WorldWideScience

Sample records for american undergraduate women

  1. Evaluation of a Structural Model of Objectification Theory and Eating Disorder Symptomatology among European American and African American Undergraduate Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated a structural equation model of objectification theory among European American (n = 408) and African American women (n = 233). Modeling results indicated a particularly strong association between thin-ideal internalization/body monitoring and eating disorder symptoms, with weaker relationships among body dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms. The measurement model was not equivalent for European Americans and African Americans; however, ...

  2. Evaluation of a Structural Model of Objectification Theory and Eating Disorder Symptomatology among European American and African American Undergraduate Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated a structural equation model of objectification theory among European American (EA; n = 408) and African American women (AA; n = 233). Modeling results indicated a particularly strong association between thin-ideal internalization/body monitoring and eating disorder symptoms, with weaker relationships among body…

  3. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Ezella McPherson

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal sci...

  4. Diversity in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Perspectives Held by Undergraduate Students at a Predominantly European American University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleford, Linh Nguyen

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate students (N = 932, 83.8% European Americans, 69.6% women) completed an online survey and reported their definitions of diversity, their attitudes toward incorporating diversity into the curriculum, and their motivations for learning about diversity issues. Findings revealed that students conceptualized diversity primarily in terms of…

  5. Gifted Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of personal, socialization, and structural factors affecting the lifespan achievement of 15 Asian American women identified as gifted. Their families' intense focus on educational achievement and hard work are described, and the need for better preparation to overcome obstacles in the workplace is discussed. (Author/CR)

  6. Undergraduate Women's Gender Awareness and Status Aspirations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yukiko

    A study was conducted to determine women's realization toward the quality of life, identifying their status aspirations. The study's primary purpose was to achieve a better understanding of how undergraduate women of Guam and Japan would aspire to their academic and social goals and how they would become aware of their gender equality. The…

  7. Factors Related to Women's Undergraduate Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Tanya Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative study examined the relationships and effects of women's learning styles and achievement and success at a Midwestern, private, Catholic, liberal arts women's undergraduate program. The primary focus was on first-year female students' learning styles and how these learning styles may affect their GPAs and decisions to persist to…

  8. Women in Latin American History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrin, Asuncion

    1981-01-01

    Presents a bibliography and suggests a number of topics around which a college level history course on Latin American women could be organized. Course topics include migration of women, definition of sex roles, legal status of women, women's work and society, feminism, politics, religion, women and the family, and women's education and…

  9. Asian American Women: A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Judy, Comp.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Listed in this bibliography are materials available on Asian American women at the Asian Community Library (Oakland Public Library) and the Asian American Studies Library (University of California, Berkeley). (Author/EB)

  10. Persistence of undergraduate women in STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedone, Maggie Helene

    The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a complex problem that continues to persist at the postsecondary level, particularly in computer science and engineering fields. This dissertation explored the pre-college and college level factors that influenced undergraduate women's persistence in STEM. This study also examined and compared the characteristics of undergraduate women who entered STEM fields and non-STEM fields in 2003-2004. The nationally representative Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09) data set was used for analysis. BPS:04/09 study respondents were surveyed three times (NPSAS:04, BPS:04/06, BPS:04/09) over a six-year period, which enabled me to explore factors related to long-term persistence. Astin's Input-Environment-Output (I-E-O) model was used as the framework to examine student inputs and college environmental factors that predict female student persistence (output) in STEM. Chi-square tests revealed significant differences between undergraduate women who entered STEM and non-STEM fields in 2003-2004. Differences in student demographics, prior academic achievement, high school course-taking patterns, and student involvement in college such as participation in study groups and school clubs were found. Notably, inferential statistics showed that a significantly higher proportion of female minority students entered STEM fields than non-STEM fields. These findings challenge the myth that underrepresented female minorities are less inclined to enter STEM fields. Logistic regression analyses revealed thirteen significant predictors of persistence for undergraduate women in STEM. Findings showed that undergraduate women who were younger, more academically prepared, and academically and socially involved in college (e.g., lived on campus, interacted with faculty, participated in study groups, fine arts activities, and school sports) were more likely to persist in STEM

  11. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezella McPherson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.

  12. A Comparison of Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual College Undergraduate Women on Selected Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Dianne L.; Santurri, Laura; Peters, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate selected mental health characteristics of lesbians and bisexual undergraduate college women as compared with heterosexual college women. Participants: Self-identified lesbians and bisexual and heterosexual female college students who took part in the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment…

  13. Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnie Fleming

    2009-04-01

    The Yale Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics was held on January 18th and 19th, 2008. The conference, targeted toward undergraduates in the Northeast, was a huge success. It was well attended by both a slate of impressive speakers including Janet Conrad, Mildred Dresselhaus, Elsa Garmire, Howard Georgi, Liz Rhodes, Meg Urry and Wendy Zhang, and many interested attendees. Talks were on current research, about issues for women in physics, and on the application process for graduate school. There was also a career panel, student talks, and a student poster session. The conference ran concurrently with the third annual conference at USC, as well as a first annual conference at the University of Michigan. Our purpose in creating this conference was to provide a supportive atmosphere for young physicists to connect with peers and with successful women in the field. We hope that from this conference, attendees have become confident and knowledgeable about applying to graduate school and be further inspired to pursue a career in physics. The following describes the conference program, participation and impact, logistics of running the conference and plans for the future.

  14. How Undergraduate Women Choose STEM Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Roxanne

    2013-03-01

    In 2010 women represented half of the US population and over half of current graduates from college (57%) but less than a third of undergraduate degrees in science and engineering (STEM). This underrepresentation is worse in certain fields such as physics (21%), and engineering (22%) compared to 52% in chemistry. This underrepresentation is not only a social and cultural issue, but it is also cause for alarm in regard to the United States' ability to maintain its technological and economic dominance in the global economy. STEM fields provide valuable contributions to the nation's economic and environmental security (Augustine, 2005; Chang, 2009; Riegle-Crumb and King, 2010; Robelen, 2010; Tessler, 2008), paying practitioners well and bringing in revenue for successful businesses and governments (National Science Board [NSB], 2008; Riegle-Crumb and King). Consequently, addressing the underrepresentation of women and increasing their persistence in STEM fields will increase the number of scientists and engineers contributing to these fields, which could, in turn, improve the nation's economy, safety, and technological revenues. Research indicates that there are internal and external factors that affect the ability of women to see future success in STEM and to identify with the STEM and consequently persist. This presentation will summarize the current literature on issues affecting undergraduate women's retention in STEM as well as present strategies to improve this retention. Part of this presentation will draw from my own research studies in this area. The findings from my study and others reveal that only women who participate in redefinition strategies related to their marginalized status are able to persist; those who cannot redefine their marginality in relation to the dominant discourse of STEM begin to lose interest or doubt their competence in the field, resulting in their departure from STEM.

  15. The American Kinesiology Association Undergraduate Core Curriculum©

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the elements of the undergraduate core in kinesiology that have been established by the American Kinesiology Association. The American Kinesiology Association also describes a set of ten student-learning outcomes that emanate from the four core content elements. This information has been developed by the American Kinesiology…

  16. Lipstick and Labcoats: Undergraduate Women's Gender Negotiation in STEM Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Emily Grey

    2012-01-01

    Although women have made significant progress in the work force and in education, gender gaps still exist in many industries and occupations, including science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields. This research aimed to understand how undergraduate women negotiate gender within STEM fields, looking specifically at these women's…

  17. Reflections on the Current Status of Women in American Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Lillian; Robbins, Edwin

    2006-01-01

    Since World War II, American women have gained much greater access to higher education, with women now 56% of undergraduates, and approximately half of medical and law school students, as well as attaining 49% of PhD's. Despite their greater representation, women pursuing professional careers still experience considerable stress. At the…

  18. Breast Cancer Risk in American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Breast Cancer Risk in American Women On This Page What ... risk of developing the disease. Personal history of breast cancer : Women who have had breast cancer are more ...

  19. Beyond Bound Feet: Relocating Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumdar, Sucheta

    1996-01-01

    Attempts to correct the limited and stereotypical portrayal of Asian American women found in most histories. Reveals that women often played a more central and active role in the Asian American experience. Discusses little-known facets of this experience (e.g., many immigrants returned home after achieving financial security). (MJP)

  20. Mexican-American Women: Diversity in Depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Marleen E.

    Various literary views of the Mexican American woman have been presented over the past 150 years. Anglo treatment of Mexican American women in literature has varied from blatant prejudice or vague mystical eroticism in early portrayals to more realistic views of the Chicano in modern writing. The current identity crisis of Mexican Americans is…

  1. What Works for Women in Undergraduate Physics?

    OpenAIRE

    Whitten, Barbara L.; Foster, Suzanne R.; Ducombe, Margaret L.

    2003-01-01

    The predominance of men in physics remains a puzzle. To attract talented women and minorities, the culture of college physics needs a makeover. In 1998, women received about 40% of the bachelor's degrees in mathematics and chemistry, but only 19% of the bachelor's in physics. That underrepresentation worsens at higher levels: The same year, women constituted 13% of physics PhD recipients and 8% of physics faculty members.(1) According to NSF, the community of working PhD-level physicists in...

  2. Asian-American Women in Educational Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lily

    1980-01-01

    Provides information on the immigration history, education, income, and occupation representation in the social sciences and cultural and language barriers of Asian American women educational researchers. Includes recommendations to facilitate their entry into the social sciences in general. (MJL)

  3. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  4. Asian Pacific American Women's Health Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, Canta

    This paper discusses the adjustment and acculturation problems of Asian Pacific American women and how these problems relate to their health concerns. Information presented in the article is based on the observations of health service providers to the Asian community. The paper suggests that the diversity of Asian Americans (age, ethnic group, and…

  5. Gallstones in American Indian/Alaska Native Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asian-Americans Native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders American Indians/Alaska Natives Immigrant and migrant issues Taking care ... Enter email address Submit Home > Minority Women's Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health Gallstones Health conditions ...

  6. Minority Women's Health: American Indians/Alaska Natives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health > American Indians/Alaska Natives Minority Women's Health American Indians/Alaska Natives Related information How to Talk to ... disease. Return to top Health conditions common in American Indian and Alaska Native women Accidents Alcoholism and drug ...

  7. The Sexual Assault of Undergraduate Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Barrick, Kelle; Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Boyd, Chimi; Bogan, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Although research has shown that undergraduate women are at high risk for experiencing sexual assault, little research has been conducted with undergraduate women who are attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). The purpose of this research is to document the prevalence of different types of sexual assault among undergraduate…

  8. It's All About Relationships: African-American and European-American Women's Hotel Management Careers

    OpenAIRE

    Farrar, Angela L.

    1996-01-01

    Among the 44000-plus general managers employed in United States' hotels in 1993, there were only 100 women, 15 African-Americans, and three African-American women. Additionally, less than 0.5 percent of corporate hospitality managers were women. Given this relative underrepresentation of European-American women and African-Americans, combined with the increasing diversity of hotel clientele and service p...

  9. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

  10. The Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity: Its Use with Euro-American, Latino, and Native American Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Tanisha Maxwell; Robinson Kurpius, Sharon E.; Rayle, Andrea Dixon; Arredondo, Patricia; Tovar-Gamero, Zoila G.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of scores from the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity with 550 Euro-American, 112 Latino, and 41 Native American undergraduates. Data for the Centrality, Private Regard, and Public Regard scales indicate that these scores have construct validity. Scores have acceptable Cronbach alpha…

  11. Race and the Greek System in the 21st Century: Centering the Voices of Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Analyzing interviews with 18 Asian American female undergraduates, this study seeks to understand how participants viewed the sorority system at a predominantly White institution in the Southeastern United States. Drawing from critical race theory, I argue that the ways in which women perceived and experienced both acceptance and marginalization…

  12. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A

    1997-10-01

    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population. PMID:9485580

  13. Overcoming Barriers to Cervical Cancer Screening Among Asian American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Carolyn Y.; Ma, Grace X.; Tan, Yin

    2011-01-01

    Significant disparities in cervical cancer incidence and mortality exist among ethnic minority women, and in particular, among Asian American women. These disparities have been attributed primarily to differences in screening rates across ethnic/racial groups. Asian American women have one of the lowest rates of screening compared to other ethnic/racial groups. Yet Asian Americans, who comprise one of the fastest growing populations in the United States, have received the least attention in c...

  14. Counseling Groups for African American Women: A Focus on Spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…

  15. Asian American Women's Retrospective Reports of Their Sexual Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Janna L.

    2009-01-01

    This study used qualitative research methods to investigate the sexual socialization experiences of young Asian American women, a group often overlooked in psychological research on sexuality. Focus group interviews were conducted with 30 ethnically diverse young Asian American women to explore their perceptions and interpretations of the direct…

  16. A Case Study of Undergraduate Women in a Leadership Development Program at a Coeducational Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Lori P.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this interpretive case study was to explore the collegiate experiences of undergraduate women participating in a cohort women's-only leadership development program at a coeducational institution. Using a framework based on Kurt Lewin's psycho-social model of behavior being the function of a person interacting with the environment…

  17. Mentoring Asian and Euro-American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Belle; Tracy, Allison; Kauh, Tina; Taylor, Catherine; Williams, Linda M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examines differences in the mentoring relationships of Asian American and Euro-American college women. Findings showed that the groups view mentoring as equally important but that fewer Asians report having a mentor. However, those who have mentors find them to be just as valuable as do their Euro-American counterparts. (Contains 2…

  18. African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Shannon K.

    2003-01-01

    Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

  19. Case Studies of Undergraduate Women's Leadership Development at a State University

    OpenAIRE

    Lynch, Judith Marie

    2003-01-01

    Leadership development among undergraduate college women is essential to institutions of higher education and to society. Research has indicated that sex-bias and sex-stereotypes are abundant, with men frequently being labeled as the more prominent gender in leadership roles and situations. Opportunities for women to emerge as leaders have not been as plentiful as they have for men, often limiting the self-awareness that women may have of their own strengths. The purpose of this study was ...

  20. Asian American Women: Stereotyping Asian Women; Chinese Immigrants; Issei--the First Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshioka, Robert B.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    The first of the three parts of this article provides a brief outline of the stereotypes applied to Asian American Women and a useful backdrop on the other two parts. The second part on Chinese immigrants focuses on the strong family ties of tgis ethnic group. The third and last part concerns the quietness and modesty of the Issei--equated with…

  1. Health beliefs and cancer prevention practices of Filipino American women

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Celine M

    2006-01-01

    Cancer is the number one cause of death among Asian Americans, and Filipino Americans are the second largest Asian American group in number. Filipino American women have relatively low rates of breast and colorectal cancer screening compared to their White counterparts; however, they experience higher numbers of late-stage diagnoses and mortality rates. Thus, early detection of cancer and maintenance of healthy prevention behaviors are very important. Little is known about this community's pr...

  2. Reviving the Thirties: The Case for Teaching Proletarian Fiction in the Undergraduate American Literature Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Janet Galligani

    2008-01-01

    Undergraduate literature courses tend to neglect American fiction of the 1930s, especially the proletarian novel. Disregard of this particular genre is often based on the assumption that it emphasized a crude Marxist realism opposed to aesthetic modernism. Various examples of the genre are, in fact, worth teaching, especially because they do not…

  3. The Expression of Depressive Symptomatology in Korean American Undergraduates: Sex and Generational Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Kim, Sara Cho; Park, Yong S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of acculturation and perception of the university environment on the depressive symptomatology of 228 Korean American undergraduates, with a focus on sex and generational differences. Perceptions of the university environment and perceived barriers were positive predictors of depressive symptomatology in…

  4. The Academic Opportunity Gap: How Racism and Stereotypes Disrupt the Education of African American Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Ahorlu, Robin Nicole

    2012-01-01

    Using Critical Race Theory as a framework, this article reveals how racism and stereotypes obstruct the academic success of black students. Through the use of focus groups, African American undergraduates from a large California State University campus, share the ways in which campus racism impacts their achievement potential as well as their…

  5. African-American Undergraduates' Perceptions and Attributions of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestick, Henrietta; Perrino, Carrol S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined perceptions of child sexual abuse and attributions of responsibility in a cross-sectional convenience sample of 384 African-American undergraduates using a scenario manipulating the age of the victim, gender of the victim, and gender of the perpetrator. Multiple interactions of respondent, victim, and perpetrator gender on…

  6. A May American Economic Review Papers Seminar and an Analytic Project for Advanced Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Catherine S.

    2004-01-01

    The author describes two learning activities for teaching economics at the advanced undergraduate level: a May American Economic Review (AER) papers seminar and an analytic project. Both activities help students learn to "do economics." The May AER papers seminar promotes in-depth synthesis and interpretation on the basis of printed session papers…

  7. Eating Disorders of White American, Racial and Ethnic Minority American, and International Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvold, Lise Leigh; Sodowsky, Gargi Roysircar

    1993-01-01

    Considers eating attitudes and behaviors related to anorexia nervosa, bulimia, and obesity of white American, African-American, Native American, and some international women from the point of view of cultural influences such as sex role, the media, socioeconomic class, and acculturation to Western society. (Author/NB)

  8. Women in Business: Influences on the Undergraduate Major Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyfman, Victoria; Force, Christina M.; Davis, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    This study employs a survey of undergraduate business school freshmen to examine factors that influence their decision to study business and whether these factors differ by gender. Specifically, the study examines internal factors, such as students' perceived aptitudes and interests in the subject; external factors, such as compensation and job…

  9. Filipina American women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Ryujin Lisa; Sadler Georgia; Ko Celine M; Dong Adam

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 t...

  10. Contemporary South Asian American women's fiction: the "difference"

    OpenAIRE

    Assella, Shashikala Muthumal

    2015-01-01

    This thesis critically explores the “difference” of contemporary South Asian American women’s fiction and their fictional narratives of women’s lives, away from the ethnic postcolonial depictions of diasporic women. The selected novels of Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, Amulya Malladi, Bharti Kirchner, V.V. Ganeshananthan, Nayomi Munaweera, Nausheen Pasha-Zaidi and Shaila Abdullah studied here interrogate the depiction of South Asian women characters both within diasporic American locations and i...

  11. Acculturation and Self Concept of the Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Esther Ngan-Ling

    Acculturation and the development of positive self-concept among Asian American women are both complicated by factors associated with their ethnicity and gender. Physical differences, cultural barriers, and racial and sex discrimination have made difficult the complete assimilation of Asian females into American society. Furthermore, failure to…

  12. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  13. Bringing Women in: Gender and American Government and Politics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivo, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    This study of 12 introductory American government and politics textbooks shows that their main narratives still focus largely on men's experiences as political actors and pay little attention to women's experiences. While on average just 9% of pages included in-text references to women, 28% of images and 17% of sidebars, tables, figures, and…

  14. Experimental Evidence that Changes in Mood Cause Changes in Body Dissatisfaction among Undergraduate Women

    OpenAIRE

    Haedt-Matt, Alissa A.; Zalta, Alyson K.; Forbush, Kelsie T.; Keel, Pamela K.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found concurrent and prospective associations between negative mood and body dissatisfaction; however, only experimental research can establish causal relationships. This study utilized an experimental design to examine the influence of negative mood on body dissatisfaction. Undergraduate women were randomly assigned to an experimental or control condition. Participants in the experimental condition (n = 21) completed a negative mood induction procedure. Participants in ...

  15. Academic Achievement and Body Image in Undergraduate Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jennifer M.

    2009-01-01

    Women attend college to further themselves through education, but are confronted with traditional concepts of beauty and stereotypes regarding physical appearance. For many women, college is a paradox between the serious nature of intellectual curiosity and the pull to conform to societal expectations. These expectations can be powerful forces as…

  16. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. PMID:25288408

  17. Eating disorder examination questionnaire (EDE-Q): norms for undergraduate Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Yoshikatsu; Nin, Kazuko; Fukushima, Mitsuo; Nakamura, Konoyu; Noma, Shunichi; Teramukai, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Ataru; Wonderlich, Stephen

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to provide normative data for the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) among undergraduate Japanese women and to compare these data to norms obtained from previous studies. Undergraduate Japanese women (n = 289), aged 18-24 years, were administered the EDE-Q. The mean global score in the present study was 1.55 (SD = 1.03). Japanese women reported significantly higher scores of shape concern and weight concern in spite of lower body mass index but a significantly lower score of restraint, compared with women in other normative studies. There were significant differences with respect to the occurrence of some specific eating disorder behaviours between Japanese women and women in the previous studies. Differences in normative data for the EDE-Q between young Japanese women and young women in the previous studies suggest that there may be certain cultural differences in eating disorder psychopathology. PMID:25257360

  18. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended. PMID:23445372

  19. African American Undergraduate Students' Experiences in Residential Learning Communities at a Predominantly White Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Best, Julia Y.

    2006-01-01

    There is a nationwide decline in enrollment, retention and degree completion for African American students in predominantly White institutions (PWIs) in the United States. Colleges and Universities establish diversity initiatives to address these concerns, yet educational disparities persist. Institutions of higher learning also address ways to enhance the educational development of undergraduate students. One such initiative involves a paradigm shift to extend the curriculum into residential...

  20. Appearance Self-Attitudes of African American and European American Women: Media Comparisons and Internalization of Beauty Ideals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Deana L.; Stake, Jayne E.

    2009-01-01

    African American (AA) women have reported less body image disturbance than European American (EA) women, but questions remain about the nature and extent of this difference. This study examined differences in the body image of 80 AA women and 89 EA women with an improved methodology that controlled for body size, distinguished between satisfaction…

  1. Popcorn Venus: Women, Movies & the American Dream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Marjorie

    The history of the film industry is in many ways a reflection of the thwarted emergence in society of feminism and full equal civil rights for women. Commercial films have traditionally relied upon the charm and sexual allure of actresses to assure economic success at the box office. Victorian mores heavily influenced the way women were treated in…

  2. Relational Variables and Life Satisfaction in African American and Asian American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…

  3. Minority Women's Health: Asian-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asian-Americans overall are at lower risk. Genes, culture, environment, and access to care play a role ... Mental health problems and suicide Osteoporosis Overweight and obesity Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) Stomach cancer Tuberculosis (TB) ...

  4. Depression and Relational Health in Asian American and European American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Terese J.; Chan, Pauline; Liang, Belle

    2014-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates elevated rates of depression among college-aged women, yet evidence of racial differences in depression among this population are poorly understood. Moreover, the correlates of depression among Asian American women are also understudied. In this exploratory analysis, we examined mean differences in depression…

  5. Exclusionary Feminism: Stories of Undergraduate Women of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Seven activist Women of Color shared experiences of racism in feminist activism and provided strategies for building a more inclusive movement through this narrative study. A history of exclusion in the feminist movement and examples of marginalization provide a context for this study. Critical race feminism and intersectionality theory inform the…

  6. Adult Attachment and Disordered Eating in Undergraduate Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgin, Jenna; Pritchard, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Previous research on gender differences between males and females on the risk factors leading to disordered eating is sparse, especially on males and eating disorders using attachment theory. This study examined the relationship between adult attachment style and disordered eating in men and women. Secure attachment scores were significantly…

  7. Research Experiences for Undergraduates at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, D. W.; Smith, R. C.

    2000-12-01

    Each year, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), located in La Serena, Chile, hosts a Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) Program funded by the National Science Foundation. In general, REU programs bring a group of undergraduate students to the host institute for 10 weeks, where they are teamed-up with staff members to perform research projects. Unlike REU programs at other U.S. institutions, the CTIO program takes place outside the United States and during the southern summer/northern winter months of January--March. This offers students not only a chance to perform research and participate in the day-to-day life at a major astronomical observatory, but also provides a unique exposure to a foreign culture and an option for students who can take advantage of a non-traditional work experience during the academic year. CTIO REU students also benefit from interaction with their Chilean counterparts participating in the Prácticas de Investigación en Astronomía, an REU-like program operated by CTIO for Chilean undergraduates. Since 1995, CTIO has hosted 20 REU students (with 4 more coming in 2001). Twenty (and counting) publications have resulted from CTIO REU projects. In addition, since 1999, 100% of the CTIO REU students have presented the results of their research projects at meetings of the American Astronomical Society. We present here an overview of the REU program at CTIO.

  8. A Phenomenological Study of Undergraduate African American College Students' Decision to Participate in Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheppel, Alena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore African American undergraduate college students' intentions and reasons for participation in study abroad programs. The study involved gathering data from recorded and transcribed semi-structured interviews with 20 African American volunteer participants. Data analysis…

  9. Vitamin D supplementation in young White and African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J Christopher; Jindal, Prachi S; Smith, Lynette M

    2014-01-01

    There is limited information on the effects of vitamin D on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in young people and none on African Americans. The main objective of this trial was to measure the effect of different doses of vitamin D3 on serum 25OHD and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in young women with vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25OHD ≤ 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 was conducted in young white and African American women, age 25 to 45 years. A total of 198 healthy white (60%) and African American (40%) women were randomly assigned to placebo, or to 400, 800, 1600, or 2400 IU of vitamin D3 daily. Calcium supplements were added to maintain a total calcium intake of 1000 to 1200 mg daily. The primary outcomes of the study were the final serum 25OHD and PTH levels at 12 months. The absolute increase in serum 25OHD with 400, 800, 1600, and 2400 IU of vitamin D daily was slightly greater in African American women than in white women. On the highest dose of 2400 IU/d, the mixed model predicted that mean 25OHD increased from baseline 12.4 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.2-15.7) to 43.2 ng/mL (95% CI, 38.2-48.1) in African American women and from 15.0 ng/mL (95% CI, 12.3-17.6) to 39.1 ng/mL (95% CI, 36.2-42.0) in white women. There was no significant effect of vitamin D dose on serum PTH in either race but there was a significant inverse relationship between final serum PTH and serum 25OHD. Serum 25OHD exceeded 20 ng/mL in 97.5% of whites on the 400 IU/d dose and between 800 and 1600 IU/d for African Americans. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) suggested by the Institute of Medicine for young people is 600 IU daily. The increase in serum 25OHD after vitamin D supplementation was similar in young and old, and in white and African American women. PMID:23761326

  10. American Indian Women: The Double Bind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Linda Sue

    This study investigated the relationship between variables of ethnic and sex-role stereotype and job satisfaction based on Festinger's dissonance avoidance theory and Bruner and Tagirui's implicit personality theory. The respondents were 114 American Indian female supervisors, out of a representative sample of 200. The data were collected using a…

  11. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  12. A Century of Plays by American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, Rachel, Ed.

    Chosen for their literary quality and because they reflect the historical periods in which they were written, the 23 one-act dramas in this anthology represent the work of American female playwrights. The plays range from the realistic dramas produced in the "Little Theatres" of New York City at the turn of the century to current off-Broadway…

  13. Successful African American women in science: A narrative inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Cailisha L.

    This study used narrative inquiry as a methodology to explore the lived experiences of five African American women in science across the academic spectrum, from doctoral candidate to full professor. The research questions guiding the inquiry included one overarching question and three sub-questions: What are the lifestories of successful African American women in science?; a) How do successful African American women in science define themselves?; b) What have been the facilitators and barriers encountered by successful African American women in science?; and c) What have been the systems of support for African American women in science? The study was theoretically positioned within the frameworks of Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Thought. The two theories were used to guide all aspects of the study including methodology, data collection, and analysis. Data included eleven 40-60 minute semi-structured interview transcripts as well as the participants' Curriculum Vitae. The study design and data analysis were built upon Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) and Clandinin's (2006) model of narrative inquiry which explores narratives as a means to understand experience. Analysis and interpretation created three dominant narratives: Scientific Beginnings, An Unexpected Journey, and Lift as You Climb. Each narrative set explores multiple stories that describe storylines which aligned with the participants' goals of who they were and who they were becoming as scientists; and, storylines of tension which ran counter to the women's goals and aspirations. Barriers and support systems are revealed, as well as the meanings the participants made of their experiences and how it affected their lives.

  14. African American Women Leaders in Academic Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Sharon K.

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today's Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate…

  15. Spirit, Space & Survival: African American Women in (White) Academe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Joy, Ed.; Farmer, Ruth, Ed.

    This volume presents the stories of 11 African American women working in higher education and confronting racist and sexist practices. The chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Mixed Blood, New Voices" (Kaylynn Sullivan Two Trees); (2) "Carrying On" (Joyce Scott); (3) "African Philosophy, Theory, and 'Living Thinkers'" (Joy James);…

  16. Acculturation, Media Exposure, and Eating Disorders in Cuban American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jane, Dulce M.; Hunter, George C.; Lozzi, Bettina

    This study examined the dual roles of continued close ties with the Cuban community and culture of origin, as well as influences of print and broadcast media, in the development of attitudes toward both type and propensity toward eating disorders among young Cuban-American women. Continued exclusive or primary use of Spanish language in the home,…

  17. Roles & Responsibilities of the Women Leading American Islamic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCuir, Amaarah

    2016-01-01

    Literature of educational leadership often fails to represent the experiences of faith-based school leaders, particularly women. This study seeks to position the experiences of American Islamic school leaders in a larger context of educational leadership roles, responsibilities, and practices. This national, qualitative study utilized an Islamic…

  18. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  19. Early Family Formation among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landale, Nancy S.; Schoen, Robert; Daniels, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Using data from Waves I and III of Add Health, this study examines early family formation among 6,144 White, Black, and Mexican American women. Drawing on cultural and structural perspectives, models of the first and second family transitions (cohabitation, marriage, or childbearing) are estimated using discrete-time multinomial logistic…

  20. Behavioural Precursors and HIV Testing Behaviour among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kevin C.; Rupert, Doug; Fraze, Jami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether there is an association between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, reported intentions to get an HIV test, and reported HIV testing behaviour at a later date among a sample of African American women. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from October 2007 through March 2008 for a randomized controlled experiment…

  1. Strength and vulnerability: spirituality in abused American Muslim women's lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh-Phillips, Dena

    2003-01-01

    The importance of spirituality for individuals coping with and recovering from trauma has been widely recognized. Despite this recognition, little information is available addressing the influence of spirituality on the abuse experiences of women surviving intimate partner violence (IPV). This paper begins to amend this gap in knowledge by examining the influence of spirituality on the abuse experiences of American Muslim women, a large and growing population. Findings from this qualitative study indicate that spirituality provided participants with an important means of coping with ongoing violence while in many instances also creating barriers to safety. These findings underscore the complex role spirituality may play as a source of both strength and vulnerability in American Muslim women's response to IPV. PMID:12907383

  2. Border Bicultural Personality Traits: Surprising Gender Findings among Mexican American Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Mary R.; Rudolph, Bonnie A.

    2007-01-01

    Personality traits of 178 Mexican American college students were surveyed to test applicability of the Five Factor Model of personality and to investigate gender differences within this bicultural group. Results revealed atypical gender differences on neuroticism. Men scored significantly higher than did women, which is opposite cross-cultural…

  3. Cervical Cancer Screening: Attitudes and Behaviors of Young Asian American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Grace J.; Nhung Le, Mai; Vong, Stephen; Lagman, Regina; Lam, Amy G.

    2011-01-01

    Compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women experience high incidence rates of cervical cancer but low rates of cervical cancer screenings. This study examines the behaviors and attitudes towards screening in young Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women (n=304) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Results indicated Vietnamese American (OR=2.51) and Filipino American (OR=2.31) women had greater odds of ever having a Pap test than Korean American w...

  4. Race, Class, Gender and Community College Persistence among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, MaryBeth; Chambers, Crystal Renee; Goss, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This inquiry is an exploration of the educational trajectories of African American women community college students. We compare the persistence of African American women to African American men and to all women college students using the 1996/2001 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Survey and the 1993/2003 Baccalaureate and Beyond…

  5. Native American Women Perceptions in Pk-12 Administrative Positions in North Dakota Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCoteau, Lanelia Irene

    2012-01-01

    Historically Native American women have experienced barriers in their rise to Pk-12 educational leadership positions. There is limited research available on Native American women in educational leadership. Therefore, the purpose for this survey study was to discover what inspired current Pk-12 Native American women educational leaders to choose…

  6. The Relationship between Maladaptive Eating Behaviors and Racial Identity among African American Women in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder…

  7. The Manhattan Project and its Effects on American Women Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Samuel

    2008-04-01

    There have been many detailed historical accounts of the Manhattan Project, but few have recognized the technical role women scientists and engineers crucially played in the Project's success. Despite their absence from these prominent accounts, recent studies have revealed that, in fact, women participated in every non-combat operation associated with the Manhattan Project. With such extensive participation of women and such a former lack of historical attention upon them, little analysis has been done on how the Manhattan Project might have influenced the prospectus of women scientists after the war. This talk has two aims: 1) to recount some of the technical and scientific contributions of women to the Manhattan Project, and 2) to examine what effects these contributions had on the women's careers as scientists. In other words, I intend offer a preliminary explanation of the extent to which the Manhattan Project acted both as a boon and as a detriment to American women scientists. And finally, I will address what this historical analysis could imply about the effects of current efforts to recruit women into science.

  8. Irish American Women: Forgotten First-Wave Feminists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Barr Ebest

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous books have been written about American feminism and its influence on education and society. But none have recognized the key role played by Irish American women in exposing injustice and protecting their rights. Certainly their literary heritage, inherent knowledge of English, and membership in the single largest ethnic group gave them an advantage. But their dual positions as colonized, second-class citizens of their country and their religion gave them their political edge, a trait that has been evident since the Irish first stepped off the boat and that continues to this day. This essay focuses on the first wave of these feminist messages by introducing Irish American writers and activists who emerged between the 1830s and 1960s. It locates Irish American women’s influence in three different, yet overlapping milieus—political activism, journalism, and literature.

  9. An assessment of American Indian women's mammography experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faseru Babalola

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mortality from breast cancer has increased among American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN women. Despite this alarming reality, AI/AN women have some of the lowest breast cancer screening rates. Only 37% of eligible AI/AN women report a mammogram within the last year and 52% report a mammogram within the last two years compared to 57% and 72% for White women. The experiences and satisfaction surrounding mammography for AI/AN women likely are different from that of women of other racial/ethnic groups, due to cultural differences and limited access to Indian Health Service sponsored mammography units. The overall goals of this study are to identify and understand the mammography experiences and experiential elements that relate to satisfaction or dissatisfaction with mammography services in an AI/AN population and to develop a culturally-tailored AI/AN mammography satisfaction survey. Methods and Design The three project aims that will be used to guide this work are: 1 To compare the mammography experiences and satisfaction with mammography services of Native American/Alaska Native women with that of Non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, and Black women, 2 To develop and validate the psychometric properties of an American Indian Mammography Survey, and 3 To assess variation among AI/AN women's assessments of their mammography experiences and mammography service satisfaction. Evaluations of racial/ethnic differences in mammography patient satisfaction have received little study, particularly among AI/AN women. As such, qualitative study is uniquely suited for an initial examination of their experiences because it will allow for a rich and in-depth identification and exploration of satisfaction elements. Discussion This formative research is an essential step in the development of a validated and culturally tailored AI/AN mammography satisfaction assessment. Results from this project will provide a springboard from which a maximally

  10. Engaging Women in Computer Science and Engineering: Promising Practices for Promoting Gender Equity in Undergraduate Research Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Karen A.; Fann, Amy J.; Misa-Escalante, Kimberly O.

    2011-01-01

    Building on research that identifies and addresses issues of women's underrepresentation in computing, this article describes promising practices in undergraduate research experiences that promote women's long-term interest in computer science and engineering. Specifically, this article explores whether and how REU programs include programmatic…

  11. Correlates of Cervical Cancer Screening among Vietnamese American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace X. Ma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Vietnamese American women are at the greatest risk for cervical cancer but have the lowest cervical cancer screening rates. This study was to determine whether demographic and acculturation, healthcare access, and knowledge and beliefs are associated with a prior history of cervical cancer screening among Vietnamese women. Methods. Vietnamese women (n=1450 from 30 Vietnamese community-based organizations located in Pennsylvania and New Jersey participated in the study and completed baseline assessments. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Overall levels of knowledge about cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV are low. Factors in knowledge, attitude, and beliefs domains were significantly associated with Pap test behavior. In multivariate analyses, physician recommendation for screening and having health insurance were positively associated with prior screening. Conclusion. Understanding the factors that are associated with cervical cancer screening will inform the development of culturally appropriate intervention strategies that would potentially lead to increasing cervical cancer screening rates among Vietnamese women.

  12. Research Experiences for Undergraduates at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoard, D. W.; Smith, R. C.

    1999-12-01

    Each year, Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) hosts a Research Experiences for Undergraduates (REU) program funded by the National Science Foundation. In general, REU programs bring a group of undergraduate students to the host institute for 10 weeks, where they are teamed-up with staff members to perform research projects. Unlike REU programs at other U.S. institutions, the CTIO program takes place outside the United States and during the southern summer/northern winter months. This offers students not only a chance to perform research and participate in the day-to-day life at a major astronomical observatory, but also provides a unique exposure to a foreign culture and an option for students who can take advantage of a non-traditional work experience during the academic year. CTIO REU students also benefit from interaction with their Chilean counterparts participating in the Prácticas de Investigación en Astronomía, an REU-like program operated by CTIO for Chilean undergraduates. Since 1995, CTIO has hosted 16 REU students (with 4 more coming in 2000). Thirteen (and counting) publications have resulted from CTIO REU projects; all 4 REU students in the 1999 program attended the 194th AAS meeting to present posters based on their projects. We present here an overview of the REU program at CTIO.

  13. UNDERSTANDING THE BREAST CANCER EXPERIENCE OF WOMEN: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF AFRICAN AMERICAN, ASIAN AMERICAN, LATINA AND CAUCASIAN CANCER SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin Tam; PADILLA, GERALDINE; TEJERO, JUDITH; KRAEMER, JANET; Wright, Karen; Coscarelli, Anne; Clayton, Sheila; WILLIAMS, IMANI; HILLS, DAWN

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in American women across most ethnic groups. Although the psychosocial impact of breast cancer is being studied, there is little information on women from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds.

  14. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  15. Filipina American women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryujin Lisa

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Filipino Americans are the fastest growing Asian minority group in the United States. There is limited knowledge about their breast cancer knowledge, screening practices and attitudes. Methods As part of the evaluation of the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program, 248 Filipino American women completed baseline and follow-up surveys, while an additional 58 took part in focus groups. Results Compliance with annual clinical breast exam guidelines among women 40 to 49 years old was 43%, and annual mammography use among women 50 and over was 56%. The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program and complementary focus group study identified multiple barriers that hindered women from attending education programs, with time as the most frequently reported barrier. Conclusion The Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program was reported to be a culturally acceptable and effective way of disseminating breast cancer information and one that addressed the women's most frequently reported barrier, lack of time.

  16. The Emancipatory and Transformative Potentials of American Multiethnic Women Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Hasan Zeidanin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the emancipatory potentials of American women writers of color for victims of gender, class, and the ethnocentric ideologies of racism, colonialism and nationalism. Their struggle against multiple oppressors, on one hand, drive them to form alliances with different oppressed groups such as laborers, homosexuals, the colonized people, immigrants and various ethnic minorities. On the other hand, cultural and ethnic identities are redefined on the basis of heterogeneity rather than homogeneity to cultivate tolerance, interdependence and mutual respect; gender roles are reconsidered in the light of an androgynous ideology, which views men and women as equal partners who should live in harmony but not in conflict; social classes are deconstructed to redress the injustices women and laborers have endured because of their gender, ethnic or racial differences. The plurality and heterogeneity of cultural, ethnic and gendered identities which women writers of color develop are extended to their writing whose language, content, and style are innovated and used as effective strategies to empower and emancipate subaltern groups. Their writing, therefore, assumes an inclusive character in which sexual, cultural and ethnic boundaries disappear, and interracial, intercultural, interethnic and intersexual dialogue is promoted.Keywords: American women of color, writing, empowerment, potentials, innovative strategies 

  17. American Muslim women's experiences of leaving abusive relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh-Phillips, D

    2001-06-01

    American Muslim women are a growing population whose experiences of abuse remain largely unstudied. To begin to amend this gap in knowledge, this article examines American Muslim women's experiences of leaving abusive partners as reported in a larger narrative study. The process of leaving as described by participants includes four stages: reaching the point of saturation, getting khula (an Islamic divorce initiated by wives), facing fimily and/or community disapproval, and reclaiming the self. Each of these stages illustrates the significance of group-oriented cultural values in shaping participants' experiences of leaving their abusers. I compare study findings with existing literature and conclude by offering suggestions for research and practice in this area. PMID:11813788

  18. Lessons Learned in Developing Research Opportunities for Native American Undergraduate Students: The GEMscholars Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurn-Birkhimer, S. M.; Filley, T. R.; Kroeger, T. J.

