WorldWideScience

Sample records for american turkey domestication

  1. American Studies in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gülriz Buken

    2006-01-01

    In the discipline of American Studies in Turkey, the major contribution emanates, on the one hand, from the American Culture and Literature Departments instituted in various Universities in Turkey and, on the other, from the American Studies Association of Turkey. Up till now, unfortunately, no Research and Performance Institute or Center for the Study of America has yet been established to secure the necessary contacts with other similar institutions in Europe and in the United States, to fa...

  2. The Problems of Domestic Workers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldırımalp, Sinem

    2014-01-01

    Women have started to participate in working life in developed and developing countries intensely. Rising of education level, legal arrengements, new labour forms and social changes achieved more women to take place in the labour markets. Nowadays, house service sector has become a prominent work area to fill the gaps and inefficiencies between working womens’ work and houses. Domestic workers have lots of problem causes by working conditions and legal arrangements in Turkey. Long working hou...

  3. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE IN TURKEY: AN EXAMPLE OF AGRI PROVINCE

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞUTAŞ, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aysun; DOĞUTAŞ, Doç. Dr. Cemil

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the profiles of the victims of domestic violence in Ağrı province in Turkey. In this regard, thestudy focuses on the ages of women victims, the number of years of their marriage, having a job or not, and havingmarriage contract or not. Looking at the stories of women victims during the filling a complaint against their abuser,what they did following the domestic violence, and if they demand for government protection, this study exploresthe issues on domestic violence.Withi...

  4. The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cha Ra Mi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the U.S. Methods In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coots (AC and Canada geese (CG were passaged three times in the respiratory tract of specific pathogen free (SPF turkeys and used as aMPV/C P3 virus isolates in subsequent studies. Results Wild bird P3 isolates showed similar growth characteristics when compared to virulent aMPV/C in chicken embryo fibroblast ( CEF cell cultures and their glycoprotein G gene sequence was closely related to the G gene of aMPV/C Colorado reference virus. Three-day-old commercial or SPF turkeys were inoculated oculonasally with wild bird aMPV/C P3 isolates. At 5 and 7 days post-inoculation (DPI, severe clinical signs were observed in both of the AC and CG virus-exposed groups. Viral RNA was detected in tracheal swabs by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. In addition, immunohistochemistry showed virus replication in the nasal turbinate and trachea. All virus-exposed turkeys developed positive antibody response by 14 DPI. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that aMPV/C wild bird isolates induced typical aMPV/C disease in the domestic turkeys.

  5. Domestic Violence against Women in Sivas, Turkey: Survey Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kocacik, Faruk; Dogan, Orhan

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To determine the self-reported prevalence of domestic violence and associated risk factors in the Sivas province of Turkey. Method: Five hundred and eighty-three households were chosen by the method of stratified random sampling. The average age among women was 28.65 ± 4.64. A total of 45.3% of women were in 30-34 age-group, 76.5% were housewives, and 91.2% were married. The data were gathered by performing face-to-face interviews in participants’ homes. Demographic data were obtained...

  6. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Melissa S.; Cardona, Carol J.; Coulombe, Roger A.; Reed, Kent M.

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB1 can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris) are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB1 challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB1 in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Eggs were injected with AFB1 (1 μg) or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24) and wild turkey (n = 15) produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log2 fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB1 effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance. PMID:26751476

  7. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Monson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB1 can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB1 challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB1 in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq. Eggs were injected with AFB1 (1 μg or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24 and wild turkey (n = 15 produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log2 fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB1 effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance.

  8. ABUSED NURSES TAKE NO LEGAL STEPS - A DOMESTIC VIOLENCE STUDY CARRIED OUT IN EASTERN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Selek, Salih; VURAL, Mehmet; Cakmak, Ilknur

    2012-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to evaluate domestic violence among nurses in eastern Turkey. Subjects and methods: Ninety six (96) female nurses with an intimate partner were enrolled. Modified form of Abuse Assessment Screen Questionnaire was used. Results: Twenty two (22.7%) of the participants reported domestic violence. None of them took legal steps. Most frequent domestic violence type was economic abuse (46%). Nurses, whose mothers were exposed to domestic violence, had significant...

  9. The Impact of Turkey's Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Turkey's domestic resources, which are Turkey's historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey's economic interests in the region, affect Turkey's foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics' interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic states are the closer the foreign relations are between Turkey and the Turkic states is applicable to all five republics. In the field of business the study finds that Turkish economy follows a similar pattern in its relations with the Azerbaijani and the Central Asian market. Common policy goals of Turkey and the five states led Turkey to establish close foreign relations with these five regional countries. The hypothesis that the more Turkey has business interests in the Caspian Sea Region the more Turkey will have closer foreign relations with Turkic states is mostly apparent in the case of Azerbaijan. In the area of energy politics Turkey has its strongest link with Azerbaijan. Besides being strong economic partners Turkey is Azerbaijan's biggest supporter in the region against Armenia.

  10. Risk Factors and Interventions for Domestic Violence among Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Irene

    This paper discusses domestic violence, examining its epidemiology for the general population and for two Asian American groups. It reviews data from 10 empirical studies on domestic violence among Asian American women. Qualitative studies stress the impact of family ties, family honor, and shame; religious values; fear of the legal system; and…

  11. Turkey's Kurdish Question: Changing Domestics and Regional Dynamics through the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Kayhan Pusane, Özlem

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1980s, international developments have always influenced Turkey's Kurdish question in general and the country's struggle with the PKK in particular. Arab Spring, which started in Tunisia in 2010 and quickly spread to several countries of the Middle East and North Africa, also significantly shaped the various decisions of the PKK, as well as Turkey's policies to resolve the Kurdish Question in recent years. This paper examines how the Arab Spring has influenced domestic and regional ...

  12. Turkish peak business organizations and the europeanization of domestic structures in Turkey: meeting the European Union membership conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Atan, Serap

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the possible impact of the European Union (EU) on the development of the relations between business interest groups and the government in Turkey, more precisely on the interventions of the business interest groups in domestic policy-making. Hence it deals with the links between the progress of the relationship between Turkey and the EU and the development of domestic interest group activity in Turkey. The progress of Turkey’s relations with the EU enhanced the visibility o...

  13. The domestic livestock resources of Turkey: status, use and some physical characteristics of mules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Wilson, R Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Mules are known to have been used as carriage and riding animals in Mesopotamia and Anatolia as early as the beginning of the second millennium BC but may have been first bred in Anatolia in the Third Century BC. They have thus contributed to Turkey's cultural, social and economic heritage for more than 4,000 years and were an ancient component of its guild of domestic animals and overall biodiversity. Once bred country-wide most mules are now introduced "illegally" to the southeast and east from Iraq and Iran. Mules are now bred only in one small area in north-central Turkey close to the Black Sea. The major role as a pack animal has been usurped since the mid-twentieth century by increasing use of motor transport and numbers have declined rapidly since the early 1980s. In 2009 about 51,500 mules remained in Turkey, mainly distributed in discrete areas in the extreme southeast, the centre-south, the northwest and the centre-north. In the southeast the main role is in cross-border trade (much of it described as smuggling) whereas in other areas mules are used in support of pastoral and farming operations. Mules in Turkey are of various colours but are generally large and strong compared to those found in many other countries. Pressure on numbers will continue and will exert a negative effect on a part of Turkey's national heritage and domestic animal biodiversity. PMID:24833995

  14. The pathogenicity of avian metapneumovirus subtype C wild bird isolates in domestic turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian metapneumovirus subtype C (aMPV/C) causes severe upper respiratory disease in turkeys. Previous report revealed the presence of aMPV/C in wild birds in the southeast regions of the United States. In this study, aMPV/C positive oral swabs from American coot (AC) and Canada goose (CG) were passa...

  15. Genetic Diversity of Eight Domestic Goat Populations Raised in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Zafer; Kurar, Ercan; Ozsensoy, Yusuf; Altunok, Vahdettin; Nizamlioglu, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the intra- and intergenetic diversities of eight different goat populations in Turkey including Hair, Angora, Kilis, Yayladag, Shami, Honamli, Saanen, and Alpine. A total of 244 DNA samples were genotyped using 11 microsatellites loci. The genetic differentiation between breeds was considerable as a result of the statistically significant (P 0.05). Heterozygosity values ranged between 0.62 and 0.73. According to the structure and assignment test, Angora and Yayladag goats were assigned to the breed they belong to, while other breeds were assigned to two or more different groups. Because this study for the first time presented genetic data on the Yayladag goat, results of structure analysis and assigned test suggest that further analyses are needed using additional and different molecular markers. PMID:27092309

  16. Comparison of debt financing between international and domestic firms: Evidence from Turkey, Germany and UK

    OpenAIRE

    Halit Gonenc

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – To investigate relative differences in debt financing between international and domestic industrial firms operating in Turkey, Germany and the UK. Design/methodology/approach – Analysis depends on multivariate regression analysis, while controlling the effects of firm-specific characteristics, industry effects and controlling shareholders. The approach is to examine the effects of the features of the financial markets and institutions in the sample countries. Findings – Turkish inte...

  17. Rethinking Agricultural Policy in Turkey: International Context and Domestic Developments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Nil Doner

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide a broad conceptual and historical outline of how rural development policies have been determined through technocratic policies in economic and political terms rather than participatory and transparent decision making processes. Given that the state and managerial expert groups have been the main architects of rural development and agricultural policies along with suprastate organizations such as the IMF and the World Bank, this study offers in-depth coverage of policy variations in two different cases: State-led planned economy and free market economy. This study seeks to assert that just as under the state-led economy model, the free market economy and technocratic policies in coordination with the IMF and the World Bank blocked mass mobilization and genuine democratic participation in the Turkish countryside. Neither the neoliberal and individualist nor the statist and corporatist perspectives were able to come to terms with the idea of a representative and transparent approach to policy-making processes in Turkey.

  18. Earliest Mexican Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo in the Maya Region: implications for pre-Hispanic animal trade and the timing of turkey domestication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin Kennedy Thornton

    Full Text Available Late Preclassic (300 BC-AD 100 turkey remains identified at the archaeological site of El Mirador (Petén, Guatemala represent the earliest evidence of the Mexican turkey (Meleagris gallopavo in the ancient Maya world. Archaeological, zooarchaeological, and ancient DNA evidence combine to confirm the identification and context. The natural pre-Hispanic range of the Mexican turkey does not extend south of central Mexico, making the species non-local to the Maya area where another species, the ocellated turkey (Meleagris ocellata, is indigenous. Prior to this discovery, the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo in the Maya area dated to approximately one thousand years later. The El Mirador specimens therefore represent previously unrecorded Preclassic exchange of animals from northern Mesoamerica to the Maya cultural region. As the earliest evidence of M. gallopavo found outside its natural geographic range, the El Mirador turkeys also represent the earliest indirect evidence for Mesoamerican turkey rearing or domestication. The presence of male, female and sub-adult turkeys, and reduced flight morphology further suggests that the El Mirador turkeys were raised in captivity. This supports an argument for the origins of turkey husbandry or at least captive rearing in the Preclassic.

  19. EVALUATION OF SERVICE QUALITY OF AIRWAY COMPANIES GIVING DOMESTIC SERVICES IN TURKEY WITH FUZZY SET APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Handan DEMIR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, service quality has become a major phenomenon with the requirement of meeting consumer demands in the best way brought along with the rising competition between companies. Airway transportation is preferred more and more during the recent years. Many qualitative and quantitative criteria are considered while evaluating service criteria in airway transportation. In this context, evaluation of service quality is a decisionmaking problem with many criteria. The purpose of this study is to evaluate service quality of domestic airway companies in Turkey. In this study; fuzzy TOPSIS method which is one of the most preferred fuzzy MCDM methods, extension of multi criteria decision making methods in fuzzy environments, considering qualitative and quantitative criteria together and giving opportunity to make group decisions in fuzzy environments. As a result, evaluation was made based on service quality criteria for the most preferred airways companies in Turkey and these companies were ranked according to their levels of service quality.

  20. Tests of stationarity and cointegration of health care expenditure and gross domestic product: an application to Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiymaz, Halil; Akbulut, Yasemin; Demir, Ahmet

    2006-12-01

    This study examines the long-run relationship among the per capita private, public, and total health care expenditure and per capita gross domestic product and population growth of Turkey. We find some evidence of multivariate cointegrating relationships among the health care expenditure and gross domestic product, and population growth. We further find a bivariate cointegrating relationship between private health care expenditure and per capita gross domestic product. Accordingly, a 10% increase in gross domestic product would translate into a 21.9% increase in total health care expenditure while controlling population growth. The income elasticity of health expenditure is found to be greater than 1, implying that health care is a luxury good in Turkey. Finally we note that there exists one-way causality running from per capita gross domestic product to various definitions of health care expenses. PMID:17109146

  1. Effects of Alcohol Use and Anti-American Indian Attitudes on Domestic-Violence Culpability Decisions for American Indian and Euro-American Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esqueda, Cynthia Willis; Hack, Lori; Tehee, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have focused on the unique issues surrounding American Indian violence. Yet American Indian women are at high risk for domestic abuse, and domestic violence has been identified as the most important issue for American Indians now and in the future by the National Congress of American Indians. American Indian women suffer from domestic…

  2. ADR Effects on Domestic Latin American Financial Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Mendiola

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to revisit and extend previous research work that examines the ADR-listing effects on the trading process of all the domestically-listed stocks in the main Latin American exchanges. The most important result is consistent with the idea of a greater isolation (from global markets of the singly-listed stocks in the post-cross-listing period. These results persist over the cross-listing months. As expected, the cross-listed stocks become more integrated in the post-cross listing period.

  3. Detection of Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica in domestic cats in the Ege Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paşa, Serdar; Tetik Vardarlı, Aslı; Erol, Nural; Karakuş, Mehmet; Töz, Seray; Atasoy, Abidin; Balcıoğlu, İ Cüneyt; Emek Tuna, Gülten; Ermiş, Özge V; Ertabaklar, Hatice; Özbel, Yusuf

    2015-09-15

    Leishmaniosis is a group of diseases caused by different species of Leishmania parasites in mammalian species. The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Leishmania spp. DNA in cats using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays targeting internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) and heat-shock protein 70 gene (Hsp70) regions with Leishmania species-specific primers and probes. Blood samples were collected from 147 cats (73 female; 74 male) in the endemic regions for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the western provinces of Turkey and analyzed using two RT-PCR assays. Additionally, Hsp70 RT-PCR products were sequenced. ELISA assays for feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) were also carried out for 145 of the 147 samples. Overall, 13/147 (8.84%) cats were positive for Leishmania by RT-PCR (4 L. major and 9 L. tropica). FIV and FeLV antibody and/or antigen was detected in 4 and 5 cats among Leishmania DNA positives, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate and report the presence of L. major and L. tropica infections in a large group of domestic cats in Turkey. The results obtained indicate that species identification of Leishmania is essential for epidemiological understanding and that clinical signs alone are not indicative for leishmaniosis in cats, as it is in dogs. This study suggests that extensive research should be carried out in cat populations in order to fully understand the role of cats in the epidemiology of the disease. PMID:26277567

  4. Analysis and comparison of domestic femicide cases in the cities of Diyarbakir & Tekirdag, Turkey: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Eyyup; Kumral, Bahadir; Canturk, Nergis; Erkol, Zerrin; Okumus, Ali Mazhar

    2015-08-01

    Court decision files from 2007 to 2012 were examined retrospectively in the Criminal High Courts of Diyarbakir and Tekirdag to analyse and compare domestic femicides in Diyarbakir and Tekirdag, Turkey, according to different fundamental characteristics. In total, 58 assailants were convicted of 50 femicides during this period. There were no so-called 'honour killings' in Tekirdag, while 16 (37.2%) of the homicides were honour killings in Diyarbakir. Policies to prevent violence against women, extending the means of access to post-violence services and reinforcing the law, policies and action plans to end this type of violence could be effective in decreasing cases of domestic femicide. PMID:26165653

  5. Prevalence of domestic violence and associated factors among married women in a semi-rural area of western Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gokler, Mehmet Enes; Arslantas, Didem; Unsal, Alaettin

    2014-01-01

    Objective : To determine the prevalence of domestic violence and associated factors among married women in a semi-rural area of western Turkey. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted between March 1 and April 29, 2011 on married women aged 15-49 years. Exposure to at least one of these types of violence at least one time within the past one year was regarded as the presence of domestic violence. Chi-square test and Logistic Regression analysis was used for statistical analysis. Results...

  6. Isolation and characterization of Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in the commercial turkey, quail flocks and domestic pigeons by bacteriological and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banani, M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT is a respiratory pathogen which has been isolated throughout the world from numerous bird species. The present study was designed to isolate and characterize the ORT from domestic turkeys, quails and pigeons. For this purpose, 250 samples from each bird species (turkey, quail and pigeon with or without respiratory signs were tested by taking of tracheal swabs. In addition, respiratory tissue samples (tracheal and lung, from 250 slaughtered turkeys, 50 slaughtered quails and 100dead pigeons were also subjected to culture for ORT as tracheal swabs. Respiratory tissues were also tested for bacterial DNA by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. In general, 30 isolates including 4 isolates from turkeys, 3 isolates from quails and 23 isolates from pigeons were identified as ORT by bacteriologicalmethod and then confirmed by PCR. Bacterial DNA was detected in 20%, 50% and 35% of respiratory tissues in turkeys, quails and pigeons respectively. Five ORT isolates from pigeon and all four isolates from turkey showed smaller colony size, while other isolates had larger colonies when cultured in blood agar. Fifty percent of the isolates with larger colony but none of the isolates with small colony size could agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs. All of the isolates were sensitive to danofloxacin and chloramphenicolwhile more than 90% of pigeon isolates were resistant to ampicillin. All of turkey and quail and 30% of pigeon isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Our ORT isolates showed high identity (98%- 100% insequence of 16S rRNA gene to related data in GeneBank.

  7. Characterization by chemometry of the most important domestic and foreign olive cultivars from the National Olive Collection Orchard of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diraman, H.

    2010-07-01

    In this study, twelve samples from domestic olive cultivars (Memecik, Uslu, Domat, Ayvalik, Celebi, Memeli, Erkence, Gemlik, Cakir, Turkey. Basic qualitative parameters (free fatty acidity, peroxide value and spectrophotometric indexes), color scale and fatty acid profiles were determined in virgin olive oils obtained from domestic and foreign olive cultivars growing in the same pedoclimatic conditions. Large variations were observed among the cultivars, despitethe fact that the cultivars are planted in the same pedoclimatic conditions. Oils extracted from 21 samples obtained from domestic and foreign olive cultivars in the National Olive Genetic Bank of Turkey were classified with the multivariete stastistical method (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA) based on their fatty acid profiles. According to the HCA results (Euclidian method), the oils obtained from the domestic and foreign cultivars were separated into two and three groups, respectively. (Author).

  8. Characterization by chemometry of the most important domestic and foreign olive cultivars from the National Olive Collection Orchard of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, twelve samples from domestic olive cultivars (Memecik, Uslu, Domat, Ayvalik, Celebi, Memeli, Erkence, Gemlik, Cakir, Izmir Sofralik, Ceki7te and Cilli) and nine samples from foreign olive cultivars (Picholine, Arbequnia, Hojiblanca, Manzanilla, Frontoio, Leccio, Saurani, Baroui and Meski) were investigated. All olive samples were collected from the National Olive Collection Orchard at Kemalpa - Izmir, Turkey. Basic qualitative parameters (free fatty acidity, peroxide value and spectrophotometric indexes), color scale and fatty acid profiles were determined in virgin olive oils obtained from domestic and foreign olive cultivars growing in the same pedoclimatic conditions. Large variations were observed among the cultivars, despitethe fact that the cultivars are planted in the same pedoclimatic conditions. Oils extracted from 21 samples obtained from domestic and foreign olive cultivars in the National Olive Genetic Bank of Turkey were classified with the multivariete stastistical method (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA) based on their fatty acid profiles. According to the HCA results (Euclidian method), the oils obtained from the domestic and foreign cultivars were separated into two and three groups, respectively. (Author).

  9. Multi-platform next-generation sequencing of the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo: genome assembly and analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami A Dalloul

    Full Text Available A synergistic combination of two next-generation sequencing platforms with a detailed comparative BAC physical contig map provided a cost-effective assembly of the genome sequence of the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo. Heterozygosity of the sequenced source genome allowed discovery of more than 600,000 high quality single nucleotide variants. Despite this heterozygosity, the current genome assembly (∼1.1 Gb includes 917 Mb of sequence assigned to specific turkey chromosomes. Annotation identified nearly 16,000 genes, with 15,093 recognized as protein coding and 611 as non-coding RNA genes. Comparative analysis of the turkey, chicken, and zebra finch genomes, and comparing avian to mammalian species, supports the characteristic stability of avian genomes and identifies genes unique to the avian lineage. Clear differences are seen in number and variety of genes of the avian immune system where expansions and novel genes are less frequent than examples of gene loss. The turkey genome sequence provides resources to further understand the evolution of vertebrate genomes and genetic variation underlying economically important quantitative traits in poultry. This integrated approach may be a model for providing both gene and chromosome level assemblies of other species with agricultural, ecological, and evolutionary interest.

  10. The occurrence of fibromuscular dysplasia in the arteries of domestic turkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Julian, L. M.

    1980-01-01

    Fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) was found in 24 of 31 turkeys studied. This is the first species other than man in which FMD has been reported. FMD in turkeys simulates lesions variously known as fibromuscular dysplasia, fibromuscular hyperplasia, and medial hyperplasia in man. It occurred in turkeys from 8 weeks to 1 year of age and was evenly distributed between the sexes (11 males, 13 females). FMD in turkeys is a disease of arterioles and small arteries 44 mu to 666 mu in diameter. A lesion...

  11. Excerpt from Domestic Subjects: Gender, Citizenship, and Law in Native American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth H. Piatote

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from Beth H. Piatote, Domestic Subjects: Gender, Citizenship, and Law in Native American Literature (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013.Reprinted with permission from Yale University Press.

  12. Perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward domestic violence against women among Latin-American immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Asur Fuente; Marisol Lila; Juan Herrero; Enrique Gracia

    2009-01-01

    In the present study we explore the relationship between perceived neighbourhood social disorder (perceived crime and insecurity in residential areas) and attitudes toward domestic violence against women in Latin-American population in Spain (N =350). Perceived severity of incidents of domestic violence, its acceptability, victim-blaming attitudes and knowing victims of domestic violence are analyzed among immigrant population. Results show that the perception of neighbourhood social disorder...

  13. Perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward domestic violence against women among Latin-American immigrants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asur Fuente

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we explore the relationship between perceived neighbourhood social disorder (perceived crime and insecurity in residential areas and attitudes toward domestic violence against women in Latin-American population in Spain (N =350. Perceived severity of incidents of domestic violence, its acceptability, victim-blaming attitudes and knowing victims of domestic violence are analyzed among immigrant population. Results show that the perception of neighbourhood social disorder is associated with a lower perceived severity of incidents of domestic violence, with greater acceptability of violence, and higher degree of victim-blaming. Also, those residents of disorder neighbourhoods also know more victims of domestic violence. These results suggest the social characteristics in residential areas, such as disorder and deprivation, configure an impoverished social context that might favour attitudes that condone domestic violence against women.

