, R. Brian; Haase, Joan; Otte, Julie; Champion, Victoria L.
Background The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can result in an array of late cancer-specific side effects and changes in general well-being. Research has focused on Caucasian samples, limiting our understanding of the unique health-related quality of life outcomes of African American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Even when African American BCS have been targeted, research is limited by small samples and failure to include comparisons of peers without a history of breast cancer. Objective The purpose of this study was to compare health-related quality of life of African American women BCS to African American women with no history of breast cancer (control group). Methods A total of 140 women (62 BCS and 78 control), ages 18 years or older and 2–10 years post-diagnosis, was recruited from a breast cancer clinic and cancer support groups. Participants provided informed consent and completed a one-time survey based on Brenner’s (1995) proximal-distal health-related quality of life model. Results After adjusting for age, education, income, and body mass index, African American BCS experienced more fatigue (p=0.001), worse hot flashes (p<0.001) and worse sleep quality (p<0.001), but more social support from their partner (p=0.028) and more positive change (p=0.001) compared to African American women controls. Conclusions Our results suggest that African American women BCS may experience unique health-related outcomes that transcend age, education, socio-economic status and body mass index. Implications for Practice Findings suggest the importance of understanding the survivorship experience for particular racial and ethnic subgroups to proactively assess difficulties and plan interventions. PMID:22228394
Li, Chieh; Nuttall, Ronald
Indicates that writing Chinese is correlated to Chinese-American (CA) students' spatial skills and investigates whether writing Chinese would have the same relationship to mathematics skills. Suggested a strong correlation between writing Chinese and success on SAT-Math. Supports the cultural relativity theory of gender difference on SAT-Math.…
Rosbottom, Steven R.
The purpose and focus of this narrative inquiry case study were to explore the personal stories of four undergraduate Latina students who persist in their engineering programs. This study was guided by two overarching research questions: a) What are the lived experiences of undergraduate Latina engineering students? b) What are the contributing factors that influence undergraduate Latina students to persist in an undergraduate engineering program? Yosso's (2005) community cultural wealth was used to the analyze data. Findings suggest through Yosso's (2005) aspirational capital, familial capital, social capital, navigational capital, and resistant capital the Latina student persisted in their engineering programs. These contributing factors brought to light five themes that emerged, the discovery of academic passions, guidance and support of family and teachers, preparation for and commitment to persistence, the power of community and collective engagement, and commitment to helping others. The themes supported their persistence in their engineering programs. Thus, this study informs policies, practices, and programs that support undergraduate Latina engineering student's persistence in engineering programs.
Vogt, Kristen E.
The purpose of this research study was to examine, for undergraduate women of various Asian American ethnic backgrounds, the influence of background contextual and college environment factors on their sense of academic self-efficacy and achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Social cognitive career theory and its critiques provided a theoretical foundation for relationships from past performance, socioeconomic status, acculturation, and college environment variables (compositional diversity, racial climate, gendered climate, academic peer support), to academic self-efficacy and achievement. Data were collected through an online survey. Instrumentation included the scales of Language, Identity, and Behavioral Acculturation; Gender Discrimination; Faculty and Classroom Behavior; Interactions with Peers; and Academic Milestones Self-efficacy. The participants were 228 Asian American undergraduate women in STEM at a large public, doctoral research extensive university on the east coast; the response rate was 51%. In three MANOVAs for nine social cognitive career variables, four ethnic groups (East, South, Southeast, and Multi-ethnic Asian American) significantly differed only on socioeconomic status. In path analysis, the initial model was not a good fit and was rejected. The model was respecified through statistical and theoretical evaluation, tested in exploratory analysis, and considered a good fit. The respecified model explained 36% of semester GPA (achievement) and 28% of academic self-efficacy. The academic achievement of Asian American women in STEM was related to past performance, background contextual factors, academic self-efficacy, academic peer support, and gendered climate. The strongest direct influence on achievement was academic self-efficacy followed by past performance. The total effect of Asian acculturation on achievement was negative and the total effect of American acculturation on achievement was not
Bates, Marcie Ann
Social challenges tear at the fabric of the African American family, revealing complexities that identify a de facto leader, the African American woman. She exists in a chasm of overt circumstances which heavily influences her successes. The purpose of this study is to identify factors that motivated seven female African American community college…
Alcalde, Maria Cristina; Quelopana, Ana Maria
People of Latin American descent make up the largest and fastest-growing minority group in the USA. Rates of pregnancy, childbirth, and sexually transmitted infections among people of Latin American descent are higher than among other ethnic groups. This paper builds on research that suggests that among families of Latin American descent, mothers…
Laganà, Luciana; Maciel, Michelle
Although researchers have related sexual desire in older women to quality-of-life variables such as overall physical health, well-being, and life satisfaction, little is known about the socio-cultural mechanisms that shape sexual desire in minority ethnic older women. We investigated this sexual variable among Mexican-American older women in a qualitative fashion. Date were collected from 25 community-dwelling women of Mexican descent (aged 59–89 years) using a semi-structured interview proto...
Sutherland, Vickie Mecshell
Epidemiological studies have shown that substance abuse among African American women is occurring at an alarming rate that exceeds rates for White women. The heightened use of alcohol and drugs among African American women is a problem that resulted from their racial, historical, and structural position in American society. The literature reveals…
Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi
African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension. PMID:21076625
Horton, K. Renee
As minority women physicists, we stand at the intersection of race and gender. We are physicists to be sure, but we are also women of Native, African, Hispanic, and Asian descent. We are colleagues, mothers, sisters, friends and wives, as are our white counterparts, but our experiences cannot be distilled to only gender or race. As Prudence Carter (2005 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association) and Scott Page (``The Logic of Diversity,'' private communication, 2004) remind us, women of color emerge from the interaction between race and gender. This distinction is important because most researchers who study American women's participation in science focus exclusively on the participation of white American women. Of those who acknowledge the existence of non-white women, most do so by disclaiming the exclusion of women of color because the numbers are so small or the experiences are different from white American women. There are some important differences, however. While American women are 15% of all scientists and engineers, black American women are 60% of all black scientists and engineers. Yet an average of less than 3 black women and less than 3 Hispanic women earn PhDs in the U.S. each year, out of about 1100. As Rachel Ivie and Kim Nies Ray point out in AIP Publication R-430.02, ``Minority women especially represent a great, untapped resource that could be drawn on to increase the size of the scientific workforce in the U.S.'' Donna Nelson's (University of Oklahoma) study of diversity in science and engineering faculties further finds that (with the exception of one black woman in astronomy) there are no female black or Native American full professors. In physics, there are no black women professors and no Native American women professors. Despite such a bleak picture, there is hope. Of the 18 departments that award at least 40% of bachelors degrees to women, 7 are in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Black women are
National Agricultural Library (USDA), Washington, DC.
More than 250 citations of materials about women in agriculture in the U.S. are contained in this partially annotated bibliography. It covers women engaged as landowners, farm managers, agricultural laborers and working in such agricultural industries as beekeeping, silk culture, and butter production. Other references concern women in…
Fong, Pauline; Cabezas, Amado
Taken from a paper on "The Economic and Employment Status of Asian Women in America" by Pauline Fong and Amado Cabezas of ASIAN, Inc., this brief analysis of statistics on Asian women indicates that highly educated Asian women do not have higher incomes or better jobs than many of those with less education.
Powe, Barbara D; Hamilton, Jill; Brooks, Patrice
Cancer fatalism (the belief that death is inevitable when cancer is present) may influence cancer screening practices among older African American women. Little is known about cancer fatalism among younger women. Guided by the Patient/Provider/System Model, this descriptive study compares cancer fatalism and cancer knowledge among African American college students (n = 353) and women from primary care centers (n = 361). Their average age was 29 years. Data were collected using the Powe Fatalism Inventory and breast and cervical cancer knowledge scales. Women at health centers had higher cancer fatalism and lower cancer knowledge. Differences in life experiences may help explain these findings.
Gash, Jean; Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Feen-Calligan, Holly
Little is known about the relationships between spiritual resources and life attitudes of homeless African American women. Spiritual resources may serve as protective factors for women leaving homelessness. This descriptive study examines spiritual resources, life attitudes, and selected demographics of 160 African American women who were homeless in the Midwestern United States. Participants ranged in age from 30-62 years of age and reported being homeless 1-9 times, with a mean of 1.94 (SD = 1.53) times. The authors draw inferences for how spiritual resources and life attitudes can influence women's efforts to leave homelessness and identify implications for nursing practice.
Galloway, Stephanie Nicole
African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks, 1981; 1989; Perkins, 1993; Smith, 1998; Spitzack & Carter, 1987). Alternatively, Black feminist thought (Collins, 1990; 2000) is a theory constructed by and for African American women. Given the consequences of pursuing formal education in the histories of African American women and the paucity of African American women represented in STEM fields, the purpose of this study was to (a) reveal how African American women conducting research in STEM disciplines accomplished their professional goals, (b) learn how the women negotiated their multiple identities (i.e. race, gender, and class), (c) link the history of educational experiences among African Americans with agendas for social justice, (d) understand how African American women in STEM align their personal accomplishments with broader agendas for activism in higher education, and (e) discover whether there is a collective identity that successful African American women in STEM share. Using Black feminist thought (Collins, 1986; 2000) and narrative analysis of semi- interviews with eight African American women in STEM, the findings from this study revealed: (a) the women in this study described the challenges of pursuing a career in STEM from a feminist perspective, identifying gender as more significant than race; (b) the women in this study experienced more positive interactions with Black male, White female, and White male mentors than with Black female mentors; (c) the women in this study described the use of empowering strategies for overcoming obstacles in their academic pathways; and (d) their collective academic identities were formed by early interactions with
Clinton, Sandra; Adams, Amanda; Barnes, Rebecca; Bloodhart, Brittany; Bowker, Cheryl; Burt, Melissa; Godfrey, Elaine; Henderson, Heather; Hernandez, Paul; Pollack, Ilana; Sample McMeeking, Laura Beth; Sayers, Jennifer; Fischer, Emily
Women still remain underrepresented in many areas of the geosciences, and this underrepresentation often begins early in their university career. In 2015, an interdisciplinary team including expertise in the geosciences (multiple sub-disciplines), psychology, education and STEM persistence began a project focused on understanding whether mentoring can increase the interest, persistence, and achievement of undergraduate women in geoscience fields. The developed program (PROGRESS) focuses on mentoring undergraduate female students, starting in their 1st and 2nd year, from two geographically disparate areas of the United States: the Carolinas in the southeastern part of the United States and the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains in the western part of the United States. The two regions were chosen due to their different student demographics, as well as the differences in the number of working female geoscientists in the region. The mentoring program includes a weekend workshop, access to professional women across geoscience fields, and both in-person and virtual peer networks. Four cohorts of students were recruited and participated in our professional development workshops (88 participants in Fall 2015 and 94 participants in Fall 2016). Components of the workshops included perceptions of the geosciences, women in STEM misconceptions, identifying personal strengths, coping strategies, and skills on building their own personal network. The web-platform (http://geosciencewomen.org/), designed to enable peer-mentoring and provide resources, was launched in the fall of 2015 and is used by both cohorts in conjunction with social media platforms. We will present an overview of the major components of the program, discuss lessons learned during 2015 that were applied to 2016, and share preliminary analyses of surveys and interviews with study participants from the first two years of a five-year longitudinal study that follows PROGRESS participants and a control group.
Giurgescu, Carmen; Sanguanklin, Natthananporn; Engeland, Christopher G; White-Traut, Rosemary C; Park, Chang; Mathews, Herbert L; Janusek, Linda Witek
To explore the relationships among psychosocial factors (optimism, uncertainty, social support, coping, psychological distress), biomarkers (cortisol, cytokines), preeclampsia, and preterm birth in African American women. Forty-nine pregnant African American women completed psychosocial questionnaires and had blood collected for biomarkers between 26 and 36 weeks of gestation. Birth outcomes were obtained from birth records. Women reporting higher levels of social support had lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-5, and IL-6). Surprisingly, compared with low-risk pregnant women, women diagnosed with preeclampsia reported more optimism and less avoidance, and had lower levels of cortisol and IFN-γ. Similarly, compared to women with full-term birth, women with preterm birth reported higher levels of optimism and lower levels of avoidance, and had lower levels of IL-10. Psychosocial factors influence inflammation and pregnancy outcomes. Close assessment and monitoring of psychosocial factors may contribute to improved pregnancy outcomes. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Study objectives were to describe the barriers to primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer in African American women, to develop tools to measure these barriers, and to describe prevalence in a community sample...
Full Text Available This paper examines, first, data about perceptions and attitudes in Latin-American immigrants and the Spanish population towards intimate partner violence against women. Secondly, it explores correlates of attitudes towards reporting cases of partner violence against women in a sample of Latin-American immigrants. Three data sources, which include two representative samples of the Spanish population and a sample of Latin-American immigrants, are used. Results show significant differences between Spanish and immigrant perceptions and attitudes toward intimate partner violence against women. Analyses also show that positive attitudes among Latin-American immigrants towards reporting cases of partner violence were more frequent among those who were less tolerant, who perceived it as a major problem in society, and tended not to blame the victims. These results underline the importance of public attitudes towards intimate partner violence against women for the understanding and prevention of this social problem.
Barnett, Tracey Marie; Praetorius, Regina T
African-American women are more likely to be overweight or obese as compared to other ethnic groups. The purpose of this Qualitative Interpretive Meta-Synthesis (QIMS) was to explore the experiences that African-American women encounter when trying to eat healthily and maintain physical activity to inform practice and research. The QIMS included studies from various disciplines to understand the experiences of African-American women with eating healthily and being physically active. Five themes were identified: family; structured support; translating knowledge into behavior modifications; barriers to physical activity; and God is my healer. These themes enhance understanding of what African-American women know, their support system(s), and how cultural barriers impact nutrition and physical activity.
Kolo, Yovonda Ingram
African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.
Bañales Atxirika, Victoria
268 p. This doctoral dissertation proposes an analysis of the portraits of Basque women in Basque-American literature by means of a comprehensive comparative study of a selection of fictional and non-fictional literary works. These will be analyzed in chronological order with the intention of exposing the perception of Basque-American women and the roles they played in order to identify any existing patterns as well as changes and developments throughout time. The study will utilize an int...
Holden, Kisha B.; Hall, Stephanie P.; Robinson, Maryam; Triplett, Sharra; Babalola, Dolapo; Plummer, Valens; Treadwell, Henrie; Bradford, L. DiAnne
African American women are faced with many challenges regarding their historical, cultural, and social structural position in the United States that may heighten their vulnerability for depression, one of the most prevalent disorders that can engender poor functionality. The purpose of this cross-sectional pilot study was to foster greater understanding about the occurrence and correlates of depressive symptoms among a diverse convenience sample of 63 African American women recruited from a c...
Dahlem, Chin Hwa Y; Villarruel, Antonia M; Ronis, David L
Poor patient-provider interaction among racial/ethnic minorities is associated with disparities in health care. In this descriptive, cross-sectional study, we examine African American women's perspectives and experiences of patient-provider interaction (communication and perceived discrimination) during their initial prenatal visit and their influences on perceptions of care received and prenatal health behaviors. Pregnant African American women (n = 204) and their providers (n = 21) completed a pre- and postvisit questionnaire at the initial prenatal visit. Women were also interviewed face to face at the subsequent return visit. Women perceived high quality patient-provider communication (PPC) and perceived low discrimination in their interaction with providers. Multiple regression analyses showed that PPC had a positive effect on trust in provider (p prenatal care satisfaction (p prenatal health behaviors. Findings suggest that quality PPC improves the prenatal care experience for African American women. © The Author(s) 2014.
Maria Luisa Pereira Oliveira
Full Text Available The African American women's socioeconomic, political and cultural conditions are unstable; many of these women face social exclusion situations and have no access to public policies. The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher has considered racial discrimination in relation to African American women as a fact which empowers gender violence and causes damage to life quality and to health. This research tried to understand the effects of racial discrimination to the identities construction and to the subjectivation modes of African American women attended by the SOS Racism program. The women showed intense emotional suffering due to discrimination and racism they have faced. In the group process new meanings for the violence were produced, transforming the personal narrative into a public report.
Amparo, Pamela; Farr, Sherry L; Dietz, Patricia M
The magnitude of chronic conditions and risk factors among American Indian/Alaska Native women of reproductive age is unknown. The objective of our study was to estimate this magnitude. We analyzed data for 2,821 American Indian/Alaska Native women and 105,664 non-Hispanic white women aged 18 to 44 years from the 2005 and 2007 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. We examined prevalence of high cholesterol, high blood pressure, diabetes, body mass index (kg/m(2)) ≥25.0, physical inactivity, smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and frequent mental distress, and the cumulative number of these chronic conditions and risk factors (≥3, 2, 1, or 0). In a multivariable, multinomial logistic regression model, we examined whether American Indian/Alaska Native race was associated with the cumulative number of chronic conditions and risk factors. American Indian/Alaska Native women, compared with white women, had significantly higher rates of high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, smoking, and frequent mental distress. Of American Indian/Alaska Native women, 41% had 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors compared with 27% of white women (χ(2), P < .001). After adjustment for income, education, and other demographic variables, American Indian/Alaska Native race was not associated with having either 1, 2, or 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Three out of every 5 American Indian/Alaska Native women aged 18 to 44 years have 3 or more chronic conditions or risk factors. Improving economic status and education for AI/AN women could help eliminate disparities in health status.
Clark, Julie Dorton; Winterowd, Carrie
Obesity and being overweight, as determined by body mass index (BMI), each continues to be of concern for many Native American/American Indians (NA/AI). According to the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," binge eating is excessive eating or consuming large quantities of food over a short period of time and has been associated…
Jones, Lenette M; Wright, Kathy D; Wallace, McKenzie K; Veinot, Tiffany
Nearly half of African-American women have hypertension, which increases their risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke. A plethora of consumer health information products and services exist to inform people with hypertension and to promote self-management among them. Promotion of information sharing by African-American women represents a promising, culturally-applicable strategy for consumer health information services focused on hypertension self-management. Yet, how African-American women share hypertension information with others is unclear. The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive study was to examine practices of information sharing in African-American women with hypertension. Thirteen women (mean age = 73, SD = 9.87) participated in one of two focus groups held at an urban community health center. Thematic analysis revealed that the women shared information about how they self-managed their blood pressure 1) with female family members and friends, 2) about ways in which they adapted self-management strategies to work for them, 3) mostly in group settings, and 4) because they wanted to prevent others from suffering and reinforce their own knowledge about hypertension self-management. New findings emerged regarding assessing "readiness" for information. Study findings will be used to inform the design of an information sharing intervention to support self-management of hypertension in African-American women.
Obeidat, Rana Fakhri; Lally, Robin M; Dickerson, Suzanne S
Currently, limited literature addresses Arab American women's responses to the impact of breast cancer and its treatments. The objective of the study was to understand the experience of being diagnosed with and undergoing surgical treatment for early-stage breast cancer among Arab American women. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological research design was used for this study. A purposive sample of 10 Arab American women who were surgically treated for early-stage breast cancer in the United States was recruited. Data were collected using individual interviews and analyzed using the Heideggerian hermeneutical methodology. Arab American women accepted breast cancer diagnosis as something in God's hands that they had no control over. Although they were content with God's will, the women believed that the diagnosis was a challenge that they should confront. The women confronted this challenge by accessing the healthcare system for treatment, putting trust in their physicians, participating when able in treatment decisions, using religious practices for coping, maintaining a positive attitude toward the diagnosis and the treatment, and seeking information. Arab American women's fatalistic beliefs did not prevent them from seeking care and desiring treatment information and options when diagnosed with breast cancer. It is important that healthcare providers encourage patients to express meanings they attribute to their illness to provide them with appropriate supportive interventions. They should also individually assess patients' decision-making preferences, invite them to participate in decision making, and provide them with tailored means necessary for such participation without making any assumptions based on patients' ethnic/cultural background.
Rimer, Sara; Reddivari, Sahithya; Cotel, Aline
As international efforts to educate and empower women continue to rise, engineering educators are in a unique position to be a part of these efforts by encouraging and supporting women across the world at the university level through STEM education and outreach. For the past two years, the University of Michigan has been a part of a grassroots effort to encourage and support the persistence of engineering female students at University of Liberia. This effort has led to the implementation of a leadership camp this past August for Liberian engineering undergraduate women, meant to: (i) to empower engineering students with the skills, support, and inspiration necessary to become successful and well-rounded engineering professionals in a global engineering market; and (ii) to strengthen the community of Liberian female engineers by building cross-cultural partnerships among students resulting in a international network of women engineers. This session will present qualitative research findings on the impact of this grassroots effort on Liberian female students? persistence in engineering, and the future directions of this work.
Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei
A community probability-sampled survey was done of 181 Chinese American women to investigate the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Chinese Americans. Of participants, 42% knew a Chinese woman who had experienced IPV. Also, 14% had experienced IPV themselves in their lifetime (8% severe and 6% minor), 3% in the previous…
Shah, Amita Roy
This study explores how second-generation South Asian American women negotiated their hybrid identities to pursue a career in teaching. Many South Asian Americans have not pursued a career in teaching because of various external and internal factors that have influenced their sense of identity, academic achievement, and professional career path…
Hodge, Felicia Schanche
A community-based Wellness Circles Program was designed and implemented at 13 sites in California to evaluate a culturally appropriate community-based health care model for American Indian families. Data obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) that was administered to a subset of women demonstrate that American Indian…
West, Nicole M.
Although engagement in social and academic counterspaces has been studied as a strategy used by African American college students to withstand racially inhospitable campus climates, very little research documents the impact of professional counterspaces on African American women student affairs administrators. The purpose of this basic…
Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene
The relationship of social networks and social support to the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and hostility) of 159 American Indian women undergoing residential substance abuse treatment at Native American Connections was assessed. Social support and active participation by clients' families during…
Cheng, Hsiu-Rong; Walker, Lorraine O; Brown, Adama; Lee, Ju-Young
Asian-American subgroups are heterogeneous, but few studies had addressed differences on gestational weight gain (GWG) and perinatal outcomes related to GWG among this growing and diverse population. The purposes of this study were to examine whether Asian-American women are at higher risk of inadequate or excessive GWG and adverse perinatal outcomes than non-Hispanic White (NH-White) women, and to compare those risks among Asian-American subgroups. This retrospective study included all singleton births to NH-Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnam, and NH-White women documented in 2009 Texas birth certificate data (N = 150,674). Data were analyzed using the χ(2) test, t test, multinomial logistic regression, and binary logistic regression. Chinese women were the reference group in the comparisons among Asian subgroups. Asian women had a higher risk of inadequate GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) than NH-White women. No difference in the odds of excessive GWG was found among Asian subgroups, although Japanese women had the highest risk of inadequate GWG. After adjusting for confounders, Korean women had the lowest risk of GDM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.49), whereas Filipino women and Asian Indian had the highest risks of gestational hypertension (AOR, 2.01 and 1.61), cesarean birth (AOR, 1.44 and 1.39), and low birth weight (AOR, 1.94 and 2.51) compared with Chinese women. These results support the heterogeneity of GWG and perinatal outcomes among Asian-American subgroups. The risks of adverse perinatal outcomes should be carefully evaluated separately among Asian-American subpopulations. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Peterson, Barbara Bennett
In 1922, Arthur Schlesinger urged his fellow historians to write women into the history books. He recognized that the size and sweep of women's history offered scholars and students the opportunity of a new major field. His call failed to arouse skeptical minds through the 1940s and 1950s as feminism fell into disrepute. But with the resurgence of…
It established a micro lending program for women entrepreneurs. The Ministry of Labour also implemented a program to promote self-employment and to provide technical and marketing skills to potential women entrepreneurs. In El Salvador, the government passed the Law of Equality, Fairness, and Elimination of ...
Bosch Vilarrubias, Marta
Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heter...
Arshad, Samia; Williams, Karen Patricia; Mabiso, Athur; Dey, Subhojit; Soliman, Amr S
Arab-American women are more likely to be diagnosed with advanced staged breast cancer. We analyzed data from 100 women utilizing a breast cancer literacy assessment tool aimed at understanding functional literacy levels about breast-self exams (BSE), clinical breast exams (CBE), and mammograms. The educational program improved women's knowledge of BSE (OR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.50) and CBE (OR = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04, 0.54), more for women with higher education. Consideration of women's educational status is an important factor in planning educational programs to improve knowledge on breast cancer screening and prevention in this minority population.
Browne, Irene, Ed.
The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…
Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks; Thomas, Dana-Marie; Ard, Jamy D.
African American (AA) women's preference for a larger body size and underestimation of their body weight may affect the relationship between their body weight and weight-related quality of life (QOL). We wanted to examine the relationship between weight-related QOL and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of overweight AA women. Thirty-three…
Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene
The objective of this study was to describe the predictors of substance use relapse of American Indian (AI) women up to one year following substance abuse treatment. Relapse is defined as any use of alcohol or drugs in the past 30 days at the follow-up points. Data were collected from AI women in a 45-day residential substance abuse treatment…
Guerrero, Laura; Singh, Satvir
Using Blustein's (2006) psychology of working and Hackman and Oldham's (1975) job characteristics theory, the authors investigated the job attribute preferences of Mexican American women with low educational attainment. They used content analysis to code and analyze the interview transcripts of 27 women. The most valued job attributes were not…
Lewis, Lisa M.; Melton, Richard S.; Succop, Paul A.; Rosenthal, Susan L.
Surveyed 123 sexually experienced African-American college women at a state university to identify factors influencing their condom use and the risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). The women who were older, had initiated sex earlier, or had more recent sexual partners were more likely than others to report a history of an STD.…
Zane, Polly; Zane, John
Focusing on changing roles of American women in response to social, technological, and historical influences since 1607, the document describes women's participation in home life, sports, professions, business, the labor movement, social reform, and the fight for legal rights. The document comprises six chronologically organized booklets and a…
McDaniel, Sharon L.
The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of the perspectives on empowerment held by African American women who work in executive positions within higher educational settings. This study also seeks to provide other women with a deeper level of awareness regarding the journey towards executive leadership. Current literature explores…
Vanderlinden, Mary E.