    2008-12-01

    Interventions for the well-documented national deficiency of underrepresented students in higher education have focused primarily on the undergraduate student population with significantly less attention given to issues of diversity within graduate programs. As a result, we have made little progress in transforming faculty composition to better reflect the nation's diversity resulting in relatively few minority mentors joining faculty ranks and schools falling short of the broader representation to create an enriched, diverse academic environment. The GEMscholars (Geology, Environmental Science and Meteorology scholars) Program began in the summer of 2006 with the goal of increasing the number of Native American students pursuing graduate degrees in the geosciences. We drew on research from Native American student education models to address three key themes of (a) mentoring, (b) culturally relevant valuations of geosciences and possible career paths, and (c) connections to community and family. A collaboration between Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN and three institutions in northern Minnesota; Bemidji State University, Red Lake Nation College and Leech Lake Tribal College, is structured to develop research opportunities and a support network for Native American undergraduate students (called GEMscholars) to participate in summer geoscience research projects in their home communities. Research opportunities were specifically chosen to have cultural relevance and yield locally important findings. The GEMscholars work on projects that directly link to their local ecosystems and permit them to engage in long term monitoring and cohesive interaction among each successive year's participants. For example, the GEMscholars have established and now maintain permanent field monitoring plots to assess the impacts of invasive European earthworm activity on forest ecosystem health. The culmination of the summer project is the GEMscholars Symposium at Purdue University

  19. Personal Identities and Disordered Eating Behaviors in Mexican American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen; Ronis, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Eating disorder behaviors are prevalent in Latina populations. This study tested Schwartz’s (2006) theoretical view that a broad array of personal identities serves as an internal resource during acculturation and prevents internalization of dysfunctional weight related beliefs. Sixty-six Mexican American women completed measures of personal identities, fat self-definition, eating disorder symptoms and acculturation. Results show that few positive and many negative personal identities predict...

  20. Health information-seeking behavior and older African American women.

    OpenAIRE

    Gollop, C J

    1997-01-01

    This study explored the ways in which urban, older, African American women obtain health information and some of the factors that influence such activity. Among the possible determinants examined were self-perceived literacy, access to health information, and mobility. The findings suggest that respondents receive health information from their physicians, the mass media, and members of their social networks. The results of this research also indicated that members of this population have a hi...

  1. The Emancipatory and Transformative Potentials of American Multiethnic Women Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Hasan Zeidanin

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the emancipatory potentials of American women writers of color for victims of gender, class, and the ethnocentric ideologies of racism, colonialism and nationalism. Their struggle against multiple oppressors, on one hand, drive them to form alliances with different oppressed groups such as laborers, homosexuals, the colonized people, immigrants and various ethnic minorities. On the other hand, cultural and ethnic identities are redefined on the basis of heterogeneity rathe...

  2. African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry F...

  3. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  4. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Women with at-Risk Male Partners

    OpenAIRE

    Paxton, KC; Williams, JK; Bolden, S; Guzman, Y; Harawa, NT

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV continues to impact African American women at alarming rates. Yet, few researchers have examined the relationship factors promoting unprotected sex within African American communities, especially instances in which women are aware that their male partners are engaging in high risk behaviors. This qualitative study explored the sexual behaviors, relationship characteristics, and HIV prevention strategies utilized by African American women in relationships with African American ...

  5. Participation of Asian-American Women in Cancer Treatment Research: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tung T.; Somkin, Carol P.; Ma, Yifei; Fung, Lei-Chun; Nguyen, Thoa

    2005-01-01

    Few Asian-American women participate in cancer treatment trials. In a pilot study to assess barriers to participation, we mailed surveys to 132 oncologists and interviewed 19 Asian-American women with cancer from Northern California. Forty-four oncologists responded. They reported as barriers language problems, lack of culturally relevant cancer information, and complex protocols. Most stated that they informed Asian-American women about treatment trials. Only four women interviewed knew abou...

  6. Searching for the second generation of American women psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Elizabeth; Johnson, Ann

    2008-02-01

    As a consequence of the groundbreaking work of E. Scarborough and L. Furumoto (1987), the contributions of the pioneering first generation of American women psychologists are now well recognized within the history of psychology; however, the generation that followed the pioneers is less well known. The lack of recognition that most women psychologists of the interwar era experienced during the majority of their working lives resulted from sexism institutionalized through practices such as anti-nepotism rules that effectively excluded many married women from the academy, informal hiring practices operating in "old-boy network" fashion, and exclusion from certain key graduate training centers. Yet, many women were productive psychologists during this era and contributed to the growth and expansion of the discipline. Examination of published literature generated biographical information for 107 eminent women; C. A. Murchison's (1932b) Psychological Register provided a less detailed but more inclusive inventory to yield data on a total of 320 women. This article recounts our systematic search for this "lost generation" and emphasizes the extent and diversity of their contributions to psychology. PMID:19048957

  7. Personal, professional and financial satisfaction among American women urologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara S. Marley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Although nearly half of American medical school classes are comprised of women, less than 5% of female medical students enter the surgical subspecialties compared to nearly 20% of male students. Many women are concerned that a career in a surgical field will limit their personal choices. In an effort to evaluate if urology is conducive to a satisfying lifestyle, we surveyed all 365 board certified women urologists in the United States in 2007 to find out how satisfied they are with their choice of urology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 114 item anonymous survey was mailed to all 365 American Board Certified female urologists in 2007. Results were analyzed. RESULTS: Of the 244 women (69% who responded, 86.8% (211 reported being satisfied with their decision to enter urology. Given the choice to repeat the decision, 81% (198 said that they would remain in medicine and 91.4% (222 would choose a surgical subspecialty again. The majority of respondents who stated they would choose a career outside of medicine also stated their family life had been significantly compromised by their career. Those who did not think their family life was compromised reported they would remain in medicine. There was a positive correlation between the level of satisfaction with the work itself and with income level (p = 0.006. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the small number of women who choose a career in urology, the number of satisfied women indicates urology is a career conducive to having a balanced and fulfilling life; professionally, personally and financially.

  8. Increasing the Overall Quality and the Number of Women and Hispanic Geoscientists for the Workforce: Rebuilding an Undergraduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, M. T.; McGehee, T. L.

    2014-12-01

    Over the past ten years, the Geosciences Program at Texas A&M University-Kingsville has increased the number of Geology majors 400%, and in the past five years we have graduated 62 students, an increase of 800%. Of these graduates, 37% were Hispanic or African-American and 26% were women. Our graduates are high-achievers with 13% also graduating from the Honor's College (campus-wide rate is less than 1.5%) and that included three women and two Hispanic graduates. Two of these recent graduates are doctoral candidates and eleven are master's candidates at major universities. Of these, three master's candidates are Hispanic, including two women, and one doctoral candidate is a Hispanic woman. The recent productivity and quality changes in this program are attributed to our shift toward an undergraduate, student-centered focus. The increases in productivity resulted from the development of strong relationships with community colleges across the state and significant efforts in recruitment and retention. The major changes in quality included implementation of a strong field-oriented focus with full faculty participation, a strong undergraduate research program, a well-developed recruitment and retention plan, a GIS Certification incorporated into the geology degree, and a culture change to further student professional development. We have maintained over 50 majors in our program for the past three years through increased faculty presentations at high-schools and community colleges, a good University recruiting staff, and quarterly newsletters, focused on student achievements, sent to all prospective students and parents inquiring about the geology major. The resurgence of the oil and gas industry and the retirement of geoscientists have provided a steady stream of job opportunities for our graduates. The 79% that are not pursuing a graduate education accepted jobs after graduation. These include oil and gas entry level jobs, mining jobs, teaching jobs, and geospatial

  9. The influences and experiences of African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockus, Linda Helen

    The purpose of this study is to describe and explore some of the social and academic experiences of successful African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities with the expectation of conceptualizing emerging patterns for future study. The study surveyed 80 upperclass African Americans at 11 public research universities about their perceptions of the influences that affect their educational experiences and career interests in science. The mailed survey included the Persistence/ voluntary Dropout Decision Scale, the Cultural Congruity Scale and the University Environment Scale. A variety of potential influences were considered including family background, career goals, psychosocial development, academic and social connections with the university, faculty relationships, environmental fit, retention factors, validation, participation in mentored research projects and other experiences. The students' sources of influences, opportunities for connection, and cultural values were considered in the context of a research university environment and investigated for emerging themes and direction for future research. Results indicate that performance in coursework appears to be the most salient factor in African American students' experience as science majors. The mean college gpa was 3.01 for students in this study. Challenging content, time demands, study habits and concern with poor grades all serve to discourage students; however, for most of the students in this study, it has not dissuaded them from their educational and career plans. Positive course performance provided encouragement. Science faculty provide less influence than family members, and more students find faculty members discouraging than supportive. Measures of faculty relations were not associated with academic success. No evidence was provided to confirm the disadvantages of being female in a scientific discipline. Students were concerned with lack of minority role models

  10. An examination of the identity development of African American undergraduate engineering students attending an HBCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kenneth J.

    This study examined the identity development for a sample of 90 African American undergraduate engineering male and female students attending an HBCU. Using the Student Development Task and Lifestyle Assessment (SDTLA), which is based on Chickering and Reisser's identity development theory, differences in identity development were examined with respect to gender, academic classification, and grade point average. Previous research has shown the need to look beyond academic factors to understand and influence the persistence of African American engineering students. Non-cognitive factors, including identity development have proven to be influential in predicting persistence, especially for African American engineering students. Results from the analysis revealed significant means for academic classification and five of the dependent variables to include career planning peer relations, emotional autonomy, educational involvement, and establishing and clarifying purpose. Post hoc analysis confirmed significant differences for four of those dependent variables. However, the analysis failed to confirm statistical significant differences in peer relations due to academic classification. The significant decline in the mean scores for development in these four areas, as students progressed from sophomore to senior year revealed strong implications for the need to provide programming and guidance for those students. Institutions of higher education should provide more attention to the non-cognitive areas of development as a means of understanding identity development and working toward creating support systems for students.

  11. A Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Patterns of Learning and Academic Performance of Spanish and Latin-American Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Fernández, J. Reinaldo; Vermunt, Jan D.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse and compare the learning patterns of higher education students from Spain and three Latin-American countries (Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela). For this purpose Vermunt's Inventory of Learning Styles (ILS) was translated into Spanish and tested. The participants were 456 undergraduates enrolled in a teacher…

  12. Understanding the Role of Spirituality in African American Undergraduate Men's Responses to Stereotype Threat at Predominately White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, George H.

    2014-01-01

    Some African American undergraduate men attending Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) are adversely affected by perception of institutional barriers, such as negative stereotypes, that may exist on campus. The awareness of the possibility of being stereotyped can have a negative impact on a student's academic performance. This phenomenon is…

  13. Promoting Academic Persistence among Racial/Ethnic Minority and European American Freshman and Sophomore Undergraduates: Implications for College Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigali-Oiler, Marybeth; Kurpius, Sharon Robinson

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing persistence decisions among 346 racial/ethnic minority and 813 European American freshman and sophomore undergraduates were explored. Gender and racial/ethnic differences were found in centrality and public regard of racial/ethnic identity. Perceptions of the university environment and self-beliefs predicted persistence…

  14. An Examination of Color-Blind Racism and Race-Related Stress among African American Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, M. Nicole; Chapman, Stephanie; Wang, David C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of color-blind racial ideology among a sample of 152 African American undergraduate students in relation to race-related stress. We hypothesized that those who endorsed relatively higher color-blind racial attitudes would experience greater race-related stress because experiences with racism would be interpreted as…

  15. Visual Representation of Body Shape in African-American and European American Women: Clinical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capers, Patrice L.; Kinsey, Amber W.; Miskell, Edrika L.; Affuso, Olivia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Body mass index (BMI) has been used widely among clinicians to assess obesity in their patients due to its ease and availability. However, BMI has some diagnostic limitations and other measures related to health risks; in particular, body shape may be of greater relevance to health outcomes. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to illustrate the importance of body shape assessments above and beyond BMI and its relationship to health risk among a sample of African-American and European American women. METHODS African-American and European American women aged 19–78 years (n = 552) in Birmingham, Alabama, were recruited and stratified by menopausal status (ie, pre- or postmenopausal). Pictorial body shapes were derived from digital photographs, while body fat distribution defined by android–gynoid ratio (AGR) and body composition were obtained from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS Images of BMI and age-matched women illustrate variability in fat distribution. Among both menopausal status groups, more than 50% of women had a pear body shape (AGR < 1). An apple body shape was associated with higher odds of having diabetes (unadjusted odds ratio [OR]: 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–9.3), hypertension (unadjusted OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 2.0–4.7), and high cholesterol (unadjusted OR: 3.0, 95% CI: 1.8–5.1). CONCLUSION Use of visual cues alongside traditional methods of weight status assessment may help to facilitate weight management conversations between physicians and female patients. However, next steps should include the validation of visual assessments of body shape in women for use by physicians. PMID:27478392

  16. A Cultural Study of Chinese American Women's Self-Identification and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research aims to investigate the process of how Chinese American women develop their identities while growing up in the United States as daughters of Chinese immigrants. Specifically, the author explores the following questions: How do Chinese American women come to identify themselves as Chinese American, and act this identity in…

  17. Women's Theologies, Women's Pedagogies: Liberating Praxes of Latin American Women Educators in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lauren Ila

    2009-01-01

    In this dissertation, through semi-structured interviews with 36 female social movement participants and 3 male participants in El Salvador, Nicaragua, Bolivia, and Argentina, I ask, "How do women in Latin American social movements perceive the influence of theology on these movements' pedagogies?" I argue that through this work, the women…

  18. African-American Women Journalists and Their Male Editors: A Tradition of Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitmatter, Rodger

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that African-American women journalists have not been hampered by the sexist attitudes of men to the same degree that white women journalists have been. Presents six case studies of African-American women journalists (three from the nineteenth century and three from the twentieth) in support of this contention. (SR)

  19. Associations among body size dissatisfaction, perceived dietary control, and diet history in African American and European American women

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler-Laney, Paula; Hunter, Gary; Bush, Nikki; Alvarez, Jessica; Roy, Jane; Byrne, Nuala; Gower, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    European American (EA) women report greater body dissatisfaction and less dietary control than do African American (AA) women. This study investigated whether ethnic differences in dieting history contributed to differences in body dissatisfaction and dietary control, or to differential changes that may occur during weight loss and regain. Eighty-nine EA and AA women underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body composition and completed questionnaires to assess body dissatisfact...

  20. Perceptions of Undergraduate University Students about Working Conditions of Women Academic Staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice YALÇIN

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women constitute nearly 41%of academic staff in our country. Among all academic staff, the ratio of female academicians is increasing as it is approached to rural areas from suburbs. This study aims to reveal the perceptions of undergraduate education students about female academicians’ working life conditions. Considering available time and facilities, the universe of research was limited within a university; as it was primarily intended to reveal students’ individual perceptions on the conditions of women academics, the students’ being at the undergraduate level was at the fore front of study rather than the academic departments of the university. The survey data form were applied to 157 female and 104 male undergraduate students (N = 261 studying at faculties and schools of the university where the survey was applied excluding freshmen classes.. Descriptive tests were used to evaluate the data. The findings were evaluated by x ² test, which were formerly tested according to the desires of students on what to get on their education and whether they were willing to be academicians. 54%of female students involved in the research stated that they were “partially” satisfied with the female academics. While 74,3%of the students agreed on the question “Should women work as academicians?”, only 2.2%percent stated that women should not work as academicians. 47,8%consider that there is a partial discrimination between the male and female members of academic life. 47,1%mentioned that working as an academician was a barrier to being a good mother or a good wife and 69,7%stated that working as a female academician was a tough work. 23,7%of the students think that being an academician is mostly beneficial in terms of personal development for a woman. 79,6%stated that the biggest challenge for female academics is to sustain the academic studies as well as being a mother and a wife. The best advantage of being female academician was revealed

  1. Gender in the Geosciences: Factors Supporting the Recruitment and Retention of Women in the Undergraduate Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, E. M.; Sexton, J. M.; Pugh, K.; Bergstrom, C.; Parmley, R.; Phillips, M.

    2014-12-01

    The proportion of women earning undergraduate geoscience degrees has remained about 40% for over a decade. Little research has investigated why women select and persist in a geoscience major. This study addresses why students major in the geosciences and why some programs are more successful at recruiting and retaining female students. We collected interview and survey data from faculty and students at six public US universities. Four sites had a low proportion of female degree recipients ( 48%). 408 students (64% female) completed surveys. Interviews were conducted with 49 faculty members and 151 students. Survey data analysis showed that interest/identity and transformative experiences were significant predictors of students' decision to major in geoscience. Institutional barriers and supports were significant predictors of confidence in the major while connection to instructor predicted students' intent to major. Analysis of pre- and post-course surveys show that students with a greater connection to instructors and students whose instructors expressed more passion for the content also reported higher levels of transformative experiences. This effect was especially pronounced for women and was a significant predictor of persistence in the major. Qualitative data show differences in departmental practices and climate between low and high female graduation sites. High sites used many student-centered approaches to teaching, had extensive opportunities for and a high number of undergraduate students involved in research, and had many opportunities for faculty-student interaction outside of class. Low sites had few of these practices. Qualitative data also showed differences in the gendered equity climate between high and low sites. High sites had more positive gender equity climates and low sites had more negative gender equity climates. At this time, we do not fully understand the causal relationships among all of these findings and higher female graduation rates

  2. A hermeneutic phenomenological study of the experiences of female African American undergraduate engineering students at a predominantly White and an historically Black institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frillman, Sharron Ann

    2011-12-01

    This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, a traditionally White institution. Interviews provided insights into the "lived" experiences of these young women and the factors they believe have contributed to their success in their respective engineering programs. Data analysis involved coding each participant's responses to interview questions using Atlas.ti, a powerful qualitative data analysis tool. This generated 181 codes that were further categorized into nine emergent themes, indicating the potential for extensive associations among the variables. The emergent themes are as follows: (1) Demographic information/special circumstances, (2) Personal attributes and characteristics, (3) Personal insights, (4) Sense of mission, (5) Sources of negative stress, (6) Success strategies, (7) Various forms of support, (8) Would/would not have made it to where she is now, and (9) Being African American and female in engineering. Analysis of these themes and their relationships led to the development of the Frillman Model of Emergent Themes in Female African American Engineering Students. Success. In addressing similarities and differences, three overriding theme categories emerged. These were: (1) Four personhood themes and dual social identity theme; (2) Environmental input and response theme; and (3) Outcome emergent theme of Would/Would not have made it to where she is now. Recommendations were made for future research to expand upon this exploratory study.

  3. Keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in young African American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaker E Harmon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. STUDY DESIGN: The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF, is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. RESULTS: Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3% and fibroids (23.3% were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval: 0.7 (0.5-1.1] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. CONCLUSION: Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.

  4. 6th Annual Midwest Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics, January 18-20, 2013, Urbana, Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitts, Kevin T. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

    2016-04-28

    This document is the program for the 6th Annual Midwest Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics, which was held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on January 18-20, 2013. The goals of the conference were to foster a culture in which undergraduate women are encouraged and supported to pursue, and also to succeed in, higher education in physics; to provide career information to students in physics and related fields; to give women the resources, motivation, and confidence to apply to graduate school and successfully complete a Ph.D. program in Physics; to provide information and dispel misconceptions about the application process for graduate school and the diverse employment opportunities in physics and related fields, enabling women to make more informed decisions about their goals and attain them; and to connect female physics students with successful female physicists to whom they can relate and who can act as inspirational role models and mentors.

  5. Personal identities and disordered eating behaviors in Mexican American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Karen Farchaus; Corte, Colleen; Ronis, David L

    2010-08-01

    Eating disorder behaviors are prevalent in Latina populations. This study tested Schwartz's (2006) theoretical view that a broad array of personal identities serves as an internal resource during acculturation and prevents internalization of dysfunctional weight related beliefs. Sixty-six Mexican American women completed measures of personal identities, fat self-definition, eating disorder symptoms and acculturation. Results show that few positive and many negative personal identities predict higher eating disorder scores and effects are mediated through the fat self-definition. Characteristics of personal identities may influence internalization of cultural values related to weight. Interventions focused on overall identity may prevent eating disorders in Latinas. PMID:20434070

  6. Adherence discourse among African-American women taking HAART

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sankar; Luborsky, M.; Schuman, P.; Roberts, G.

    2002-01-01

    Low adherence is the single most important challenge to controlling HIV through the use of high acting anti-retrovirals (HAART). Non-adherence poses an immediate threat to individuals who develop resistant forms of the virus as well as a public health threat if those individuals pass on treatment-resistant forms of the virus. To understand the concerns and perceptions that promote or deter adherence to antiretroviral medication by HIV-positive African-American women, we conducted in-depth int...

  7. Therapist effects, working alliance, and African American women substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Telsie A; Ancis, Julie R; Ashby, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    African American (AfA) women with substance use disorders experience low rates of treatment retention compared to other groups of substance abusers. This is problematic since substance abuse treatment is effective only to the extent clients are retained. A weak working alliance is a significant barrier to treatment retention for AfA women. Thus, identifying therapist characteristics that facilitate a strong working alliance among this population stands as a promising step toward reducing disparities in treatment retention for this group. Therapist characteristics were explored as predictors of working alliance with AfA women substance users (N = 102). Two hypotheses were tested: (1) Population Sensitive Therapist Characteristics (PSTCs: multicultural competence, egalitarianism, and empowerment) will explain a significant amount of variance in working alliance beyond that explained by general therapist characteristics (GTCs: empathy, regard, and genuineness) and (2) GTCs will partially mediate the effect of each individual PSTC on working alliance. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that PSTCs explained 12% of the variance in working alliance after controlling for GTCs. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that GTCs mediated the effect of each PSTC on working alliance. Findings suggest that therapists can facilitate a stronger working alliance with AfA women substance users through demonstration of PSTCs in addition to GTCs, and that PSTCs are facilitative because they increase the likelihood the therapist is perceived as empathic, having unconditional positive regard, and genuine. Clinical and therapist training implications are discussed. PMID:25111550

  8. Initial Feasibility of a Woman-Focused Intervention for Pregnant African-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Hendrée E.; Berkman, Nancy D.; Kline, Tracy L.; Rachel Middlesteadt Ellerson; Browne, Felicia A.; Winona Poulton; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2011-01-01

    African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women w...

  9. The influences and factors of an undergraduate research program in preparing women for science careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ashley Mcdowell

    Progress has been made in diminishing barriers experienced by women in science in recent years, however obstacles still remain. One of the key elements of the Texas Tech University Howard Hughes Medical Institute (TTU/HHMI) Undergraduate Biological Sciences Education Program is to "support activities that broaden access to science for women." In light of the barriers women in science face, this dissertation examined how the experiences of females in the TTU/HHMI fellows program prepared them for a career in science. This study employed mixed methods, utilizing both a questionnaire involving all past female fellows, and in-depth interviews with seven fellows who chose a career as a professional scientist. According to the quantitative data, research experience, the relationship with mentors, and opportunities to present at state or national meetings were program factors that fellows identified as contributing to their career success. The TTU/HHMI program experiences positively influenced the fellows' level of interest in science, confidence in science, and motivation to pursue a science-related career. Encouragement from the mentor and increased confidence regarding the ability to be successful in science were significant predictors of career advantages. Motivation to pursue a science-related career was the most significant predictor of the fellows' preparation to overcome barriers. Qualitatively, six themes were identified for coding, which included (1) research experience, (2) the mentor, (3) support and interactions, (4) self-confidence, (5) career decisions, and (6) time demands related to a science career. The themes identified were important factors in preparing these past female fellows for a career in science by initiating a change in their attitudes, knowledge, and skills. With over 90% of past fellows currently pursuing a science career, the program, through research experience and encouraging mentors, made a large impact on the career paths of fellows

  10. Reverberations of Racism and Sexism Through the Subjective Sexualities of Undergraduate Women of Color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Alyssa N; Fitz, Caroline C; Bay-Cheng, Laina Y

    2016-01-01

    Young women of color (among others) face both subtle and overt discrimination on a regular basis, but few studies have examined relations between discrimination and sexual outcomes using quantitative tools. We surveyed 154 self-identified undergraduate women of color to examine connections between race- and sex-based discrimination and subjective sexual well-being (i.e., condom use self-efficacy and sexual life satisfaction) and also tested whether sexual autonomy mediated these relations. When examined individually, each form of discrimination was related negatively to condom use self-efficacy and sexual life satisfaction, such that as women reported more discrimination, they reported poorer sexual well-being. However, when examining both racism and sexism as joint predictors, only racism remained significant and there were no racism × sexism interaction effects. In a path model, sexual autonomy mediated the relation between racism and each measure of subjective sexual well-being; racism was negatively related to sexual autonomy, which in turn was positively related to both condom use self-efficacy and sexual life satisfaction. These findings are consistent with the broader literature on the negative impact of discrimination on various aspects of mental and physical health. They also reinforce the position that redressing social inequality is a vital component of promoting individual health. PMID:26147282

  11. American Council of Education names Norrine Bailey Spencer an Extraordinary Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Norrine Bailey Spencer, associate provost and director of undergraduate admissions at Virginia Tech, was selected to be one of the women profiled the American Council on Education's "35 Weeks of Extraordinary Women."

  12. THE REPRESENTATION OF URBAN UPPER MIDDLE CLASS AMERICAN WOMEN'S COMMUNITY IN SEX AND THE CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yola Damayanti Gani

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The portrayal of urban upper middle class American women's community in Sex and the City-SATC-is built upon constructed symbols related to the position of urban upper middle class American Women's community and how cosmopolitan the women are. The symbol's construction is characterized by singleness, upper middle class social status, well-established career, alienation, consumptiveness, independence, gender consciousness, and open mindedness in their sexual knowledge. Television has helped to fracture traditional conventions about how women should place themselves in the midst of their society and constructed urban upper middle class American women's image and identity.

  13. Sexual Harassment Reported Among a Sample of Undergraduate Women in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycock, Lauren M.; Brewe, Eric; Clancy, Kathryn B. H.; Goertzen, Renee Michelle; Hazari, Zarha; Hodapp, Theodore

    2016-05-01

    The field of physics lags behind most other scientific fields in gender parity of students earning bachelor's degrees. The transition from enrollment in high school physics to graduating with physics degree represents the biggest decrease in the proportion of female students for any step in physics educational attainment. Sexual harassment contributes to an unwelcome climate. It is unknown how prevalent sexual harassment is in the field of physics and whether it's a contributing factor to the field's inability to recruit and retain female students. Our goal was to measure a quantitative baseline for sexual harassment--associated with physics--observed and experienced by a sample of female undergraduate students. As part of a larger conference evaluation survey, we conducted an internet-based survey (n = 632) of attendees of the APS Conference for Undergraduate Women in Physics to measure the extent to which they personally experienced or observed sexual harassment in a context associated with physics. We will present results from this survey. Opinions, findings, or conclusions expressed in this work do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF, DOE, or APS. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (PHY-1346627) and by the Department of Energy (DE-SC0011076).

  14. Disparities in Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Literacy and Vaccine Completion among Asian American Pacific Islander Undergraduates: Implications for Cancer Health Equity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa; Vang, Suzanne; DeWolfe, Jessica; Kim, Nam Keol; Lee, Do Kyung; Yeung, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Low rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among young Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) women need to be addressed, particularly given the high incidence of cervical cancer in this population. The current study aims to investigate predictors of HPV vaccination in young AAPI and non-Latina white (NLW) women. Methods: A…

  15. Explaining racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes: unique sources of stress for Black American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci

    2011-03-01

    The infant mortality rate for Black Americans in the US is more than twice the rate for White Americans, with similar racial disparities existing in rates of low birthweight and preterm delivery. Survivors of these adverse birth outcomes have poorer development and health in infancy, childhood, and adulthood. Increasingly, evidence suggests that maternal stress is an important risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. We offer a novel perspective on racial disparities in birth outcomes suggesting that Black American women are subject to unique sources of stress throughout their lives and particularly during pregnancy based on their multiple identities as women, Black, and pregnant. We draw on interdisciplinary work to examine three unique sources of stress for Black American women that elevate their risk for adverse birth outcomes: 1) abuses of Black American women by the medical system and issues of power in obstetrics that disadvantage Black American women; 2) contradictory societal pressures exerted on Black American women about whether they should have children; and 3) historical and contemporary stereotypes about Black American women related to sexuality and motherhood. We discuss implications of this analysis, including applications to research and intervention. Developing a better understanding of the experience of Black American women during pregnancy and throughout their lives offers insight into ways to reduce racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes and their lifelong consequences. PMID:21345565

  16. Factors affecting the matriculation of African American undergraduate students in science, mathematics, engineering, and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Alfred L., II

    Previous research studies indicated that African Americans remain severely underrepresented in the field of science, mathematics, engineering, and technology (SMET), making up only 3% of that workforce, while representing 11.1% of all professional and related workers and 12.6% of the general population. As this country moves towards a more culturally diverse population, then representation of African Americans in SMET-related fields must be addressed in order to ensure our nation's competitiveness in a global market. This research study analyzed characteristics of African American undergraduate SMET majors participating in the Alliance for Minority Participation (AMP) program in six different states located in the Southeast region of the United States. These states consisted of Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, and South Carolina. AMP program participants completed a survey questionnaire, which collected information about potential factors that could affect their matriculation in SMET programs of studies at their respective institutions. Follow-up interviews and focus group sessions were also conducted with AMP participants to provide supplemental information to the survey data. The results of student responses were analyzed according to the type of institution the students attended (Historically Black College or University and Majority White Institution) as well as by the statewide Alliance program in which the students were involved. The students responded to survey questions that asked for their reasons for majoring in their field of study, their level of satisfaction with their institution, their impressions of student support programs and persons, their impressions of faculty and advisors, their reasons for thinking of switching majors, and their level of high school preparation. Statistical analyses of the student responses found that African American AMP students attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities differed from those

  17. The Perpetual Homelessness of College Experiences: Tensions between Home and Campus for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…

  18. Mentoring 101: Advancing African-American Women Faculty and Doctoral Student Success in Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Cosette M.; Ghee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article is purposed with operationalizing the concept of mentoring as a nuanced approach and attempt to thwart the upward trajectories of African-American women in predominantly White institutions (PWIs). We struggled as African-American women to balance and decipher the various facets inherent in our respective roles--professor and doctoral…

  19. Body Dissatisfaction, Ethnic Identity, and Disordered Eating among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers Wood, Nikel A.; Petrie, Trent A.

    2010-01-01

    Initial research suggested that only European American women developed eating disorders (Garner, 1993), yet recent studies have shown that African American women do experience them (e.g., Lester & Petrie, 1998b; Mulholland & Mintz, 2001) and also may be negatively affected by similar sociocultural variables. In this study, we examined a…

  20. Testing a Culture-Specific Extension of Objectification Theory regarding African American Women's Body Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Taneisha S.; Fischer, Ann R.; Tokar, David M.; Yoder, Janice D.

    2008-01-01

    Objectification theory has emphasized objectification in terms of body shape and size. African American women may expect to be evaluated on additional physical attributes such as skin tone. Therefore, we extended previous research on objectification theory by adding separate measures of skin-tone concerns in a survey of 117 African American women.…

  1. Cultural Values, Counseling Stigma, and Intentions to Seek Counseling among Asian American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miville, Marie L.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2007-01-01

    The authors explored the extent to which Asian American college women's perceived stigma about counseling mediated the relationship between their adherence to Asian cultural values and intentions to seek counseling, Participants, 201 Asian American college women (age range = 18-24 years), completed measures of Asian cultural values, perceived…

  2. The Cultural Integration of Asian American Professional Women: Issues of Identity and Communication Behavior. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Joanne Sanae

    The purpose of this study was to examine the communication behavior of Asian American women who held nontraditional, male-dominated jobs. Two hundred and eighty seven Asian American women of Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Philippino descent in both traditional and nontraditional occupations were interviewed in Washington, D.C. and San Francisco.…

  3. Cultural Views, Language Ability, and Mammography Use in Chinese American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenchi; Wang, Judy; Chen, Mei-Yuh; Feng, Shibao; Yi, Bin; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2009-01-01

    Mammography screening rates among Chinese American women have been reported to be low. This study examines whether and how culture views and language ability influence mammography adherence in this mostly immigrant population. Asymptomatic Chinese American women (n = 466) aged 50 and older, recruited from the Washington, D.C. area, completed a…

  4. For My Children: Mexican American Women, Work, and Welfare. Focus Study Report #2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina

    This is the final report of the National Council of La Raza's (NCLR) Focus Study examining the opinions, attitudes, and needs of Mexican American single women, relating to implementation of national welfare reform legislation. Over a 2-year period NCLR staff held focus groups with Mexican American women in four communities: Phoenix, Arizona; Mora,…

  5. Determinants of Low-Fat Eating Behaviors among Midlife African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gina L.; McNeil, Lorna H.; Laufman, Larry; Bowman, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore midlife African American women's low-fat eating habits in the context of health attitudes, social support, and food preferences. Design: A cross-sectional design was used. Settings: One Midwestern and 1 national African American women's organization were targeted for data collection.…

  6. Womanist Spirituality as a Response to the Racism-Sexism Double Bind in African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Wiggins, Marsha I.

    2010-01-01

    Many African American women begin counseling stigmatized by race and gender and may be targets of additional discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, class, age, and other social variables. In this article, the authors discuss "womanist" spirituality as a means for African American women to cope with racism, sexism, and multiple social…

  7. Vitamin D intake is associated with insulin sensitivity in African American, but not European American, women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oster Robert A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is higher among African Americans (AA vs European Americans (EA, independent of obesity and other known confounders. Although the reason for this disparity is not known, it is possible that relatively low levels of vitamin D among AA may contribute, as vitamin D has been positively associated with insulin sensitivity in some studies. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary vitamin D would be associated with a robust measure of insulin sensitivity in AA and EA women. Methods Subjects were 115 African American (AA and 137 European American (EA healthy, premenopausal women. Dietary intake was determined with 4-day food records; the insulin sensitivity index (SI with a frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling; the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR with fasting insulin and glucose; and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Vitamin D intake was positively associated with SI (standardized β = 0.18, P = 0.05 and inversely associated with HOMA-IR (standardized β = -0.26, P = 0.007 in AA, and the relationships were independent of age, total body fat, energy intake, and % kcal from fat. Vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with indices of insulin sensitivity/resistance in EA (standardized β = 0.03, P = 0.74 and standardized β = 0.02, P = 0.85 for SI and HOMA-IR, respectively. Similar to vitamin D, dietary calcium was associated with SI and HOMA-IR among AA but not EA. Conclusions This study provides novel findings that dietary vitamin D and calcium were independently associated with insulin sensitivity in AA, but not EA. Promotion of these nutrients in the diet may reduce health disparities in type 2 diabetes risk among AA, although longitudinal and intervention studies are required.

  8. Infant-feeding practices among African American women: social-ecological analysis and implications for practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Elizabeth A; Woods-Giscombé, Cheryl L

    2015-05-01

    Despite extensive evidence supporting the health benefits of breastfeeding, significant disparities exist between rates of breastfeeding among African American women and women of other races. Increasing rates of breastfeeding among African American women can contribute to the improved health of the African American population by decreasing rates of infant mortality and disease and by enhancing cognitive development. Additionally, higher rates of breastfeeding among African American women could foster maternal-child bonding and could contribute to stronger families, healthier relationships, and emotionally healthier adults. The purpose of this article is twofold: (a) to use the social-ecological model to explore the personal, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and cultural factors that affect the infant feeding decision-making processes of African American women and (b) to discuss the implications of these findings for clinical practice and research to eliminate current disparities in rates of breastfeeding. PMID:24810518

  9. The Use of Self-Pleasure: Masturbation and Body Image among African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Julie L.; Horne, Sharon G.

    2003-01-01

    The current investigation examined the relationship between masturbation and body image among 96 women seeking services at a local family planning clinic in a mid-southern U.S. city. Participants completed a questionnaire that assessed body image and masturbatory practices. Ethnic differences were found with European American women reporting…

  10. Reflecting about gender violence and african american women: The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher - Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luisa Pereira Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    The African American women's socioeconomic, political and cultural conditions are unstable; many of these women face social exclusion situations and have no access to public policies. The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher has considered racial discrimination in relation to African American women as a fact which empowers gender violence and causes damage to life quality and to health. This research tried to understand the effects of racial discrimination to the identities construction and...

  11. Predictors of Quality of Life in Cancer Survivors: White and Asian American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Im, Eun-Ok; Rendell, Marjorie O.; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Eunice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the pathways through which multiple contextual factors influence the quality of life in Asian American and White women living with cancer. This is a secondary analysis of the data from 95 Asian American women and 113 White women. The data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling. Multiple factors explained higher percent of total variances of the quality of life scores in Whites compared with that in...

  12. A review of hair product use on breast cancer risk in African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Stiel, Laura; Adkins‐Jackson, Paris B.; Clark, Phyllis; Mitchell, Eudora; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incidence rate of breast cancer for African American women has recently converged with that of non‐Hispanic White women in the United States, although African Americans have a higher mortality rate due to this disease. Although most research exploring health disparities associated with this phenomenon has focused on differences between women based on biology and behavior, both the academic and lay communities have begun to explore the potential role of environmental exposure to e...

  13. THE REPRESENTATION OF URBAN UPPER MIDDLE CLASS AMERICAN WOMEN'S COMMUNITY IN SEX AND THE CITY

    OpenAIRE

    Yola Damayanti Gani

    2005-01-01

    The portrayal of urban upper middle class American women's community in Sex and the City-SATC-is built upon constructed symbols related to the position of urban upper middle class American Women's community and how cosmopolitan the women are. The symbol's construction is characterized by singleness, upper middle class social status, well-established career, alienation, consumptiveness, independence, gender consciousness, and open mindedness in their sexual knowledge. Television has helped to ...

  14. Targeting American Women: Movie Marketing, Genre History, and the Hollywood Women-in-Danger Film

    OpenAIRE

    Nowell, Richard

    2013-01-01

    By concentrating on elements of film content and the cultural politics of feminist activists, scholars have suggested that Hollywood’s women-in-danger films of the early 1980s represented the greatest misogynist trend in the history of American cinema. However, by focusing on the marketing of such films as Dressed to Kill (Brian De Palma, 1980), He Knows You’re Alone (Armand Mastroianni, 1980), and The Fan (Ed Bianchi, 1981), it is clear that Hollywood distributors consistently framed these t...

  15. Postpartum Nutrient Intakes and Beverage Patterns of American Indian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A. Marshall

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: American Indian (AI children are at risk for chronic diseases associated with marginal early nutrition environments. We describe nutrient intakes and beverage patterns of AI women during the early postnatal period to identify nutritional adequacy and beverage habits. Methods: 24 hour recalls and beverage frequency questionnaires were administered to AI mothers (n = 239 from a Northern Plains Tribal community 1 month postpartum. 24 hour recalls were analyzed using Nutritionist PRO(R software, and intakes were compared to Estimated Average Requirements (EAR. Results: The percentage of AI women reporting nutrient intakes below the EAR was 97% for vitamin D, 96% for vitamin E, 69% for vitamin A, 55% for vitamin C, 73% for calcium and 79% for magnesium. Median (25th, 75th percentile beverage intakes reported by beverage consumers were 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz milk, 8.0(3.4, 16.0 oz 100% juice, 8.0(4.0, 16.0 oz juice drinks, 18.6(7.4, 28.0 oz regular pop, 9.1(4.6, 18.3oz sports drinks, 12.0(5.1, 22.0oz sugared flavored water and 48.0(24.0, 96.0 oz water. Conclusions: The low nutrient and high sugared beverage intakes increased risk of chronic malnutrition. The nutritional environment predisposes AI children to chronic diseases including obesity and dental caries through early metabolic programming and later modeling behaviors.

  16. America's Women of Color: Integrating Cultural Diversity into Non-Sex-Biased Curricula. Filmstrip User's Guide for Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Paul Public Schools, MN.

    This document is one of five filmstrip users' guides that can be used to increase understanding of minority women in the United States by supplying basic information on their histories, current concerns, myths, and misleading stereotypes. The guide was designed to be used with a filmstrip entitled "Asian American Women" and to help teachers of…

  17. The microbiome, intestinal function, and arginine metabolism of healthy Indian women are different from those of American and Jamaican women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indian women have slower arginine flux during pregnancy compared with American and Jamaican women. Arginine is a semi-essential amino acid that becomes essential during periods of rapid lean tissue deposition. It is synthesized only from citrulline, a nondietary amino acid produced mainly in the gut...