  14. An Analysis of the Co-integration and Causality Relationship between Electricity Consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in the Developing Countries: An Empirical Study of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ayhan Kapusuzoglu; Mehmet Baha Karan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, long term relationship and causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product in Turkey for the period 1975-2006 were investigated. As a result of the co-integration analysis made firstly in this study, the long term relationship between the electricity consumption and gross domestic product was found. According to the result of Granger causality analysis made in accordance with vector error correction model, it was determined that there was unidi...

  15. Domestic Violence during Pregnancy in an Eastern City of Turkey: A Field Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslantas, Hulya; Adana, Filiz; Ergin, Filiz; Gey, Neriman; Bicer, Nejla; Kiransal, Nilufer

    2012-01-01

    Violence is an increasing and important community health problem that can be seen in any area of human life. Limited studies were found about domestic violence among pregnant women and its relation with social status of women. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and types of domestic violence during pregnancy, factors affecting…

  16. Characterization by chemometry of the most important domestic and foreign olive cultivars from the National Olive Collection Orchard of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dıraman, Harun

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, twelve samples from domestic olive cultivars (Memecik, Uslu, Domat, Ayvalik, Çelebi, Memeli, Erkence, Gemlik, Çakir, Izmir Sofralik, Çekişte and Çilli and nine samples from foreign olive cultivars (Picholine, Arbequnia, Hojiblanca, Manzanilla, Frontoio, Leccio, Saurani, Baroui and Meski were investigated. All olive samples were collected from the National Olive Collection Orchard at Kemalpaşa – Izmir, Turkey. Basic qualitative parameters (free fatty acidity, peroxide value and spectrophotometric indexes, color scale and fatty acid profiles were determined in virgin olive oils obtained from domestic and foreign olive cultivars growing in the same pedoclimatic conditions. Large variations were observed among the cultivars, despitethe fact that the cultivars are planted in the same pedoclimatic conditions. Oils extracted from 21 samples obtained from domestic and foreign olive cultivars in the National Olive Genetic Bank of Turkey were classified with the multivariete stastistical method (Hierarchical Cluster Analysis, HCA based on their fatty acid profiles. According to the HCA results (Euclidian method, the oils obtained from the domestic and foreign cultivars were separated into two and three groups, respectively.

    En este estudio, doce muestras de diferentes variedades de aceituna autóctonas (Memecik, Uslu, Domat, Ayvalik, Çelebi, Memeli, Erkence, Gemlik, Çakir, Izmir Sofralik, Çekişte y Çilli y nueve muestras de diferentes variedades foráneas (Picholine, Arbequnia, Hojiblanca, Manzanilla, Frontoio, Leccio, Saurani, Baroui and Meski fueron investigadas. Todas las muestras de aceitunas fueron obtenidas del National Olive Collection Orchard de Kemalpaşa – Izmir, Turquía. Los parámetros básicos cualitativos (acidez, valor de peróxidos e índices espectrofotométrico, escala de color y perfil de ácidos grasos fueron determinados en aceites de oliva virgen obtenidos de las aceitunas de las variedades aut

  17. Structural Adjustment and Trade in Turkey: A General Equilibrium Analysis of the Export-Led Versus Domestic Demand-Led Strategies of Development

    OpenAIRE

    Yeldan, A. Erinc

    1987-01-01

    This paper attempts to assess the feasibility of the current strategy of manufactured export-led growth for Turkey over the Fifth and Sixth Five-Year Plan periods (1985-1994). The explicit hypothesis of the paper is that a domestic market, wage-goods oriented development strategy with agriculture leading the process will be more conducive to Turkey's long-term economic growth, as compared to an export-oriented strategy. The simulation experiments are conducted with the aid of a dynamic micro-...

  18. Prevalence of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys of Kermanshah province, west of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Farid; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Chalechale, Abdolali; Seidi, Shahin; Gholizadeh, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    This study was carried out on free-range backyard chickens, domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) and turkeys from May 2012 to April 2013 to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites in Kermanshah province, west of Iran. Of the total of 600 free-range backyard chickens (185 ♂ and 415 ♀), 700 domestic pigeons (278 ♂ and 422 ♀) and 150 turkeys (53 ♂ and 97 ♀), 389 (64.83 %), 608 (86.85 %) and 54 (36 %) were infected with one or more parasites respectively. Eleven ectoparasites species including five of lice (50.16 % Menacanthus stramineus, 13.66 % Menopon gallinae, 4.83 % Cuclotogaster heterographus, 5.16 % Goniocotes gallinae, 2.33 % Goniodes gigas), three of mites (26.33 % Dermanyssus gallinae, 8.5 % Ornithonyssus bursa, 7 % Cnemidocoptes mutans), one of tick (78.66 % Argas persicus) and two of flea (12.33 % Echidnophaga gallinacea, 2 % Pulex irritans) were found in the backyard chickens. The domestic pigeons were infected with six species of parasites including: Columbicola columbae (61.7 %), M. gallinae (10.43 %), M. stramineus (9 %), D. gallinae (8.28 %), Argas reflexus (74.14 %) and Pseudolynchia canariensis (27.7 %). The ectoparasites species recorded in turkeys were M. gallinae (14 %), M. stramineus (8 %), D. gallinae (12.66 %), C. mutans (6 %), A. persicus (24.66 %) and E. gallinacean (6 %). This is the first survey to determine the prevalence and identify the species of ectoparasites among free-range backyard chicken, domestic pigeons and turkeys in Kermanshah province. The high prevalence rate of ectoparasites in free-range backyard chickens and domestic pigeons indicates that parasitic infection is a common problem in this area. PMID:27413319

  19. Strasbourg Court Jurisprudence and Human Rights in Turkey: An Overview of Litigation, Implementation and Domestic Reform

    OpenAIRE

    Kurban, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    The central research question this report addresses is whether and if so to what extent the ECHR and the ECtHR case law served to enhance the protection in Turkey of human rights in general and minority rights in particular. In doing so, the critical role the EU accession process has played in this regard by exerting external political pressure on the Turkish Government will be evaluated as a major positive variable. The report assesses the nature of claims raised by minorities and minority r...

  20. A Structural VAR Analysis of Electrical Energy Consumption and Real Gross Domestic Product: Evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sabri Azgun

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between the aggregate electricity consumption, the sub-components of electricity consumption (industrial electricity consumption, residential and commercial, government offices and street illuminations) and real gross domestic product by means of a structural VAR model for the Turkish economy. The main purpose of the paper is to examine the impact of the aggregate electricity consumption innovations and the sub-components of electricity consumption innovat...

  1. Semen preservation and artificial insemination in domesticated South American camelids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, P Walter; Alarcon, V; Baca, L; Cuba, Y; Ordoñez, C; Salinas, J; Tito, F

    2013-01-10

    Semen preservation and artificial insemination in South American camelids are reviewed giving emphasis to work done in Peru and by the authors. Reports on semen evaluation and the preservation process indicate that semen of alpacas and llamas can be manipulated by making it liquid first. Collagenase appears to be the best enzyme to eliminate viscosity. Tris buffer solution maintains a higher motility than egg-yolk citrate, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), Triladyl, and Merck-I extenders. Cooling of semen took 1h after collected, and equilibrated with 7% glycerol presented a better motility and spermatozoa survival at 1, 7, 15 and 30days after being slowly frozen in 0.25mL plastic straws. Trials of artificial insemination with freshly diluted semen and frozen-thawed semen are encouraging and needs to be tested extensively under field conditions. Recently, fertility rates varied from 3 to 67%. Semen preservation and most important, artificial insemination appear to be a reality, and could be used to improve the genetic quality of alpacas and llamas. PMID:23153624

  2. Encountered Difficulties of Female Research Assistants at Domestic and Business Life in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şule ERGÖL

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In our country which has patriarchal social structure in which the primary responsibility of a woman is her home and her family, female research assistant face problems while balancing their business and domestic life. Especially in the beginning of scholarship, and yet both students and research assistants have a professional working women to balance their work and family life with a gender perspective on the issues important to reveal the density. This study is a research in descriptive type made for the aim of determining the opinions of women working as research assistant regarding their business and family lives and the problems they meet, through the gender perspective. Sample of research is composed of 246 women who worked as research assistant. Data were collected by face-to-face interview method and data collection form developed by the researchers. Descriptive statics and Chi-square tests was used during the evaluation of data. It stated by 27.2 % of the female participators of the study that there is an inequality between men and women in business life. 31.7 % of the female research assistants think that to have a higher status than male causes problems in domestic life. It is determined that the roles imposed on woman at home traditionally (cooking, washing the dishes, laundering, ironing, cleaning the house, cloth repairing are performed by the most of the women included in research; and works such as repair of house, shopping, invoice payment are performed mostly by the man.

  3. An Analysis of the Co-integration and Causality Relationship between Electricity Consumption and Gross Domestic Product (GDP in the Developing Countries: An Empirical Study of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Kapusuzoglu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, long term relationship and causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product in Turkey for the period 1975-2006 were investigated. As a result of the co-integration analysis made firstly in this study, the long term relationship between the electricity consumption and gross domestic product was found. According to the result of Granger causality analysis made in accordance with vector error correction model, it was determined that there was unidirectional causality relationship between electricity consumption and gross domestic product. According to the findings, it can be said that in the process of economic growth in Turkey, gross domestic product amount was an important variable which affected the electricity consumption positively in the long term and therefore it can be said that it is important to provide the primary energy sources used in electricity energy production and electricity energy in the long term and in time without any interaction for preventing the failures which may arise during the process of economic growth and for the stability of the economic production and consumption process

  4. A 16-Year Examination of Domestic Violence among Asians and Asian Americans in the Empirical Knowledge Base: A Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2008-01-01

    Until recently, research studies have implied that domestic violence does not affect Asian American and immigrant communities, or even Asians abroad, because ethnicity or culture has not been addressed. In this content analysis, the authors examined trends in publications in leading scholarly journals on violence relating to Asian women and…

  5. Salmonella enterica in imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt: repertoire of virulence genes and their antimicrobial resistance profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, K M; Marouf, S H; Erfan, A M; AlAtfeehy, N

    2014-12-01

    Globalisation and international trade facilitate the rapid spread and transmission of foodborne pathogens. This study was designed to determine the serovars, distribution of virulence genes (invA, avrA, ssaQ, mgtC, siiD, sopB, gipA, sodC1, sopE1, spvC, bcfC) and antibiotic resistance profiles in salmonellae recovered from imported and domestic day-old turkey poults in Egypt. The prevalence of salmonellae in the imported poults was 4% (6/150): S. Enteritidis was the most frequent isolate (1.3%; 2/150), followed by Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle and a non-typeable strain, each with 0.7% (1/150) prevalence. The prevalence of salmonellae in the domestic poults was < 2% (2/150) and serotyping indicated a prevalence of 1.3% (1/150) for both Typhimurium and Altona. In polymerase chain reaction screening, the genes invA, sopB and bcfC were detected in all the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates (100%); the gene gipA was absent from all isolates. Carriage of invA, sopB and bcfC among the Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, Altona and non-typeable isolates was associated with a core pattern of resistance to three antibiotics: streptomycin, nalidixic acid and chloramphenicol. The detection of S. Enteritidis, Typhimurium, Virchow, Larochelle, and Altona in turkey poults has important implications because these serovars are a significant cause of foodborne illness and enteric fever in humans. PMID:25812224

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Questions in American, Singaporean, and Turkish Mathematics Textbooks Based on the Topics Covered in 8th Grade in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Eren; Sezer, Renan

    2014-01-01

    This study offers a comparative analysis of questions found in Turkish, Singaporean, and American mathematics textbooks and workbooks based on topics covered in the 8th grade mathematics curriculum in Turkey. To this end, the study utilizes the 3-dimensional framework developed by Li. When the questions in the textbooks and workbooks…

  7. Quantification of emissions from domestic heating in residential areas of İzmir, Turkey and assessment of the impact on local/regional air-quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air pollution in cities is a major environmental problem principally in the developing countries. The quantification of emissions is a basic requirement to assess the human influence to the atmosphere. The air quality generally shows decreases with the major contribution residential emissions and meteorology in the winter season in the big cities. Poor meteorological conditions especially inversion events for the efficient mixing of air pollutants occurred during the winter months in İzmir. With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxides (SO2), nitrogen dioxides (NO2), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO) together with greenhouse gases which are carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) in İzmir for 2008–2009 winter season. The results showed that the most affected residential areas were central districts in the city center from domestic heating emissions due to meteorological condition and demographic reasons. Air quality modeling is a great tool for assisting policy makers how to decrease emissions and improve air quality. At the second part of the study, calculated emissions were modeled by using CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system and plotted in the form of air pollution maps by using geographical information system to determine the locations and estimate the effects of the new residential areas that will be established in the future in İzmir. - Highlights: • The air pollution in cities especially shows raises with the opening of winter season. • Air pollution has become a problem due to rapid urbanization in İzmir, Turkey. • The air quality shows decreases with the residential emissions in İzmir's winter. • With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for pollutants. • The impact of emissions on local air-quality is determined by using dispersion model

  8. Domestic Violence and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights: Jessica Lenahan (Gonzales) v United States

    OpenAIRE

    McQuigg, Ronagh

    2012-01-01

    On 21 July 2011 the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights issued its much awaited decision in the case of Jessica Lenahan (Gonzales) v United States. In a landmark decision the Commission found the United States of America to be in violation of the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man 1948 due to the failure of the state to protect a victim of domestic violence and her children. This paper analyses the Lenahan decision and its significance for the United States. In particu...

  9. STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR PROTECTION AGAINST DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: THE INTER-AMERICAN COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS DECISION IN LENAHAN (GONZALES) AND ITS APPLICATION IN CANADA

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Koshan

    2015-01-01

    In August, 2011, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights released its decision in Jessica Lenahan (Gonzales) v United States, a case concerning states’ obligations to use due diligence in responding to domestic violence. The IACHR found that the United States had breached several articles of the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man for failing to protect Lenahan and her children from domestic violence, and made wide-reaching recommendations at both the individual and sys...

  10. Attitudes toward Police Response to Domestic Violence: A Comparison of Chinese and American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ivan Y.; Su, Mingyue; Wu, Yuning

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence has emerged as a worldwide concern since the 1970s. Although a substantial amount of efforts have been devoted to assessing various aspects of domestic violence, a relatively small number of studies have empirically examined factors that shape public attitudes toward police response to such incidents. Even rarer is investigating…

  11. Assessing the performance of the Latin American and Caribbean banking industry: Are domestic and foreign banks so different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Sáez-Fernández

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relative performance of domestic and foreign banks in the Latin American and Caribbean banking industry. Data Envelopment Analysis is used to compute technical efficiency scores for the years 2001 and 2013. Our main contribution is twofold. On the one hand, we assess performance at the level of the management of specific production factors. On the other hand, we distinguish program efficiency from managerial efficiency, which allows us to evaluate whether the differences in technical efficiency between national and foreign banks are due to the use of different technologies (program efficiency or, conversely, differences in the managerial capacities of managers in both categories of banks (managerial efficiency. The results show that foreign banks are more efficient than domestic ones, and provide evidence that the greater efficiency of foreign banks is mostly due to the superior technology they use.

  12. Domestic politics and international expertise in the history of American disability policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, E D

    1989-01-01

    Architects of American disability policy partly emulated British and German social insurance programs through the New Deal's early years. Thereafter, social planners failed to tailor European manpower and income-maintenance programs to gain American lawmakers' approval. Distrust between the planners and legislators, intrafederal bureaucratic competition, congressional responsiveness to particular interests, and revitalized federalism all politically hindered Social Security from becoming a full-fledged social insurance program. Public/private-sector linkages, court actions, and voluntaryism constitute other salient American means of aiding persons with disabilities. PMID:2532295

  13. Cultural Adaptation on the Web: A Study of American Companies' Domestic and Chinese Websites

    OpenAIRE

    Nitish Singh; Hongxin Zhao; Xiaorui Hu

    2003-01-01

    In the academic literature and the business press, there seems to be a lack of guidance and lack of cross-cultural models to support companies localization strategies on the Web. To address this deficit in literature and to provide marketers and Web designers with insights into website localization, this paper conducted a comparative analysis of the U.S. based international companies’ domestic websites and their Chinese websites. A framework to measure cultural adaptation on the Web is pres...

  14. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Domestic American and International Chinese Students' Social Media Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiong; Mocarski, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This survey of American and Chinese students at a state university in the southern United States measures Social Media (SM) use and attitudes toward SM. The purpose of this study was to investigate student perception and motivation of social media communication and the relationship between student cultural values and their social media…

  15. Using the PEN-3 Model to Plan Culturally Competent Domestic Violence Intervention and Prevention Services in Chinese American and Immigrant Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yick, Alice G.; Oomen-Early, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is two-fold. First, it applies the PEN-3 model to the topic of domestic violence within the Chinese American and Chinese immigrant community. The PEN-3 model was developed by Collins Airhihenbuwa, and it focuses on placing culture at the forefront of health promotion. It consists of three dimensions: cultural…

  16. On the Wind Energy in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, including Turkey, to use renewable energy sources. Today, clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life, not only for Turkey but also for the world. As wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to the fossil fuels that pollute the atmosphere, systems that convert wind energy to electricity have developed rapidly. Turkey is an energy importing count...

  17. Water Policies of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from waterborne diseases. Water politics is politics affected by water and water resources. There are connections between water resources, water systems, and international security and conflict. Today, water is a strategic resource in the globe and an important element in many political conflicts. Turkey can be faced severe water-stress in the near future. Therefore Turkey has to develop realistic and feasible water policy for future generations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(3.000: 327-338

  18. The Impact of Turkey’s Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how Turkey's domestic resources, which are Turkey's historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey's economic interests in the region, affect Turkey's foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics' interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic ...

  19. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Edirne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuc, Burcu; Ekuklu, Galip; Avcioglu, Serap

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence against married women in Edirne, Turkey. This is a cross-sectional study which included a representative sample of the married women living in the Provincial Center of Edirne. The total past year prevalence of some forms of physical domestic violence is 34% in…

  20. German social preferences towards Turkey's EU accession

    OpenAIRE

    Gerenli, Fatma

    2010-01-01

    This thesis attempts to explain the social preferences in Germany towards Turkey's EU membership, the factors that shape these preferences and their relative impact on Turkish accession. The major political parties and the public are identified as two significant domestic groups whose preferences influence the national position on Turkey. Particularly, the impact of SPD, CDU/CSU, the Greens and FDP is substantial in this respect. The public impact is more limited and indirect. The attitude of...

  1. Corporate governance in Turkey: an overview and some policy recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Ararat, Melsa; UĞUR, Mehmet; Ugur, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    Both international and domestic developments have combined to bring the corporate governance (CG) debate to the fore in Turkey. Given this increased interest in CG matters and the significance of Turkey as an emerging market, we provide an overview of the Turkish CG framework with two objectives in mind: (i) contributing to the growing CG literature by presenting the main aspects of the CG practice in Turkey, and (ii) locating the Turkish CG reform agenda within the global debate especially ...

  2. Efficacy of a Recombinant Turkey Herpesvirus H5 Vaccine Against Challenge With H5N1 Clades 1.1.2 and 2.3.2.1 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses in Domestic Ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantin-Jackwood, Mary J; Kapczynski, Darrell R; DeJesus, Eric; Costa-Hurtado, Mar; Dauphin, Gwenaelle; Tripodi, Astrid; Dunn, John R; Swayne, David E

    2016-03-01

    Domestic ducks are the second most abundant poultry species in many Asian countries and have played a critical role in the epizootiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI).In this study, the protective efficacy of a live recombinant vector vaccine based on a turkey herpesvirus (HVT) expressing the H5 gene from a clade 2.2 H5N1 HPAI strain (A/Swan/Hungary/4999/ 2006) (rHVT-H5/2.2), given at 3 days of age, was examined in Pekin ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus). The vaccine was given alone or in combination with an inactivated H5N1 clade 2.3.2.1 reverse genetic (rgGD/2.3.2.1) vaccine given at 16 days of age, either as a single vaccination or in a prime-boost regime. At 30 days of age, ducks were challenged with one of two H5N1 HPAI viruses: A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-2721/2013 (clade 1.1.2) or A/duck/Vietnam/NCVD-1584/2012 (clade 2.3.2.1.C). These viruses produced 100% mortality in less than 5 days in nonvaccinated control ducks. Ducks vaccinated with the rgGD/2.3.2.1 vaccine, with or without the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine, were 90%-100% protected against mortality after challenge with either of the two H5N1 HPAI viruses. The rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine alone, however, conferred only 30% protection against mortality after challenge with either H5N1 HPAI virus; the surviving ducks from these groups shed higher amount of virus and for longer than the single-vaccinated rgGD/2.3.2.1 group. Despite low protection, ducks vaccinated with the rHVT-H5/2.2 vaccine and challenged with the clade 1.1.2 Vietnam virus had a longer mean death time than nonvaccinated controls (P = 0.02). A booster effect was found on reduction of virus shedding when using both vaccines, with lower oropharyngeal viral titers at 4 days after challenge with either HPAI virus (P Pekin ducks against H5N1 HPAI viruses and only a minor additive effect on virus shedding reduction when used with an inactivated vaccine in a prime-boost regime. PMID:26953940

  3. STATE RESPONSIBILITY FOR PROTECTION AGAINST DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: THE INTER-AMERICAN COMMISSION ON HUMAN RIGHTS DECISION IN LENAHAN (GONZALES AND ITS APPLICATION IN CANADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Koshan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In August, 2011, the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights released its decision in Jessica Lenahan (Gonzales v United States, a case concerning states’ obligations to use due diligence in responding to domestic violence. The IACHR found that the United States had breached several articles of the American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man for failing to protect Lenahan and her children from domestic violence, and made wide-reaching recommendations at both the individual and systemic level. This comment will discuss the IACHR decision in Lenahan and analyze its implications for Canada’s compliance with its international obligations towards domestic violence in the judicial, legislative and policy spheres. Focusing on the concept of access to justice as articulated by the IACHR, the analysis will show that Canada may be in violation of its obligations for failing to provide access to justice in the context of domestic violence, and otherwise in violation of its due diligence obligations under international law. En août 2011, la Commission interaméricaine des droits de l’homme [CIDH] rendait sa décision dans l’affaire Jessica Lenahan (Gonzales c. les États-Unis, cas ayant trait à l’obligation des États de faire preuve d’une diligence raisonnable dans ses interventions en matière de violence familiale. La CIDH a conclu que les États-Unis avaient contrevenu à plusieurs articles de la Déclaration américaine des droits et devoirs de l’homme, étant donné qu’ils n’avaient pas protégé Mme Lenahan et ses enfants contre des actes de violence familiale. Elle a formulé des recommandations d’une grande portée tant au plan individuel que systémique. Le présent commentaire porte sur la décision de la CIDH dans l’affaire Lenahan et présente une analyse des répercussions de cette décision en ce qui concerne le respect par le Canada de ses obligations internationales à l’égard de la violence familiale

  4. Domestic Violence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙犁

    2014-01-01

    <正>Most of the attention on domestic violence is on the violence perpetrated by the husband towards the wife.It seems that little attention is paid on the infliction of domestic violence on children.Domestic violence on children should not be neglected.Domestic violence on children is everywhere.A survey

  5. The farm animal genetic resources of Turkey: sheep – I – common and rare breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Orhan; Wilson, Richard Trevor; Kor, Aşkın; Ertuğrul, Mehmet; Cengiz, Fırat

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity richness indicates the economic and genetic wealth of a country. Turkey is like a bridge between Europe and Asia; hence it has been used by traders, travelers or intruders for centuries which cause existence of considerable different kinds of domestic animals. Although some of genotypes extinct or crucially under extinction risk, domestic livestock resources of Turkey have not been adequately appraised. On one hand new breeds are domesticated by human, on the other hand much more...