This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…
Im, Eun-Ok; Ko, Young; Hwang, Hyenam; Yoo, Kyung Hee; Chee, Wonshik; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Lorraine; Brown, Adama; McPeek, Chelsea; Chee, Eunice
The purpose of this study was to explore African American midlife women's attitudes toward physical activity. Using a feminist perspective, a 6-month online forum was conducted with 21 African American midlife women recruited on the Internet. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes emerged: (a) culturally acceptable body, (b) missed opportunity to learn, (c) physical activity as a luxury, and (d) want to do by myself. The women had positive body images regardless of their actual weight. The women considered physical activity "a luxury" in their busy lives and thought that they had already missed opportunities to learn. The women wanted to participate in physical activities alone because of their bad childhood experiences and hesitance to go out in public with sweaty, messy hair. The findings suggested that unique programs that promote physical activity should be developed that consider the women's ethnic-specific attitudes.
... %. As the vast majority of research in this area has focused on White women, it is not clear what hinders African American women in undergoing-genetic counseling and testing. In addition, most of the published studies that included African American women in their samples did not focus on culture-specific factors that may affect African American women's decisions to undergo genetic counseling/testing.
Nguyen, Anh B.; Clark, Trenette T.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between gender roles and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 100 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area. Women were recruited to participate in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, gender roles, acculturation, and canc...
Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L.
Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women’s experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15–25 weeks’ gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803
Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye A
This study examined a culturally-specific dance intervention on functional capacity in African American women at three time points. The intervention was two times per week for 8 weeks using two African American churches randomly assigned to either the experimental or comparison group, had 126 participants, ages 36-82 years. Analysis of covariance revealed that both groups improved over time and the only significant difference between groups was at 18 weeks. The increase at 18 weeks in the experimental group remained when controlling for baseline covariates. This study supported culturally-specific dance as an intervention to improve functional capacity in African American women.
Ahye, Brenda A; Devine, Carol M; Odoms-Young, Angela M
This grounded theory investigation aimed to understand intergenerational family roles and the food management strategies of African American women from a social-ecological perspective. Thirty women from 10 low/moderate-income 3-generation urban families participated in interviews covering roles, health, nutrition, and food management strategies. Four dynamic family systems for managing food and nutrition emerged from qualitative data analysis. Participants expressed values of responsibility, social connections, caretaking, reward, and equal opportunity, and fulfilling responsibilities for family care, connections, and finances. These values and systems provide a basis for culturally appropriate, interpersonal-level nutrition interventions among African American women that build on family structures, needs, and resources.
Disordered eating and body dissatisfaction are occurring among Asian American women, but the vast majority of treatment literature is based on White Western women. Empirically supported treatments are increasingly encouraged for eating disorders, but therapists find little guidance for implementing them in a culturally sensitive manner. This paper reviews eating problems in Asian American women and explores concepts important to cultural competency in therapy. Examples of how cultural adaptations could be made to an empirically supported treatment are illustrated in a case scenario using aspects of C. G. Fairburn's Enhanced Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Eating Disorders (2008).
Muzny, Christina A; Austin, Erika L; Harbison, Hanne S; Hook, Edward W
African American women who have sex with women (WSW) are emerging as a population at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The objectives of this study were to explore partnership characteristics for a cohort of African American WSW and evaluate those characteristics as potential risk factors for STIs. In addition, we aimed to determine STI diagnoses and identify predictors of STI infection. Women who have sex with women presenting to a sexually transmitted disease clinic in Birmingham, AL, completed a questionnaire and were tested for bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, Mycoplasma genitalium, syphilis, HIV, and herpes simplex virus type 2. A total of 163 women were enrolled: 78 WSW and 85 women who have sex with women and men (WSWM) (based on report of past year sexual behavior). Both WSW and WSWM reported similar numbers of female partners over the lifetime, past year, and past month; however, WSWM reported significantly more lifetime male partners, thus having a higher overall number of sexual partners. Women who have sex with women and men were more likely to report new or casual partner(s), group sex, history of STIs, and sex with partner(s) known to have STIs. Overall, WSWM were more likely to have a current diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis, a current diagnosis of a curable STI, or a diagnosis of a noncurable STI (85% vs. 56%, P sexual health may be directly or indirectly influenced by male partners. A better understanding of the distinctions and differences between African American WSW and WSWM will enable health care providers to improve the quality of care provided.
This news article discusses the perspective brought by Latin American women to the women's conference held in Beijing in 1995. One major accomplishment was the inclusion of Caribbean women into the regional Latin American exhibition space and the regional gatherings. The Latin American conference space was used to present regional exhibits, music and dance performances, theater productions, and messages from country delegates. The official government conference included the well-organized advocacy efforts among Latin American delegates. This accomplishment reflected the improvement in skills among delegates since the Mar del Plata meetings. The nongovernmental organization (NGO) conference had some serious transportation difficulties due to its location in Huairou, 35 miles north of Beijing. The distance exhausted participants and reduced the NGO forum impact on the official conference. Participants at the NGO conference also were restricted in their freedom of movement by the Chinese Organizing Committee. There was insufficient infrastructure for handling planned plenary sessions, lack of access for the disabled, harassment of certain special interest groups, and obstruction of meetings in hotels. Secret searches were conducted by Chinese officials in delegates' hotel rooms. Non-English speakers were able to participate only in large plenary sessions and selected workshops. Non-Spanish speaking Latin Americans walked out of Latin American events held in Spanish. Women were also frustrated that views strongly articulated on the plenary floor were excluded from the Plan of Action and from press coverage. To be successful, plans for the post-Beijing period must account for the diversity of women's groups.
Liu, Shan; Qiu, Guang; Louie, Wendy
Very few studies have been conducted to examine the prevalence, frequency, perceived effectiveness, and possible influencing factors of use of meditation in patients with cancer. To examine use of mindfulness sitting medication (MSM) in Chinese American women in treatment of cancer, its relationship to specific symptom distress, and possible influencing factors of MSM. Volunteer participants were recruited through the American Cancer Society support groups. The participants completed a demographic data form, a researcher-developed criteria and checklist for MSM, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale-Short Form. Eighty-nine Chinese American women with a mean age of 58 years completed the questionnaires. Twenty-one patients (24%) reported the use of MSM during active treatment of cancer. Patients who had higher education, better income, better English proficiency, and health insurance were more likely to use MSM. Patients who had more symptom distress also reported to use more MSM. Most patients (20/21) who used meditation considered it effective. After controlling other variables, better English proficiency, breast cancer, and higher symptom distress predicted the use of MSM in Chinese American women in treatment of cancer. About 24% of Chinese American women used MSM in the treatment of cancer and most of them considered it effective. Symptom distress and English proficiency levels predicted the use of MSM. Given the effectiveness of MSM, oncology nurses could recommend using MSM in Chinese American women in treatment of cancer, especially for patients who had higher symptom distress.
Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Kong, Angela; Odoms-Young, Angela
We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.
Gittner, Lisaann S; Gittner, Kevin B
Assess the psychometric properties of the Self-Efficacy Consumption of Fruit and Vegetable Scale (F/V scale) in African American women. Midwestern Health Maintenance Organization. 221 African American women age 40-65 with BMI≥30 MEASURES: F/V scale was compared to eating efficacy/availability subscale reported on the WEL and mean micronutrient intake (vitamins A, C, K, folate, potassium, and beta-carotene reported on 3-day food records. F/V scale construct validity and internal consistency were assessed and compared to: 1) the original scale validation in Chinese women, 2) WEL scale, and 3) to micronutrient intake from 3-day food records. Total scale scores differed between African American women (μ=1.87+/-0.87) and Chinese (μ=0.41). In a Chinese population, F/V scale factored into two subscales; the F/V factored into one subscale in African American women. Construct validity was supported with correlation between the F/V scale and the eating efficacy WEL subscale (r 2 =-0.336, p=0.000). There was not a significant correlation between dietary consumption of micronutrients representative of fruit and vegetable intake and the F/V scale. The F/V scale developed for Chinese populations can be reliably used with African American women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoo, Grace J; Sudhakar, Anantha; Le, Mai Nhung; Levine, Ellen G
In recent years, breast cancer rates among young Asian American women have been increasing. Despite increases in breast cancer among young Asian American women, little is known about how this population copes throughout diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. This study was a qualitative exploration of how young Asian American women cope with breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and survivorship. In-depth interviews with 22 young (under the age of 50) Asian American women diagnosed with early stage breast cancer were conducted. Through qualitative data analysis, three major themes emerged including moving from managing the emotions of others to expressing emotional vulnerability, moving from work and productivity to work-life balance, and moving beyond the family and reaching out to breast cancer survivors. At diagnosis, participants worked to maintain normalcy including caring for others and working during treatment. Once treatment was over, women worked to find ways to use their experience as a transformative one and also to develop more positive coping skills including expressing emotional vulnerability and reaching out to others. Further studies are needed to create and test culturally tailored supportive interventions that enhance positive coping tools among young Asian American women diagnosed by breast cancer.
Stewart, Jennifer M
To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Mixed methods cross-sectional design. African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Mixed methods convergent parallel design. The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Lisa M. Tussing-Humphreys
Full Text Available We performed a systematic review of the behavioral lifestyle intervention trials conducted in the United States published between 1990 and 2011 that included a maintenance phase of at least six months, to identify intervention features that promote weight loss maintenance in African American women. Seventeen studies met the inclusion criteria. Generally, African American women lost less weight during the intensive weight loss phase and maintained a lower % of their weight loss compared to Caucasian women. The majority of studies failed to describe the specific strategies used in the delivery of the maintenance intervention, adherence to those strategies, and did not incorporate a maintenance phase process evaluation making it difficult to identify intervention characteristics associated with better weight loss maintenance. However, the inclusion of cultural adaptations, particularly in studies with a mixed ethnicity/race sample, resulted in less % weight regain for African American women. Studies with a formal maintenance intervention and weight management as the primary intervention focus reported more positive weight maintenance outcomes for African American women. Nonetheless, our results present both the difficulty in weight loss and maintenance experienced by African American women in behavioral lifestyle interventions.
Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L
African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health.
Doctor, Jason N.
Objectives. We studied if both observed and unobserved maternal health in African American women in hospitals or communities were associated with cesarean delivery of infants. Methods. We examined the relationship between African American race and cesarean delivery among 493 433 women discharged from 255 Californian hospitals in 2010 using administrative data; we adjusted for patient comorbidities and maternal, fetal, and placental risk factors, as well as clustering of patients within hospitals. Results. Cesarean rates were significantly higher overall for African American women than other women (unadjusted rate 36.8% vs 32.7%), as were both elective and emergency primary cesarean rates. Elevated risks persisted after risk adjustment (odds ratio generally > 1.27), but the prevalence of particular risk factors varied. Although African American women were clustered in some hospitals, the proportion of African Americans among all women delivering in a hospital was not related to its overall cesarean rate. Conclusions. To address the higher likelihood of elective cesarean delivery, attention needs to be given to currently unmeasured patient-level health factors, to the quality of provider–physician interactions, as well as to patient preferences. PMID:25790391
Baker, Janelle R
Culture is an integral component of health-promoting behaviors that can no longer be ignored. Using Pender's Revised Health Promotion Model as a guide, this correlational predictive study explored the cultural influences on the health-promoting behaviors of 201 (N = 201) older African-American women in the southeastern United States. Findings revealed that older African-American women who were acculturated towards the dominant society had significantly higher scores on the Modified African American Acculturation Scale Revised (AAAS-R), were highly educated with high socioeconomic resources, and were more likely to engage in health-promoting behaviors. Culture significantly predicted health-promoting behaviors (b = .27, t(198), p health-promoting behaviors among older African-American women (R2 = .22, F[2, 198] = 27.31, p health disparities and to encourage health-promoting behaviors and longevity.
Breast cancer continues to be the most diagnosed cancer for all women, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, in the United States. Incidence rates are 1 in 8 for an American woman being diagnosed. Moreover, statistics indicate that every 13 min an American woman dies from complications related to breast cancer. Despite all the gains made in the area of cancer research, Black American women continue to have a 67% higher mortality rate than their White counterparts. There is no preparation for a diagnosis of breast cancer. Upon hearing the words: you have breast cancer, a woman's life is forever altered. The woman's initial reactions of denial and/or anger yield to strategic responses. These responses may strengthen the woman's resiliency both during and following treatments. Research indicates that Black Americans, specifically Black American women, exhibit greater religiosity/spirituality than do other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, the use of religiosity/spirituality by Black Americans increases during a crisis. This qualitative study examines how religiosity/spirituality was utilized as a coping mechanism by a group of Black American women following their diagnoses of breast cancer.
Cameron, Nicole Ola; Muldrow, Adrienne Fayola; Stefani, Whitney
Negative attitudes toward being overweight or obese are widespread, and these notions perpetuate into conceptions about one's health. Clinically, being overweight is associated with health problems such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, and many other illnesses. African American women, who are generally larger in body size, are a particular target for health interventions. However, these women have resisted the "obesity" label, arguing that dominant measures of health are White norms and oppressive. Through the use of in-depth interviews, this study investigates how African American women understand and experience healthfulness, body image, and barriers to each. Findings show that African American women are ambivalent in their acceptance of dominant markers of health and expressed an almost universal disdain for the thin ideal as a marker of "good" health and a positive body image. Moreover, participants articulated a suspicion of formal medical measurements of obesity.
Basile, Kathleen C.; Smith, Sharon G.; Fowler, Dawnovise N.; Walters, Mikel L.; Hamburger, Merle E.
Limited information exists on the relationship between sexual violence victimization and health among African American women. Using data from a community sample of African American women, we examine the association between current health and lifetime experiences of sexual violence. Inperson interviews were completed in 2010. Among interviewees, 53.7% of women reported rape victimization and 44.8% reported sexual coercion in their lifetime. Victims of rape or sexual coercion were significantly more likely to report depression and posttraumatic stress disorder during their lifetime. Among victims whose first unwanted sexual experience was rape or sexual coercion, perpetrators were mostly acquaintances and intimate partners, and over one third were injured and needed services. More attention is needed on the health needs of African American women and their association to victimization status.
Marta Bosch Vilarrubias
Full Text Available Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heterosexual love made by Arab American women in their poetry (including Mohja Kahf, Suheir Hammad and Pauline Kaldas, this article will examine the potential political use of poetry.
Sun, Yiyuan; Sarma, Elizabeth A; Moyer, Anne; Messina, Catherine R
This study examined the role of women's perceptions about the relative pros versus cons (decisional balance) of mammography in moderating Chinese American women's responses to gain- and loss-framed messages that promote mammography. One hundred and forty-three Chinese American women who were currently nonadherent to guidelines for receiving annual screening mammograms were randomly assigned to read either a gain- or loss-framed culturally appropriate print brochure about mammography screening. Mammography screening was self-reported at a 2-month follow-up. Although there was not a main effect for message frame, the hypothesized interaction between message frame and decisional balance was significant, indicating that women who received a framed message that matched their decisional balance were significantly more likely to have obtained a mammogram by the follow-up than women who received a mismatched message. Results suggest that decisional balance, and more generally, perceptions about mammography, may be an important moderator of framing effects for mammography among Chinese American women. The match between message frame and decisional balance should be considered when attempting to encourage Chinese American women to receive mammography screening, as a match between the two may be most persuasive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Miller, Brittany C; Sarma, Elizabeth A; Sun, Yiyuan; Messina, Catherine R; Moyer, Anne
Chinese American women have lower rates of mammography screening compared with non-Hispanic White women. Although the extent of perceived barriers, as conceptualized by the Health Belief Model, have been shown to distinguish between currently non-adherent Chinese American women who have ever and never had a mammogram, it is less clear which types of perceived barriers differentiate them. One hundred twenty-eight Chinese American women in the New York metropolitan area who had not had a mammogram in the past year completed baseline assessments for a mammography framing intervention study. Demographics, medical access variables, and perceived barriers to mammography (lack of access, lack of need for screening, and modesty) were used to predict mammography history (ever versus never screened). Fifty-five women (43%) reported having been screened at least once. A sequential logistic regression showed that English speaking ability and having health insurance significantly predicted mammography history. However, these control variables became non-significant when the three barrier factors were included in the final model. Women who reported a greater lack of access (OR = 0.36, p American women should identify and target specific perceived barriers with consideration of previous adherence.
Denman-Vitale, S; Murillo, E K
Across the United States, advance practice nurses (APNs) are increasingly encountering recently immigrated Latin American populations. This article provides an overview of the situation of Latin Americans in the United States and discusses aspects of Latin American culture such as, respeto (respect), confianza (confidence), the importance of family, and the value of a personal connection. Strategies that will assist practitioners to incorporate culturally holistic principles in the promotion of breastfeeding among Latin American women who are new arrivals in the United States are described. If practitioners are to respond to the increasing numbers of Latin American women who need health care services, and also provide thorough, holistic health care then health care activities must be integrated with cultural competence.
Von Ah, Diane M; Russell, Kathleen M; Carpenter, Janet; Monahan, Patrick O; Qianqian, Zhao; Tallman, Eileen; Ziner, Kim Wagler; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Miller, Kathy D; Giesler, R Brian; Haase, Joan; Otte, Julie; Champion, Victoria L
The diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer can result in an array of late cancer-specific side effects and changes in general well-being. Research has focused on white samples, limiting our understanding of the unique health-related quality of life outcomes of African American breast cancer survivors (BCSs). Even when African American BCSs have been targeted, research is limited by small samples and failure to include comparisons of peers without a history of breast cancer. The purpose of this study was to compare health-related quality of life of African American female BCSs with that of African American women with no history of breast cancer (control group). A total of 140 women (62 BCSs and 78 controls), 18 years or older and 2 to 10 years postdiagnosis, were recruited from a breast cancer clinic and cancer support groups. Participants provided informed consent and completed a 1-time survey based on the proximal-distal health-related quality of life model of Brenner et al (1995). After adjusting for age, education, income, and body mass index, results show that African American BCSs experienced more fatigue (P = .001), worse hot flashes (P < .001), and worse sleep quality (P < .001) but more social support from their partner (P = .028) and more positive change (P = .001) compared with African American female controls. Our results suggest that African American female BCSs may experience unique health-related outcomes that transcend age, education, socioeconomic status, and body mass index. Findings suggest the importance of understanding the survivorship experience for particular racial and ethnic subgroups to proactively assess difficulties and plan interventions.
Bynum, Shalanda A; Guillaume, Daphnee A; Brandt, Heather M; Fletcher, Faith E
Pap test screening among African-American women has substantially increased. However, African-American women continue to bear the burden of cervical cancer as compared to White women. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of Pap test knowledge on cervical screening history among young African-American women. Between January and April 2009, 320 women from historically black colleges and universities located in the southeastern United States who met study inclusion criteria completed an anonymous self-report questionnaire to assess their awareness, knowledge, and behaviors related to human papillomavirus and cervical cancer prevention and control. Seventy-six percent of women reported ever having a Pap test, 54 % reported having a Pap test less than 1 year ago, and 25 % reported ever having an abnormal Pap test result. The overall mean score on the six-point Pap test knowledge scale was 4.46 ± 1.02. Women who reported having an abnormal Pap test (4.96 ± 0.82) had significantly higher Pap test knowledge compared to those never having an abnormal result (4.49 ± 1.04), p Pap test knowledge among all women, including those with no prior abnormal Pap test history, are critical to cervical cancer prevention and control over the life course. Such efforts should include creating information that is relevant to the population and enables informed decision making about cervical health.
Hendrée E. Jones
Full Text Available African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.
Jones, Hendrée E; Berkman, Nancy D; Kline, Tracy L; Ellerson, Rachel Middlesteadt; Browne, Felicia A; Poulton, Winona; Wechsberg, Wendee M
African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.
Lyon, Louise Ann
Computer science not only displays the pattern of underrepresentation of many other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, but has actually experienced a decline in the number of women choosing the field over the past two decades. Broken out by gender and race, the picture becomes more nuanced, with the ratio of females to males receiving bachelor's degrees in computer science higher for non-White ethnic groups than for Whites. This dissertation explores the experiences of university women differing along the axis of race, class, and culture who are considering majoring in computer science in order to highlight how well-prepared women are persuaded that they belong (or not) in the field and how the confluence of social categories plays out in their decision. This study focuses on a university seminar entitled "Women in Computer Science and Engineering" open to women concurrently enrolled in introductory programming and uses an ethnographic approach including classroom participant observation, interviews with seminar students and instructors, observations of students in other classes, and interviews with parents of students. Three stand-alone but related articles explore various aspects of the experiences of women who participated in the study using Rom Harre's positioning theory as a theoretical framework. The first article uses data from twenty-two interviews to uncover how interactions with others and patterns in society position women in relation to a computer science major, and how these women have arrived at the point of considering the major despite messages that they do not belong. The second article more deeply explores the cases of three women who vary greatly along the axes of race, class, and culture in order to uncover pattern and interaction differences for women based on their ethnic background. The final article focuses on the attitudes and expectations of the mothers of three students of contrasting ethnicities and how reported
A number of studies on female-authored African American literary works have focused on female writers' creative responses to male-authored representations of the tensions of racism, internal crisis of man-woman relationships and the challenges of empowering the black female character. Little attention has been paid to ...
Past research indicates a significantly higher prevalence of early sexual maturation in African American (AA) girls, which is associated with a number of psychological and behavioral problems as well as with health problems such as childhood obesity and diabetes. Both nutrition and body image perceptions have never before been empirically…
Gibson, Lynette M
The objective of this paper is to report on the recent literature concerning coverage of breast cancer epidemiology, the barriers to breast cancer screening, and the strategies to facilitate screening by African-American women. Based on these findings, the author suggests culturally appropriate techniques to be used to promote breast cancer screening in African-American women. Barriers to breast cancer screening in African-American women include emotional reasons, spiritual/religious reasons, fatalism, logistic concerns, lack of knowledge, and lack of follow-up by health-care professionals. Numerous strategies that have been targeted toward African-American women are reported. These include storytelling, witnessing, and testimonies; providing social support and having social support networks; and conducting multifaceted programs that include culturally specific breast health information. Based on the literature reviewed, the author suggests some examples of creative and culturally appropriate techniques that have been implemented with African-American women and that have resulted in positive feedback. These examples include the use of testimonies, photographs, prose, narratives, poetry, and quotations.
Sheppard, Vanessa B; Graves, Kristi D; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia
Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n = 13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n = 8). A content analysis approach was employed to analyze interview data. Breast cancer survivors had more knowledge about genetic counseling and testing than participants who were unaffected with cancer. However, knowledge about genetic counseling was limited in both groups. Barriers to pursuing genetic counseling and testing included poor understanding of the genetic counseling and testing process, fear of carrying the mutation, concerns about discrimination, and cost. Motivators to participate in genetic counseling and testing included desire to help family members, insurance coverage, and potential of benefiting the larger African American community. Education efforts are needed to increase genetic counseling and testing awareness in the African American community.
Jamil, Hikmet; Fakhouri, Monty; Dallo, Florence; Templin, Thomas; Khoury, Radwan; Fakhouri, Haifa
This study estimates the prevalence of heart disease among Arab and Chaldean American women and examines the association between Arab and Chaldean ethnicity and heart disease among a sample of women. This was a cross-sectional study of a convenience sample of 2084 Arab, Chaldean, and African American women aged > or = 18 years who completed a survey that was distributed at churches, mosques, and small businesses in southeast Michigans. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association between ethnicity and self-reported heart disease before and after adjusting for demographic, socioeconomic status, health care, chronic conditions, and health behavior variables. A sample of 2084 Arab, Chaldean, and African American women 18 years of age and older. The overall prevalence of heart disease was 5.1%. Estimates were higher for Arabs (7.1%), lower for Chaldeans (6.6%), and lowest among African Americans (1.8%). In the unadjusted model, Chaldeans and Arabs were four times more likely to have heart disease than were African Americans. However, in the fully adjusted model, the association between Chaldean or Arab ethnicity and heart disease was no longer statistically significant. Arab or Chaldean ethnicity was not significantly associated with self-reported heart disease among women, which suggests that other factors account for this relationship. Future studies should collect more detailed socioeconomic status, acculturation, and health behavior information.
King, Denae W; Duello, Theresa M; Miranda, Patricia Y; Hodges, Kelly P; Shelton, Andrea J; Chukelu, Paul; Jones, Lovell A
Although African American women have an overall lower incidence of breast cancer, African American women African American women to be diagnosed with breast cancer and exhibit tumor characteristics associated with poorer survival. To begin to address this disparity, studies must be conducted to examine breast cancer preventive factors in this subpopulation of women. However, the strategies needed to recruit younger African American women have not been well defined. In this study, we assessed methods used for recruiting and retaining healthy premenopausal African American women into the African American Nutrition for Life (A NULIFE) Study. The number of women contacted, enrolled, and retained by each recruitment strategy and the efficiency of individual strategies were calculated. Overall, recruitment through social networking was most effective in contacting large numbers of healthy premenopausal African American women. The worksite recruitment method was the most efficient recruitment strategy employed, with a ratio of 40%. The study participants (n = 164) were more likely to be >or=35 years of age and have completed some college. Additionally, the interpersonal relationships recruitment approach proved most efficient (33%) in retaining participants who completed the yearlong study. The findings from this study add to the evolving research literature on minority recruitment strategies for research studies but specifically address effective recruitment of healthy young premenopausal African American women. The results demonstrate the need to use multiple recruitment strategies when recruiting this subgroup of African American women.
Van, Paulina; Meleis, Afaf
Grief is a normal response after pregnancy loss. Potentially, prolonged periods of grief can have a negative impact on physical or mental health. African-American women experience pregnancy loss at rates that are at least twice the rate of any other racial or ethnic group. However, the research literature on pregnancy loss has failed to include representative samples of African-American women or to explore and describe adequately their unique experiences after pregnancy loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the factors that are related to grief intensity after pregnancy loss (i.e., miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, or fetal death) among African-American women. The results presented in this paper are components of a larger study in which the grief and coping experiences of African-American women following pregnancy loss were examined, using both quantitative and qualitative analysis. Eighty-six (N = 86) African-American women with a self-reported history ofinvoluntary pregnancy loss were recruited using a variety of culturally sensitive methods. The women completed three instruments: the Perinatal Grief Scale-Short Form (PGS-S), the Women's Role Integration Protocol (WRIP), and a personal profile tool designed specifically for the study. Pearson correlations were computed using pairwise deletion. Four models were tested using hierarchical multiple regression. Age and level of role integration were recurring predictors of the various dimensions of grief as measured by the PGS-S. Being older and reporting more major role satisfaction contributed to having less grief intensity after pregnancy loss. It is proposed that women with a history of pregnancy loss be assessed for residual grieving across their life span. Future explorations should address two main areas: specific interpersonal relations that facilitate grief management and the partners' experiences after pregnancy loss.