  18. Attitudes toward HPV Vaccination among Rural American Indian Women and Urban White Women in the Northern Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchwald, Dedra; Muller, Clemma; Bell, Maria; Schmidt-Grimminger, Delf

    2013-01-01

    Background: American Indian women in the Northern Plains have a high incidence of cervical cancer. We assessed attitudes on vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) in this population. Method: In partnership with two tribal communities, from 2007 to 2009, we surveyed women 18 to 65 years old attending two reservation clinics ("n" =…

  19. Coping with Discrimination: The Subjective Well-Being of South Asian American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Christopher T. H.; Nathwani, Anisha; Ahmad, Sarah; Prince, Jessica K.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between coping strategies used by South Asian American women and subjective well-being (SWB) was studied. Second-generation women were found to use more support compared with 1st-generation women. Problem-solving coping was inversely related to age. Avoidance coping was found to predict SWB when controlling for age and…

  20. African American Women's Perception of Their Own Weight Status Compared to Measured Weight Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research indicates that African American (AA) women may be more accepting of larger body sizes compared with women of other races. This study assessed whether AA women perceived their own weight status accurately, when compared with their actual weight classification. Participants were 528 ...

  1. Factors that Contribute to the Educational Success of Haitian-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Nancy J.; Philossaint, Magdana L.; Kijai, Jimmy; Bailey, Rudolph N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the factors that contributed to the academic success of Haitian-American women. This study was also conducted to determine if factors attributed to by academically successful Haitian women are related to selected demographic characteristics. Two hundred and thirteen Haitian women selected from the National…

  2. The Relationship among Alexithymia, Attachment Styles, and Racial Identity of African American Women in a Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Vickie Mecshell

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that substance abuse among African American women is occurring at an alarming rate that exceeds rates for White women. The heightened use of alcohol and drugs among African American women is a problem that resulted from their racial, historical, and structural position in American society. The literature reveals…

  3. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  4. Increased Incidence of Loco-Regional Recurrences Among African American Women with Terminal Stage Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Colón-Otero; Sherry King; Vandelyn Smith; Carolyn Bieber; Julia Crook; Solberg, Lawrence A.; Robert Shannon; Perez, Edith A.

    2008-01-01

    A prospective analysis of women with terminal breast cancer admitted to CHNE from November 2006-August 2007 evaluated anecdotal observations that African American (AA) women are likelier than Caucasian women to evidence loco-regional recurrences (LRR). Women with terminal breast cancer who were admitted to CHNE, a not-for-profit hospice serving over 90% of Northeast Florida hospice patients, were eligible for participation. 134 terminal breast cancer patients were assessed by hospice nurses f...

  5. Metastatic progression and gene expression between breast cancer cell lines from African American and Caucasian women

    OpenAIRE

    Yancy Haile F; Mason Jacquline A; Peters Sharla; Thompson Charles E; Littleton George K; Jett Marti; Day Agnes A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract African American (AA) women have a lower overall incidence of breast cancer than do Caucasian (CAU) women, but a higher overall mortality. Little is known as to why the incidence of breast cancer is lower yet mortality is higher in AA women. Many studies speculate that this is only a socio-economical problem. This investigation suggests the possibility that molecular mechanisms contribute to the increased mortality of AA women with breast cancer. This study investigates the expressio...

  6. Sexual desire among Mexican-American older women: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Laganà, Luciana; Maciel, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Although researchers have related sexual desire in older women to quality-of-life variables such as overall physical health, well-being, and life satisfaction, little is known about the socio-cultural mechanisms that shape sexual desire in minority ethnic older women. We investigated this sexual variable among Mexican-American older women in a qualitative fashion. Date were collected from 25 community-dwelling women of Mexican descent (aged 59–89 years) using a semi-structured interview proto...

  7. Female Sterilization and Poor Mental Health: Rates and Relatedness among American Indian and Alaska Native Women

    OpenAIRE

    Cackler, CJJ; Shapiro, VB; Lahiff, M.

    2016-01-01

    © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Objective: To describe the reproductive and mental health of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) women, an understudied population. Methods: Data from the 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey were analyzed to determine the 1) prevalence of female sterilization among a nationally representative sample of reproductive age AI/AN women and 2) the association of female sterilization and poor mental health among AI/AN women compared...

  8. Minority American Women Physicists Achieving at the Intersection of Race and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, K. Renee

    2005-10-01

    As minority women physicists, we stand at the intersection of race and gender. We are physicists to be sure, but we are also women of Native, African, Hispanic, and Asian descent. We are colleagues, mothers, sisters, friends and wives, as are our white counterparts, but our experiences cannot be distilled to only gender or race. As Prudence Carter (2005 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association) and Scott Page (``The Logic of Diversity,'' private communication, 2004) remind us, women of color emerge from the interaction between race and gender. This distinction is important because most researchers who study American women's participation in science focus exclusively on the participation of white American women. Of those who acknowledge the existence of non-white women, most do so by disclaiming the exclusion of women of color because the numbers are so small or the experiences are different from white American women. There are some important differences, however. While American women are 15% of all scientists and engineers, black American women are 60% of all black scientists and engineers. Yet an average of less than 3 black women and less than 3 Hispanic women earn PhDs in the U.S. each year, out of about 1100. As Rachel Ivie and Kim Nies Ray point out in AIP Publication R-430.02, ``Minority women especially represent a great, untapped resource that could be drawn on to increase the size of the scientific workforce in the U.S.'' Donna Nelson's (University of Oklahoma) study of diversity in science and engineering faculties further finds that (with the exception of one black woman in astronomy) there are no female black or Native American full professors. In physics, there are no black women professors and no Native American women professors. Despite such a bleak picture, there is hope. Of the 18 departments that award at least 40% of bachelors degrees to women, 7 are in Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). Black women are

  9. Asian American women in science, engineering, and mathematics: Background contextual and college environment influences on self-efficacy and academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Kristen E.

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine, for undergraduate women of various Asian American ethnic backgrounds, the influence of background contextual and college environment factors on their sense of academic self-efficacy and achievement in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Social cognitive career theory and its critiques provided a theoretical foundation for relationships from past performance, socioeconomic status, acculturation, and college environment variables (compositional diversity, racial climate, gendered climate, academic peer support), to academic self-efficacy and achievement. Data were collected through an online survey. Instrumentation included the scales of Language, Identity, and Behavioral Acculturation; Gender Discrimination; Faculty and Classroom Behavior; Interactions with Peers; and Academic Milestones Self-efficacy. The participants were 228 Asian American undergraduate women in STEM at a large public, doctoral research extensive university on the east coast; the response rate was 51%. In three MANOVAs for nine social cognitive career variables, four ethnic groups (East, South, Southeast, and Multi-ethnic Asian American) significantly differed only on socioeconomic status. In path analysis, the initial model was not a good fit and was rejected. The model was respecified through statistical and theoretical evaluation, tested in exploratory analysis, and considered a good fit. The respecified model explained 36% of semester GPA (achievement) and 28% of academic self-efficacy. The academic achievement of Asian American women in STEM was related to past performance, background contextual factors, academic self-efficacy, academic peer support, and gendered climate. The strongest direct influence on achievement was academic self-efficacy followed by past performance. The total effect of Asian acculturation on achievement was negative and the total effect of American acculturation on achievement was not

  10. Variables Associated With Academic Achievement of African-American Males in Four-Year Undergraduate Educational Institutions: a Synthesis of Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Monk, Thelma Y.

    1998-01-01

    This project was a synthesis of studies of the academic achievement of African-American males in undergraduate, four-year institutions in the United States. The purpose of this synthesis was twofold. The first purpose was to collect studies on the academic achievement of African-American males. The second purpose was to identify variables associated with achievement of African-American males. In this review of 13 studies, 48 variables associated with ...

  11. African American women making race work in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Stephanie Nicole

    African American women maintain distinctive social locations at the intersection of race, gender, and class (Crenshaw, 1991; Collins, 1986; 2000; Wing, 2003). However, their voices, interpretation of experiences, and concern with the use of formal education as a mechanism for racial uplift have not been priorities in feminist movements (hooks, 1981; 1989; Perkins, 1993; Smith, 1998; Spitzack & Carter, 1987). Alternatively, Black feminist thought (Collins, 1990; 2000) is a theory constructed by and for African American women. Given the consequences of pursuing formal education in the histories of African American women and the paucity of African American women represented in STEM fields, the purpose of this study was to (a) reveal how African American women conducting research in STEM disciplines accomplished their professional goals, (b) learn how the women negotiated their multiple identities (i.e. race, gender, and class), (c) link the history of educational experiences among African Americans with agendas for social justice, (d) understand how African American women in STEM align their personal accomplishments with broader agendas for activism in higher education, and (e) discover whether there is a collective identity that successful African American women in STEM share. Using Black feminist thought (Collins, 1986; 2000) and narrative analysis of semi- interviews with eight African American women in STEM, the findings from this study revealed: (a) the women in this study described the challenges of pursuing a career in STEM from a feminist perspective, identifying gender as more significant than race; (b) the women in this study experienced more positive interactions with Black male, White female, and White male mentors than with Black female mentors; (c) the women in this study described the use of empowering strategies for overcoming obstacles in their academic pathways; and (d) their collective academic identities were formed by early interactions with

  12. Associating with Occupational Depictions: How African American College Women Are Influenced by the Portrayals of Women in Professional Careers on Television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Mary E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined ways portrayals of professional Black women on television influence the higher education and occupational choices of African American college women. The central research question of this study was: How do college age African American women make meaning of the portrayals of the people they see on television? Two analytic…

  13. Exploring deliberate mentoring approaches aimed at improving the recruitment and persistence of undergraduate women in the geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, I. B.; Adams, A. S.; Barnes, R. T.; Burt, M. A.; Clinton, S. M.; Godfrey, E.; Hernandez, P.; Bloodhart, B.; Donaldson, L.; Henderson, H.; Sayers, J.; Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Bowker, C.; Fischer, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    In the United States, men outnumber women in many science and engineering fields by nearly 3 to 1. In fields like physics or the geosciences, the gender gap can be even wider. Previous studies have identified the early college years as a critical point where many women exit STEM disciplines. An interdisciplinary team including experts in the geosciences, psychology, education, and STEM persistence have recently begun a 5-year project focused on understanding whether mentoring can increase the interest, persistence, and achievement of undergraduate women in the geosciences. The program focuses on mentoring first and second year female undergraduate students from three universities in Colorado and Wyoming and four universities in North and South Carolina. The mentoring program includes a weekend workshop, access to professional women across geoscience fields and both in-person and virtual peer networks. The first weekend workshops will be held in October 2015. We will present an overview of the major components and lessons learned from these workshops and showcase the web center, including the online peer-networking forum.

  14. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  15. Family Adaptability and Cohesion and High Blood Pressure among Urban African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely...

  16. Psychosocial Characteristics and Gestational Weight Change among Overweight, African American Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Allison, Kelly C.; Wrotniak, Brian H.; Emmanuelle Paré; Sarwer, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. To describe psychosocial factors identified as contributors of weight gain in the general population and to examine the relationship between these factors and gestational weight gain among low socioeconomic status, African American, overweight pregnant women. Methods. African American women (n = 120) with a pregravid body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 completed measures of eating, sleep, and depressed mood between 14 and 24 weeks of gestation. Weight was tracked. Descriptive statistics, co...

  17. Drug use and suicidality among Asian American women who are children of immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Hahm, Hyeouk; Jang, Jisun; Vu, Cecilia; Alexander, L. Melissa; Driscoll, Kelsie E; Lundgren, Lena

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the association between drug use and lifetime suicidal behaviors among Asian American women (n = 720) residing throughout Massachusetts, using data collected from 2010 to 2011. Logistic regression models identified that a history of hard drug use alone or in combination with soft drug use has a significant association with both suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Asian American women, adjusting for demographic covariates, history of psychiatric diagnosis, and ...

  18. Experiences of African American Young Women in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolo, Yovonda Ingram

    African American women are underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields throughout the United States. As the need for STEM professionals in the United States increases, it is important to ensure that African American women are among those professionals making valuable contributions to society. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the experiences of African American young women in relation to STEM education. The research question for this study examined how experiences with STEM in K-10 education influenced African American young women's academic choices in their final years in high school. The theory of multicontextuality was used to provide the conceptual framework. The primary data source was interviews. The sample was composed of 11 African American young women in their junior or senior year in high school. Data were analyzed through the process of open coding, categorizing, and identifying emerging themes. Ten themes emerged from the answers to research questions. The themes were (a) high teacher expectations, (b) participation in extra-curricular activities, (c) engagement in group-work, (d) learning from lectures, (e) strong parental involvement, (f) helping others, (g) self-efficacy, (h) gender empowerment, (i) race empowerment, and (j) strategic recruitment practices. This study may lead to positive social change by adding to the understanding of the experiences of African American young women in STEM. By doing so, these findings might motivate other African American young women to pursue advanced STEM classes. These findings may also provide guidance to parents and educators to help increase the number of African American women in STEM.

  19. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley White-Means; Muriel Rice; Jill Dapremont; Barbara Davis; Judy Martin

    2015-01-01

    Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Themat...

  20. Breast Cancer Treatment among African American Women in North St. Louis, Missouri

    OpenAIRE

    Connors, Shahnjayla K.; Goodman, Melody S.; Noel, Lailea; Chavakula, Neeraja N.; Butler, Dwayne; Kenkel, Sandi; Oliver, Cheryl; McCullough, Isaac; Gehlert, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Similar to disparities seen at the national and state levels, African American women in St. Louis, Missouri have higher breast cancer mortality rates than their Caucasian counterparts. We examined breast cancer treatment (regimens and timing) in a sample of African American breast cancer patients diagnosed between 2000 and 2008 while residing in a North St. Louis cluster (eight zip codes) of late stage at diagnosis. Data were obtained from medical record extractions of women participating in ...

  1. Income Differences in Perceived Neighborhood Environment Characteristics Among African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Mama, Scherezade K.; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2012-01-01

    Perceptions of neighborhood attributes for physical activity may be influenced by individual level income. This study examined differences in perceptions of neighborhood attributes for walking and bicycling in high and low income African American women. African American women (n = 388) aged 20–65 years completed the International Physical Activity Prevalence Study’s Environmental Survey Module. Independent t-tests determined differences in perceptions of neighborhood attributes by income grou...

  2. Sitting Time and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in African American Overweight Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K; Ygnacio Lopez III

    2012-01-01

    Findings from previous research linking sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk factors and body composition are inconsistent, and few studies address population groups most vulnerable to these compromising conditions. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relationship of sitting time to cardiometabolic risk factors and body composition among African American women. A subsample of African American women (N = 135) completed health and laboratory assessments, including measures of b...

  3. Literary portraits of basque-american women from shadow to presence

    OpenAIRE

    Bañales Atxirika, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    268 p. This doctoral dissertation proposes an analysis of the portraits of Basque women in Basque-American literature by means of a comprehensive comparative study of a selection of fictional and non-fictional literary works. These will be analyzed in chronological order with the intention of exposing the perception of Basque-American women and the roles they played in order to identify any existing patterns as well as changes and developments throughout time. The study will utilize an int...

  4. Generational Difference in Feminist Identities? Exploring Gender Conscious Identities Among African American Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine E. Harnois

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seem...

  5. Western Media Meets Eastern Tradition: Examining The Views Of Chinese-American Women On Beauty

    OpenAIRE

    JL Lemanski

    2012-01-01

    This study utilized in-depth interviews with 11 Chinese-American women, prompted by mass media images of both Chinese and Western celebrities, in order to better understand their perspectives and views on beauty. Five major themes emerged: Health/Energy, Natural, Comfort/Closeness, Personality/Wholesomeness, and Chinese and Western Appearance Differences.Analysis indicated that although Western media images have an impact on the way Chinese-American women view beauty, the traditional Chinese ...

  6. Lower bone mineral density in Somali women living in Sweden compared with African–Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Demeke, Taye; El-Gawad, Gamal Abd; Osmancevic, Amra; Gillstedt, Martin; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin

    2015-01-01

    Summary Vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteomalacia. Bone mineral density was lower in Somali women, living in Sweden, in relation to both the American and the African–American reference populations. The majority, 73 %, had vitamin D deficiency, and supplementation should be considered to prevent from osteomalacia, osteoporosis and future fractures. Purpose Low vitamin D can lead to osteomalacia. The hypothesis was that bone mineral density (BMD) in Somali women living in Sweden was lower i...

  7. Reflecting about gender violence and african american women: The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher - Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Pereira Oliveira

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The African American women's socioeconomic, political and cultural conditions are unstable; many of these women face social exclusion situations and have no access to public policies. The experience of the NGO Maria Mulher has considered racial discrimination in relation to African American women as a fact which empowers gender violence and causes damage to life quality and to health. This research tried to understand the effects of racial discrimination to the identities construction and to the subjectivation modes of African American women attended by the SOS Racism program. The women showed intense emotional suffering due to discrimination and racism they have faced. In the group process new meanings for the violence were produced, transforming the personal narrative into a public report. 

  8. Obesity and hypertension in an Iranian cohort study; Iranian women experience higher rates of obesity and hypertension than American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouraei Mehdi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Once considered as the main public health problem in developed countries, obesity has become a major problem throughout the world and developing countries, like Iran, are joining the global obesity pandemic. We determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension in a large cohort of Iranians and compared age-adjusted rates with the rates in the US. Methods Golestan Cohort Study is a population-based study of 8,998 men and women, aged 35-81 years, from urban and rural areas. Anthropometric parameters were measured by interviewers. Prevalence rates were directly adjusted to the 2000 United States standard population. Results The age-adjusted prevalence rates of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 in this Iranian population were 62.2% and 28.0%, respectively. Both overweight and obesity were more common in women than men. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight was significantly higher in Iranian women compared to the American women (68.6% vs. 61.6%, while the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity is closer in these two populations (34.9% vs. 33.2%. Iranian men—compared to American men—had significantly lower age-adjusted prevalence of overweight (53.7% vs. 68.8% and obesity (16.2% vs. 27.5%. Age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was higher in Iranian women than American women (35.7% vs. 30.5%. Diabetes mellitus was reported in 6.2% of participants. Mean waist-to-hip ratio (WHR among women was 0.96. Smoking rates in men and women were 33.2% and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of obesity, overweight, and hypertension in Iran is as high as the US. However, Iranian women are more obese than American women and Iranian men are less obese than their American counterparts. This discrepancy might be due to the low rate of smoking among Iranian women. Iranian women have higher mean WHR than what WHO has defined in 19 other populations.

  9. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Intimate Partner Violence in a Community Study of Chinese American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei

    2006-01-01

    A community probability-sampled survey was done of 181 Chinese American women to investigate the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Chinese Americans. Of participants, 42% knew a Chinese woman who had experienced IPV. Also, 14% had experienced IPV themselves in their lifetime (8% severe and 6% minor), 3% in the previous…

  10. Breast Cancer--Screening Behavior among Rural California American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2009-01-01

    A community-based Wellness Circles Program was designed and implemented at 13 sites in California to evaluate a culturally appropriate community-based health care model for American Indian families. Data obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) that was administered to a subset of women demonstrate that American Indian…

  11. Exploring Hybrid Identities: South Asian American Women Pursue a Career in Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amita Roy

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how second-generation South Asian American women negotiated their hybrid identities to pursue a career in teaching. Many South Asian Americans have not pursued a career in teaching because of various external and internal factors that have influenced their sense of identity, academic achievement, and professional career path…

  12. Finding Voice, Becoming Visible: Placing California's Asian American Women in the Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Jane Bernard

    1989-01-01

    Suggests reasons for the lack of material on Asian-American women in textbooks. Presents a study guide to accompany the film "Sewing Woman," a fictionalized documentary based on a series of Chinese American oral histories and the life of a Chinese garment worker. (DB)

  13. Social Networks, Support, and Psychosocial Functioning among American Indian Women in Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene

    2005-01-01

    The relationship of social networks and social support to the psychosocial functioning (self-efficacy, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and hostility) of 159 American Indian women undergoing residential substance abuse treatment at Native American Connections was assessed. Social support and active participation by clients' families during…

  14. Latin American Immigrant Women and Intergenerational Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalde, Maria Cristina; Quelopana, Ana Maria

    2013-01-01

    People of Latin American descent make up the largest and fastest-growing minority group in the USA. Rates of pregnancy, childbirth, and sexually transmitted infections among people of Latin American descent are higher than among other ethnic groups. This paper builds on research that suggests that among families of Latin American descent, mothers…

  15. ‘In love, she remains whole’: Heterosexual Love in Contemporary Arab American Poetry Written by Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bosch Vilarrubias

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of Arab American feminism in the 1990s, Arab American women writers have become prominent figures in the field of Arab American literature. At the same time, the victimization of Arab women and the stereotyping of Arab men have grown in the West. Given this mainstream perception of Arabs, this article aims at exploring the positioning of Arab American women towards Arab men, taking into account the feminist fight against sexism and racism. Analyzing the articulations of heterosexual love made by Arab American women in their poetry (including Mohja Kahf, Suheir Hammad and Pauline Kaldas, this article will examine the potential political use of poetry.

  16. Till Death Do Us Part: Lived Experiences of HIV-Positive Married African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lorece V.; Irving, Shalon M.; Hawkins, Anita S.

    2011-01-01

    HIV/AIDS disease continues to be an escalating health problem, particularly among women. However, African American women are among the leading demographic groups for HIV prevalence in the United States. The typical woman with HIV/AIDS is young, in her late twenties, economically challenged, and of childbearing age. Participants were recruited from…

  17. Beyond Stereotypes and Statistics: Emergence of Asian and Pacific American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Juanita Tamayo; Pian, Canta

    This publication was prepared as a tribute to Asian and Pacific American women. Stereotypes of Asian and Pacific women are discussed in historical and present-day contexts. Demographic statistics regarding families, education, and employment are presented to illustrate the impact of recent Asian and Pacific immigration trends. The emergence of an…

  18. Narratives of Assimilation, Divergence, and Hybridity: The Reproduction Decisions of College-Educated Mexican American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado, Emmanuel; Nehring, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Our study explored cultural understandings surrounding the reproductive decisions of US-born, college-educated Mexican American women through a series of semi-structured in-depth interviews. In considering the results, this article advances debates on Latina women's reproductive choices beyond the theoretical paradigms of "assimilation" and…

  19. Ring of Silence: African American Women's Experiences Related to Their Breasts and Breast Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Eileen

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore women's memories and feelings concerning their breasts and breast cancer screening experiences in relation to their current breast cancer screening behaviors. Twelve African American women shared stories that were generated in written narratives and individual interviews. Two core themes emerged from the…

  20. Predictors of Relapse for American Indian Women after Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Jenny; Lopez, Darlene

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the predictors of substance use relapse of American Indian (AI) women up to one year following substance abuse treatment. Relapse is defined as any use of alcohol or drugs in the past 30 days at the follow-up points. Data were collected from AI women in a 45-day residential substance abuse treatment…

  1. Body Image and Quality of Life in a Group of African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks; Thomas, Dana-Marie; Ard, Jamy D.

    2010-01-01

    African American (AA) women's preference for a larger body size and underestimation of their body weight may affect the relationship between their body weight and weight-related quality of life (QOL). We wanted to examine the relationship between weight-related QOL and body mass index (BMI) in a sample of overweight AA women. Thirty-three…

  2. Frequency and Types of Partner Violence among Mexican American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L.; Sanderson, Maureen; Cantu, Ethel; Huerta, Debbie; Fadden, Mary Kay

    2008-01-01

    Objective and Participants: The authors studied the prevalence of partner violence, by type, among Mexican American college women aged 18 to 35 years (N = 149; response rate = 85%). Results: Twelve percent of women who reported a dating partner in the past year were physically or sexually assaulted, 12.1% were stalked, and 9.1% scored as…

  3. Latinas and African American Women at Work: Race, Gender, and Economic Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Irene, Ed.

    The 13 chapters of this book, written by various sociologists, document how race and gender intersect to put African American and Latina women at a disadvantage in the workplace. The articles encompass 30 years of change for women at all levels of the workforce, from those who spend time on the welfare rolls to middle class professionals, and look…

  4. Discriminatory Experiences and Depressive Symptoms among African American Women: Do Skin Tone and Mastery Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Keith, Verna M.; Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    We apply structural equation modeling techniques to data from the National Survey of American Life to investigate the relationship between perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms among African American women ages 18–98 years (N=2,299). In addition, we evaluate whether or not personal mastery accounts for the intensity of African American women’s psychological response to discrimination and whether or not exposure to discrimination varies by skin complexion. Findings reveal that discr...

  5. The bad taste of social ostracism: the effects of exclusion on the eating behaviors of African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, Lenwood W; McIntyre, Rusty B; Abbey, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    African-American women experience disproportionately higher rates of obesity than do Caucasian women. The stress African-American women encounter from experiences of discrimination may influence their eating behaviours, which could contribute to weight gain. Emotional eating theory suggests some people increase their intake of high-calorie foods to cope with stressful experiences. We investigated the effects of social exclusion by other African-American women or by Caucasian women for African-American women's distress and food consumption using a laboratory paradigm. As hypothesised, there were main effects of ostracism and interactions between ostracism and race, although not all of the interactions took the expected form. As hypothesised, African-American women ate more potato crisps after being excluded by Caucasians than by African-Americans. Unexpectedly, African-American women who were excluded by other African-American women self-reported more emotional distress than did African-American women excluded by Caucasian women. These findings suggest that ostracism by both in-group and out-group members are disturbing, although people may respond to in-group and out-group exclusion in different ways. Directions for future research are suggested that could elucidate the circumstances under which different emotional and behavioural coping responses are employed. PMID:25403251

  6. Psychosocial Influences on Suboptimal Adjuvant Breast Cancer Treatment Adherence among African American Women: Implications for Education and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magai, Carol; Consedine, Nathan S.; Adjei, Brenda A.; Hershman, Dawn; Neugut, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    Despite lower incidence, African American women are at increased risk of dying from breast cancer relative to their European American counterparts. Although there are key differences in both screening behavior and tumor characteristics, an additional part of this mortality difference may lie in the fact that African American women receive…

  7. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    OpenAIRE

    Demerath, Ellen W; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T. L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide associati...

  8. The Health Intervention Project: HIV risk reduction among African American women drug users.

    OpenAIRE

    Sterk, Claire E.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article describes the Health Intervention Project, an intervention for African American women in Atlanta, Georgia, who are crack cocaine users. METHODS:A formative phase involved ethnographic mapping of the physical and social infrastructure of the study communities and in-depth interviews with women crack cocaine users. Key findings that were incorporated into the intervention program included the exchange of sex for money or drugs, the women's experience with trauma and abus...

  9. Stressors, Resources, and Stress Responses in Pregnant African American Women: A Mixed-Methods Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low ...

  10. Experiences of Reentry and Nontraditional African American Women and Their Support Networks: A Journey in Pursuit of a College Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denson, Janet L.

    2010-01-01

    This research study reports the findings of how support networks impact the success of African American women in completing their college degree. A phenomenological research methodology of 10 African American women participants of in-depth face-to-face interviews was used to collect the data. Fifty percent of the women completed their degree and…

  11. The Glass Ceiling Is Made of Concrete: The Barriers to Promotion and Tenure of Women in American Academia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Mary; Andel, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The focus of this research is to survey the literature in American higher education on the tenure and promotion of women and to suggest future problems that women may encounter as the American population grays. Anecdotally, women are not tenured and promoted in the same percentages of men in similar fields. In the social and natural sciences,…

  12. Estrogen Therapy and Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Eskridge, Susan L.; Morton, Deborah J.; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth; Wingard, Deborah; Wooten, Wilma

    2010-01-01

    Controlling for body size and composition, the authors examined the association between estrogen therapy and bone mineral density in older African-American and Caucasian women. In 1992–1998, 443 African-American and 989 Caucasian women aged 45–87 years were assessed for medication use, laboratory variables, behavioral characteristics, and bone mineral density. The mean age was 61.3 (95% confidence interval: 60.3, 62.3) years in African Americans and 71.0 (95% confidence interval: 70.4, 71.7) ...

  13. Psychometric evaluations of the efficacy expectations and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scales in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye

    2014-01-01

    This secondary analysis tested the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in 126 community dwelling, middle aged African American women. Social Cognitive Theory postulates self-efficacy is behavior age, gender and culture specific. Therefore, it is important to determine ifself-efficacy scales developed and tested in older Caucasian female adults are reliable and valid in middle aged, minority women. Cronbach's alpha and construct validity using hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis supported the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE scales in community dwelling, middle aged African American women. PMID:25612395

  14. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies. PMID:23865863

  15. The Impact of Racism on the Sexual and Reproductive Health of African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prather, Cynthia; Fuller, Taleria R; Marshall, Khiya J; Jeffries, William L

    2016-07-01

    African American women are disproportionately affected by multiple sexual and reproductive health conditions compared with women of other races/ethnicities. Research suggests that social determinants of health, including poverty, unemployment, and limited education, contribute to health disparities. However, racism is a probable underlying determinant of these social conditions. This article uses a socioecological model to describe racism and its impact on African American women's sexual and reproductive health. Although similar models have been used for specific infectious and chronic diseases, they have not described how the historical underpinnings of racism affect current sexual and reproductive health outcomes among African American women. We propose a socioecological model that demonstrates how social determinants grounded in racism affect individual behaviors and interpersonal relationships, which may contribute to sexual and reproductive health outcomes. This model provides a perspective to understand how these unique contextual experiences are intertwined with the daily lived experiences of African American women and how they are potentially linked to poor sexual and reproductive health outcomes. The model also presents an opportunity to increase dialog and research among public health practitioners and encourages them to consider the role of these contextual experiences and supportive data when developing prevention interventions. Considerations address the provision of opportunities to promote health equity by reducing the effects of racism and improving African American women's sexual and reproductive health. PMID:27227533

  16. Knowledge, beliefs, and risk factors for osteoporosis among African-American and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, S E; Derman, R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and conduct a needs and risk instrument to assess knowledge of osteoporosis risk factors, identify beliefs and attitudes about this disease, and delineate the presence and/or absence of healthy behaviors associated with osteoporosis among African American and Hispanic women. The survey findings suggest that African-American and Hispanic women are not well-versed in behaviors that would promote and maintain optimal bone mass. Consequently, they are not practicing appropriate lifestyle and dietary habits to decrease their risk of osteoporosis. Such behaviors include inadequate physical activity, inadequate calcium intake, cigarette smoking, and long-term steroid use. Less than 10% of women in the study were getting adequate daily dietary calcium intake, with only 13% taking daily calcium supplements to augment this deficit and less than one-half of women exercising at a minimal level (20 minutes/3 times a week). Women in this study also had limited knowledge about osteoporosis, perceived this condition to be less of a health threat as compared to breast cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease, and very few had the perception that being Hispanic or African American was a factor to consider in assessing their risk of osteoporosis. Our findings suggest that osteoporosis education and prevention initiatives are needed, specifically for African-American and Hispanic women, to promote healthy behaviors, identify women at-risk, and encourage early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:12653376

  17. Pulse Wave Velocity in Korean American Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J.

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is an important clinical marker of cardiovascular diseases. Although many studies have been conducted on different racial groups, less is known about arterial stiffness in Asian Americans. Korean Americans constitute the fifth largest subgroup in the Asian American population and reportedly have a noticeably high prevalence of hypertension. The aims of this study were to assess arterial stiffness and blood pressure and to examine the effect of age and gender on arterial sti...

  18. The Vanishing West: 1964-2010--The Disappearance of Western Civilization from the American Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricketts, Glenn; Wood, Peter R.; Balch, Stephen H.; Thorne, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    "The Vanishing West" traces the decline and near extinction of the Western Civilization history survey course in America's top colleges and universities from 1964 to 2010. This course, covering classical antiquity to the present, was once part of the undergraduate curriculum's intellectual bedrock, not only because it was often a graduation…

  19. Initial Feasibility of a Woman-Focused Intervention for Pregnant African-American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrée E. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available African-American women who use crack are vulnerable to HIV because of the complex social circumstances in which they live. Drug-abuse treatment for these women during pregnancy may provide time for changing risk behaviors. This paper examines the initial 6-month feasibility of a women-focused HIV intervention, the Women's CoOp, adapted for pregnant women, relative to treatment-as-usual among 59 pregnant African-American women enrolled in drug-abuse treatment. At treatment entry, the women were largely homeless, unemployed, practicing unsafe sex, and involved in violence. Results indicated marked reductions in homelessness, use of cocaine and illegal drugs, involvement in physical violence, and an increase in knowledge of HIV from baseline to 6-month followup for both conditions. Findings suggest that the Women's CoOp intervention could be successfully adapted to treat this hard-to-reach population. Future studies should examine the efficacy of the pregnancy-adapted Women's CoOp for women not enrolled in drug-abuse treatment.

  20. Correlates and Predictors of Binge Eating among Native American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julie Dorton; Winterowd, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and being overweight, as determined by body mass index (BMI), each continues to be of concern for many Native American/American Indians (NA/AI). According to the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders," binge eating is excessive eating or consuming large quantities of food over a short period of time and has been associated…

  1. Teaching strategies to facilitate breast cancer screening by African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lynette M

    2008-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to report on the recent literature concerning coverage of breast cancer epidemiology, the barriers to breast cancer screening, and the strategies to facilitate screening by African-American women. Based on these findings, the author suggests culturally appropriate techniques to be used to promote breast cancer screening in African-American women. Barriers to breast cancer screening in African-American women include emotional reasons, spiritual/religious reasons, fatalism, logistic concerns, lack of knowledge, and lack of follow-up by health-care professionals. Numerous strategies that have been targeted toward African-American women are reported. These include storytelling, witnessing, and testimonies; providing social support and having social support networks; and conducting multifaceted programs that include culturally specific breast health information. Based on the literature reviewed, the author suggests some examples of creative and culturally appropriate techniques that have been implemented with African-American women and that have resulted in positive feedback. These examples include the use of testimonies, photographs, prose, narratives, poetry, and quotations. PMID:19397053

  2. Cervical and Anal Human Papillomavirus Infection in Adult Women in American Samoa

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Ka’opua, Lana S.; Scanlan, Luana; Ah Ching, John; Kamemoto, Lori E.; Thompson, Pamela J.; Zhu, Xuemei; Shvetsov, Yurii B.; Tofaeono, Jennifer; Williams, Victor Tofaeono

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cervical and anal human papillomavirus (HPV) and risk factors associated with infections were evaluated in a cross-sectional study of 211 adult women in American Samoa. Overall, 53% of women reported ever having a Pap smear. Cervical and anal HPV was detected in 10% and 16% of women, respectively; 4% of women had concurrent cervical and anal HPV. The most common cervical genotypes were HPV 6, HPV 16, and HPV 53. Cutaneous HPV types were detected in 40% of anal infections. Ce...

  3. Listening for Women's Voices: Revisioning Courses in American Public Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonnegut, Kristin S.

    1992-01-01

    Employs seventeenth- and eighteenth-century U.S. women's rhetoric as a case study to argue that the rhetoric of muted groups can and should be included in U.S. public address courses. Draws on theories of social history and literary criticism to illustrate how women's texts might be introduced into the classroom. (MG)

  4. A Contextualized Approach to Faith-Based HIV Risk Reduction for African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer M; Rogers, Christopher K; Bellinger, Dawn; Thompson, Keitra

    2016-07-01

    HIV/AIDS has a devastating impact on African Americans, particularly women and young adults. We sought to characterize risks, barriers, and content and delivery needs for a faith-based intervention to reduce HIV risk among African American women ages 18 to 25. In a convergent parallel mixed methods study, we conducted four focus groups (n = 38) and surveyed 71 young adult women. Data were collected across four African American churches for a total of 109 participants. We found the majority of women in this sample were engaged in behaviors that put them at risk for contracting HIV, struggled with religiously based barriers and matters of sexuality, and had a desire to incorporate their intimate relationships, parenting, and financial burdens into faith-based HIV risk-reduction interventions. Incorporating additional social context-related factors into HIV risk-reduction interventions for young African American women is critical to adapting and developing HIV interventions to reduce risk among young adult women in faith settings. PMID:26879828

  5. Perceived Discrimination and Its Associations with Mental Health and Substance Use among Asian American and Pacific Islander Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Angela Chia-Chen; Szalacha, Laura A.; Menon, Usha

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Racial discrimination experiences can negatively affect health. This study examined perceived discrimination and its relationship with mental health and substance use among Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) undergraduate and graduate students. Participants: A total of 113 API students aged 18-35 completed the study during…

  6. A community-based collaborative approach to improve breast cancer screening in underserved African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Rachel; Fitzpatrick, Dawn C; Leonard, Dawn J; Weber, Scott

    2014-09-01

    Although African American women in the United States have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared with white women, those younger than 40 years actually have a higher incidence rate; additionally, African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer at every age compared with white women. Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality rates are especially significant in Maryland, which ranks fifth in the nation for breast cancer mortality, and in Baltimore City, which has the second highest annual death rate for African American women in Maryland. To address this disparity in care, Med-IQ, an accredited provider of CME, collaborated with Sisters Network Baltimore Metropolitan, Affiliate Chapter of Sisters Network® Inc., the only national African American breast cancer survivorship organization, to sponsor their community-based educational outreach initiative. The collaborative mission was to engage at-risk African American women, their families, local organizations, healthcare professionals, and clinics, with the goals of increasing awareness, addressing fears that affect timely care and diagnosis, and encouraging women to obtain regular mammograms. Intervention strategies included (1) a "Survivor Stories" video, (2) patient outreach consisting of neighborhood walks and an educational luncheon, and (3) a community outreach utilizing direct mailings to local businesses, community groups, and healthcare professionals. Trusted and well-known community resources were presented as mediums to promote the initiative, yielding achievement of broader and more effective outcomes. As a result of this patient-friendly initiative, two (2) of the women who sought screening were diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent treatment. PMID:24446167

  7. Differential Associations Between Partner Violence and Physical Health Symptoms Among Caucasian and African American Help-Seeking Women

    OpenAIRE

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Bauer, Margret R.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Harrington, Ellen F.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between partner violence and physical health symptoms is well-established. Although some researchers have theorized that the physical health effects of partner violence may be worse for ethnic minority women, there is little research addressing this topic. The current study examined whether African American women demonstrate a differential association in this relationship than Caucasian women. This study included 323 women (232 African American, 91 Caucasian) who participated...

  8. The Underrepresentation of Women in Economics: A Study of Undergraduate Economics Students.

    OpenAIRE

    Karen E. Dynan; Cecilia Elena Rouse

    1995-01-01

    Although women are underrepresented in the field of economics, many see little need for intervention, arguing that women are inherently less interested in economics, or are less willing or able to get the math skills skills needed to do well in the subject. At the same time, others support active efforts to increase the number of women in the field, citing other possible causes of their current underrepresentation. These people argue, for example, that women are deterred from entering the fie...

  9. Engineering education research: Impacts of an international network of female engineers on the persistence of Liberian undergraduate women studying engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimer, Sara; Reddivari, Sahithya; Cotel, Aline

    2015-11-01

    As international efforts to educate and empower women continue to rise, engineering educators are in a unique position to be a part of these efforts by encouraging and supporting women across the world at the university level through STEM education and outreach. For the past two years, the University of Michigan has been a part of a grassroots effort to encourage and support the persistence of engineering female students at University of Liberia. This effort has led to the implementation of a leadership camp this past August for Liberian engineering undergraduate women, meant to: (i) to empower engineering students with the skills, support, and inspiration necessary to become successful and well-rounded engineering professionals in a global engineering market; and (ii) to strengthen the community of Liberian female engineers by building cross-cultural partnerships among students resulting in a international network of women engineers. This session will present qualitative research findings on the impact of this grassroots effort on Liberian female students? persistence in engineering, and the future directions of this work.

  10. Undergraduate African American females in the sciences: A qualitative study of student experiences affecting academic success and persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien-Wood, Idara R.

    Given the lack of literature on Undergraduate African American females in the sciences (UAAFS), this study sought to explicate their experiences at one large, predominantly White, Research I institution in the southwestern United States. In particular, the purpose of this study was to identify factors that affect the academic success and persistence of Black females in the natural and physical sciences. Data was collected via in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 15 Black female science majors. Findings from this study identified several supportive mechanisms for academic success: family, religion, teaching assistants and friends. Also identified were seven barriers to academic success: employment, lack of diversity, cultural dissonance, unwelcoming Research I environment, faculty, advisors, classmates, and lab groups. Further, an analysis of students' responses revealed numerous instances of racial and gender micro-aggressions. Recommendations are provided to address factors identified as affecting student academic success and persistence as well as a culture of micro-aggressive behavior.