  6. Identification of Monetary Policy Shocks in Turkey: A Structural VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Kilinc; Cengiz Tunc

    2014-01-01

    This paper tries to identify the monetary policy shocks in Turkey during the explicit inflation targeting period starting from 2006 using a structural VAR approach. We model Turkey as a small open economy where domestic variables are affected by external factors like commodity prices and global demand but domestic variables do not affect external variables. We analyze the effects of four shocks on Turkish economy: two domestic shocks of interest rates and risk premium, and two external shocks...

  7. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  8. Domestic violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... called child abuse . Domestic violence is a crime. Types of Domestic Violence Domestic violence can include any of these behaviors: ... weapon Sexual abuse, forcing someone to have any type of sexual activity he or she does ... abuse, including name-calling, humiliation, threats to the person ...

  9. Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    İbiloğlu, Aslıhan Okan

    2012-01-01

    Domestic violence is a problem that affects the lives of many women both in urban and rural areas. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are the most prevalent mental health problems related with domestic violence. Children of battered women are also affected from the domestic violence. Children who grow up in families with intimate partner violence may suffer from a range of behavioral and emotional disturbances that can be associated with the perpetration or experiencing of violence...

  10. Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Lažanová, Jana

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the issue of domestic violence, which currently represents the social problem. At the turn of the 20th and 21 century, domestic violence, thanks the increasing interest of women's social and nonprofit organizations, is becoming a social problem to be solved. The work is divided into two parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical part describes the characteristics of domestic violence, its types, forms and profiles of victims and actors of violence. The legal...

  11. Turkey and the European Union: will the paradigm shift?

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Alonzo W.

    1996-01-01

    Turkey seeks to become a full partner in the 'European club' by joining the European Union (EU) and Western European Union (WEU) in addition to her current membership in NATO. This has not happened despite a long and intensive effort by Turkey to be accepted, nor will it happen in the foreseeable future. The advantages Turkish membership would bring are outweighed by EU concerns about foreign, economic and domestic policy. Most significant among these are increased exposure to Greek-Turkish i...

  12. Trading Up to High Income : Turkey Country Economic Memorandum

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Turkish exporters substantially broadened market reach, exporting to 137 countries at present, up from 90 in 2000. Turkey's global market share rose substantially from 0.55 percent of global imports in 2002 to 0.82 percent in 2012. Turkey aims to become one of the ten largest economies in the world by 2023, with per-capita gross domestic product (GDP) rising to United States (U.S.) $25,000...

  13. Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslihan Okan Ibiloglu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is a problem that affects the lives of many women both in urban and rural areas. Depression and post-traumatic stress disorder are the most prevalent mental health problems related with domestic violence. Children of battered women are also affected from the domestic violence. Children who grow up in families with intimate partner violence may suffer from a range of behavioral and emotional disturbances that can be associated with the perpetration or experiencing of violence later in life. The mental health care sector can have a significant impact on publicizing and addressing violence against women and children and on reducing the mental health problems related to abuse. This review focuses on domestic violence victims, most of whom are women and children victimized by their spouses or parents, along with the causes and cycle of domestic violence.

  14. Status of Oil and Natural Gas in the World and Turkey, and Studies conducted at ITU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    /barrel for oil and $230/1000 m3 for natural gas), Turkey's expenditure for the imports of oil and natural gas in 2005 is about $20 billion. So, assuming that current oil and natural gas prices will be stationary at these levels or those projections given by EIA 2005 report of Energy Information Association of US DOE will hold true for the next 25 years (e.g., projections show that oil prices will not be less than $36/barrel, while the wellhead natural gas prices will not be less than $272/1000 m3 in nominal dollars for the next 25 years), it is clear that Turkey's expenditure for oil and natural gas imports will not be less than a couple of ten billion American dollars by considering our increasing population and growing economy and industry for the years to come. This certainly necessitates and puts the picture clearly in front of us how much emphasis as a nation we should give to increase our domestic exploration and production activities as well as to invest to research and development in petroleum and natural gas engineering to mitigate our expenditure for the imports of oil and natural gas in the future. The roles of governments, national and international oil and gas companies as well as universities are critical in achieving such objectives. In this paper, first historical development on the use of oil and natural gas as energy resources are given. Then, their current status and future status in the world and Turkey are discussed in terms of their reserves, production, and consumption in comparison with other energy sources. Finally, the basic research and industrial projects conducted to date and planned to be studied in the near future by the department of petroleum and natural gas engineering in Istanbul Technical University are given.

  15. The Effects of the European Debt Crisis on the Economic Future of Turkey. A Country Study

    OpenAIRE

    Richard J. Hunter Jr.; Mehmet Kilic

    2013-01-01

    This article will discuss a simple question: How has Turkey be affected by the European Debt Crisis? The article will discuss general economic conditions in Turkey and provide important economic indicators, describe the history of Turkey’s involvement with the European Union, and relate how Turkey avoided the worst negatives of the European crisis. The article argues that Turkish domestic demand has been the driving force behind Turkey’s economic growth, and describes the important role of Tu...

  16. Political economy of regional power: Turkey under the AKP

    OpenAIRE

    Bank, André; Karadag, Roy

    2012-01-01

    In 2006/2007 Turkey became a regional power in the Middle East, a status it has continued to maintain in the context of the Arab Spring. To understand why Turkey only became a regional power under the Muslim AKP government and why this happened at the specific point in time that it did, the paper highlights the self-reinforcing dynamics between Turkey's domestic political-economic transformation in the first decade of this century and the advantageous regional developments in the Middle East ...

  17. Turkey Genome Sequencing Consortium awarded grant from United States Department of Agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Whyte, Barry James

    2009-01-01

    Virginia Tech and the University of Minnesota have been awarded a two-year, $908,280 grant by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to complete sequencing the genome of the domesticated turkey, Meleagris gallopavo.

  18. The electrical power sector in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Turkey, highest priority is given to domestic resources, whenever economical. Imports are considered in case it is feasible. Diversification of resources is also taken into account. Efficient utilization of the resources and energy conservation are ensured ant supported. Measures for environmental and public health protection are taken into consideration during power generation and planing. In energy investments, foreign capital and domestic private sector are promoted along with the public sector. A rational structure in energy pricing is applied without any subsidies. Feasible interconnections and higher electric power exchanges with neighbouring countries are supported

  19. Turkey in 2000’s

    OpenAIRE

    Mahfi Egilmez

    1999-01-01

    Although the global financial crisis that prevailed in the past two years has not affected the Turkish economy directly, it definitely had negative effects on the growth rate. In parallel to these developments, Turkey entered a stand-by arrangement with the IMF. The target variables considered in this agreement covers the economic issues on public sector balance, primary surplus, public sector borrowing requirement, international reserves and net domestic assets as variables targeted. In orde...

  20. Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender. Domestic violence affects people of all ... ABOUT The Attorney General Budget & Performance Strategic Plans History AGENCIES BUSINESS Business Opportunities Small & Disadvantaged Business Grants ...

  1. Domestic violence.

    OpenAIRE

    Lapierre, Simon

    1994-01-01

    Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992). Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than...

  2. Turkey's energy demand and supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balat, M. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

    2009-07-01

    The aim of the present article is to investigate Turkey's energy demand and the contribution of domestic energy sources to energy consumption. Turkey, the 17th largest economy in the world, is an emerging country with a buoyant economy challenged by a growing demand for energy. Turkey's energy consumption has grown and will continue to grow along with its economy. Turkey's energy consumption is high, but its domestic primary energy sources are oil and natural gas reserves and their production is low. Total primary energy production met about 27% of the total primary energy demand in 2005. Oil has the biggest share in total primary energy consumption. Lignite has the biggest share in Turkey's primary energy production at 45%. Domestic production should be to be nearly doubled by 2010, mainly in coal (lignite), which, at present, accounts for almost half of the total energy production. The hydropower should also increase two-fold over the same period.

  3. Domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-30

    Essential facts Domestic violence and abuse includes any incident or repeated incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between family members or intimate partners (including former partners). It can involve psychological, physical, sexual, financial and emotional abuse, as well as 'honour'-based violence and forced marriage. According to the Office for National Statistics, at least 1.4 million women and 700,000 men aged between 16 and 59 experienced domestic abuse in England and Wales in 2013/14 - equivalent to 8.5% of women and 4.5% of men. PMID:27027171

  4. Mediterranean energy perspectives - Turkey. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This in-depth study provides insight into Turkey's energy profile from the early 1960's to the present and an outlook to 2030. MEP-Turkey presents detailed analysis and data on the supply and demand balance for the major components of the energy sector with particular emphasis on sectoral analysis. It is based on OME's proprietary Mediterranean Energy Econometric Model for Turkey developed for this publication. The outlook to 2030 presents two possible pathways for energy demand based on different assumptions. The conservative scenario considers past trends, policies in force and on-going projects, but takes a cautious approach regarding the implementation and timing of policy measures and planned projects. The proactive scenario assumes effective achievements to lessen dependence on imported fuels by giving emphasis to production of domestic resources, stronger efficiency programmes and a more diversified energy supply mix including more renewable energy. To achieve ambitious energy efficiency levels and implement as much renewable energy sources as foreseen in the Proactive Scenario will require unwavering political will, strong policies and measures, as well as sizeable investments, especially by the private sector. Both scenarios, built from the same assumption for population, economic growth, and international fossil-fuel prices, are based on the premise that energy demand will be met. Turkey's future, stimulated by a booming economy and population, an export-oriented industry and a blossoming domestic market, looks bright. The energy needed to fuel this growth will depend greatly on the paths chosen. In this context, the country finds itself at a historical crossroads in its development, as the energy policy choices it makes today will shape Turkey's energy future and its ability to attract the considerable investments required in the energy industry

  5. Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapierre, Simon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1960s, there has been growing awareness regarding the issue of domestic violence as a form of violence against women, which has been largely influenced by the work of feminist activist and scholars in North America and Europe (Dobash and Dobash 1992. Other terms have been used to describe the same phenomenon, including domestic abuse, spousal abuse, wife battering, marital violence, intimate partner violence. Though there is no doubt that this problem has existed for much more than five decades, the tendency to label it as ‘private matters’ or ‘marital disagreements’ has obscured the reality of women living with abuse in their home. At a general level, domestic violence can be defined as the means used by a man in order to assert his control and domination over his intimate partner, whether they are married or not (Mullender 1996. It can involve incidents of physical and sexual violence, as well as verbal, psychological and financial abuse. Though some of its manifestations may be associated with particular cultural or religious groups – e.g. forced marriage and honour killing in South-Asian communities – domestic violence affects women from all classes and backgrounds.

  6. Income and Education in Turkey: A Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ramazan; Soytas, Ugur

    2006-01-01

    Although the role of education in an economy is emphasized in theoretical studies, empirical literature finds mixed results for the relationship between growth and education. We examine the relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and enrollments in primary, secondary, and high schools, as well as universities in Turkey for 1937-1996, in…

  7. Renewable energy market conditions and barriers in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decentralized wind, hydropower, biogas and biomass, geothermal, solar thermal and solar electricity energy systems are the most commonly found renewable energy technologies promoted for rural energy supply within sustainable developments programs. They are, therefore, seen to have a central place in the practice of sustainable development and in allowing less development countries to bypass the environmentally damaging fossil fuel intensive paths made by industrialized countries. On the political front, many less development countries are critical of pressure on them to adopt environmental energy technologies. Turkey is situated the meeting point of three continents (Asia, Europe and Africa) and stands as a bridge between Asia and Europe. The country is located in southeastern Europe and southwestern Asia. As Turkey's economy has expanded in recent years, the consumption of primary energy has increased. Presently in order to increase the energy production from domestic energy resources, decrease the use of fossil fuels as well as reduce of green house gas emissions different renewable energy sources are used for energy production in Turkey. The share of energy production from renewable energy sources has increased during the last 10 years. Turkey must import most of the energy to meet her needs. Turkey also has a large potential for renewable energies. The lack of knowledge about renewable energy technologies by most policy-makers, potential consumers, and energy firm managers has played against renewable energy developments. The paper presents renewable energy used in Turkey and Europe Union and evaluation of the market conditions and barriers of renewable energy use in Turkey. (author)

  8. Global energy perspective of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global energy demand is growing rapidly at an average rate of 4% per year in parallel with the economy while EU-25 has only 0,8% during the last decade. Total primary energy supply is 87 818 000 toe of which 72% was imported; in comparison the average dependency rate is 49,5% in the EU. Such excessive dependency creates harmful effects on the national economy. Oil and natural gas imports bill was 19,5 billion US $ in 2005. Primary energy demand growth rate is twice as much of the production rate in the period 1980 2004. Fossil fuels accounts for 86% of Turkeys global energy supply in 2004. Population growth rate is one of the major parameters affecting the energy balance. Energy and electricity consumptions per capita are still one third of the EUs average.. Turkeys coal reserves needs to be utilized at higher rate and hydropower, wind power and geothermal energy potentials should be developed in order to decrease the imported energy dependence, soon. Due to the buy or pay bilateral agreements with suppliers, storage capabilities should be realized for excessive natural gas supply. Turkeys average growth rate of electricity production is 8,1% while installed capacity has 8,5% for the last 25 years. The present total installed capacity is 39 020 MW in which renewables has a share of 34%. Total electricity production was 162 TWh in 2005 of which 75,4% was supplied by thermal power plants. Share of natural gas is 44% of the annual electricity production. Considering the present power plants and the ones under construction, electricity supply and demand will be in balance till the year of 2010 (with high demand scenario) or 2015 (with low demand scenario). Nuclear power is being considered for electricity supply security after 2015. But, the general approach for supply security is first to develop the domestic coal reserves, renewable energy resources.

  9. Performance Budgeting in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil Çatak; Canan Çilingir

    2010-01-01

    The effective and efficient use of public resources has vital importance for Turkey. To serve this purpose, public financial management was reformed and a performance budgeting system was launched in Turkey. This article assesses the current situation of the implementation of the performance budgeting system in Turkey from the perspective of public administrations under the general budget. It examines all stages of the performance budgeting process (strategic planning, performance programming...

  10. Foreign Wars and Domestic Prejudice: How Media Exposure to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Predicts Ethnic Stereotyping by Jewish and Arab American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesmann, L. Rowell; Dubow, Eric F.; Boxer, Paul; Souweidane, Violet; Ginges, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    This study was based on the theory that adolescents view scenes of violent ethnic conflicts in the mass media through the lens of their own ethnicity, and that the resulting social-cognitive reactions influence their negative stereotypes about similar ethnic groups in their own country. We interviewed 89 Jewish and 180 Arab American high school…

  11. 76 FR 65748 - Certain Pipe and Tube From Brazil, India, Korea, Mexico, Taiwan, Thailand, and Turkey; Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... countervailing duty order on welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey, the antidumping duty orders on welded... the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (76 FR 38691, July 1, 2011... order on welded carbon steel pipe and tube from Turkey and the antidumping duty orders on welded...

  12. Energy policy and climate change in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of massive emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from the burning of fossil fuels and their climatic impact have become major scientific and political issues. Future stabilization of the atmospheric CO2 content requires a drastic decrease of CO2 emissions worldwide. In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country; with more than half of the energy requirement being supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture contents. Because of increasing energy consumption, air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern for the future in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of the renewable energy sources

  13. The farm animal genetic resources of Turkey: sheep – II – crossbreed and extinct genotypes/breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yılmaz, Orhan; Wilson, Richard Trevor; Cengiz, Fırat; Ertuğrul, Mehmet

    2012-01-01

    Biodiversity richness indicates the economic and genetic wealth of a country. Turkey is like a bridge between Europe and Asia; hence it has been used by traders, travellers or intruders for centuries which resulted with the existence of considerably different kinds of domestic animals. Although some of the genotypes are extinct or are crucially under the risk of extinction, the domestic livestock resources of Turkey have not been adequately appraised. On one hand new breeds are created by hum...

  14. The high susceptibility of turkeys to influenza viruses of different origins implies their importance as potential intermediate hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, S P S; Pantin-Jackwood, M; Yassine, H M; Saif, Y M; Lee, C W

    2010-03-01

    Several previous reports and our studies show that waterfowl-origin influenza viruses can be more easily transmitted to domestic turkeys than chickens. Similarly, studies indicate turkeys to be better hosts for low pathogenic avian influenza viruses isolated from commercial poultry operations and live bird markets in comparison to chickens. Low 50% infectious-dose titers of wild bird as well as poultry-adapted viruses for turkeys further suggest that turkeys can be easily infected following a low-dose exposure. Also, interspecies transmission of swine influenza viruses to turkeys occurs frequently. These findings suggest the role of turkeys as suitable intermediate hosts that can be easily infected with influenza viruses of different origins and that turkeys can act as source of infection for other land-based poultry or even mammals. PMID:20521688

  15. Genome-wide candidate regions for selective sweeps revealed through massive parallel sequencing of DNA across ten turkey populations

    OpenAIRE

    Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J. W. M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Blomberg, L.; Groenen, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is largely used as a meat-type bird. Characterizing genetic variation in populations of domesticated species and associating these variation patterns with the evolution, domestication, and selective breeding is critical for understanding the dynamics of genomic change in these species. Intense selective breeding and population bottlenecks are expected to leave signatures in the genome of domesticate...

  16. Movement ecology of migration in turkey vultures

    OpenAIRE

    Mandel, J. T.; Bildstein, K.L.; Bohrer, G.; Winkler, D W

    2008-01-01

    We develop individual-based movement ecology models (MEM) to explore turkey vulture (Cathartes aura) migration decisions at both hourly and daily scales. Vulture movements in 10 migration events were recorded with satellite-reporting GPS sensors, and flight behavior was observed visually, aided by on-the-ground VHF radio-tracking. We used the North American Regional Reanalysis dataset to obtain values for wind speed, turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), and cloud height and used a digital elevatio...

  17. THE END OF IMF - TURKEY RELATIONSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZUNGUN DENIZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: IMF has been created to make international cooperation on financial matters stronger and for solving the problems of balance of payment. However, the IMF formed policies in order to solve problems of balance of payment till the 1980s, expanded its effectiveness much more by controlling the structural adjustment programs after the 1980s, and undertook the role as an international lender of last resort on crises caused by globalization trends. In developing nations, foreign and domestic deficit occurred due to infrastructural causes that have created economic instabilities portrayed through inflation and unemployment. Especially foreign debt problems sourced by the foreign trade deficit transformed into an economic crisis for these countries. Many countries affected by such economic crisis applied to IMF and its Stabilization Program with the aim of providing economic stability in the hopes of recovering. The important thing here to point out is that the economic programs used by countries during their economic crisis are supported by the IMF in reality. In this situation Mexico and Argentina can be given as a good example. IMF has undertaken the same mission in Turkey with seven stabilization programs put in practice and nineteen Stand-By Arrangements between them. But IMF has failed many times in Turkey just like in many developing countries. This is because IMF did not take into consideration economic and social structure of countries in stabilization programs put in practice. Today, Turkey has reached to an important point from the way of its relationship with IMF; more clearly, Turkey is determined to achieve its future without IMF. Turkey-IMF relationship in the framework of stand-by agreements in the past half century of our economic and political history has come to an ending point. After a period of 51 years of intense relations, Turkey decided to determine its calculations of credit limit by the way of advantages and

  18. Turkey's nuclear power effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey's plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way

  19. Adult Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miser, Rifat; Ural, Ozana; Ünlühisarýklý, Özlem

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the situation and practices of adult education in Turkey in terms of (a) participants, (b) providers, and (c) program areas. The data were derived from published statistical data and one-to-one interaction with adult education providers when such data are unavailable. Turkey has a long tradition of adult education with…

  20. Stop Domestic Violence Against Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IN the beautiful autumn of 1995, women from all over the world gathered at the NGO Forum of the UN Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing to discuss the ugly topic of "women and violence." An American woman said angrily that domestic violence was "as common as giving birth to babies." She denounced the prevalence of the violent behavior that was hidden in families and called upon the participants to strive for women’s dignity and safety. The participants all recognized that domestic violence had become a global

  1. Teaching Human Rights in Turkey: Commentaries on a Single Lesson from Multiple Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Alper Kesten; Joan Brodsky Schur; Kudret Gürsoy

    2014-01-01

    A lesson on human rights in Turkey is analyzed for its representativity and methodology within the Turkish teaching culture from the viewpoint of a Turkish researcher, an American teacher and curriculum developer, and a German teacher.

  2. Keeping Home: Another Look at Domesticity in Antebellum America

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler, Linda Lee

    2011-01-01

    In the eighteenth century and earlier, domesticity functions as the practice of housekeeping. During the American Revolution, republican motherhood set the stage for the concept of domesticity to expand. By the mid-nineteenth century, domesticity becomes connected to womanhood as it develops into a virtue that defines true womanhood. Domesticity also operates as an ideology in the nineteenth century. Are we to assume that all three are identical? Most critics would have us believe so, as th...

  3. The Political Economy of Regional Power: Turkey under the AKP

    OpenAIRE

    André Bank; Roy Karadag

    2012-01-01

    In 2006/2007 Turkey became a regional power in the Middle East, a status it has continued to maintain in the context of the Arab Spring. To understand why Turkey only became a regional power under the Muslim AKP government and why this happened at the specific point in time that it did, the paper highlights the self-reinforcing dynamics between Turkey’s domestic political-economic transformation in the first decade of this century and the advantageous regional developments in the Middle East ...

  4. Agricultural Sector Profile of Turkey in the World

    OpenAIRE

    AYTOP, Yeşim; ÇUKADAR, Muhammed; ŞAHİN, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    Turkey has the 18th largest economy in the world with $820 billion Gross Domestic Product (GDP). At the same time Turkey’s agricultural economy is the 8th largest in the world. The aim of this study is to determine agricultural sector profile of Turkey in the world. The data of the study were obtained from FAO (Food and Agriculture Organisation), WBG (World Bank Group), Turkish Statistical Institute and Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock. According to the results of this study, about...