Cackler, Christina J J; Shapiro, Valerie B; Lahiff, Maureen
To describe the reproductive and mental health of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, an understudied population. Data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were analyzed to determine the 1) prevalence of female sterilization among a nationally representative sample of reproductive age AI/AN women and 2) the association of female sterilization and poor mental health among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. Nearly 25% of AI/AN women reported female sterilization, a prevalence higher than the comparison racial/ethnic groups (p sterilization had nearly 2.5 times the odds of poor mental health compared with AI/AN women not reporting female sterilization (p = .001). The same magnitude of relationship between female sterilization and poor mental health was not found for non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women. The prevalence of female sterilization is greater among AI/AN women compared with non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic women, and AI/AN women reporting female sterilization have higher odds of reporting poor mental health. Common cultural experiences, such as a shared ancestral history of forced sterilizations, may be relevant, and could be considered when providing reproductive and mental health services to AI/AN women. Copyright © 2016 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wagner, Julie A; Osborn, Chandra Y; Mendenhall, Emily A; Budris, Lisa M; Belay, Sophia; Tennen, Howard A
Exposure to racism has been linked to poor health outcomes. Little is known about the impact of racism on diabetes outcomes. This study explored African American women's beliefs about how racism interacts with their diabetes self-management and control. Four focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 28 adult African American women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited from a larger quantitative study on racism and diabetes. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the authors. Women reported that exposure to racism was a common phenomenon, and their beliefs did in fact link racism to poor health. Specifically, women reported that exposure to racism caused physiological arousal including cardiovascular and metabolic perturbations. There was consensus that physiological arousal was generally detrimental to health. Women also described limited, and in some cases maladaptive, strategies to cope with racist events, including eating unhealthy food choices and portions. There was consensus that the subjective nature of perceiving racism and accompanying social prohibitions often made it impossible to address racism directly. Many women described anger in such situations and the tendency to internalize anger and other negative emotions, only to find that the negative emotions would be reactivated repeatedly with exposure to novel racial stressors, even long after the original racist event remitted. African American women in this study believed that racism affects their diabetes self-management and control. Health beliefs can exert powerful effects on health behaviors and may provide an opportunity for health promotion interventions in diabetes.
Full Text Available African American (AA women are more likely than European American (EA women to be diagnosed with early, aggressive breast cancer. Possible differences in innate immune pathways (e.g., inflammatory responses have received little attention as potential mechanisms underlying this disparity. We evaluated distributions of selected genetic variants in innate immune pathways in AA and EA women, and examined their associations with breast cancer risk within the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS. In stage I of the study (864 AA and 650 EA women we found that genotype frequencies for 35 of 42 tested SNPs (18 candidate genes differed between AAs and EAs (corroborated by ancestry informative markers. Among premenopausal AA women, comparing variant allele carriers to non-carriers, reduced breast cancer risk was associated with CXCL5-rs425535 (OR=0.61, P=0.02, while among EA women, there were associations with TNFA-rs1799724 (OR =2.31, P =0.002 and CRP-rs1205 (OR=0.54, P=0.01. For postmenopausal women, IL1B-rs1143627 (OR=1.80, P=0.02 and IL1B-rs16944 (OR=1.85, P =0.02 were associated with risk among EA women, with significant associations for TNFA-rs1799724 limited to estrogen receptor (ER positive cancers (OR=2.0, P =0.001. However, none of the SNPs retained significance after Bonferroni adjustment for multiple testing at the level of P0.0012 (0.05/42 except for TNFA-rs1799724 in ER positive cancers. In a stage II validation (1,365 AA and 1,307 EA women, we extended evaluations for four SNPs (CCL2-rs4586, CRP-rs1205, CXCL5-rs425535, and IL1RN-rs4251961, which yielded similar results. In summary, distributions of variants in genes involved in innate immune pathways were found to differ between AA and EA populations, and showed differential associations with breast cancer according to menopausal or ER status. These results suggest that immune adaptations suited to ancestral environments may differentially influence breast cancer risk among EA and AA women.
Robison, Katina; Clark, Lindsay; Eng, Whitney; Wu, Lily; Raker, Christina; Clark, Melissa; Tejada-Berges, Trevor; Dizon, Don S
The purpose of this study was to compare cervical cancer knowledge and prevention strategy participation among Chinese-American women compared with Southeast-Asian-American women. We performed a cross-sectional survey of Chinese and Southeast Asian women in Rhode Island. Anonymous surveys were administered following informed consent. The survey included demographics and questions related to health care practices, cervical cancer, and the human papilloma virus (HPV). Categorical variables were compared by Fisher's exact test. Mean scores of correct answers on the knowledge questions were compared by Student's t-test and analysis of variance. Ninety-six Chinese women and 132 Southeast Asian women were included in the analysis. Sixty-seven percent of Chinese women had at least a college education compared with 37% of Southeast Asian women (p women reported annual household incomes of greater than $100,000 compared with 3% of Southeast Asian women (p = .0003). Twenty percent of Southeast Asian women did not have health insurance compared with 10% of Chinese women (p = .06). Among both groups, 25% of participants either never had a pap test or did not know if they ever had a pap test. There was a greater lack of knowledge about the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer among Chinese (mean 2.9 out of 8 questions) compared with Southeast Asian (mean 3.6 out of 8 questions; p = .02). Regardless of ethnic subgroup, education, or income, all participants had a poor knowledge of cervical cancer and HPV. This study supports the need for improvement in cervical cancer prevention education among all Asian women. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arnold, Shaye Beverly
Restrictions on the use of federal funds to provide abortions have limited the access to abortion services for Native American women receiving care at Indian Health Service facilities. Current data suggest that the vast majority of Indian Health Service facilities are unequipped to provide abortions under any circumstances. Native American women experience disproportionately high rates of sexual assault and unintended pregnancy. Hyde Amendment restrictions systematically infringe on the reproductive rights of Native American women and present a pressing public health policy concern.
Manning, Mark; Albrecht, Terrance L; Yilmaz-Saab, Zeynep; Penner, Louis; Norman, Andria; Purrington, Kristen
Prior research shows between-race differences in women's knowledge and emotions related to having dense breasts, thus suggesting that between-race differences in behavioral decision-making following receipt of breast density (BD) notifications are likely. Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this study examined differences in emotion-related responses (i.e., anxiety, worry, confusion) and behavioral cognition (e.g., intentions, behavioral attitudes) following receipt of BD notifications among African American (AA) and European American (EA) women. This study also examined whether race-related perceptions (i.e., discrimination, group-based medical mistrust), relevant knowledge and socioeconomic status (SES) explained the between race differences. Michigan women (N = 457) who presented for routine screening mammogram and had dense breasts, no prior breast cancer diagnoses, and had screen-negative mammograms were recruited from July, 2015 to March 2016. MANOVA was used to examine between race differences in psychological responses (i.e., emotional responses and behavioral cognition), and a multi-group structural regression model was used to examine whether race-related constructs, knowledge and SES mediated the effect of race on emotional responses and behavioral cognition. Prior awareness of BD was accounted for in all analyses. AA women generally reported more negative psychological responses to receiving BD notifications regardless of prior BD awareness. AA women had more favorable perceptions related to talking to their physicians about the BD notifications. Generally, race-related perceptions, SES, and related knowledge partially accounted for the effect of race on psychological response. Race-related perceptions and SES partially accounted for the differences in behavioral intentions. Between-race differences in emotional responses to BD notifications did not explain differences in women's intentions to discuss BD notifications with their physicians
Ma, Richard; Lopez, Victor; Weinstein, Meryle G; Chen, James L; Black, Christopher M; Gupta, Arun T; Harbst, Justin D; Victoria, Christian; Allen, Answorth A
The objective of this study is to determine incidence (injuries/1000 playing hours (ph)), severity (days of absence), and cause of match injuries in US women's Rugby-7s. We performed a prospective epidemiological study (2010-2013) of injury of 3876 under-19 to elite/national female Rugby-7s players (nonelite = 3324, elite = 552) on 323 teams (nonelite = 277, elite = 46), applying methodology and injury definitions compliant with the international consensus statement on rugby research. Injuries occurred in USA Rugby-sanctioned tournament series: USA Rugby Local Area (2010), Territorial Union (2011-2013), National and All-Star Sevens Series, and USA Sevens Invitational (2011-2012) and Collegiate Rugby Championships (2012). One hundred and twenty time-loss injuries were encountered (elite, n = 15; 13%) with an injury rate of 46.3 injuries/1000 ph. Injury rates in nonelite were 49.3/1000 ph, and in national level (elite) candidates, 32.6/1000 ph (RR = 1.5, P = 0.130). Mean days missed found elite level players at 74.9 d per injury, whereas nonelite at 41.8 d (P = 0.090). Acute injuries were significant (95%, RR = 1.9, P Rugby-7s tournaments. Overall injury rates in US women are lower than those in international elite men and women's Rugby-7s. The head and neck area in our female players was injured at greater rates (16%) than in international male Rugby-7s (5%). Injury prevention in US women's Rugby-7s must focus on injuries of the knee, head, and neck. Understanding risk factors will allow safe return-to-play decisions and formulate injury prevention protocols.
Liu, Shan; Sun, Yiyuan; Louie, Wendy
To identify symptom distress related to cancer for a group of Chinese American women in treatment, and to examine their use of various forms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and their relationships to specific symptoms they identified. Cross-sectional, correlational. American Cancer Society Asian Initiatives support groups in the state of New York. 97 Chinese American women residing in New York with a mean age of 57 years; the time since diagnosis of cancer ranged from two months to 24 years. The type of diagnosis for the majority of women was breast cancer. A self-reported questionnaire including a demographic data form, a researcher-developed checklist for types of TCM, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (MSAS-SF) were administered. The MSAS-SF has three subscales: global distress index, psychological symptom distress scale, and physical symptom distress scale. Symptoms, symptom distress, and types of TCM. The descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied for data analysis. Chinese American women with cancer in treatment reported multiple symptoms, and the three MSAS-SF distress subscale scores indicated moderate symptom distress. Symptoms were positively associated with the use of TCM. Chinese American women in treatment for cancer reported multiple symptoms and moderate symptom distress. Participants with specific symptoms tended to use specific forms of TCM. High prevalence of psychological symptoms for Chinese American women with cancer suggests that oncology nurses should work with mental health providers for symptom management of this population. Oncology nurses also need to stay informed of the growing body of evidence on the benefits of TCM for patients with cancer. Future studies should include an emphasis on the improvement in methodologic quality for studies that investigate using TCM in participants with cancer.
Perrino, Tatiana; Fernández, M Isabel; Bowen, G Stephen; Arheart, Kristopher
In this cross-sectional study the authors examine condom use attempts and condom use among 305 high-risk, low-income African American women who reported having a main partner. Women who had recently attempted to convince their main partner to use condoms were almost 10 times more likely to have recently used condoms with their partner than women who had not made an attempt. Among the subsample of 116 women who had recently made a condom use attempt with their main partner, having a history of childhood abuse and having one's main partner raise infidelity questions in response to the condom use attempt were negatively associated with recent condom use with this partner. Findings provide initial insights into the importance of women's condom use attempts, as well as subgroups of women who may encounter special challenges convincing their main partner to use condoms. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
Groth, Susan W; Stewart, Patricia A; Ossip, Deborah J; Block, Robert C; Wixom, Nellie; Fernandez, I Diana
Micronutrient intake is critical for fetal development and positive pregnancy outcomes. Little is known about the adequacy of micronutrient intake in pregnant African-American women. To describe nutrient sufficiency and top food groups contributing to dietary intake of select micronutrients in low-income pregnant African-American women and determine whether micronutrient intake varies with early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and/or gestational weight gain. Secondary analysis of data collected in a cohort study of pregnant African-American women. A total of 93 women aged 18 to 36 years, pregnant, with early pregnancy BMIs ≥18.5 and women with dietary intakes below Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) for vitamin D, folate, iron, calcium, and choline throughout pregnancy. Top food groups from which women derived these micronutrients was also determined. Descriptive statistics included means, standard deviations, and percentages. Percent of women reaching EAR or AI was calculated. The χ 2 test was used to assess micronutrient intake differences based on early pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain. A large percentage of pregnant women did not achieve the EAR or AI from dietary sources alone; EAR for folate (66%), vitamin D (100%), iron (89%), and AI for choline (100%). Mean micronutrient intake varied throughout pregnancy. Top food sources included reduced-fat milk, eggs, and mixed egg dishes, pasta dishes, and ready-to-eat cereal. The majority of study participants had dietary micronutrient intake levels below EAR/AI throughout pregnancy. Findings suggest that practitioners should evaluate dietary adequacy in women to avoid deficits in micronutrient intake during pregnancy. Top food sources of these micronutrients can be considered when assisting women in improving dietary intake. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Hee Yun; Stange, Mia Ju; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S
This study examined the utilization of clinical breast examinations (CBEs) and mammograms among Korean American immigrant women and investigated how the six constructs of Health Belief Model (HBM) are associated with the receipt of breast cancer screening. Using a quota sampling strategy, 202 Korean American immigrant women were recruited in metropolitan areas in the northeastern United States. Approximately 64% of the participants reported having had at least one CBE in their lifetime, and about 81% of the sample had undergone at least one mammogram in their lifetime. Women who perceived themselves to be susceptible to breast cancer were more likely to have undergone a CBE, and women who had lower barriers to screening or demonstrated a higher level of confidence were more likely than their counterparts to undergo a mammogram. Findings suggest that HBM constructs such as susceptibility, barriers, and confidence should be considered when designing interventions aimed at promoting breast cancer screening. © The Author(s) 2014.
Kohler, Maxie P; Sapp, Gary L; Kohler, Emmett T; Sandoval, Rebecca
The Tennessee Self-concept Scale: Second Edition scores of 33 urban, African-American women were compared in a pretest-posttest design. The treatment was exposure to a 3-mo. literacy and social skills training program. Contrary to expectations, scores on just two subscales--Self-criticism and Physical Self--fell outside the average range. Also, Physical Self was the only scale score to change significantly (-3.83). These results suggest that self-esteem scores of urban African Americans were similar to those of women in the general population.
Taylor, Teletia R; Van Kirk, Kendra; Tapscott, Denia; Bernard, Monet; Llano, Juliana; Mellman, Thomas A
African-Americans have been found to experience increased rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obesity, and flatter diurnal cortisol slopes compared to other demographic groups. Further exploration, however, is needed to understand how PTSD impacts diurnal cortisol activity in obese African-American women. The purpose of the current study is to examine the relationship between salivary cortisol levels and PTSD in a sample of obese young adult African-American women and to examine how depression and insomnia influence the relationship. Thirty-four young adult African-American women (mean age = 24.0 years; mean BMI = 37.4 kg/m(2), 6/34 of the sample had a score of 40 or above on the PTSD Checklist (PCL) representing clinically significant PTSD) filled out questionnaires assessing PTSD, lifetime exposure to traumatic events, insomnia severity, and depression. A home-based assessment of salivary cortisol was provided upon awakening at 30 min and 1, 3, 6, and 12 h. There was a significant interaction between PTSD status and diurnal cortisol activity (p cortisol levels at awakening (p cortisol was attenuated by co-varying for depression and insomnia (p > 0.05). PTSD, influenced by depression and insomnia symptoms, has an impact on diurnal cortisol activity in obese young adult African-American women.
Black, Angela Rose; Peacock, Nadine
Using African American women's insights on their own health experiences, we explored how their daily life management was linked to the "strong Black woman" (SBW) script, and the health implications of that script. Using the search term "strong Black woman," we identified 20 articles from African American women's magazines and 10 blog sites linked to the SBW script and analyzed their content. We created thematic categories (role management, coping, and self-care) and extracted issues relevant to African American women's health. Adherence to the SBW script was linked to women's daily life management and health experiences. Themes such as self-sacrificial role management ("please the masses"), emotional suppression ("game face"), and postponement of self-care ("last on the list") incited internal distress and evinced negative health consequences. Scientists, activists, and health care professionals would be aided in forming initiatives aimed at reducing health disparities among African American women by heeding the insights on their health experiences that they express in popular media sources.
Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors
Moore-Greene, Gracie M; Gross, Susan M; Silver, Kristi D; Perrino, Carrol S
African American women continue to have the highest prevalence of obesity in the United States and in the state of Maryland they are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. There are many contributing factors including chronic stress and the use of health behaviors such as physical exercise that play a role in increased weight for African American women. We examined the relationship of stress to weight and the role of physical exercise in African American paraprofessional women. Cross-sectional study African American paraprofessionals were asked about their perspectives regarding association with chronic stress and physical exercise. The three most salient stressors for the women were finances (33%), work (28%) and family/friends (19%). Ninety percent of the women were overweight or obese. Significant predictors of increased BMI were lack of physical exercise (P = .004) and health compared to others (P = .006). Ethnic discrimination was a form of chronic stress (r = .319) but was not correlated with BMI (r = .095). Decreased physical exercise (P = .02) mediated the relationship between chronic stress and BMI. Findings regarding finance and work stress suggest the need for employers to consider the impact of job strain when implementing employee health programs to decrease stress and improve health. A focus on decreased physical exercise, unhealthy eating habits and misperceptions regarding increased risk for obesity related diseases with health status may be helpful to include in intervention strategies to decrease obesity for this population.
This essay presents violence against women as a social problem of high magnitude as well as based on gender inequality. The author summarizes both the main discussion issues and the last decades´ Latin American feminist fight. She highlights the conception of violence against women as a public problem, a negation of citizenship rights and as a law matter. Despite the withdrawals and the contradictory character of the relations between the feminist movement and social institutions, there...
Sixty percent of American Indian and Alaska Native women live in metropolitan areas. Most are not eligible for health care provided by the federal Indian Health Service (IHS). The IHS partly funds 34 Urban Indian Health Organizations, which vary in size and services. Some are small informational and referral sites that are limited even in the scope of outpatient services provided. Compared with other urban populations, urban American Indian and Alaska Native women have higher rates of teenaged pregnancy, late or no prenatal care, and alcohol and tobacco use in pregnancy. Their infants have higher rates of preterm birth, mortality, and sudden infant death syndrome than infants in the general population. Barriers to care experienced by American Indian and Alaska Native women should be addressed. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourages Fellows to be aware of the risk profile of their urban American Indian and Alaska Native patients and understand that they often are not eligible for IHS coverage and may need assistance in gaining access to other forms of coverage. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists also recommends that Fellows encourage their federal legislators to support adequate funding for the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, permanently authorized as part of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.
Giurgescu, Carmen; Engeland, Christopher G; Templin, Thomas N
African American women have higher rates of preterm birth and low-birth-weight infants compared with non-Hispanic white women. Symptoms of depression have also been related to these negative birth outcomes. Lower levels of social support and higher levels of avoidance coping and cortisol have been related to more symptoms of depression in pregnant women. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the relationships among symptoms of depression, social support, avoidance coping, cortisol, and negative birth outcomes (ie, preterm birth, low-birth-weight infants) in a sample of African American women. This study used a prospective design. A convenience sample of 90 African American women completed questionnaires and had blood drawn in the second trimester of pregnancy. Birth data were collected from medical records. Based on the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D) Scale scores, 28% of women were at increased risk for clinical depression (CES-D ≥ 16). Compared to women who gave birth at term, women who had preterm birth had higher CES-D scores (11.67 and 19.0, respectively) and used avoidance coping more often (7.98 and 13.14, respectively). Compared to women with normal-birth-weight infants, women with low-birth-weight infants had higher levels of cortisol (61.75 mcg/dL and 89.72 mcg/dL, respectively). Women at increased risk for clinical depression were 16 times more likely to have preterm birth and 4 times more likely to have low-birth-weight infants. Women with plasma cortisol levels in the top 25th percentile were 7 times more likely to have low-birth-weight infants. Preeclampsia during pregnancy also predicted preterm birth and low-birth-weight infants. Symptoms of depression in pregnancy may predict adverse birth outcomes. Interventions that have the potential to improve the mental health of pregnant women and ultimately birth outcomes need to be explored. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Muller Clemma J
Full Text Available Abstract Background High-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV cause cervical cancer. American Indian (AI women in the Northern Plains of the U.S. have significantly higher incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer than White women in the same geographical area. We compared HPV prevalence, patterns of HPV types, and infection with multiple HPV types in AI and White women living in South Dakota, U.S. Methods We analyzed the HPV status of cervical samples collected in 2006-2008 from women aged 18-65 years who attended two rural AI reservation clinics (n = 235 or an urban clinic in the same area serving mostly White women (n = 246. Data collection occurred before HPV vaccination was available to study participants. HPV DNA was amplified by using the L1 consensus primer system and an HPV Linear Array detection assay to identify HPV types. We used chi-square tests to compare HPV variables, with percentages standardized by age and lifetime number of sexual partners. Results Compared to White women, AI women were younger (p = 0.01 and reported more sexual partners (p p p = 0.001. Infections among AI women showed a wider variety and very different pattern of HPV types, including a higher prevalence of mixed HPV infections (19% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 7% [95% CI = 4-11]; p = 0.001. AI women had a higher percentage of HPV infections that were not preventable by HPV vaccination (32% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 15% [95% CI = 11-21]; p Conclusions A higher HPV burden and a different HPV genotyping profile may contribute to the high rate of cervical cancer among AI women.
Godfrey, E. S.; Clinton, S. M.; Adams, A. S.; Pollack, I. B.; Barnes, R.; Bloodhart, B.; Bowker, C.; Burt, M. A.; Henderson, H.; Hernandez, P. R.; Maertens, J.; Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Sayers, J.; Fischer, E. V.
Many projects and programs aim to increase female participation in STEM fields, but there is little existing literature about the best practices for implementing such programs. An NSF-sponsored project, PROmoting Geoscience Research, Education & SuccesS (PROGRESS), aims to assess the effectiveness of a professional development and peer-mentoring program on undergraduate students' interest and persistence in geoscience-related fields and on self-perceptions as a scientist. We held workshops in off-campus locations in the Carolinas and the Colorado/Wyoming Front Range in 2015 (2016) for students at seven (nine) universities. Recruiting 1st and 2nd year female STEM students, however, proved challenging, even though all transportation and expenses were provided at no cost to participants. The initial acceptance rate to attend the workshop was surprisingly low (less than 30%) and was further impacted by a high number of cancellations ( 1/3 of acceptees) in the days leading up to each workshop. However, 88% of students who completed an online strength assessment beforehand attended the workshop. Thus, an activity that requires student effort in advance can be used to gauge the likelihood of participation. The PROGRESS model is proving to be effective and beneficial for undergraduate students. Post-workshop evaluations revealed that nearly all participants would recommend the workshop to others. Students found it successful in both establishing a support system in the geosciences and increasing their knowledge of geoscience opportunities. Participant surveys show that panel discussions on career paths and the mentoring experiences of working geoscientists were the most favorably-viewed workshop components. It's not enough to offer excellent programs, however; interventions are required to recruit and incentivize participants and to help students recognize the value of a mentoring program. A successful program will devote significant time toward maintaining frequent
Katz, Laura A.; Aloisio, Kathryn M.; Horton, Nicholas J.; Ly, Minh; Pruss, Sara; Queeney, Kate; Rowen, Cate; DiBartolo, Patricia Marten
Created to foster inclusive excellence, Smith College's Achieving Excellence in Mathematics, Engineering, and Science (AEMES) Scholars program provides early faculty-mentored research opportunities and other programming as a way to foster success in academic outcomes for underrepresented women in science. Using academic record data, we compared…
Savela, Alexandra Elizabeth
One persistent trend characterizing many work-family arrangements is the tendency for women to invest more heavily in the family sphere compared to men and to compromise career pursuits for their children or partner. Discovering which factors perpetuate these gender-stratified investments in work and family is necessary because, along with…
Adu-Yeboah, Christine; Forde, Linda Dzama
This study was based on the assumption that in Ghana, women who return late to higher education combine domestic and academic work and, in the process, experience tensions and difficulties in the face of cultural and academic prejudice. It employed an interpretive qualitative research approach via narrative interviews with eight mature…
Ziomkiewicz, Anna; Frumkin, Amara; Zhang, Yawei; Sancilio, Amelia; Bribiescas, Richard G
Life history theory predicts a trade-off between female investment in reproduction and somatic maintenance, which can result in accelerated senescence. Oxidative stress has been shown to be a causal physiological mechanism for accelerated aging and a possible contributor to this trade-off. We aimed to test the hypothesis for the existence of significant associations between measures of reproductive effort and the level of oxidative stress biomarkers in premenopausal and postmenopausal American women. Serum samples and questionnaire data were collected from 63 premenopausal and postmenopausal women (mean age 53.4 years), controls in the Connecticut Thyroid Health Study, between May 2010 and December 2013. Samples were analyzed for levels of 8-OHdG and Cu/Zn-SOD using immunoassay method. Levels of oxidative damage (8-OHdG) but not oxidative defense (Cu/Zn-SOD) were negatively associated with parity and number of sons in premenopausal women (r = -0.52 for parity, r = -0.52 for number of sons, P reproductive effort, women's BMI, age, and menopausal status explained around 15% of variance in level of 8-OHdG. No association between reproductive effort characteristics and oxidative damage was found for postmenopausal women. We found no evidence of a trade-off between somatic maintenance as measured by 8-OHdG and reproductive effort in women from this American population. On the contrary, higher gravidity and parity in premenopausal women was associated with lower damage to cellular DNA caused by oxidative stress. These results highlight the importance of population variation and environmental conditions when testing the occurrence of life-history trade-offs. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Painter, Julia E.; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; DePadilla, Lara M.; Simpson-Robinson, LaShun
African-American women are disproportionately affected by STIs including HIV. The Theory of Gender and Power (TGP) posits that economic exposures, including educational attainment, place women at increased risk for STIs/HIV. This study examined the association between educational attainment and vulnerability to STIs/HIV, as well as potential TGP-driven mediators of this association, among African-American women. Baseline data were assessed from an STI/HIV prevention intervention for African-American women (N=848) aged 18–29 recruited from three Kaiser Permanente Centers in Atlanta, GA. Data collection included 1) a survey of demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and 2) self-collected, laboratory-confirmed vaginal swabs for STIs (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus). Multiple regression analyses and multivariate mediation analyses were used to examine the association between educational attainment with a laboratory-confirmed STI and potential TGP mediators. Controlling for age and receipt of public assistance, the odds of an STI diagnosis were 73% lower among participants with a college degree or greater compared to participants who had not completed high school. There were also significant associations between educational attainment and multiple TGP mediators from the Sexual Division of Power and the Structure of Cathexis. TGP constructs did not mediate the association between educational attainment and laboratory-confirmed STI. The current study suggests that graduating from college may lead to a beneficial reduction in vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. Findings from this study support expanding structural level interventions, emphasizing both high-school and college graduation, as a means of reducing vulnerability to STIs/HIV among African-American women. PMID:22555218
Nguyen, Hong V; Schacht, Rebecca L; Yang, Joyce P; George, William H; Pantalone, David W
Between 20% and 50% of Asian American women report experiencing partner violence (PV). Furthermore, nearly half of PV victims experience their first assault between the age of 18 and 24 years, suggesting that Asian American college women may be particularly at risk of PV. Experiencing childhood abuse (CA) may impair women's capacity to perceive risk during a potential PV situation, increasing their risk for revictimization. The purpose of the current study was to examine differences among Asian American college women's ( N = 324) in-the-moment behavioral intention, risk perception, and likelihood to stay in an abusive relationship during a progressively threatening PV scenario, based on victimization history and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. We tested three path models, each assessing the relations among CA, PV, PTSD, current and future risk perception, likelihood of staying in the relationship, and one of three behavioral intentions (soothe the perpetrator, escape, and escalation/resistance). As hypothesized, CA history positively predicted PV history and PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, CA and PV predicted more in-the-moment soothe behavioral intentions and fewer escape behavioral intentions which, in turn, predicted diminished current and future risk perception. CA and PV also predicted stronger escalation/resistance behavioral intentions, such that escalation/resistance intentions were associated with higher risk perception during a more violent part of the scenario but lower risk perception during a less violent part of the scenario. Finally, higher risk perception predicted lower likelihood of staying in the relationship. Findings indicate that victimization history is associated with increased risky behavioral intentions among Asian American college women and suggest that targeted interventions to improve assault-exposed Asian American women's awareness of risk cues may be warranted.