  11. African American women's perceptions of cancer clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Godley, Paul; DiMartino, Lisa; White, Brandolyn; Odom, Janice; Richmond, Alan; Carpenter, William

    2014-01-01

    Cancer clinical trials are important for resolving cancer health disparities for several reasons; however, clinical trial participation among African Americans is significantly lower than Caucasians. This study engaged focus groups of 82 female African American cancer survivors or cancer caregivers, including those in better resourced, more urban areas and less resourced, more rural areas. Informed by an integrated conceptual model, the focus groups examined perceptions of cancer clinical tri...

  12. Social and cultural construction of urinary incontinence among Korean American elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Youngmi; Crogan, Neva L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the social and cultural constructions that influence help-seeking for urinary incontinence (UI) among Korean American elderly women. Many Korean American elder women do not perceive UI as a problem worthy of attention. The reason may lie in its social and cultural construction. The social construction is rooted in the collectivist nature of Korean culture, which makes UI a family, rather than an individual, problem. The cultural construction is related to Confucianism, which directs conceptions about ageism, shame, and fatalism. This article will help the gerontological nurse to better understand Korean American elderly women's sociocultural background related to UI care and could lead to appropriate family centered interventions to manage or treat UI in this population. PMID:18394511

  13. Psychophysiology and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom profile in pregnant African-American women with trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Rothbaum, Alex O; Corwin, Elizabeth; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2015-08-01

    While female sex is a robust risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), pregnant women are an understudied population in regards to PTSD symptom expression profiles. Because circulating hormones during pregnancy affect emotionality, we assessed whether pregnant women would have increased expression of the intermediate phenotypes of hyperarousal and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) compared to non-pregnant women. We examined PTSD symptom profiles in pregnant (n = 207) and non-pregnant women (n = 370). In a second study, FPS responses were assessed in 15 pregnant and 24 non-pregnant women. All participants were recruited from the obstetrics and gynecology clinic at a public hospital serving a primarily African-American, low socioeconomic status, inner-city population. Our results indicate that overall PTSD symptoms were not different between the groups of women. However, pregnant women reported being more hypervigilant (p = 0.036) than non-pregnant women. In addition, pregnant women showed increased FPS to a safety signal compared to non-pregnant women (p = 0.024). FPS to a safety signal in pregnant women was significantly correlated with PTSD hyperarousal symptoms (r = 0.731, p < 0.001). Furthermore, discrimination between danger and safety signals was present in non-pregnant women (p = 0.008), but not in pregnant women (p = 0.895). Together, these data suggest that pregnant women show clinical and psychophysiological hyperarousal compared to non-pregnant women, and support screening for PTSD and assessment of PTSD risk in pregnant women. PMID:25278341

  14. Breast cancer and racial disparity between Caucasian and African American women, part 1 (BRCA-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Khurram; Latif, Naeem; Zaiden, Robert; Jasani, Nick; Rana, Fauzia

    2013-08-01

    Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American women today. Despite the lower incidence of breast cancer among African American women, they are more likely to die from the disease each year than their white counterparts. We present a retrospective cohort study of the tumor registry data from electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the University of Florida Health, Jacksonville from 2000 to 2005. A total of 907 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer; 445 patients with invasive breast cancer had complete medical records and were selected for this review. Much like previously published research, we found that African American patients presented with a more advanced stage and aggressive subtype of breast cancer than white patients, and were less likely to have health insurance. However, we have yet to determine if universal health care insurance can lead to improved health care access, better breast cancer awareness, and an enhanced attitude toward breast cancer screenings. Such factors would ultimately lead to an earlier diagnosis and better outcomes in both African American and white patients. We plan to investigate this critical issue in a follow-up study (BRCA-2; Breast Cancer and Racial Disparity Between Caucasian and African American Women, Part 2), which will begin a few years after the complete implementation of the universal health care law enacted by President Obama in 2010. The higher frequency of aggressive tumor subtypes in African American women warrants more attention. We suggest further research to determine whether decreasing the initial age for screening or increasing the frequency of mammograms in African American women would improve breast cancer outcomes. This study underscores the importance of identifying and preventing obstacles in routine breast cancer screening, as well as increasing breast cancer awareness. PMID:24518421

  15. Sexuality, Sexual Practices, and HIV Risk among Incarcerated African-American Women in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farel, Claire E.; Parker, Sharon D.; Muessig, Kathryn E.; Grodensky, Catherine A.; Jones, Chaunetta; Golin, Carol E.; Fogel, Catherine I.; Wohl, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Women who have been in prison carry a greater lifetime risk of HIV for reasons that are not well understood. This effect is amplified in the Southeastern United States, where HIV incidence and prevalence is especially high among African American (AA) women. The role of consensual sexual partnerships in the context of HIV risk, especially same-sex partnerships, merits further exploration. Methods We conducted digitally recorded qualitative interviews with 29 AA women (15 HIV-positive, 14 HIV-negative) within three months after entry into the state prison system. We explored potential pre-incarceration HIV risk factors, including personal sexual practices. Two researchers thematically coded interview transcripts and a consensus committee reviewed coding. Results Women reported complex sexual risk profiles during the six months prior to incarceration, including sex with women as well as prior sexual partnerships with both men and women. Condom use with primary male partners was low and a history of transactional sex work was prevalent. These behaviors were linked to substance use, particularly among HIV-positive women. Conclusions Although women may not formally identify as bisexual or lesbian, sex with women was an important component of this cohort’s sexuality. Addressing condom use, heterogeneity of sexual practices, and partner concurrency among at-risk women should be considered for reducing HIV acquisition and preventing forward transmission in women with a history of incarceration. PMID:24183410

  16. Generational Difference in Feminist Identities? Exploring Gender Conscious Identities Among African American Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Harnois

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seems an especially important even in the development of gender-conscious identities.

  17. Western Media Meets Eastern Tradition: Examining The Views Of Chinese-American Women On Beauty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JL Lemanski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study utilized in-depth interviews with 11 Chinese-American women, prompted by mass media images of both Chinese and Western celebrities, in order to better understand their perspectives and views on beauty. Five major themes emerged: Health/Energy, Natural, Comfort/Closeness, Personality/Wholesomeness, and Chinese and Western Appearance Differences.Analysis indicated that although Western media images have an impact on the way Chinese-American women view beauty, the traditional Chinese attitudes on beauty remain highly influential.

  18. Risky Business: Sex-work and Young Southeast Asian American Women in Oakland

    OpenAIRE

    U, Nicol

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to analyze why many young Southeast Asian American women in Oakland, California, are going into sex-work. I investigate the cultural and social factors that contribute to their popularity as sex-workers, as well as examine the existing structural problems that have led them to sex-work. I also begin to illuminate how these young Southeast Asian American women understand their own reasons for going into sex-work. The number of minors entering sex-work continues to increase,...

  19. Physical Performance Is Associated with Executive Functioning in Older African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Brooke C.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    An older adult's ability to perform physical tasks is predictive of disability onset and is associated with declines in cognition. Risk factors for physical performance declines among African Americans, a group with the highest rates of disability, remain understudied. This study sought to identify demographic, health, and cognitive factors associated with lower-extremity physical performance in a sample of 106 African American women ages 56 to 91. After controlling for global cognitive funct...

  20. Participation of Asian-American Women in Cancer Chemoprevention Research: Physician Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tung T.; Somkin, Carol P.; Ma, Yifei

    2005-01-01

    To the authors’ knowledge, little is known regarding the participation of Asian Americans in cancer prevention research. In 2002, the authors mailed surveys to primary care physicians in Northern California to assess their knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and barriers concerning the participation of Asian-American women in breast cancer chemoprevention research. The response rate was 52.3% (n = 306 physicians). For physician barriers, most respondents selected lack of study knowledge (73%) an...

  1. Efficient Identification of Low-Income Asian American Women at High Risk for Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Galen; Nguyen, Kim; Nguyen, Tung; Stewart, Susan; Davis, Sharon; Kevany, Sebastian; Marquez, Titas; Pasick, Rena

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B disproportionately affects Asian Americans. Because outreach to promote testing and vaccination can be intensive and costly, we assessed the feasibility of an efficient strategy to identify Asian Americans at risk. Prior research with California’s statewide toll-free phone service where low-income women call for free cancer screening found 50% of English- and Spanish-speaking callers were willing to participate in a study on health topics other than cancer screening. The current s...

  2. Ovarian Cancer Risk Factors in African-American and White Women

    OpenAIRE

    Moorman, Patricia G.; Palmieri, Rachel T.; Akushevich, Lucy; Berchuck, Andrew; Schildkraut, Joellen M.

    2009-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy in both African-American and white women. Although prevalences of many ovarian cancer risk factors differ markedly between African Americans and whites, there has been little research on how the relative contributions of risk factors may vary between racial/ethnic groups. Using data from a North Carolina case-control study (1999–2008), the authors conducted unconditional logistic regression analyses to calculate odds ratios and 95% conf...

  3. Motivational Interviewing at the Intersections of Depression and Intimate Partner Violence among African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Wahab, Stéphanie; Trimble, Jammie; Mejia, Angie; Mitchell, S. Renee; Thomas, Mary Jo; Timmons, Vanessa; Waters, A. Star; Raymaker, Dora; Nicolaidis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of a culturally-tailored, multi-faceted intervention which used motivational interviewing (MI) and case management to reduce depression severity among African American survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). We present the details of the intervention and discuss its implementation as a means of creating and providing culturally appropriate depression and violence services to African American women. We used a CBPR approach to develop...

  4. Social and Cultural Barriers to Diabetes Prevention in Oklahoma American Indian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Taylor; Kathryn S. Keim; Alicia Sparrer; Jean Van Delinder; Stephany Parker

    2004-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of diabetes is disproportionately higher among minority populations, especially American Indians. Prevention or delay of diabetes in this population would improve quality of life and reduce health care costs. Identifying cultural definitions of health and diabetes is critically important to developing effective diabetes prevention programs. Methods In-home qualitative interviews were conducted with 79 American Indian women from 3 tribal clinics in northeast Oklaho...

  5. The process of paradoxical autonomy and survival in the heroin careers of Mexican American women

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D.; Cepeda, Alice

    2000-01-01

    This study focuses on the process of paradoxical autonomy and survival in the heroin careers of Mexican American women. We explore how gender roles among Mexican American female heroin users influence the emergence of a paradoxical autonomy. Five key subprocesses of this autonomy were identified from 14 life history narratives: sustaining employment, working the welfare system, illegal activities, emotional aloofness, and loss of family and children. Dependency on drugs did not lead simply to...

  6. HPV infection among rural American Indian women and urban white women in South Dakota: an HPV prevalence study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muller Clemma J

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-risk strains of human papillomavirus (HPV cause cervical cancer. American Indian (AI women in the Northern Plains of the U.S. have significantly higher incidence and mortality rates for cervical cancer than White women in the same geographical area. We compared HPV prevalence, patterns of HPV types, and infection with multiple HPV types in AI and White women living in South Dakota, U.S. Methods We analyzed the HPV status of cervical samples collected in 2006-2008 from women aged 18-65 years who attended two rural AI reservation clinics (n = 235 or an urban clinic in the same area serving mostly White women (n = 246. Data collection occurred before HPV vaccination was available to study participants. HPV DNA was amplified by using the L1 consensus primer system and an HPV Linear Array detection assay to identify HPV types. We used chi-square tests to compare HPV variables, with percentages standardized by age and lifetime number of sexual partners. Results Compared to White women, AI women were younger (p = 0.01 and reported more sexual partners (p p p = 0.001. Infections among AI women showed a wider variety and very different pattern of HPV types, including a higher prevalence of mixed HPV infections (19% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 7% [95% CI = 4-11]; p = 0.001. AI women had a higher percentage of HPV infections that were not preventable by HPV vaccination (32% [95% CI = 26-38] vs. 15% [95% CI = 11-21]; p Conclusions A higher HPV burden and a different HPV genotyping profile may contribute to the high rate of cervical cancer among AI women.

  7. Antenatal inflammation and gestational diabetes mellitus risk among pregnant African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossick, Andrew S; Peters, Rosalind M; Burmeister, Charlotte; Kakumanu, Naveen; Shill, Jessica E; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E

    2016-06-01

    Although inflammation is associated with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), little is known if there is an association between inflammation and GDM in African-American women, a group at higher risk for GDM complications. In the present study, we aimed to determine if selected inflammatory cytokines (i.e. TNF-α, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10, IL-6/IL-10 ratio, IL-1β) measured in the 2nd trimester, were associated with GDM risk in 185 pregnant African-American women. GDM was defined as a physician-documented GDM diagnosis, a fasting glucose between 92 and 125mg/dl, or evidence of glucose intolerance (defined using the 3-h glucose tolerance test). A total of 18 women (9.7%) had GDM. After covariate adjustment, C-reactive protein, measured at a mean 21.2±3.7 weeks gestation, was statistically significantly associated with GDM development (P=0.025); for every one-unit increase in log-transformed C-reactive protein, the odds of GDM increased by 5.3. Results were similar using a principal component analysis approach. This study provides evidence that higher levels of 2nd trimester C-reactive protein is associated with increased risk of GDM in African-American women. Further research is needed to examine whether C-reactive protein may be a useful early-pregnancy screen for evaluating potential GDM risk in African-American women. PMID:27061480

  8. Unintended pregnancy and the changing demography of American women, 1987-2008

    OpenAIRE

    Athena Tapales; Lawrence Finer

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 1987, the U.S. unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women ages 15-44; the rate fell to 54 in 2008. Over this period, American women experienced dramatic demographic shifts, including an aging population that was better educated and more racially and ethnically diverse. Objective: This study aims to explain trends in unintended pregnancy and understand what factors contributed most strongly to changes in rates over time, focusing on population composition and group-spec...

  9. Firespitters: Performance, Power, and Payoff in African American Women's Humor, 1968-Present

    OpenAIRE

    Finley, Jessyka Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study considers the social, cultural, and political production of black women's humor, making the case that humor becomes more than merely a technique of entertainment. Instead, I argue that humor is a mode of literacy and site of self-authorship for African American women across a variety of discursive fields, including literature, sketch comedy, stand-up comedy, and electoral politics. Usually described as a "routine," the professional stand-up comics of this study are in fact presenti...

  10. HIV Risk, Substance Use, and Suicidal Behaviors among Asian American Lesbian and Bisexual Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jieha; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the association between lesbian/bisexual identity and three risky health behaviors (HIV risk, substance use, and suicidal behaviors) in a sample of Asian American women. This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the prevalence of HIV risk behaviors and mental health functioning among unmarried Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women ages 18 to 35 who are children of immigrants (N = 701), using computer-assisted survey interviews (CASI). Approximately one out of...

  11. Intervention Approaches for Addressing Breast Cancer Disparities among African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2014-01-01

    African American women in the U.S. have a higher mortality rate from breast cancer than white women. Black-white differences in survival persist even after accounting for disease stage and tumor characteristics suggesting that the higher rates of breast cancer mortality are due to social factors. Several factors may account for racial differences in breast cancer mortality including socioeconomic factors, access to screening mammography and timely treatment, and biological factors. Efforts to...

  12. Ecological momentary assessment of environmental and personal factors and snack food intake in African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Zenk, Shannon N; Horoi, Irina; McDonald, Ashley; Corte, Colleen; Riley, Barth; Odoms-Young, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined contributions of environmental and personal factors (specifically, food availability and expense, daily hassles, self-efficacy, positive and negative affect) to within-person and betweenperson variations in snack food intake in 100 African American women. Participants were signaled at random five times daily for seven days to complete a survey on a study-provided smartphone. Women reported consuming snack foods at 35.2% of signals. Easier food availability accounting for o...

  13. Neighborhood Factors Influence Physical Activity among African American and Hispanic or Latina Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V; Ho, Angela; Adamus, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements, such as traffic lights and crossing aids, and physical activity (PA) adoption and maintenance in African American and Hispanic or Latina women. Women (N=309) participated in a 6-month intervention and completed baseline and post-intervention assessments of PA. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants’ neighborhoods. Adjusted linear regression models found attracti...

  14. Mammographic density and breast cancer risk in White and African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Troester, Melissa A.; Gierach, Gretchen L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Yankaskas, Bonnie C.; Millikan, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Mammographic density is a strong risk factor for breast cancer, but limited data are available in African American (AA) women. We examined the association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk in AA and white women. Cases (n = 491) and controls (n = 528) were from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study (CBCS) who also had mammograms recorded in the Carolina Mammography Registry (CMR). Mammographic density was reported to CMR using Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) cat...

  15. Socioeconomic disparities in intimate partner violence against Native American women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Bonnie M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a global public health problem, yet data on IPV against Native American women are extremely limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Native American women to determine prevalence of lifetime and past-year IPV and partner injury; examine IPV in relation to pregnancy; and assess demographic and socioeconomic correlates of past-year IPV. Methods Participants were recruited from a tribally-operated clinic serving low-income pregnant and childbearing women in southwest Oklahoma. A self-administered survey was completed by 312 Native American women (96% response rate attending the clinic from June through August 1997. Lifetime and past-year IPV were measured using modified 18-item Conflict Tactics Scales. A socioeconomic index was created based on partner's education, public assistance receipt, and poverty level. Results More than half (58.7% of participants reported lifetime physical and/or sexual IPV; 39.1% experienced severe physical IPV; 12.2% reported partner-forced sexual activity; and 40.1% reported lifetime partner-perpetrated injuries. A total of 273 women had a spouse or boyfriend during the previous 12 months (although all participants were Native American, 59.0% of partners were non-Native. Among these women, past-year prevalence was 30.1% for physical and/or sexual IPV; 15.8% for severe physical IPV; 3.3% for forced partner-perpetrated sexual activity; and 16.4% for intimate partner injury. Reported IPV prevalence during pregnancy was 9.3%. Pregnancy was not associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 0.9. Past-year IPV prevalence was 42.8% among women scoring low on the socioeconomic index, compared with 10.1% among the reference group. After adjusting for age, relationship status, and household size, low socioeconomic index remained strongly associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 5.0; 95% confidence interval: 2.4, 10.7. Conclusions Native American women in

  16. Conducting a Feasibility Study in Women's Health Screening Among Women in a Pacific Northwest American Indian Tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, C June; Hillaire, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Breast and cervical cancers continue to contribute to high cancer mortality rates in American Indian/Alaska Native women; culturally appropriate interventions are needed to influence screening behaviors and to reduce delays in obtaining care. In a pilot feasibility study designed to influence Pacific Northwest American Indian/Alaska Native women's health screening knowledge and behaviors (breast and cervical), we employed a community-based participatory research approach. Data from interviews with study participants, those involved in implementation of the study and observations were included in the analysis. Study questions focused on training of staff, recruitment of participants, and implementation of the protocol and data management. The complexities of translational, transcultural research and the importance of reporting pilot feasibility studies to the advancement of transcultural research are highlighted in the findings of this research effort. PMID:24848352

  17. Sexual Risk Behavior among African American College Women: Understanding Socio-Cultural Factors in the Context of HIV/AIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Maya A.

    2010-01-01

    African American women are at the center of the discussion on health disparities, specifically disparities regarding HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs). Though there has been substantial research examining sexual risk behavior among low income African American women, little has been done to understand sexual behavior…

  18. The Influence of Sex-Role Identity and Occupational Attainment on the Psychological Well-Being of Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Esther Ngan-Ling

    1987-01-01

    Examined the relationship of sex-role identity to occupational attainment, self-esteem, and work satisfaction for 161 employed Asian American women. Androgynous Asian American women and those with a high level of occupational attainment had a higher level of self-esteem and a greater degree of work satisfaction than those with other types of…

  19. Intimate Partner Violence and Depression Among Latin American Women in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy-Ruiz, Paula; Toner, Brenda; Mason, Robin; Vidal, Carolina; McKenzie, Kwame

    2015-12-01

    Research from the United States suggests that Latin American immigrant and refugee women are one of the groups most greatly impacted by intimate partner violence (IPV) and associated mental health consequences including higher rates of depression than women from other ethno-racial groups. In Canada, little is known about the experience of IPV and mental health among this population. Even in the broader North American context, how Latin American women themselves perceive the connection between IPV and depression is unknown. This paper presents the findings of a pilot study that examined the perceived relationship between IPV and depression among Spanish-Speaking Latin American Women in Toronto, Canada. The theoretical framework guiding this qualitative study combined an ecological model for understanding gender based violence and mental health with critical intersectionality theory. Using a convenience and snowball sampling method, semi-structured interviews (n = 12) were conducted and thematic content analysis was completed supported by Nvivo9(®) qualitative data management software. All participants had experienced some form of IPV in their adult lives, with psychological violence being the most common. Women perceived a powerful connection between IPV and depression, a link made stronger by the accumulation of other adverse life experiences including childhood abuse, war traumas and migration. The results suggest that IPV is just one of the challenges experienced by Latin American refugee and immigrant women. IPV is experienced in the context of other traumatic experiences and social hardships that may work to intensify the association of IPV and depression in this population. PMID:25472614

  20. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Ronald J

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. Methods Twenty five low income African American women, ages 18–29, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and

  1. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essien, E James; Meshack, Angela F; Peters, Ronald J; Ogungbade, Go; Osemene, Nora I

    2005-03-17

    BACKGROUND: African-American women are disproportionately affected by HIV, accounting for 60% of all cases among women in the United States. Although their race is not a precursor for HIV, the socioeconomic and cultural disparities associated with being African American may increase their risk of infection. Prior research has shown that interventions designed to reduce HIV infection among African-American women must address the life demands and social problems they encounter. The present study used a qualitative exploratory design to elicit information about strategies to prevent HIV transmission among young, low-income African-American women. METHODS: Twenty five low income African American women, ages 18-29, participated in five focus groups of five women each conducted at a housing project in Houston, Texas, a large demographically diverse metropolitan area that is regarded as one of the HIV/AIDS epicenters in the United States. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. RESULTS: The participants revealed that they had most frequently placed themselves at risk for HIV infection through drugs and drinking and they also reported drug and alcohol use as important barriers to practicing safer sex. The women also reported that the need for money and having sex for money to buy food or drugs had placed them at risk for HIV transmission. About one-third of the participants stated that a barrier to their practicing safe sex was their belief that there was no risk based on their being in a monogamous relationship and feeling no need to use protection, but later learning that their mate was unfaithful. Other reasons given were lack of concern, being unprepared, partner's refusal to use a condom, and lack of money to buy condoms. Finally, the women stated that they were motivated to practice safe sex because of fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases and HIV, desire not to become pregnant, and personal experience with

  2. Traveling between the Borders of Gender and Nationality: 19th Century American Women Artists in Rome

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    The topic of this paper is the first major exodus of American women artists from their fatherland, which took place in the mid-nineteenth century. These women, who were active in Rome for varying periods of time from 1848 until 1887, were ostensibly in search of educational and economic benefits for their careers as artists across boundaries of language, culture, and gender. After giving a list with the names of some of these women artists as well as some examples of the works produced during...

  3. A qualitative study of factors affecting pregnancy weight gain in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kara; Cregger, Mary; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong

    2013-04-01

    African Americans and overweight or obese women are at increased risk for excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention. Interventions are needed to promote healthy GWG in this population; however, research on exercise and nutritional barriers during pregnancy in African American women is limited. The objective of this qualitative study is to better inform intervention messages by eliciting information on perceptions of appropriate weight gain, barriers to and enablers of exercise and healthy eating, and other influences on healthy weight gain during pregnancy in overweight or obese African American women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 33 overweight or obese African American women in Columbia, South Carolina. Women were recruited in early to mid-pregnancy (8-23 weeks gestation, n = 10), mid to late pregnancy (24-36 weeks, n = 15), and early postpartum (6-12 weeks postpartum, n = 8). Interview questions and data analysis were informed using a social ecological framework. Over 50 % of women thought they should gain weight in excess of the range recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Participants were motivated to exercise for personal health benefits; however they also cited many barriers to exercise, including safety concerns for the fetus. Awareness of the maternal and fetal benefits of healthy eating was high. Commonly cited barriers to healthy eating include cravings and availability of unhealthy foods. The majority of women were motivated to engage in healthy behaviors during pregnancy. However, the interviews also uncovered a number of misconceptions and barriers that can serve as future intervention messages and strategies. PMID:22527762

  4. Women's Leadership: A Study of African American Female Principal Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Curtis

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, women's leadership has been overlooked and underappreciated by researchers and policymakers although this leadership has been vital to America's ultimate success and infrastructure. Simply stated, contributions of female leadership have been overshadowed by a system that primarily values patriarchal forms of leadership and oppresses…

  5. Sociocultural Influences On Undergraduate Women's Entry into a Computer Science Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Louise Ann

    Computer science not only displays the pattern of underrepresentation of many other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, but has actually experienced a decline in the number of women choosing the field over the past two decades. Broken out by gender and race, the picture becomes more nuanced, with the ratio of females to males receiving bachelor's degrees in computer science higher for non-White ethnic groups than for Whites. This dissertation explores the experiences of university women differing along the axis of race, class, and culture who are considering majoring in computer science in order to highlight how well-prepared women are persuaded that they belong (or not) in the field and how the confluence of social categories plays out in their decision. This study focuses on a university seminar entitled "Women in Computer Science and Engineering" open to women concurrently enrolled in introductory programming and uses an ethnographic approach including classroom participant observation, interviews with seminar students and instructors, observations of students in other classes, and interviews with parents of students. Three stand-alone but related articles explore various aspects of the experiences of women who participated in the study using Rom Harre's positioning theory as a theoretical framework. The first article uses data from twenty-two interviews to uncover how interactions with others and patterns in society position women in relation to a computer science major, and how these women have arrived at the point of considering the major despite messages that they do not belong. The second article more deeply explores the cases of three women who vary greatly along the axes of race, class, and culture in order to uncover pattern and interaction differences for women based on their ethnic background. The final article focuses on the attitudes and expectations of the mothers of three students of contrasting ethnicities and how reported

  6. Do christian denominations exhibit higher rates of alcohol consumption? A study of Korean American women in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang Sim, D Eastern; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irvin, Veronica L; Ayers, John W; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-03-01

    Although Korean American women show high levels of involvement in religious practices and high prevalence of alcohol consumption, no studies have assessed the association between religious denomination and alcohol intake among this group of women. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption among Korean American women in California. Polychotomous regression models were used to provide estimates of the associations between religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption. Catholic Korean American women (OR 5.61 P Christian women (OR 4.87 P Christian Korean American women. Path analysis suggested that specific denominations had both direct and indirect effects on the outcome of interest, and that religious commitment and drinking models served as moderators for this phenomenon. PMID:21286816

  7. Knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of African-American women toward menopausal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Phyllis W; Phillips, Janice; Oguntimalide, Lola; Saling, Jessica; Yun, Stephanie

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and health practices related to menopausal health among African-American women (N= 106) from diverse SES levels, between 40 to 65 years of age. The mean age was 49 years of age, 60.7% were college graduates, 45.8% were married, 85% employed full-time and 88% had medical insurance. Two-thirds rated their health as good, and half believed their health was better than other women. Most women (58%) use hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or would consider using HRT. In general women were knowledgeable about the process of menopause. Among this diverse group of women there were significant differences (pbeauty parlors, community centers. PMID:15011939

  8. Comparison of gestational weight gain-related pregnancy outcomes in American primiparous and multiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan-Pidhainy, Xiaomiao; Nohr, Ellen A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Danish data, the tradeoffs between mother and infant in the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes were reached at lower gestational weight gain (GWG) among multiparous than among primiparous women. It is unknown whether the same difference exists among American women. OBJECTIVE: The....... Their self-reported GWG was divided into 4 categories (≤10, >10 to <15, 15 to <20, and ≥20 kg). GWG-specific absolute adjusted risks for emergency cesarean delivery, birth of a small-for-gestational-age (SGA) or large-for-gestational-age (LGA) infant, and postpartum weight retention at 6 mo were...... estimated by multiple logistic regression analyses for women in 3 categories of prepregnancy body mass index. RESULTS: Primiparous women gained more weight during pregnancy than did multiparous women (mean ± SD: 15.9 ± 6.9 compared with 13.5 ± 6.2 kg; P < 0.0001). The absolute adjusted risk of postpartum...

  9. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  10. Family, Self, and Sociocultural Contributions to Body-Image Attitudes of African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Shanette M.

    1995-01-01

    Factors that influenced body-image attitudes were studied in 90 African American college women. Data analyses indicated that self and sociocultural variables were associated with evaluation of physical appearance, fitness, and investment in health. The relationship of family variables to body-image attitude is discussed. (SLD)

  11. Utilization of Mammography Services among Elderly Rural and Urban African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agho, Augustine O; Mosley, Barbara W; Rivers, Patrick A; Parker, Shandowyn

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study was a two-year educational intervention and research project aimed at increasing the awareness of breast cancer and the utilization of Clinical Breast Examination (CBE) services and Self-Breast Examination (SBE) among elderly rural and urban African American women who are Medicare beneficiaries. Design: The study was…

  12. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  13. Mexican American Women's Activism at Indiana University in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ebelia

    2013-01-01

    This article offers a historical analysis of documents and narratives from Mexican American women that reflect the tumultuous 1990s at Indiana University. Their recollections reveal how they became activists, the racist incidents that compelled them into activism, and the racial tensions and backlash towards identity politics felt by students of…

  14. Beloved Women: Nurturing the Sacred Fire of Leadership from an American Indian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portman, Tarrell Awe Agahe; Garrett, Michael Tlanusta

    2005-01-01

    American Indian women have been consistently involved in leadership throughout indigenous history. Their leadership provides a strong, nurturing influence passed down from generation to generation. In the U.S. society, this type of leadership style is recognized among contemporary authors of leadership manuals as relational and is attributed to…

  15. Exploring a Model and Moderators of Disordered Eating with Asian American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Tatum; Tylka, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, the authors tested the cross-ethnic validity of several variables and paths from a model of disordered eating proposed by T. L. Tylka and L. M. Subich (2004) with 200 Asian American college women. Path analysis indicated that this model provided an excellent fit to the data after a path from internalization of the thin ideal…

  16. Family Violence: Psychological Consequences and Beliefs in Asian and Asian-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira; Heiple, Becky

    This study specifically explored the relationships among childhood trauma, long-term psychological consequences, beliefs about family violence, and gender role stereotypes in Asian and Asian American women. A prediction was made that childhood physical violence and witnessing family violence would create long-term negative symptoms; higher levels…

  17. Asian Pacific American Women in Higher Education: Claiming Visibility and Voice [and] Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hune, Shirley

    This report examines the literature on the status of Asian Pacific American (APA) women and is based on a review of research studies, campus climate and diversity reports, focus group and individual interviews representing a range of colleges and universities, and the author's own observations in academe over two decades. The report finds that APA…

  18. Mexican American Women's Reflections from Public High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kay Ann; Fernandez-Bergersen, Sandra Luz

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined 5 Mexican American women's experiences at the intersection of race and gender in public high school. Critical race theory provided the analysis and interpretation. The significant findings of this research included the following: (a) Racism is endemic and pervasive in public education; (b) many educational…

  19. American Indian Women and Screening Mammography: Findings from a Qualitative Study in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolma, Eleni; Batterton, Chasity; Hamm, Robert M.; Thompson, David; Engelman, Kimberly K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is an important public health issue within the American Indian (AI) community in Oklahoma; however, there is limited information to explain the low screening mammography rates among AI women. Purpose: To identify the motivational factors affecting an AI woman's decision to obtain a mammogram. Methods: Through the use of…

  20. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  1. A review of hair product use on breast cancer risk in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiel, Laura; Adkins-Jackson, Paris B; Clark, Phyllis; Mitchell, Eudora; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    The incidence rate of breast cancer for African American women has recently converged with that of non-Hispanic White women in the United States, although African Americans have a higher mortality rate due to this disease. Although most research exploring health disparities associated with this phenomenon has focused on differences between women based on biology and behavior, both the academic and lay communities have begun to explore the potential role of environmental exposure to estrogen and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This study reviews the current state of the science associating one such means of exposure, hair products containing EDCs, with breast cancer risk in African American women. We found a growing body of evidence linking: (1) environmental estrogen and EDC exposures to breast cancer risk, (2) the presence of such chemicals in personal care products, including hair products, and (3) the use of certain hair products with potential breast cancer risk in African Americans. At the same time, there is also increasing concern in the lay community about this risk. These results indicate the need for additional research, and the opportunity to benefit from strategic partnerships in community-collaborative approaches in order to better understand the potential "cost of beauty." PMID:26773423

  2. A Phenomenological Study on the Leadership Development of African American Women Executives in Academia and Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deanna Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership…

  3. African American Women in Higher Education Attainment: A Qualitative Narrative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Inga D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative narrative study was to look at how African American women who are learners or who have been learners in higher education settings have internalized and interpreted the issues that have occurred in their teaching-learning environments and what coping mechanisms they have used to resolve or deflect negative…

  4. Generous with Our Uniqueness: Forging New Directions for African-American Women in the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdino-Sullwold, Carla Maria

    1992-01-01

    African-American women have played a major role in the history of the arts. This history, which is filled with discrimination, is traced for music, dance, drama, and the visual arts. Those who have overcome these obstacles can be effective teachers for future audiences, artists, and decision makers. (SLD)

  5. African American Faculty Women Experiences of Underrepresentation in Computer Technology Positions in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    African American women are underrepresented in computer technology disciplines in institutions of higher education throughout the United States. Although equitable gender representation is progressing in most fields, much less information is available on why institutions are still lagging in workforce diversity, a problem which can be lessened by…

  6. Women of Mystery: Investigating Learning Pathways of Canadian and American Female Crime Fiction Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouthro, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the learning pathways of 15 Canadian and American female crime fiction authors. Using a critical feminist perspective, it argues that despite the neoliberal rhetoric of individual choice, as in most careers, there are social-structural factors that create opportunities and barriers for women mystery writers. The article…

  7. Acculturation, Body Image, Self-Esteem, and Eating-Disorder Symptomatology in Adolescent Mexican American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Greg W.; Kashubeck, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Investigated the relationship among acculturation, body image, self-esteem, and eating disorder symptomatology in 120 Mexican-American adolescent women. Findings indicate that acculturation levels were not related to anorexic or bulimic symptomatology, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction or thinness of ideal and attractive figures. Also, lower…

  8. Self-Efficacy, Motivation, and Academic Adjustment among African American Women Attending Institutions of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Deneia M.; Love, Keisha M.; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Tyler, Keneth M.; Brown, Carrie Lynn; Garriott, Patton O.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among self-efficacy beliefs, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and academic adjustment among 111 African American women in college. Results revealed that self-efficacy beliefs predicted Motivation to Know, Externally Regulated motivation, Identified motivation, and academic adjustment. Furthermore,…

  9. Placing the burden on the individual: overweight and obesity in African American and mainstream women's magazines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Shelly; Mastin, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    One third of all U.S. adult women, and more than 75% of African American women, are overweight or obese. This study examined overweight and obesity editorial content (N=406) in three mainstream and three African American women's magazines between 1984 and 2004. Content analysis was used to determine which strategies were suggested regarding diet, overweight, and obesity, which components of social cognitive theory were offered (behavior, person, or environment), and whether or not there were differences in the genres. The results suggest that although a wide range of strategies were being offered, the vast majority were behavioral changes with an individual solution focus. Although African American and mainstream magazines suggested many of the same strategies, nearly half more frequently appeared in one or the other genre. Mainstream magazines were twice as likely to offer the limiting or eliminating of fast food or junk food, eating more protein, eating lower-fat foods, and eating smaller portions. African American magazines were much more likely to cover fad diets and to suggest readers rely on God or faith in their diet plans. The average number of strategies offered per article was significantly higher in mainstream than in African American magazines. PMID:17967145

  10. Expecting the Unexpected: a Comparative Study of African-American Women's Experiences in Science during the High School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer

    Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes

  11. Violence, homelessness, and HIV risk among crack-using African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Lam, Wendy K K; Zule, William; Hall, Grace; Middlesteadt, Rachel; Edwards, Jessica

    2003-01-01

    This study compares the characteristics of out-of-treatment, homeless, crack-using African-American women with those who are not homeless to determine what risks and protective factors differentiate the two groups. From 1999 to 2001, 683 out-of-treatment, African-American crack-using women (of whom 219 were categorized as homeless) were interviewed and serologically tested. Risk factors that were examined include adverse childhood experiences, psychological distress, physical health, violence and victimization, drug use, and risky sex behaviors. Protective factors that were examined include marital status, education, public assistance, and the responsibility of caring for children. Overall, both groups of women started crack use in their mid-twenties and started drug use with alcohol in their teenage years, though differed significantly on each risk factor examined. Logistic regression analysis found that variables associated with increased odds of being homeless are physical abuse before age 18, crack runs greater than 24 hours, income less than dollars 500 in the last 30 days, depression, and current cigarette smoking. Protective factors found are marital status, living with children under 18, having had a physical in the past year, and receiving money from welfare in the last 30 days. Being sexually assaulted in the past 90 days was marginally associated with homelessness in the model. These findings, specific to crack-using African-American women, suggest that not only do these women overall report painful histories and currently stressful lives, but homeless women are more likely than women who are not homeless to have experienced childhood abuse and are more involved with drug use. Interventions designed for these women need to consider gender, cultural, and contextual issues that not only incorporate aspects of risk reduction related to violence, alcohol use, and comorbid conditions, but also linkages that will address housing issues, education, and skills

  12. Early Childbearing among Mexican-American Young Women: Place Matters

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Dawn Michele

    2010-01-01

    Compared to all other racial and ethnic groups in the United States, Mexican-American adolescents have by far the highest rates of early childbearing. Within the public health literature, these disproportionately high rates have generally been explored as a function of acculturation, which is described as a process involving the cultural, social, and psychological changes that take place post-migration. In order to elucidate acculturation's effect, specifically on the reproductive health and ...

  13. The Awakening of Self-consciousness of the African American Women-an Analysis of Dee in Everyday Use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WENG Zhao-niao

    2011-01-01

    Alice Walker is one of the prominent American writers in American women's literature and black literature in 1950s-1960s.Everyday Use is regarded as Alice Walker's best-written short story.The prevailing opinion among the critics about this story is that Dee is the traitor of black American's cultural heritage,and the mother and Maggie are the hope of true value of the African Americans' tradition and heritage; however,after considering the historical and cultural background of the story,we may safely come to the conclusion that Dee actually took the first step toward the awakening of self-consciousness of the African Americans women.

  14. Contrasting the American College of Healthcare Executives' code of ethics with undergraduate health administration students' values and ethical decision choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubens, Arthur J; Wimberley, Edward T

    2004-01-01

    Although administrative ethics are imbedded into the code of ethics of the American College of Healthcare Executives (ACHE), understanding the values and ethical decision-making practices of health administration students can help shape content and curriculum for health administration programs in the future. The study surveyed a sample of undergraduate health administration students to examine their sense of honesty and ethical decision-making practices. The sampled students completed the Comparative Emphasis Scale, which measured the student's sense of honesty, fairness, and integrity, and 10 short cases of administrative ethical issues derived from the ACHE Code of Ethics. The findings from the study indicated that the health administrative students had moderate to high mean scores on the ethical scales measuring achievement (15.86), concern for others (17.82), fairness (17.67), and honesty (18.21). The students' overall mean score for the 10 ethical cases was 3.51 on a 5-point scale, with 1 indicating a low likelihood and 5 a high likelihood. Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient showed a minimum relationship between results of the Comparative Emphasis Scale and responses to ethical decision-making cases, and it showed no significant relationship between race, gender, and class (freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior) of the students. The results of the study have indicated that the sampled undergraduate health administration students respond at a moderate to high ethical level to this standardized scale and cases involving ACHE administrative ethical issues. Future research should explore the relationship between select variables concerning employment history, industry, position, and demographics characteristics in people's ethical choices. PMID:15754857

  15. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Low Birth Weight and Preterm Deliveries in African American Women in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama

    OpenAIRE

    Chau-Kuang Chen; Patricia Matthews-Juarez; Aiping Yang

    2012-01-01

    Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM), the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income...