  5. Security of energy supply in Turkey: Challenges and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy security has recently gained importance for many commercial, industrial, and government facilities. Increasing the security of energy supply is essentially a strategy to reduce or hedge risks that derive from energy use, production and imports. The aim of this paper is to identify the main challenges concerning the security of energy supply in Turkey and to offer solutions. Rapid population growth and economic development in the country have resulted in rapid increases in energy demand in recent years. Turkey is currently heavily dependent on fossil fuels for energy consumption, with oil, natural gas, and coal being the predominant energy sources, accounting for a significant majority of the total energy consumption. Turkey has very limited domestic sources of oil and natural gas, thus it is almost entirely dependent on foreign sources. Due to continuously increase of energy consumption Turkey will be forced to import increasing amounts of fossil fuels. In spite of Turkey's heavy dependence on fossil fuels for energy demand, the country has a large potential for development of renewable resources of every type. In addition, Turkey has considerable thorium reserves as future nuclear fuel source. (author)

  6. The 2000-2001 Financial Crisis in Turkey: A Crisis for Whom?

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, Mathieu; Orhangazi, Ozgur

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we study the consequences of the 2000-2001 financial crisis in Turkey to identify the impacts of the crisis on capital and labor. We uncover three significant empirical effects of this crisis. First, international capital benefited from the crisis by both increasing its total assets in Turkey and income flows from these assets, while large domestic financial capitalists also increased their profits in the aftermath of the crisis. Second, industrial capital benefited via a repre...

  7. The RAPUNZEL TURKEY PROJECT

    OpenAIRE

    Altmann, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    European Demand for organic dried fruits and nuts - Turkish Organic Cultivation “Cultural quality” of an organic product. Rapunzel tries to show it’s experience with organic food/organic farmers/organic farming practices in Turkey.

  8. Growth Facts in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Imrohoroglu

    2009-01-01

    Turkish GDP per working age person grows at a rate of 3.85 percent also turns out to be a period when Turkey falls behind its peers significantly. These observations point to two questions: 1. What factors are responsible for the low relative growth in Turkey compared to Greece, Portugal, and Spain during the 1960-1977 period? 2. What factors are responsible for the slow down of the Turkish economy between 1977-2001?

  9. Republic of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Energy efficiency (EE) is critical to help Turkey continue its trajectory of economic growth in a sustainable manner. The Government of Turkey recognizes this and has placed EE as a key component of its energy strategy and National Climate Change Strategy and Action Plan. Over the past 5-10 years, it has made considerable advances in establishing a strong policy and legal framework, creating a ...

  10. Informatics in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Serhat

    1994-01-01

    In the last twenty years the rapid change in the informatics sector has had economic and social impact on private and government activities. The Supreme Council for Science and Technology of Turkey assigned highest priority to the informatics in its meeting in February 1993. With this advice TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technical Research Council of Turkey) intends to give a strong impulse to development of a research policy in this field.

  11. Competition Policy in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kulaksizoglu, Tamer

    2004-01-01

    This paper evaluates the current competition policy framework in Turkey. A brief history of competition policy is presented. An account of the Law on the Protection of Competition, the main law on competition in Turkey, is given. The structure of the Competition Authority, the body responsi- ble for applying the Law, and the way the enforcement system works are explained. Detailed statistics are given about all the cases submitted to the Competition Authority by 2002. Accoun...

  12. Good Jobs in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Grun, Rebekka; Ridao-Cano, Cristobal; Immervoll, Herwig; Capar, Sinem; Levin, Victoria; Aran, Meltem; Gruen, Carola; Yener, Levent; Cebeci, Tolga

    2013-01-01

    This joint study, by the World Bank and the Turkish Ministry of Development, explores the status and effects of good jobs in Turkey s current economy. After a brief account of economic events, it examines the relationship between growth and employment in Turkey, with a particular regard to the participation of different social groups in the labor market, such as women and youth. It then an...

  13. Nutritional Rickets in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkan, Behzat

    2010-01-01

    Nutritional rickets (NR) remains the most common form of developmental bone disease, in spite of the efforts of clinicians and health care providers to reduce the incidence of the disease in Turkey. Today, it is well known that the etiology of NR exists along a spectrum ranging from isolated vitamin D deficiency to isolated calcium deficiency. In Turkey, almost all NR results from vita-min D deficiency that may have temporary but profound effects on short- and long-term skeletal development. ...

  14. DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Venumadhava; Mayuri Sahay

    2015-01-01

    Domestic violence is a crime which may result in injury or even death for the victim, there is need to understand to cause of domestic violence. Data are reviewed for a variety of studies indicating that history of domestic violence to identify and evaluate different theories of domestic violence. Explain how the theory of violence used dictates the response to domestic violence. Identify domestic violence as intentional, learned behavior designed to achieve power and control over anoth...

  15. Child poverty and regional disparities in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryurt, Mehmet Ali; Koç, Ismet

    2013-01-01

    The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) defines child poverty as the inability of the child to realize their existing potential due to their inability to access resources across different dimensions of life (income, health, nutrition, education, environment, etc.). On the basis of this definition, an attempt has been made in this study to put forth the disadvantaged positions children have in different dimensions of their lives, specifically by taking regional disparities into account. As the data source, the Turkey Demographic and Health Survey 2008 is used, a survey that consists of detailed information about the different dimensions of child poverty. In this study, in order to measure poverty in four different dimensions (education and work, health and nutrition, family environment, and domestic environment), a total of 25 variables were used and descriptive and multivariate analyses were made in order to highlight the regional disparities in child poverty. Principle components analysis conducted through the use of a deficit approach reveals that the variables closely related with education and health and nutrition were the critical dimensions behind child poverty in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that 22.4% of children in Turkey are poor when various dimensions of life are taken into account; the region with the highest child poverty is Central East Anatolia, at 34.9%, while the region with the lowest rate is East Marmara, at 15.6%. PMID:24192673

  16. Economic impact assessment of Turkey's post-Kyoto vision on emission trading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the post-Kyoto period, Turkey strongly emphasizes the establishment of national emission trading system by 2015 and its integration with the EU ETS along its accession process to the EU. In this paper, we study the mechanisms of adjustment and economic welfare consequences of various ETS regimes that Turkey considers to apply by 2020, i.e. regional ETS and international trading within the EU ETS. We conduct our analysis under the current EU 20–20–20 emission target, 20%, and also under its revised version, 30%. We find that Turkey has economic gains from linking with the EU ETS under the 20% cap, in comparison to the domestic ETSs. Despite the EU's welfare loss under linkage in comparison to the case where Turkey has domestic abatement efforts, it still prefers linking as it increases economic well being compared to the case where Turkey does not abate. Under 30% cutback, Turkey has critical output loss under linkage due to high abatement burden on the EU, while the EU is better off as it passes some of its abatement burden to Turkey. Therefore, emission quotas and their allocation across the ETS and non ETS sectors become highly critical in distributing the overall economic gains from bilateral trading. - Highlights: • We conduct welfare analysis of Turkey's post-Kyoto vision on emission trading. • Welfare impacts of having Turkey in the EU ETS via EU accession are analyzed. • Analysis is done with the current EU target of 20%, and the revised target of 30%. • Welfare impacts of linkage on both regions highly depend on the emission targets. • The EU has welfare gains when Turkey engages in abatement actions

  17. Turkey`s Harmless Tango Between East and West

    OpenAIRE

    Mujanovic, Selma

    2014-01-01

    Turkey got actively involved in world politics and international relations after AKP came to power in early 2000s. Turkey`s foreign policy since AKP came to power, has the theoretical basis in Davutoglu`s Strategic Depth. New doctrines rely on historical right inherited from the Ottoman Empire, which contributed towards Turkish pro-active and multi-dimensional foreign policy. Without forgetting traditional Western allies, Turkey has established itself as a regional power in the Balkans, Middl...

  18. Health care expenditures and gross domestic product: the Turkish case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sülkü, Seher Nur; Caner, Asena

    2011-02-01

    Our study examines the long-term relationship among per capita gross domestic product (GDP), per capita health expenditures and population growth rate in Turkey during the period 1984-2006, employing the Johansen multivariate co-integration technique. Related previous studies on OECD countries have mostly excluded Turkey-itself an OECD country. The only study on Turkey examines the period 1984-1998. However, after 1998, major events and policy changes that had a substantial impact on income and health expenditures took place in Turkey, including a series of reforms to restructure the health and social security system. In contrast to earlier findings in the literature, we find that the income elasticity of total health expenditures is less than one, which indicates that health care is a necessity in Turkey during the period of analysis. According to our results, a 10% increase in per capita GDP is associated with an 8.7% increase in total per capita health expenditures, controlling for population growth. We find that the income elasticity of public health expenditures is less than one. But, in the case of private health care expenditures, the elasticity is greater than one, meaning that private health care is a luxury good in Turkey. PMID:20151170

  19. Turkey's global strategy: Turkey and Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Turunc, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Interaction between Turkey and Iraq is rapidly increasing, with economic and strategic interests driving political cooperation, yet there are still longer-term challenges remain to be solved, particularly in relation to energy and water security. Iraq is one of Turkey’s most important trading partners and is becoming an essential source of energy. It attaches great deal of importance to Iraq’s stability and territorial integrity and sees those matters as crucial to its own secu...

  20. Energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. 73 percent of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 percent of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions and Europe. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. Turkey's natural energy resources are quite diversified; with quite abundant coal reserves. Energy forecasts show that primary energy demand would be 117 million TOE in 2005 and 156 million TOE in 2010. Oil has the biggest share (39 percent) in total primary energy consumption, while natural gas has a share of 21 percent and increasing due to the recent diversification efforts of energy resources. Turkey has about 1percent of the total world hydroelectric potential and a considerable potential for electricity generation from wind. As of early 2004, Turkey had electric power generating capacity of around 32,000 megawatts (MW), and was building 13,000 MW more. Since adoption of Electricity Market Law in February 2001, there were significant changes towards liberalisation of power generation market and distribution in the country. Privatization of generation assets is envisaged to start in 2006. The Electricity Market Law set the stage for new supporting laws and regulations as well as new organization of the market: the Energy Market Regulation Agency (EMRA), that oversees the power, natural gas markets, oil markets and liquefied petroleum gases market, including setting tariffs, issuing licenses, and assuring competition; the Energy Market Regulatory Board, which runs the EMRA; the Energy Market Licensing Regulation and the Electricity Market Tariffs Regulation; 4-phase approach towards electric energy market

  1. 'Open for Business': Capitalists and Globalization in Morocco and Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    PATTON, Marcie

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that the response of domestic capitalists to globalization affects how economic globalization is contested and experienced locally. The responses of capitalists, collectively organized in business associations so as to mediate the impacts of globalization, are shown to follow different trajectories in Turkey and Morocco. Both countries rhetorically welcome economic globalization, however, distinctive patterns of state-capital relations (detached, symbiotic) have in...

  2. Clinic-based screening for domestic violence: use of a child safety questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Sisk Doris J; Wahl Richard A; Ball Thomas M

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Domestic violence affects many women during their lifetime. Children living in homes where they are or have been exposed to violence are at increased risk for adverse outcomes. The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Practice, and the American College of Obstetrics/Gynecology have recently joined in recommending routine screening of all families for the presence of domestic violence. We present our experience with an office-based domestic violenc...

  3. The Current Situation of Wind Energy in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Ata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy applications and turbine installations at different scales have increased since the beginning of this century. As wind energy is an alternative clean energy source compared to the fossil fuels that pollute the atmosphere, systems that convert wind energy to electricity have developed rapidly. Turkey’s domestic fossil fuel resources are extremely limited. In addition, Turkey’s geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of wind power. In this context, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. According to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD Turkey theoretically has 166 TWh a year of wind potential. However the installed wind power capacity is approximately 14% of total economical wind potential. In this study, Turkey’s installed electric power capacity and electric energy production are investigated and also the current situation of wind energy in Turkey is examined. The wind data used in this study were taken from Turkish Wind Energy Association (TUREB for the year 2012. This paper reviews the assessment of wind energy in Turkey as of the end of July 2012 including wind energy applications.

  4. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  5. Importance of Birdwatching: Understanding the Profile Birdwatchers in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ÇAKICI, A. Celil; Harman, Serhat

    2006-01-01

    Travel to natural areas and outdoor recreation activities have become a fast growing part of the world tourism industry. It is reported that 69 million American adults identify, photograph and view birds in the 2002 in the U.S. In this paper, we tried to determine the profile of bird­watchers in Turkey. The questionnarie was implemented by internet between the dates June 2005-December 2005. The findings indicate that, most of the birdwatchers in Turkey are young single males, a large number o...

  6. Rethinking Agricultural Policy in Turkey: International Context and Domestic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Nil Doner

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide a broad conceptual and historical outline of how rural development policies have been determined through technocratic policies in economic and political terms rather than participatory and transparent decision making processes. Given that the state and managerial expert groups have been the main architects of rural development and agricultural policies along with suprastate organizations such as the IMF and the World Bank, this study offers in-depth coverag...

  7. Sociocultural determinants of infant and child mortality in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksit, B; Aksit, B

    1989-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to review and integrate international and Turkish research on infant and child mortality. Recent research and multivariate analyses in African, Latin American and Asian countries have revealed that in many countries mother's education is a powerful predictor of child survival. The present review of research in Turkey has indicated that urban/rural and regional differentials in infant mortality have been clearly established as by-products of fertility, contraception, and health surveys covering nationally representative samples. However, there are only a few multivariate explanatory models of infant/child mortality in Turkey to isolate and measure the effects of mother's education in relation to other variables. Nevertheless, existing studies in Turkey seem to suggest that mother's and father's education might link socio-economic, psychocultural, and biomedical variables with each other at community, household, and individual levels, providing clue for the formulation of future research designs and policy decisions. PMID:2648604

  8. Reconsidering the Incompatibility Between European Orientation and Cyprus Policy: Westphalian and Post-Westphalian Approaches to Turkey's Cyprus Policy and the EC/EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Demirtas Bagdonas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent changes in Turkey's Cyprus policy have spurred a new debate as to whether Turkey's foreign policy has been Europeanized, now that the previous sources of tension have seemingly been abated. Focusing on how this policy has been defined in the official discourse in relation to Turkey's European orientation, hence taking European orientation as a domestically constructed discourse, this study seeks to show that it would be problematic to view the government's tendency to refrain from framing the issue as a security issue as an intractable process of according with the EU's stance on the issue. By the same token, if 'Europeanness' is liberated from the preset values and situated in its domestic context, it would be equally misleading to interpret Turkey's security-centered approach to Cyprus as a non-European feature of Turkish foreign policy, and to view the recurrent Cyprus crises as a deviation from Turkey's European orientation.

  9. Nuclear environment in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey has had an average annual GNP growth rate of 6% between 1990 and 1993. In 1993 Turkey's GNP reached 173 billion US dollars while maintaining a 7.6% growth rate, and the per capita income reached 2,883 dollars In 1993 the GNP consisted of 15% agricultural sector, 25% industrial sector and 60% services sector. The agricultural sector has grown very slowly and as a result its share has decreased from 30.7% in 1970. On the other hand, the shares of industrial and service sectors have increased rapidly as the national income has grown. In the next 10 years Turkey is expected to achieve a annual growth rate between 4% and 7% based on the performance of economy over the past 40 years. According to the analysis of the Turkish Industry, the investment in the industrial sector between now and the year 2010 is expected to reach 230 billion US dollar. In order to achieve this goal an additional investment of 50 US billion dollars in the electricity generation sector will be needed between 1990 and 2005. Turkey's energy resources are limited. For this reason, energy shall always be a limited commodity, dependency on imported energy resources shall seriously increase to great proportions. Therefore, nuclear energy is considered as an alternative resource to meet the long term energy requirements of the country

  10. Osteomyelitis in turkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkey osteomyelitis complex (TOC) is a condition in which apparently healthy, usually male birds have infections that are hidden in their bones, joints, and muscles. Some of these birds have a green liver, which provides a method for detecting these carcasses in the processing plant. Our research h...

  11. Media in Contemporary Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arslan

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a reality that media play very substantial role in the production and social distribution of knowledge. İn addition to that, mass media provides the greatest communication opportunities to the people. Also, contemporary media provides very distinctive weapons to obtain power, wealth and prestige in the society. This study aims to analyse contemporary Turkish media. Turkey is one of the most rapidly developing and urbanising countries in the world. Parallel to this rapid development and urbanisation, Turkey has lived through a very important media revolution through out the 1990s. Several international and hundreds of local and national television channels, and more than a thousand radio stations have been broadcasting in contemporary Turkey. As in some other countries, the media are predominantly owned and controlled either by large business groups or the state who dominate economic and political power in Turkey. The Turkish media are financially dependent not only on the state but also on the private entrepreneurs who are the owners of  large scale capital

  12. 1975 Lice, Turkey Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Eastern Turkey. A magnitude 6.7 earthquake that struck the Turkish district of Lice at 12:20 local time (09:20 UTC) on September 6, 1975, killing 2,311 people. The...

  13. Wind energy and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Aynur Aydin; Türker, Yavuz Özhan

    2012-03-01

    The global energy requirement for sustaining economic activities, meeting social needs and social development is increasing daily. Environmentally friendly, renewable energy resources are an alternative to the primary non-renewable energy resources, which devastate ecosystems in order to meet increasing demand. Among renewable energy sources such as hydropower, biopower, geothermal power and solar power, wind power offers distinct advantages to Turkey. There is an increasing tendency toward wind globally and the European Union adjusted its legal regulations in this regard. As a potential EU Member state, Turkey is going through a similar process. The number of institutional and legal regulations concerning wind power has increased in recent years; technical infrastructure studies were completed, and some important steps were taken in this regard. This study examines the way in which Turkey has developed support for wind power, presents a SWOT analysis of the wind power sector in Turkey and a projection was made for the concrete success expected to be accomplished in the future. PMID:21479556

  14. 2002 Turkey Energy Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Report includes developments and variations in energy sector of Turkey in 2002. In addition This report also includes activities and statistics in all the energy sector of our country in 2002. Energy Report hadn't been published in last two years due to some technique reasons

  15. Turkey's Basic Education Programme

    OpenAIRE

    A. Remzi Sezgin

    2000-01-01

    In August 1997, the Government of Turkey greatly increased its efforts to implement eight-year obligatory education, through parliamentary approval of Law No. 4306 for Basic Education. The law mobilises significant resources for a major investment in school facilities through earmarked taxes, establishes a timetable for the Basic Education Programme and streamlines procedures to allow for swift action and implementation.

  16. Bipolar Disorder in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulent Kadri Gultekin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of studies related with bipolar disorder in Turkey did not reveal an epidemiologically qualified field study. Most of the studies are hospital based or clinical studies which did not include a systematical scanning and did not aim to collect any epidemiological data and transfer information to health authorities. The generalizability of these studies to our community is far from being valid and reliable. On the other hand, a profile which will be created by reviewing the findings of these studies performed in various regions of Turkey will have a contribution to knowing the and ldquo;unique to us and rdquo; features of bipolar disorder and determining cultural risk factors. All this information can constitute a basis for formation and development of public mental health services related with bipolar disorder. In Turkey, the need for epidemiologically significant, polycentric, public sampled studies with broad participation is indispensable. Although our psychiatric epidemiology and clinical studies include necessary scientific basis, they are not powerful enough to evaluate the authentic and progressional relations such as rapid urbanization and immigration. The aim of this review is to evaluate and discuss prominent epidemiological findings, deficiencies and possibile future activities related with studies conducted in Turkey about bipolar disorder.. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(2.000: 199-209

  17. Turkey Workforce Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2012-01-01

    Although Turkey experienced prosperous growth during the early and mid-2000s, similar success could not be achieved in increasing the employment rate. The Turkish economy, which had already started to slow down in 2007, was severely affected by the global economic crisis in 2008, and the global financial turmoil led to a sharp contraction starting in the last quarter of 2008. The Recovery ...

  18. Special Education in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melekoglu, Macid A.; Cakiroglu, Orhan; Malmgren, Kimber W.

    2009-01-01

    Special education has been gaining intense attention from governments and educators throughout the world. As a developing country, and official candidate for the European Union, Turkey has been working on issues related to special education provision and inclusive education to improve the quality of services for citizens with disabilities. This…

  19. The "Turkey Buzzard" glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roy G; Brown, D T

    1923-01-01

    The "Turkey Buzzard" is a semi-internally braced monoplane (Fig. 1). The wing is placed above the fuselage for two important aerodynamical reasons: first, because this position minimizes the mutual interference between the wing and the fuselage, and, second, useful lifting surface is utilized with the wing passing over the fuselage instead of through it.

  20. Modelling Domestic Air Transport Demand and Evaluating under Scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Cenk OZAN; Özgür BAŞKAN; Haldenbilen, Soner; Ceylan, Halim

    2014-01-01

    The lack of balance and integration between transportation modes in Turkey is one of the main problems. In this study, domestic air transport demand is modeled and evaluated under scenarios. For this purpose, indexing method which is able to indicate observed monthly and seasonal variations in demand is used. Proposals are suggested in order to overcome the lack of balance between transportation modes. In modeling, purchasing power parity and jet fuel prices as independent variables are used....

  1. The Impact of Turkey’s Domestic Resources on the Turkic Republics of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyma Akkoyunlu

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Turkey’s domestic resources, which are Turkey’s historical, cultural and political relations with the Turkic states and Turkey’s economic interests in the region, affect Turkey’s foreign relations with Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Findings show that the Turkic Republics’ interest in Turkish development model gradually declined starting from the 1994s. The hypothesis that the stronger socio-cultural ties between Turkey and the Turkic states are the closer the foreign relations are between Turkey and the Turkic states is applicable to all five republics. In the field of business the study finds that Turkish economy follows a similar pattern in its relations with the Azerbaijani and the Central Asian market. Common policy goals of Turkey and the five states led Turkey to establish close foreign relations with these five regional countries. The hypothesis that the more Turkey has business interests in the Caspian Sea Region the more Turkey will have closer foreign relations with Turkic states is mostly apparent in the case of Azerbaijan. In the area of energy politics Turkey has its strongest link with Azerbaijan. Besides being strong economic partners Turkey is Azerbaijan’s biggest supporter in the region against Armenia.