An undergraduate course in rhetorical criticism at Wilkes University incorporated a major component on the rhetoric of the American Woman's Suffrage Movement. Considerable time was devoted to critiquing "traditional" approaches to rhetorical criticism from a feminist perspective and to questioning the appropriateness of various…
Peters Ronald J
Full Text Available Abstract Background African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. Methods Twenty five low income African American women, ages 18–29, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and
Full Text Available This essay presents violence against women as a social problem of high magnitude as well as based on gender inequality. The author summarizes both the main discussion issues and the last decades´ Latin American feminist fight. She highlights the conception of violence against women as a public problem, a negation of citizenship rights and as a law matter. Despite the withdrawals and the contradictory character of the relations between the feminist movement and social institutions, there is no doubt that the configuration of a new social practice related to violence perpetrated against women is taking place.
It is well documented that racism in the US healthcare system, including the objectification and disparagement of women of color, contributes to disparities in health status. However, it is a mistaken notion to characterize women of color as unknowing victims. In this study, black feminist standpoint epistemology is used in methodological approach and analysis to understand how a small group of African American church-going women use religious beliefs to help them cope with and resist the racism and discriminatory objectification they encounter in healthcare encounters.
Simón Pedro Izcara Palacios
Full Text Available This article, based on a qualitative methodology that includes in depth interviews with eighty Central American women who used migrant smugglers to reach the United States, examines her point of view about migrant smuggling. This paper concludes that one-sixth of respondents were deceived by migrant smugglers, and seven women suffered some form of sexual abuse from them, however more than two-thirds of the interviewees expressed a positive opinion towards migrant smugglers. This does not mean that women always trust migrant smugglers, they generally only trust those who were recommended for relatives or friends.
Dallo, F J; James, S A
With the steady increase of non-European, non-English speaking immigrants to the United States, the relationship between acculturation and risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an issue of growing importance to researchers interested in the health of new immigrant populations. The influence of acculturation processes on adverse changes in blood pressure (BP), a major risk factor for CVD, has been examined in Hispanic-Americans and Asian-Americans. Published studies on this relationship in Arab-Americans are lacking, however, despite their growing numbers. With a specific focus on Chaldean-Americans, a major subgroup of the large Arab-American population located in metropolitan Detroit, Michigan, the current study investigates the influence of level of acculturation on BP in a community probability sample of 130 Chaldean-American women. Study participants were interviewed in their homes (92% response rate). Physical measurements included BP, body mass index (BMI), and waist-hip ratio. Demographic and acculturation data were obtained through a standardized questionnaire. The crude hypertension prevalence in the sample was 16%. Three dimensions of acculturation were identified through content and factor analysis: English language preference, parental school involvement, and ethnic identity. In unadjusted analyses, both English language preference and Chaldean-American ethnic identity were associated (p Americans (and other Arab-American populations) should use improved measures of acculturation, broader assessments of behavioral and socioeconomic status, and larger samples that includes both genders.
Killion, C M
Young homeless African American women and elderly marginally housed African American women have health, housing, and personal concerns specific to their age cohort, yet they also have parallel and complementary needs. The young struggle to find affordable housing, while the old may have difficulty in maintaining their homes. This article reports select findings from a pilot study designed to describe these two groups of women. The preliminary study was conducted preparatory to the development of a larger study to explore factors that would facilitate or hinder linking the two groups of women for mutual assistance in housesharing arrangements. Interviews and housing history findings revealed contrasts and similarities among the women and between both cohorts that reflected individual differences, common yet divergent life courses, and collective responses to family life situations, societal trends, and policies. Advantages and disadvantages of housesharing were delineated with 56.3% of the homeless women and 81.3% of the elderly women viewing coresidential living as an option worth considering. Housesharing arrangements should be further investigated by nurses and colleagues. Findings from this study are foundational for establishing alliances that may be a means to promote health and strengthen "family" in both populations.
Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Garrett, Brady A; Boyd, Misty L
This study examined social-and individual-level factors associated with alcohol use among young women and tested whether differences exist between Native American and non-Native young women. School-based surveys were conducted among 952 young women (ages 14-19) attending four high schools within the tribal jurisdictional service area of the Cherokee Nation in northeastern Oklahoma. Structural equation modeling using Mplus was used to assess the direct and indirect effects of social-and individual-level factors on subsequent alcohol use among Native and non-Native young women. We found no differences in the level of risk and protective factors among Native and non-Native young women. Among Native and non-Native young women, alcohol access, parental communication, and best friends' alcohol use had statistically significant direct and/or indirect effects on alcohol use. Indirect effects were mediated through alcohol expectancies and norms. A history of alcohol problems by an adult in the household and depression were not retained as independent risk factors in either model. We found more similarities than differences in level of and relations to alcohol use among social and individual risk and protective factors between Native American and non-Native young women from northeastern Oklahoma. The results provide support for universal prevention strategies, suggesting the importance of increasing perceptions that it is difficult to obtain alcohol and increasing parent-child communication.
Wuhib, Frehiwot Wondimu
This study is an exploratory case study which explored the residential environment of an Ethiopian public university on its role for the social and academic integration of undergraduate women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields. It also explained how the social and academic integration of the women contributed for their overall college success. There were three groups of participants; undergraduate women in STEM, female resident proctors, and relevant officials from the university and the Ministry of Education of the Ethiopian government. Each of the participants were interviewed on a one-on-one basis and the interviews were transcribed and coded for the analysis. Supportive quantitative data about the enrollment, performance and retention of students were also gathered from the university's registrar office and analyzed quantitatively to support the qualitative data obtained through interviews. The study was framed by Tinto's Integration Model and data were interpreted using Third World feminist theory. The findings showed that due to the fact that all same-sex, same-major women living in the same rooms, and all who live in one dorm take similar courses throughout their program, and dormitories serving multiple roles, including being collaboration spaces, played a big role for better social and academic integration of the women. It is also found that their social and academic integration helped them to better perform in their majors by enhancing their sense of belonging in the male-dominated STEM majors, enhancing their commitment, and promoting peer encouragement. On the other hand, the findings also showed that there were some factors which have negative influence in the integration process such as negative stereotypes against the presence and good performance of women in STEM, lack of support system, and limited interaction with faculty. So, the study recommends that working on improving the negatively influencing factors will
Farley, Melissa; Deer, Sarah; Golding, Jacqueline M; Matthews, Nicole; Lopez, Guadalupe; Stark, Christine; Hudon, Eileen
We examined social and physical violence experienced by American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) women in prostitution and their impacts on the mental and physical health of 105 women (81% Anishinaabe, mean age = 35 years) recruited through service agencies in three Minnesota cities. In childhood, abuse, foster care, arrests, and prostitution were typical. Homelessness, rape, assault, racism, and pimping were common. The women's most prevalent physical symptoms included muscle pain, impaired memory or concentration, and headaches. Symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and dissociation were common, with more severe psychological symptoms associated with worse health. Most of the women wanted to leave prostitution and they most often identified counseling and peer support as necessary to accomplish this. Most saw colonization and prostitution of AI/AN women as connected.
Taylor, Kay Ann; Fernandez-Bergersen, Sandra Luz
This qualitative case study examined 5 Mexican American women's experiences at the intersection of race and gender in public high school. Critical race theory provided the analysis and interpretation. The significant findings of this research included the following: (a) Racism is endemic and pervasive in public education; (b) many educational…
Cachelin, Fary M.; Schug, Robert A.; Juarez, Laura C.; Monreal, Teresa K.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between sexual abuse and eating disorders in a voluntary community sample of Mexican American women. Eighty eating disorder cases were compared to 110 healthy controls on presence of sexual abuse and on characteristics of the abuse. The Structured Clinical Interview for the "Diagnostic and…
Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj
The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…
Ortiz, Silvia; Casas, Jesus Manuel
Assesses relationship between Mexican-American women's birth-control attitudes, knowledge, and usage, and values of motherhood, male dominance, and sexual expression. Multiple regression analysis links contraception attitudes with traditional values, regardless of acculturation. Establishes positive link between birth-control use and traditional…
Joiner, Greg W.; Kashubeck, Susan
Investigated the relationship among acculturation, body image, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology in 120 Mexican-American adolescent women. Findings indicate that acculturation levels were not related to anorexic or bulimic symptomatology, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction or thinness of ideal and attractive figures. Also, lower…
Gouthro, Patricia A.
This article explores the learning pathways of 15 Canadian and American female crime fiction authors. Using a critical feminist perspective, it argues that despite the neoliberal rhetoric of individual choice, as in most careers, there are social-structural factors that create opportunities and barriers for women mystery writers. The article…
The author of this study conducted focus groups with African American women to explore their perspectives on obesity, disease causation, and their ideas on the functionality of cultural, social, historical, environmental, and psychological forces in altering healthy eating habits. Reoccurring themes centered on four areas: (a) the definition of…
Ferguson, Sarah E; Olshen, Adam B; Levine, Douglas A; Viale, Agnès; Barakat, Richard R; Boyd, Jeff
It is widely recognized that racial disparity in survival exists between African-American and Caucasian women with endometrial cancer (EC). Differential mutation frequencies in select genes have been postulated to explain these survival differences. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that African-American women with EC have a distinct gene expression profile compared to Caucasian women with EC. Microarray-based expression profiling using the Affymetrix U133A oligonucleotide array was performed on a series of ECs from African-American (n = 14) and Caucasian (n = 25). The two groups were matched for possible confounding variables including stage, histologic grade, and subtype. A model-based class comparison analysis was performed to generate a list of differentially expressed genes using a P value of profiles of ECs from African-American and Caucasian women. Thus, racial disparities in clinical outcomes are unlikely to reflect differences in gene expression and may instead be attributable to other epidemiologic, clinical, or pathologic factors.
Anderson-Lewis, Charkarra; Ross, Levi; Johnson, Jarrett; Hastrup, Janice L; Green, B Lee; Kohler, Connie L
A major challenge facing contemporary cancer educators is how to optimize the dissemination of breast cancer prevention and control information to African American women in the Deep South who are believed to be cancer free. The purpose of this research was to provide insight into the breast cancer information-acquisition experiences of African American women in Alabama and Mississippi and to make recommendations on ways to better reach members of this high-risk, underserved population. Focus group methodology was used in a repeated, cross-sectional research design with 64 African American women, 35 years old or older who lived in one of four urban or rural counties in Alabama and Mississippi. Axial-coded themes emerged around sources of cancer information, patterns of information acquisition, characteristics of preferred sources, and characteristics of least-preferred sources. It is important to invest in lay health educators to optimize the dissemination of breast cancer information to African American women who are believed to be cancer free in the Deep South.
African American women are underrepresented in computer technology disciplines in institutions of higher education throughout the United States. Although equitable gender representation is progressing in most fields, much less information is available on why institutions are still lagging in workforce diversity, a problem which can be lessened by…
Berendsen, A.M.; Kang, Jae H.; Rest, van de O.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Grodstein, F.
ObjectivesTo examine the association between long-term adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with cognitive function and decline in older American women.DesignProspective cohort study.SettingThe Nurses' Health Study, a cohort of registered nurses residing in 11 US
Evans, Stephanie Y.
EIn this article, the author presents a little-known but detailed history of Black women's tradition of study abroad. Specifically, she situates Dr. Anna Julia Cooper within the landscape of historic African American students who studied in Japan, Germany, Jamaica, England, Italy, Haiti, India, West Africa, and Thailand, in addition to France. The…
Stiel, Laura; Adkins-Jackson, Paris B; Clark, Phyllis; Mitchell, Eudora; Montgomery, Susanne
The incidence rate of breast cancer for African American women has recently converged with that of non-Hispanic White women in the United States, although African Americans have a higher mortality rate due to this disease. Although most research exploring health disparities associated with this phenomenon has focused on differences between women based on biology and behavior, both the academic and lay communities have begun to explore the potential role of environmental exposure to estrogen and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This study reviews the current state of the science associating one such means of exposure, hair products containing EDCs, with breast cancer risk in African American women. We found a growing body of evidence linking: (1) environmental estrogen and EDC exposures to breast cancer risk, (2) the presence of such chemicals in personal care products, including hair products, and (3) the use of certain hair products with potential breast cancer risk in African Americans. At the same time, there is also increasing concern in the lay community about this risk. These results indicate the need for additional research, and the opportunity to benefit from strategic partnerships in community-collaborative approaches in order to better understand the potential "cost of beauty." © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brown, Cynthia Williams; Alexander, Dayna S.; Cummins, Kayla; Price, Amanda Alise; Anderson-Booker, Marian
Background: African American women have the highest risk of death from heart disease among all racial, ethnic, and gender groups due to sedentary behaviors. Purpose: This article describes an intervention among 2 groups--a program group and an information group (intervention and comparison)--that assessed cardiovascular risk factor knowledge among…
Tolma, Eleni; Batterton, Chasity; Hamm, Robert M.; Thompson, David; Engelman, Kimberly K.
Background: Breast cancer is an important public health issue within the American Indian (AI) community in Oklahoma; however, there is limited information to explain the low screening mammography rates among AI women. Purpose: To identify the motivational factors affecting an AI woman's decision to obtain a mammogram. Methods: Through the use of…
Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.
This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…
Fernander, Anita; Moorman, George; Azuoru, Miriam
To examine the association between the psychosocial construct of race-related stress and smoking among pregnant African-American women. Inferential statistical analyses were performed. Participants were recruited primarily at a medical clinic as well as through word-of-mouth consistent with the snowball sampling technique. Seventy pregnant self-identified African-American women (32 smokers and 38 non-smokers) 18 years or older participated in the study. Participants completed self-report measures of the Index of Race-Related Stress and an investigator-developed demographic and smoking questionnaire. Smoking status of each participant was established through self-report. Significant associations were found between the smoking status of pregnant African-American women and the frequency and perceptions of overall race-related stress (p smoking status. The findings suggest that integrating race-related stress relieving and coping activities into smoking cessation intervention programs for pregnant African-American women may reduce smoking and subsequent smoking-related reproductive health disparities in the population.
African-American women and other underrepresented faculty members often report experiences of social exclusion and scholarly marginalization in mainstream institutions of higher education. This lack of inclusion challenges their retention and hinders them from becoming productive members of the professoriate, positioning them at a disadvantage for…
Best, Alicia L; Spencer, S Melinda; Friedman, Daniela B; Hall, Ingrid J; Billings, Deborah
Spiritual framing of breast cancer communication may provide a useful strategy for addressing disparate rates of breast cancer mortality among African American women. The efficacy of a spiritually framed breast cancer screening (BCS) message was compared with that of a traditional BCS message. Specifically, 200 African American women were randomly assigned to review either a spiritually framed or traditional BCS message and complete a self-administered survey, including a thought-listing form. Message efficacy was measured by number of thoughts generated (elaboration), ratio of positive to negative thoughts (polarity), and intention to obtain and/or recommend a mammogram. Multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling were used to assess direct and indirect (mediated) associations among variables. Spiritual framing was positively associated with greater elaboration (β = .265, SE = .36, p framing also had a significant indirect effect on mammography intentions through polarity (standardized indirect effect = .057, 95% confidence interval [.024, .106], p framing may improve the efficacy of BCS messages among African American women by eliciting more positive thoughts about screening. Interventions targeting African American women might consider the role of spirituality when tailoring messages to encourage regular mammography use.
Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina
The Focus Study, conducted by the National Council of La Raza's Poverty Project, used structured discussions by focus groups to examine Mexican American women's opinions, needs, and attitudes as they relate to the implementation of the 1988 Family Support Act (FSA). FSA's primary objective is to move people off welfare through education, training,…
Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Wong, Michelle S; Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Brown, Shawn T; Hertenstein, Daniel L; Zenkov, Eli; Ferguson, Marie C; Thomas, Samantha; Sampson, Dana; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Lee, Bruce Y
The objective of this study was to quantify the impact of crime on physical activity location accessibility, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and obesity among African American women. An agent-based model was developed in 2016 to represent resource-limited Washington, DC, communities and their populations to simulate the impact of crime on LTPA and obesity among African American women under different circumstances. Data analysis conducted between 2016 and 2017 found that in the baseline scenario, African American women had a 25% probability of exercising. Reducing crime so more physical activity locations were accessible (increasing from 10% to 50%) decreased the annual rise in obesity prevalence by 2.69%. Increasing the probability of African American women to exercise to 37.5% further increased the impact of reducing crime on obesity (2.91% annual decrease in obesity prevalence). These simulations showed that crime may serve as a barrier to LTPA. Reducing crime and increasing propensity to exercise through multilevel interventions (i.e., economic development initiatives to increase time available for physical activity and subsidized health care) may promote greater than linear declines in obesity prevalence. Crime prevention strategies alone can help prevent obesity, but combining such efforts with other ways to encourage physical activity can yield even greater benefits. © 2017 The Obesity Society.
Clay, LaTasha K.
Qualitative phenomenological methodology was used to explore the lived experiences of African American women diagnosed with breast cancer. Phenomenology focuses on the meaning of the lived experiences of individuals experiencing a concept, structure, or phenomenon (Creswell, 2007). The purpose of phenomenological research is to identify phenomena…
Mellon, Suzanne; Gauthier, Jacqueline; Cichon, Michelle; Hammad, Adnan; Simon, Michael S
The increasing incidence of breast cancer in the Arab world, coupled with a relatively early age of onset, raises concern for the presence of hereditary risk factors in this population. However, due to potential structural and cultural barriers, Arab Americans make up the smallest percentage of individuals tested for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome in the United States. The objectives of this qualitative pilot focus group of 13 Arab-American women were to explore attitudes, knowledge and beliefs regarding hereditary breast cancer in the Arab-American community in metropolitan Detroit, identify barriers that would prevent women from seeking hereditary cancer screening/testing and determine who women would talk to about inherited cancer. Results indicated that cultural beliefs and personal experiences with cancer influenced the women's perspectives on hereditary cancer risk. A high level of secrecy about cancer within Arab-American families was present, which may prevent accurate risk assessment and referral for genetic services. Other identified barriers that may influence hereditary risk assessment included stigma, fears and misconceptions of cancer. While these barriers were present, participants also expressed a strong need for education and tailored cancer risk information for their community.
Barrera, Magdalena L.
Mexican women's working and romantic lives were frequent subject matter in early-twentieth-century Mexican American music. Surprisingly, this trend is rendered nearly invisible by the corpus of scholarly work that focuses on the male-centered "heroic corrido," particularly the class and race conflicts represented in that "masculine" genre. This…
Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.
The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…
Trollinger, Linda Burcham
This qualitative study drew on the stories and reflections of six Appalachian women of Native American descent to explore their experiences of reconnecting with their lost Native identity. This paper visualizes those experiences in light of the relationships between personal realities and structural influences. Historically, Native identities have…
Herbert Harris, Eboni T; Hillfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Timmons, Shirley M; Felder, Tisha M; Estrada, Robin Dawson
Effective health promotion among African American women requires knowledge and understanding of cultural influences and practices. This scoping review focused on rest, related concepts, and cultural perspectives and practices. We found a lack of conceptual distinction between fatigue and sleep and limited research on cultural meanings and practices of rest.
Palacios, Janelle F; Strickland, Carolyn J; Chesla, Catherine A; Kennedy, Holly P; Portillo, Carmen J
The aim of this study was to explore the mothering experience and practice among reservation-based adult American Indian women who had been adolescent mothers. Adolescent American Indian women are at an elevated risk for teen pregnancy and poor maternal/child outcomes. Identifying mothering practices among this population may help guide intervention development that will improve health outcomes. A collaborative orientation to community-based participatory research approach. Employing interpretive phenomenology, 30 adult American Indian women who resided on a Northwestern reservation were recruited. In-depth, face-to-face and telephone interviews were conducted between 2007-2008. Women shared their mothering experience and practice, which encompassed a lifespan perspective grounded in their American Indian cultural tradition. Four themes were identified as follows: mother hen, interrupted mothering and second chances, breaking cycles and mothering a community. Mothering originated in childhood, extended across their lifespan and moved beyond mothering their biological offspring. These findings challenge the Western construct of mothering and charge nurses to seek culturally sensitive interventions that reinforce positive mothering practices and identify when additional mothering support is needed across a woman's lifespan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pointing to the widespread neglect afforded to the works of nineteenth century Afro-American women authors, this paper discusses, and presents excerpts from, the works of many of these authors to show the types of concerns they wrote about. Among the works discussed are the following: the slave narratives of Harriet Jacobs and Elizabeth Keckley;…
Olzak, Susan; Kangas, Nicole
African American Studies, Ethnic Studies, and Women's Studies programs in higher education have received wide support from faculty members and students, yet few programs offer a major or have tenure-line faculty positions. Our analysis used sociological theories to generate testable implications about the chances that an institution will offer…
Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin Tam; Padilla, Geraldine; Tejero, Judith; Kraemer, Janet; Wright, Karen; Coscarelli, Anne; Clayton, Sheila; Williams, Imani; Hills, Dawn
Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in American women across most ethnic groups. Although the psychosocial impact of breast cancer is being studied, there is little information on women from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. We conducted a qualitative study with breast cancer survivors (BCS) of various ethnicities. A total of 102 BCS participated in focus group interviews (24 African Americans, 34 Asians, 26 Latinas and 18 Caucasians); 20 health professionals participated in key informant interviews. Important ethnic differences in type of treatment were noted, Asians and Latinas were more likely to receive mastectomies and African American BCS were least likely to receive adjuvant therapies, including radiation and chemotherapy. These BCS enjoyed a fairly good overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL) with some persistent concerns. The prevailing concerns among all women included overall health, moderate physical concerns, cancer recurrence or metastases, psychosocial concerns related to worry about children and burdening the family, and body image and sexual health concerns. Additional challenges included: lack of knowledge about breast cancer; medical care issues such as insurance, cost and amount of time spent with physician; cultural sensitivity of providers, language barriers, cultural factors related to beliefs about illness, gender role and family obligations (e.g. self-sacrifice). These BCS, particularly the women of color, voiced that their spiritual beliefs and practices are central to their coping. This study accomplishes two goals; it adds to the sparse literature concerning the psychosocial sequelae of breast cancer among women of color, and it increases our knowledge of specific cultural influences (e.g. dietary practices, coping) and socio-ecological factors on HRQOL. More importantly, the study addressed areas that have not been studied before, specifically, an in-depth study on BCS QOL comparing multiple ethnic groups
Coignet, Marie V; Zirpoli, Gary Robert; Roberts, Michelle R; Khoury, Thaer; Bandera, Elisa V; Zhu, Qianqian; Yao, Song
Reproductive aging phenotypes, including age at menarche (AM) and age at natural menopause (ANM), are well-established risk factors for breast cancer. In recent years, many genetic variants have been identified in association with AM and ANM in genome-wide association studies among European populations. Using data from the Women's Circle of Health Study (WCHS) of 1,307 European-American (EA) and 1,365 African-American (AA) breast cancer cases and controls, we aimed to replicate 53 earlier GWAS variants for AM and ANM in AA and EA groups and to perform analyses on total and net reproductive lifespan (TRLS; NRLS). Breast cancer risk was also examined in relation to a polygenic risk score (PRS) for each of the reproductive aging phenotypes. We replicated a number of variants in EA women, including rs7759938 in LIN28B for AM and rs16991615 in MCM8 for ANM; whereas in the AA group, only one SNP (rs2947411 in TMEM18) for AM was directionally consistent and nominally significant. In analysis of TRLS and NRLS, several SNPs were significant, including rs466639 in RXRG that was associated with both phenotypes in both AA and EA groups. None of the PRS was associated with breast cancer risk. Given the paucity of data available among AA populations, our study contributes to the literature of genetics of reproductive aging in AA women and highlights the importance of cross population replication of GWAS variants.
Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; Costello, Tracy J; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Li, Yisheng; Mazas, Carlos A; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Cinciripini, Paul M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Wetter, David W
The majority of smoking cessation research has focused on heavy smokers. African Americans (AA) are less likely than the general population to be heavy smokers. Thus, little is known about the smoking and psychosocial characteristics of lighter AA smokers. The present study compared the baseline demographic, smoking, and psychosocial characteristics of light (5-10 cigarettes per day; n=86) and moderate to heavy (>10 cigarettes per day; n=286) AA smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation clinical trial. Results indicated no differences between groups on demographic variables. However, light smokers (LS) were less dependent on smoking, reported more previous quit attempts, and had higher self-efficacy to quit than moderate to heavy smokers (MHS). On a measure of withdrawal, LS reported less pre-quit craving and less difficulty concentrating than MHS. In addition, LS reported lower perceived stress, fewer symptoms of depression, and greater positive affect than AA MHS. These findings highlight important similarities and differences between AA LS and MHS, and have implications for the treatment of AA smokers.
Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cohen, Mardge H; Weber, Kathleen M; Dale, Sannisha K; Cruise, Ruth C; Brody, Leslie R
Critical consciousness, the awareness of social oppression, is important to investigate as a buffer against HIV disease progression in HIV-infected African American women in the context of experiences with discrimination. Critical consciousness comprises several dimensions, including social group identification, discontent with distribution of social power, rejection of social system legitimacy, and a collective action orientation. The current study investigated self-reported critical consciousness as a moderator of perceived gender and racial discrimination on HIV viral load and CD4+ cell count in 67 African American HIV-infected women. Higher critical consciousness was found to be related to higher likelihood of having CD4+ counts over 350 and lower likelihood of detectable viral load when perceived racial discrimination was high, as revealed by multiple logistic regressions that controlled for highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) adherence. Multiple linear regressions showed that at higher levels of perceived gender and racial discrimination, women endorsing high critical consciousness had a larger positive difference between nadir CD4+ (lowest pre-HAART) and current CD4+ count than women endorsing low critical consciousness. These findings suggest that raising awareness of social oppression to promote joining with others to enact social change may be an important intervention strategy to improve HIV outcomes in African American HIV-infected women who report experiencing high levels of gender and racial discrimination.
Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Tran, Alisia G T T; Miyake, Elisa R; Kim, Helen Youngju
Objectification theory has been applied to understand disordered eating among college women. A recent extension of objectification theory (Moradi, 2010) conceptualizes racism as a socialization experience that shapes women of color's objectification experiences, yet limited research has examined this theoretical assertion. The present study proposed and examined a racially expanded model of objectification theory that postulated perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing as correlates of Asian American college women's (N = 516) self-objectification processes and eating disorder symptomatology. Perceived racial discrimination, perpetual foreigner racism, and racial/ethnic teasing were indirectly associated with eating disordered symptomatology through self-objectification processes of internalization of media ideals of beauty (media internalization), body surveillance, and body shame. Results support the inclusion of racial stressors as contexts of objectification for Asian American women. The present findings also underscore perceived racial discrimination, racial/ethnic teasing, and perpetual foreigner racism as group-specific risk factors with major theoretical, empirical, and clinical relevance to eating disorder research and treatment with Asian American college women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Brewer, Laprincess C; Miller, Edgar R; Appel, Lawrence J; Anderson, Cheryl A M
The high prevalence of obesity in African American (AA) women may result, in part, from a lower resting metabolic rate (RMR) than non-AA women. If true, AA women should require fewer calories than non-AA women to maintain weight. Our objective was to determine in the setting of a controlled feeding study, if AA women required fewer calories than non-AA women to maintain weight. This analysis includes 206 women (73% AA), aged 22-75 years, who participated in the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) trial-a multicenter, randomized, controlled, feeding study comparing the effects of 3 dietary patterns on blood pressure in individuals with prehypertension or stage 1 hypertension. After a 3-week run-in, participants were randomized to 1 of 3 dietary patterns for 8 weeks. Calorie intake was adjusted during feeding to maintain stable weight. The primary outcome of this analysis was average daily calorie (kcal) intake during feeding. AA women had higher baseline weight and body mass index than non-AA women (78.4 vs 72.4 kg, P calories to maintain weight.
Dawson-Andoh, Nana A; Gray, James J; Soto, José A; Parker, Scott
Depictions of Caucasian women in the mainstream media have become increasingly thinner in size and straighter in shape. These changes may be inconsistent with the growing influence of African American beauty ideals, which research has established as more accepting of larger body sizes and more curvaceous body types than Caucasians. The present study looked at trends in the portrayal of African American women featured in JET magazine from 1953 to 2006. Beauty of the Week (BOW) images were collected and analyzed to examine body size (estimated by independent judges) and body shape (estimated by waist-to-hip ratio). We expected body sizes to increase and body shapes to become more curvaceous. Results revealed a rise in models' body size consistent with expectations, but an increase in waist-to-hip ratio, contrary to prediction. Our findings suggest that the African American feminine beauty ideal reflects both consistencies with and departures from mainstream cultural ideals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brooke C. Schneider
Full Text Available An older adult's ability to perform physical tasks is predictive of disability onset and is associated with declines in cognition. Risk factors for physical performance declines among African Americans, a group with the highest rates of disability, remain understudied. This study sought to identify demographic, health, and cognitive factors associated with lower-extremity physical performance in a sample of 106 African American women ages 56 to 91. After controlling for global cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Exam, physical performance was associated with executive functioning (Stroop Color/Word, but not visuospatial construction (WASI Block Design or processing speed (Trail Making Test, Part A. Executive functioning remained associated with physical performance after entry of demographic variables, exercise, depression, disease burden, and body mass index (BMI. Age, and BMI were also significant in this model. Executive functioning, age and BMI are associated with lower-extremity physical performance among older African American women.
Full Text Available Epic poetry has always been considered a masculine genre. The eruption of a group identity, masculine, white, aristocratic and christian, is the result of the representation and the exclusion of the Other, fictitious and singular, but in fact composed of a variety of ethnic groups, origins, sex, genders, religions and different degrees between fiction and historicity. Indeed, in the historical epic poetry which narrated the Conquest, except for the conquistadors listed at length and the indigenous kings and caciques, only few characters are distinguished by a historical individualisation. The Other, Amerindian and female, makes a shy entrance into history, into singularity, into the (historical and christian truth. It is the case of interpreters: Malinche and India Catalina, only historical native women that appear as part of the narrative plot as well as in the conquest enterprise in the poems of Lasso de la Vega (Cortés valeroso y Mexicana, Mexicana, of Juan de Castellanos (Elegías de varones ilustres de Indias and of Saavedra Guzmán (El peregrino indiano.
Blackstone, Tondelaya K.
The focus of this study was how knowledge of the barriers to advancement for African American women (AAW) and key career support factors (KCSFs) influence the career advancement of African American women (AAW) to senior-level positions in higher education. The research method for this study consisted of the triangulation of evidence from multiple…
Clark, Marilyn Ann
The primary purpose of this study was to examine how African American women in corporations develop leadership and construct their leadership style through informal and incidental learning experiences. This study explored relationships between informal adult learning and career mapping processes of leadership for African American women. A…
Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Shields, Alexandra E
Black women have a higher incidence of breast cancer before the age of 40 years, more severe disease at all ages, and an elevated mortality risk in comparison with white women. There is limited understanding of the contribution of social factors to these patterns. Elucidating the role of the social determinants of health in breast cancer disparities requires greater attention to how risk factors for breast cancer unfold over the lifecourse and to the complex ways in which socioeconomic status and racism shape exposure to psychosocial, physical, chemical, and other individual and community-level assaults that increase the risk of breast cancer. Research that takes seriously the social context in which black women live is also needed to maximize the opportunities to prevent breast cancer in this underserved group. Cancer 2016;122:2138-49. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
Ward, Earlise C; Heidrich, Susan M
We examined African American women's representations/beliefs about mental illness, preferred coping behaviors if faced with mental illness, whether perceived stigma was associated with treatment-seeking, and if so, whether it was related to beliefs and coping preference, and whether these variables differed by age group. Participants were 185 community-dwelling African American women 25 to 85 years of age. Results indicated the women believed that mental illness is caused by several factors, including family-related stress and social stress due to racism, is cyclical, and has serious consequences but can be controlled by treatment. Participants endorsed low perceptions of stigma. Major preferred coping strategies included praying and seeking medical and mental health care. Age differences were found in all variables except stigma.
Mason, Tyler B; Lewis, Robin J
Binge eating is a significant concern among college age women-both Caucasian and African-American women. Research has shown that social support, coping, and optimism are associated with engaging in fewer negative health behaviors including binge eating among college students. However, the impact of sources of social support (i.e., support from family, friends, and a special person), rumination, and optimism on binge eating as a function of race/ethnicity has received less attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between social support, rumination, and optimism and binge eating among Caucasian and American-American women, separately. Caucasian (n = 100) and African-American (n = 84) women from a university in the Mid-Atlantic US completed an online survey about eating behaviors and psychosocial health. Social support from friends was associated with less likelihood of binge eating among Caucasian women. Social support from family was associated with less likelihood of binge eating among African-American women, but greater likelihood of binge eating among Caucasian women. Rumination was associated with greater likelihood of binge eating among Caucasian and African-American women. Optimism was associated with less likelihood of binge eating among African-American women. These results demonstrate similarities and differences in correlates of binge eating as a function of race/ethnicity.
Okosun, Ike S; Annor, Francis B; Seale, J Paul; Eriksen, Michael P
We examined (a) secular changes in abdominal fat accumulation (AFA) and family income-to-poverty ratio (PIR) across race/ethnicity, education and age in Mexican (MA), non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), non-Hispanic Black (NHB), and (b) association between PIR and AFA among American women. Data (n = 9787) from 2001-2002 to 2009-2010 NHANES were used. Rates of AFA and poverty by race/ethnic, age and education categories were determined across study time points. Subjects with low and medium PIR values were classified as poor. Linear trends in AFA and PIR were evaluated. Study time-specific odds ratios (OR) from logistic regression models were used to estimate risk of AFA due to low to medium PIR. Statistical adjustments were made for race/ethnicity, education, age, and marital status. Increased trends in low to medium PIR and AFA in MA, NHW, and NHB American women were observed between 2001 and 2010. Poor women had much higher prevalence of AFA compared to richer women. For each of the studied periods, medium and low PIR were each associated with increased odds of AFA. The association between poverty and AFA was weakest in 2001-2002 (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.05-2.11) compared to 2009-2010 (OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.21-2.22). Compared to NHW, being of MA and NHB race/ethnicity was also each associated with increased odds of AFA, controlling for other independent variables. Increase in poverty and AFA, and positive association between decreased PIR and increased odds of AFA were observed in the period between 2001 and 2010 in MA, NHW, and NHB American women. A robust economic policy designed to alleviate poverty may be an important means of reducing the trajectory of AFA in American women. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kidd, April D; Colbert, Alison M; Jatoi, Ismail
Ongoing debate about mammography screening for women in their 40s has brought awareness to the opportunities and challenges for achieving optimal breast health in young African American women and in battling health inequities that place them at greater risk for mortality from breast cancer. Despite the screening controversy, a need exists to understand the complex issues related to mammography knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of young minority women, while empowering them to take an active role in their breast health care. The purpose of this article is to describe the complicated issues related to screening in young African American women within the context of the uncertainty about the evidence surrounding screening practices. Literature was reviewed to garner a comprehensive update of the mammography screening controversy and its impact on mammography practices. Nurses should be aware of the mammography screening controversy and breast cancer risk assessment and how they affect young women's participation in mammography screening. Mammography screening should be a shared decision between the patient and healthcare provider. A better understanding of breast health and its effect on young minority women is needed. Nurses have a prominent role to advocate for, empower, and educate patients as they face the task of deciding whether to begin or continue mammography in their 40s.
Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois; Weinberger, Jennifer P
Homelessness among older African American women is emerging as a serious social problem. The increasing cost of living, diminishing community resources, and shrinking retirement benefits, as well as reduced social services are resulting in greater numbers of older minority women becoming homeless. This investigation explores the relevance of faith and spirituality to an advocacy assessment designed to help participants resolve issues that operate as barriers to their leaving and staying out of homelessness. A substudy of a larger research and development project was undertaken, in which qualitative interview methods were used to illuminate the role of faith and spirituality resources in the lives of 84 older homeless African American women. Comparative thematic analysis of illustrative cases was undertaken to better understand the role of faith and spirituality in the women's lives and in how they used faith and spirituality in coping with homelessness. Five dimensions of faith and spirituality, (a) identity and beliefs; (b) affiliation and membership; (c) involvement; (d) practices; and (e) benefits, served as promising resources in understanding life spaces of homeless minority women and identified promising advocacy strategies. Two cases describe the realities of homelessness for older minority women endeavoring to transition out of homelessness and illustrate how faith and spirituality can buffer stress, facilitate coping, and sustain motivation. How older homeless African American women use their faith and spiritual resources to cope with demands of homelessness, challenges of transition, and recovery from the multiple traumas resulting from being homeless makes the assessment of faith and spirituality an important part of the advocacy process.
Garcia, Rachel Zenuk; Carvajal, Scott C; Wilkinson, Anna V; Thompson, Patricia A; Nodora, Jesse N; Komenaka, Ian K; Brewster, Abenaa; Cruz, Giovanna I; Wertheim, Betsy C; Bondy, Melissa L; Martínez, María Elena
This study examined factors that influence mammography use and breast cancer detection, including education, health insurance, and acculturation, among Mexican-American (MA) and African-American (AA) women. The study included 670 breast cancer cases (388 MAs and 282 AAs), aged 40-86 years at diagnosis. Data on mammography use, detection, and delay in seeking care were collected via questionnaires and medical records. Using a language-based bidimensional acculturation measure, MAs were classified as English-dominant (n = 67), bilingual (n = 173), and Spanish-dominant (n = 148). Mammography prior to diagnosis was assessed by racial/ethnic acculturation subgroup using logistic regression. In age-adjusted models, mammography use was non-significantly lower among English-dominant (OR = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.45-1.59) and bilingual (OR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.55-1.35) MAs and significantly lower among Spanish-dominant MAs (OR = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.34-0.83) than among AA women. After adjustment for education or insurance, there was no difference in mammography use by race/ethnicity and acculturation subgroup. Despite high self-reported mammography use (75%), a large proportion of cases reported self-detection (59%) and delay in seeking care >90 days (17%). These findings favor promoting culturally appropriate messaging about the benefits and limitations of mammography, education about breast awareness, and prompt reporting of findings to a health professional.
Yu, E W; Putman, M S; Derrico, N; Abrishamanian-Garcia, G; Finkelstein, J S; Bouxsein, M L
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) have increased fracture risk. We found that African-American women with DM2 have increased cortical porosity and lower cortical bone density at the radius than non-diabetic controls. These cortical deficits are associated with hyperglycemia and may contribute to skeletal fragility associated with DM2. Fracture risk is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) despite normal areal bone mineral density (aBMD). DM2 is more common in African-Americans than in Caucasians. It is not known whether African-American women with DM2 have deficits in bone microstructure. We measured aBMD at the spine and hip by DXA, and volumetric BMD (vBMD) and microarchitecture at the distal radius and tibia by HR-pQCT in 22 DM2 and 78 non-diabetic African-American women participating in the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN). We also measured fasting glucose and HOMA-IR. Age, weight, and aBMD at all sites were similar in both groups. At the radius, cortical porosity was 26% greater, while cortical vBMD and tissue mineral density were lower in women with DM2 than in controls. There were no differences in radius total vBMD or trabecular vBMD between groups. Despite inferior cortical bone properties at the radius, FEA-estimated failure load was similar between groups. Tibia vBMD and microarchitecture were also similar between groups. There were no significant associations between cortical parameters and duration of DM2 or HOMA-IR. However, among women with DM2, higher fasting glucose levels were associated with lower cortical vBMD (r=-0.54, p=0.018). DM2 and higher fasting glucose are associated with unfavorable cortical bone microarchitecture at the distal radius in African-American women. These structural deficits may contribute to the increased fracture risk among women with DM2. Further, our results suggest that hyperglycemia may be involved in mechanisms of skeletal fragility associated with DM2.
Garbers, Samantha; Chiasson, Mary Ann
A telephone-based survey regarding breast cancer screening practices among 300 African American and Caribbean women age 40 and over in New York City revealed that while U.S.-born women had significantly different sociodemographic profiles (in terms of insurance status, marital status, educational attainment), they were no more likely to have had a mammogram than the foreign-born women. Adjusting for insurance status and source of care, women with a provider recommendation were 8 times more likely ever to have had a mammogram (AOR 8.01, 95%CI: 3.74-17.14). Among foreign-born Caribbean women in the U.S. for less than half their lives, only 52% ever had a provider recommend a mammogram, compared with 77% of U.S.-born women. The findings confirm previous reports of the importance of physician recommendation in increasing mammography screening among urban Black women, and suggest that efforts to reach Caribbean-born women with breast cancer screening messages should emphasize the important role of providers.
Gonzalez, Patricia; Nuñez, Alicia; Wang-Letzkus, Ming; Lim, Jung-Won; Flores, Katrina; Nápoles, Anna María
Objective The present study identified and compared the coping strategies of Chinese-, Korean-, and Mexican-American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods Six focus groups were conducted with Chinese- (n = 21), Korean- (n = 11), and Mexican-American (n = 9) BCS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and translated for thematic content analysis of coping experiences and strategies. Results Women reported the use of eight coping strategies (religious/spiritual, benefit finding, fatalism, optimism, fighting spirit, information seeking, denial, and self-distraction). Among Chinese-American BCS, benefit finding was the most referenced coping strategy, whereas religious/spiritual coping was most frequently reported among Korean- and Mexican-American BCS. Denial and self-distraction were the least cited strategies. Conclusions Survivors draw upon new found inner strength to successfully integrate their cancer experience into their lives. Coping models must consider the diversity of cancer survivors and the variability in coping strategies among cultural ethnic minority BCS. PMID:26389720
Smith, Hillary; Weisel, Derek
It has often been suggested that the lack of women and ethnic minorities studying physics in college can be traced back to the science and math education of students in high school and before. This talk presents data from a two-part survey of high school science students. First, students were asked what subjects they enjoy and their perceived level of competency in math and science. Second, students were asked their plans for secondary education and what factors contributed to this decision. The results been correlated to gender and ethnicity. Analysis of the results indicates trends along gender and ethnic lines in what students believe they are good at, what they enjoy studying, in what ways they plan to continue their education, and what they plan to study in college.
Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to provide norms of Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q and Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA for undergraduate women in Iran.Materials and Methods: Undergraduate women (N = 516 completed the EDE-Q, CIA, and the Binge Eating Scale (BES.Results: Average score, standard deviation, and percentile rank of EDE-Q and its subscale as well as CIA were reported. In addition, the frequency of key eating disordered behaviors was presented. Both EDE-Q and CIA demonstrated strong internal consistency. In addition to the significant correlation between the EDE-Q and CIA (0.59, they both showed a moderate to strong correlation with the BES (r = 0.33 to 0.61. The EDE-Q and CIA successfully differentiated underweight, normal weight, and overweight women. Moreover, women who reported higher level of restraint or regular binge eating episodes obtained higher score on the CIA than women who did not have such behaviors across the same period.Conclusion: This study provided preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the Persian version of the EDE-Q and CIA. The obtained norms for the EDE-Q and the CIA are helpful in clinical practice and intercultural studies of eating disorders.
Gauthier, Jacqueline; Cichon, Michelle; Hammad, Adnan; Simon, Michael S.
The increasing incidence of breast cancer in the Arab world, coupled with a relatively early age of onset, raises concern for the presence of hereditary risk factors in this population. However, due to potential structural and cultural barriers, Arab Americans make up the smallest percentage of individuals tested for Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome in the United States. The objectives of this qualitative pilot focus group of 13 Arab-American women were to explore attitudes, knowledge and beliefs regarding hereditary breast cancer in the Arab-American community in metropolitan Detroit, identify barriers that would prevent women from seeking hereditary cancer screening/testing and determine who women would talk to about inherited cancer. Results indicated that cultural beliefs and personal experiences with cancer influenced the women’s perspectives on hereditary cancer risk. A high level of secrecy about cancer within Arab-American families was present, which may prevent accurate risk assessment and referral for genetic services. Other identified barriers that may influence hereditary risk assessment included stigma, fears and misconceptions of cancer. While these barriers were present, participants also expressed a strong need for education and tailored cancer risk information for their community. PMID:23054337
Best, Alicia L; Spencer, Mindi; Hall, Ingrid J; Friedman, Daniela B; Billings, Deborah
Despite efforts to increase breast cancer screening (BCS) among African American women, disparities in breast cancer mortality persist. Culturally framed health communication may provide a useful strategy to address this issue. Spirituality not only represents an integral aspect of African American culture, but it has also been identified as a potential barrier to BCS among this population. Rather than continuing to focus on spirituality as a barrier, there is an opportunity to develop promotional messages that tap into the protective properties of spirituality among this population. The goals of this study were to engage a group of African American women to identify important spiritual elements to be included in health communication materials, and to subsequently develop a spiritually framed BCS message in response to their feedback. Three nominal group sessions were conducted with 15 African American women. Results revealed three important spiritual elements that can be incorporated into BCS health messages: (a) the body as a temple; (b) going to the doctor does not make you faithless; and (c) God did not give us the spirit of fear. These elements were used to draft a spiritually framed BCS message. Next, 20 face-to-face semistructured interviews were conducted to help finalize the spiritually framed BCS message for use in a future study on culturally framed health communication.
Marsh, Heather A; Malik, Fauzia; Shapiro, Eve; Omer, Saad B; Frew, Paula M
We explored the attitudes, opinions, and concerns of African American women regarding influenza vaccination during pregnancy. As influenza immunization coverage rates remain suboptimal in the United States among this population, we elicited message framing strategies for multicomponent interventions aimed at decreasing future incident cases of maternal and neonatal influenza. Semi-structured in-depth interviews (N = 21) were conducted with pregnant African American women at urban OB/GYN clinics who had not received an influenza vaccine. Interviews were transcribed, subjected to intercoder reliability assessment, and content analyzed to identify common thematic factors related to acceptance of the influenza vaccine and health communication message preferences. Four major themes were identified. These were communication approaches, normal vaccine behavior, pregnancy vaccination, and positive versus negative framing. Two strong themes emerged: positively-framed messages were preferred over negatively-framed messages and those emphasizing the health of the infant. Additionally, previous immunization, message source, and vaccine misperceptions also played important roles in decision-making. The majority of women indicated that positively framed messages focusing on the infant's health would encourage them to receive an influenza vaccine. Messages emphasizing immunization benefits such as protection against preterm birth and low birth weight outcomes have potential to overcome widespread negative community perceptions and cultural beliefs. Additionally, messages transmitted via interpersonal networks and social media strongly influence motivation to obtain vaccination during pregnancy. The findings of this study will assist in developing tailored messages that change pregnant African American women's influenza vaccination decision-making to achieve improved coverage.
Guan, Mengfei; Coles, Valerie B.; Samp, Jennifer A.; Sales, Jessica McDermott; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Monahan, Jennifer L.
The present research extends the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to investigate how communication-related variables influence condom use intention and behavior among African American women. According to the TPB, attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy are associated with behavioral intent, which predicts behavior. For women, it was argued that condom negotiation self-efficacy was more important than condom use self-efficacy in predicting consistent condom use. Moreover, an important environmental factor that affects condom use for African American women is fear or worry when negotiating condom use because the sex partners might leave, threaten, or abuse them. Fears associated with negotiating condom use were predicted to be negatively associated with attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. African American women (N = 560; M age = 20.58) completed assessments of TPB variables at baseline and condom use three months later. Condom negotiation self-efficacy was a significant indicator of behavioral intent while condom use self-efficacy was not. Fear of condom negotiation was negatively associated with all TPB components, which was in turn significantly associated with behavioral intent and condom use. Implications for the TPB, safer sex literature, and STI prevention intervention design are discussed. PMID:27565192
Espinosa de Los Monteros, Karla; Gallo, Linda C
Mexican-American women are disproportionately vulnerable to cardio-metabolic dysfunction and related health conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Research shows that low socioeconomic status contributes to this populations excess vulnerability to cardio-metabolic dysfunction, but little is known about the contribution of cultural factors to these associations. The current study explored the association between fatalism and cardio-metabolic dysfunction in a randomly selected community cohort of middle-aged Mexican-American women and examined whether fatalism could be conceptualized as a pathway linking socioeconomic status to cardio-metabolic dysfunction in this population. Participants included 300 women (ages 40-65), recruited from San Diego communities located near the Mexican border, who completed a self-administered survey battery and underwent a fasting clinical exam between the years 2006 and 2009. Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses utilizing bootstrapping procedures were performed to test study hypotheses. After controlling for age, menopausal status, and acculturation level, fatalism was associated with cardio-metabolic dysfunction. Although slightly attenuated, this relationship persisted after accounting for socioeconomic status. In addition, individuals of low socioeconomic status displayed more fatalistic beliefs and higher cardio-metabolic dysfunction after accounting for relevant covariates. Finally, the indirect effect of socioeconomic status on cardio-metabolic dysfunction via fatalism reached statistical significance. Fatalism may be an important independent risk factor for cardio-metabolic dysfunction in Mexican-American women as well as a mechanism linking socioeconomic status to cardio-metabolic health.
Full Text Available Background. Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP is the most common medical condition of pregnancy, affecting up to 85% of expecting mothers. In the USA, there is no FDA-approved medication for the treatment of NVP. Objective. To identify the primary concerns of American women leading them to contact the Motherisk NVP Helpline and to characterize the severity of their symptoms and therapy offered in order to develop improved and customized counseling for them. Methods. We reviewed the intake forms of the American women who called the NVP Helpline from 2008 to 2012. We extracted their state of residence, demographic data, severity of NVP symptoms, and other available clinical characteristics. Results. A total of 195 forms were reviewed. Of these, 86% called for information on management of NVP with/without questions about fetal drug safety, while 14% called solely about drug safety during pregnancy/breastfeeding. The majority of women were Caucasian, in their thirties, educated, employed, married and in their second pregnancy. Of them 95% were suffering from moderate-to-severe condition with 13% having hyperemesis gravidarum. Conclusion. American women need more information on the management of NVP and on a variety of its aspects in addition to the safety and effectiveness of antiemetic medications. Their leading concern was the use of doxylamine and vitamin B6 combination for NVP treatment followed by the use of ondansetron.
Guan, Mengfei; Coles, Valerie B; Samp, Jennifer A; Sales, Jessica McDermott; DiClemente, Ralph J; Monahan, Jennifer L
The present research extends the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate how communication-related variables influence condom use intention and behavior among African American women. According to the TPB, attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy are associated with behavioral intent, which predicts behavior. For women, it was argued that condom negotiation self-efficacy was more important than condom use self-efficacy in predicting consistent condom use. Moreover, an important environmental factor that affects condom use for African American women is fear or worry when negotiating condom use because the sex partners might leave, threaten, or abuse them. Fears associated with negotiating condom use were predicted to be negatively associated with attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. African American women (N = 560; M age = 20.58) completed assessments of TPB variables at baseline and condom use 3 months later. Condom negotiation self-efficacy was a significant indicator of behavioral intent, while condom use self-efficacy was not. Fear of condom negotiation was negatively associated with all TPB components, which was in turn significantly associated with behavioral intent and condom use. Implications for the TPB, safer sex literature, and sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention design are discussed.