  16. The Homecoming of American College Women: The Reversal of the College Gender Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia Goldin; Katz, Lawrence F.; Ilyana Kuziemko

    2006-01-01

    Women are currently the majority of U.S. college students and of those receiving a bachelor%u2019s degree, but were 39 percent of undergraduates in 1960. We use three longitudinal data sets of high school graduates in 1957, 1972, and 1992 to understand the narrowing of the gender gap in college and its reversal. From 1972 to 1992 high school girls narrowed the gap with boys in math and science course taking and in achievement test scores. These variables, which we term the proximate determina...

  17. American Women, 1963-1968; Report of the Interdepartmental Committee on the Status of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interdepartmental Committee on the Status of Women, Washington, DC.

    The body of the document presents factual accounts of women's progress, noting action taken under public and private auspices, in the following major categories: education and counseling, home and community, women in employment, labor standards and the security of basic income, legal rights and the responsibilities of citizenship, and continuing…

  18. Differences in legal characteristics between Caucasian and African-American women diverted into substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Melanie C; Edwards, Laurie; Lussier, Lauren R; Devine, Susan; Easton, Caroline J

    2011-01-01

    In this exploratory study, we examined differences in the legal characteristics of Caucasian and African-American female offenders (n = 122) who were diverted into substance abuse treatment, to identify any racial disparities. We also examined the differences between groups in demographics and in substance abuse, family, and violence histories. In terms of legal characteristics, the results showed that African-American female offenders were significantly more likely to have been incarcerated at the time of their substance dependency evaluation than were Caucasian female offenders. Also, African-American women were more likely to have served 13 months for the current legal charge in comparison to the 4 months served by Caucasian women, although no differences were found between groups in the severity of the current legal charge. Comparison of demographics and substance abuse, family, and violence histories indicated that African-American women were more likely to be undereducated, crack cocaine dependent, and overly exposed to violence. Overall, the sample of female offenders evidenced severe substance dependency problems, a strong need for inpatient substance abuse treatment, and chronic legal and social difficulties. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to unbalanced sentencing policies and increasing awareness of the treatment needs of this unique population. PMID:21389168

  19. Increased Incidence of Loco-Regional Recurrences Among African American Women with Terminal Stage Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Colón-Otero

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective analysis of women with terminal breast cancer admitted to CHNE from November 2006-August 2007 evaluated anecdotal observations that African American (AA women are likelier than Caucasian women to evidence loco-regional recurrences (LRR. Women with terminal breast cancer who were admitted to CHNE, a not-for-profit hospice serving over 90% of Northeast Florida hospice patients, were eligible for participation. 134 terminal breast cancer patients were assessed by hospice nurses for LRR presence via chest wall examination. 80% of them (107 were Caucasian, 17% (23 were AA and 3% (4 were of other ethnicities. Evidence of LRR were noted in 13% of the women (17/134. The pro- portion of patients with LRR was higher in AA women than Caucasian women (26% vs. 10%, 6/23 vs. 11/107, respectively, although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08. The majority of Caucasian women with LRR consented to a medical record review, but a minority of AA women consented (8/11 vs. 2/6, respectively, p = 0.16.Conclusion: Evaluating disparities in breast cancer care outcomes is possible by reviewing data from patients served by hospice programs that aid a majority of patients within a community. This pilot data suggests that AA women with breast cancer have a higher incidence of loco-regional failure as a component of their terminal breast cancer disease than Caucasian women. A smaller proportion of AA patients and families agreed to participate in a medical record review study than Caucasians. Larger studies are necessary to confirm these findings, to elucidate factors contributing to disparities and to develop potential solutions.

  20. Breast Cancer Surgery Decision-Making and African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubart, Jane R; Farnan, Michelle A; Kass, Rena B

    2015-09-01

    Prior research has used focus group methodology to investigate cultural factors impacting the breast cancer experience of women of various ethnicities including African-Americans; however, this work has not specifically addressed treatment decision-making. This study identifies key issues faced by African-American women diagnosed with breast cancer regarding treatment decisions. We used an interpretive-descriptive study design based on qualitative data from three focus groups (n = 14) representing a population of African-American women in central Pennsylvania. Participants were asked to think back to when they were diagnosed with breast cancer and their visit with the breast surgeon. Questions were asked about the actual visit, treatment choices offered, sources of information, and whether the women felt prepared for the surgery and subsequent treatments. The prompts triggered memories and encouraged open discussion. The most important themes identified were fear across the breast cancer disease trajectory, a preference for visual information for understanding the diagnosis and surgical treatment, and support systems relying on family and friends, rather than the formal health-care system. Our results have implications for practice strategies and development of educational interventions that will help breast cancer patients better understand their diagnosis and treatment options, encourage their participation in treatment decision-making, and provide psychosocial support for those at high risk for emotional distress. PMID:25200948

  1. Incorporating Communication into the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Condom Use Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Mengfei; Coles, Valerie B; Samp, Jennifer A; Sales, Jessica McDermott; DiClemente, Ralph J; Monahan, Jennifer L

    2016-09-01

    The present research extends the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to investigate how communication-related variables influence condom use intention and behavior among African American women. According to the TPB, attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy are associated with behavioral intent, which predicts behavior. For women, it was argued that condom negotiation self-efficacy was more important than condom use self-efficacy in predicting consistent condom use. Moreover, an important environmental factor that affects condom use for African American women is fear or worry when negotiating condom use because the sex partners might leave, threaten, or abuse them. Fears associated with negotiating condom use were predicted to be negatively associated with attitudes, subjective norms, and self-efficacy. African American women (N = 560; M age = 20.58) completed assessments of TPB variables at baseline and condom use 3 months later. Condom negotiation self-efficacy was a significant indicator of behavioral intent, while condom use self-efficacy was not. Fear of condom negotiation was negatively associated with all TPB components, which was in turn significantly associated with behavioral intent and condom use. Implications for the TPB, safer sex literature, and sexually transmitted infection prevention intervention design are discussed. PMID:27565192

  2. Korean and American music reduces pain in Korean women after gynecologic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Marion; Ahn, Sukhee

    2008-09-01

    American music has been found to relieve pain in adults in several countries but has not been tested in Korea. Korean women have reported that they would like American music as well as Korean folk songs and religious music sung in Korean. The study purpose was to pilot-test the effects of music on pain after gynecologic surgery in Korean women and to compare pain relief between those who chose American or Korean music. Using a quasiexperimental pretest-posttest design, 73 South Korean women on a preoperative unit were assigned by day of the week to receive music (n = 34; 47%) or no music (n = 39; 53%). The music group chose among Korean (ballads and religious and popular songs) and American (soft slow piano and orchestra) music and heard it for 15 minutes at four time points (postoperatively), whereas the controls rested in bed. They marked VAS Sensation and Distress of Pain scales before and after each test. The two groups were similar on pretest pain. When controlling for pretest pain, MANCOVA indicated that there was significantly less posttest pain in those with music plus analgesics than those with analgesics alone at three of the four tests: p = .04 to .001. Two-thirds in the music group (n = 21; 62%) chose Korean music and one-third (n = 13; 38%) chose American, with no difference in pain: both were effective. In addition to analgesics, music can be used to reduce postoperative pain in Korean women. Patients selected music that was appealing to them. Nurses in many countries can consider music of the country and seek individual preferences to use in addition to analgesics for postoperative pain. PMID:18706380

  3. John Henryism Active Coping as a Cultural Correlate of Substance Abuse Treatment Participation Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'; Allen, Kristin; Fisher, Sycarah; Crowell, Candice; Mahaffey, Carlos; Leukefeld, Carl; Oser, Carrie

    2016-04-01

    The rates of illicit drug use among African American women are increasing, yet African American women are least likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorders when compared to women of other racial groups. The current study examined family history of substance use, perceived family support, and John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC) as correlates to seeking treatment for substance abuse. The underlying theoretical frame of JHAC (James et al., 1983) suggests that despite limited resources and psychosocial stressors, African Americans believe that hard work and self-determination are necessary to cope with adversities. The current study is a secondary data analyses of 206 drug-using African American women (N=104 urban community women with no criminal justice involvement and N=102 women living in the community on supervised probation) from urban cities in a southern state. It was expected that African American women with a family history of substance abuse, higher levels of perceived family support, and more active coping skills would be more likely to have participated in substance abuse treatment. Step-wise logistic regression results reveal that women on probation, had children, and had a family history of substance abuse were significantly more likely to report participating in substance abuse treatment. Perceived family support and active coping were significant negative correlates of participating in treatment. Implication of results suggests coping with psychosocial stressors using a self-determined and persistent coping strategy may be problematic for drug-using women with limited resources. PMID:26899801

  4. Sociocultural Influences on Undergraduate Women's Entry into a Computer Science Major

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Louise Ann

    2013-01-01

    Computer science not only displays the pattern of underrepresentation of many other science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) fields, but has actually experienced a "decline" in the number of women choosing the field over the past two decades. Broken out by gender and race, the picture becomes more nuanced, with the ratio of…

  5. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Johnson, Dayna A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman's reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche was geocoded to census tract (closest to year of menarche); neighborhood-level poverty was defined as the proportion of residents living under the federal poverty level. Cumulative logistic regression was used to examine the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche, in quartiles, with categorical prepregnancy BMI. Results. Before pregnancy, 59 (41%) women were obese. Compared to women in the lowest neighborhood-level poverty quartile, women in the highest quartile had 2.9 [1.2, 6.9] times higher odds of prepregnancy obesity; this was slightly attenuated after adjusting for age, marital status, education, and parity (odds ratio: 2.3 [0.9, 6.3]). Conclusions. Living in a higher poverty neighborhood at menarche is associated with prepregnancy obesity in African-American women. Future studies are needed to better understand the role of exposures in menarche on health in pregnancy. PMID:27418977

  6. Comparison of abuse experiences of rural and urban African American women during perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F C; Richardson, Jeanita W; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Sharps, Phyllis W

    2015-07-01

    A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478

  7. Comparison of Abuse Experiences of Rural and Urban African American Women During Perinatal Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Shreya; Bullock, Linda F. C.; Richardson, Jeanita W.; Kimeto, Pamela; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Sharps, Phyllis W.

    2015-01-01

    A subsample of 12 African American women (6 urban and 6 rural) were selected from a larger longitudinal, randomized control trial, Domestic Violence Enhanced Home Visitation (DOVE-R01 900903 National Institute of Nursing Research [NINR]/National Institutes of Health [NIH]). All African American women were chosen to control for any racial- and/or race-related cultural differences that may exist among women across geographical areas. The experiences of abuse during the perinatal period are drawn from in-depth interviews conducted at five points in time during pregnancy and the post-partum period. The analysis describes three major themes that highlight the similarities and differences among rural and urban women. The main themes found were (1) types of abuse, (2) location of abuse, and (3) response to abuse. In addition, two sub-themes (a) defiance and compliance and (b) role of children were also identified. Implications for universal screening for women of reproductive age, safer gun laws, and the need for further research are discussed. PMID:25315478

  8. Fractured Identity: A Framework for Understanding Young Asian American Women's Self-harm and Suicidal Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Gonyea, Judith G; Chiao, Christine; Koritsanszky, Luca Anna

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high suicide rate among young Asian American women, the reasons for this phenomenon remain unclear. This qualitative study explored the family experiences of 16 young Asian American women who are children of immigrants and report a history of self-harm and/or suicidal behaviors. Our findings suggest that the participants experienced multiple types of "disempowering parenting styles" that are characterized as: abusive, burdening, culturally disjointed, disengaged, and gender-prescriptive parenting. Tied to these family dynamics is the double bind that participants suffer. Exposed to multiple types of negative parenting, the women felt paralyzed by opposing forces, caught between a deep desire to satisfy their parents' expectations as well as societal expectations and to simultaneously rebel against the image of "the perfect Asian woman." Torn by the double bind, these women developed a "fractured identity," which led to the use of "unsafe coping" strategies. Trapped in a "web of pain," the young women suffered alone and engaged in self-harm and suicidal behaviors. PMID:24563680

  9. The Perceived and Actual Physical Activity Behaviors of African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Fern J; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Hannah, Liane; Doldren, Michelle; Stanford, Jevetta

    2016-04-01

    Lack of physical activity is a leading contributor to obesity in the US. The unusually high rates of obesity in African-American (AA) women corroborate with lack of recommended levels of exercise in this population. The purpose of this study was to describe exercise behaviors and intention to change using the stages of change (SOC) model in a sample of AA women. A population-based observational study was conducted with 292 AA women in Florida. Outcome variables were engaging in aerobic, strength-based, and stretching exercise. More than half (61.25 %) did not engage in strength-based exercise, more than a third (37.7 %) did not engage in aerobic exercise, and a little less than half (45.9 %) did not participate in stretching exercise. SOC was the main independent variable. Women in action and maintenance SOC were significantly more likely to engage in aerobic exercise (OR 16.1, 95 % CI 7.09-25.7), strength-based exercise (OR 15.4, 95 % CI 6.58-22.7), and stretching exercise (OR 3.80, 95 % CI 1.91-7.52). The SOC is reflective of actual exercise behavior in AA women. A large number of AA women do not engage in regular recommended levels of exercise. Understanding SOC can be essential to developing culturally appropriate and motivation matched interventions for improving AA women's exercise habits. PMID:26487441

  10. Peer navigation improves diagnostic follow-up after breast cancer screening among Korean American women: results of a randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Annette E.; Jo, Angela M.; Crespi, Catherine M; Sudan, Madhuri; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test an intervention to increase adherence to diagnostic follow-up tests among Asian American women. Methods Korean American women who were referred for a diagnostic follow-up test (mainly diagnostic mammograms) and who had missed their follow-up appointment were eligible to participate in the study. Women from two clinics (n = 176) were randomly allocated to a usual care control arm or a peer navigator intervention arm. A 20-min telephone survey was administered to women in both...

  11. Effectiveness of an Ongoing, Community-Based Breast Cancer Prevention Program for Korean American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun; Choi, Ga-Young; Cho, Ji Young

    2016-02-01

    The study evaluates the effectiveness of an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program offered by a local social services agency in the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. Korean American women who participated in this breast cancer prevention program were compared with those who did not participate in their knowledge, attitude, and screening behaviors. The study found that the intervention group was more knowledgeable on breast cancer and related services and reported more positive attitudes toward breast cancer screening services than the comparison group. The participants in the intervention group were also more likely to plan to receive a mammogram than those in the comparison group. However, significant differences were not observed in the two groups in their intention to receive a clinical breast examination. The study findings suggest that an ongoing, community-based breast cancer prevention program can be an effective method of addressing breast cancer prevention disparities observed among Korean American women. PMID:26946886

  12. The state of measurement of self-esteem of African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Jennifer

    2007-07-01

    This article critically reviews the state of measurement of self-esteem in African American women. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, and the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory are three commonly used measures. However, their validity for African American women has not been adequately tested. Given the unique nature of the self-esteem of this group, related to experiences of racism and sexism, the accurate measurement of this construct is important. This review provided support for the internal consistency of each measure with alpha coefficients ranging from .74 to .87. However, the validity of the measures was not fully supported. Suggestions for further research specific to the unique needs of this population are discussed. PMID:17607059

  13. Physical Activity, Exercise, And Nutrition Interventions For Weight Control In African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Asare

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutritionrelated weight control interventions done with African American women that were publishedbetween 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studiesmet the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard to impact ofintervention. Twelve of those studies revealed significant increase in physical activity and weightreduction behavior. In terms of use of theory in designing the interventions only five interventionsused a theory. In three of those cases social cognitive theory was used. Appropriate sample sizewas found to be the major strength of most of the interventions. Six interventions usedrandomized controlled design. Recommendations for enhancing the effectiveness of physicalactivity interventions in African American women are presented.

  14. Low level alcohol intake, cigarette smoking and risk of breast cancer in Asian-American women

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Linda Morris; Gridley, Gloria; Wu, Anna H.; Falk, Roni T; Hauptmann, Michael; Kolonel, Laurence N; West, Dee W.; Nomura, Abraham M. Y.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Hoover, Robert N.; Ziegler, Regina G

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that breast cancer incidence rates among Asian migrants to the United States approach U.S. incidence rates over several generations, implicating potentially modifiable exposures such as moderate alcohol use that has been linked to excess breast cancer risk in other populations. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of alcohol intake, primarily low levels, on breast cancer risk in Asian-American women and explore whether smoking and alcohol contributed to the ...

  15. Neighborhood-Level Poverty at Menarche and Prepregnancy Obesity in African-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Peters, Rosalind M.; Charlotte Burmeister; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Johnson, Dayna A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Menarche is a critical time point in a woman’s reproductive system development; exposures at menarche may influence maternal health. Living in a poorer neighborhood is associated with adult obesity; however, little is known if neighborhood factors at menarche are associated with prepregnancy obesity. Methods. We examined the association of neighborhood-level poverty at menarche with prepregnancy body mass index category in 144 pregnant African-American women. Address at menarche...

  16. Premarital Cohabitation and the Risk of Marital Disruption among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Phillips, Julie A; Sweeney, Megan M.

    2003-01-01

    We use data from the 1995 National Survey of Family Growth to investigate racial and ethnic differences in risk factors for marital disruption, with a particular emphasis on premarital cohabitation. Our analysis expands upon the array of risk factors considered in prior investigations of racial and ethnic differences in disruption and is among the first to systematically examine marital disruption among recent cohorts of Mexican American women. We find that the nature and strength of the esti...

  17. Physical Activity, Exercise, And Nutrition Interventions For Weight Control In African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Asare; Manoj Sharma

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutritionrelated weight control interventions done with African American women that were publishedbetween 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studiesmet the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard to impact ofintervention. Twelve of those studies revealed significant increase in physical activity and weightreduction behavior. In terms of use of t...

  18. Breastfeeding advice given to African American and white women by physicians and WIC counselors.

    OpenAIRE

    Beal, Anne C; Kuhlthau, Karen; Perrin, James M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study determined rates of breastfeeding advice given to African American and white women by medical providers and WIC nutrition counselors, and sought to determine whether racial differences in advice contributed to racial differences in rates of breastfeeding. METHODS: The study used data from the 1988 National Maternal and Infant Health Survey, a cross-sectional survey of a nationally representative sample of mothers with a live birth, infant death, or fetal death in 1988. T...

  19. Perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward domestic violence against women among Latin-American immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Asur Fuente; Marisol Lila; Juan Herrero; Enrique Gracia

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we explore the relationship between perceived neighbourhood social disorder (perceived crime and insecurity in residential areas) and attitudes toward domestic violence against women in Latin-American population in Spain (N =350). Perceived severity of incidents of domestic violence, its acceptability, victim-blaming attitudes and knowing victims of domestic violence are analyzed among immigrant population. Results show that the perception of neighbourhood social disorder...

  20. Neighborhood Context, Personality, and Stressful Life Events as Predictors of Depression Among African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn E. Cutrona; Russell, Daniel W; Brown, P. Adama; Clark, Lee Anna; Hessling, Robert M.; Gardner, Kelli A.

    2005-01-01

    The authors tested neighborhood context, negative life events, and negative affectivity as predictors of the onset of major depression among 720 African American women. Neighborhood-level economic disadvantage (e.g., percentage of residents below the poverty line) and social disorder (e.g., delinquency, drug use) predicted the onset of major depression when controlling for individual-level demographic characteristics. Neighborhood-level disadvantage/disorder interacted with negative life even...

  1. Serum IGF-1 Concentrations Change With Soy and Seaweed Supplements in Healthy Postmenopausal American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Teas, Jane; Irhimeh, Mohammad R; Druker, Susan; Hurley, Thomas G.; Hébert, James R.; Savarese, Todd M.; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is an anabolic hormone important for growth and development. However, high-circulating serum concentrations in adults are associated with increased risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Nutritional status and specific foods influence serum IGF-1 concentrations. Breast cancer incidence is typically low in Asian countries where soy is commonly consumed. Paradoxically, soy supplement trials in American women have reported significant increases in IGF-1. Seawe...

  2. Analysis of Body Composition Methods in a Community Sample of African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Ygnacio; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Ledoux, Tracey A.; Rebecca E. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the authors in this study were: (1) to determine whether published body mass index and bioelectrical impedance analysis equations agreed with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry body fat percentage measures and (2) to estimate new body mass index and bioelectrical impedance analysis equations in a sample of African American women. Linear regression was used to determine how well 10 body mass index and bioelectrical impedance analysis equations reflected dual energy x-ray absorpti...

  3. Asian American Women and Alcohol-Related Problems: The Role of Multidimensional Feminine Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Grivel, Margaux; Cheng, Alice; Clinton, Lauren; Kaya, Aylin

    2016-04-01

    Increasing rates of heavy episodic drinking (HED; four or more drinks in one sitting) and alcohol use disorders among young adult Asian American women signify the need to identify the risk and protective factors for HED and alcohol-related problems in this demographic. Multidimensional feminine norms, or the beliefs and expectations of what it means to be a woman, are theoretically relevant factors that may help elucidate within-group variability in HED and alcohol-related problems. The present study examined associations between nine salient feminine norms, HED, and alcohol-related problems among 398 second-generation Asian American college women. Our findings reveal that certain feminine norms are protective of HED and alcohol-related problems, while others are risk factors, even when controlling for well-established correlates of HED and alcohol-related problems, such as perceived peer drinking norms. The results elucidate the importance of multidimensional feminine norms and their relationship to HED and alcohol-related problems among the increasingly at-risk group, Asian American college women. PMID:25634626

  4. Beauty salon health intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Latasha T; Ralston, Penny A; Jones, Ethel

    2010-06-01

    African Americans, especially women, have low fruit and vegetable consumption, which is related to higher rates of obesity, morbidity, and mortality in comparison to whites. Community-based approaches are recommended to address this problem, including beauty salons, which are conducive environments for health information dissemination. The purpose of this pilot study, conducted in 2007, was to determine the effectiveness of a 6-week beauty salon-based health intervention, Steps for a New You, in improving diet, physical activity, and water consumption behaviors in African-American women using a quasiexperimental design. A random sample of 20 African-American women was selected from a list of regular clients at two beauty salons (n=10 each for treatment and comparison salons) located in a Southern rural community. The intervention included scripted motivational sessions between the cosmetologist and clients, information packets, and a starter kit of sample items. Data were collected using pre- and posttest questionnaires. The results showed that mean intake of fruit and vegetables was significantly higher at posttest for the treatment group but not for the comparison group. These findings suggest that the intervention may have had a positive effect on fruit and vegetable consumption by treatment group participants. However, further work is needed to refine the methodology, especially strengthening the intervention to increase physical activity and water consumption. PMID:20497787

  5. Restaurant foods, sugar-sweetened soft drinks, and obesity risk among young African American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Deborah A.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Coogan, Patricia F.; Makambi, Kepher H.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Palmer, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately high in African American women, and consumption of fast foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks is also especially high among African Americans. Objective We investigated the relation of intakes of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and specific types of restaurant foods to obesity in the Black Women's Health Study. Design In this prospective cohort study, 19,479 non-obese women aged 21–39 years at baseline were followed for 14 years (1995–2009). Dietary intake was assessed by validated food frequency questionnaire in 1995 and 2001. Main outcome measures Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of intakes of restaurant foods and sugar-sweetened soft drinks with incident obesity. Results Higher intakes of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks were associated with greater risk of becoming obese. The associations were present in models that included both factors and adjusted for overall dietary pattern. The HR of obesity in relation to restaurant burger consumption of ≥2 times/week compared with <5 times/year was 1.26 (95% CI: 1.14–1.40; P-trend<0.001). For sugar-sweetened soft drink intake, the HR was 1.10 (95% CI: 0.99–1.23; P-trend=0.14) for ≥2 drinks/day compared with <1 drink/month. The associations were stronger among women younger than age 30 with normal weight at baseline. Conclusions Frequent consumption of burgers from restaurants and sugar-sweetened soft drinks contribute to obesity among young African American women. PMID:24392607

  6. Psychosocial and sociocultural correlates of depressive symptoms among diverse African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Kisha B; Hall, Stephanie P; Robinson, Maryam; Triplett, Sharra; Babalola, Dolapo; Plummer, Valens; Treadwell, Henrie; Bradford, L DiAnne

    2012-01-01

    African American women are faced with many challenges regarding their historical, cultural, and social structural position in the United States that may heighten their vulnerability for depression, one of the most prevalent disorders that can engender poor functionality. The purpose of this cross-sectional pilot study was to foster greater understanding about the occurrence and correlates of depressive symptoms among a diverse convenience sample of 63 African American women recruited from a comprehensive primary health care clinic (n = 23), a small private academic institution (n = 25), and an urban community setting (n = 15). Self-report data concerning selected psychological, sociocultural, and biological factors were collected. Descriptive statistics, Pearson product moment correlation, and analysis of variance were used to analyze data. Results indicated several similarities and differences among the 3 groups of women concerning levels of depressive symptoms and their correlates. Among the total sample, symptoms of depression were mild among 65% of the women. Depressive symptoms were significant and positively associated with negative and ruminative thinking (r = 0.79, p < .01), low self-esteem (r = 0.58, p < .01), stressful life events (r = 0.43, p < .05), low social support (r = 0.46, p <.01), depression stigma (r = 0.36, p < 01), and indication of chronic diseases (r = 0.34, p < .01). Depressive symptoms were significant and negatively associated with resiliency (r = -0.48, p < .01) and spiritual well-being (r = -.47, p < .01). This research adds to the empirical data concerning contributors to depressive symptoms for African American women. PMID:23560351

  7. Imported family models? Cohabitation patterns of Latin American women in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara CORTINA TRILLA

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, international immigration flows have undergone a dramatic growth in Spain. In this particular context, the purpose of this article is to analyze whether Latin American female migrants residing in Spain largely maintain nuptial and reproductive patterns from their countries of origin. To analyze the prevalence of consensual unions we use three different databases: the Spanish Immigration Survey, the Spanish Labour Force Survey and birth records, all of them corresponding to 2007 and collected by the Spanish Statistical Institute. The study documents the high prevalence of consensual unions among Latin American migrants. Regarding the socio-demographic factors influencing cohabitation, our results show important similarities between Spanish and Latin American women, except for educational attainment.

  8. A grounded theory study on the academic success of undergraduate women in science, engineering, and mathematics fields at a private, research university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hroch, Amber Michelle

    2011-12-01

    This grounded theory study revealed the common factors of backgrounds, strategies, and motivators in academically successful undergraduate women in science, engineering, and mathematics (SEM) fields at a private, research university in the West. Data from interviews with 15 women with 3.25 or better grade point averages indicated that current academic achievement in their college SEM fields can be attributed to previous academic success, self awareness, time management and organizational skills, and maintaining a strong support network. Participants were motivated by an internal drive to academically succeed and attend graduate school. Recommendations are provided for professors, advisors, and student affairs professionals.

  9. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Blanks, Starla Hairston; Treadwell, Henrie; Bazzell, Anya; Graves, Whitney; Osaji, Olivia; Dean, Juanita; James T. McLawhorn; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health educat...

  10. Self-reported Experiences of Discrimination and Visceral Fat in Middle-aged African-American and Caucasian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Tené T.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the association between self-reported experiences of discrimination and subtypes of abdominal fat (visceral, subcutaneous) in a population-based cohort of African-American and Caucasian women. Prior studies examining associations between discrimination and abdominal fat have yielded mixed results. A major limitation of this research has been the reliance on waist circumference, which may be a poor marker of visceral fat, particularly for African-American women. Participan...

  11. Effect of Socioeconomic Status on Exposures to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) among Pregnant African-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Borrell, Luisa N.; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Wolff, Mary S.; Susser, Ezra; Matte, Thomas D

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the associations between socioeconomic status and exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in a cohort of inner-city African-American pregnant women. Data for this study were derived from the Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center subcohort of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. African-American women from whom venous blood had been collected during their third trimester of pregnancy during the tim...

  12. Examining the Associations of Racism, Sexism, and Stressful Life Events on Psychological Distress among African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.

    2014-01-01

    African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, person...

  13. Breast Cancer Mortality among Asian-American Women in California: Variation according to Ethnicity and Tumor Subtype

    OpenAIRE

    Parise, Carol; Caggiano, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Asian-American women have equal or better breast cancer survival rates than non-Hispanic white women, but many studies use the aggregate term "Asian/Pacific Islander" (API) or consider breast cancer as a single disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk of mortality in seven subgroups of Asian-Americans expressing the estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) tumor marker subtypes and determine whether the ris...

  14. Multiple Measures of Physical Activity, Dietary Habits and Weight Status in African American and Hispanic or Latina Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A.; Layne, Charles S.; Baxter, Meggin; O’Connor, Daniel P; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questi...

  15. The moderating effects of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation on suicide risk among low-SES African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Brea L.; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of concurrent racism and sexism experiences (i.e. gendered racism) on African American women’s suicidal ideation and behavior in the context of disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Drawing on a stress process framework, the moderating effects of ethnic identity and skin color were explored using multiple regression analyses. Data were from 204 low-income African American women in the B-WISE (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) project. Findings suggested that...

  16. Social and Cultural Barriers to Diabetes Prevention in Oklahoma American Indian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Taylor

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The prevalence of diabetes is disproportionately higher among minority populations, especially American Indians. Prevention or delay of diabetes in this population would improve quality of life and reduce health care costs. Identifying cultural definitions of health and diabetes is critically important to developing effective diabetes prevention programs. Methods In-home qualitative interviews were conducted with 79 American Indian women from 3 tribal clinics in northeast Oklahoma to identify a cultural definition of health and diabetes. Grounded theory was used to analyze verbatim transcripts. Results The women interviewed defined health in terms of physical functionality and absence of disease, with family members and friends serving as treatment promoters. Conversely, the women considered their overall health to be a personal issue addressed individually without burdening others. The women presented a fatalistic view of diabetes, regarding the disease as an inevitable event that destroys health and ultimately results in death. Conclusions Further understanding of the perceptions of health in at-risk populations will aid in developing diabetes prevention programs.

  17. Understanding and effectively addressing breast cancer in African American women: Unpacking the social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David R; Mohammed, Selina A; Shields, Alexandra E

    2016-07-15

    Black women have a higher incidence of breast cancer before the age of 40 years, more severe disease at all ages, and an elevated mortality risk in comparison with white women. There is limited understanding of the contribution of social factors to these patterns. Elucidating the role of the social determinants of health in breast cancer disparities requires greater attention to how risk factors for breast cancer unfold over the lifecourse and to the complex ways in which socioeconomic status and racism shape exposure to psychosocial, physical, chemical, and other individual and community-level assaults that increase the risk of breast cancer. Research that takes seriously the social context in which black women live is also needed to maximize the opportunities to prevent breast cancer in this underserved group. Cancer 2016;122:2138-49. © 2016 American Cancer Society. PMID:26930024

  18. Souls in Extremis: Enacting Processes of Recovery from Homelessness Among Older African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, David P; Washington, Olivia G M

    2016-06-01

    In a midwestern city of the USA, the authors implemented the Leaving Homelessness Intervention Research Project-and its eight subprojects-to further understand homelessness as experienced by older minority women, develop intervention strategies to facilitate the movement of the participants out of homelessness, and illuminate the women's recovery process. After reviewing the social issue of homelessness among older African American women in the USA, and offering a framework on recovery and qualitative themes of recovery among participants involved in the Telling My Story subproject, the authors present a four-factor model of recovery-focused practice. The model reflects two recovery paradigms: one that is responsive to the negative consequences people experience as a result of their exposure to extreme situations, such as homelessness, and a proactive one in which assistance is designed to help people in recovery advance their own self-development and move forward their process of individuation. PMID:26781673

  19. Infected Lives: Lived Experiences of Young African American HIV-Positive Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Jill N; Domian, Elaine W; Teel, Cynthia S

    2016-02-01

    This hermeneutic phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of young African American HIV-infected women. Eleven women between the ages of 21 and 35 participated. One pattern, Infected Lives, and three themes--Living Alone With HIV, Living With Unresolved Conflicts, and Living With Multiple Layers of Betrayal--emerged. The pattern and themes portray the very complex and challenging experiences faced by these young women living with HIV infection. They have experienced isolation, abandonment, betrayal, and discrimination in their interpersonal and social systems. They often dealt with conflicts of hope and anguish in the relationships with their children, and portraying strength, while feeling fragile. These complexities negatively influence the ability to fully engage in self-care activities. Implications for future research include further investigation about the experiences of psychological distress experienced post-diagnosis, development and evaluation of holistic nursing interventions, and evaluative research on mass media educational campaigns to reduce HIV-related stigma. PMID:25239137

  20. Obesity in African-American Women--The Time Bomb is Ticking: An Urgent Call for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Barbara A

    2015-12-01

    The "time bomb is ticking" because there is an obesity crisis associated with higher rates of chronic diseases such as stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer in African-American women compared to White women. African-American women incur higher medical costs from hospitalizations, decreased productivity in the work setting, lost wages, the needfor medical benefits and pharmacy-associated costs, and more time away from family than White women. Numerous factors, such as the socio-cultural context of eating, acceptance of a larger weight status, the emotionally liberating effects offood, and preference for highfat and high caloric, sugary-content, and sodium-laden food influences the obesity crisis in African-American women. The interplay of poverty and lower socioeconomic status, residential segregation, health literacy, availability of fast foods and scarce produce in local convenience food marts, physical inactivity, and conflicting messages from social media public service announcements (PSAs) and ads in national magazines affect the obesity crisis in African-American women. There is an urgent call for sustainable, community-driven health policy initiatives that improve access to healthy foods in lower-income, minority communities. Furthermore, African-American women are challenged to modify their health behaviors by preparing healthy meals for themselves and theirfamilies, and by engaging in physical activity. PMID:27045156

  1. Why Don't More Women and Minorities Study Undergraduate Physics? A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hillary; Weisel, Derek

    2008-04-01

    It has often been suggested that the lack of women and ethnic minorities studying physics in college can be traced back to the science and math education of students in high school and before. This talk presents data from a two-part survey of high school science students. First, students were asked what subjects they enjoy and their perceived level of competency in math and science. Second, students were asked their plans for secondary education and what factors contributed to this decision. The results been correlated to gender and ethnicity. Analysis of the results indicates trends along gender and ethnic lines in what students believe they are good at, what they enjoy studying, in what ways they plan to continue their education, and what they plan to study in college.

  2. Long-Term Effects of Stressors on Relationship Well-Being and Parenting among Rural African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma M.; Harrell, Amanda W.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Black, Angela R.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of stressful life events on rural African American women's relationship well-being, psychological functioning, and parenting included 361 married or long-term cohabiting women. Associations among stressful events, socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination, coping strategies, psychological functioning,…

  3. The Impact of Perceived Group Support on the Effectiveness of an HIV Prevention Intervention for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgrave, Faye Z.; Corneille, Maya; Hood, Kristina; Foster-Woodson, Julia; Fitzgerald, Angela

    2010-01-01

    The enormous HIV/AIDS disparity among African American women and women in other ethnic groups dictates the need to implement the most effective HIV prevention interventions. This study examined the impact of perceived group support on HIV protective behaviors (i.e., attitudes and behaviors related to condom use, alcohol, and drugs) of African…

  4. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  5. African American Women Executives' Leadership Communication within Dominant-Culture Organizations: (Re)Conceptualizing Notions of Collaboration and Instrumentality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Patricia S.

    2001-01-01

    Examines African American women executives' leadership communication within majority White, male-dominated organizations in the United States. Reveals five themes related to the executives' leadership communication that challenge views of women as master collaborators who shun control-oriented leadership. Offers implications of this study for…

  6. Family Planning Knowledge: The Role of Social Networks and Primary Care Providers as Information Sources for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstock, Oni J.; Mba-Jonas, Adamma; Sacajiu, Galit M.

    2010-01-01

    Disparities in the rates of unintended pregnancy have increased for low-income African American women as compared to other groups due, in part, to declining contraception use. Women obtain family planning information from diverse sources, which may ultimately influence contraceptive decision making. For this qualitative study, we conducted…

  7. Stress Management-Augmented Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention for African American Women: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week…

  8. Stuck Between a Rock and a Hard Place: Explanations of Employment Change Among African American Women in the Postindustrial Era

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Katrinell

    2007-01-01

    Although the opportunity structure for African Americans has improved since the passage of civil rights legislation in the 1960s and 1970s, African American female workers still predominantly occupy jobs offering low wages with no job security. This paper begins to examine the reasons for this stagnation by offering a comprehensive review of scholarship on the employment histories of African American women in the postindustrial era. Using Census data and other historical evidence, I argue t...

  9. Intake of energy-dense foods, fast foods, sugary drinks, and breast cancer risk in African American and European American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Urmila; McCann, Susan E; Zirpoli, Gary; Gong, Zhihong; Lin, Yong; Hong, Chi-Chen; Ciupak, Gregory; Pawlish, Karen; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V

    2014-01-01

    Limiting energy-dense foods, fast foods, and sugary drinks that promote weight gain is a cancer prevention recommendation, but no studies have evaluated intake in relation to breast cancer risk in African American (AA) women. In a case-control study with 1692 AA women (803 cases and 889 controls) and 1456 European American (EA) women (755 cases and 701 controls), odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for risk were computed, stratifying for menopausal and estrogen receptor (ER) status. Among postmenopausal EA women, breast cancer risk was associated with frequent consumption of energy-dense foods (OR = 2.95; 95% CI: 1.66-5.22), fast foods (OR = 2.35; 95% CI: 1.38-4.00), and sugary drinks (OR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.13-3.70). Elevated risk of ER+ tumors in EA women was associated with energy-dense (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.14-2.69) and fast foods (OR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.22-2.77). Among AA women, frequent fast food consumption was related to premenopausal breast cancer risk (OR = 1.97; 95% CI: 1.13-3.43), and with ER+ tumors. Energy adjustment attenuated risk estimates in AA women, while strengthening them among EA women. Frequent consumption of energy-dense and fast foods that have poor nutritive value appeared to increase breast cancer risk in AA and EA women, with differences by menopausal status and ER status. PMID:25265504

  10. Promoting Breast Cancer Screening Among Asian American Women: the Asian Grocery Store-Based Cancer Education Program

    OpenAIRE

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Beerman, Paula R.; Lee, Kathy; Hung, Jenny; Nguyen, Helene; Cho, Janet; Huang, Wennie

    2012-01-01

    Asian American women's historically low breast cancer mortality rate has remained constant as rates decreased for all other races. From 2000 to 2004, a randomized controlled trial explored the Asian grocery store-based breast cancer education program's impact on Chinese, Filipino, Korean, and Vietnamese women (n=1,540). Women aged 40 and older and non-adherent for annual screening mammograms were more likely to schedule a mammogram after receiving the breast cancer education program than wome...

  11. Resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin in adipocytes of African-American compared to Caucasian postmenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Fried, Susan K.; Tittelbach, Thomas; Blumenthal, Jacob; Sreenivasan, Urmila; Robey, Linda; Yi, Jamie; Khan, Sumbul; Hollender, Courtney; Ryan, Alice S.; Goldberg, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    High fatty acid (FA) flux is associated with systemic insulin resistance, and African-American (AA) women tend to be more insulin resistant. We assessed possible depot and race difference in the antilipolytic effect of insulin in adipocytes isolated from abdominal (Abd) and gluteal (Glt) subcutaneous (sc) adipose tissue of overweight, postmenopausal AA and Caucasian (C) women. Percent body fat, fasting insulin, visceral adiposity, and adipocyte size was higher in AA women. Disinhibited lipoly...

  12. Increasing HIV/AIDS awareness among African-American women: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ludella; Tabi, Marian M

    2013-07-01

    This exploratory study was conducted to assess the effect of an HIV/AIDS prevention program on producing positive changing attitudes among African-American women in Southeast Georgia. This study used a faith-based approach. Data were collected from 23 respondents recruited from a local African-American church. HIV training was conducted over four 1-hour sessions using web-based interactive videos and lectures on HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory comprised the framework upon which the women received HIV/AIDS prevention training. Participants completed a 25-item pre- and post-intervention questionnaire to measure any changes that occurred in their attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS. Results showed a statistically significant difference in mean scores of individual knowledge and attitudes about HIV. The difference in mean scores for the remaining items was found to be statistically insignificant. The overall change in attitudes was also statistically significant, t = 2.27, df = 22, p < 0.05, which provided further evidence that when peers educate their communities on HIV/AIDS, it makes a significant difference in changing their attitudes about this disease. Although findings were positive, further data is needed to substantiate and validate the use of community peers to increase knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS among the African-American population. PMID:24218873

  13. Guided Imagery for Stress and Symptom Management in Pregnant African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Jallo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a guided imagery (GI intervention for stress reduction in pregnant African American women beginning early in the second trimester. This prospective longitudinal study of 72 women used a randomized controlled experimental design with two groups conducted over 12 weeks. The intervention was a CD with 4 professionally recorded tracts designed and sequenced to influence study variables. Participants in both GI and usual care (UC completed measures and donated 5 cc of blood at baseline, 8 weeks and 12 weeks. Participants also completed a daily stress scale. A mixed-effects linear model tested for differences between groups for self-reported measures of stress, anxiety, and fatigue as well as corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH, a biologic marker of stress. Significant differences in perceived stress daily scores and at week 8 but not week 12 were found in the GI group compared to UC group. The GI group reported significantly less fatigue and anxiety than the UC group at week 8 but not week 12. There were no significant differences in CRH levels between groups. Results suggest that GI intervention may be effective in reducing perceived stress, anxiety, and fatigue measures among pregnant African American women.