  2. Solar potential in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the locations in Turkey receive abundant solar-energy, because Turkey lies in a sunny belt between 36 deg. and 42 deg. N latitudes. Average annual temperature is 18 to 20 deg. C on the south coast, falls to 14-16 deg. C on the west coat, and fluctuates between 4 and 18 deg. C in the central parts. The yearly average solar-radiation is 3.6 kW h/m2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. In this study, a new formulation based on meteorological and geographical data was developed to determine the solar-energy potential in Turkey using artificial neural-networks (ANNs). Scaled conjugate gradient (SCG), Pola-Ribiere conjugate gradient (CGP), and Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) learning algorithms and logistic sigmoid (logsig) transfer function were used in the networks. Meteorological data for last four years (2000-2003) from 12 cities (Canakkale, Kars, Hakkari, Sakarya, Erzurum, Zonguldak, Balikesir, Artvin, Corum, Konya, Siirt, and Tekirdag) spread over Turkey were used in order to train the neural-network. Meteorological and geographical data (latitude, longitude, altitude, month, mean sunshine-duration, and mean temperature) are used in the input layer of the network. Solar-radiation is in the output layer. The maximum mean absolute percentage error was found to be less than 3.832% and R2 values to be about 99.9738% for the selected stations. The ANN models show greater accuracy for evaluating solar-resource possibilities in regions where a network of monitoring stations has not been established in Turkey. This study confirms the ability of the ANN to predict solar-radiation values accurately

  3. Banded karyotype of the Konya wild sheep (Ovis orientalis anatolica Valenciennes, 1856) from Turkey

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arslan, A.; Zima, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 2 (2011), s. 81-89. ISSN 1993-0771 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chromosomes * sheep domestication * Turkey Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.595, year: 2011

  4. Aflatoxins in various food from Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacıbekiroğlu, I; Kolak, U

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1 levels in 62 food samples from Istanbul, Turkey. The total aflatoxin content in dried American cucumber, squash, tomato, okra and saffron samples was found to be 1.7 μg/kg. AFB1 levels in five dried vegetables (red bell pepper, American cucumber, squash, tomato and okra), two tea (linden and jasmine flower) and three spice samples (cardamom, galangal and saffron) were 1 μg/kg. Of the tested samples, 76% exceeded legal limits of total aflatoxin. The highest levels were determined in chestnut (232.9 μg/kg), nutmeg (206.1 μg/kg) and sumac (182.5 μg/kg). These findings confirm the existing knowledge that food should be regularly and effectively controlled. PMID:24779934

  5. La representación del espacio doméstico en cinco poetas de América Latina Mental picture of the domestic atmosphere in five Latin American poets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leisie Montiel Splug

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como propósito cotejar algunos poemas referidos a la vida doméstica, desde la perspectiva de cinco poetas latinoamericanas: María Calcaño, Rosario Castellanos, Lydda Franco Farías, Piedad Bonnet y María Mercedes Carranza. Tal ejercicio de lectura se hace a la luz de fundamentos teóricos tomados de Lily Litvak (Erotismo fin de siglo, Nancy Armstrong (Deseo y ficción doméstica, una historia política de la novela, Nora Domínguez y Carmen Perilli (Fábulas del género, entre otros referentes biblio-hemerográficos cuyos aportes se vinculan con la construcción de elementos poéticos que convergen en la recreación de la casa como espacio privado. Las experiencias de vida, los objetos personales, los sentimientos y las labores cotidianas suelen ser hilos recurrentes que nos permiten llegar a concluir que el modo de ordenamiento de los mismos refleja los distintos tipos de comportamiento conformadores de la identidad compleja de la mujer latinoamericana. Dicha complejidad se mueve entre un tiempo presente y una tradición que fungen como directrices en la poética de las autoras arriba nombradas. Bien sea acatando las tradiciones o rebelándose contra ellas, las cinco poetas asumen -desde su tiempo presente- la postura que más se aviene con sus intereses y expectativas, de tal manera que obtenemos como resultado la aparición de voces sinónimas donde se alojan dos constantes: una sabiduría y una sensibilidad refinadas hasta el punto de reinterpretar la cotidianidad y el sentido común como asuntos susceptibles de ser poetizados.The purpose of this paper is to compare some poems, which refer to domestic life from the perspective of five Latin American poets: María Calcaño, Rosario Castellanos, Lydda Franco Farías, Piedad Bonnet y María Mercedes Carranza. This reading is done based on the theoretical fundamentals taken from Lily Litvak (Erotismo fin de siglo, Nancy Armstrong (Deseo y ficción doméstica, una

  6. Some aspects on hydraulic energy and environment in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is not rich in petroleum and natural gas resources and is dependent on energy. Electricity generation in Turkey from its own domestic resources is, at present, about 40% and is expected to be at 20% by the year 2020. It has been planned that the maximum capacity for hydraulic and other national resources will be reached by the year 2020. This means that the total electricity generated by domestic resources is to be 245 TWh/yr, and the remaining electricity demand of about 302 TWh/yr for the year 2020 must be ensured by imported resources. In Turkey, hydropower projects are part of integrated water resources development. Most new powerplants will be developed as build, operate and transfer (BOT) or build, own and operate (BOO ) projects with the private sector. It is expected that many foreign investors and financiers will also be interested in the Turkish hydropower market. For a sustainable development the next investments should be made for clean technologies such as hydropower. Depending upon the latest technological developments, other economic and political factors will also affect the quality of the environment

  7. France/Japan/Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to sustain its steady economic growth Turkey wishes to build 3 nuclear power plants in the next future. In 2010 an agreement was signed with Russia to build the first one on the Akkuyu site in the south region. In last may an agreement was signed between Turkey and Japan to open exclusive trade talks for the construction of a second nuclear power plant that will be localized near the Black sea 320 km away from Ankara. This plant will home 4 reactors probably of the ATMEA1 type, provided by Atmea, the co-enterprise between Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) and Areva. Turk authorities have justified this choice by highlighted the Japanese know-how concerning resistance to earthquakes and the technological quality of Areva. (A.C.)

  8. From Crop Domestication to Super-domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, D.A.; Balázs, E; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2007-01-01

    Research related to crop domestication has been transformed by technologies and discoveries in the genome sciences as well as information-related sciences that are providing new tools for bioinformatics and systems' biology. Rapid progress in archaeobotany and ethnobotany are also contributing new knowledge to understanding crop domestication. This sense of rapid progress is encapsulated in this Special Issue, which contains 18 papers by scientists in botanical, crop sciences and related disc...

  9. Nursing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Steven L

    2006-10-01

    The current discussion on the nursing shortage needs to focus as much on nursing job satisfaction and retention as on nursing recruitment and education. Selected aspects of the motivational psychology of Abraham Maslow, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, and Frederick Hertzberg are here discussed in light of the challenges-opportunities of nursing in Turkey and elsewhere. Also discussed is an innovative program to support the application of nursing theory and professional development in Toronto, Canada. PMID:16982724

  10. Poverty trends in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Șeker, Sirma Demir; Jenkins, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides new evidence about poverty trends in Turkey between 2003 and 2011 and the factors accounting for them. We give particular attention to issues of statistical inference, and the choice of the poverty line and the poverty measure. Our robust conclusion is that absolute poverty declined rapidly between 2003 and 2008 but fell only slightly between 2008 and 2011. Changes in relative poverty were negligible throughout. Using poverty decomposition methods, we argue that the rate o...

  11. Wind energy in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanagasioglu, Mehmet [Interwind Ltd., Zurich (Switzerland)

    1999-01-01

    Wind and wind energy has always played an important role in the historical and economical development of Asia Minor and the geographical area covered by the Republic of Turkey today. The ancient city of Troia probably became rich with harbor fees from commercial vessels, which could not sail up the Dardanelles because of strong north-easterly winds and swift currents. As early as 1389 AC wind mills were already dominant landmarks and found their way even into naval maps. In 1940s wind mills ground corn, pumped water to fields and even powered first radio sets at the Anatolian country side. Like elsewhere, with the onsets of oil era and construction of large hydroelectric and fossil fuel power plants this renewable energy sources was forgotten in Turkey until recently. Today there is a serious intention on part of Turkish authorities to promote wind energy. The Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources approved the first B.O.T. wind park with 12 x 600 kW turbines in December 1997 and the contract text was initialled on April 3, 1998. By the time we present this paper this wind park should be in operation along with the first Autoproducer wind park with 3 x 500 kW turbines, which was connected to the grid on February 20, 1998. Efforts to include wind energy also in the B.O.O. Law are also continuing. We at Interwind estimate the usable wind energy potential in Turkey, at around 8,000 MW. However, how much of this potential can be utilised in the near future will depend on three factors; 1) Definition of the specific place of renewable energy sources in the overall energy politics of Turkey. 2) Reinforcement of infrastructure of high wind locations as a matter of priority. 3) Revision of legal frame work for independent power producers to address the realities of the present and demands of the future. (Author)

  12. Turkey's globalizing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Elitok, Secil Pacaci; Straubhaar, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The end of the Cold War has been a catalyst for Turkish economic relations with its neighbors. Turkey moved from the periphery to the center of a region that is transforming politically, socially and economically very fast. It is now surrounded by 13 sovereign nation states, which are more or less open to international trade and factor movements. All these new nation states have become potential partners for all kinds of economic activities. Due to their proximity, they are easily accessible ...

  13. Turkey Priorities Report 2013

    OpenAIRE

    OECD

    2013-01-01

    As a continuation of the 2013 SIGMA assessments and as part of a longer-term programme of work, SIGMA has identified country priorities for public administration reform (PAR) for Turkey. Priorities cover the overall PAR needs of the country, including areas which were not covered by the assessments. Priorities in areas outside the scope of SIGMA assessments are based on other analytical sources and SIGMA’s practical experience of working with the country. SIGMA proposes priority 2020 targets ...

  14. Peasantry of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan Çaya

    2015-01-01

    Turkey was considered a traditional agrarian state until recent times on one hand. But on the other hand, the country with her young population and under new influences is undergoing fast transformations in the direction of urbanization. The roots embedded in traditions; in any case; continue to operate, sometimes openly and sometimes implicitly and come to surface whenever the occasion presents itself. The verbal peasant culture is rich. The Peasant origins of the country must be well unders...

  15. Privatization in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kjellstrom, Sven B.

    1990-01-01

    State capitalism has been a basic tenet of the developing strategy for Turkey for half a century, with import-substituting industrialization through state economic enterprises (SEEs) as a guiding principle. By 1980 a serious economic and political crisis called for a reassessment of economic policies. Policy reorientation was radical : from import substitution to export promotion, from interventionism to market forces, and from promotion of SEEs to promotion of the private sector. The state's...

  16. Animal Production in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    SARICA, Şenay; Ulutaş, Zafer; ŞAHİN, Aziz

    2004-01-01

    Animal sector in Turkey has changed considerably in the last few years. Although the most significant advancements have occurred in the poultry sector, the cattle and small ruminants sector could not achieve similar improvements. Reasons of the depression in the cattle and small ruminants sector are the lack of breeding animal materials and high quality feed sources, insufficient disease control, disorganized and small size of the animal farms, lack of infrastructure, poor education levels of...

  17. Turkey : Gas Sector Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to assist policymakers by proposing a pragmatic and flexible program of change which will enable Turkey to develop a modernized gas market structure. The note is supportive of the objectives of the natural gas market law and does not call for fundamental changes in it. Rather, it suggests some modification of the law's present rigidities. The context for the not...

  18. Sociology Education in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bulut, Yücel

    2011-01-01

    Sociology as a discipline followed by Ottoman intellectuals after 1890s. It has entered in university programs in 1914 and then followed a different pathway. After 1980s the number of sociology departments increased very fast while it was under 10. With the high increasing rates caught in last years this number reached 58. With the 13 Social Science High School the importance of Sociology raised in Turkey. In this paper, the phases and changes in sociology education will be discussed especial...

  19. Leishmaniasis in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, U Z; Balcioğlu, I C; Taylan Ozkan, A; Ozensoy, S; Ozbel, Y

    2002-10-01

    Leishmaniases are widespread in most countries in the Mediterranean basin, including Turkey. Two forms are observed in Turkey; Leishmania infantum is responsible from visceral leishmaniasis (VL), and L. tropica causes cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Phlebotomus sergenti, P. papatasi, P. major and P. syriacus are considered to be the probable vectors, and dogs are the main reservoir of L. infantum, while P. sergenti is the main suspected vector of L. tropica.VL is sporadically seen mainly in the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Central Anatolia Regions, but CL is endemic, especially in the Southeastern and Mediterranean Regions. Major touristic sites are free of both infections, and no infection is reported in any tourist. Mean number of annual VL and CL cases reported to Ministry of Health are 40 and 1,204, respectively, in the last four years. These data suggest that both VL and CL represent a public health problem in Turkey, but a decline is observed in the number of cases with both infections in recent years. PMID:12387909

  20. Turkey and natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is a developing country with a population of 56 millions and approximately $ 2604 per capita income. Geographically she is located among the energy rich countries whereas almost half of her energy requirement is met by imports. Turkey is relatively well endowed with hydro-power and lignite resources, some limited amount of oil, gas and coal resources exist and there is significant geothermal potential in the country. Environmental issues are increasingly important consideration in energy policy decisions in the world. Energy production, transportation and use are contributing to environmental degradation to a certain extent. Protection of the environment and public health from pollution arising from energy production and consumption activities is one of the principles of Turkish national energy policy. In conjunction with this policy the 'Environment Law' was promulgated in 1983 and 'The Regulation on Protection of the Air Quality' in order to control all kinds of emissions in the form of soot, smoke, fines and particulate and to prevent the adverse impacts of the air pollution, was issued in October 1986. Policy of diversification of energy sources and the environmental issues which were explained above brought the natural gas usage into the energy scene in Turkey. 6 figs., 4 tabs

  1. The Gender Wage Gap and Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizer, Anna

    2010-09-01

    Three quarters of all violence against women is perpetrated by domestic partners. This study exploits exogenous changes in the demand for labor in female-dominated industries to estimate the impact of the male-female wage gap on domestic violence. Decreases in the wage gap reduce violence against women, consistent with a household bargaining model. These findings shed new light on the health production process as well as observed income gradients in health and suggest that in addition to addressing concerns of equity and efficiency, pay parity can also improve the health of American women via reductions in violence. PMID:25110354

  2. Refugee movements and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirisci, K

    1991-12-01

    There has been a long tradition in the Ottoman Empire and the Turkish Republic of receiving refugees. There were Jewish refugees from the Spanish Inquisition, Hungarians and Poles fleeing revolts in 1848-9, and those of Turkish descent and usually from the Balkans. Concurrent with this trend is the history of refugees and immigrants leaving Turkey, such as many Armenians, Greeks and Jews leaving at the turn of the century, and after 1923 and the Treaty of Lausanne. Little is currently published on the topic. This article defines a refugee; provides an overview of the refugee problems of the 1980's due to Bulgarian, Kurdish, and Turkish refugees; and the legal and political aspects. As a country of origin, there is discussion of the political and economic aspects of Turkish asylum seekers in Europe. The potential refugee flows to and from Turkey are also examined. I) For this study, refugees are victims of political violence and are persecuted for political or religious beliefs, ethnic or racial background, or war. In Turkey, there are national refugees, international refugees outside the Convention, and UNHCR Convention refugees. During the 1980's all 3 groups were arriving: from eastern Europe, Iranian Kurds, Iraqis, and ethnic Turks from Bulgaria and Afghanistan. The Turkish restricted acceptance of the 1951 Convention on Refugees creates serious humanitarian and security consequences for refugees other than those from eastern Europe and of Turkish ethnicity. Political considerations play an important role in treatment where security threats outweigh humanitarian need. The case is given for Kurdish refugees. II) Asylum seekers from Turkey in Western Europe was determined between 1986-90 to be 185,000 from applications. These figures have risen steadily due to the political instability and military activity of areas bordering Iraq and Syria, the Emergency Region. In addition there are economic and employment problems, and there has been a suspension of human

  3. Ant colony optimization approach to estimate energy demand of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts to shed light on the determinants of energy demand in Turkey. Energy demand model is first proposed using the ant colony optimization (ACO) approach. It is multi-agent systems in which the behavior of each ant is inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants to solve optimization problem. ACO energy demand estimation (ACOEDE) model is developed using population, gross domestic product (GDP), import and export. All equations proposed here are linear and quadratic. QuadraticACOEDE provided better-fit solution due to fluctuations of the economic indicators. The ACOEDE model plans the energy demand of Turkey until 2025 according to three scenarios. The relative estimation errors of the ACOEDE model are the lowest when they are compared with the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) projection

  4. Native American Foods and Cookery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tom; Potter, Eloise F.

    Native Americans had a well-developed agriculture long before the arrival of the Europeans. Three staples--corn, beans, and squash--were supplemented with other gathered plants or cultivated crops such as white potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkins, and peanuts. Native Americans had no cows, pigs, or domesticated chickens; they depended almost…

  5. De-domestication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Gemmen, Bart; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou;

    2010-01-01

    De-domestication is the deliberate establishment of a population of domesticated animals or plants in the wild. In time, the population should be able to reproduce, becoming self-sustainable and incorporating 'wild' animals. Often de-domestication is part of a larger nature restoration scheme......, aimed at creating landscapes anew, or re-creating former habitats. De-domestication is taken up in this paper because it both engages and raises questions about the major norms governing animals and nature. The debate here concerns whether animals undergoing de-domestication should be looked upon as...... wild or non-wild and the effect this has on questions about how they should be treated. It also concerns the value of nature, and the kind and degree of nature management considered appropriate. The paper first describes actual de-domestication practices and considers the character of human duties to...

  6. Domestic violence against children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  7. Domestic violence against children

    OpenAIRE

    Mihić Biljana D.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the author is analysing definitions and basic notions related to domestic violence against children, as one of the most serious forms of violence. The special chapter deals with effects of violence against children and causes of domestic violence against them. Also, the author is analysing different forms of social reaction and considering the problem of legal regulation of mandatory reporting domestic violence against children.

  8. Motor fuel prices in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world's most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsive to price increases caused by an increase in either pre-tax prices or taxes. Therefore, fuel market in Turkey is open to opportunistic behavior by firms (through excessive profits) and the government (through excessive taxes). Besides, the paper focuses on the impact of high motor fuel prices on road transport associated activities, including the pattern of passenger transportation, motorization rate, fuel use, total kilometers traveled and CO2 emissions from road transportation. The impact of motor fuel prices on income distribution in Turkey and Turkish public opinion about high motor fuel prices are also among the subjects investigated in the course of the study. - Highlights: • The key issues (e.g. taxes) related to motor fuel prices in Turkey are explored. • Their impact on transport activities and income distribution is also investigated. • An econometric analysis is performed to estimate motor fuel demand in Turkey. • Motor fuel demand in Turkey is found to be quite inelastic. • Turkish fuel market is open to opportunistic behavior by firms and the government

  9. The Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atalay ÇETİN

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Especially in last two decades, most of the developed and developing countries around theworld have been supporting the researches that investigate more clean and sustainable energy sources. Renewable energy sources play more important role in today’s increasingly globalized energy market because of the environmental issues and the sources of fossil fuelare becoming scarce. According to that, as a virtue of the rapidly increase in energy demand, the supply of renewable energy sources are increasingly continue around theworld. As a matter of fact, when it is compared to the 2011 rates, the consumption rate of hydro-electricity and other renewable energy sources has increased to 4.3% and % 15.2 respectively in 2012 in the world, is verifying that view.The aim of this study is to investigate the present potential and sufficiency of the main sources of renewable energy such as solar, wind, hydropower, geothermal andbiomass at Turkey. In this regard, even Turkey has a remarkable potential especially in hydro, wind, solar and geothermal energies among Europe, renewable energy sources ratio in Turkey’s total energy consumption is not rising at desired level. Furthermore becauseTurkey hasn’t got a rich fossil fuel reserves, it needs to import fossil energy sources to meet its rapidly growing energy needs. In related to this, Turkey’s current deficit has beengrowing due to the increase in fossil fuel sources prices at international energy markets. On the other side Turkey’s Green House Gases (GHGs emission has grown more thantwo times as a result of its rapidly using of fossil fuel sources due to its growing economy, industrialization and urbanization process since 1990. Within this context, as a foreigndependent country on fossil fuel energy sources (especially on crude oil and natural gas, Turkey should rapidly change its energy policy from fossil fuels to renewable energysources which are domestic, clean and much more cheaper

  10. NONPARAMETRIC FIXED EFFECT PANEL DATA MODELS: RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN AIR POLLUTION AND INCOME FOR TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Ece OMAY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, relationship between gross domestic product (GDP per capita and sulfur dioxide (SO2 and particulate matter (PM10 per capita is modeled for Turkey. Nonparametric fixed effect panel data analysis is used for the modeling. The panel data covers 12 territories, in first level of Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS, for period of 1990-2001. Modeling of the relationship between GDP and SO2 and PM10 for Turkey, the non-parametric models have given good results.

  11. Effects of He-Ne laser irradiation on the storage of turkey semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Passarella

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance or improvement of sperm quality during storage could prevent the loss of fertilizing capacity associated with stored turkey semen. Therefore the optimization of stored turkey semen could be useful to breeder industry since the commercial production of this bird relies almost entirely on artificial insemination. Previous research have shown that He-Ne laser irradiation in mammalian sperm increased the motility (Stato, 1986, decreased the mortality, promoted the acrosome reaction, which have a pivotal role in assisted fecundating programmes as therapy for resolving infertility in domestic animals..........

  12. Whole genome SNP discovery and analysis of genetic diversity in Turkey (Meleagris gallopavo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslam Muhammad L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo is an important agricultural species and the second largest contributor to the world’s poultry meat production. Genetic improvement is attributed largely to selective breeding programs that rely on highly heritable phenotypic traits, such as body size and breast muscle development. Commercial breeding with small effective population sizes and epistasis can result in loss of genetic diversity, which in turn can lead to reduced individual fitness and reduced response to selection. The presence of genomic diversity in domestic livestock species therefore, is of great importance and a prerequisite for rapid and accurate genetic improvement of selected breeds in various environments, as well as to facilitate rapid adaptation to potential changes in breeding goals. Genomic selection requires a large number of genetic markers such as e.g. single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs the most abundant source of genetic variation within the genome. Results Alignment of next generation sequencing data of 32 individual turkeys from different populations was used for the discovery of 5.49 million SNPs, which subsequently were used for the analysis of genetic diversity among the different populations. All of the commercial lines branched from a single node relative to the heritage varieties and the South Mexican turkey population. Heterozygosity of all individuals from the different turkey populations ranged from 0.17-2.73 SNPs/Kb, while heterozygosity of populations ranged from 0.73-1.64 SNPs/Kb. The average frequency of heterozygous SNPs in individual turkeys was 1.07 SNPs/Kb. Five genomic regions with very low nucleotide variation were identified in domestic turkeys that showed state of fixation towards alleles different than wild alleles. Conclusion The turkey genome is much less diverse with a relatively low frequency of heterozygous SNPs as compared to other livestock species like chicken and pig. The

  13. Growth Rate Factor Analysis of Turkey Using Grey System Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ceviz, Emre; Erden, Caner

    2015-01-01

    In this study, by using Grey System Theory (GST), factors of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate is analyzed. Macro-economic and financial data in the 2000s is used to evaluate the economic growth of Turkey. GST which can be used with little or inadequate amount of data, was preferred in the analysis. Although discovered in 1982, GST increases the amount of usage and publication especially after the 2000s. The gray system theory in the study focused on the impact on economic analysis. At...