Littleton, Heather; Ullman, Sarah E
A sexual victimization history is a risk factor for experiencing further sexual victimization. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been posited as predictors of revictimization through multiple pathways, including through their association with risk recognition and alcohol use. There is, however, limited longitudinal research examining these revictimization risk factors, including the extent to which they predict risk for forcible rape (rape involving threat or force) and incapacitated rape (rape of a victim incapacitated by substances). Additionally, there is no research evaluating ethnic differences in revictimization risk pathways. The current study examined PTSD symptoms and hazardous drinking as predictors of new forcible and incapacitated rape over 1 year in a community sample of European American (n = 217) and African American (n = 272) sexual assault victims (M = 34 years; 84% high school education or above). We hypothesized that PTSD symptoms would predict both types of revictimization and hazardous drinking would predict incapacitated rape. Results supported that PTSD symptoms predicted both types of rape (forcible rape, β = .34; incapacitated rape, β = .20), and hazardous drinking predicted incapacitated rape (β = .24). PTSD symptoms predicted hazardous drinking in African American women only (β = .20). Thus, there is a need to evaluate risk pathways for specific types of victimization among diverse samples. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Abuelezam, Nadia N; Fontenot, Holly B
The difficult and tense political climate Arab populations are currently facing may be exacerbating mental health issues, reducing forms of social support in friend circles, and decreasing the desire to seek health care. There is room to better understand the mental health needs of Arab women residing in the United States and to develop policies and interventions that keep these women safe and in care. This column reviews two recent studies; the first examines barriers to reporting intimate partner violence and depression among Arab American women and the second highlights stressors and social support for Arab women immigrants throughout their immigration experience. © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
María Catalina Monroy
Full Text Available This article analyses the international programmes of the Latin American Women and Habitat Network and draws some lines of action for incorporating a rights perspective into the formulation of public policies. The purpose of it is to close the gap that exists between international standards and the reality of women in cities. By juxtaposing feminist concepts and the experiences of the Women and Habitat Network, the need to implement public policies that guarantee the rights of women is discussed. In this sense, the article conceptualises the spaces of the home as part of the city, questions the limits of women’s mobility and autonomy and recognises the intersectionality of violence.
Good, Marion; Ahn, Sukhee
American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women and to compare pain relief between those who chose American or Korean music. Using a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design, 73 South Korean women on a preoperative unit were assigned by day of the week to receive music (n = 34; 47%) or no music (n = 39; 53%). The music group chose among Korean (ballads and religious and popular songs) and American (soft slow piano and orchestra) music and heard it for 15 minutes at four time points (postoperatively), whereas the controls rested in bed. They marked VAS Sensation and Distress of Pain scales before and after each test. The two groups were similar on pretest pain. When controlling for pretest pain, MANCOVA indicated that there was significantly less posttest pain in those with music plus analgesics than those with analgesics alone at three of the four tests: p = .04 to .001. Two-thirds in the music group (n = 21; 62%) chose Korean music and one-third (n = 13; 38%) chose American, with no difference in pain: both were effective. In addition to analgesics, music can be used to reduce postoperative pain in Korean women. Patients selected music that was appealing to them. Nurses in many countries can consider music of the country and seek individual preferences to use in addition to analgesics for postoperative pain.
Mihesuah, Devon A.
Discusses possible intersections between feminist studies and American Indian women's studies, noting the complexity of identity politics when most contemporary Indians have mixed blood. No single authoritative Native women's position or feminist theory of Native women exists. These labels are often umbrella terms that inadequately represent those…
The American Geological Institute Minority Participation Program (MPP): Thirty Years of Improving Access to Opportunities in the Geosciences Through Undergraduate and Graduate Scholarships for Underrepresented Minorities
Callahan, C. N.; Byerly, G. R.; Smith, M. J.
Since 1971, the American Geological Institute (AGI) Minority Participation Program (MPP) has supported scholarships for underrepresented minorities in the geosciences at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some of our MPP scholars have gone on to hugely successful careers in the geosciences. MPP scholars include corporate leaders, university professors, a NASA scientist-astronaut and a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER awardee. Yet as ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in the geosciences, AGI plans to expand its efforts beyond its traditional undergraduate and graduate scholarships to include diversity programs for secondary school geoscience teacher internships, undergraduate research travel support, and doctoral research fellowships. AGI promotes its MPP efforts primarily through its web pages, which are very successful in attracting visitors; through its publications, especially Geotimes; and through its Corporate Associates and Member Societies. Funding for the MPP has come from multiple sources over the past 30 years. Industry, non-profit organizations, and individuals have been the primary source of funding for graduate scholarships. The NSF has regularly funded the undergraduate scholarships. AGI Corporate Associates have contributed to both scholarship programs. The MPP Advisory Committee selects scholarship recipients based upon student academic performance, financial need, and potential for success as a geoscience professional. AGI currently has 29 MPP scholars, including 11 undergraduate and 18 graduate students. Undergraduate scholarships range from \\1000 to \\5000, with an average award of approximately \\2500. Graduate scholarships range from \\500 to \\4000, with an average award of approximately \\1300. In addition to financial assistance, every MPP scholar is assigned a professional geoscientist as a mentor. The mentor is responsible for regular personal contacts with MPP scholars, and with writing evaluation reports that
Adeyinka, Oluwaseyi; Jukic, Anne Marie; McGarvey, Stephen T; Muasau-Howard, Bethel T; Faiai, Mata'uitafa; Hawley, Nicola L
Pregnant women in American Samoa have a high risk of complications due to overweight and obesity. Prenatal care can mitigate the risk, however many women do not seek adequate care during pregnancy. Low utilization of prenatal care may stem from low levels of satisfaction with services offered. Our objective was to identify predictors of prenatal care satisfaction in American Samoa. A structured survey was distributed to 165 pregnant women receiving prenatal care at the Lyndon B Johnson Tropical Medical Center, Pago Pago. Women self-reported demographic characteristics, pregnancy history, and satisfaction with prenatal care. Domains of satisfaction were extracted using principal components analysis. Scores were summed across each domain. Linear regression was used to examine associations between maternal characteristics and the summed scores within individual domains and for overall satisfaction. Three domains of satisfaction were identified: satisfaction with clinic services, clinic accessibility, and physician interactions. Waiting ≥ 2 h to see the doctor negatively impacted satisfaction with clinic services, clinic accessibility, and overall satisfaction. Living > 20 min from the clinic was associated with lower clinic accessibility, physician interactions, and overall satisfaction. Women who were employed/on maternity leave had lower scores for physician interactions compared with unemployed women/students. Women who did not attend all their appointments had lower overall satisfaction scores. Satisfaction with clinic services, clinic accessibility and physician interactions are important contributors to prenatal care satisfaction. To improve patient satisfaction prenatal care clinics should focus on making it easier for women to reach clinics, improving waiting times, and increasing time with providers.
Groth, Susan W; Morrison-Beedy, Dianne
This research was conducted to gain insight into how low-income, pregnant, African American women viewed physical activity and approached nutrition during pregnancy. Three focus groups with a total of 26 women were conducted utilizing open-ended questions related to physical activity and diet during pregnancy. Content analysis was used to analyze the verbatim transcripts. Groups were compared and contrasted at the within-group and between-group levels to identify themes. Two themes that related to physical activity during pregnancy were identified: 1) fatigue and low energy dictate activity and 2) motivation to exercise is not there. Three themes were identified that related to diet: 1) despite best intentions, appetite, taste, and cravings drive eating behavior; 2) I'll decide for myself what to eat; and 3) eating out is a way of life. Women reported that being physically active and improving their diets was not easy. Women indicated that their levels of physical activity had decreased since becoming pregnant. Attempts at improving their diets were undermined by frequenting fast food restaurants and cravings for highly dense, palatable foods. Women ceded to the physical aspects of pregnancy, often choosing to ignore the advice of others. A combination of low levels of physical activity and calorie-dense diets increased the risk of excessive gestational weight gain in this sample of women, consequently increasing the risk for weight retention after pregnancy. Health care providers can promote healthy eating and physical activity by building on women's being "in tune with and listening to" their bodies. They can query women about their beliefs regarding physical activity and diet and offer information to ensure understanding of what contributes to healthy pregnancy outcomes. Intervention can focus on factors such as cravings and what tastes good, suggesting ways to manage pregnancy effects within a healthy diet. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Goodman, Emily Elizabeth
In my dissertation, I examine the ways that women artists engage with two primary and interrelated themes in their art practice — food and femininity — in an attempt to challenge gender inequality in midcentury American society. As such, I illustrate how these women’s art practices are related to the discourse and political actions of the American feminism during mid-1960s. Recognizing that — despite the unity implied by the commonly employed umbrella terms of “Second Wave Feminism” and the “...
Wahab, Stéphanie; Trimble, Jammie; Mejia, Angie; Mitchell, S Renee; Thomas, Mary Jo; Timmons, Vanessa; Waters, A Star; Raymaker, Dora; Nicolaidis, Christina
This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of a culturally tailored, multi-faceted intervention that used motivational interviewing (MI) and case management to reduce depression severity among African American survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). We present the details of the intervention and discuss its implementation as a means of creating and providing culturally appropriate depression and violence services to African American women. We used a community-based participatory research approach to develop and evaluate the multi-faceted intervention. As part of the evaluation, we collected process measures about the use of MI, assessed MI fidelity, and interviewed participants about their experiences with the program.
Wahab, Stéphanie; Trimble, Jammie; Mejia, Angie; Mitchell, S. Renee; Thomas, Mary Jo; Timmons, Vanessa; Waters, A. Star; Raymaker, Dora; Nicolaidis, Christina
This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of a culturally-tailored, multi-faceted intervention which used motivational interviewing (MI) and case management to reduce depression severity among African American survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). We present the details of the intervention and discuss its implementation as a means of creating and providing culturally appropriate depression and violence services to African American women. We used a CBPR approach to develop and evaluate the multi-faceted intervention. As part of the evaluation, we collected process measures about the use of MI, assessed MI fidelity, and interviewed participants about their experiences with the program. PMID:24857557
Quist-Nelson, Johanna; Hua Parker, Meiling; Berghella, Vincenzo; Biba Nijjar, J
To evaluate whether Asian race is an independent risk factor for severe perineal lacerations. We performed a nationwide population-based retrospective cohort study examining the relationship between Asian race and severe perineal lacerations (third and fourth degree). The data were collected from the 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample (HCUP-NIS). Characteristics of Asian American women were compared with those of non-Asian women. The primary outcome of interest was severe perineal lacerations. Multivariable logistic regression was used to refine the associations between Asian race and severe perineal lacerations while adjusting for confounding effects. Results were compared with previously published data using a pooled odds ratio. 2,270,044 Women with singleton vaginal deliveries were identified, and 120,452 (5.3%) were Asian. After adjusting for confounders, Asian women were more likely to experience severe perineal lacerations than any other racial group (3.5% versus 6.3%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.50, 99% CI 1.29-1.74, p literature indicated that Asian American women are 74% more likely to experience severe perineal lacerations (aOR 1.74, 99% CI 1.72-1.76, p Asians. Asian race is an independent risk factor for severe perineal lacerations in the United States.
James, D C S; Harville, C; Efunbumi, O; Martin, M Y
Individuals with limited health literacy (LHL) have poorer health outcomes and have difficulty understanding and complying with recommendations to maintain a healthy lifestyle. The present study examined the association between health literacy (HL) and sources of dieting information, the weight-loss methods used and the information needed to manage weight among African American women. This mixed method study included seven focus groups and a survey of 413 African American women. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the association between HL category and sources of dieting information, weight-loss methods and information needed to lose weight. Thematic analysis was used to analyse focus group data. Women with LHL were significantly more likely to have a higher body mass index (BMI) than those with AHL (P health literacy (AHL) are more likely to rely on information obtained from the Internet (P physical activity to lose weight (P ≤ 0.002). In addition, women with AHL were significantly less likely to want information on portion control (P = 0.002). Major qualitative themes were the importance of television and the Internet as major sources of health information, the use of healthy and unhealthy weight-loss methods, and being overwhelmed by the plethora of dieting information. HL may affect BMI among AA women, where they access dieting information and the types of information needed to manage their weight. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna
Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of "disempowering parenting styles" that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescriptive parenting. Tied to these family dynamics is the double bind that participants suffer. Exposed to multiple types of negative parenting, the women felt paralyzed by opposing forces, caught between a deep desire to satisfy their parents' expectations as well as societal expectations and to simultaneously rebel against the image of "the perfect Asian woman." Torn by the double bind, these women developed a "fractured identity," which led to the use of "unsafe coping" strategies. Trapped in a "web of pain," the young women suffered alone and engaged in self-harm and suicidal behaviors.
Pascoa, Maria Beatriz Amorim
Because the production of scientific and technological innovations has been at the center of debates for economic growth, scientists are recognized as important actors in the current global market. In this study, I will examine the undergraduate education of future scientists by focusing on students working in research projects of faculty members. This research activity has been promoted by American and Brazilian public agencies as an attempt to attract more college students to scientific careers as well as to improve their future performance in science. Evaluations of these programs have focused on important quantitative indicators focusing mainly on the amount of students that later choose to pursue scientific careers. However, these studies fail to address important educational aspects of undergraduates' experience. In this research, I explore the educational processes taking place as students are introduced to the making of science in order to understand how and what they are learning. Three bodies of literature illuminates the formulation and the analysis of the research questions: (1) theories of globalization situate the education of scientists within the dynamics of a broader social, economic, cultural, and historical framework; (2) the critical pedagogy of Paulo Freire is the basis for the understanding of the pedagogical processes shaping undergraduate students' experiences within the research site; (3) Critical and Cultural Studies of Science and Technology illuminate the analysis of the complex interactions and practices constructed within the laboratory. In order to understand the educational processes shaping the experiences of undergraduate students engaged in research activities, I conducted a qualitative investigation based on participant-observation and in-depth interviews in an American and a Brazilian laboratories. The two sites constituted insightful case studies that illuminated the understanding of inquires about the training of students in
Cohen, Jessica; Ortiz, Olivia; Llaguno, Silvia Elena; Goodyear, Lorelei; Billings, Deborah; Martinez, Imelda
In Latin America, where restrictive laws limit women's access to safe abortion services, misoprostol is being used to induce abortions, often without correct information on dosage or regimens. This study in an unnamed Latin American country aimed to identify appropriate channels through which instructions on misoprostol use could be disseminated to women. In-depth interviews were carried out with physicians, pharmacy staff, women who had had safe abortions and women from the community, as well as focus group discussions with advocates of safe abortion. Participants considered physicians to be the most appropriate source of information and for ensuring confidentiality for both women and provider. Participants considered midwives, pharmacists and women's groups as appropriate referral points, but not providers of information. Legal restrictions and professional risk were the primary reasons why pharmacists rejected this role, though many are selling misoprostol. There was a general lack of information about misoprostol for medical abortion among both health professionals and women. Accurate information about misoprostol use for a wide range of gynaecologic and obstetric purposes, including induced abortion, could be incorporated into training and educational materials for physicians, midwives and other appropriate mid-level providers, as well as pharmacists. Without these alternative information channels, access to information would be severely restricted, especially in rural areas.
Hong, Hye Chong; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Park, Chang; Lee, Hyeonkyeong; Quinn, Lauretta; Collins, Eileen G
Korean American (KA) women continue to have lower breast cancer screening rates than other racial groups. Perceived discrimination and trust have been associated with breast cancer screening adherence, but little is known about the associations in KA women. Surveys were completed by 196 KA women in the Chicago metropolitan area. Multiple and Firth logistic regression analyses were performed to identify factors (perceived discrimination, trust, acculturation, cultural beliefs, health care access) influencing breast cancer screening adherence (mammogram). In addition, SPSS macro PROCESS was used to examine the mediating role of trust between perceived discrimination and breast cancer screening adherence. Ninety-three percent of the women surveyed had health insurance and 54% reported having a mammogram in the past 2 years. Predictors of having a mammogram were knowing where to go for a mammogram, having a regular doctor or usual place for health care, greater trust in health care providers, and lower distrust in the health care system. Perceived discrimination had an indirect effect on breast cancer screening through trust. The breast cancer screening rate among KA women is low. Perceived discrimination in health care, trust in health care providers, and distrust in the health care system directly or indirectly influenced breast cancer screening adherence in KA women. Trust is a factor that can be strengthened with educational interventions. Copyright © 2017 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Slaughter-Acey, Jaime C; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Misra, Dawn P
Racism has been hypothesized as a barrier to accessing health care. No quantitative study has directly assessed its influence on women's initiation of prenatal care (PNC). We examined the relationship between PNC entry and experiences of personal and group racism among low-income, African-American (AA) women. We also examined whether the use of denial of racism as a coping mechanism was associated with a delay in accessing PNC. Using a prospective/retrospective cohort design we collected data from 872 AA women (prenatally, n = 484; postpartum, n = 388). Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between the overall denial of racism index and PNC initiation. PNC entry was not associated with personal experiences of racism (p = .33); it was significantly associated with group experiences (p racism experienced by other AAs was a barrier to early PNC among low-income, AA women. Delayed access to PNC may be rooted in the avoidance of racialized experiences among less empowered women when faced with discrimination. Our findings have important implication for the engagement of AA women into the PNC delivery system and the health care system postpartum. Copyright © 2013 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kennedy, Bernice Roberts; Jenkins, Chalice C
African American women, including adolescents and adults, are disproportionately affected by the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). HIV/AID is a health disparity issue for African American females in comparison to other ethnic groups. According to data acquired from 33 states in 2005, 64% of women who have HIV/ AIDS are African American women. It is estimated that during 2001-2004, 61% of African Americans under the age of 25 had been living with HIV/AIDS. This article is an analytical review of the literature emphasizing sexual assertiveness of African American women and the gap that exists in research literature on this population. The multifaceted model of HIV risk posits that an interpersonal predictor of risky sexual behavior is sexual assertiveness. The critical themes extracted from a review of the literature reveal the following: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk in women, (b) sexual assertiveness and sexual communication are related, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at increased risk of HIV As a result of this comprehensive literature, future research studies need to use models in validating sexual assertiveness interventions in reducing the risk of HIV/AIDS in African American women. HIV/AIDs prevention interventions or future studies need to target reducing the risk factors of HIV/AIDS of African Americans focusing on gender and culture-specific strategies.
Sabik, Natalie J
Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals' self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism's associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Objectives. Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals’ self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. Method. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Discussion. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism’s associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. PMID:24013801
This article critically reviews the state of measurement of self-esteem in African American women. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory are three commonly used measures. However, their validity for African American women has not been adequately tested. Given the unique nature of the self-esteem of this group, related to experiences of racism and sexism, the accurate measurement of this construct is important. This review provided support for the internal consistency of each measure with alpha coefficients ranging from .74 to .87. However, the validity of the measures was not fully supported. Suggestions for further research specific to the unique needs of this population are discussed.
Mulvaney, F D; Brown, L S; Alterman, A I; Sage, R E; Cnaan, A; Cacciola, J; Rutherford, M
Six-month methadone-maintenance response and outcome were examined for African-American and Hispanic men and women in a large urban sample. A consistent pattern of improvement was indicated for both races and genders on the addiction severity index (ASI). There were virtually no statistically significant differences in ASI outcomes between Hispanics and African-Americans and men and women using conventional analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedures. Results from an additional equivalence analysis, however, indicated that baseline to 6-month changes for the different groups were generally not similar enough to consider them equivalent. Urine toxicologies obtained during the 6-month treatment period were also not statistically equivalent by race and gender. Evaluating outcomes by gender and race are discussed, as are the implications of using equivalence tests when examining group differences.
Muzny, Christina A; Harbison, Hanne S; Pembleton, Elizabeth S; Austin, Erika L
Women who have sex with women (WSW) and women who have sex with women and men (WSWM) are frequently perceived to be at low risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), although data show that their STI rates are similar to heterosexual women. Little research has examined sexual behaviors, perceptions of STI risk, and practice of safe sex among African American WSW/WSWM living in the Southern United States, a population of women likely to be at high risk for STIs. Focus group discussions were conducted with African American WSW/WSWM living in Birmingham, Alabama, to explore their sexual behaviors with women, perceptions of STI risk from female (and male) sexual partners, and practice of safe sex. Digital audio-recordings were transcribed and analyzed using HyperRESEARCH software. Seven focus groups were conducted between August 2011 and March 2012, with 29 total participants. Women reported a broad range of sexual behaviors with female partners. They were more aware of their risk for STI acquisition from male partners than from female partners and felt that their best options for safe sex in their relationships with women were practicing good hygiene and requiring proof of STI testing results. African American WSW/WSWM in this study were aware of their STI risk, more so with regard to men, and desired accurate information on safer sex options in their sexual relationships with women. Health care providers can assist these women by helping them apply their existing knowledge of heterosexual STI transmission to their female sexual partnerships.
Gullatte, Mary Magee; Brawley, Otis; Kinney, Anita; Powe, Barbara; Mooney, Kathi
African American women are more likely than any other racial or ethnic group to present with a later stage of breast cancer at initial diagnosis. Delay in breast cancer detection is a critical factor in diagnosis at a later stage. Available data indicate a delay of 3 months or more is a significant factor in breast cancer mortalty. Numerous factors have been reported as contributing to delay in time to seek medical care including religiosity, spirituality, and fatalistic beliefs. This study examined the influence of religiosity, spirituality, and cancer fatalism on delay in diagnosis and breast cancer stage in African American women with self-detected breast symptoms. A descriptive correlation, retrospective methodology using an open-ended questionnaire and three validated measurement scales were used: the Religious Problem Solving Scale (RPSS), the Religious Coping Activity Scale (RCAS) subscale measuring spiritually based coping, and the modified Powe Fatalism Inventory (mPFI). A convenience sample of 129 women ages between 30 and 84 years who self-reported detecting a breast symptom before diagnosis of breast cancer within the preceding 12 months were included in the study. Outcome variables were time to seek medical care and breast cancer stage. Other variables of interest included marital status, income, education, insurance status, and to whom the women spoke about their breast symptoms. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, logistic regression analysis, Pearson r correlations, Mann-Whitney U analysis, and Chi Square analysis. Participants were found to be highly religious and spiritual but not fatalistic. While most women delayed more than 3 months in seeking medical care, no associations were found between the three predictor variables and time to seek medical care. The median delay in time from self detection of a breast symptom to seeking medical care was 5.5 months. Women who were less educated, unmarried, and talked to God only about their
Duran, Bonnie; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka; Sanders, Margaret; Waitzkin, Howard; Skipper, Betty; Yager, Joel
To examine (1) the prevalence, types, and severity of child abuse and neglect (CAN) and (2) the relationship between CAN and lifetime psychiatric disorders among American Indian women using primary care services. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 234 American Indian women, age 18-45 who presented for outpatient ambulatory services at a community-based Indian Health Service Hospital in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Dependent measures included mood, substance abuse, and anxiety disorders as well as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. CAN was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Approximately three-quarters of respondents (76.5%; 95% CI = 70.4, 81.7) reported some type of childhood abuse or neglect; over 40% reported exposure to severe maltreatment. Severity of child maltreatment was associated in a dose response manner with lifetime diagnosis of mental disorders. After adjusting for social and demographic correlates, severe child maltreatment was strongly associated with lifetime PTSD (prevalence ratio [PR] 3.9; 95% CI = 1.9, 8.0); and was moderately associated with lifetime substance use disorders (PR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.6, 3.3); mood disorders (PR = 2.1; 95% CI 1.4, 3.2); and with two or more disorders (PR = 2.3; 95% CI = 1.6, 3.4). CAN was common in our sample of American Indian women in primary care and was positively associated with lifetime psychiatric disorders outcomes. Screening for CAN and psychiatric disorders would enhance the treatment of patients seeking primary care services. Primary prevention of child maltreatment might reduce the high prevalence of mental disorders among American Indian women.
Jallo, Nancy; Salyer, Jeanne; Ruiz, R Jeanne; French, Elise
Maternal stress during pregnancy has been associated with numerous adverse pregnancy, birth, and health outcomes. Pregnant African American women have been reported to have higher levels of stress compared to other ethnic or racial groups underscoring the need for effective interventions to reduce stress in this population. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of guided imagery (GI) as a technique for stress management in a cohort of pregnant African American women who participated in a GI intervention as part of a larger mixed methods randomized controlled trial. The 12week intervention was a professionally recorded compact disc with four tracks developed and sequenced to reduce stress and associated symptoms. The findings from this descriptive phenomenologic study were derived from daily logs and interviews from 36 participants randomized to the GI group. Participants described the stressful nature of their lives. Results demonstrated pregnant African American women perceived the intervention as beneficial in reducing stress and the associated symptoms. The emergent themes suggested the intervention offered a respite from their stressful lives, reduced the negative emotional responses to stress and enhanced well-being, benefited other areas of their daily life, and provided an opportunity to connect with their baby. The study results support the perceived efficacy of GI as a stress coping intervention. GI is an economic as well as easy to implement, access and use technique that has potential stress coping benefits as perceived by pregnant African American women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Congello, Neomie Ceta
Healthy lifestyle behaviors such as engaging in physical activity (PA) may reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the number one cause of mortality among Mexican American women (MAW). Research findings show that MAW have low levels of leisure time PA and vary in the amount of overall PA. The influence of partner support has received little attention in studies examining predictors of PA. This cross sectional study investigated factors influencing PA among MAW aged 19 to 64 years...
Gerber, Ben; Davis, Kara; Wideman, Danita; Berbaum, Michael
Two urban churches received touch-screen computers with health education software installed. The software included a multimedia application on diabetes risk factor reduction tailored for African-American women. A “Computer Promoter” was recruited at each church to encourage computer use and provide basic technical support. After one year following implementation, two focus groups of congregants discussed barriers to computer use. Computer usage was related to church leadersh...