  14. Korean American Women's Experiences with Smoking and Factors Associated with Their Quit Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun S.; Kim, Seongho; Seward, Gregory; Fortuna, Lisa; McKee, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored Korean American women's experiences with smoking and tested the theory of planned behavior to identify factors associated with their intentions to quit smoking. It employed a mixed-methods research design, using qualitative and quantitative data. Participants were recruited via a combination of random (N = 49) and convenience (N = 45) sampling techniques. Women in this study initiated smoking at age of 23 on average, and nearly half smoked at indoor houses. They initiated smoking out of curiosity about the effect and belief that smoking would relieve their stress. Reasons for continued smoking were (a) to avoid nicotine withdrawal symptoms, (b) to cope with life stressors, including acculturative stress, and (c) to fulfill one's destiny as a lifetime smoker. Many attempted to quit due to health issues and pregnancy. Fear of disclosure and limited English proficiency were found to be major barriers to seeking help for quitting. Past-year quit attempt(s), attitudes toward quitting, and perceived family norm favoring quitting explained 25% of the variance in intentions to quit smoking (F[3,90] = 11.58, P < 0.001). Findings suggest that gender- and culture-specific intervention strategies are needed to assist Korean American women in smoking cessation. PMID:25938119

  15. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2015-01-01

    Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  16. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White-Means, Shelley; Rice, Muriel; Dapremont, Jill; Davis, Barbara; Martin, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Among the country's 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings) would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis. PMID:26703655

  17. African American Women: Surviving Breast Cancer Mortality against the Highest Odds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley White-Means

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the country’s 25 largest cities, the breast cancer mortality disparity is highest in Memphis, Tennessee, where African American women are twice as likely to die from breast cancer as White women. This qualitative study of African-American breast cancer survivors explores experiences during and post treatment that contributed to their beating the high odds of mortality. Using a semi-structured interview guide, a focus group session was held in 2012 with 10 breast cancer survivors. Thematic analysis and a deductive a priori template of codes were used to analyze the data. Five main themes were identified: family history, breast/body awareness and preparedness to manage a breast cancer event, diagnosis experience and reaction to the diagnosis, family reactions, and impact on life. Prayer and family support were central to coping, and survivors voiced a cultural acceptance of racial disparities in health outcomes. They reported lack of provider sensitivity regarding pain, financial difficulties, negative responses from family/friends, and resiliency strategies for coping with physical and mental limitations. Our research suggested that a patient-centered approach of demystifying breast cancer (both in patient-provider communication and in community settings would impact how women cope with breast cancer and respond to information about its diagnosis.

  18. Downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern among African American and Caucasian college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Ellen E; Bardone-Cone, Anna M

    2011-06-01

    Within dominant American culture, females often learn to view themselves from an observer's perspective and to treat themselves as objects to be looked at (i.e., self-objectification), which can result in negative outcomes. Body surveillance (the indicator of self-objectification) has been found to predict concern with weight/shape in predominantly Caucasian samples, but research has not yet examined the potential reciprocal relations between body surveillance and weight/shape concern. Participants were 226 women attending a Midwestern university (70 self-identified as African American and 156 as Caucasian) who provided data at two time points, spaced about 5 months apart. Results revealed that downward spirals of body surveillance and weight/shape concern were apparent for the Caucasian but not the African American women. However, there was evidence that body surveillance helped account for change in weight/shape concern for the African American women. PMID:21596635

  19. Impact of Periodic Follow-Up Testing Among Urban American Indian Women With Impaired Fasting Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peg Allen, MPH

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionImpaired fasting glucose (IFG often progresses to type 2 diabetes. Given the severity and prevalence of this disease, primary prevention is important. Intensive lifestyle counseling interventions have delayed or prevented the onset of type 2 diabetes, but it is not known whether less intensive, more easily replicable efforts can also be effective.MethodsIn a lifestyle intervention study designed to reduce risks for type 2 diabetes, 200 American Indian women without diabetes, aged 18 to 40 years, were recruited from an urban community without regard to weight or IFG and block-randomized into intervention and control groups on the basis of fasting blood glucose (FBG. Dietary and physical activity behaviors were reported, and clinical metabolic, fitness, and body composition measures were taken at baseline and at periodic follow-up through 18 months. American Indian facilitators used a group-discussion format during the first 6 months to deliver a culturally influenced educational intervention on healthy eating, physical activity, social support, and goal setting. We analyzed a subset of young American Indian women with IFG at baseline (n = 42, selected from both the intervention and control groups.ResultsAmong the women with IFG, mean FBG significantly decreased from baseline to follow-up (P < .001 and converted to normal (<5.6 mmol/L or <100 mg/dL in 62.0% of the 30 women who completed the 18-month follow-up, irrespective of participation in the group educational sessions. Other improved metabolic values included significant decreases in mean fasting blood total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The women reported significant overall mean decreases in intake of total energy, saturated fat, total fat, total sugar, sweetened beverages, proportion of sweet foods in the diet, and hours of TV watching.ConclusionVolunteers with IFG in this study benefited from learning their FBG values and reporting their dietary

  20. The HSCaRS Summer Enrichment Program; Research Opportunities for Minority and Women Undergraduates in Global Change Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Jr., Maurice G.; Perkey, Donald J.; Coleman, T. L.

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of the HSCaRS Summer Enrichment Program (SEP) is to make significant contributions to the NASA Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) and the Alabama A&M University (AAMU) Center for Hydrology, Soil Climatology and Remote Sensing (HSCaRS) research missions by providing undergraduate student research internships with an emphasis on minority and women students. Additional objectives are to encourage more minority and women students to pursue advanced degrees in Earth system and global change science and to increase the participation of minority institutions in the U.S. Global Change Research Program. Also, the SEP strives to make students in the traditional science disciplines more aware of the opportunities in Earth System Science. In designing the SEP, it was acknowledged that HSCaRS was a new research effort and Center. Consequently, students were not expected to immediately recognize the Center as one would older, more established research laboratories with national reputations, such as Los Alamos, Battelle, National Consortium for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), etc. Yet we still wanted to compete nationally for the best students. Therefore, we designed the program with a competitive financial package that includes a stipend of $400 per week, round-trip transportation from home to the summer research site, and free campus housing and meal plans provided by Alabama A&M University. Students also received a modest living allowance of approximately $25 per week. The internship program was 10 weeks in residence at Alabama A&M University or IGCRE, and gave students the opportunity to select from six general research areas: micro-meteorology, soil data analysis, soil moisture modeling, instrumentation, geographic information systems, and computer science. Student participants also enrolled in an introductory global change science course as part of the summer program (a copy of the course outline is in the appendix). The program included participation in a

  1. Egg Intake and Dietary Quality among Overweight and Obese Mexican-American Postpartum Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Vega-López

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite their low cost and high nutrient density, the contribution of eggs to nutrient intake and dietary quality among Mexican-American postpartum women has not been evaluated. Nutrient intake and dietary quality, as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010, were measured in habitually sedentary overweight/obese (body mass index (BMI = 29.7 ± 3.5 kg/m2 Mexican-American postpartum women (28 ± 6 years and compared between egg consumers (n = 82; any egg intake reported in at least one of three 24-h dietary recalls and non-consumers (n = 57. Egg consumers had greater intake of energy (+808 kJ (193 kcal or 14%; p = 0.033, protein (+9 g or 17%; p = 0.031, total fat (+9 g or 19%; p = 0.039, monounsaturated fat (+4 g or 24%; p = 0.020, and several micronutrients than non-consumers. Regarding HEI-2010 scores, egg consumers had a greater total protein foods score than non-consumers (4.7 ± 0.7 vs. 4.3 ± 1.0; p = 0.004, and trends for greater total fruit (2.4 ± 1.8 vs. 1.9 ± 1.7; p = 0.070 and the total composite HEI-2010 score (56.4 ± 12.6 vs. 52.3 ± 14.4; p = 0.082. Findings suggest that egg intake could contribute to greater nutrient intake and improved dietary quality among postpartum Mexican-American women. Because of greater energy intake among egg consumers, recommendations for overweight/obese individuals should include avoiding excessive energy intake and incorporating eggs to a nutrient-dense, fiber-rich dietary pattern.

  2. Health seeking behavioral analysis associated with breast cancer screening among Asian American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast

  3. Early Women Sociologist and the American Sociological Society: the Patterns of Exclusion and Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jo Deegan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available American sociology owes a significant debt to early women professionals. Although discriminatedagainst as full colleagues, they nonetheless contributed to sociological thoughtand participated in professional activities. Evidence of both the barriers and opportunitiesaffecting these early female leaders is found in the records of the American SociologicalSociety during its founding years; i.e., from 1906-1931. Analysis of this information, aswell as personal documents of sociologists working during this period, reveals that womendid participate within a restricted range of “expertise”, often associated with traditionalsex roles. Jane Addams was a significant figure in these early years and was a leader withinthe separate, more institutionally limited female sociologist’s network.

  4. Family health advocacy: an empowerment model for pregnant and parenting African American women in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffour, Tiffany D; Jones, Maurine A; Contreras, Linda K

    2006-01-01

    The model of family health advocacy built firmly upon principles of empowerment theory seeks to help individuals, families, and communities to improve their circumstances by incorporating multiple levels of intervention. The goal of family health advocacy is to improve the well-being of pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 2 years by providing social support and health education about risk factors related to infant mortality and prematurity. This program primarily targets rural African American women, a group at high risk. Advocacy and referral for needed medical and social services are provided. This article presents a comprehensive model of health advocacy, including social marketing strategies, recruitment efforts, and curriculum development. PMID:16775472

  5. Perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward domestic violence against women among Latin-American immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asur Fuente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we explore the relationship between perceived neighbourhood social disorder (perceived crime and insecurity in residential areas and attitudes toward domestic violence against women in Latin-American population in Spain (N =350. Perceived severity of incidents of domestic violence, its acceptability, victim-blaming attitudes and knowing victims of domestic violence are analyzed among immigrant population. Results show that the perception of neighbourhood social disorder is associated with a lower perceived severity of incidents of domestic violence, with greater acceptability of violence, and higher degree of victim-blaming. Also, those residents of disorder neighbourhoods also know more victims of domestic violence. These results suggest the social characteristics in residential areas, such as disorder and deprivation, configure an impoverished social context that might favour attitudes that condone domestic violence against women.

  6. Personalized Weight Management Interventions for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: A Viable Option for African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Nina C; Arena, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is an independent contributor to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major driving force behind racial/ethnic and gender disparities in risk. Due to a multitude of interrelating factors (i.e., personal, social, cultural, economic and environmental), African-American (AA) women are disproportionately obese and twice as likely to succumb to CVD, yet they are significantly underrepresented in behavioral weight management interventions. In this selective review we highlight components of the limited interventions shown to enhance weight loss outcomes in this population and make a case for leveraging Web-based technology and artificial intelligence techniques to deliver personalized programs aimed at obesity treatment and CVD risk reduction. Although many of the approaches discussed are generally applicable across populations burdened by disparate rates of obesity and CVD, we specifically focus on AA women due to the disproportionate impact of these non-communicable diseases and the general paucity of interventions targeted to this high-risk group. PMID:26908050

  7. The moderating effects of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation on suicide risk among low-SES African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea L; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Oser, Carrie B

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the influence of concurrent racism and sexism experiences (i.e. gendered racism) on African American women's suicidal ideation and behavior in the context of disadvantaged socioeconomic status. Drawing on a stress process framework, the moderating effects of ethnic identity and skin color were explored using multiple regression analyses. Data were from 204 low-income African American women in the B-WISE (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) project. Findings suggested that experiencing gendered racism significantly increased these women's risk for suicidal ideation or behavior, though only among women with medium or dark skin color. Also, having strong ethnic identity buffered the harmful effects of gendered racism. The moderating properties of skin color and ethnic identity affirmation likely operate through psychosocial pathways, blocking internalization of negative stereotypes and reducing the level of distress experienced in response to gendered racism. PMID:23459264

  8. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systematic integrative literature review to identify barriers to PA among AA women. Five electronic databases were searched, and forty-two studies (twenty-seven qualitative, fourteen quantitative, one mixed method) published since 1990 (range 1998-2013) in English language journals met inclusion criteria for review. Barriers were classified as intrapersonal, interpersonal, or environment/community according to their respective level of influence within our social ecological framework. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time, knowledge, and motivation; physical appearance concerns; health concerns; monetary cost of exercise facilities; and tiredness/fatigue. Interpersonal barriers included family/caregiving responsibilities; lack of social support; and lack of a PA partner. Environmental barriers included safety concerns; lack of facilities; weather concerns; lack of sidewalks; and lack of physically active AA role models. Results provide key leverage points for researchers to consider when developing culturally relevant PA interventions for AA women. PMID:25909603

  9. Body mass index versus percentage body fat in Chinese, African-American and Caucasian postmenopausal women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; He Qing; Lin Shou-qing; Tian Jun-ping; Stan He-shka; Jack Wang; Steven Heymsfield; Richard N. Pierson; Dympna Gallagher

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate in postmenopausal women whether the relationship between percentage body fat (PBF) and body mass index (BMI) differs between Asians living in Beijing (BA) and African-Americans (AA), and Caucasians (Ca) living in New York City.Methods: Healthy postmenopausal women (231 BA; 113 AA, 95 Ca), aged 50-80 years, were studied. Weight, height and PBF by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. The relationship between PBF and BMI was assessed by multiple regression analysis. Results: Race, reciprocal of BMI (1/BMI) and the interaction between race and 1/BMI were all significantly (P<0.05) related to PBF in this sample. The slope of the line relating 1/BMI to PBF was different for BA compared to AA (P=0.01) and Ca (P=0.003) while the slopes for AA and Ca were not different (P>0.05). At lower levels of BMI, Asians tended to have higher PBF comparable to AA and Ca, while at BMI >30 BA tended to have less PBF than the other groups. Conclusion: The relation between PBF and BMI in BA postmenopausal women differs from that of AA and Ca women in this sample.

  10. Regional fat distribution changes with aging in Caucasian, African-American and Asian women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Ai-jun; Dympna Gallagher; Richard N. Pierson Jr

    2007-01-01

    Background: A central pattern of fat distribution in postmenopausal women is regarded as a contributor to the increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease.Both ethnicity and occurrence of menopause appear to influence regional fat distribution.However the influence of ethnicity has been under-investigated.Objective: The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that centralized fat distribution is influenced by ethnic origin.Furthermore, we hypothesize that the menopause-related changes in central adiposity in Caucasian,African-American and Asian women occur at different rates.Method: Total and regional body fat ratios were measured by whole body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a cross-sectional study using a general linear regression model.After adjustment for age, weight, height,and total body fat, the android and gynoid fat compartments, and the ratio of trunk/leg fat, were analyzed.Results: Four hundred and forty-four women (227 Caucasian (Ca), 128 African-American (AA) and 89 Asian (As)) aged 18-94 y were recruited.Race was significantly (P<0.0001) related to the dependent variables: android and gynoid fat, and ratio of trunk/leg adiposity, in all subjects, adjusted by age, weight, height and total body fat.The interaction of race * menopause was also found to be significant (P=0.028).In each group, regional and total body fat levels, and especially android adiposity, were higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women.Interestingly, the postmenopausal difference in android fat in Ca was found significant (P<0.05), whereas such differences had no impact in AA and As subjects (NS).Conclusions: The differences in fat mass and its distribution were racially dependent.The impact of menopause was only significant in Ca group.

  11. Socioecological perspectives on cervical cancer and cervical cancer screening among Asian American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jongwon; Carvallo, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    Although cervical cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers among Vietnamese American women (VAW) and Korean American women (KAW), both groups consistently report much lower rates of cervical cancer screening compared with other Asian ethnic subgroups and non-Hispanic Whites. This study aimed to explore multilevel factors that may underlie low screening rates among VAW and KAW living in a city where their ethnic communities are relatively small. The socioecological model was used as a conceptual framework. Thirty participants were conveniently recruited from ethnic beauty salons run by VA and KA cosmetologists in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The participants' average age was 44.6 years (SD = .50; range = 21-60). Most participants were married (80 %) and employed (73.3 %), and had health insurance (83.3 %). A qualitative interview was conducted in Vietnamese or Korean and transcribed verbatim. A thematic content analysis was used to identify major codes, categories, and patterns across the transcripts. The study identified several factors at the individual (e.g., pregnancy, poverty, personality), interpersonal (e.g., family responsibility, mother as influential referent), and community (e.g., lack of availability, community size) levels. The study sheds light on four major areas that must be taken into consideration in the development of culturally appropriate, community-based interventions aimed to reduce disparities in cervical cancer screening among ethnic minority women in the United States: (1) ethnic community size and geographic location; (2) cross-cultural similarities and dissimilarities; (3) targeting of not only unmarried young women, but also close referents; and (4) utilization of trusted resources within social networks. PMID:24863746

  12. An exploratory study of sexual assertiveness and characteristics of African American women in negotiating condom use at an HBCU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Chalice C; Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of HIV/AIDS among African American women through heterosexual sex is an epidemic. Critical themes extracted from the HIV/AIDS sexual assertiveness literature revealed that: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk, (b) sexual assertiveness is related to communication, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at risk for HIV. This descriptive study sought to answer the following research question: What do young adult college attending African American women self-report about asking information about their partner's sexual history? The multifaceted model of HIV risk is the theoretical framework which guided this descriptive study. A basic tenet of the multifaceted model of HIV risk is that there is no single predictor of women's HIV risk behavior. Results revealed that 104 young adult college attending African American women who volunteered to attend a one day HIV prevention training overall scored high on a Sexual Assertive Scale on subscales of Information Communication, Refusal, and Pregnancy/STD Prevention Subscale, and scored in the medium range on the Initiation Subscales. The Information Communication and Pregnancy/ STD Prevention Subscale received the highest scores. More research is needed targeting diverse African American females with different socioeconomic status, various locations, and educated to determine their sexual assertiveness with partners which are essential in developing specific programs for diverse groups of African American females. PMID:24279130

  13. Comparison of clinicopathologic features and survival in young American women aged 18–39 years in different ethnic groups with breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, P.; Li, X; E.A. Mittendorf; Li, J.; Du, X L; He, J.; Ren, Y; Yang, J; Hunt, K. K.; Yi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ethnic disparities in breast cancer diagnoses and disease-specific survival (DSS) rates in the United States are well known. However, few studies have assessed differences specifically between Asians American(s) and other ethnic groups, particularly among Asian American(s) subgroups, in women aged 18–39 years. Methods: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was used to identify women aged 18–39 years diagnosed with breast cancer from 1973 to 2009. Incidence rates...

  14. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Low Birth Weight and Preterm Deliveries in African American Women in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Kuang Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM, the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income, and total birth rate. The GMs performed accurate predictions with increasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for African American women in the Gulf Coast states and other U.S. states, and decreasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for their White counterparts in the same state locations. Data presented between 2007-2010 show low birth weight and preterm delivery for White women as a decreasing tendency while adverse birth outcomes for African American women exhibited a monotonically increasing trend. The empirical findings suggest that health disparities will continue to exist in the foreseeable future, if no effective intervention is taken. The models identify risk factors that contribute to adverse birth outcomes and offer some insight into strategies and programs to address and ameliorate these effects.

  15. A case-control analysis of smoking and breast cancer in African American women: findings from the AMBER Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Yi; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Haiman, Christopher A; Bandera, Elisa V; Bethea, Traci N; Troester, Melissa A; Viscidi, Emma; Kolonel, Laurence N; Olshan, Andrew F; Ambrosone, Christine B

    2016-06-01

    Recent population studies suggest a role of smoking in the etiology of breast cancer, but few have been conducted among African American women. In a collaborative project of four large studies, we examined associations between smoking measures and breast cancer risk by menopause and hormone receptor status [estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), ER-negative (ER-) and triple-negative (ER-, PR-, HER2-)]. The study included 5791 African American women with breast cancer and 17376 African American controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in multivariable logistic regression analysis with adjustment for study and risk factors. Results differed by menopausal status. Among postmenopausal women, positive associations were observed for long duration and greater pack-years of smoking: relative to never smoking, fully adjusted ORs were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03-1.26) for duration ≥20 years and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.01-1.33) for ≥20 pack-years. By contrast, inverse associations were observed among premenopausal women, with ORs of 0.80 (95% CI: 0.68-95) for current smoking and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.69-0.96) for former smoking, without trends by duration. Associations among postmenopausal women were somewhat stronger for ER+ breast cancer. The findings suggest that the relation of cigarette smoking to breast cancer risk in African American women may vary by menopausal status and breast cancer subtype. PMID:27207658

  16. Seeking the Balance: A Native Women's Dialogue. Panel Presentation at the State of Indian American Conference, Cornell University (October 10, 1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Katsi; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Seven Native American women (including Mohawk, Bolivian, Apache, Nicaraguan Miskito, and Hopi women) discuss women's responsibilities and roles within the family and community, spirituality, birth and puberty ceremonies, child rearing and traditional education of the young (particularly girls), the healing of men through women, union organizing in…

  17. Human rights and mental health among Latin American women in situations of state-sponsored violence. Bibliographic resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykes, M B; Brabeck, M M; Ferns, T; Radan, A

    1993-12-01

    The Task Force of the American Psychological Association Division 35, Psychology of Women, conducted a literature review of resources from Latin America to examine the social dimensions of state-sponsored violence in Latin America, their effects on socialization and community, and some responses of women surviving these experiences. It limited its review to works of women's groups, progressive organizations, and individual women exploring the effects of war and state-sponsored violence on women's mental health. Recurring emergent themes included the false dichotomy of violence committed against women in public versus that committed in private, silencing of women accompanies state imposed terror, collective resistance to such terror. The resources addressed 3 types of women's experiences of violence: exile within and beyond one's national borders; torture--an extreme form of state-sponsored violence; and nontraditional, culturally appropriate interventions--alternatives to Western models. This review motivated the Task Force to call on their colleagues to contribute to the on-going documentation of state-sponsored violence. Task Force members identified several areas for collaborative research and/or theory development. Psychologists should question the validity of clinical neutrality and examine the particular meanings of non-neutrality within different cultures. For example, some Latin American psychologists reject diagnoses of intrapsychic syndromes (e.g., post-traumatic stress syndrome) and propose concepts that center on the nexus of individuals and social life. The Task Force sees great opportunities for US psychologists to network and to form solidarity-based relationships with Latin American women. It has identified many women's groups working in Latin America. Human rights organizations (e.g., Americas Watch) have formed women's projects. Further work should be done to improve resource exchanges. PMID:12288466

  18. Sitting Time and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in African American Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings from previous research linking sedentary time with cardiometabolic risk factors and body composition are inconsistent, and few studies address population groups most vulnerable to these compromising conditions. The purpose of this paper was to investigate the relationship of sitting time to cardiometabolic risk factors and body composition among African American women. A subsample of African American women (N=135 completed health and laboratory assessments, including measures of blood pressure, resting heart rate, cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, body mass index, body fat, sitting time, and demographics. Simultaneous, adjusted regression models found a positive association between weekend sitting time and glucose and an inverse association between weekly sedentary time and cholesterol (ps<.05. There were no significant associations between sedentary behavior and body composition. The unexpected relationship between sedentary time and cholesterol suggests that the relationship of sedentary behavior to cardiometabolic risk factors may depend on existing characteristics of the population and measurement definition of sedentary behavior. Results suggest distinctly different relationships between weekend and weekday sitting time, implicating a need for careful measurement and intervention that reflects these differences.

  19. Psychosocial Characteristics and Gestational Weight Change among Overweight, African American Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly C. Allison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe psychosocial factors identified as contributors of weight gain in the general population and to examine the relationship between these factors and gestational weight gain among low socioeconomic status, African American, overweight pregnant women. Methods. African American women (n=120 with a pregravid body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 completed measures of eating, sleep, and depressed mood between 14 and 24 weeks of gestation. Weight was tracked. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and linear regression modeling were used to characterize the sample and examine predictors of gestational weight gain. Results. Four percent screened positive for night eating syndrome, with 32% consuming at least 25% of their daily caloric intake after dinner (evening hyperphagia. None met criteria for binge eating disorder; 4% reported occasional binge episodes. Cognitive restraint over eating was low. Participants slept 7.1 (SD=1.9 h per night and reported 4.3 (SD=3.6 awakenings per week; 18% reported some level of depressed mood. Night and binge eating were related to each other, sleep quality, and depressed mood. Eating due to cravings was the only psychosocial variable to predict gestational weight gain. Conclusions. Depressed mood, night eating, and nighttime awakenings were common in this cohort, while cognitive restraint over eating was low. Most psychosocial variables were not predictive of excess gestational weight gain.

  20. Inner-City African-American Women's Adolescence as Stressful Life Events: Understanding Substance Abusing Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durr, Marlese; Small, La Fleur F; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-06-01

    Lula Beatty (2003:59) asks, "What makes a black woman, voluntarily take a substance into her body which alters her perceptions and feelings of well-being?" This research examines African American women's substance abuse as a response to stressful life events grounded in adolescence, drawing in part on the cognitive-transactional approach and distal stressor model to discuss the effects of stressors on mental health and substance abusing behavior. Most respondents viewed their adolescent experiences and the associated stress as tribulations or lessons to be lived through, rather than a signal of needed change in their social, cultural, and ecological life circumstances. The effect of exposure to constant stressors early in the life course coupled with proximal stressors often resulted in negative active responses to stress (i.e. substance abuse) and continued stunted emotional growth. Thus, our findings indicate that the experience of African American women as adolescents contributes to understanding substance abuse amongst this population. These findings further help develop the cognitive-transactional model, while adding to the distal stressors and life process model as a way of considering gender, race, and structural forces. PMID:23843768

  1. Reproductive habitus, psychosocial health, and birth weight variation in Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women in south Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, K Jill; Sunil, T S

    2015-08-01

    The Latina Paradox, or persistent, unexplained variation in low birth weight rates in recently immigrated Mexican women and the trend toward higher rates in subsequent generations of Mexican American women, is most often attributed to unidentified sociocultural causes. We suggest herein that different disciplinary approaches can be synthesized under the constructs of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to identify influences of sociocultural processes on birth weight. Reproductive habitus are "modes of living the reproductive body, bodily practices, and the creation of new subjects through interactions between people and structures" (Smith-Oka, 2012: 2276). Subjective social status infers comparison of self to others based on community definitions of status or socioeconomic status (Adler 2007). We present results from a prospective study of low-income Mexican immigrant and Mexican American women from south Texas that tested the ability of reproductive habitus and subjective social status to elucidate the Latina Paradox. We hypothesized that reproductive habitus between Mexican immigrant women and Mexican American women inform different subjective social statuses during pregnancy, and different subjective social statuses mediate responses to psychosocial stressors known to correlate with low birth weight. Six hundred thirty-one women were surveyed for psychosocial health, subjective social status, and reproductive histories between 2011 and 2013. Eighty-three women were interviewed between 2012 and 2013 for status during pregnancy, prenatal care practices, and pregnancy narratives and associations. Birth weight was extracted from medical records. Results were mixed. Subjective social status and pregnancy-related anxiety predicted low birth weight in Mexican immigrant but not Mexican American women. Mexican immigrant women had significantly lower subjective social status scores but a distinct reproductive habitus that could explain improved psychosocial

  2. Household economic strategies and nutritional anthropometry of women in American Samoa and highland Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindon, James R; Vitzthum, Virginia J

    2002-04-01

    This study compares findings from research projects involving different genetic, environmental, and cultural contexts: a study of lifestyle and health from American Samoa (ASLS) and the Bolivian project. Reproduction and Ecology in Provincia Aroma (REPA). This paper presents analyses of varying economic strategies and their association with nutritional status indicators in each population. The ASLS sample includes 66 Samoan women and the REPA sample includes 210 Aymara women. Principle components analysis of household economic resources within each sample extracted two significant factors: one represents modernizing influences including education and occupational status, and the other represents ethnographically salient traditional economic behavior. The traditional pattern includes adding household members in Samoa and selling agricultural products in Bolivia. This analysis places each woman along two continua, traditional and modern, based on her household mobilization of economic resources, permitting an understanding of the patterns underlying household economic behavior that is not possible in univariate analyses of socioeconomic variables. For the Bolivian women the strategy involving more education and higher occupational status was associated with higher measures of several nutritional status indicators, including body mass index, arm muscle area, and peripheral skinfolds. But among the Samoan women, where substantial obesity was the norm, there were no significant differences in anthropometric measurements based on economic strategies. These data argue for the importance of directly measuring the potential consequences of variation in household economic strategies rather than merely inferring such, and of assessing ethnographically relevant aspects of household economic production rather than limiting analyses to non-context-specific economic indicators such as income. This focus on household strategy is likely to be fruitful especially where economic and

  3. Obesity, weight gain, and ovarian cancer risk in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandera, Elisa V; Qin, Bo; Moorman, Patricia G; Alberg, Anthony J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2016-08-01

    Although there is growing evidence that higher adiposity increases ovarian cancer risk, little is known about its impact in African American (AA) women, the racial/ethnic group with the highest prevalence of obesity. We evaluated the impact of body mass index (BMI) 1 year before diagnosis and weight gain since age 18 years on ovarian cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in AA women in 11 geographical areas in the US. Cases (n = 492) and age and site matched controls (n = 696) were identified through rapid case ascertainment and random-digit-dialing, respectively. Information was collected on demographic and lifestyle factors, including self-reported height, weight at age 18 and weight 1 year before diagnosis/interview. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusting for potential covariates. Obese women had elevated ovarian cancer risk, particularly for BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) compared to BMI <25 (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.12-2.66; p for trend: 0.03). There was also a strong association with weight gain since age 18 (OR: 1.52; 95% CI: 1.07-2.16; p for trend: 0.02) comparing the highest to lowest quartile. In stratified analyses by menopausal status, the association with BMI and weight gain was limited to postmenopausal women, with a 15% (95% CI: 1.05-1.23) increase in risk per 5 kg/m(2) of BMI and 6% (95% CI: 1.01-1.10) increase in risk per 5 kg of weight gain. Excluding hormone therapy users essentially did not change results. Obesity and excessive adult weight gain may increase ovarian cancer risk in post-menopausal AA women. PMID:27038123

  4. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  5. Increasing Persistence in Undergraduate Science Majors: A Model for Institutional Support of Underrepresented Students

    OpenAIRE

    Toven-Lindsey, Brit; Levis-Fitzgerald, Marc; Barber, Paul H.; Hasson, Tama

    2015-01-01

    The 6-yr degree-completion rate of undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors at U.S. colleges and universities is less than 40%. Persistence among women and underrepresented minorities (URMs), including African-American, Latino/a, Native American, and Pacific Islander students, is even more troubling, as these students leave STEM majors at significantly higher rates than their non-URM peers. This study utilizes a matched comparison group design to examine t...

  6. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  7. Creating a Culturally Appropriate Web-Based Behavioral Intervention for American Indian/Alaska Native Women in Southern California: The Healthy Women Healthy Native Nation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jessica R.; Clapp, John D.; Calac, Daniel; Kolander, Chelsea; Nyquist, Corinna; Chambers, Christina D.

    2013-01-01

    Health disparities in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) are of high importance to American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities. We conducted focus groups and interviews with 21 AI/AN women and key informants in Southern California to modify a brief, Web-based program for screening and prevention of prenatal alcohol use. This process…

  8. Student Ratings of Teaching Effectiveness: Implications for Non-White Women in the Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Bettye P.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe student ratings of teaching effectiveness for women faculty at a Southern Research Extensive University. Of the 82 women faculty in this study, 61 or 74% were White, 13 or 16% were Black, and 8 or 10% were identified as "Other" (including Asians, Latinos, and Native Americans). Both undergraduate and…

  9. The Impact of Engineering Identification and Stereotypes on Undergraduate Women's Achievement and Persistence in Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brett D.; Ruff, Chloe; Paretti, Marie C.

    2013-01-01

    Women almost always comprise a minority in engineering programs and a smaller percentage of women pursue engineering than other science and technology majors. The culture of engineering departments and negative stereotypes of women's engineering and mathematical ability have been identified as factors that inhibit women's entry into…

  10. African American women's preventative care usage: the role of social support and racial experiences and attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Erin; Perry, Brea; Oser, Carrie

    2014-09-01

    Research suggests that African Americans are less likely to utilise preventative care services than Americans of European descent, and that these patterns may contribute to racial health disparities in the United States. Despite the persistence of inequalities in preventative care utilisation, culturally relevant factors influencing the use of these gateway health services have been understudied among marginalised groups. Using a stratified sample of 205 low-income African American women, this research examines the predictors of receiving a physical exam, with a particular emphasis on how differing levels of social support from friend and family networks and experiences of racial discrimination and cultural mistrust shape utilisation. The findings underscore the importance of traditional predictors of utilisation, including insurance status and having a usual physician. However, they also indicate that supportive ties to friendship networks are associated with higher predicted rates of having an annual physical exam, while social support from family and sentiments of cultural mistrust are associated with lower rates of utilisation. Broadly, the findings indicate that even as traditional predictors of help-seeking become less relevant, it will be critical to explore how variations in discrimination experiences and social relationships across marginalised groups drive patterns of preventative care utilisation. PMID:24749849

  11. Hmong and Lao Refugee Women: Reflections of a Hmong-American Woman Anthropologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dia Cha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1992, Ms. Dia Cha – then a graduate student in anthropology at Northern Arizona University – traveled to Chieng Kham Refugee and Napho Repatriation Camps in Thailand, and the village of Ban KM 52, inVientiane Province, Laos, to research issues concerning the repatriation to Laos of Lao Lum and Hmong women refugees. This article, originally written upon the return from these travels and in partial fulfillment of the requirements for her Master of Arts degree in Applied Anthropology, considers the findings made and the insights achieved on this journey of discovery. In particular, the work discusses changes and continuity in the lives of Lao Lum and Hmong refugee women in the camps. Also addressed in considerable detail is the impact of the author’s status as an educated Hmong-American woman and former refugee on her interactions with female and male informants residing in the two refugee camps. Ms. Cha, who spent much of her early life in such refugee camps as are herein described, has, in the intervening period, become Dr. Dia Cha, Associate Professor of Anthropology and Ethnic Studies at St. Cloud State University, St. Cloud, Minnesota, USA. The research project she describes was funded by the United Nations Development Fund for Women and executed by the American Friends Service Committee (The Quaker Services. Ms. Jacquelyn Chagnon joined Ms. Cha during the second phrase ofthe research, in Napho Repatriation Center, and later in Laos; however, the following article, produced originally in 1992, was written solely by Ms. Cha.

  12. Persistence of depression in African American and Caucasian women at midlife: findings from the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Charlotte; Bromberger, Joyce T; Schott, Laura L; Crawford, Sybil; Matthews, Karen A

    2014-12-01

    This study prospectively examined the course of depression in African American and Caucasian midlife women over an 11-year period. Racial differences in lifetime history of depression, severity of depressive symptoms and rates of depressive disorders at baseline, and persistence or recurrence of depression over an 11 year period were examined. Predictors of persistence/recurrence of depression were also examined. The sample was comprised of 423 midlife women enrolled in the Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN) Mental Health Study (MHS). All participants completed baseline and annual assessments, which included self-reported measures of health, functioning, and psychosocial factors, and clinician administered assessments of psychiatric disorders. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine predictors of depression persistence/recurrence. Findings indicated that African American and Caucasian women did not differ significantly in rates of lifetime and baseline depressive disorders, or severity of depressive symptoms. Annual assessments revealed no significant differences between the groups in rates of persistent/recurrent depression. While African American and Caucasian women do not differ in recurrence of depression at midlife, factors associated with depression differed by race. PMID:24996377

  13. Unintended pregnancy and the changing demography of American women, 1987-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Tapales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 1987, the U.S. unintended pregnancy rate was 59 per 1,000 women ages 15-44; the rate fell to 54 in 2008. Over this period, American women experienced dramatic demographic shifts, including an aging population that was better educated and more racially and ethnically diverse. Objective: This study aims to explain trends in unintended pregnancy and understand what factors contributed most strongly to changes in rates over time, focusing on population composition and group-specific changes. Methods: We used the 1988 and 2006-10 waves of the National Survey of Family Growth and employed a decomposition approach, looking jointly at age, relationship status and educational attainment. Results: When we decomposed by the demographic factors together, we found that changes in population composition contributed to an increase in the overall rate, but this was more than offset by group-specific rate declines, which had an impact nearly twice as great in the downward direction. Increases in the share of the population that was cohabiting and the share that was Hispanic were offset by declines in rates among married women. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a combination of compositional shifts and changes in group-specific rates drove unintended pregnancy, sometimes acting as counterbalancing forces, other times operating in tandem. Contribution: This paper shows the importance of both changes in population composition and changes in group-specific behaviors to the changing unintended pregnancy rate in the United States.

  14. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: Cultural adaptations and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M.; Stevens, Victor J.; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. Methods This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Results Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62% and 50% respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 kg and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 kg/m2 and 5.5 kg/m2 from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. Discussion This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women. PMID:22460538

  15. Substance use and intimate partner violence victimization among White, African American, and Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowotny, Kathryn M; Graves, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    The existing literature on intimate partner violence (IPV) does not paint a consistent portrait of the impact of race/ethnicity. In addition, although research has clearly demonstrated that there is a relationship between substance use and IPV, the temporal ordering of these variables is not clearly established. This article seeks to examine the temporal ordering of IPV victimization and drug use using longitudinal data with a nationally representative racially and ethnically diverse sample. Data from Wave III (2001-2002) and Wave IV (2007-2008) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) will serve as Time 1 and Time 2, respectively, to answer three research questions. First, does substance use during early young adulthood (Time 1) predict IPV victimization during young adulthood (Time 2) among women? Second, does IPV victimization during early young adulthood predict substance use during young adulthood for women? Finally, do these bidirectional relationships vary by race/ethnicity (i.e., White, African American, and Latina)? Four different forms of IPV (minor violence, major violence, rape/sexual coercion, and injury) are investigated along with binge drinking, marijuana use, and other drug use. Understanding not only the temporal relationship between substance use, trauma, and IPV but also the racial and ethnic differences in these relationships is critical to developing and refining culturally sensitive trauma-informed prevention and treatment services for women. PMID:23946141

  16. Intimate partner violence in Mexican-American women with disabilities: a secondary data analysis of cross-language research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divin, Chris; Volker, Deborah L; Harrison, Tracie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative descriptive study, guided by Antonovsky's salutogenic model, was to explore the manifestations of strength within the interviews of Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women aging with mobility impairments who also experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). IPV events gleaned from 26 audiotaped interviews from 7 Spanish-speaking Mexican-American women, who ranged in age from 55 to 75 years, constituted the sample for this secondary analysis. Five categories were identified: abuse from early on that shaped sense of coherence; violencia tan cruel--threatened sense of coherence; "salutogenic" choices within the context of IPV; a quest for peace; and strength amid struggle. PMID:23907305

  17. Factors influencing the underutilization of mental health services among Asian American women with a history of depression and suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Augsberger, Astraea; Yeung, Albert; Dougher, Meaghan; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite the substantially high prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Asian American women who are children of immigrants, little is known about the prevalence of mental health utilization and the perceived barriers to accessing care. Methods The data were from the Asian American Women’s Sexual Health Initiative Project (AWSHIP), a 5-year mixed methods study at Boston University. The quantitative analysis examined the differential proportion of menta...

  18. Posttraumatic Cognitions, Somatization, and PTSD severity among Asian American and White College Women with Sexual Trauma Histories

    OpenAIRE

    Koo, Kelly H.; Nguyen, Hong V.; Gilmore, Amanda K.; Blayney, Jessica A.; Kaysen, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    The need for trauma research with monoracial groups such as Asian Americans (AA) has recently been emphasized to better understand trauma experiences and inform interventions across populations. Given AA cultural contexts, posttraumatic cognitions and somatization may be key in understanding trauma experiences for this group. AA and White American (WA) trauma-exposed college women completed a survey on sexual trauma history, posttraumatic cognitions, somatic symptoms, and PTSD severity. For t...