  14. Recent activity in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The role of Pathfinder grants to recent family planning projects led by business and labor in Turkey is described. Pathfinder funded a major portion of the Turkish Family Planning and Health Foundation, a grant agency set up to complement government programs. One current project is a survey of family planning needs of squatter communities. The Foundation's founder established a factory-based family planning clinic, aided by Pathfinder, now self-supporting. The Turkish TURK-IS Labor Federation has supported several other worksite clinics, and has placed family planning among its top priorities. Pathfinder supported development of their population policy statement. Turkey has only recently passed progressive family planning legislation and permitted significant private sector activities. The population of 52 million is growing at 2.8%. Unemployment is high; per capita income is $1160. The government's goals are to reduce fertility from 4.3 to 2.5 children per woman and increase contraceptive prevalence from 20% to 60% by the year 2000. PMID:12179678

  15. Human cyclosporiosis in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S(u)leyman Yazar; Saban Yalcln; izzet Sahin

    2004-01-01

    Six patients infected with Cyclospora cayetanensis who sought medical care at three different hospitals in Turkey are herein presented. Four patients were male and the others were female and their ages ranged from 7 to 62 years. The first patient was HIV-positive and presented with watery diarrhea with a frequency of up to 18 times a day for more than ten months and diagnosed as cyclosporiosis in Kayseri, 1996.The second patient was also HIV positive and diagnosed as cyclosporiosis in Kayseri, 2000. The third patient was an acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) patient and diagnosed in Istanbul, 2000. The fourth patient was idiopathic hepatic cirrhosis complaining of diarrhea and weakness and diagnosed in Kayseri, 2001. The fifth and sixth patients were immunocompetent patients complaining of diarrhea and diagnosed in Izmir and Kayseri, 2002. Diarrhea occurring from one to ten times a day continued for 7 to 70 d in the last 5 patients. Treatment with a trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole compound was done for all patients. Both symptomatic and parasitologic improvements were quickly observed. In summary, C. cayetanensis infection is rare in Turkey and most patients infected with this pathogen tend to be immunosuppressive individuals at present.

  16. Evaluation of the Views of American Teaching Assistants on the English Language Education Offered at Universities in Turkey (Amerikan Öğretim Asistanlarının Türkiye’deki Üniversitelerde Verilen).....Doi: 10.14686/BUEFAD.201428194

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Emrullah

    2014-01-01

    Learning English is assigned great importance in Turkey due to the fact that it provides individuals with some advantages. Therefore, the efficiency in learning and teaching English is often questioned at all levels of education. English language education at universities is no exception when it comes to the efficiency of learning and teaching. Higher Education Council of Turkey assigned English Teaching Assistants (ETAs) from USA at 54 universities in Turkey in 2010 through Fulbright Scholar...

  17. Project design of an open pit colliery in Terkidag, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this manuscript, first of all, the status of Turkey in terms of energy production and consumption is given and the need to rely on domestic sources, namely lignite deposits, is emphasized rather than importing fuels from abroad. Then, a thorough literature work concerning open pit design and production planning is explained in detail. On this basis, the project design and production planning of Tekirdag-Saray open pit colliery are conducted. According to the selected production technique, machinery-equipment that will be utilized in the coal winning system is determined and in the final part, the investment cost and unit production cost regarding the project are computed and the importance of constructing a power plant in the region operating with domestic fuels is expressed. (authors)

  18. [Domestication and its sequelae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boessneck, J

    1985-01-01

    The domestication of the dog took place in the late Glacial. Its earliest record comes from Oberkassel near Bonn and its age is some 14000 years B.C. On the other side the domestication of the farm animals began about 10000 years ago, during the so-called Neolithic Revolution, when man's way of life changed basicly from the hunter-and gatherer-culture to agriculture and animal husbandry. This change took place in the valleys and on the slopes of the mountains surrounding the basin of the Euphrat and Tigris rivers which is called the Fertile Crescent. Sheep and goat were succeeded by pig and cattle. Immediately after the transition to domestication with protection by human being taking the place of natural selection the livestock animals and the dog underwent a decrease in size. This reduction in size is one of the most important criteria for distinguishing prehistoric domestic livestock from their wild forms. In high developed cultures domestication resulted in a hardly imaginable morphological and physiological extension of variability, in a richness of forms not to be guessed by the whole potential of the corresponding ancestors. But all these rich appearing forms were due to intraspecific procedures. They don't create new species. By the way of the increasing influence of man and its domestic animals on the environment the procedure of domestication is more and more shifted in the foreground and increasingly intervenes with the interests of wild life. PMID:3834643

  19. Mitochondrial DNA and the origins of the domestic horse

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Thomas; Forster, Peter; Levine, Marsha A.; Oelke, Hardy; Hurles, Matthew; Renfrew, Colin; Weber, Jürgen; Olek, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    The place and date of the domestication of the horse has long been a matter for debate among archaeologists. To determine whether horses were domesticated from one or several ancestral horse populations, we sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop for 318 horses from 25 oriental and European breeds, including American mustangs. Adding these sequences to previously published data, the total comes to 652, the largest currently available database. From these sequences, a phylogenetic network was const...

  20. How Turkey Meets MPOWER Criteria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi Bilir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 2003 World Health Assembly adopted an international treaty on tobacco control; FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Five year later World Health Organization (WHO declared the six effective approach for tobacco control, under the name of MPOWER. In the following years, WHO evaluated the level of implementation of MPOWER criteria in the countries. In this article, how Turkey implemented these six criteria will be discussed. Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies: Monitoring of tobacco use prevalence has been successfully monitored in Turkey through Global Adult Tobacco Survey, Global Youth Tobacco Survey and Health Professionals Tobacco Use Survey. Nevertheless, monitoring of tobacco industry activities was not successfully implemented. Protect people from tobacco smoke: Smoking was banned in most of the indoor public places in Turkey since 1996, and Turkey became a complete smoke-free country by the exposion of smoke-free places including the hospitality workplaces in 2008. Offer help to quit tobacco use: Although smoking cessation services has been a bit late in Turkey, availability of smoking cessation drugs and the establishment of free quitline services made Turkey successful in this regard. Warn about the dangers of tobacco: Since 1996, all TV channels have a duty of broadcasting programs on harms of tobacco use, not less than 90 minutes in a month and it has been implemented successfully. Additionally written messages indicating harms of tobacco has been printed on the packs since 1988 and pictures was added in 2010. But since the average surface area covered by the messages in less than 50% of the total surface of the pack, Turkey was not regarded as to meet the requirement. Enforce bans on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship: All kinds of tobacco advertisement and promotion was banned by the Law in 1996. But the tobacco products was not in closed boxes at the sales points. Turkey was not found as successful

  1. Electric wiring domestic

    CERN Document Server

    Coker, A J

    1992-01-01

    Electric Wiring: Domestic, Tenth Edition, is a clear and reliable guide to the practical aspects of domestic electric wiring. Intended for electrical contractors, installation engineers, wiremen and students, its aim is to provide essential up to date information on modern methods and materials in a simple, clear, and concise manner. The main changes in this edition are those necessary to bring the work into line with the 16th Edition of the Regulations for Electrical Installations issued by the Institution of Electrical Engineers. The book begins by introducing the basic features of domestic

  2. Institutional Repository Movement in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Akbayrak, Emre Hasan; Bayram, Özlem; Coşkun, Cem; Holt, İlkay; Karasözen, Bülent; Tonta, Yaşar

    2006-01-01

    ANKOS (The Anatolian University Libraries Consortium) established Open Access and the Institutional Repositories Working Group (OAIRWG) in order to raise awareness on Open Access (OA) and Institutional Repositories (IRs) among information professionals in Turkey. Ankara University is one of the first open access initiatives in Turkey. It has been involved in ANKOS since 2001, expressing a strong interest from the beginning. Over seven hundred and fifty scientific papers produced by faculty...

  3. Camel Wrestling Culture in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Orhan; Ertugrul, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    In Turkish History which lasted several thousand years, camels were always important in their life. In the past camels were used as transport, pack, ride, war, food, and sport animal by Turks. After industrialization and modernization since 20th century, camel lost their importance and nowadays they are only a sport and tourism material in Turkey. Hence the camel population in Turkey decreased in number of about 1.000 recently. The camel population is mostly used for camel wrestling events in...

  4. Contribution of green energy sources to electrical power production of Turkey: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green power products may be seen as a means of fostering renewable energy sources (RES) because they create and channel consumer demand for environmentally sound power generation. Turkey also has a large potential for renewable energy exploitation in a number of areas. Clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life, not only for Turkey but also for the world. The renewable energy contribution in the total primary energy production is insignificant. The alternative and renewable energy systems have been neglected so far in Turkey but must be included in the new energy programs. In this context, Renewable Energy Law was enacted in 2005 in order to encourage renewable-based generation in competitive market conditions. Supporting mechanisms such as feed-in tariffs and purchase obligation are defined in the law, in conformity with the EU legislation and practice. These mechanisms are envisaged to facilitate the development of power plants based on RES. (author)

  5. Molecular characterization of canine parvovirus (CPV) infection in dogs in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timurkan, Mehmet; Oğuzoğlu, Tuba

    2015-01-01

    This study provides data about canine parvovirus (CPV) types circulating among dogs in Turkey. Sixty-five samples from dogs with and without clinical signs of parvovirus infection were collected between April 2009 and February 2010. The samples were subsequently tested for CPV using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Twenty-five samples (38.4%) were positive; when positive samples were characterized by sequence analysis, results showed that both CPV-2a (17/25, 68%) and CPV-2b (8/25, 32%) strains are circulating among domestic dogs in Turkey. This is the first molecular characterization study of CPVs from dogs based on partial VP2 gene sequences in Turkey. PMID:25842212

  6. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments Outflow From a Developing Country: the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Onder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments (FDI outflows of Turkey have remarkably been raising over the last decade. This rapid increase brings about the need for questioning the determinants of FDI outflows. The aim of this paper is to estimate the factors affecting outflow FDI from Turkey from 2002 to 2011 by using Prais-Winsten regression analysis. According to estimation results, population, infrastructure, percapita gross domestic product of the host country, and home country exports to the host country are the factors having positive effects on outflow FDI. We found, on the other hand, that the annual inflation rate of the host country, its tax rate collected from commercial profit, and its distance from Turkey have a negative relation with investment outflows. Moreover our results show that while investment outflows to developed countries are in the form of horizontal investments, investment outflows to developing countries are in the form of vertical investments.

  7. Water Policies of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Istanbulluoglu; Tayfun Kir

    2011-01-01

    Water is one of our most critical resources. Civilization has historically flourished around major waterways. The most important uses of water are; agricultural, industrial and domestic use. This critical resource is under threat around the world. In the next 20 years, the quantity of water available to everyone is predicted to decrease by 30%. 40% of the world\\\\\\\\\\\\\\'s inhabitants currently have insufficient fresh water for minimal hygiene. In 2000 more than 2.2 million people died from wate...

  8. Domestic cooked cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-01-01

    The research results of sensory properties, chemical and microbiological quality of domestic cooked cheese, which is produced around Bjelovar region, are presented in this paper.Domestic cooked cheese is Croatian autochthonous cheese produced in wider north-western region of Croatia (Bilogora, Lika, Banovina, Gorski Kotar and around Zagreb), and therefore should be registered as Protected Denomination of Origin (PDO) and/or Protected Geographical Indication (PGI). Sensory properties, chemical...

  9. World oil prices, precious metal prices and macroeconomy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the long- and short-run transmissions of information between the world oil price, Turkish interest rate, Turkish lira-US dollar exchange rate, and domestic spot gold and silver price. We find that the world oil price has no predictive power of the precious metal prices, the interest rate or the exchange rate market in Turkey. The results also show that the Turkish spot precious metals, exchange rate and bond markets do not also provide information that would help improve the forecasts of world oil prices in the long run. The findings suggest that domestic gold is also considered a safe haven in Turkey during devaluation of the Turkish lira, as it is globally. It is interesting to note that there does not seem to be any significant influence of developments in the world oil markets on Turkish markets in the short run either. However, transitory positive initial impacts of innovations in oil prices on gold and silver markets are observed. The short-run price transmissions between the world oil market and the Turkish precious metal markets have implications for policy makers in emerging markets and both local and global investors in the precious metals market and the oil market.

  10. World oil prices, precious metal prices and macroeconomy in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soytas, Ugur; Sari, Ramazan [Middle East Technical University, Department of Business Administration, 06531 Ankara (Turkey); Hammoudeh, Shawkat [Drexel University, LeBow College of Business, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Hacihasanoglu, Erk [Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    We examine the long- and short-run transmissions of information between the world oil price, Turkish interest rate, Turkish lira-US dollar exchange rate, and domestic spot gold and silver price. We find that the world oil price has no predictive power of the precious metal prices, the interest rate or the exchange rate market in Turkey. The results also show that the Turkish spot precious metals, exchange rate and bond markets do not also provide information that would help improve the forecasts of world oil prices in the long run. The findings suggest that domestic gold is also considered a safe haven in Turkey during devaluation of the Turkish lira, as it is globally. It is interesting to note that there does not seem to be any significant influence of developments in the world oil markets on Turkish markets in the short run either. However, transitory positive initial impacts of innovations in oil prices on gold and silver markets are observed. The short-run price transmissions between the world oil market and the Turkish precious metal markets have implications for policy makers in emerging markets and both local and global investors in the precious metals market and the oil market. (author)

  11. World oil prices, precious metal prices and macroeconomy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the long- and short-run transmissions of information between the world oil price, Turkish interest rate, Turkish lira-US dollar exchange rate, and domestic spot gold and silver price. We find that the world oil price has no predictive power of the precious metal prices, the interest rate or the exchange rate market in Turkey. The results also show that the Turkish spot precious metals, exchange rate and bond markets do not also provide information that would help improve the forecasts of world oil prices in the long run. The findings suggest that domestic gold is also considered a safe haven in Turkey during devaluation of the Turkish lira, as it is globally. It is interesting to note that there does not seem to be any significant influence of developments in the world oil markets on Turkish markets in the short run either. However, transitory positive initial impacts of innovations in oil prices on gold and silver markets are observed. The short-run price transmissions between the world oil market and the Turkish precious metal markets have implications for policy makers in emerging markets and both local and global investors in the precious metals market and the oil market. (author)

  12. The popular resort port of cruise tourism in the Eastern Mediterranean Basin: Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okan Yasar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cruise tourism is in most demand in Europe and North America. The Eastern Mediterranean, and consequently Turkey rank among the destinations that cruise ship tour companies prefer to travel. Part of the demand for cruise tourism, which has been displaying a constantly raising momentum in tourism movements in the world, is now being directed towards Turkey. Nonetheless, the cruise tourism trend is spreading and prompting domestic demand in Turkey as well. A significant boom in the domestic demand has led to the commencement of cruise tours to the Black Sea, the Greek Islands, the Dalmatian shores and Italy leaving from Istanbul, Izmir and Kusadasi harbors. Turkey’s active foreign demand for cruise tourism mostly focuses on ports and its surrounding supply of services. Cruise tourism is now one of the predominant agendas within policies for diversifying and spreading tourism. Within one year Turkey managed to be ranked among the first ten countries in regard to the number of tourists and tourism revenues in the world.       

  13. Testing the validity of the Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle: New evidence from structural breaks for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdem, Ekrem; Ahmet KOSEOGLU; Ali Gokhan YUCEL

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the validity of Feldstein-Horioka Puzzle using time series data covering the period of 1960-2014 for Turkey. In order to test this relationship, the recently proposed multiple-break cointegration test of Maki (2012) was employed. After detecting the existence of a cointegration between domestic saving by allowing for endogenous structural breaks, Fully Modified Ordinary Least Squares (FMOLS) and Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) estimati...

  14. Impact of Strategic Planning on Financial Performance of Companies in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Alev M. Efendioglu; Tugba Karabulut

    2010-01-01

    Strategic planning is important for strategic management of companies. The purpose of this study is to explore the impact of strategic planning on financial performance of major industrial enterprises of Turkey. Our findings show that many domestic and foreign firms in our sample have a strategic process in place. It is an annual process and considered a very important organizational activity. This paper is one of the few studies to examine the strategic planning process in a sample of firms ...

  15. The Effects of World Financial Integration on Financing Current Account Deficits: The Case for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    S. Cem Karaman; Nurettin Can

    2014-01-01

    The world financial markets are integrated more than ever. Together with countries opening their economies to the world, we see the dynamics of capital movements changing together with how countries respond to their domestic capital needs. Today, foreign capital is financing most of Turkey’s current account deficit. With this paper, we show that the main reason why Turkey is borrowing so much money from international markets and its current account deficit is substantial, is global liquidity ...

  16. Profitability, Saving and Investment of Non-Financial Firms in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal Ozmen; Saygin Sahinoz; Cihan Yalcin

    2012-01-01

    How investment is financed matters a great deal to growth, especially in countries like Turkey, where domestic savings are low and financial systems are not deep enough in supplying the funds needed for growth-generating corporate investment. In these countries there is a close link between selfgenerated corporate savings and investment activity, since access to external funds may be difficult, especially for firms that have little to offer in the way of collateral. When the funds available i...

  17. Geographical Distribution of Trout Farming in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Güven; Erbilen, Süheyla Üçışık

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is a peninsula, surrounded by seas on three sides, with a total coastline of 8.333km. As a result of its heritage from ancient inland living culture, Turkey has a limited development in fishery production. However, there have been significant efforts in developing Trout Farming, compared to the other aquaculture products in Turkey. The recent developments in trout farming in Turkey have led to an increase in trout productions, providing alternatives for public nutrition. This study aim...

  18. GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF TROUT FARMING IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Şahin, Güven; Erbilen, Süheyla Üçışık

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is a peninsula, surrounded by seas on three sides, with a total coastline of 8.333km. As a result of its heritage from ancient inland living culture, Turkey has a limited development in fishery production. However, there have been significant efforts in developing Trout Farming, compared to the other aquaculture products in Turkey. The recent developments in trout farming in Turkey have led to an increase in trout productions, providing alternatives for public nutrition. This study aim...

  19. Islam and Religious Education in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Giuli Alasania; Nani Gelovani

    2011-01-01

    Modern Turkey – a member of NATO and a candidate for membership in the European Union - continues to struggle to find an appropriate balance between religion and state. Turkey offers an excellent case study for those seeking answers to the following questions: Can Islam and democracy coexist? Is Turkey a secular state, is religion separated from the state in Turkey - as it is said in its Constitution: "The Turkish State is a Republic" and is it "a democratic, secular and social state governed...

  20. Turkey. Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Mehtap; Mollahaliloğlu, Salih; Sahin, Bayram; Aydin, Sabahattin; Maresso, Anna; Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina

    2011-01-01

    Turkey has accomplished remarkable improvements in terms of health status in the last three decades, particularly after the implementation of the Health Transformation Program (HTP (Saglikta Donus, um Programi)). Average life expectancy reached 71.8 for men and 76.8 for women in 2010. The infant mortality rate (IMR) decreased to 10.1 per 1000 live births in 2010, down from 117.5 in 1980. Despite these achievements, there are still discrepancies in terms of infant mortality between rural and urban areas and different parts of the country, although these have been diminishing over the years. The higher infant mortality rates in rural areas can be attributed to low socioeconomic conditions, low female education levels and the prevalence of infectious diseases. The main causes of death are diseases of the circulatory system followed by malignant neoplasms. Turkeys health care system has been undergoing a far-reaching reform process (HTP) since 2003 and radical changes have occurred both in the provision and the financing of health care services. Health services are now financed through a social security scheme covering the majority of the population, the General Health Insurance Scheme (GHIS (Genel Saglik Sigortasi)), and services are provided both by public and private sector facilities. The Social Security Institution (SSI (Sosyal Guvenlik Kurumu)), financed through payments by employers and employees and government contributions in cases of budget deficit, has become a monopsonic (single buyer) power on the purchasing side of health care services. On the provision side, the Ministry of Health (Saglik Bakenligi) is the main actor and provides primary, secondary and tertiary care through its facilities across the country. Universities are also major providers of tertiary care. The private sector has increased its range over recent years, particularly after arrangements paved the way for private sector provision of services to the SSI. The most important reforms since

  1. Environmental impacts of energy utilization and environmental energy sources in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is an energy importing country, more than half of the energy requirement has been supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited and lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture content. Due to increasing energy consumption, air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern for the future in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Because of this and the fact that it has limited fossil fuel resources, a gradual shift from fossil fuels to renewables seems to be serious and the sole alternative for Turkey. This article presents a review of the present energy situation and sustainability, technical and economical potential of renewable energy sources and future policies for energy sector in Turkey. Throughout the paper several problems relating to energy sources, environment and sustainable development are discussed from both current and future perspectives. (author)

  2. Estimation of national and regional phosphorus budgets for agriculture in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Saban Ozbek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents national and regional phosphorus (P budgets for agriculture in Turkey by using Eurostat/OECD common methodology. Regional P budgets presented in this paper are the first estimations for Turkey known to date. In Turkey, the values of P surplus for agriculture (PS and P use efficiency for agriculture (PUE in 2011 were 2 kg P ha-1 yr-1 and 77%, respectively. PS values varied from -2 to 15 kg P ha-1 yr-1 among regions in 2011. In 2008, PS and PUE values (0 kg P ha-1 yr-1 and 96%, respectively were lower than the average EU values (3 kg P ha-1 yr-1 and 104%, including Norway and Switzerland. The relationship between PS values and some socio-economic properties in Turkey regions were also analyzed. According to the results, the correlations of PS with gross domestic product per capita, permanent meadows and pastures share in utilized agricultural area (UAA, population density, illiterate share and arable land share in UAA were statistically significant. We can conclude from the study results that the environmental effect of agricultural phosphorus on water bodies varies greatly both among regions in Turkey and among European countries because of high variations in PS values.

  3. Lignite-fired thermal power plants and SO2 pollution in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About 80% of the electric energy production in Turkey is provided by thermal power plants which use fossil fuels. Lignite, the most abundant domestic energy source, is consumed in most of these plants. Turkey has approximately 0.85% of the world's lignite reserves; however, the Turkish lignites have low calorific value and contain relatively higher amounts of ash, moisture, and sulfur. Nearly 80% of the lignite mined in Turkey is consumed in the thermal power plants since it is not appropriate for use in other types of industry and heating. In Turkey, 13 large-scale lignite-fired thermal power plants are responsible for a considerable amount of air pollution. Therefore, it is crucial to decide on the optimal place and technology for the future thermal power plants, and to equip the currently operating plants with newer technologies that will reduce amount of contaminants released into the air. In this study, the effects of the lignite-fired thermal power plants which have an important place in the energy politics in Turkey on the air pollution are investigated. We focused on SO2 pollution and the regions in which the SO2 emissions were concentrated and diffused. The pollutant diffusion areas were projected and mapped based on parameters such as wind data, isotherm curves, population density, and topographic features by using Geographical Information System (GIS) software, ArcView. The contribution of the thermal power plants to SO2 pollution was also examined

  4. Availibility of renewable energy sources in Turkey: Current situation, potential, government policies and the EU perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey as well as assessing related government policies, financial and environmental aspects of renewable energy projects. Turkey is a country which has the highest hydropower, wind and geothermal energy potential among European countries. As a European Union (EU) candidate several incentives were developed in Turkey for electricity generation from renewable energy sources by the enactment of Law No. 5346 in 2005 which was later restructured by Law No. 6094 in 2010. The most important ones are: ease of land acquisition and feed-in-tariffs which promise purchasing of electricity generated and domestic manufacturing of equipment by the private companies with a price of 5.30–9.69 and 0.3–2.55 €c/kWh, respectively, depending on the type of the renewable and the equipment. However, feed-in tariff amounts take reservoir area into account instead of installed capacity for hydroelectric power plants. Moreover, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) report is not mandatory for all renewable energy plants. According to the multi-criteria analysis tool developed in this study to evaluate the renewable energy source (RES) technologies the most appropriate renewable energy alternative for Turkey is biomass, simply because of the highest social benefit among others. - Highlights: ► Availability of renewable energy sources in Turkey is assessed. ► Policies towards renewable energy sources are compared to the EU’s policies. ► A multi-criteria analysis tool was developed and biomass is found to be the most appropriate alternative for Turkey. ► Turkey should revise its existing policies towards renewables. ► EIA requirements for power plants should be revised.