Boggs, Deborah A; Ban, Yulun; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn
Diet quality has been inversely associated with overall mortality in white populations, but the evidence in African-American populations is limited. The goal of the present study was to assess diet quality in relation to all-cause mortality in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of African-American women begun in 1995. Data used in this study were obtained via biennial questionnaires from 1995 to 2011. Based on food-frequency questionnaire data collected in 1995 and 2001, we calculated an index-based diet quality score [Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)] and derived dietary patterns (prudent and Western) with the use of factor analysis. We followed 37,001 women who were aged 30-69 y and free of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes at baseline for mortality through 2011. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Based on a total of 1678 deaths during 16 y of follow-up, higher DASH scores were associated with reduced all-cause mortality (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.89 for highest vs. lowest quintiles). The DASH components most strongly associated with lower mortality were high intake of whole grains and low intake of red and processed meat. A Western dietary pattern, characterized by high intake of red and processed meat, was associated with increased all-cause mortality rates (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.60 for highest vs. lowest quintiles of score); a prudent dietary pattern was not associated with risk. A DASH-style diet high in intake of whole grains and low in consumption of red meat is associated with reduced mortality rates in healthy African-American women. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Sharon K. Davis
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent emphasis has been placed on elucidating the biologic mechanism linking socioeconomic status (SES to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Positive associations of inflammatory biomarkers provide evidence suggestive of a biologic pathway by which SES may predispose to CVD. African Americans have disproportionately lower SES and have a higher prevalence of CVD risk factors compared to most ethnic/racial groups. Adiponectin (an anti-inflammatory marker is also lower. The objective of this study was to assess the association of adiponectin with SES among African American men and women using the Jackson Heart Study. Methods Study sample included 4340 participants. Linear regression was performed separately by SES and stratified by sex. Annual household income and level of education was used as proxies for SES. Crude, age, health behavior and health status adjusted models were analyzed. The main outcome was log-transformed adiponectin. Results Men in the lowest income group had significantly higher adiponectin than those in the highest income group in the fully adjusted model (ß/standard error [se], p value = .16/.08, p = .0008. Men with < high school level of education had significantly higher adiponectin in the crude and age adjusted models than those with ≥ college degree (.25/.05, p < .0001; .14/.05/ p = .005, respectively. Women with some college or vocational training in the crude and age adjusted models had lower adiponectin compared to women with ≥ college degree (−.09/.03, p = .004; −.06/.03, p = .04, respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest a potential inverse biologic pathway between annual household income and adiponectin among African American men. There was no such finding among women. Findings suggest interventions should be targeted for higher SES African American men to improve adiponectin levels.
Full Text Available Spirituality seems to be an important cultural factor for African American women when thinking about their health. It is, however, not clear how spiritual health locus of control (SLOC impacts health-related outcomes in the context of health message processing models, such as the Extended Parallel Process and the Risk Perception Attitude framework. Using a survey of African American and Caucasian women in the context of breast cancer, the role of SLOC and its interactions with perceived efficacy and risk was examined on four health outcomes—message acceptance, talking about breast cancer, information seeking, and behavioral intentions. For African American women, SLOC had a positive impact for talking about breast cancer through an interaction with risk and efficacy such that women high in both SLOC and perceived efficacy, but low in perceived risk were more likely to talk about breast cancer than when efficacy was low. However, high SLOC exacerbated the negative effects of efficacy on talking about breast cancer regardless of the risk level for Caucasian women. SLOC also had a positive influence on attending to breast cancer information in the media for African American women. SLOC played no role in attending to breast cancer information for Caucasian women. Interestingly, SLOC played no role for African American women on behavioral intentions, however, it worked to decrease behavioral intentions for Caucasian women when risk was high.
Full Text Available Spirituality seems to be an important cultural factor for African American women when thinking about their health. It is, however, not clear how spiritual health locus of control (SLOC impacts health-related outcomes in the context of health message processing models, such as the Extended Parallel Process and the Risk Perception Attitude framework. Using a survey of African American and Caucasian women in the context of breast cancer, the role of SLOC and its interactions with perceived efficacy and risk was examined on four health outcomes–-message acceptance, talking about breast cancer, information seeking, and behavioral intentions. For African American women, SLOC had a positive impact for talking about breast cancer through an interaction with risk and efficacy such that women high in both SLOC and perceived efficacy, but low in perceived risk were more likely to talk about breast cancer than when efficacy was low. However, high SLOC exacerbated the negative effects of efficacy on talking about breast cancer regardless of the risk level for Caucasian women. SLOC also had a positive influence on attending to breast cancer information in the media for African American women. SLOC played no role in attending to breast cancer information for Caucasian women. Interestingly, SLOC played no role for African American women on behavioral intentions, however, it worked to decrease behavioral intentions for Caucasian women when risk was high.
Jiang, Yun; Sereika, Susan M; Bender, Catherine M; Brufsky, Adam M; Rosenzweig, Margaret Q
To examine beliefs regarding the necessity of chemotherapy and knowledge of breast cancer and its treatment in African American women with newly diagnosed breast cancer, and to explore factors associated with women's beliefs and knowledge. . Descriptive, cross-sectional study. . Six urban cancer centers in Western Pennsylvania and Eastern Ohio. . 101 African American women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. . Secondary analysis using baseline data collected from participants in a randomized, controlled trial at their first medical oncology visit before the first cycle of chemotherapy. . Belief in chemotherapy, knowledge of cancer and recommended treatment, self-efficacy, healthcare system distrust, interpersonal processes of care, symptom distress, and quality of life. . African American women endorsed the necessity of chemotherapy. Most women did not know their tumor size, hormone receptors, specific therapy, or why chemotherapy was recommended to them. Women who perceived better interpersonal communication with physicians, less self-efficacy, or were less involved in their own treatment decision making held stronger beliefs about the necessity of chemotherapy. Women without financial difficulty or having stronger social functioning had more knowledge of their cancer and recommended chemotherapy. . African American women with newly diagnosed breast cancer generally agreed with the necessity of chemotherapy. Knowledge of breast cancer, treatment, and risk reduction through adjuvant therapy was limited. . Oncology nurses could help advocate for tailored educational programs to support informed decision making regarding chemotherapy acceptance for African American women.
Estes, Jr., Maurice G.; Perkey, Donald J.; Coleman, T. L.
The primary objective of the HSCaRS Summer Enrichment Program (SEP) is to make significant contributions to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) and the Alabama A&M University (AAMU) Center for Hydrology, Soil Climatology and Remote Sensing (HSCaRS) research missions by providing undergraduate student research internships with an emphasis on minority and women students. Additional objectives are to encourage more minority and women students to pursue advanced degrees in Earth system and global change science and to increase the participation of minority institutions in the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Also, the SEP strives to make students in the traditional science disciplines more aware of the opportunities in Earth System Science. In designing the SEP, it was acknowledged that HSCaRS was a new research effort and Center. Consequently, students were not expected to immediately recognize the Center as one would older, more established research laboratories with national reputations, such as Los Alamos, Battelle, National Consortium for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), etc. Yet we still wanted to compete nationally for the best students. Therefore, we designed the program with a competitive financial package that includes a stipend of $400 per week, round-trip transportation from home to the summer research site, and free campus housing and meal plans provided by Alabama A&M University. Students also received a modest living allowance of approximately $25 per week. The internship program was 10 weeks in residence at Alabama A&M University or IGCRE, and gave students the opportunity to select from six general research areas: micro-meteorology, soil data analysis, soil moisture modeling, instrumentation, geographic information systems, and computer science. Student participants also enrolled in an introductory global change science course as part of the summer program (a copy of the course outline is in the appendix). The program included participation in a
Jerrett, Michael; Brook, Robert; White, Laura F; Burnett, Richard T; Yu, Jeffrey; Su, Jason; Seto, Edmund; Marshall, Julian; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Coogan, Patricia F
Ozone is a ubiquitous air pollutant with increasing concentrations in many populous regions. Toxicological studies show that ozone can cause oxidative stress and increase insulin resistance. These pathways may contribute to metabolic changes and diabetes formation. In this paper, we investigate the association between ozone and incident type 2 diabetes in a large cohort of African American women. We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident type 2 diabetes associated with exposure to ozone in a cohort of 45,231 African American women living in 56 metropolitan areas across the United States. Ozone levels were estimated using the U.S. EPA Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) predictions fused with ground measurements at a resolution of 12km for the years 2007-2008. The HR per interquartile range increment of 6.7ppb of ozone was 1.18 (95% CI 1.04-1.34) for incident diabetes in adjusted models. This association was unaltered in models that controlled for fine particulate matter with diameter ozone levels were larger in areas of lower NO 2 . Our results provide initial evidence of a positive association between O 3 and incident diabetes in African American women. Given the ubiquity of ozone exposure and the importance of diabetes on quality of life and survival, these results may have important implications for the protection of public health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sun S. Kim
Full Text Available This study compares psychometric properties of the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND and Autonomy over Tobacco Scale (AUTOS, which are measures of nicotine dependence. This study is a secondary analysis of data obtained from a smoking cessation study conducted with 49 Korean American women. We compared the FTND and AUTOS assessed at baseline regarding their internal consistency reliability and concurrent and predictive validities. The AUTOS outperformed the FTND in reliability and concurrent validity by yielding a higher Cronbach’s alpha and having significant relationships with smoking-related variables such as age at smoking onset, perceived risks of quitting, and self-efficacy in quitting. In contrast, there was no relationship between the FTND and any of the variables. Both measures had a significant relationship with post-quit nicotine withdrawal symptoms but failed to predict abstinence at follow-ups. The AUTOS seems to be a better assessment tool for Korean American women than the FTND. Before fully adopting the AUTOS as a measure of nicotine dependence for this group, factor structure of the scale should be tested with a larger sample of Korean American women.
Heiney, Sue P; Hilfinger Messias, DeAnne K; Felder, Tisha M; Phelps, Kenneth W; Quinn, Jada C
To explore African American women's recollected experiences of breast cancer treatment. . Qualitative description and narrative analysis. . South Carolina Oncology Associates, an outpatient oncology clinic serving rural and urban populations. . 16 African American women with breast cancer previously enrolled in the control arm (n = 93) of a completed randomized, controlled trial. . Feminist narrative analysis of in-depth individual interviews. . The authors identified three themes within the African American breast cancer survivors' recollected experiences of treatment adherence. Although little evidence was presented of shared decision making with providers, patients were committed to completing the prescribed therapies. The narratives highlighted the value of in-depth examination of patients' perspectives, particularly among minority and underserved groups. With the exception of voicing personal choice of surgical treatment, the women trusted providers' recommendations with a resolve to "just do it." Although trust may enhance treatment adherence, it may also reflect power differentials based on gender, race, education, and culture. . Nurses should listen to patients describe their experience with cancer treatment and compare the themes from this study with their patients' story. This comparison will help nurses support patients through various aspect of diagnosis and treatment.
Ault, Phyllis Campbell
Native Americans, and particularly Native women, are not proportionally represented in higher education, or in science, mathematics, technology, and engineering fields. This study examined an out-of-school science education program which combined traditional Native American cultural and ecological knowledge with Western science in conducting authentic field studies. A qualitative, embedded case study approach was used to explore how young Native American women were influenced by an out-of-school program integrating a culturally responsive approach and experiential research projects. Within this context of combined cultures, three significant domains emerged: field study in science, sense of place, and networks of supportive relationships. These domains interacted with the aspirations of the eight Native women in the study. Using interview transcripts, reflective writings, and participant data, the study explored the blending of Indigenous and Western science in "communities of practice" (e.g., fisheries biology, restoration ecology, and forestry). The eight Native women in this study participated as young adolescents and later returned as counselors. Interviews focused on their postsecondary aspirations and choices. Findings validated previous research on the value of infusing Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Western science for Native students. The study found the combination of culturally responsive pedagogy and authentic experiences in "communities-of-practice" held a beneficial influence on postsecondary pathways. The importance of respect and friendships fostered through the program was associated with resilience and perseverance in educational aspirations. Immersion in field study with Native peers as well as Native and non-Native researchers was a catalyst for all the women, in a number of different ways, such as: deeper involvement with the Native community, strengthening cultural and academic identity, inspiration to learn more about their cultural
Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Peters, Rosalind M; Johnson, Dayna A; Li, Jia; Rao, D Sudhaker
Vitamin D deficiency is associated with depression; however, no studies have examined the relationship of vitamin D and antenatal depression. Antenatal depression increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and poorer postpartum maternal and infant health. African American women are at increased risk for vitamin D deficiency and antenatal depression. Thus, we examined if early pregnancy vitamin D nutrition (VDN) was associated with antenatal depressive symptoms among African American women in the second trimester of pregnancy. Women (n=178) were recruited from obstetrics clinics of a large health system. VDN was assessed by serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD). Depression symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale; CES-D≥16 equates with criteria for clinical depression. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of log-transformed 25-OHD and elevated depression symptoms (CES-D≥16). Mean 25-OHD was 13.4±8.4 ng/mL; most women (82.6%, n=147) were vitamin D inadequate or deficient (25-OHDclinical depression. A significant inverse relationship was found between log (25-OHD) and CES-D≥16 (odds ratio [OR] 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29-0.99, p=0.046). For every 1-unit increase in log (25-OHD) (corresponding to ~2.72 ng/mL increase in 25-OHD), the odds of CES-D≥16 decreased by 46%. African American women with lower VDN exhibit increased depressive symptoms. Research on vitamin D supplementation for reducing antenatal depressive symptoms is needed.
Nodora, Jesse N; Cooper, Renee; Talavera, Gregory A; Gallo, Linda; Meza Montenegro, María Mercedes; Komenaka, Ian; Natarajan, Loki; Gutiérrez Millán, Luis Enrique; Daneri-Navarro, Adrian; Bondy, Melissa; Brewster, Abenaa; Thompson, Patricia; Martinez, María Elena
Incidence rates for breast cancer are higher among Mexican-American (MA) women in the United States than women living in Mexico. Studies have shown higher prevalence of breast cancer risk factors in more acculturated than less acculturated Hispanic/Latinas in the United States. We compared the prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer by level of acculturation and country of residence in women of Mexican descent. Data were collected from 1,201 newly diagnosed breast cancer patients living in Mexico (n = 581) and MAs in the United States (n = 620). MA participants were categorized into three acculturation groups (Spanish dominant, bilingual, and English dominant); women living in Mexico were used as the referent group. The prevalence of behavioral risk factors and family history of breast cancer were assessed according to acculturation level, adjusting for age at diagnosis and education. In the adjusted models, bilingual and English-dominant MAs were significantly more likely to have a body mass index of 30 kg/m(2) or greater, consume more than one alcoholic beverage a week, and report having a family history of breast cancer than women living in Mexico. All three U.S. acculturation groups were significantly more likely to have lower total energy expenditure (≤533 kcal/d) than women in Mexico. English-dominant women were significantly less likely to ever smoke cigarettes than the Mexican group. Our findings add to the limited scientific literature on the relationships among acculturation, health behavior, and family history of breast cancer in Mexican and MA women. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Thompson-Miller, Ruth; Picca, Leslie H
Using data from 92 interviews, this article examines the narratives of African Americans' experiences as children and young adults during Jim Crow in the Southeast and Southwest. It gives voice to the realities of sexual assaults committed by ordinary White men who systematically terrorized African American families with impunity after the post-Reconstruction south until the 1960s. The interviewees discuss the short- and long-term impact of physical, mental, emotional, and sexual assaults in their communities. We discuss the top four prevalent themes that emerged related to sexual assault, specifically (a) the normalization of sexual assaults, (b) protective measures to avoid White violence, (c) the morality of African American women, and (d) the long-term consequences of assaults on children. © The Author(s) 2016.
Clara CORTINA TRILLA
Full Text Available During the last decade, international immigration flows have undergone a dramatic growth in Spain. In this particular context, the purpose of this article is to analyze whether Latin American female migrants residing in Spain largely maintain nuptial and reproductive patterns from their countries of origin. To analyze the prevalence of consensual unions we use three different databases: the Spanish Immigration Survey, the Spanish Labour Force Survey and birth records, all of them corresponding to 2007 and collected by the Spanish Statistical Institute. The study documents the high prevalence of consensual unions among Latin American migrants. Regarding the socio-demographic factors influencing cohabitation, our results show important similarities between Spanish and Latin American women, except for educational attainment.
Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Dancy, Barbara L; Park, Chang G; Dieber, William; Block, Richard
To (a) examine the relationships among objective and perceived indicators of neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and gestational age at birth; (b) determine if neighborhood environment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress; (c) determine if neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, and psychological distress predicted preterm birth; and (d) determine if psychological distress mediated the effects of neighborhood environment and racial discrimination on preterm birth. Descriptive correlational comparative. Postpartum unit of a medical center in Chicago. African American women (n(1) = 33 with preterm birth; n(2) = 39 with full-term birth). Women completed the instruments 24 to 72 hours after birth. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Women who reported higher levels of perceived social and physical disorder and perceived crime also reported higher levels of psychological distress. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also had higher levels of psychological distress. Objective social disorder and perceived crime predicted psychological distress. Objective physical disorder and psychological distress predicted preterm birth. Psychological distress mediated the effect of objective social disorder and perceived crime on preterm birth. Women's neighborhood environments and racial discrimination were related to psychological distress, and these factors may increase the risk for preterm birth. © 2012 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.
Fowler, Barbara Ann
To describe the social processes used by African American (AA) women ages > or = 50 years in making decisions about mammography screening. Grounded theory methodology. Tape-recorded interviews with a researcher-designed, semi-structured interview guide with an initial and theoretical sample of 30 AA women ages 52 to 71 of diverse socioeconomic status. Interviews occurred in various settings such as the church rectory, women's homes, and work settings. Extensive written field notes and tapes were transcribed verbatim immediately after the interviews by an experienced transcriptionist. The women's decisions about mammography screening were associated with five social processes: (a) acknowledging prior experiences with healthcare providers and systems; (b) reporting fears and fatalistic beliefs of breast cancer and related treatment; (c) valuing the opinions of significant others; (d) relying on religious beliefs and supports; and (e) caregiving responsibilities of significant others. The processes were further differentiated by three distinct decision-making styles: taking charge, enduring, and protesting. Each of the social processes was reported equally and emphasized by the diverse sample of AA women in decisions related to mammography screening. Mammography screening decisions were heavily influenced by caregiving responsibilities. Further research is needed to explain and understand this social process on the health and well-being of AA women over time.
Nguyen, Anh B; Clark, Trenette T; Belgrave, Faye Z
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic variables and the interplay between gender roles and acculturation on breast and cervical cancer screening outcomes among Vietnamese American women. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 100 Vietnamese women from the Richmond, VA, metropolitan area. Women were recruited to participate in a larger cancer screening intervention. All participants completed measures on demographic variables, gender roles, acculturation, and cancer screening variables. Findings indicated that traditional masculine gender roles were associated with increased self-efficacy for breast and cervical cancer screening. Higher levels of acculturation were associated with higher probability of having had a Papanicolaou test. In addition, acculturation moderated the relationship between traditional female gender roles and cancer screening variables. For highly acculturated women, higher levels of feminine gender roles predicted higher probability of having had a previous clinical breast exam and higher levels of self-efficacy for cervical cancer screening, while the opposite was true for lower acculturated women. The findings of this study indicate the important roles that sociodemographic variables, gender roles, and acculturation play in affecting health attitudes and behaviors among Vietnamese women. These findings also help to identify a potentially high-risk subgroup and existing gaps that need to be targeted by preventive interventions.
Wagner, Julie A.; Osborn, Chandra Y.; Mendenhall, Emily A.; Budris, Lisa M.; Belay, Sophia; Tennen, Howard A.
Exposure to racism has been linked to poor health outcomes. Little is known about the impact of racism on diabetes outcomes. This study explored African American (AA) women’s beliefs about how racism interacts with their diabetes self-management and control. Four focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 28 adult AA women with type 2 diabetes who were recruited from a larger quantitative study on racism and diabetes. The focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim and analyzed by the authors. Women reported that exposure to racism was a common phenomenon, and their beliefs did in fact link racism to poor health. Specifically, women reported that exposure to racism caused physiological arousal including cardiovascular and metabolic perturbations. There was consensus that physiological arousal was generally detrimental to health. Women also described limited, and in some cases maladaptive, strategies to cope with racist events including eating unhealthy food choices and portions. There was consensus that the subjective nature of perceiving racism and accompanying social prohibitions often made it impossible to address racism directly. Many women described anger in such situations, and the tendency to internalize anger and other negative emotions, only to find that the negative emotions would be reactivated repeatedly with exposure to novel racial stressors, even long after the original racist event remitted. AA women in this study believed that racism affects their diabetes self-management and control. Health beliefs can exert powerful effects on health behaviors and may provide an opportunity for health promotion interventions in diabetes. PMID:21528110
González-Juárez, Liliana; Noreña-Peña, Ana Lucía
OBJECTIVE: to describe the experience of Latin American working women regarding immigration, taking into account the expectations and conditions in which this process takes place. METHOD: ethnographic qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 Latin American immigrant women in Spain. The information collected was triangulated through two focal groups. RESULTS: the expectations of migrant women focus on improving family living conditions. Social support is essential for their settling and to perform daily life activities. They declare they have adapted to the settlement country, although they live with stress. They perceive they have greater sexual freedom and power with their partners but keep greater responsibility in childcare, combining that with the role of working woman. CONCLUSIONS: migrant women play a key role in the survival of households, they build and create new meanings about being a woman, their understanding of life, their social and couple relationships. Such importance is shaped by their expectations and the conditions in which the migration process takes place, as well as their work integration. PMID:25493683
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to describe the experience of Latin American working women regarding immigration, taking into account the expectations and conditions in which this process takes place.METHOD: ethnographic qualitative study. Data collection was performed by means of semi-structured interviews with 24 Latin American immigrant women in Spain. The information collected was triangulated through two focal groups.RESULTS: the expectations of migrant women focus on improving family living conditions. Social support is essential for their settling and to perform daily life activities. They declare they have adapted to the settlement country, although they live with stress. They perceive they have greater sexual freedom and power with their partners but keep greater responsibility in childcare, combining that with the role of working woman.CONCLUSIONS: migrant women play a key role in the survival of households, they build and create new meanings about being a woman, their understanding of life, their social and couple relationships. Such importance is shaped by their expectations and the conditions in which the migration process takes place, as well as their work integration.
Zollinger, Terrell W; Champion, Victoria L; Monahan, Patrick O; Steele-Moses, Susan K; Ziner, Kim W; Zhao, Qianqian; Bourff, Sara A; Saywell, Robert M; Russell, Kathleen M
This study measured the effect of demographic and clinical characteristics on health and cultural beliefs related to mammography. Cross-sectional study. Interviews were conducted during 2003 and 2004 in a Midwestern urban area. Subjects were 344 low-income African-American women 40 years and older who had not had mammography within the previous 18 months. The instrument measured personal characteristics, belief and knowledge scales, and participants' mammography experience and plans. Multiple regression analysis assessed the effect of specific demographic and clinical characteristics on each of the scale values and on subjects' stages of readiness to change. The subjects' levels of education significantly affected six of the 12 belief and knowledge scales. Higher-educated women felt less susceptible to breast cancer, had higher self-efficacy, had less fear, had lower fatalism scores, were less likely to be present-time oriented, and were more knowledgeable about breast cancer. Older women felt they were less susceptible to breast cancer, had higher fatalism scores, were more present-time oriented, and were less knowledgeable about breast cancer. The findings suggest that mammography promotion programs for African-Americans should consider the education levels and ages of the target women to be most effective.
Moxley, David P; Washington, Olivia G M
In a midwestern city of the USA, the authors implemented the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project-and its eight subprojects-to further understand homelessness as experienced by older minority women, develop intervention strategies to facilitate the movement of the participants out of homelessness, and illuminate the women's recovery process. After reviewing the social issue of homelessness among older African American women in the USA, and offering a framework on recovery and qualitative themes of recovery among participants involved in the Telling My Story subproject, the authors present a four-factor model of recovery-focused practice. The model reflects two recovery paradigms: one that is responsive to the negative consequences people experience as a result of their exposure to extreme situations, such as homelessness, and a proactive one in which assistance is designed to help people in recovery advance their own self-development and move forward their process of individuation.
Sullivan, Jill M
This study is an investigation of the contributions of women's military bands in the United States to the reconditioning of the injured American troops during World War II. Primary and secondary sources revealed that these bands welcomed home hospital ships, performed for convalescing soldiers in hospitals, and provided music for hospital dances. While each of the bands investigated served in similar capacities, only one, the 403rd Women's Army Corps (WAC) Band, was stationed at a hospital. While entertainment by women's bands was an important part of the Army Reconditioning Program for the injured, the study also revealed a working partnership that developed between these musicians and the medical community. Sixty years after the war, band members believe their performances in hospitals were the most important contribution of their service. Some historians have concluded that music used in military hospitals during the war was the impetus for the music therapy profession.
Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhao, Xiaoquan; Kreps, Gary L; Lee, Eunice E
Despite the high risk of cancer to the population, Korean Americans are known to have lower knowledge about cancer related information and a lower level of adherence to cancer prevention guidelines. This indicates the necessity of cancer interventions targeting the Korean American population. To reach this population effectively, it is imperative to understand Korean Americans' cancer information seeking behaviors. This study (a) identified cancer information sources that are trusted and used by Korean American women and (b) examined how general media exposure and trust in cancer information sources are related to the use of these sources. It also (c) explored perceived usefulness and limitations of cancer information sources. A mixed methods study using seven focus group interviews with 34 Korean American women and surveys with 152 Korean American women was conducted in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area from 2011 to 2012. The results indicate that Korean American women viewed health care professionals as the most trusted cancer information source but used the Internet and Korean ethnic media more often for cancer information seeking because of language, cultural, and economic barriers. Korean American women were most likely to obtain cancer information from media they used frequently for general purposes. Correlations between usage frequency and trust in doctor/health providers and the Internet as cancer information sources were negligible. When seeking cancer information, important factors for Korean American women were accessibility, affordability, and language proficiency, cultural sensitivity, meeting immediate needs, understandability, convenience, and reliability of cancer information sources. Findings from this study support developing interventions using Korean language media, including print, television and the Internet for health promotion and cancer prevention targeting Korean American women.
Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A; Menon, Usha
Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during February-June, 2011. The authors conducted a cross-sectional, anonymous survey online. Dependent variables included mental health (depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms) and substance use (alcohol problems, use of tobacco, marijuana or hashish, and other illegal drugs). Students' perceived discrimination were significantly, positively associated with depressive, anxiety, and somatic symptoms, but not with substance use. Ethnic identity moderated the relationship between perceived discrimination and somatic symptoms, but not depressive or anxiety symptoms. These findings suggested the negative effect of racial discrimination on API students' mental health. The buffering effect of ethnic identity may increase resilience in these students when they face racial discrimination.