  19. Factors influencing the underutilization of mental health services among Asian American women with a history of depression and suicide

    OpenAIRE

    Augsberger, Astraea; Yeung, Albert; Dougher, Meaghan; Hahm, Hyeouk Chris

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the substantially high prevalence of depression, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Asian American women who are children of immigrants, little is known about the prevalence of mental health utilization and the perceived barriers to accessing care. Methods: The data were from the Asian American Women’s Sexual Health Initiative Project (AWSHIP), a 5-year mixed methods study at Boston University. The quantitative analysis examined the differential proportion of men...

  20. Is Knowledge Enough? Considering HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors and HIV/AIDS Knowledge with African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Perkins, Emory L; Stennis, Kesslyn Brade; Taylor Spriggs, Velva; Kwegyir-Afful, Emma Aya; Prather, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    Background: This quantitative explanatory study was designed to explain the relationship between HIV/AIDS risk-taking behaviors among African American women and their knowledge surrounding HIV/AIDS. More specifically, the research considers whether knowledge alone was sufficient to alter African-American women’s risk-taking behaviors regarding HIV/AIDS. Objectives: This study was designed to investigate knowledge surrounding sexual risk-taking behaviors including 1) heterosexual transmission;...

  1. An Exploratory Model of Substance Use Among Asian American Women: The Role of Depression, Coping, Peer Use and Asian Values

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Derek; Liu, William Ming; MCCOY, THOMASIN E.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the relationship among Asian values, depressive symptoms, perceived peer substance use, coping strategies, and substance use among 167 Asian American college women. More than 66% of the women in our sample scored higher than the clinical cutoff score on the Center of Epidemiological Depression Scale. Three path analyses examining illicit drugs, alcohol use, and binge drinking indicated that perceived peer use was the most robust predictor of substance use. Depressive sympt...

  2. Gender Power Control, Sexual Experiences, Safer Sex Practices, and Potential HIV Risk Behaviors Among Young Asian-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Hahm, Hyeouk Chris; Lee, Jieha; Rough, Kathryn; Steffanie A Strathdee

    2012-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of three domains of sexual behaviors among young Asian-American women: sexual experiences, safer sex practices, and potential HIV risk behaviors. We also investigated the impact of gender power control on these domains. Among sexually experienced women, 51% reported using condoms during their most recent sex act, 63% reported inconsistent condom use, and 18% reported ever having forced sex. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed that women’s perceived lower ...

  3. Tailored lay health worker intervention improves breast cancer screening outcomes in non-adherent Korean-American women

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2008-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an intervention trial with a 6-month follow-up. Trained LHWs recruited 100 KA women 40 years of age or older who had not had a mammogram during the pas...

  4. The American Geological Institute Minority Participation Program (MPP): Thirty Years of Improving Access to Opportunities in the Geosciences Through Undergraduate and Graduate Scholarships for Underrepresented Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, C. N.; Byerly, G. R.; Smith, M. J.

    2001-05-01

    Since 1971, the American Geological Institute (AGI) Minority Participation Program (MPP) has supported scholarships for underrepresented minorities in the geosciences at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Some of our MPP scholars have gone on to hugely successful careers in the geosciences. MPP scholars include corporate leaders, university professors, a NASA scientist-astronaut and a National Science Foundation (NSF) CAREER awardee. Yet as ethnic minorities continue to be underrepresented in the geosciences, AGI plans to expand its efforts beyond its traditional undergraduate and graduate scholarships to include diversity programs for secondary school geoscience teacher internships, undergraduate research travel support, and doctoral research fellowships. AGI promotes its MPP efforts primarily through its web pages, which are very successful in attracting visitors; through its publications, especially Geotimes; and through its Corporate Associates and Member Societies. Funding for the MPP has come from multiple sources over the past 30 years. Industry, non-profit organizations, and individuals have been the primary source of funding for graduate scholarships. The NSF has regularly funded the undergraduate scholarships. AGI Corporate Associates have contributed to both scholarship programs. The MPP Advisory Committee selects scholarship recipients based upon student academic performance, financial need, and potential for success as a geoscience professional. AGI currently has 29 MPP scholars, including 11 undergraduate and 18 graduate students. Undergraduate scholarships range from \\1000 to \\5000, with an average award of approximately \\2500. Graduate scholarships range from \\500 to \\4000, with an average award of approximately \\1300. In addition to financial assistance, every MPP scholar is assigned a professional geoscientist as a mentor. The mentor is responsible for regular personal contacts with MPP scholars, and with writing evaluation reports that

  5. Proceedings of a Conference on the Educational and Occupational Needs of Asian-Pacific-American Women (San Francisco, California, August 24-25, 1976).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Inst. of Education (ED), Washington, DC. Teaching and Learning Program.

    Papers presented at a 1976 conference on Asian-Pacific American women are collected in this report. Most are directed towards the purpose of the conference, which was to produce an agenda for research that will shape policy on Asian-Pacific American womens' educational and occupational needs. In addition to 14 papers, the report includes a general…

  6. Gender and Ethnicity as Barriers for Development: Indigenous Women, Access to Resources in Ecuador with a Latin American Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Radcliffe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Placing original research undertaken in Ecuador with Kichwa and Tsáchila women, into the Latin American context, the paper addresses the barriers experienced by indigenous women to voice, rights and resources in the context of development programmes. The paper identifies racism, biased knowledges, and entrenched assumptions about women and indigenous people as the primary factors influencing indigenous women’s marginalization. The paper ends with a discussion of indigenous women’s critiques of development, and their recommendations for the future.

  7. Gender and Ethnicity as Barriers for Development: Indigenous Women, Access to Resources in Ecuador with a Latin American Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Radcliffe

    2014-01-01

    Placing original research undertaken in Ecuador with Kichwa and Tsáchila women, into the Latin American context, the paper addresses the barriers experienced by indigenous women to voice, rights and resources in the context of development programmes. The paper identifies racism, biased knowledges, and entrenched assumptions about women and indigenous people as the primary factors influencing indigenous women’s marginalization. The paper ends with a discussion of indigenous women’s critiques o...

  8. Obesity in American Indian and Mexican American Men and Women: Associations with Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Autonomic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Criado, José R.; Gilder, David A.; Kalafut, Mary A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health problem, especially in some minority communities, and it has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. While obesity is a serious health concern in both American Indian and Mexican American populations, the relationship between obesity and cardiac autonomic control in these two populations is not well understood. The present study in a selected sample of American Indians and Mexican Americans assessed associations between obesity, bl...

  9. The Interactive Effects of Race and Depressive symptoms on Calcification in African-American and White Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Tené T.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Colvin, Alicia; Matthews, Karen; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the cross-sectional associations among race, depressive symptoms, and aortic and coronary calcification in a sample of middle-aged women. Depressive symptoms have been associated with atherosclerotic indicators of coronary heart disease (CHD) in white women. Few studies have examined these associations in samples including African-American women, or explored whether any observed associations differ by race. Methods Participants were 508 (38% African-American, 62% white) women. Aortic and Coronary Calcification were measured by electron beam tomography and depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were conducted to test associations. Results In linear regression models adjusted for race, depressive symptoms were associated with a greater amount of aortic calcification (β=.03, p=.01), and there was a significant race × depressive symptoms interaction (β =.07, p =.006). Findings for depressive symptoms (OR=1.03, 95% CI: 1.0–1.06, p=.07), and the race × depressive symptoms interaction (OR=1.1, 95%CI: 1.01–1.18, p=.01) were similar in race-adjusted multinomial logistic regression models predicting high levels of aortic calcification. Race-specific models revealed a significant association between depressive symptoms and aortic calcification in African-American, but not white women. Additional adjustments for education, study site, and CHD risk factors did not alter these results. Depressive symptoms were not associated with coronary calcification for women of either racial group. Conclusions African-American women may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of depressive symptoms on early atherosclerotic disease. PMID:19188530

  10. Sociopsychological correlates of motivation to quit smoking among low-SES African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfredi, C; Lacey, L P; Warnecke, R; Petraitis, J

    1998-06-01

    This article examines correlates of desire and plans to quit smoking among 248 young, low-socioeconomic status African American women, using variables derived from the health belief model (HBM) and the theory of reasoned action. Consistent with these theoretical models, stronger concern about the effect of smoking on one's health and having close others who want the smoker to quit increased motivation to quit smoking. However, motivation was not associated with specific HBM components regarding lung cancer. Heavier smoking and stronger perceptions regarding the functional utility of smoking decreased motivation to quit, but not as much as expected in this study population. Consistent with a process of change approach to smoking cessation, the factors that moved smokers from not planning to planning to ever quit were different from factors associated with further motivation level among the smokers who did plan to ever quit. PMID:9615241

  11. Personality Assessment Screener, Childhood Abuse, and Adult Partner Violence in African American Women Using Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcerelli, John H; Hurrell, Kristen; Cogan, Rosemary; Jeffries, Keturah; Markova, Tsveti

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the relationship between psychopathology with the Personality Assessment Screener (PAS) and childhood physical and sexual abuse and adult physical and sexual partner violence in a primary care sample of 98 urban-dwelling African American women. Patients completed the PAS, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, and the Conflict Tactics Scale. The PAS total score significantly correlated with all measures of childhood and adult abuse. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that PAS element scores of Suicidal Thinking and Hostile Control significantly predicted a history of childhood physical abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Hostile Control, and Acting Out significantly predicted a history of childhood sexual abuse; Suicidal Thinking, Negative Affect, and Alienation significantly predicted current adult partner physical violence; and Psychotic Features, Alcohol Problems, and Anger Control significantly predicted current adult sexual partner violence. The PAS appears to be a useful measure for fast-paced primary care settings for identifying patients who need a more thorough assessment for abuse. PMID:26374084

  12. "Out of All of this Mess, I Got a Blessing": Perceptions and Experiences of Reproduction and Motherhood in African American Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Faith; Ingram, Lucy Annang; Kerr, Jelani; Buchberg, Meredith; Richter, Donna L; Sowell, Richard

    2016-01-01

    HIV disproportionately impacts African American women of childbearing age residing in the southern United States. Antiretroviral therapy has increased the quantity and quality of life for people living with HIV and produced viable and safe reproduction possibilities for women living with HIV. However, little is known about reproductive decision-making processes for African American women living with HIV. The overall goal of our study was to qualitatively explore perspectives related to reproduction and motherhood in HIV-infected African American women of childbearing capacity. HIV-infected African American women of childbearing capacity in South Carolina (N = 42) participated in in-depth interviews. Our respondents held positive views about pregnancy and motherhood, despite nonsupportive pregnancy messages from interpersonal influences, including health care providers. Study findings uncovered the need for programs and interventions to support women's reproductive autonomy and focus on reducing conception- and pregnancy-related transmission risks to infants and uninfected sexual partners. PMID:26781931

  13. Health insurance and household income associated with mammography utilization among American women, 2000-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Da-hai; ZHANG Zhi-ruo; RAO Ke-qin

    2011-01-01

    Background National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) has provided free or low-costmammograms to low-income or no health insurance women in all of the states of the United States (US) since 1997.The objective of this study was to understand whether health insurance and annual household income impacted the mammography utilization since the implementation of NBCCEDP,in order to evaluate how the implementation of NBCCEDP impacted mammography utilization among American women.Methods Data were from the database of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) of the CDC in US.Mammography utilization was measured by whether the American woman aged 40 to 64 years had the mammography within the last two years.The chi square test and multivariate Logistic regression were used to evaluate the associations between mammography utilization and health insurance,annual household income,and other factors for any given year.Results From 2000 to 2008,the rate of mammography utilization among participants had a steady decrease on the whole from 86.7% to 83.8%.The results showed that the mammography utilization correlated significantly with health insurance and annual household income for any given year.The results also showed that compared with participants who were uninsured,those who were insured had a greater times higher rate of mammography in 2008 than any other year from 2000 to 2008,and compared with participants whose annual household income was below $15 000,those whose annual household income was above $50 000 had a greater times higher rate of mammography in 2008 than in 2004 and 2006.Conclusions Health insurance and annual household income impacted the mammography utilization for any given year from 2000 to 2008,and the implementation of NBCCEDP has not achieved its original goal on breast cancer screening.

  14. Sex-Role Egalitarian Attitudes and Gender Role Socialization Experiences of African American Men and Women: A Mixed Methods Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Courtney Christian Charisse

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the sex-role egalitarian attitudes and gender role socialization experiences of African American men and women. A sequential mixed-methods design was employed to research this phenomenon. The Sex-Role Egalitarianism Scale-Short Form BB (SRES-BB) was utilized to assess sex-role egalitarian attitudes (King…

  15. Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV-Seropositive African American Women: Effects on Psychological Distress, Family Hassles, and Family Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapocznik, Jose; Feaster, Daniel J.; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Prado, Guillermo; Smith, Lila; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Mauer, Magaly H.; Robbins, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    This study tests the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family-ecological intervention, in improving psychosocial functioning when compared with an attention-comparison person-centered condition and a community control condition. A sample of 209 HIV-seropositive, urban, low-income, African American women was randomized into 1 of…

  16. Examination of Ethnic and Policy Issues in Grooming Preferences and Ethnic Hairstyles of African American Women in Corporate America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Renee Payne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For a century, college-trained, professional racial minorities: specifically, African American women with a preference in grooming methods have contributed to the labor market; however, in the new millennium, they are often discriminated against, scoffed at, isolated, and demoralized based on ethnic hairstyles. Research studies have distinguished a depth of research on this and conversely there are limited studies on racial minorities, in particular among grooming preferences in ethnic hairstyles. Studies have shown that in progressive companies, racial minorities and African American women who wear ethnic hairstyles had their employment terminated with prejudice. With regard to these case studies and findings, one could argue that in this nation there is freedom of speech and inequality in expression. For this reason, this research is very necessary to discover variables in ethnic and policy issues in grooming preferences with regard to the ethnic hairstyles of African American women as it relates to employers, whereat cohesive practices in diversity and policies address imposing construct in the labor market. This research will not address every ethnical concern in the labor market; yet, it responds to a call in the literature to define managerial deficiencies against racial minorities: in particular, African American women in grooming preferences.

  17. Cultural Adaptation of a Cognitive Behavior Therapy Guided Self-Help Program for Mexican American Women with Binge Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary; Uribe, Luz; Striegel, Ruth H.; Thompson, Douglas; Wilson, G. Terence

    2012-01-01

    Data on the compatibility of evidence-based treatment in ethnic minority groups are limited. This study utilized focus group interviews to elicit Mexican American women's (N = 12) feedback on a cognitive behavior therapy guided self-help program for binge eating disorders. Findings revealed 6 themes to be considered during the cultural adaptation…

  18. Native American Women Leaders' Use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for Work-Life Balance (WLB) and Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Crystal C.

    2013-01-01

    Native American women's leadership, information communication technologies (ICTs), work-life balance (WLB) and human capacity building (HCB) are grounded in social justice issues due to their long history of overall cultural decimation, inequitable access to technology, monetary resources, and social power (agency), and influence. Currently, there…

  19. Perceptions of Sexual Risks and Injection for HIV among African American Women Who Use Crack Cocaine in Nashville, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMaster, Samuel A.; Rasch, Randolph F. R.; Kinzly, Mark L.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Adams, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Significant health disparities in the rates of HIV infection primarily affect African American women. Although research has demonstrated that for some individuals HIV is connected to preventable high-risk behaviors related to substance use, a further examination of how these risks are perceived by the individuals involved in these activities is…

  20. Tailored Lay Health Worker Intervention Improves Breast Cancer Screening Outcomes in Non-Adherent Korean-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hae-Ra; Lee, H.; Kim, M. T.; Kim, K. B.

    2009-01-01

    Despite rapidly increasing incidence rates of breast cancer, recent immigrants such as Korean-American (KA) women report disproportionately lower utilization of screening tests compared with other ethnic groups. Early screening of breast cancer for this population may be greatly facilitated by indigenous lay health workers (LHWs). We conducted an…

  1. Too Much of a Good Thing? Psychosocial Resources, Gendered Racism, and Suicidal Ideation among Low Socioeconomic Status African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brea L.; Pullen, Erin L.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical…

  2. Obesity and Body Ideals in the Media: Health and Fitness Practices of Young African-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Margaret Carlisle; Robinson, T. Tavita

    2004-01-01

    This study explores the female body ideal and its implications for health and fitness practices in African-American culture. Employing Patricia Hill Collins's (1986) notion of the "outsider-within," we analyze a focus group discussion on women's body ideals, exercise, and fitness. Our group comprises 9 young, college-educated African-American…

  3. A Faith-Based and Cultural Approach to Promoting Self-Efficacy and Regular Exercise in Older African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Mary Ellen; Guion, W. Kent

    2010-01-01

    The health benefits of regular exercise are well documented, yet there has been limited success in the promotion of regular exercise in older African American women. Based on theoretical and evidence-based findings, the authors recommend a behavioral self-efficacy approach to guide exercise interventions in this high-risk population. Interventions…

  4. Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better: a community-based health awareness program for African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Leslie; Brown, Zaneta G; Gill, Jennifer E

    2008-12-01

    Statistics indicate that African-American women have the highest rate of obesity among all racial groups. In response, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) developed "Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better," a national program that encourages African-American women to maintain a healthy weight by becoming more physically active and by eating healthier foods. "Sisters Together" programs are run locally by individuals or community groups in locations such as churches and health departments. The NIDDK offers culturally relevant materials and technical assistance to program leaders, including a recently updated program guide. The guide walks leaders through program planning, promotion, implementation, and evaluation. It is based on obesity, nutrition, and physical activity research; evidence-based programs for African-American women; and proven health communication strategies. The guide is consumer friendly, using clear language and real-life examples. "Sisters Together" programs encourage African-American women and their families to improve their eating habits and their physical activity habits. PMID:19397055

  5. The Role of Literary Mentors in Writing Development: How African American Women's Literature Supported the Writings of Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2015-01-01

    Coupling Royster's (2000) conceptual framework of "zamani" with Rosenblatt's (1978) reader response theory, the researcher explores the ways African American women's writings supported, nurtured, and "mentored" the writings of adolescent girls. Findings show that the mentor texts helped in generating ideas for writing, thinking…

  6. Transportation-related barriers to care among African American women living with HIV/AIDS: “What you getting out of the cab for?”

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Shenell D.; Williams, Bryman E.

    2013-01-01

    Transportation-related problems have been consistently reported as barriers to accessing and remaining in HIV medical care, particularly among African American women living in under-resourced areas. With emphasis on the Southern region of the United States, this commentary presents a brief overview of the HIV/AIDS epidemic among African Americans, barriers to remaining in HIV care, and pilot data from a study conducted among African American women living in Mississippi. A small focus group st...

  7. "Why don't they come to Pike Street and ask us"?: Black American women's health concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, T G

    1998-10-01

    It is well known that black American women are poorly represented in medically oriented research and that this has far reaching implications for their personal health, the health of their families and the overall health of the larger society. The research reported was premised on the assumption that learning more about black American women's beliefs and values regarding health and illness could inform public policy initiatives in the area of cancer prevention and control so that a more equitable basis for participation could be achieved in future medical and scientific research. Qualitative methods of research were used in this investigation. A semi-structured interview guide was used in 36 h. of in-depth and face-to-face interviews with 13 black American women recruited to the study using a snowball technique. The women interviewed were middle-class, professional and semi-professional women. The results of the study indicate that there is a poor understanding by the dominant white medical community concerning the beliefs and values of black patients and that this compromises their health and illness care. The Tuskegee Syphilis Experiment is often used as the rationale for the low recruitment of black women into clinical trials both therapeutic and non-therapeutic. The women interviewed do not agree with this claim. These women suggest that if they were asked to participate in trials and the trial was relevant to their primary medical concerns they would consider joining. The research results indicate the importance of using specific research methodologies and a number of recommendations are presented. PMID:9722113

  8. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  9. Methylmercury risk and awareness among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland northwest reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuntz, Sandra W., E-mail: skuntz@montana.edu [Montana State University, College of Nursing, 32 Campus Drive 7416, Missoula, MT 59812-7416 (United States); Hill, Wade G. [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Linkenbach, Jeff W.; Lande, Gary [Montana State University, Culbertson Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States); Larsson, Laura [Montana State University, Sherrick Hall, PO Box 173560, Bozeman, MT 59717-3560 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    American Indian women and children may be the most overrepresented among the list of disparate populations exposed to methylmercury. American Indian people fish on home reservations where a state or tribal fishing license (a source of advisory messaging) is not required. The purpose of this study was to examine fish consumption, advisory awareness, and risk communication preferences among American Indian women of childbearing age living on an inland Northwest reservation. For this cross-sectional descriptive study, participants (N=65) attending a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinic were surveyed between March and June 2006. An electronic questionnaire adapted from Anderson et al. (2004) was evaluated for cultural acceptability and appropriateness by tribal consultants. Regarding fish consumption, approximately half of the women surveyed (49%) indicated eating locally caught fish with the majority signifying they consumed medium- and large-size fish (75%) that could result in exposure to methylmercury. In addition, a serendipitous discovery indicated that an unanticipated route of exposure may be fish provided from a local food bank resulting from sportsman's donations. The majority of women (80%) were unaware of tribal or state fish advisory messages; the most favorable risk communication preference was information coming from doctors or healthcare providers (78%). Since the population consumes fish and has access to locally caught potentially contaminated fish, a biomonitoring study to determine actual exposure is warranted.

  10. Lower prenatal vitamin D status and postpartum depressive symptomatology in African American women: Preliminary evidence for moderation by inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accortt, Eynav Elgavish; Schetter, Christine Dunkel; Peters, Rosalind M; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E

    2016-04-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines have each been associated individually with postpartum depression (PPD). African American women are at increased risk for prenatal vitamin D deficiency, inflammation, and prenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms, but biological risk factors for PPD in this population have rarely been tested. This prospective study tested whether low prenatal vitamin D status (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 25[OH]D) predicted PPD symptomatology in pregnant African American women and whether high levels of prenatal inflammatory cytokines interacted with low 25(OH)D in effects on PPD symptoms. Vitamin D status was measured in the first trimester in a sample of 91 African American pregnant women who had a second trimester blood sample assayed for inflammatory markers. Depressive symptoms were assessed at a postpartum visit. An inverse association between prenatal log 25(OH)D and PPD symptomatology approached significance (β = -0.209, p = 0.058), and interleukin-6 and IL-6/IL-10 ratio significantly moderated the effect. Among women with higher levels of inflammatory markers, lower prenatal log 25(OH)D was associated with significantly higher PPD symptoms (p < 0.05). These preliminary results are intriguing because, if replicable, easy  translational opportunities, such as increasing vitamin D status in pregnant women with elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines, may reduce PPD symptoms. PMID:26407996

  11. Frazzled by Facebook? An Exploratory Study of Gender Differences in Social Network Communication among Undergraduate Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sharon H.; Lougheed, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Although a majority of young adults are members of at least one social networking site, peer reviewed research examining gender differences in social networking communication is sparse. This study examined gender differences in social networking, particularly for Facebook use, among undergraduates. A survey was distributed to 268 college students…

  12. Exploring the Relationships between White Racial Consciousness, Feminist Identity Development and Family Environment for White Undergraduate Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Kara E.; Munley, Patrick H.

    2012-01-01

    A sample of 394 White undergraduate females completed a demographic questionnaire and three assessment measures: the Oklahoma Racial Attitudes Scale-Revised (ORAS-R) (Vandiver & Leach, 2005), the Feminist Identity Composite (FIC) (Fischer et. al., 2000) and the Family Environment Scale-Real Form (FES-R) (Moos & Moos, 1974, 1994, 2002). Four…

  13. Breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors among African American women: the Black cosmetologists promoting health program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weldon Rai-nesha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African American women have higher rates of breast cancer mortality than their white counterparts. Studies have suggested that this is partly caused by discovery of cancer at a later stage, highlighting the importance of encouraging early detection of breast cancer in this population. To guide the creation of a breast cancer education intervention and help focus other health educators' and clinicians' health promotion efforts, this study explored whether a cohort of African American women living in San Diego would demonstrate the possession of adequate baseline knowledge about breast cancer screening and adherence to widely recommended screening guidelines. Methods African American women (N = 1,055 from San Diego, California participated in a beauty salon-based survey about breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening practices. Women's ages ranged from 20 to 94 years, with average age of 42.20 (SD = 13.53 years. Thirty-four percent reported completing college and/or some graduate school training, and 52% reported having some college or post high school formal training. Seventy-five percent of the sample reported working outside their home. Participating cosmetologists and their salons were recruited to the study through word-of-mouth referral by highly respected African American community leaders. Results Salon clients reported low rates of adherence to recommended breast cancer screening guidelines. Of the 1,055 participants, 31% reporting performing breast self-exam every month. Of those participants 40 and older, 57% reported having had a clinical breast exam and 43% reported having had a mammogram in the past year. Knowledge of breast cancer was associated with adherence to screening guidelines. While women recognized the serious health threat that breast cancer poses and that early detection of breast cancer is important, only 30% of women reported feeling well informed about the disease. Many participants

  14. Health behavior and perceptions among African American women with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikrishna Varun Malayala

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of different risk factors (abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol that predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. African American women (AAW are easily predisposed to metabolic syndrome due to higher levels of insulin resistance. Various sociodemographic factors further contribute to higher prevalence. Aim: This study evaluates the current prevalence of metabolic syndrome in AAW and identifies the related sociodemographic risk factors. Methods: The study utilized 2007–11 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES data sets from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC. The sample was divided into two groups: AAW with and without metabolic syndrome. Sociodemographic, physical examination, laboratory parameters, and health perceptions were compared between the two groups. Results: Out of the available sample of 30,442 individuals, 1918 (6.4% met the inclusion criteria (AAW, age>20, non-pregnant women. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 47%. Older age, lower education level, low socioeconomic status, unmarried status, low physical activity level, and smoking were associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. The prevalence of borderline hypertension, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in AAW with metabolic syndrome (p<0.001. Conclusion: In spite of the focus on prevention of cardiovascular risk factors and elimination of ethnic and gender disparities, metabolic syndrome is still widely prevalent in AAW and poses a threat to the goals of Healthy People 2020.

  15. Study protocol for Women of Color and Asthma Control: A randomized controlled trial of an asthma-management intervention for African American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janevic Mary R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among adults in the United States, asthma prevalence is disproportionately high among African American women; this group also experiences the highest levels of asthma-linked mortality and asthma-related health care utilization. Factors linked to biological sex (e.g., hormonal fluctuations, gender roles (e.g., exposure to certain triggers and race (e.g., inadequate access to care all contribute to the excess asthma burden in this group, and also shape the context within which African American women manage their condition. No prior interventions for improving asthma self-management have specifically targeted this vulnerable group of asthma patients. The current study aims to evaluate the efficacy of a culturally- and gender-relevant asthma-management intervention among African American women. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be used to compare a five-session asthma-management intervention with usual care. This intervention is delivered over the telephone by a trained health educator. Intervention content is informed by the principles of self-regulation for disease management, and all program activities and materials are designed to be responsive to the specific needs of African American women. We will recruit 420 female participants who self-identify as African American, and who have seen a clinician for persistent asthma in the last year. Half of these will receive the intervention. The primary outcomes, upon which the target sample size is based, are number of asthma-related emergency department visits and overnight hospitalizations in the last 12 months. We will also assess the effect of the intervention on asthma symptoms and asthma-related quality of life. Data will be collected via telephone survey and medical record review at baseline, and 12 and 24 months from baseline. Discussion We seek to decrease asthma-related health care utilization and improve asthma-related quality of life in African American

  16. Increasing Stages of Social Activism and Responsiveness to the National Agenda: How Women Experience Membership in the American Association of University Women

    OpenAIRE

    Leist, Marilyn Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The problem investigated in this study was how individuals participate in the local units of the American Association of University Women (AAUW) and particularly how their participation relates to the program and policy initiatives of the national association. The purpose was to understand and describe how individuals experience branch membership, how they respond to the current program and policy initiatives of the association, and to examine some of the differences between members with rega...

  17. Multiple measures of physical activity, dietary habits and weight status in African American and Hispanic or Latina women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A; Layne, Charles S; Baxter, Meggin; O'Connor, Daniel P; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) long form, the Check And Line Questionnaire (CALQ) log and accelerometry. Dietary habits were measured using NCI 24-h recall screeners, vegetable and fruit (VF) logs and the NCI Diet History Questionnaire (DHQ). Differences in physical activity and dietary habits were assessed using simultaneous 2 (ethnicity) × 3 (weight status) ANCOVAs adjusted for age and socioeconomic status. Women (M age = 44.4 ± 10.9 years) were obese (M = 34.0 ± 9.7 kg/m(2)), did not meet physical activity guidelines as measured by accelerometry (M = 19.4 ± 19.1 min MVPA/day) and ate few VF (M = 2.8 ± 2.7 servings/day). DHQ variables differed by weight status. IPAQ was associated with CALQ, and CALQ with accelerometry (P < .05). IPAQ was not associated with accelerometry. Regardless of ethnicity, normal weight women did more physical activity, reported more VF consumption, and consumed more fat calories than overweight and obese women (Ps < .05). African American women did more MVPA than Hispanic or Latino women (P < .001). Relationships between behaviors and weight status suggest accelerometry and DHQ are preferable, regardless of ethnicity; and studies may capture different domains of physical activity and dietary habits depending on measure used. PMID:21519867

  18. I won't, I might, I am": undergraduate women and stages of change for participation in leadership development activities

    OpenAIRE

    McComb, Tina Ann

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the applicability of the Transtheoretical (Stages of Change) Model to examine undergraduate women’s intention to participate in leadership activities and to identify variables related to their differential participation. Use of the Stages of Change framework extends the examination of student leadership to those not yet involved in leadership activities and recognizes individual intentions for becoming involved, as opposed to only considering actions. ...

  19. An association of early puberty with disordered eating and anxiety in a population of undergraduate women and men

    OpenAIRE

    Zehr, Julia L.; Culbert, Kristen M.; Sisk, Cheryl L.; Klump, Kelly L.

    2007-01-01

    Eating and anxiety disorders are more prevalent in females, increase during adolescence, and are associated with early pubertal development. This study examined whether timing of puberty onset is associated with disordered eating and anxiety in a large sample of post-pubertal male and female undergraduate students. Self-report questionnaires assessed timing of puberty, disordered eating, anxiety, alcohol use, personality, and sensation seeking. Females scored significantly higher on measures ...

  20. Mexican American women's perspectives on a culturally adapted cognitive-behavioral therapy guided self-help program for binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Munyi; Cachelin, Fary M; Gutierrez, Guadalupe; Wang, Sherry; Phimphasone, Phoutdavone

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) among Latinas is comparable to those of the general population; however, few interventions and treatment trial research have focused on this group. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is the treatment of choice for binge eating related disorders. CBT-based guided self-help (CBTgsh)-a low-cost minimal intervention-has also been shown effective in improving binge eating related symptom, but the effectiveness of the CBTgsh among ethnic minority women is not well understood. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based treatments can be an important step for promoting treatment accessibility and engagement among underserved groups. This qualitative study was part of a larger investigation that examined the feasibility and efficacy of a culturally adapted CBTgsh program among Mexican American women with binge eating disorders. Posttreatment focus groups were conducted with 12 Mexican American women with BN or BED who participated in the intervention. Data were analyzed with the grounded theory methodology (Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Three themes emerged from the data: (a) eating behavior and body ideals are socially and culturally constructed, (b) multifaceted support system is crucial to Mexican American women's treatment engagement and success, and (c) the culturally adapted CBTgsh program is feasible and relevant to Mexican American women's experience, but it can be strengthened with increased family and peer involvement. The findings provide suggestions for further adaptation and refinement of the CBTgsh, and implications for future research as well as early intervention for disordered eating in organized care settings. PMID:26462112

  1. Adapting an evidence-based HIV prevention intervention for pregnant African-American women in substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winona Poulton

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Wendee M Wechsberg1, Felicia A Browne1, Winona Poulton1, Rachel Middlesteadt Ellerson1, Ashley Simons-Rudolph1, Deborah Haller2,  1RTI International,* Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY, USA,  *RTI International is a trade name of Research Triangle InstituteAbstract: An adaptation of an evidence-based, woman-focused intervention designed to reduce HIV risk behaviors was conducted for pregnant, African-American women in substance abuse treatment in North Carolina. The intervention adaptation process included focus groups, expert panels, and the filming of women who spoke about their experiences with pregnancy, drug use, sex risk behaviors, HIV testing and treatment, need for substance abuse treatment, violence, and victimization. The assessment instrument was adapted for pregnant women and the intervention was organized into a 4-session PowerPoint presentation, with an additional session if a woman tested positive for HIV. All sessions and assessment instrument were installed on laptop computers for portability in treatment programs. We pilot tested our adaptation with 59 pregnant African-American women who had used an illicit drug within the past year and were enrolled in substance abuse treatment. At baseline, 41% were currently homeless, 76% were unemployed, 90% had not planned their current pregnancy, and approximately 70% reported drug use since finding out about the pregnancy. This sample of participants rated the intervention sessions and were highly satisfied with their experience, resulting in a mean satisfaction score of 6.5 out of 7. Pregnant African-American women who use drugs need substance abuse treatment that they do not currently access. Woman-focused HIV interventions help to address intersecting risk behaviors and need for treatment prevalent among this vulnerable group.Keywords: African-American woman, HIV prevention pregnancy, drug use, violence, sexual

  2. Consumption of restaurant foods and incidence of type 2 diabetes in African American women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Supriya; Coogan, Patricia F; Boggs, Deborah A; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2010-01-01

    Background: Type 2 diabetes is a major problem in Western nations. Profound secular changes in the food environment and eating habits may play a role. In particular, consumption of foods prepared outside the home has greatly increased. Objective: We investigated the relation of restaurant meal consumption to incidence of type 2 diabetes among African American women with the use of data from the prospective Black Women's Health Study. Design: The participants have completed mailed follow-up questionnaires every 2 y since 1995, including food-frequency questionnaires that asked about the frequency of eating restaurant meals of various types. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios and 95% CIs for the association of type 2 diabetes incidence with various categories of consumption of each restaurant food relative to the lowest category, with adjustment for diabetes risk factors. Results: Among 44,072 participants aged 30–69 y and free of diabetes at baseline, 2873 incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 10 y of follow-up. Consumption of restaurant meals of hamburgers, fried chicken, fried fish, and Chinese food were independently associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Incidence rate ratios for ≥2 such meals per week relative to none were 1.40 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.73) for hamburgers and 1.68 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.08) for fried chicken. Control for body mass index greatly reduced the estimates, which suggests that the associations are mediated through weight gain and obesity. Conclusion: The present study has identified a risk factor for type 2 diabetes that may be readily modifiable by dietary changes. PMID:20016014

  3. Cigarette smoking, cytochrome P4501A1 polymorphisms, and breast cancer among African-American and white women

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yu; Millikan, Robert C.; Bell, Douglas A.; Cui, Lisa; Tse, Chiu-Kit J; Newman, Beth; Conway, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Previous epidemiologic studies suggest that women with variant cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) genotypes who smoke cigarettes are at increased risk for breast cancer. Methods We evaluated the association of breast cancer with CYP1A1 polymorphisms and cigarette smoking in a population-based, case–control study of invasive breast cancer in North Carolina. The study population consisted of 688 cases (271 African Americans and 417 whites) and 702 controls (285 African Americans and 417 w...

  4. The Effect of Message Framing on African American Women's Intention to Participate in Health-Related Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balls-Berry, Joyce E; Hayes, Sharonne; Parker, Monica; Halyard, Michele; Enders, Felicity; Albertie, Monica; Pinn, Vivian; Radecki Breitkopf, Carmen

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the effect of message framing on African American women's intention to participate in health-related research and actual registration in ResearchMatch (RM), a disease-neutral, national volunteer research registry. A community-engaged approach was used involving collaboration between an academic medical center and a volunteer service organization formed by professional women of color. A self-administered survey that contained an embedded message framing manipulation was distributed to more than 2,000 African American women attending the 2012 national assembly of The Links, Incorporated. A total of 391 surveys were completed (381 after exclusion: 187 containing the gain-framed message and 194 containing the loss-framed message). The majority (57%) of women expressed favorable intentions to participate in health-related research, and 21% subsequently enrolled in RM. The effect of message framing on intention was moderated by self-efficacy. There was no effect of message framing on RM registration; however, those with high self-efficacy were more than 2 times as likely as those with low self-efficacy to register as a potential study volunteer in RM (odds ratio = 2.62, 95% confidence interval [1.29, 5.33]). This investigation makes theoretical and practical contributions to the field of health communication and informs future strategies to meaningfully and effectively include women and minorities in health-related research. PMID:27077665

  5. The Relationships of Racial Identity and Gender Role Conflict to Self-Esteem of Asian American Undergraduate Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Yen Ling; McEwen, Marylu K.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted using a sample of Asian American male college students (N = 173) from one east coast public, research institution and one west coast public, research institution to explore the relationships of racial identity and gender role conflict with self-esteem. The study employed the People of Color Racial Identity Attitudes Scale,…

  6. Educating Counseling and Guidance Professionals from a Pedagogy Perspective: Experiences from a Latin American Undergraduate Academic Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, George Davy; Jiménez, Dorelys

    2015-01-01

    Specialized literature shows that counseling and guidance represents an interdisciplinary profession, practiced differently in various Latin American countries. Likewise, counseling and guidance is understood as being a multicontextual and politically worthy profession that is connected to the personal, socioeconomic, cultural, and collective…

  7. A Study of First-Generation African American and Latino Undergraduates Developing Sociopolitical Consciousness in Introductory Sociology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Montoya, Milagros

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the development of first-generation African American and Latino college students' sociopolitical consciousness in the context of their learning of sociology as a component of their liberal education studies. Given the paucity of research on how college students develop sociopolitical consciousness, this study addresses: (1) the…

  8. An Exploratory Study of Acculturation and Reproductive Health Among Haitian and Haitian-American Women in Little Haiti, South Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyrus, E; Gollub, E L; Jean-Gilles, M; Neptune, S; Pelletier, V; Dévieux, J

    2016-06-01

    There is unmet contraceptive need among Haitian immigrants and Haitian-American women (Haitian women). The study explored associations of three measures of acculturation with contraceptive/reproductive health history among Haitian women residing in the Little Haiti community of Miami. This was a cross-sectional, exploratory study among 57 Haitian women. We conducted descriptive univariate analyses, then bivariate analyses to investigate the association of acculturation with reproductive health risk behavior including contraceptive use, tampon use, and parity, as well as interest in a female-initiated barrier contraceptive method. The most commonly ever-used contraceptive methods were male condoms (78.9 %) and oral contraceptives (OC 19.3 %). Women who primarily spoke Créole at home were less likely than those who did not to use OC (11.9 vs. 42.9 %, p = .01). Among women who resided in the U.S. ≥10 years, tampon use was 51.9 % compared to 16.7 % among those who were in the U.S. for less time (p = .005). Among U.S. born women, 60 % were tampon users compared to 22.7 % among those born in Haiti (p = .05). Women not speaking primarily Créole at home (p = .06) and those born in U.S. (p = .008) had fewer children. Contraceptive use was low among Haitian women but influenced by acculturation, where greater acculturation was associated with protective reproductive health behavior. Despite traditional norms discouraging contraceptive use, and little experience with female barriers, Haitian women indicated an interest in learning about and using a female-initiated barrier contraceptive. Increasing contraceptive uptake of potential multipurpose technologies is a potential point of intervention for decreasing HIV/STI transmission in this at-risk population. PMID:26087716

  9. Differences in childhood physical abuse reporting and the association between CPA and alcohol use disorder in European American and African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kimberly B; Grant, Julia D; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether the magnitude of the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) varies by type of CPA assessment and race of the respondents. Data are from the Missouri adolescent female twins study and the Missouri family study (N = 4508) where 21.2% identified as African American (AA) and 78.8% as European American (EA); mean age = 23.8. Data were collected using a structured comprehensive interview which assessed CPA experiences using behavioral questions about specific abusive behaviors and trauma checklist items. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for additional risk factors associated with AUD, including co-occurring psychiatric disorders (defined as time-varying) and parental alcohol misuse. Overall, CPA reporting patterns were highly correlated (tetrachoric ρ = 0.73); although, only 25.8% of women who endorsed behaviorally defined CPA also endorsed checklist items whereas 72.2% of women who endorsed checklist items also endorsed behavioral questions. Racial disparities were evident, with behaviorally defined CPA increasing the hazard for AUD in EA but not AA women. Additional racial disparities in the risk for AUD were observed: increased hazard for AUD were associated with major depressive disorder in AA, and cannabis dependence and paternal alcohol problems in EA, women. Results demonstrate the relevance of the type of CPA measure in assessing CPA in studies of alcohol-related problems-behavioral items may be more inclusive of CPA exposure and more predictive of AUD- and highlight racial distinctions of AUD etiology in women. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27322801

  10. Further Evidence for the Cultural Norm Hypothesis: Positive Emotion in Depressed and Control European American and Asian American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chentsova-Dutton, Yulia E.; Tsai, Jeanne L.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    How does culture shape the experience and expression of depression? Previously we observed that depression dampened negative emotional responses in European Americans, but increased negative emotional responses in Asian Americans (Chentsova-Dutton et al., 2007). We interpreted these findings as support for the cultural norm hypothesis, which predicts that depression reduces individuals’ abilities to react in culturally normative or ideal ways (i.e., disrupting European Americans’ abilities to...