  5. Maternal filicide in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eke, Salih Murat; Basoglu, Saba; Bakar, Bulent; Oral, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    Filicide occurs in every socioeconomic stratum around the world. This study was conducted to evaluate motives, psychopathological aspects, and socio-demographic factors of 74 filicide cases of women in Turkey. Mean age of mothers, most of whom committed infanticide, was 26 years, and breakdown of criminal offenses are as follows: "to get rid of unwanted babies" (24.3%), "acute psychotic-type filicide" (21.6%), "fatal child abuse and neglect" (17.6%), "to get revenge" (12.2%), "protect the lonely child from the harm and badness after suicide" (10.8%), and "pity" (9.5%) motives. Results showed that maternal filicide cannot be reduced to only mental instability or environmental factors and indicates deficiencies in the capacity of the mothers' role in connecting with their child and with parenting skills. Finally, with regard to defendants' motives, similar factors that contribute to committing maternal filicide should be considered while making an assessment of the data and determining employee risk groups. PMID:25066272

  6. PHENOTYPIC TRAITS IN ZAGORJE TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Janječić

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Production of turkeys in the region of Hrvatsko zagorje began in second half of 16th century, when there was a little influence of other turkey breeds from other region. Recently, interest for protection and preservation of autochthonous poultry breeds in Croatia is growing and in that sense this investigation was set to determine the phenotypic traits of Zagorje turkey. One hundred 10-month old turkeys (5 males and 20 females of four strains (bronze, black, grey and pale were measured, while egg production data were collected by a poll among the breeders. Average body weight of bronze, black, grey and pale strain males were 7.08, 6.88, 6.10 and 6.09 kg, respectively, while in females the average values were 4.02, 4.07, 3.63, and 3.68 kg. Generally, according to body measures of male birds, other than body weight, of all of the strains of Zagorje turkey, the black one is the biggest, as it had the highest values for body length, length of sternum, length of drumstick, length of shank, depth of chest and head measures. At the same time, the bronze strain had the highest value for carcass width. Body measures mentioned previously were not so different in females. Number of reared chicks was lowest in the pale strain. From the body measures assessed it is possible to conclude that Zagorje turkeys are rather uniform within the strain but differences in most of the breed traits are present between the strains, especially in males of bronze and black strain, when compared to gray and pale strain.

  7. Turkey vulture surveys in Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotzkow, C.; Wiley, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Turkey Vultures (Cathartes aura), were surveyed monthly in Cuba from March 1982-January 1983. A total of 25371 vultures were tallied in 7186 km (3.5 vultures/transect km) of roadside counting along main highways leading from the city of La Habana (northwestern Cuba) to the city of Las Tunas (southeast). Numbers of vultures counted declined substantially beyond 200 m from the transect road. Density of vultures observed within 200 m of the road along the transect route was 0.06/ha. Highest counts were obtained in March, April and June. Turkey Vulture flying activity was greatest during the periods 0900-1200 H and 1400-1700 H.

  8. Roadblocks to Turkey's EU Membership

    OpenAIRE

    Berežný, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with the issue of relations between the EU and Turkey.The thesis was based on the questionnaire which was spread among the younger part of the Turkish population. As the research methods, the source research was used for theoretical part and inductive research for the questionnaire analysis. The first chapter deals with the accession process of the Turkey to the EU and its impact on the opinion of the younger part of the Turkish population. The next chapter concerns ...

  9. Healthcare in overview of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundar, Munis; Uzak, Aslı Subasioglu; Karabulut, Yesim

    2010-12-01

    Turkey is one of the leading countries with its developing economy, high young population, and with its geopolitical location being an intersection between Asia and Europe. It is aimed at setting a good example for developed and developing countries with its health policy targets. We reported and discussed here the demographic data of Turkish population, the main aims of Ministry of Health, social security system and its scope and structure, health services, healthcare institutions and their infrastructures, human resources in health, health staff training and also outline of Turkish foreign policy. We mentioned predictive, preventive, personalized and participatory medicine according to Turkey's healthcare approach. PMID:23199111

  10. Natural gas demand in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    On average, energy demand of Turkey is mounting by 8% annually, one of the highest rates in the world. Among primary energy sources, natural gas is the fastest growing one in Turkey. Gas consumption started at 0.5 bcm (billion cubic meters) in 1987 and reached approximately 35 bcm in 2007. Turkish natural gas usage is projected to further increase remarkably in coming years. The present paper focuses the characteristics of this demand and estimates short and long-run price and income elastici...

  11. The Relationship between Domestic Violence and Animal Abuse: An Australian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.

    2008-01-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…

  12. 24 CFR 982.53 - Equal opportunity requirements and protection for victims of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Protection for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, and stalking. The PHA must apply 24 CFR part 5... protection for victims of domestic violence. 982.53 Section 982.53 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... cited at 24 CFR 5.105(a) and title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act, 42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq....

  13. Mediation and Domestic Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Faget

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the potential and limits of recourse to mediation for regulating domestic violence. On the basis of an empirical study of its implementation in France and of the existing academic literature, it shows the existence of two types of practices reflecting two conceptions of mediation and more generally, two conceptions of the articulation between social and penal regulation

  14. Mediation and Domestic Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Jacques Faget

    2005-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential and limits of recourse to mediation for regulating domestic violence. On the basis of an empirical study of its implementation in France and of the existing academic literature, it shows the existence of two types of practices reflecting two conceptions of mediation and more generally, two conceptions of the articulation between social and penal regulation

  15. Unemployment and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Anderberg; Helmut Rainer; Jonathan Wadsworth; Tanya Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, the incidence of domestic violence in Britain does not seem to have risen during the recession. But according to research by Jonathan Wadsworth and colleagues, men and women have experienced different risks of unemployment - and these have had contrasting effects on the level of physical abuse.

  16. Petroleum Gases Market in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are at the beginning of a new millennium. At this stage, we are observing economic and social liberalization efforts and regional alliance projects throughout the world. In this very same process, we are also experiencing a more holistic concept called globalization, which covers rapid and simultaneous dissemination and integration of capital, labor, information and technology, world-wide. This globalization opened a new era where national market economies and local companies went into competition in the international arena. In this era, it became a necessity for the non-liberal economies to catch up with the developments in the international markets and be open to economic and political changes. These developments have brought along many radical economic and social changes throughout the world. Policies adopted in Turkey, with respect to the energy reform process, display a general tendency towards putting in place a legal framework that will support the implementation of good governance principles, and providing conformity with the relevant legislative infrastructure of both OECD and EU countries. Turkey has only limited reserves of oil and natural gas, but substantial reserves of coal, particularly lignite. Energy demand has grown at 4-5 % per annum over the past three decades and will continue to grow rapidly, which will require enormous investments in 2000 and 2020, with the most significant increase being that of natural gas. Because of its limited energy resources, Turkey is heavily dependent on imported oil and gas. There are major oil and gas pipelines going through Turkey and additional pipelines are being constructed or are being planned. There is some production of lignite which is used in power plants and industry. 73 % of the world's proven oil reserves and 72 % of the world's proven gas reserves are located in the surrounding regions of Turkey: Middle East, Caspian Region and Russia. This makes Turkey a crucial bridge between energy rich regions

  17. Early history of European domestic cattle as revealed by ancient DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Bollongino, R.; Edwards, C.J.; Alt, K.W; Burger, J.; Bradley, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    We present an extensive ancient DNA analysis of mainly Neolithic cattle bones sampled from archaeological sites along the route of Neolithic expansion, from Turkey to North-Central Europe and Britain. We place this first reasonable population sample of Neolithic cattle mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in context to illustrate the continuity of haplotype variation patterns from the first European domestic cattle to the present. Interestingly, the dominant Central European pattern, a starbu...

  18. Modelling Domestic Air Transport Demand and Evaluating under Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cenk Ozan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The lack of balance and integration between transportation modes in Turkey is one of the main problems. In this study, domestic air transport demand is modeled and evaluated under scenarios. For this purpose, indexing method which is able to indicate observed monthly and seasonal variations in demand is used. Proposals are suggested in order to overcome the lack of balance between transportation modes. In modeling, purchasing power parity and jet fuel prices as independent variables are used. Results showed that the developed model using indexing method is substantially sensitive to observed monthly and seasonal variations in domestic air transport demand. Furthermore, in the event that there are optimistic an increase in the income level and a crawl in the jet fuel prices, domestic air transport can rival with railways for second place in the transportation modes behind highways. For this reason, it is considered regulation on wages policy and tax of jet fuel prices necessary to support development of domestic air transport demand.

  19. The pathogenesis of low pathogenicity H7 avian influenza viruses in chickens, ducks and turkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pope Conrad R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian influenza (AI viruses infect numerous avian species, and low pathogenicity (LP AI viruses of the H7 subtype are typically reported to produce mild or subclinical infections in both wild aquatic birds and domestic poultry. However relatively little work has been done to compare LPAI viruses from different avian species for their ability to cause disease in domestic poultry under the same conditions. In this study twelve H7 LPAI virus isolates from North America were each evaluated for their comparative pathogenesis in chickens, ducks, and turkeys. Results All 12 isolates were able to infect all three species at a dose of 106 50% egg infectious doses based on seroconversion, although not all animals seroconverted with each isolate-species combination. The severity of disease varied among isolate and species combinations, but there was a consistent trend for clinical disease to be most severe in turkeys where all 12 isolates induced disease, and mortality was observed in turkeys exposed to 9 of the 12 viruses. Turkeys also shed virus by the oral and cloacal routes at significantly higher titers than either ducks or chickens at numerous time points. Only 3 isolates induced observable clinical disease in ducks and only 6 isolates induced disease in chickens, which was generally very mild and did not result in mortality. Full genome sequence was completed for all 12 isolates and some isolates did have features consistent with adaptation to poultry (e.g. NA stalk deletions, however none of these features correlated with disease severity. Conclusions The data suggests that turkeys may be more susceptible to clinical disease from the H7 LPAI viruses included in this study than either chickens or ducks. However the severity of disease and degree of virus shed was not clearly correlated with any isolate or group of isolates, but relied on specific species and isolate combinations.

  20. Suicide in Batman, Southeastern Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altindag, Abdurrahman; Ozkan, Mustafa; Oto, Remzi

    2005-01-01

    The southeastern part of Turkey has comparatively high female suicide rates. We aimed to research social, economic, cultural, and psychiatric reasons of suicides in Batman in a case-controlled psychological autopsy study comparing suicides with matched community controls. The female suicide rate was 9.3 per 100.000 and the female/male ratio was…

  1. The Educational System of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Institute of International Studies (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    An overview of the basic system of education in Turkey from preschool to the university level is included in this booklet. A brief discussion of educational history stresses the significance of the placing of schools under control of the Ministry of Education in 1924 in an effort to promote national integration, and the importance of the adoption…

  2. Turkey : Country Procurement Assessment Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2001-01-01

    Public procurement legislation in Turkey has not kept pace with the sweeping reforms undertaken in the national procurement systems of many other countries during the same period nor with the development of internationally recognized bodies of procurement legislation, such as those of United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL), the European Union (EU) and the World Tra...

  3. Domestication process of yaks revealed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In his monumental work "Origin of Species," Charles Darwin suggested that all domestic animals originated from their wild ancestors through artificial selection and evolution. However, he did not give the details of how human beings domesticate these species.

  4. Mobility in Turkey. Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazgan, M. [Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, Turan Gunes Bulvari, Hollanda Caddesi, No.5,06550 Yildiz-Ankara (Turkey)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this report is to provide information about electric vehicles (EVs) and e-mobility as an emerging market in Turkey. EVs receive attention from the Turkish government for a number of reasons: Turkey has a strong automotive industry and needs to follow the technological developments taking place regarding intelligent vehicles and intelligent transport systems, as well as electric transportation technologies. Secondly, a considerable amount of carbon emissions from motor vehicles is of great concern in relation to climate change. EVs might be an alternative which can break the dependence of Turkey on imported fuel that has a negative influence on its current account deficit (CAD). On top of these factors, the Prime Minister of Turkey has a desire to have a 'Local Brand Vehicle' before the 100th year of the establishment of the Republic in 2023 and preferably an 'EV'. EVs are included in the strategy documents and action plans of almost all ministries and public institutions. Among all ministries, the Ministry of Science, Industry and Technology (MoSI and T) takes a leading position. It holds bi-annual meetings with stakeholders to monitor and evaluate progress about the level of actualization of the identified policies on e-mobility. MoSI and T's related institution of the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) co-ordinates the R and D activities and provides generous R and D incentives. EVs have been put on sale in Turkey in 2012 and are still very limited in number. Public institutions are taking the lead by converting their vehicle fleet to EVs. EVs are also more suitable for businesses/ duties with a fixed/short route; therefore it is expected that the growth of the sector will mainly come from the vehicle fleet of the public organisations and institutions, followed by the private vehicle fleet of companies, e.g. freight companies. Although there are some on-going test drives, it is not yet proven

  5. International Diversification Versus Domestic Diversification: Mean-Variance Portfolio Optimization and Stochastic Dominance Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi Abid

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the mean-variance portfolio optimization (PO approach and the stochastic dominance (SD test to examine preferences for international diversification versus domestic diversification from American investors’ viewpoints. Our PO results imply that the domestic diversification strategy dominates the international diversification strategy at a lower risk level and the reverse is true at a higher risk level. Our SD analysis shows that there is no arbitrage opportunity between international and domestic stock markets; domestically diversified portfolios with smaller risk dominate internationally diversified portfolios with larger risk and vice versa; and at the same risk level, there is no difference between the domestically and internationally diversified portfolios. Nonetheless, we cannot find any domestically diversified portfolios that stochastically dominate all internationally diversified portfolios, but we find some internationally diversified portfolios with small risk that dominate all the domestically diversified portfolios.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium in exotic and domestic avian species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, L; Harrenstien, L; Wetzlich, S; Needham, M; Nappier, J; Hoffman, G; Caputo, J; Craigmill, A

    1998-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur sodium were determined in domestic chicks, turkey poults, adult cockatiels (Nymphicus hollandicus), and adult orange-winged Amazon parrots (Amazona amazonica) after subcutaneous (chicks and turkey poults and intramuscular (i.m.) dosing (cockatiels and Amazon parrots). Turkey poult data were best fit to a single exponential model with disappearance half-lives (t1/2) of 8.6, 7.4 and 5.6 h after doses of 0.12, 0.24 and 0.48 mg ceftiofur free acid equivalents (CFAE)/poult, respectively. Data from chicks were best fit to a biexponential model with primary and secondary half-lives of 2.2 and 7.5, 3.7 and 6.8, and 3.8 and 5.3 h after doses of 0.04, 0.08 and 0.16 mg CFAE/chick, respectively. Cockatiel and Amazon parrot data were best fit to a biexponential model with primary and secondary half-lives of 0.28 and 2.5, and 0.93 and 7.9 h, respectively, after doses of 10 mg CFAE/kg body weight. The maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the concentration time curve (AUC) in chicks and poults were dose-proportional. The Cmax for cockatiels was 5.2 micrograms/mL and for Amazon parrots was 11 micrograms/mL. Clearance in cockatiels and Amazon parrots were 11.3 and 3.8 mL/min/kg, respectively, and reflected the much greater AUC seen in Amazon parrots. Clearance values of ceftiofur were similar in chicks and Amazon parrots, slightly greater in turkey poults and greatest in cockatiels. These results indicate that pharmacokinetic differences must be considered when establishing dosage regimens for different avian species. PMID:9597644

  7. An encyclopedia on domestic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book describes the footprint of domestic electrification with domestic energy and the role of electrification, basic knowledge on domestic electrification, the basic things electric equipment in domestic, materials, part and making, demand of electricity, electrification and life, various electric equipment in the kitchen, rationalization of house chore, environment and hygiene like electric iron, electric stove, electric mat and dining wagon, beauty treatment and health, refinement and entertainment and lighting in houses.

  8. Children, contact and domestic abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Morrison, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    In recent years the issue of children’s contact with non-resident parents has been increasingly debated. The policy gaze has focused on contested contact when there are allegations of domestic abuse. Some commentators argue that in circumstances of domestic abuse, contact with an abusive father may not be in the ‘best interests’ of the child. To support these claims they point to evidence that domestic abuse adversely affects children, and domestic abuse often continues followi...

  9. Genetic perspectives on crop domestication

    OpenAIRE

    Gross, Briana L.; Olsen, Kenneth M.

    2010-01-01

    The process of crop domestication has long been a topic of active research for biologists, anthropologists and others. Genetic data have proved a powerful resource for drawing inferences on questions regarding the geographical origins of crops, the numbers of independent domestication events for a given crop species, the specific molecular changes underlying domestication traits, and the nature of artificial selection during domestication and subsequent crop improvement. We would argue that t...

  10. Turkey's status in nuclear field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Turkey is a country with dynamic economic development and rapid population growth and nuclear energy is an integral part of these dynamics. Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEA) is in charge of regulation and control of all activities related to nuclear field, including safety inspections and licensing. The TAEA is also responsible for the sensitive task of improving public awareness of nuclear technology which includes the use of nuclear power. Turkey's experience with nuclear power dates back to the 1960's, as the first nuclear research reactor started to operate in Istanbul in 1962. There were various plans for the introduction of nuclear power to the country. However the plans for the construction of the first nuclear power in the country were postponed for an indefinite period in 2000. In the wake of this decision TAEA initiated the activities to establish a nuclear policy in the country which includes creating the technical know-how and establishing new generation nuclear power plants in Turkey. The Authority is also responsible for the safe use of nuclear energy in medicine, agriculture, animal health, industry, food irradiation and in all kinds of research activities. The authority has carried or is currently continuing 12 National Technical Cooperation, 30 Research Contract, 21 Regional Europe ongoing IAEA projects and 31 State Planning Organization projects. There were 7571 radiological, 208 radiotherapy, 3792 industrial and 214 instruments licensed and registered by the Radiation Health and Safety Department of the Authority. We are in the opinion that developing a nuclear technology substructure in both Turkey and Turkish Countries will be of great benefit for the Euro-Asia region. We must emphasize that Turkey is the partner of all nonproliferation treaties and has no intention of using nuclear power for non peaceful purposes whatsoever

  11. PRODUCER COOPERATIVE FORMATION INTEREST OF MICHIGAN TURKEY GROWERS: SURVEY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Weatherspoon, Dave D.; Rahn, Allan P.; Martin, Laura L.

    1998-01-01

    In response to a crisis in the Michigan turkey industry, the Michigan turkey industry task force was created. The task force's role was to develop and disseminate information regarding the Michigan turkey industry.

  12. [Domestic violence in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Tomás; Grez, Marcela; Prato, Juan Andrés; Torres, Rafael; Ruiz, Sergio

    2014-08-01

    According to recent surveys, there is a high prevalence of domestic violence (DV) in Chile. A systematic review was conducted in PubMed, Scielo, and Lilacs with the MesH terms "Chile", "Mental Health", "Health", "Domestic Violence", to explore the impact of DV on health in Chile. Eleven studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Two studies were prospective, exploring the influence of DV on maternal-infant health. Nine studies explored the influence of DV on mental health in adults. DV was associated with deranged mental health indicators specially anxiety and depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Similar results were observed among mothers who were victims of violence and their children. It is concluded that DV is a complex phenomenon with serious effects on health. However the number of studies on the subject is low and new follow up studies are required. Predictive models for DV and effective preventive measures are urgently needed. PMID:25424674

  13. Detecting domestic violence.

    OpenAIRE

    Elzinga, Paul; Poelmans, Jonas; Viaene, Stijn; Dedene, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Over 90% of the case data from police inquiries is stored as unstructured text in police databases. We use the combination of Formal Concept Analysis and Emergent Self Organizing Maps for exploring a dataset of unstructured police reports out of the Amsterdam-Amstelland police region in the Netherlands. In this paper, we specifically aim at making the reader familiar with how we used these two tools for browsing the dataset and how we discovered useful patterns for labelling cases as domestic...

  14. Detecting domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Elzinga, Paul; Poelmans, Jonas; Viaene, Stijn; Dedene, Guido

    2009-01-01

    Over 90% of the case data from police inquiries is stored as unstructured text in police databases. We use the combination of Formal Concept Analysis and Emergent Self Organizing Maps for exploring a dataset of unstructured police reports out of the Amsterdam-Amstelland police region in the Netherlands. In this paper, we specifically aim at making the reader familiar with how we used these two tools for browsing the dataset and how we discovered useful patterns for labelling cases as domestic...

  15. Oil palm: domestication achieved?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerritsma, W.; Wessel, M.

    1997-01-01

    The natural habitat of the oil palm comprises very wet and relatively dry niches in the lowland rain forest in West and Central Africa. The domestication of the oil palm started with the extraction of fruits from wild forest resources. When forests were cleared for shifting cultivation, oil palms were not felled and in the subsequent regeneration period they obtained a favourable position resulting in semi-wild palm groves. Thinning of groves gave rise to semi-permanent or permanent intercrop...

  16. Globalization and domestic conflict

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle R. Garfinkel; Skaperdas, Stergios; Syropoulos, Constantinos

    2005-01-01

    We examine how globalization affects trade patterns and welfare when conflict prevails domestically. We do so in a simple model of trade, in which a natural resource like oil is contested by competing groups using real resources (”guns”). Thus, conflict is viewed as ultimately stemming from imperfect property-rights enforcement. When comparing autarky with free trade in such a setting, the gains from trade have to be weighed against the possibly higher resource costs of conflict. We find that...