This booklet presents the lives of 17 Mexican American women and institutions that have made significant contributions to Mexican society from past to present day culture. The biographies cover the following women and institutions: Eulalia Arrila de Perez, Dona Maria del Carmen Calvillo, Jovita Idar, Maria Hernandez, Alicia Dickerson Montemayor,…
Robillard, Alyssa; Padi, Akhila; Lewis, Kaleea; Julious, Carmen; Troutman, Jamie
Large disparities in HIV incidence, prevalence and mortality exist for African-American women, especially in the southern region of the USA. Based on the culture-centric health promotion model, HIV-positive African American women can use their stories to support primary prevention. The purpose of this study was to document advice from HIV-positive African-American women (n = 25) to young African-American women, as described in their own cultural narratives collected through qualitative interviews. Content analysis of women's advice identified five common themes revolving broadly around: (1) advice for prevention, (2) support systems for prevention, (3) education, (4) empowerment/self-care and (5) potential barriers to prevention. Advice reflected recommendations based on personal experience and highlighted social determinants linked to HIV, such as stigma, access to education and healthcare, social support, and gender and power dynamics. Women also offered advice for coping with an HIV-positive diagnosis. Communication with parents, family and friends regarding education and social support emerged as an important interpersonal factor for participants, as were interactions with sexual/romantic partners. Stigma, at the community level, was consistently discussed as a hindrance to prevention. Narratives of HIV-positive women as community health agents of change can enhance the effectiveness of HIV prevention interventions for young US African-American women.
Maxwell, Annette E
The purpose of this study is to design an intervention to assist Korean American women who have been identified with a potential breast abnormality through the Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BCEDP...
Cummins, Lillian Huang; Lehman, Janice
Eating disorders are one of the most lethal psychiatric illnesses and affect millions of individuals worldwide. While they have been more typically attributed to middle class, Caucasian, adolescent females, current research suggests that there is a similar prevalence of eating disorders and their symptoms, especially body dissatisfaction, among Asian American girls and women. Despite this, very little research has investigated how culture and gender may impact the assessment and treatment of eating disorders for Asian American women. This review examines the literature on the prevalence of eating disorders and negative body image in Asian American women and describes current research on the efficacy of a variety of theoretical approaches for treatment, including psychodynamic, cognitive-behavioral, and feminist perspectives. Recommendations for considering culture and gender when working clinically with Asian American women who experience eating concerns as well as suggestions for future research directions are provided.
The purpose of this study is to design and test an intervention to assist Korean American women who have been identified with a potential breast abnormality through the Breast Cancer Early Detection Program (BCEDP...
Andrea K. Johnson
Full Text Available Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone min-eral density (BMD among African-American and Caucasian college-aged wom-en are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race.Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50 and Caucasian (n=51 females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables.Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116] and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129] were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098] and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134] were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD.Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors.
Jun, Myunghee; Thongpriwan, Vipavee; Choi, Jeeyae; Sook Choi, Kyung; Anderson, Gwen
to understand the prenatal genetic testing decision-making processes among pregnant Korean-American women. a qualitative, descriptive research design. referrals and snowball sampling techniques were used to recruit 10 Korean-American women who had been recommended for amniocentesis during pregnancy in the United States (U.S.). All participants were born in Korea and had immigrated to the U.S. The number of years living in the U.S. ranged from 4 to 11 (M=5.7). various regional areas of the U.S. the researchers conducted face-to-face or phone interviews using semi-structured interview guides. The interviews were conducted in the Korean language and lasted approximately 50-100minutes. The interview guides focused on the decision-making process and experiences with prenatal genetic testing, as well as reflections on the decisions. Four core themes emerged related to the participants' decision-making processes, according to their descriptions. These themes are (1) facing the challenges of decision-making, (2) seeking support, (3) determining one's preferred role in the decision-making process, and (4) feeling uncomfortable with the degree of patient autonomy in U.S. health care. researchers concluded that many distinctive factors influence the decision-making processes used by pregnant Korean-American women. The results have the potential to improve shared decision-making practices regarding prenatal genetic testing. clinicians need to understand the sociocultural underpinnings of pregnant Korean-American immigrants regarding prenatal genetic screening and testing as an initial step to engage these patients in shared decision-making. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Freedman, Rachel E K; Carter, Michele M; Sbrocco, Tracy; Gray, James J
Racial differences in men's preferences for African-American and Caucasian women's body size and shape were examined. As expected, there was a trend for African-American men to choose ideal figures with a lower waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), which is associated with a more curvaceous figure. Contrary to expectations, however, African-American men did not choose heavier female figures as ideal. In fact, both groups chose underweight and normal weight figures as ideal. The results from this study suggest that while preferences for WHR may continue to be associated with cultural factors, African-American and Caucasian men may have become more similar than different in their preferences for female weight. Also, the results suggest that within the African-American sample, there were two subsamples with regard to WHR preferences, with one subgroup endorsing the same ideal WHR as their Caucasian counterparts. The results are discussed in terms of possible changes to cultural values that may be reflected in a change in what is considered attractive.
Holt, Cheryl L; Le, Daisy; Calvanelli, Joe; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M; Roth, David L; Williams, Beverly; Schulz, Emily
The purpose of this article is to describe participant demographic factors related to retention, and to report on retention strategies in a national study of African Americans re-contacted 2.5 years after an initial baseline telephone interview. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study was originally developed as a cross-sectional telephone survey to examine relationships between religious involvement and health-related factors in a national sample of African Americans. The cohort was re-contacted on average of 2.5 years later for a follow-up interview. RHIAA participants were 2,803 African American men (1,202) and women (1,601). RHIAA used retention strategies consistent with recommendations from Hunt and White. Participants also received a lay summary of project findings. Retention at the follow-up interview. Retention rates ranged from 39%- 41%. Retained participants tended to be older and female. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, retained participants were more educated, single, and in better health status than those not retained. There was no difference in religious involvement in adjusted analyses. Although overall retention rates are lower than comparable longitudinal studies, RHIAA was not originally designed as a longitudinal study and so lacked a number of structures associated with long-term studies. However, this project illustrates the feasibility of conducting lengthy cold call telephone interviews with an African American population and helps to identify some participant factors related to retention and study strategies that may aid in retention.
Gallo, Linda C.
Background Mexican-American women are disproportionately vulnerable to cardio-metabolic dysfunction and related health conditions such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Research shows that low socioeconomic status contributes to this populations excess vulnerability to cardio-metabolic dysfunction, but little is known about the contribution of cultural factors to these associations. Purpose The current study explored the association between fatalism and cardio-metabolic dysfunction in a randomly selected community cohort of middle-aged Mexican–American women and examined whether fatalism could be conceptualized as a pathway linking socioeconomic status to cardio-metabolic dysfunction in this population. Method Participants included 300 women (ages 40–65), recruited from San Diego communities located near the Mexican border, who completed a self-administered survey battery and underwent a fasting clinical exam between the years 2006 and 2009. Results Linear regression analyses and mediation analyses utilizing bootstrapping procedures were performed to test study hypotheses. After controlling for age, menopausal status, and acculturation level, fatalism was associated with cardio-metabolic dysfunction. Although slightly attenuated, this relationship persisted after accounting for socioeconomic status. In addition, individuals of low socioeconomic status displayed more fatalistic beliefs and higher cardio-metabolic dysfunction after accounting for relevant covariates. Finally, the indirect effect of socioeconomic status on cardio-metabolic dysfunction via fatalism reached statistical significance. Conclusions Fatalism may be an important independent risk factor for cardio-metabolic dysfunction in Mexican–American women as well as a mechanism linking socioeconomic status to cardio-metabolic health. PMID:23001764
Boyd, Carol J.; McCabe, Sean Esteban; Cranford, James A.; Morales, Michele; Lange, James E.; Reed, Mark B.; Ketchie, Julie M.; Scott, Marcia S.
Gender and living environment are two of the most consistent factors associated with heavy episodic drinking on college campuses. This study aimed to determine group differences in alcohol misuse and its attendant consequences between undergraduate women living in four distinct on-campus residential environments. A Web-based survey was self-administered to a stratified random sample of full-time students attending a large Midwestern University, and living in four distinct on-campus residential environments: 1) single-sex (all female) Residential Learning Communities (RLCs), 2) mixed-sex (male and female) RLCs, 3) single-sex (all female) non-RLCs and 4) mixed-sex (male and female) non-RLCs. Respondents living in single-sex and mixed-sex RLCs had significantly lower rates of alcohol use, heavy episodic drinking and related primary alcohol-related consequences when compared to respondents living in non-RLCs; however, women in single-sex RLCs had the lowest rates. RLCs – particularly single-sex learning communities – appear to provide undergraduate women with an environment that supports lower rates of alcohol use and abuse. PMID:18485609
Bedeian, A G; Touliatos, J
Acknowledging the need for additional research on work-related motives and self-esteem in American women, this study investigated the hypothesis that women with a favorable self-esteem would score high in n Ach, in Pow, and n Auto, whereas women with a less favorable self-esteem would score high in n Aff, n Agg, and n Def. Eighty-five female college students completed Gough and Heilbrun's Adjective Check List and Form B of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Data were analyzed by means of chi square tests in conjunction with the coefficient of association asymmetric lambda. The results indicated that, as predicted, women with a favorable self-esteem scored high in n Ach (p less than .001) and n Pow (p less than .001), while contrary to expectation, they also scored high in n Aff (p less than .05). All other relationships were found to be nonreliable. These findings were interpreted as stressing the importance of the relationship between self-esteem and work-related motives in women.
Ali, Bina; Mittal, Mona; Schroder, Allison; Ishman, Najah; Quinton, Sylvia; Boekeloo, Bradley
Physical and sexual violence are commonly researched as risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, psychological violence and its relationship with HIV risk behaviors have received limited attention among African American/Black (Black) women. This study examined (a) the frequency of recent (past 3 months) psychological violence, physical violence, and sexual violence and (b) the association of HIV risk behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex under the influence of alcohol/drugs, and sex exchange for money/drugs/shelter, with psychological violence. Participants included 191 women (89.2% Black), who were recruited through information sessions held at community centers, Parent Teacher Association meetings, substance use and HIV counseling centers, radio public service announcements, and word of mouth. Interested women participated in a multisession HIV and substance use prevention program and completed a self-reported assessment at program baseline. The current study utilized baseline data collected for a longitudinal study. Results from descriptive analysis indicated that the rate of psychological violence was higher than physical violence or sexual violence, and it was strongly associated with physical and sexual violence. Furthermore, hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that unprotected sex was significantly associated with recent psychological violence after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that recent psychological violence is more common than physical or sexual violence and it relates to sexual risk behaviors among Black women. Recent psychological violence may indicate psychosocial and sexual vulnerability for HIV and warrants particular attention among Black women.
More than 14 percent of the PhD's awarded in the United States during the first four decades of the twentieth century went to women, a proportion not achieved again until the 1980s. This book is the result of a study in which the authors identified all of the American women who earned PhD's in mathematics before 1940, and collected extensive biographical and bibliographical information about each of them. By reconstructing as complete a picture as possible of this group of women, Green and LaDuke reveal insights into the larger scientific and cultural communities in which they lived and worked. The book contains an extended introductory essay, as well as biographical entries for each of the 228 women in the study. The authors examine family backgrounds, education, careers, and other professional activities. They show that there were many more women earning PhD's in mathematics before 1940 than is commonly thought. Extended biographies and bibliographical information are available from the companion website fo...
Dalmida, Safiya George; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; DiIorio, Colleen; Laderman, Gary
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning and use of spirituality among African American (AA), predominantly Christian women with HIV. A nonrandom sample of 20 AA women from a large infectious disease clinic in Metro-Atlanta participated in the study. The study used focus groups and individual interviews to interview women about their lived spiritual experience. Content analysis and NUDIST software were used to analyze transcripts. The findings revealed the spiritual views and practices of AA women with HIV. The following themes (and subthemes) emerged: Spirituality is a process/journey or connection (connection to God, higher power, or spirit and HIV brought me closer to God), spiritual expression (religion/church attendance, prayer, helping others, having faith), and spiritual benefits (health/healing, spiritual support, inner peace/strength/ability to keep going, and here for a reason or purpose/a second chance). Findings highlight the importance of spirituality in health and well-being among AA women with HIV/AIDS.
Dalmida, Safiya George; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; DiIorio, Colleen; Laderman, Gary
The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the meaning and use of spirituality among African American (AA), predominantly Christian women with HIV. A nonrandom sample of 20 AA women from a large infectious disease clinic in Metro-Atlanta participated in the study. The study used focus groups and individual interviews to interview women about their lived spiritual experience. Content analysis and NUDIST software were used to analyze transcripts. The findings revealed the spiritual views and practices of AA women with HIV. The following themes (and subthemes) emerged: Spirituality is a process/journey or connection (connection to God, higher power, or spirit and HIV brought me closer to God), spiritual expression (religion/church attendance, prayer, helping others, having faith), and spiritual benefits (health/healing, spiritual support, inner peace/strength/ability to keep going, and here for a reason or purpose/a second chance). Findings highlight the importance of spirituality in health and well-being among AA women with HIV/AIDS. PMID:22566288
Lagana, Luciana; Maciel, Michelle
Although researchers have related sexual desire in older women to quality-of-life variables such as overall physical health, well-being, and life satisfaction, little is known about the socio-cultural mechanisms that shape sexual desire in minority ethnic older women. We investigated this sexual variable among Mexican-American older women in a qualitative fashion. Data were collected from 25 community-dwelling women of Mexican descent (aged 59-89 years) using a semi-structured interview protocol and a grounded theory approach. We inquired about dimensions of sexual desire including sexual fantasies and the desire to engage in sexual activity within the context of several socio-cultural and health-related factors. Using content analysis, we were able to identify key themes differentiating among respondents' levels of sexual desire and fantasies. These included the availability of a suitable partner, cultural and religious norms pertinent to women's sexuality, stigma related to sexuality in older age, and health status. Traditional socio-cultural restrictions coupled with unmarried status and physical health problems emerged as critical issues associated with limited or no sexual fantasies and desire in our sample. Many respondents indicated that their sexual needs were unmet.
Kocher, Erica L; Sternberg Lamb, Jeanette M; McGarvey, Stephen T; Faiai, Mata'uitafa; Muasau-Howard, Bethel T; Hawley, Nicola L
American Samoan women are particularly at risk of obesity-related non-communicable disease (NCD), requiring efficacious interventions to protect their health and that of their infants. Prior studies have identified pregnancy as an ideal time for behavior change interventions related to NCD. This study aimed to understand American Samoan women's conceptions of health during pregnancy, their motivations for pregnancy behavior change, and the role of their family in both enabling and preventing these changes. Eighteen women (2-19 weeks post-partum) completed semi-structured interviews that explored their experiences of pregnancy-related behavior change and social support. A thematic analysis identified prominent themes. A stages of change framework was used to describe the sample's readiness for behavior change. Participants expressed a Westernized conception of health during pregnancy that focused on eating a balanced diet and exercising regularly; behaviors that would usually be stigmatized outside of pregnancy. Many were in the contemplative/pre-contemplative stages of change, although some reported initiating healthful behaviors in pregnancy. Participants overwhelmingly described external motivations for adopting healthy behaviors, most notably the perceived benefit to their baby. During pregnancy, women reported protective treatment from their families as a result of communal ownership over the baby that is potentially limiting for women's agency over their health. This study confirmed pregnancy as an opportune moment for health behavior intervention, especially within the context of Samoan culture. Future efforts should capitalize on external motivations for behavior change but also encourage the development of internal motivators to sustain changes initiated in pregnancy post-partum. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Sun S Kim,1 Somporn Sitthisongkram,1 Kunsook Bernstein,2 Hua Fang,3 Won S Choi,4 Douglas Ziedonis5 1Department of Nursing, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA, 2Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing, Hunter College, City University of New York, New York, NY, 3Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 4Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Introduction: Korean women are reluctant to pursue in-person smoking cessation treatment due to stigma attached to women smokers and prefer treatment such as telephone and online smoking cessation programs that they can access secretively at home. However, there is some evidence that face-to-face interaction is the most helpful intervention component for them to quit smoking.Methods: This study is a pilot clinical trial that examined the acceptability and feasibility of a videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention for Korean American women and compared its preliminary efficacy with a telephone-based intervention. Women of Korean ethnicity were recruited nationwide in the United States and randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1 to either a video arm or a telephone arm. Both arms received eight 30-minute weekly individualized counseling sessions of a deep cultural smoking cessation intervention and nicotine patches for 8 weeks. Participants were followed over 3 months from the quit day. Results: The videoconferencing intervention was acceptable and feasible for Korean women aged <50 years, whereas it was not for older women. Self-reported abstinence was high at 67% and 48% for the video and telephone arm at 1 month post-quit, respectively. The rates declined to 33% for the video arm and 28% for the telephone arm at 3 months post-quit when salivary
Savitz, D A; Dole, N; Terry, J W; Zhou, H; Thorp, J M
Despite extensive research on tobacco smoking during pregnancy, few studies address risks among African-American and white women, groups that differ in brand preference and smoking habits. The Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study is a prospective cohort study that included 2,418 women with detailed information on smoking during pregnancy, including brand, number of cigarettes per day, and changes during pregnancy. We analyzed risk of preterm birth (age deliveries in relation to tobacco use. Pregnant African-American smokers differed markedly from whites in brand preference (95% vs 26% smoked menthol cigarettes) and number of cigarettes per day (1% of African-Americans and 12% of whites smoked 20+ cigarettes per day). Smoking was not related to risk of preterm birth overall, but cotinine measured at the time of delivery was (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-4.5). A clear association and dose-response gradient was present for risk of fetal growth restriction (risk ratio for 20+ cigarettes/day = 2.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.4-4.0). Associations of tobacco use with preterm premature rupture of amniotic membrane resulting in preterm birth were notably stronger than the associations with other types of preterm birth.
Brown, Ludella; Tabi, Marian M
This exploratory study was conducted to assess the effect of an HIV/AIDS prevention program on producing positive changing attitudes among African-American women in Southeast Georgia. This study used a faith-based approach. Data were collected from 23 respondents recruited from a local African-American church. HIV training was conducted over four 1-hour sessions using web-based interactive videos and lectures on HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory comprised the framework upon which the women received HIV/AIDS prevention training. Participants completed a 25-item pre- and post-intervention questionnaire to measure any changes that occurred in their attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS. Results showed a statistically significant difference in mean scores of individual knowledge and attitudes about HIV. The difference in mean scores for the remaining items was found to be statistically insignificant. The overall change in attitudes was also statistically significant, t = 2.27, df = 22, p HIV/AIDS, it makes a significant difference in changing their attitudes about this disease. Although findings were positive, further data is needed to substantiate and validate the use of community peers to increase knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS among the African-American population.
To update for both clinicians and the lay public the evidence-based position statement published by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) in July 2008 regarding its recommendations for menopausal hormone therapy (HT) for postmenopausal women, with consideration for the therapeutic benefit-risk ratio at various times through menopause and beyond. An Advisory Panel of clinicians and researchers expert in the field of women's health was enlisted to review the July 2008 NAMS position statement, evaluate new evidence through an evidence-based analysis, and reach consensus on recommendations. The Panel' s recommendations were reviewed and approved by the NAMS Board of Trustees as an official NAMS position statement. Also participating in the review process were other interested organizations who then endorsed the document. Current evidence supports a consensus regarding the role of HT in postmenopausal women, when potential therapeutic benefits and risks around the time of menopause are considered. This paper lists all these areas along with explanatory comments. Areas that vary from the 2008 position statement are noted. A suggested reading list of key references published since the last statement is also provided. Recent data support the initiation of HT around the time of menopause to treat menopause-related symptoms; to treat or reduce the risk of certain disorders, such as osteoporosis or fractures in select postmenopausal women; or both. The benefit-risk ratio for menopausal HT is favorable for women who initiate HT close to menopause but decreases in older women and with time since menopause in previously untreated women.
Perez, Marco V; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Tang, Hua; Thornton, Timothy; Stefanick, Marcia L; Larson, Joseph C; Kooperberg, Charles; Reiner, Alex P; Caan, Bette; Iribarren, Carlos; Risch, Neil
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in women and is associated with higher rates of stroke and death. Rates of AF are lower in African American subjects compared with European Americans, suggesting European ancestry could contribute to AF risk. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (OS) followed up 93,676 women since the mid 1990s for various cardiovascular outcomes including AF. Multivariate Cox hazard regression analysis was used to measure the association between African American race and incident AF. A total of 8,119 African American women from the WHI randomized clinical trials and OS were genotyped on the Affymetrix Human SNP Array 6.0. Genome-wide ancestry and previously reported single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with AF in European cohorts were tested for association with AF using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Self-reported African American race was associated with lower rates of AF (hazard ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.32-0.60) in the OS, independent of demographic and clinical risk factors. In the genotyped cohort, there were 558 women with AF. By contrast, genome-wide European ancestry was not associated with AF. None of the single nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with AF in European populations, including rs2200733, were associated with AF in the WHI African American cohort. African American race is significantly and inversely correlated with AF in postmenopausal women. The etiology of this association remains unclear and may be related to unidentified environmental differences. Larger studies are necessary to identify genetic determinants of AF in African Americans. © 2013.
Hudson, Angela L; Taylor, Diana; Lee, Kathryn A; Gilliss, Catherine L
The transition into menopause is an experience that is unique to every woman. This experience can encompass anything from an occasional hot flash to complete and utter distress. Considerable attention is being paid to African-American women as they transition through menopause, but their use of symptom self-care strategies is an area that would benefit from further research. Findings from this study are part of a larger five-year study exploring biopsychosocial health and wellness among diverse midlife women. This report includes identification of symptom prevalence, symptom distress, and self-care strategies used by midlife African-American women during a six-month time period. Prevalent or severe symptoms included fatigue, headaches, cramps, night sweats, and depression. Most self-care strategies were "passive" strategies, such as 'faith," "think," "accept," or "value/believe/forgive self". It is recommended that health-care providers inquire about other symptoms that might accompany classic vasomotor menopausal symptoms and identify "active" self-care strategies that ameliorate specific symptoms.
White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy
Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655
Full Text Available Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis.
Mayfield, Kellie E; Carolan, Marsha; Weatherspoon, Lorraine; Chung, Kimberly R; Hoerr, Sharon M
To explore the perceptions of food access by African American women in Flint, MI. Using womanist theory, in which African American women's experiential knowledge centered the analysis, 8 focus groups were conducted during fall/spring, 2014-2015. Seventeen mothers aged 21-50 years with children aged 60 years comprised the groups. The high cost of water, poor availability of healthy foods in inner-city stores, and limited transportation were barriers to accessing healthy food. Conversely, receiving food from food giveaways, friends, and family, as well as access to transportation facilitated food access. These women also reported discriminatory experiences and diet-related health concerns. Participants were keenly aware of available free community resources and gender, racial, and income barriers to accessing them. Understanding these barriers and facilitators provides information to aid local food policy assistance decisions and inform community-based interventions, especially given the lead contamination of water and the purported importance of a healthy diet to sequester lead. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Abboud, Sarah; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Sommers, Marilyn S
Virginity is part of our existence in the world as embodied sexual subjects. While many meanings are associated with virginity, in most of the Arab world virginity relates to the presence of a hymen and extends to encompass the honor of the Arab community, and virginity loss commonly relate to first vaginal intercourse. This study explored the meanings of virginity from the perspectives of Arab and Arab American women. A qualitative phenomenological approach, informed by the philosophy of Maurice Merleau-Ponty, was used to conduct in-depth interviews with ten women. We identified one over-arching theme Virginity as Identity , and two major themes Embodiment of Virginity and "We are Arabs." To reach an embodied virginity, participants went through a disembodied virginity process, reflecting society's perceptions and values of virginity related to anatomical presence of a hymen and society's honor. "We are Arabs" describes the ways women identified with the Arab ethnic identity as a shared overall identification, but differed from one lived experience to another, and influenced how participants embodied virginity. Our participants provided a better understanding of the diverse meanings of virginity that move beyond the binary of virginity and virginity loss, and into a spectrum of embodied meanings. Findings suggest the need for future research around sexuality in Arab Americans with attention to socio-political contexts in order to understand the nature and context of sexual initiation and its impact on sexual behaviors and well-being.
Molina, Yamile; Scherman, Ashley; Constant, Tara Hayes; Hempstead, Bridgette; Thompson-Dodd, Jacci; Richardson, Shayla; Weatherby, Shauna Rae; Reding, Kerryn W.; Ceballos, Rachel M.
Purpose Medical advocacy at multiple levels (self, community/interpersonal, national/public health interest) may be helpful to address the disproportionate burden of breast cancer African American women encounter. Little however is known about the interplay of medical advocacy at different levels. Methods We analyzed qualitative data from two studies focused on the psychosocial experiences of breast cancer among 38 African American women living in Western Washington State. Results Emergent themes suggested that survivors received community/interpersonal advocacy from different members of social networks in the form of social support (appraisal, emotional, informational, instrumental). Survivors indicated that receiving this advocacy was associated with greater self advocacy in terms of their own care experiences as well as greater community/interpersonal advocacy on their part as resources to other women diagnosed with breast cancer, their family, friends, and larger communities. Conclusion Our findings suggest that community/interpersonal advocacy, including providing different types of support, may lead to improved self advocacy as well as health-protective impacts for the networks in which survivors are embedded. Future quantitative research is warranted to support these findings and assess how this interplay is associated with improved outcomes among this marginalized and resilient population. PMID:26891843
Pimpleton, Asher M.
Sexually transmitted diseases have reached epidemic proportions, especially among African Americans. However, African American women have emerged as being one of the hardest hit groups by the most fatal of sexually transmitted diseases--the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Although there has…
Campbell, Shelvy L.
The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to identify and explore the leadership style preferences among current African American Administrators of the 1890 Land-Grant Cooperative Extension system. The population used in this study was African American women administrators from eighteen mostly southern states. The researcher used a…
Blackstock, Oni J.; Mba-Jonas, Adamma; Sacajiu, Galit M.
Disparities in the rates of unintended pregnancy have increased for low-income African American women as compared to other groups due, in part, to declining contraception use. Women obtain family planning information from diverse sources, which may ultimately influence contraceptive decision making. For this qualitative study, we conducted…
Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C.; Jefferson, Wendy K.; Ard, Jamy D.
We qualitatively assessed how life stressors affected African American women's participation in a weight reduction program. A sample of 9 women, who completed a behavioral lifestyle intervention, participated in individual, structured, in-depth interviews. Life stressors, ranging from personal illness to changes in employment status, had varied…
The purpose of this lecture is to provide the voice and visibility of African American women who have upheld the tradition of excellence set by Amy Morris Homans in the development of physical education in higher education for women and set pathways to transition our field to be more inclusive and diverse and have served as transformative leaders…
Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith
The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week…