  11. Correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among Korean-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyun; Huh, Bo Yun; Han, Hae-Ra

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigate the factors associated with misperception of breast cancer risk, including unrealistic optimism and unrealistic pessimism, among Korean-American women (KAW). Baseline data were collected between March 2010 and October 2011 from 421 KAW aged 40-65 years who participated in a community-based randomized intervention trial designed to promote breast and cervical cancer screening. Multivariate multinomial regression was performed to identify correlates of misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW. A total of 210 KAW (49.9%) had breast cancer risk perception consistent with their objective risk, whereas 50.1% of KAW in the study had some form of misperception of risk. Specifically, 167 participants (39.7%) were unrealistically optimistic about their own breast cancer risk; 44 (10.5%) were unrealistically pessimistic. In multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis, living with a partner and higher education were significantly associated with higher odds of having unrealistic optimism. High social support is associated with a lower likelihood of having a pessimistic risk perception. Higher worry is associated with a higher likelihood of having unrealistic pessimism. Misperception of breast cancer risk among KAW and related factors must be considered when developing behavioral interventions for this population. PMID:26580449

  12. A genome-wide scan for breast cancer risk haplotypes among African American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Song

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS simultaneously investigating hundreds of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP have become a powerful tool in the investigation of new disease susceptibility loci. Haplotypes are sometimes thought to be superior to SNPs and are promising in genetic association analyses. The application of genome-wide haplotype analysis, however, is hindered by the complexity of haplotypes themselves and sophistication in computation. We systematically analyzed the haplotype effects for breast cancer risk among 5,761 African American women (3,016 cases and 2,745 controls using a sliding window approach on the genome-wide scale. Three regions on chromosomes 1, 4 and 18 exhibited moderate haplotype effects. Furthermore, among 21 breast cancer susceptibility loci previously established in European populations, 10p15 and 14q24 are likely to harbor novel haplotype effects. We also proposed a heuristic of determining the significance level and the effective number of independent tests by the permutation analysis on chromosome 22 data. It suggests that the effective number was approximately half of the total (7,794 out of 15,645, thus the half number could serve as a quick reference to evaluating genome-wide significance if a similar sliding window approach of haplotype analysis is adopted in similar populations using similar genotype density.

  13. Beyond K's Specter: Chang-rae Lee’s A Gesture Life, Comfort Women Testimonies, and Asian American Transnational Aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda Kong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay argues that Chang-rae Lee’s novel A Gesture Life exemplifies both the conceptual gains and the potential pitfalls of current Asian American literature’s transnationalism. The first section of the essay discusses the interlocking of psychoanalytic theory and political philosophy, specifically Freud’s uncanny and Arendt’s banality of evil, in Lee’s portrait of the psychology of criminal repression. The second section juxtaposes Lee’s novel against real-life comfort women’s survivor testimonies to probe broader questions of historical memory, politicized historiography, and the modes of circulation and authority in contemporary international comfort women discourse. The final section, which recontextualizes Lee’s novel within current debates in Asian and Asian American Studies, argues against a paradigm of alterity vis-à-vis the comfort women and proposes instead a transnational aesthetic premised on the human.

  14. Assessing the Key Attributes of Low Utilization of Mammography Screening and Breast-self Exam among African-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Rupak; David, Nganwa; Bogale, Asseged; Nandy, Shami; Habtemariam, T.; Tameru, Berhanu

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: African-American (AA) women living in four Black Belt Counties (BBC) of Alabama; consisting of Barbour, Macon, Green and Wilcox are known to have lower mammogram utilization and breast self-exam rates when compared to their white female counterparts. The influence of socioeconomic and demographic factors on these disparities has not been clearly defined so far. Our study was designed to determine whether these observed disparities can be predicted with the socioeconomic and other dem...

  15. Long-Term Effects of Stressors on Relationship Well-Being and Parenting Among Rural African American Women*

    OpenAIRE

    Murry, Velma M.; Harrell, Amanda W.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Black, Angela R.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of stressful life events on rural African American women’s relationship well-being, psychological functioning, and parenting included 361 married or long-term cohabiting women. Associations among stressful events, socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination, coping strategies, psychological functioning, relationship well-being, and parenting were tested. Stressful events were related directly to diminished relationship well-being and heightened psyc...

  16. Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African American and Latina women

    OpenAIRE

    Sciolla, A.; Glover, DA; Loeb, TB; Zhang, M.; Myers, HF; Wyatt, GE

    2011-01-01

    A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low-income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peritrauma variable of abuse severity and the posttrauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African-American and Latina women with h...

  17. SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS IN AFRICAN-AMERICAN WOMEN: COGNITIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL MODULES, AUTOIMMUNE DISEASE, AND STRUCTURED PSYCHOSOCIAL STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    RODRICK WALLACE

    2003-01-01

    Examining elevated rates of systemic lupus erythematosus in African-American women from perspectives of immune cognition suggests the disease constitutes an internalized physiological image of external patterns of structured psychosocial stress, a 'pathogenic social hierarchy' involving the synergism of racism and gender discrimination, in the context of policy-driven social disintegration which has particularly affected ethnic minorities in the USA. The disorder represents the punctuated res...

  18. Systemic lupus erythematosus in African-American women: immune cognitive modules, autoimmune disease, and pathogenic social hierarchy

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2003-01-01

    Examining elevated rates of systemic lupus erythematosus in African-American women from the perspective of the emerging theory of immune cognition suggests the disease constitutes an internalized physiological image of external patterns of psychosocial stress, a 'pathogenic social hierarchy' involving the synergism of racism and gender discrimination. The disorder represents the punctuated resetting of 'normal' immune self-image to a self-attacking 'excited' state, a process formally analogou...

  19. Too Much of a Good Thing? Psychosocial Resources, Gendered Racism, and Suicidal Ideation Among Low-SES African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, Brea L.; Pullen, Erin; Oser, Carrie B.

    2012-01-01

    Very few studies have examined predictors of suicidal ideation among African American women. Consequently, we have a poor understanding of the combinations of culturally-specific experiences and psychosocial processes that may constitute risk and protective factors for suicide in this population. Drawing on theories of social inequality, medical sociology, and the stress process, we explore the adverse impact of gendered racism experiences and potential moderating factors in a sample of 204 p...

  20. Domains of Chronic Stress, Lifestyle Factors, and Allostatic Load in Middle-Aged Mexican-American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Linda C.; Jiménez, Jessica A.; Shivpuri, Smriti; Espinosa de los Monteros, Karla; Mills, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    Background Little research has examined how chronic stress in different domains relates to allostatic load (AL). Purpose We examined the relationship between multiple chronic stressors with AL, and evaluated lifestyle factors as possible mediating factors. Methods Three hundred one middle-aged Mexican-American women underwent a physical exam and completed measures of lifestyle factors and chronic stress in eight domains. A composite of 12 neuroendocrine, metabolic, cardiovascular, and inflamm...

  1. Real-time moment-to-moment emotional responses to narrative and informational breast cancer videos in African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Bollinger, Sarah; Kreuter, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    In a randomized experiment using moment-to-moment audience analysis methods, we compared women’s emotional responses with a narrative versus informational breast cancer video. Both videos communicated three key messages about breast cancer: (i) understand your breast cancer risk, (ii) talk openly about breast cancer and (iii) get regular mammograms. A community-based convenience sample of African American women (n = 59) used a hand-held audience response device to report the intensity of thei...

  2. Psychotherapy with African American Women with Depression: Is it okay to Talk about Their Religious/Spiritual Beliefs?

    OpenAIRE

    Earlise C. Ward; Maigenete Mengesha

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of research focusing on African Americans’ mental health is showing that this group relies heavily on their religious/spiritual beliefs and practices to cope with mental health issues including depression. Unfortunately, the psychotherapy literature provides little guidance on how to incorporate religion/spirituality into psychotherapy with African American women. With the growing cultural diversity of the U.S. population, there has been more emphasis on providing patient-cente...

  3. The Uphill Climb of Women in American Music: Performers and Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinely, Mary Brown

    1984-01-01

    Describes the history of women in music in the United States. Vocal performance was the first area that opened up for women. Prejudice against women instrumentalists still exists, though breakthroughs into the major orchestras occurred after World War II. Women are also underrepresented as teachers of composition and conducting. (CS)

  4. Rare variant associations with waist-to-hip ratio in European-American and African-American women from the NHLBI-Exome Sequencing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Mengyuan; Auer, Paul L; Wang, Gao T; Bucasas, Kristine L; Hooker, Stanley; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Li, Biao; Ellis, Jaclyn; Adrienne Cupples, L; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Dupuis, Josée; Fox, Caroline S; Gross, Myron D; Smith, Joshua D; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Meigs, James B; Pankow, James S; Rotter, Jerome I; Siscovick, David; Wilson, James G; Shendure, Jay; Jackson, Rebecca; Peters, Ulrike; Zhong, Hua; Lin, Danyu; Hsu, Li; Franceschini, Nora; Carlson, Chris; Abecasis, Goncalo; Gabriel, Stacey; Bamshad, Michael J; Altshuler, David; Nickerson, Deborah A; North, Kari E; Lange, Leslie A; Reiner, Alexander P; Leal, Suzanne M

    2016-08-01

    Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), a relative comparison of waist and hip circumferences, is an easily accessible measurement of body fat distribution, in particular central abdominal fat. A high WHR indicates more intra-abdominal fat deposition and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic loci influencing WHR, but the contributions of rare variants have not been previously reported. We investigated rare variant associations with WHR in 1510 European-American and 1186 African-American women from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Exome Sequencing Project. Association analysis was performed on the gene level using several rare variant association methods. The strongest association was observed for rare variants in IKBKB (P=4.0 × 10(-8)) in European-Americans, where rare variants in this gene are predicted to decrease WHRs. The activation of the IKBKB gene is involved in inflammatory processes and insulin resistance, which may affect normal food intake and body weight and shape. Meanwhile, aggregation of rare variants in COBLL1, previously found to harbor common variants associated with WHR and fasting insulin, were nominally associated (P=2.23 × 10(-4)) with higher WHR in European-Americans. However, these significant results are not shared between African-Americans and European-Americans that may be due to differences in the allelic architecture of the two populations and the small sample sizes. Our study indicates that the combined effect of rare variants contribute to the inter-individual variation in fat distribution through the regulation of insulin response. PMID:26757982

  5. The American challenge in uniform: the arrival of America’s armies in World War II and European women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellwood

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A vast body of material exists – memoirs, diaries, films, plays, novels, official records – on the impact and reception of America’s armed forces armies in Europe after 1942. Britain, Italy, France, Austria and of course Germany all offer relevant evidence. The popular British phrase about the GI’s being ‘over-paid, over-sexed and over here’ brilliantly sums up many of the tensions the encounter threw up: over money and life-styles, courtship rituals and the treatment of local women, over sovereignty and the American impulse to requisition every local resource they could get their hands on. Local men thought ‘their’ women were being requisitioned.  The Americans had not come to do ‘nation-building’, and yet their presence left memories, changed attitudes and altered prospects on the future, especially among women. Afterwards American experts claimed that their armed forces had set off a ‘revolution of rising expectations’. Although a contradictory, complex encounter, there is enough evidence to suggest they might have been right.

  6. Taking it one day at a time: African American women aging with HIV and co-morbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Dillaway, Heather; Hamilton, Pilar; Young, Mary; Goparaju, Lakshmi

    2014-07-01

    Self-managing HIV/AIDS presents challenges for anyone infected. These challenges may be further complicated for older HIV-infected African American women who acquired the disease at younger ages and now have co-morbidities. Little is known regarding how women's age identity, social responsibilities, co-morbidities, and romantic relationship status influence their HIV self-management. Five focus groups were conducted in Washington DC, with HIV-positive African American women aged 52-65. Topics included HIV and co-morbidity self-management, social support needs, medication adherence, and future plans for old age. A constant comparison approach was applied during data analysis. Co-morbidities, including diabetes and hypertension, were perceived to be more difficult to self-manage than HIV. This difficulty was not attributed to aging but to daily struggles such as lack of income and/or health insurance, an inflexible work schedule, and loneliness. Social responsibilities, including caring for family, positively impacted participants' ability to self-manage HIV by serving as motivation to stay healthy in order to continue to help family members. In contrast, inflexible work schedules negatively impacted women's ability to sustain medication adherence. Overall, this study demonstrates that HIV and co-morbidity self-management are inextricably linked. We can no longer afford to view engagement in HIV care as a single-disease issue and hope to attain optimal health and well-being in our HIV-affected populations. Optimal HIV self-management must be framed within a larger context that simultaneously addresses HIV and co-morbidities, while considering how social and cultural factors uniquely intersect to influence older African American women's self-management strategies. PMID:24933093

  7. Love on lockdown: how social network characteristics predict separational concurrency among low income African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Kelly M; Latkin, Carl A; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A

    2015-06-01

    One out of nine African-American men between the ages of 20 and 34 is behind bars, resulting in many African-American women losing their primary romantic partners to incarceration. Research suggests that partner incarceration may contribute to increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs)/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV); however, factors associated with women's decisions to begin new sexual partnerships following partner incarceration (i.e., separational concurrency) have not been well studied. This study examined the social context relevant to initiating separational concurrency, following incarceration of a primary male partner. Cross-sectional secondary data analysis of 6-month follow-up data from the CHAT Project, a social-network based HIV/sexually transmitted disease (STD) prevention study in Baltimore, MD, USA. Participants were N = 196 African-American women, who reported ever having had a partner who was incarcerated for at least 6 months during the relationship. The majority (81.5%) of women were unemployed with a mean age of 41.7 years. Over half of the sample (59.5%) reported having used crack or heroin at least once in the previous 12 months; 48.5% of the women had experienced physical abuse, with over half of the sample reporting a lifetime history of emotional abuse (54.6%). Separational concurrency, defined as answering yes to the item, "While [your] partner was incarcerated, did you have any other sexual partners?," was the primary outcome measure. After adjusting for age, drug use and unemployment the multiple logistic regression model found that women who reported a history of physical or emotional abuse were over two times as likely to report separational concurrency than women without an abuse history [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.24; 95% CI, 1.24, 4.05; p = .007 and AOR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.33, 4.46; p = .004, respectively]. Individuals who reported a higher number of drug-using sex partners (AOR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.4, 4

  8. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients. PMID:26640009

  9. Health Promoting Life-Style Behaviors and Systemic Inflammation in African American and Caucasian Women Prior to Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Debra E. Lyon; Lathika Mohanraj; Debra Lynch Kelly; RK Elswick Jr

    2014-01-01

    Background: Racial disparities in breast cancer outcomes persist, with differential adverse outcomes in African American women. Although research has examined possible genetic differences, there has been little research on potentially modifiable characteristics such as health promoting behaviors. The purpose of this article is to describe the characteristics and to compare the differences by race in lifestyle factors and inflammatory biomarkers in African American and Caucasian women with bre...

  10. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to reporting of forced sex by African-American college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Angela Frederick

    2009-12-01

    Forced sex is a public health issue affecting many college women. Despite physical and mental health consequences, and multiple prevention programs on college campuses, most sexual violence goes unreported (Fisher, Daigle, Cullen, & Turner, 2003). The purpose of this research was to determine the significant attitudes and beliefs that are associated with reporting of forced sexual experiences. Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), the study used a predictive exploratory design to explore the association of intention to report forced sex with attitudes and beliefs (Ajzen, 1991). A convenience sample of 144 African-American women who were attending a private college in the south completed a survey. Women who expressed more favorable attitudes towards reporting, perceived reporting as being supported by important referents, and perceived more control over reporting, reported stronger intentions to report forced sex. The analysis supported the utility of TPB in predicting the intention to report forced sex by African-American college women. Theoretically significant and clinically relevant prevention strategies should incorporate important referents, address salient beliefs, and determine ways to increase perceived behavioral control. PMID:20364721

  11. Barriers to Obtaining Sera and Tissue Specimens of African-American Women for the Advancement of Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strissel, Katherine J.; Nicholas, Dequina A.; Castagne-Charlotin, Myriam; Ko, Naomi; Denis, Gerald V.

    2016-01-01

    African-American women, a historically understudied and underserved group, have increased risk for triple-negative breast cancer and obesity-associated disease. Obesity-associated metabolic diseases share a common link of low grade chronic inflammation, but not all obese women have metabolic disturbances or are inflamed. One goal of our ongoing research is to identify blood biomarkers that can predict increased risk of breast cancer in women who have obesity or metabolic dysfunction. However, vulnerable populations that stand to benefit most from advances in biomedical research are also underrepresented in research studies. The development of effective, novel approaches for cancer prevention and treatment will require significant basic medical research effort to establish the necessary evidence base in multiple populations. Work with vulnerable human subjects at a safety net hospital enabled us to comment on potential obstacles to obtaining serological and tissue specimens from African-American women. Here, we report some unexpected barriers to participation in our ongoing research study that might inform future efforts. PMID:27441007

  12. Effects of dumbbell and elastic band training on physical function in older inner-city African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Michael E; Sherwood, Helen S; Rogers, Nicole L; Bohlken, Ruth M

    2002-01-01

    Providing inner-city minorities with inexpensive exercise programs may be a means of reducing frailty and maintaining independent lifestyles in this population. To determine the efficacy of such a program, 22 African-American women aged 62-94 years were recruited from a senior center in the Wichita urban community. Sixteen women (age = 74.8 +/- 8.8 yr) participated in exercise training (3 days per week for 4 weeks) and 6 women (age = 74.7 +/- 4.5 yr) served as controls. Training consisted of chair-based exercises using elastic resistance bands (upper and lower body) and dumbbells (upper body). Elastic band training improved (p program. Upper and lower body flexibility did not change. Changes were not observed for any variable in the control group. This study suggests that exercising with equipment that costs only a few dollars per participant improves upper and lower body fitness in older African-American women who live in an urban setting. PMID:12555800

  13. An examination of racial differences in 5-year survival of cervical cancer among African American and white American women in the southeastern US from 1985 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weragoda, Janaka; Azuero, Andres; Badiga, Suguna; Bell, Walter C; Matthews, Roland; Piyathilake, Chandrika

    2016-08-01

    Disparities in Cervical Cancer (CC) mortality outcomes between African American (AA) and White women have been studied for decades. However, conclusions about the effect of race on CC survival differ across studies. This study assessed differences in CC survival between AA and White women diagnosed between 1985 and 2010 and treated at two major hospitals in the southeastern US. The study sample included 925 AA and 1192 White women diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous cell carcinoma, or squamous cell carcinoma. Propensity score adjustment and matching were employed to compare 5-year survival between the two racial groups. Crude comparisons suggested relevant racial differences in survival. However, the racial differences became of small magnitude after propensity-score adjustment and in matched analyses. Nonlinear models identified age at diagnosis, cancer stage, mode of treatment, and histological subtype as the most salient characteristics predicting 5-year survival of CC, yet these characteristics were also associated with race. Crude racial differences in survival might be partly explained by underlying differences in the characteristics of racial groups, such as age at diagnosis, histological subtype, cancer stage, and the mode of treatment. The study results highlight the need to improve access to early screening and treatment opportunities for AA women to improve posttreatment survival from CC. PMID:27185053

  14. Differential effect of obesity on bone mineral density in White, Hispanic and African American women: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabon Lina

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Osteoporosis is a major public health problem with low bone mass affecting nearly half the women aged 50 years or older. Evidence from various studies has shown that higher body mass index (BMI is a protective factor for bone mineral density (BMD. Most of the evidence, however, is from studies with Caucasian women and it is unclear to what extent ethnicity plays a role in modifying the effect of BMI on BMD. A cross sectional study was performed in which records of postmenopausal women who presented for screening for osteoporosis at 2 urban medical centres were reviewed. Using logistic regression, we examined the interaction of race and BMI after adjusting for age, family history of osteoporosis, maternal fracture, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle on BMD. Low BMD was defined as T-score at the lumbar spine Among 3,206 patients identified, the mean age of the study population was 58.3 ± 0.24 (Years ± SEM and the BMI was 30.6 kg/m2. 2,417 (75.4% were African Americans (AA, 441(13.6% were Whites and 348 (10.9% were Hispanics. The AA women had lower odds of having low BMD compared to Whites [Odds ratio (OR = 0.079 (0.03–0.24 (95% CI, p There is thus a race-dependent effect of BMI on BMD. With each unit increase in BMI, BMD increases for White women, while a slight but significant decrease in BMD occurs in African American women.

  15. Un-Autobiographical Autobiographies: Investigating the Life-Stories of Ten Elderly Nisei Christian Women at a Local Japanese American Church

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Traise Yamamoto, a professor of English and a scholar of biographical studies, made the following remark in her book "Masking Selves, Making Subjects" (1999). She wrote, "Nisei (second-generation Japanese American) women's autobiographies are frustratingly un-autobiographical" (103). Yamamoto, who is a Japanese-American woman herself, saw the lack…

  16. Standing on a Strong Foundation of Servitude: The 1960's Civil Rights Movement, Septima Clark and Other South Carolina African American Women Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Iris Renell

    2012-01-01

    This research study examines nine African American women educators during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina. Additionally, the study conducts an analogous study of the lifeworks and contributions of Septima Clark, an African American woman educator who made significant community activist contributions during this period. For its…

  17. Correlation Between Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Risk of Substance Abuse and Depression among African-American Women Seen in an Urban Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Hankin, Abigail; Smith, L. Shakiyla; Daugherty, Jill; Houry, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess rates of substance abuse (including tobacco, alcohol, and drug abuse) as well as rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among African-American women seen in an urban Emergency Department (ED). Methods: Eligible participants included all African-American women between the ages of 21-55 years old who were seen in an urban ED for any complaint, and who were triaged to the waiting room. Eligible women who consented to participate were taken to complete a computer-b...

  18. Correlation Between Intimate Partner Violence Victimization and Risk of Substance Abuse and Depression among African-American Women in an Urban Emergency Department

    OpenAIRE

    Hankin, Abigail; Smith, L. Shakiyla; Daugherty, Jill; Houry, Debra

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess rates of substance abuse (including tobacco, alcohol, and drug abuse) as well as rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) among African-American women seen in an urban emergency department (ED). Methods: Eligible participants included all African-American women between the ages of 21–55 years old who were seen in an urban ED for any complaint and triaged to the waiting room. Eligible women who consented to participate completed a computer-based survey that focused on demo...

  19. The effects of discrimination and acculturation to service seeking satisfaction for Latina and Asian American women: implications for mental health professions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bu; Appel, Hoa; Ai, Amy L

    2011-01-01

    There is ample research showing that there are health disparities for minorities with respect to seeking mental health services in the United States. Although there are general barriers for minorities in seeking service health, minority women are more vulnerable due to their negative experiences and lower satisfaction in receiving health care, compared to men. This study utilized the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS) data set, which is the first population-based mental health study on Latino and Asian Americans, to give a full description of Latina and Asian American women's experience in mental health service seeking and identifies the opportunities in increasing their satisfaction levels. The results showed that perceived discrimination attributed to gender or race/ethnicity is negatively predicting levels of satisfaction of mental health service seeking. Older age, higher education levels, longer duration in the United States, and better mental health, are positively related to satisfaction levels for Latina and Asian American women. PMID:21213187

  20. Body image and face image in Asian American and white women: Examining associations with surveillance, construal of self, perfectionism, and sociocultural pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Kelly, Mackenzie C; Latner, Janet D; Sandhu, Gaganjyot; Tsong, Yuying

    2016-03-01

    Asian American women experience sociocultural pressures that could place them at increased risk for experiencing body and face dissatisfaction. Asian American and White women completed measures of appearance evaluation, overweight preoccupation, face satisfaction, face dissatisfaction frequency, perfectionism, surveillance, interdependent and independent self-construal, and perceived sociocultural pressures. In Study 1 (N=182), Asian American women were more likely than White women to report low appearance evaluation (24% vs. 12%; d=-0.50) and to be sometimes-always dissatisfied with the appearance of their eyes (38% vs. 6%; d=0.90) and face overall (59% vs. 34%; d=0.41). In Study 2 (N=488), they were more likely to report low appearance evaluation (36% vs. 23%; d=-0.31) and were less likely to report high eye appearance satisfaction (59% vs. 88%; d=-0.84). The findings highlight the importance of considering ethnic differences when assessing body and face image. PMID:26808353

  1. Teaching about Women and Islam in North Africa: Integrating Postcolonial Feminist Theory in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayzafoon, Lamia Ben Youssef

    2011-01-01

    Using postcolonial feminist theory, the researcher attempts in this article to redefine the interpretive framework through which courses on Islam and North African women are being taught in American undergraduate classes. Several conceptual limitations have been identified: inadequate knowledge of the geography and history of North Africa; the…

  2. Predicting total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity with circulating biomarkers in Caucasian and Japanese American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unhee Lim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Characterization of abdominal and intra-abdominal fat requires imaging, and thus is not feasible in large epidemiologic studies. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether biomarkers may complement anthropometry (body mass index [BMI], waist circumference [WC], and waist-hip ratio [WHR] in predicting the size of the body fat compartments by analyzing blood biomarkers, including adipocytokines, insulin resistance markers, sex steroid hormones, lipids, liver enzymes and gastro-neuropeptides. METHODS: Fasting levels of 58 blood markers were analyzed in 60 healthy, Caucasian or Japanese American postmenopausal women who underwent anthropometric measurements, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging. Total, abdominal, visceral and hepatic adiposity were predicted based on anthropometry and the biomarkers using Random Forest models. RESULTS: Total body fat was well predicted by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.85, by the 5 best predictors from the biomarker model alone (leptin, leptin-adiponectin ratio [LAR], free estradiol, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 [PAI1], alanine transaminase [ALT]; R(2 = 0.69, or by combining these 5 biomarkers with anthropometry (R(2 = 0.91. Abdominal adiposity (DXA trunk-to-periphery fat ratio was better predicted by combining the two types of predictors (R(2 = 0.58 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.53 or the 5 best biomarkers alone (25(OH-vitamin D(3, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 [IGFBP1], uric acid, soluble leptin receptor [sLEPR], Coenzyme Q10; R(2 = 0.35. Similarly, visceral fat was slightly better predicted by combining the predictors (R(2 = 0.68 than by anthropometry alone (R(2 = 0.65 or the 5 best biomarker predictors alone (leptin, C-reactive protein [CRP], LAR, lycopene, vitamin D(3; R(2 = 0.58. Percent liver fat was predicted better by the 5 best biomarker predictors (insulin, sex hormone binding globulin [SHBG], LAR, alpha-tocopherol, PAI1; R(2 = 0

  3. Psychometric evaluation of the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elasy Tom A

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID survey is a measure of diabetes-related stress for which reported use has been in largely Caucasian populations. Our purpose was to assess the psychometric properties of the PAID in Southern rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A convenience sample of African American women (N = 131 ranging from 21–50 years of age and diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes were recruited for a survey study from two rural Southern community health centers. Participants completed the PAID, Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D, and the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities Scale (SDSCA. Factor analysis, Cronbach's coefficient alpha, and construct validation facilitated psychometric evaluation. Results A principle component factor analysis of the PAID yielded two factors, 1 a lack of confidence subscale, and 2 a negative emotional consequences subscale. The Lack of Confidence and Negative Emotional Consequences subscales, but not the overall PAID scale, were associated with glycemic control and body mass index, respectively. Relationships with measures of depression and diabetes self-care supported construct validity of both subscales. Both subscales had acceptable (alpha = 0.85 and 0.94 internal consistency measures. Conclusion A psychometrically sound two-factor solution to the PAID survey is identified in Southern, rural African American women with Type 2 diabetes. Lack of confidence in and negative emotional consequences of diabetes self-care implementation provide a better understanding of determinants of glycemic control and weight than an aggregate of the two scales.

  4. Functional cerebral distance and the effect of emotional music on spatial rotation scores in undergraduate women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsch, Sharon; Knee, H Donald; Webb, Jeffrey L

    2011-02-01

    The influence of listening to music on subsequent spatial rotation scores has a controversial history. The effect is unreliable, seeming to depend on several as yet unexplored factors. Using a large sample (167 women, 160 men; M age = 18.9 yr.), two related variables were investigated: participants' sex and the emotion conveyed by the music. Participants listened to 90 sec. of music that portrayed emotions of approach (happiness), or withdrawal (anger), or heard no music at all. They then performed a two-dimensional spatial rotation task. No significant difference was found in spatial rotation scores between groups exposed to music and those who were not. However, a significant interaction was found based on the sex of the participants and the emotion portrayed in the music they heard. Women's scores increased (relative to a no-music condition) only after hearing withdrawal-based music, while men's scores increased only after listening to the approach-based music. These changes were explained using the theory of functional cerebral distance. PMID:21526586

  5. Are Nutrition Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs Associated with Obesity among Low-Income Hispanic and African American Women Caretakers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Acheampong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this descriptive study were to (1 describe nutrition knowledge, attitudes, beliefs (KAB, and self-efficacy among low-income African American and Hispanic women; (2 identify the associations these variables have on diet quality and weight status; (3 identify barriers to healthy eating. Data from three separate studies were combined and analyzed. The total sample included African Americans ( and Hispanics (. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were used to identify associations between KAB and body mass index (BMI and diet quality. The majority of African Americans had good knowledge in nutrition while Hispanics had fair knowledge. Attitudes toward eating a healthy diet were significantly associated with high fiber intake among African Americans and low fat consumption among Hispanics. A computed KAB score showed no significant relation to individuals' weight status or diet quality. However, attitudes and beliefs about healthy foods strongly correlated with participants' weight or diet consumption among Hispanics. The most common barrier to consuming a healthy diet reported by both groups was the cost of healthy foods. It is therefore recommended to address these variables when addressing obesity and poor dietary intake among low-income minority groups.

  6. Patterns of Alcohol Consumption among Pregnant African-American Women in Washington, D.C

    OpenAIRE

    Kiely, Michele; Thornberry, Jutta S.; Bhaskar, Brinda; Rodan, Margaret R.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the patterns and associated behaviors related to alcohol consumption among a selected sample of pregnant women seeking prenatal care in inner city Washington D.C. Women receiving prenatal care at one of nine sites completed an anonymous, alcohol-screening questionnaire. Questions were from the TWEAK and AUDIT as well as quantity/frequency questions about the amount, type, and pattern of alcohol consumption. Women were determined to be at no, low, mod...

  7. Ancestors of two-spirits: Historical depictions of Native North American gender-crossing women through critical discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmilä, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Letters written by Christian men of European origin during the sixteenth-nineteenth centuries contain brief descriptions of gender-crossing individuals among indigenous Americans. Although now considered ethnocentrically biased because of the etic positioning of their authors, these historical sources are invaluable because they offer a glimpse of the ancestors of modern-day two-spirits. An application of critical discourse analysis to three depictions of gender-crossing females from the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries demonstrates that such women were favorably portrayed. These results differ dramatically from those obtained from my similar analysis of depictions of gender-crossing males. It also became evident that the three descriptions of gender-crossing women were not based on actual observations, but only on hearsay, which makes their use as primary sources questionable. PMID:27254764

  8. Domesticity in postwar America : The feminine mystique and Betty Friedan's impact on American women

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Betty Friedan has been celebrated as the author of the 1963 bestseller, The Feminine Mystique, a book that changed women s lives and was inspiration for the women s liberation movement. In The Feminine Mystique Betty Friedan gave a name to the frustration white middle-class women living in suburbia with 3.2 children felt. Women suddenly realized that they were not alone with their problems. Betty Friedan named the frustration that many career homemakers felt the problem that has no name, an...

  9. TRENDS IN THE ABILITY TO WORK AMONG MEN AND WOMEN IN THE OLDER AMERICAN POPULATION: 1997–2007

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2010-01-01

    Since the passage of United States (US)’ Social Security Amendments in 1983, the age for full Social Security benefits has been increasing from age 65 to 67 depending on one’s year of birth. These increases introduce incremental savings in the long-term funding of the US public pension system, but they assume that American workers will be able to continue working past the age of 65. In this study, we examine self-reported work disability for men and women using the 1997 through 2007 National ...

  10. Variables Related to Career Success: Korean-American Women of Distinction Tell Their Stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Susan Byungsook

    The goal of this research was to uncover the reasons for the unusual success of a small group of Korean-Americans in the American work arena. All had spent their childhood and formative years in Korea under the sole influence of Korean culture, attending the best high schools and colleges. Korean culture tends not to nurture some of the…

  11. African-American and Latina Women Seeking Public Health Services: Cultural Beliefs regarding Pregnancy, including Medication-taking Behavior

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    Luz Dalia Sanchez, MD, MCP, MHA, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to describe cultural beliefs and medication-taking-behavior about pregnancy in African-American and Latina women. Design: qualitative study using phenomenological methodology; face-to-face, semi structured interviews and focus group. Thematic analysis was done to obtain themes consistent with the research objective. Setting: Maricopa County, Arizona, Department of Public-health Programs, November 2008 through April 2009.Participants: women seeking public-health services in the greater Phoenix, Arizona.Results: fifteen adult women representing two ethnic groups (seven African-Americans and eight Latinas participated. Themes derived from the interview data included: “The Dilemma: To Become or Not to Become Pregnant;” “The Ideal Stress-free World: Support System;” “Changing Worlds: Wanting Dependency;” and “The Health care System: Disconnection from Pregnancy to Postpartum.”Conclusions: based on the cultural themes: 1. pregnancies were not planned; 2. healthy life-style changes were not likely to occur during pregnancy; 3. basic facts about the biology of sexual intercourse and pregnancy were not understood, and there was no usage of any preconceptional or prenatal medications; and 4. professional health care was not desired or considered necessary (except during delivery. These cultural beliefs can contribute to negative birth outcomes, and need to be considered by pharmacists and other health-care providers. The information gained from this study can guide the implementation of educational programs developed by pharmacists that are more sensitive to the cultural beliefs and points of view of these particular women. Such programs would thus be more likely to be favorably received and utilized.

  12. Women Teachers, Union Affiliation, and the Future of North American Teacher Unionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascia, Nina

    1998-01-01

    Discusses benefits of union affiliation and involvement for women teachers, interpreting data from studies that explored the value of unionism to secondary teachers and researched the work and motives of union-active teachers. Women teachers' motives for union involvement and the gendered nature of their experiences regarding unions offer useful…

  13. Obesity and hypertension in an Iranian cohort study; Iranian women experience higher rates of obesity and hypertension than American women

    OpenAIRE

    Nouraei Mehdi; Kamangar Farin; Pourshams Akram; Sadatsafavi Mohsen; Bahrami Hossein; Semnani Shahriar; Brennan Paul; Boffetta Paolo; Malekzadeh Reza

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Once considered as the main public health problem in developed countries, obesity has become a major problem throughout the world and developing countries, like Iran, are joining the global obesity pandemic. We determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension in a large cohort of Iranians and compared age-adjusted rates with the rates in the US. Methods Golestan Cohort Study is a population-based study of 8,998 men and women, aged 35-81 years, from urban...

  14. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, Starla Hairston; Treadwell, Henrie; Bazzell, Anya; Graves, Whitney; Osaji, Olivia; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797

  15. Improving medication adherence in African-American women living with HIV/AIDS: Leveraging the provider role and peer involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Olihe; Odedina, Folakemi T

    2016-01-01

    African-American women continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV-related morbidity and mortality. To address the burden of HIV/AIDS among this at-risk population, there is need to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence and affect their care-seeking behavior and specifically adherence to antiretroviral treatment. A preliminary qualitative study was conducted with a sample of the target population (n = 10) using grounded theory as the methodological approach. Similarly, 21 healthcare providers - physicians, pharmacists, nurses, and case managers - were then interviewed. A thematic analysis of the transcripts compared care-provider perceptions and narrated experiences with those from the patient participants. Themes related to patient care perceived to enhance medication adherence included (1) provider-patient relationship; (2) holistic and patient-centered care; (3) adequacy of patient education and counseling; (4) modeling adherence behavior; and (5) motivation. Two intervention strategies are proposed - Peer educators as an integral part of the care team and Patient Advisory Groups as a feedback mechanism to enhance effective delivery of patient care in the target population. This exploratory research lays a foundation for the design of targeted interventions to improve linkage to care and enhance medication adherence in African-American women living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26278429

  16. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzell, Anya; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T.; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797

  17. The Association between KIF6 Single Nucleotide Polymorphism rs20455 and Serum Lipids in Filipino-American Women

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    Irma B. Ancheta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Trp719Arg allele of KIF6 rs20455, a putative risk factor for CHD especially in those with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, was investigated in Filipino-American women (FAW, n=235 participating in health screenings in four cities. The rs20455 genotype of each subject was determined by a multiplex assay using a Luminex-OLA procedure. The risk allele Trp719Arg was present in 77% of the subjects. The genotype distribution was 23% Trp/Trp, 51% Arg/Trp, and 26% Arg/Arg. Genotype did not predict the presence of CHD risk factors. Moreover, LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglycerides mean values did not vary as a function of genotype. However, those with the Arg/Arg genotype on statin medication exhibited a significantly higher mean triglycerides level (P<0.01. Approximately 60% of participants regardless of genotype exhibited LDL-C levels ≥100 mg/dL but were not taking medication. Approximately 43% of those with the Trp719Arg risk allele on statins exhibited elevated LDL-C levels. Our study suggests that the Trp719Arg allele of KIF 6 rs20455 is common among Filipino-American women; thus, even with borderline LDL-C levels would benefit from statin treatment. Secondly, many participants did not exhibit guideline recommended LDL-C levels including many who were on statin drugs.

  18. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starla Hairston Blanks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW. Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW- led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW.

  19. Korean American women's perceptions about physical examinations and cancer screening services offered in Korea: the influences of medical tourism on Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kyeung Mi; Jun, Jungmi; Zhou, Qiuping; Kreps, Gary

    2014-04-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of death for Korean-Americans (KAs), while cancer screening rates among KAs have been consistently low. Seven semi-structured focus group interviews with 34 KA women aged 40 or older in the Washington, DC metropolitan area were conducted to explore the perceptions of KA women about seeking physical examinations and cancer screening services in Korea. Data were analyzed using a framework approach. Informants positively perceived the use of health screening services in Korea in comparison to seeking such services in the US. Decision-making factors included cost benefits, high quality services, and more convenient screening procedures in Korea. These benefits outweighed the risks of delaying health care and travelling a vast distance with incurring additional travel costs. Motivations to seek these services in Korea included opportunities to visit their homeland and to enjoy comfortable communication with their native language. The increase of available information about Korean medical services due to the industry's aggressive marketing/PR was identified as a facilitator. Most informants did not recognize possible negative health outcomes of obtaining services in Korea such as inappropriate follow up care if having abnormal findings. Educational programs are needed to educate KAs about the benefits and risks of getting the services in Korea and proper follow up care in the US. Health care providers need to know the different cancer risks and screening needs for this population. PMID:24322599

  20. African American Women's Reports of Racism during Hurricane Katrina: Variation by Interviewer Race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Lustig, Kara; Marrow, Helen B

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of interviewer race on low-income African American female hurricane survivors' reports of racism during Hurricane Katrina and its aftermath (N = 41). Respondents were asked directly about the role of racism during the storm and evacuation by one of three interviewers (two White females and one African American female). Contrary to expectations, respondents were not significantly more likely to agree that racism played a role during the hurricane and its aftermath when with an African American interviewer compared to a White interviewer. However, when speaking to the White interviewers versus the African American interviewer, respondents were significantly more likely to use qualifying and contradictory statements and to make references to other races also being victims of the hurricane. PMID:23459229