  17. Alpha-class glutathione S-transferases in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo): characterization and role in resistance to the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Bunderson, Brett R; Croasdell, Amanda; Reed, Kent M; Coulombe, Roger A

    2013-01-01

    Domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are one of the most susceptible animals known to the toxic effects of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent human hepatocarcinogen, and universal maize contaminant. We have demonstrated that such susceptibility is associated with the inability of hepatic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) to detoxify the reactive electrophilic metabolite exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Unlike their domestic counterparts, wild turkeys, which are relatively AFB1-resistant, possess hepatic GST-mediated AFBO conjugating activity. Here, we characterized the molecular and functional properties of hepatic alpha-class GSTs (GSTAs) from wild and domestic turkeys to shed light on the differences in resistance between these closely related strains. Six alpha-class GST genes (GSTA) amplified from wild turkeys (Eastern and Rio Grande subspecies), heritage breed turkeys (Royal Palm) and modern domestic (Nicholas strain) turkeys were sequenced, and catalytic activities of heterologously-expressed recombinant enzymes determined. Alpha-class identity was affirmed by conserved GST domains and four signature motifs. All GSTAs contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in their coding regions: GSTA1.1 (5 SNPs), GSTA1.2 (7), GSTA1.3 (3), GSTA2 (3), GSTA3 (1) and GSTA4 (2). E. coli-expressed GSTAs possessed varying activities toward GST substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), ethacrynic acid (ECA), cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). As predicted by their relative resistance, livers from domestic turkeys lacked detectable GST-mediated AFBO detoxification activity, whereas those from wild and heritage birds possessed this critical activity, suggesting that intensive breeding and selection resulted in loss of AFB1-protective alleles during domestication. Our observation that recombinant tGSTAs detoxify AFBO, whereas their hepatic forms do not, implies that the hepatic forms of these enzymes are down-regulated, silenced, or

  18. Prospects for utilisation of solar driven ejector-absorption cooling system in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar assisted refrigeration appears to be a promising alternative to the conventional electrical driven units. The main advantages of solar assisted refrigeration systems concern the reduction of peak loads for electricity utilities, the use of zero ozone depletion impact refrigerants, the decreased primary energy consumption and decreased global warming impact. The main focus of this study is to investigate usage possibility of ejector-absorption cooling system (EACS) in Turkey. This study determines whether or not required heat for generator of EACS can be obtained from solar energy in Turkey. There are two important reasons for the utilisation of EACSs in Turkey. One of them is that the production and use of the CFCs and HCFCs will be phased out in a few years according to Montreal Protocol, adopted in 1987. The other is that Turkey has high solar energy potential because of its location in the northern hemisphere with latitudes 36-42 deg. N and longitudes 26-45 deg. E and the yearly average solar radiation is 3.6 kW h/m2 day, and the total yearly radiation period is ∼2610 h. For analysis, 17 cities were selected in different regions of Turkey in which the radiation data and sunshine duration information have been collected since 2000. By using the meteorological data, it was aimed that required optimum collector surface area for maximum coefficient of performance (COPmax) conditions of EACSs operated with aqua-ammonia was defined. In addition, required minimum energy for auxiliary heater was calculated so that the system can be used throughout the year. It was found that the heat gain factor (HGF) varies in the range from 0.5 to 2.68 for the all the seasons in the selected cities. The maximum HGF of about 2.68 was obtained for Van in July. This study shows that there is a great potential for utilisation of solar cooling system for domestic heating/cooling applications in Turkey

  19. Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    MENU Return to Web version Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children Domestic Violence: Protecting Yourself and Your Children What is domestic violence? Domestic violence is abuse by a ...

  20. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  1. Cyberbullying among Middle School Students in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Salı, Jale Balaban; Başak, Bircan Ergün; Akca, Emel Baştürk

    2015-01-01

    With the increase of internet and social network use, it has been observed that cyberbullying among adolescents has risen and an increasingly greater number of studies have focused on this concept in Turkey. But when studies on cyberbullying in Turkey are searched, it is seen that inclusive cyberbullying research on adolescents has not yet been done. Therefore, this research aims to examine the prevalence of cyberbullying among adolescents in Turkey. This research was carried out with the par...

  2. Organic Poultry in Turkey Poultry Industry

    OpenAIRE

    YENILMEZ, Fatma; URUK, Emine

    2014-01-01

    The present study is prepared to focus on the organic poultry production in Turkey poultry industry. Poultry industry has used the latest technology and has a strategical importance for supplying animal protein in Turkey. Organic poultry has iniated without official legislation in 1985. In recent years, organic poultry production industry has become a popular alternative to the conventional production of egg and meat with the awareness of consumers in Turkey. According to the data of 2013 pub...

  3. Turkey like a candidate of European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Bughea

    2007-01-01

    Turkey applied for associate membership in European Community in 1959, and signed the “Ankara Agreement” on September 12th 1963. Since 1964, Turkey has been a European Union Associate Member. Turkish accession will change the EU’s borders but it will also change Turkish relations with its neighbors. Overall, Turkish accession will extend and deepen EU foreign policy interests in its surrounding regions. Turkey will have considerable impact on the European Union, but it is an impact that can b...

  4. Educational Assessment of Syrian Refugees in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Tuba Bircan; Ulaş Sunata

    2015-01-01

    In political, social and economical terms, Turkey is the most affected country of the Syrian crisis. More importantly, Turkey as a host country of Syrian refugees has been living a dramatic demographic change. The most marginalized group living in Turkey is children. Refugee education has hence become of top priority. The global report in refugee education is below the critical level, but Turkish report is even worse in the contexts of not only accessibility and quality. This work refers to u...

  5. Turkey in Cyprus: Changing the Status Quo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azuolas Bagdonas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With few prospects for the resolution of the Cyprus dispute, the costs of the status quo are rising for Turkey. This article argues that Turkey could regain initiative without sacrificing its national interests by withdrawing its military forces stationed on the island and organizing a referendum on the future of the TRNC. The removal of the military would terminate Turkey's status as an occupying power, while a referendum could add legitimacy to the TRNC and put pressure on Cyprus.

  6. Dynamics of Foreign Currency Lending in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kutan, Ali; Ozsoz, Emre; Rengifo, Erick

    2012-01-01

    On June 16 2009, in what authorities called ``a surprise development'' the Turkish Government removed a provision from its existing laws that had allowed Turkish residents to borrow in foreign currency from banks operating in Turkey. The development ended a long era of foreign currency lending in Turkey at least in the sense of consumer loans. This paper studies the determinants and consequences of foreign currency lending for banks in Turkey in the run-up to this significant policy change. O...

  7. Aircraft maintenance tecnicians certificating procedure in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Özen, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    The air transportation rules are strictly edited worldwide, as in Europe and in Turkey. Turkey has participated several international organizations; such as International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC), Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA), and so on. All of these memberships force Turkey to prepare national aviation legislation as convenient as international rules. These international rules can be updated so they must be followed and if it ...

  8. Traumatic Responding in Children Exposed to Domestic Violence: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Peter; Elliston, Ellen J.

    2001-01-01

    A study examined posttraumatic stress disorder in Mexican, Mexican American, and non-Mexican American children exposed to domestic violence. Surveys of 68 mothers with children in shelters in Mexico and Texas revealed no ethnic differences in children's overall trauma symptoms. Mothers' experience of physical and sexual abuse predicted greater…

  9. Genetic algorithm approach to estimate transport energy demand in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport energy modeling is a subject of current interest among transport engineers and scientists concerned with problems of sustainable transport. Transport energy planning is not possible without a reasonable knowledge of past and present energy consumption and likely future demands. In this study, three forms of the energy demand equations are developed in order to improve transport energy demand estimation efficiency for future projections based on genetic algorithm (GA) notion. The Genetic Algorithm Transport Energy Demand Estimation (GATEDE) model is developed using population, gross domestic product and vehicle-km. All equations proposed here are linear and non-linear, of which one is linear, second is exponential and third is quadratic. The quadratic form of the GATEDE model provided better-fit solution to the observed data and can be used with a high correlation coefficient for Turkey's future transport energy projections. It is expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for transport energy policies. The GATEDE gives transport energy demand in comparison with the other transport energy demand projections. The GATEDE model plans the sectoral energy demand of Turkey until 2020

  10. Investment under Financial Liberalization: Post 1980 Turkey Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur TUTULMAZ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the history of the modern state of Turkey many policies have been developed and applied in order to transform ineffective economy to a dynamic and steady one. The liberal policies have been effectively applied except for war periods. The main activity of liberal policies in Turkey’s economy was conducted on January 24, 1980 with some important structural adjustment decisions. These decisions aimed to integrate the economy with the global system by applying global economic order that widely adopted all over the world. The decisions aimed also to activate a financial liberalization in the country. Financial liberalization generally includes the principles related to the removing the pressure on the interest rate, currency control and investment mobility. More liberalization steps came in 1989 aiming to increase the investment and growth. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI was seen important for that purposes. However, short term capital flows, having been more effective in real investments than FDI, have led to several negative effects in this period. In the study some of the drawbacks of that process of financial liberalization have been discussed. The relation between FDI and Gross Domestic Product in the financial liberalization process has been tested with econometric implementation. Econometric estimation has been applied for this purpose to test this relationship for post 1980 era for Turkey as a developing country.

  11. Healthcare financing: how does Turkey compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmedjonov, Alisher; Güç, Yunus; Akinci, Fevzi

    2011-01-01

    The authors provide an overview of Turkey's healthcare financing. After comparing financing data on Turkey and other Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries, they examine Turkey's performance on a wide range of healthcare input and outcome indicators using descriptive data drawn from the World Health Organization, World Bank, OECD, and Turkish Statistical Institute. The data analysis shows that Turkey ranks low by a number of key healthcare indicators across the OECD countries. Empirical analysis suggests that although many factors are associated with improvements in healthcare outcomes, a significant part of changes in life expectancy at birth are associated with higher spending on healthcare. PMID:21864057

  12. FGD investments as part of energy policy: A case study for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coal-fired power plants take a significant share in electricity production at present. Therefore, emission reduction, especially sulfur dioxide (SO2) is essential. Thus, the coal-fired power plants are built with “Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD)” units. Turkey has retrofitted exiting thermal power plants with new FGD units. Turkey's installed electricity generation capacity was 49,524 MW in 2010. The coal-fired thermal plants made up 26% of this capacity. However, only 4107 MW of lignite fired power plants are equipped with the retrofit FGD units. In this paper, the additional cost burden of the retrofitted FGD units to the national electricity generation is thoroughly evaluated using the technical and economic parameters. The share of the FGD investments is vital for the domestic energy investments and electric power sector. The FGD unit cost may increase the investment rate up to 17%. The proposed indicators are presented to introduce effectiveness for FGD investments in the energy sector. The parameters and indicators of the FGD investments in Turkey are depending on the new air pollution control legislations. The relationship between the rise of the FGD investments and the national macroeconomic indicators such as economic growth, state debt, and foreign investment rate in Turkey are shown with actual data

  13. Improvement of energy demand forecasts using swarm intelligence: The case of Turkey with projections to 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy supply and demand should be closely monitored and revised the forecasts to take account of the progress of liberalization, energy efficiency improvements, structural changes in industry and other major factors. Medium and long-term forecasting of energy demand, which is based on realistic indicators, is a prerequisite to become an industrialized country and to have high living standards. Energy planning is not possible without a reasonable knowledge of past and present energy consumption and likely future demands. Energy demand management activities should bring the demand and supply closer to a perceived optimum. Turkey's energy demand has grown rapidly almost every year and is expected to continue growing. However, the energy demand forecasts prepared by the Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources overestimate the demand. Recently many studies are performed by researchers to forecast the energy demand of Turkey. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique has never been used for such a study. In this study a model is proposed, using PSO-based energy demand forecasting (PSOEDF), to forecast the energy demand of Turkey more efficiently. Although there are other indicators as well, gross domestic product (GDP), population, import and export are used as basic energy indicators of energy demand. In order to show the accuracy of the algorithm, a comparison is made with the ant colony optimization (ACO) energy demand estimation model which is developed for the same problem. (author)

  14. Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand forecast by fuzzy logic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to forecast Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand by applying fuzzy logic methodology while general information on economical, political and electricity market conditions of the country is also given. Unlike most of the other forecast models about Turkey's electricity demand, which usually uses more than one parameter, gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was the only parameter used in the model. Proposed model made good predictions and captured the system dynamic behavior covering the years of 1970-2014. The model yielded average absolute relative errors of 3.9%. Furthermore, the model estimates a 4.5% decrease in electricity demand of Turkey in 2009 and the electricity demand growth rates are projected to be about 4% between 2010 and 2014. It is concluded that forecasting the Turkey's short-term gross electricity demand with the country's economic performance will provide more reliable projections. Forecasting the annual electricity consumption of a country could be made by any designer with the help of the fuzzy logic procedure described in this paper. The advantage of this model lies on the ability to mimic the human thinking and reasoning. (author)

  15. An assessment of Turkey's nuclear energy policy in light of South Korea's nuclear experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear energy, which was once considered as the fuel of future and was abandoned after Chernobyl accident, has emerged recently in developed and developing countries as an option to combat climate change, to secure supply and to achieve sustainable development. Turkey, a developing country where most of the electricity is produced from fossil fuels and which has energy security problems, has adopted a new legislation giving financial incentives for nuclear power plant construction, along with a tender in 2008. However, the tender ended in a stalemate after the Council of State's decision in November 2009. An evaluation of Turkey's nuclear policy in light of South Korea's nuclear experience gives us an explanation as to why Turkey failed in the last tender. Basically it was due to lack of a long term nuclear energy policy that comprehends social, economical, technical and political aspects of nuclear energy. Thus, it is argued that Turkey can benefit from nuclear energy if it formulates a comprehensive nuclear energy plan clearly interwoven with its economic development plans, establishes a proper legal framework and has domestic industry participation in nuclear technology development.

  16. Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand forecast by fuzzy logic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper aims to forecast Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand by applying fuzzy logic methodology while general information on economical, political and electricity market conditions of the country is also given. Unlike most of the other forecast models about Turkey's electricity demand, which usually uses more than one parameter, gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was the only parameter used in the model. Proposed model made good predictions and captured the system dynamic behavior covering the years of 1970-2014. The model yielded average absolute relative errors of 3.9%. Furthermore, the model estimates a 4.5% decrease in electricity demand of Turkey in 2009 and the electricity demand growth rates are projected to be about 4% between 2010 and 2014. It is concluded that forecasting the Turkey's short-term gross electricity demand with the country's economic performance will provide more reliable projections. Forecasting the annual electricity consumption of a country could be made by any designer with the help of the fuzzy logic procedure described in this paper. The advantage of this model lies on the ability to mimic the human thinking and reasoning.

  17. Energy situation and renewables in Turkey and environmental effects of energy use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects on global and environmental air quality of pollutants released into the atmosphere from fossil fuels in power plants provide strong arguments for the development of renewable energy resources. Clean, domestic and renewable energy is commonly accepted as the key for future life, not only for Turkey but also for the world. In this regard, the objective of this paper is to present a review of the energy situation, technical and economical potential and utilization of renewables, including hydraulic energy, biomass energy, solar energy, wind energy and geothermal energy, in Turkey and then concerned with greenhouse gas emissions status, especially in air pollution, and environmental impacts of renewable energy sources. The renewable energy potential of the country, their present utilization, and greenhouse gas emissions status are evaluated based on the available data. The present paper shows that there is an important potential for renewables in Turkey and making use of renewable energy and energy efficiency resources to provide energy services to the electricity consumers can provide significant environmental benefits for Turkey. (author)

  18. Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand forecast by fuzzy logic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucukali, Serhat [Civil Engineering Department, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Incivez 67100, Zonguldak (Turkey); Baris, Kemal [Mining Engineering Department, Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Incivez 67100, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2010-05-15

    This paper aims to forecast Turkey's short-term gross annual electricity demand by applying fuzzy logic methodology while general information on economical, political and electricity market conditions of the country is also given. Unlike most of the other forecast models about Turkey's electricity demand, which usually uses more than one parameter, gross domestic product (GDP) based on purchasing power parity was the only parameter used in the model. Proposed model made good predictions and captured the system dynamic behavior covering the years of 1970-2014. The model yielded average absolute relative errors of 3.9%. Furthermore, the model estimates a 4.5% decrease in electricity demand of Turkey in 2009 and the electricity demand growth rates are projected to be about 4% between 2010 and 2014. It is concluded that forecasting the Turkey's short-term gross electricity demand with the country's economic performance will provide more reliable projections. Forecasting the annual electricity consumption of a country could be made by any designer with the help of the fuzzy logic procedure described in this paper. The advantage of this model lies on the ability to mimic the human thinking and reasoning. (author)

  19. Improvement of energy demand forecasts using swarm intelligence: The case of Turkey with projections to 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uenler, Alper [Department of Information Management Systems, KKK Per. Bsk., Yuecetepe 06100, Ankara (Turkey)

    2008-06-15

    The energy supply and demand should be closely monitored and revised the forecasts to take account of the progress of liberalization, energy efficiency improvements, structural changes in industry and other major factors. Medium and long-term forecasting of energy demand, which is based on realistic indicators, is a prerequisite to become an industrialized country and to have high living standards. Energy planning is not possible without a reasonable knowledge of past and present energy consumption and likely future demands. Energy demand management activities should bring the demand and supply closer to a perceived optimum. Turkey's energy demand has grown rapidly almost every year and is expected to continue growing. However, the energy demand forecasts prepared by the Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources overestimate the demand. Recently many studies are performed by researchers to forecast the energy demand of Turkey. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique has never been used for such a study. In this study a model is proposed, using PSO-based energy demand forecasting (PSOEDF), to forecast the energy demand of Turkey more efficiently. Although there are other indicators as well, gross domestic product (GDP), population, import and export are used as basic energy indicators of energy demand. In order to show the accuracy of the algorithm, a comparison is made with the ant colony optimization (ACO) energy demand estimation model which is developed for the same problem. (author)

  20. Improvement of energy demand forecasts using swarm intelligence: The case of Turkey with projections to 2025

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy supply and demand should be closely monitored and revised the forecasts to take account of the progress of liberalization, energy efficiency improvements, structural changes in industry and other major factors. Medium and long-term forecasting of energy demand, which is based on realistic indicators, is a prerequisite to become an industrialized country and to have high living standards. Energy planning is not possible without a reasonable knowledge of past and present energy consumption and likely future demands. Energy demand management activities should bring the demand and supply closer to a perceived optimum. Turkey's energy demand has grown rapidly almost every year and is expected to continue growing. However, the energy demand forecasts prepared by the Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources overestimate the demand. Recently many studies are performed by researchers to forecast the energy demand of Turkey. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique has never been used for such a study. In this study a model is proposed, using PSO-based energy demand forecasting (PSOEDF), to forecast the energy demand of Turkey more efficiently. Although there are other indicators as well, gross domestic product (GDP), population, import and export are used as basic energy indicators of energy demand. In order to show the accuracy of the algorithm, a comparison is made with the ant colony optimization (ACO) energy demand estimation model which is developed for the same problem

  1. Improvement of energy demand forecasts using swarm intelligence: The case of Turkey with projections to 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unler, Alper [Department of Information Management Systems, KKK Per. Bsk., Yuecetepe 06100, Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: aunler@kkk.tsk.mil.tr

    2008-06-15

    The energy supply and demand should be closely monitored and revised the forecasts to take account of the progress of liberalization, energy efficiency improvements, structural changes in industry and other major factors. Medium and long-term forecasting of energy demand, which is based on realistic indicators, is a prerequisite to become an industrialized country and to have high living standards. Energy planning is not possible without a reasonable knowledge of past and present energy consumption and likely future demands. Energy demand management activities should bring the demand and supply closer to a perceived optimum. Turkey's energy demand has grown rapidly almost every year and is expected to continue growing. However, the energy demand forecasts prepared by the Turkey Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources overestimate the demand. Recently many studies are performed by researchers to forecast the energy demand of Turkey. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique has never been used for such a study. In this study a model is proposed, using PSO-based energy demand forecasting (PSOEDF), to forecast the energy demand of Turkey more efficiently. Although there are other indicators as well, gross domestic product (GDP), population, import and export are used as basic energy indicators of energy demand. In order to show the accuracy of the algorithm, a comparison is made with the ant colony optimization (ACO) energy demand estimation model which is developed for the same problem.

  2. The biology, economy, hunting and legislation of edible Frogs (Ranidae Intended for Export in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya Şereflişan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The frogs production is done on the basis of fully hunting, an important export product in Turkey. The frogs are almost no domestic consumption. The frogs are exported to France, Italy, Switzerland, Lebanon, Greece and Spain by five companies a processed form as live frog, frozen frog legs and chilled frog legs. In Turkey, some regulations related to hunting frogs and exports are prepared by under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs General Directorate of Protection and Control. The hunting frogs is banned by 3/1 the Commercial Fisheries regulating the hunting notification. These prohibitions are designed to be different for each province. The provinces are permitted for frogs hunting by the legislation in Adana, Afyonkarahisar, Balıkesir, Bingöl, Bursa, Edirne, Bursa, Istanbul and Yalova. Frogs were exported in different amounts (kg with different price in every year during the last ten years. The highest amounts of the frogs with the lowest of price were exported in 2013. Prey weight is shrinking due to overfishing. In this case, the price of export materials has got significantly negative effects. As a result, the ban on hunting and restrictive measures for protection should be taken seriously in some of the provinces. Hunting ban is absolutely necessary in Turkey. In many countries including Turkey, in order to ensure sustainability, it is important to do the frog breeding.

  3. Evaluation of Turkey Mushroom Export

    OpenAIRE

    Emine Emel Ak; Yüksel Tüzel; Erkan Eren; Funda Atilla

    2016-01-01

    Turkey is gene center of many plant species and is a country that different endemic plant species are found. A vast geography and the presence of different climatic conditions cause either diversity of plant genetic resources or macro fungi species. Many species of mushrooms grow spontaneously in nature. According to the demand from different country preferred different mushroom species, some mushroom species collected from nature are exported each year. In this study, it was aimed to determi...

  4. Social Media in Southeast Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    This book presents an ethnographic study of social media in Mardin, a medium-sized town located in the Kurdish region of Turkey. The town is inhabited mainly by Sunni Muslim Arabs and Kurds, and has been transformed in recent years by urbanisation, neoliberalism and political events. Elisabetta Costa uses her 15 months of ethnographic research to explain why public-facing social media is more conservative than offline life. Yet, at the same time, social media has opened up unprecedented possi...

  5. How Turkey Meets MPOWER Criteria?

    OpenAIRE

    Nazmi Bilir; Hilal Ozcebe

    2013-01-01

    In 2003 World Health Assembly adopted an international treaty on tobacco control; FCTC, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Five year later World Health Organization (WHO) declared the six effective approach for tobacco control, under the name of MPOWER. In the following years, WHO evaluated the level of implementation of MPOWER criteria in the countries. In this article, how Turkey implemented these six criteria will be discussed. Monitor tobacco use and prevention policies: Monitoring ...

  6. Turkey : Gas Sector Strategy Note

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes a strategy for accelerating the liberalization of the natural gas market in Turkey in line with the objectives of the Natural Gas Market Law of 2001 (Law 4646). It focuses on the desired future framework for the natural gas market and indicates the changes that need to be made in the "buy" function, "sell" function, and transit function as well as the steps that need...

  7. War and domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colson, E

    1995-01-01

    A longterm study (begun in 1956) of the people of four villages in Gwembe District in Zambia provides information on deaths due to Rhodesian action or to Zimbabwean freedom fighters and on deaths due to domestic violence (which is likely to have been underreported because it is considered shameful). During the decade of the 1970s, one woman and three men died from Rhodesian action and 5 women were killed by kinsmen (two husbands, two sons, and one brother). The police left the kin to settle the case of the sister killed by the brother. One man who killed his mother persuaded a younger, unmarried kinsman to be charged and punished in his stead; another left the community. One of the men who killed his wife was released because of his age (he paid damages to his children in accordance with matrilineal tradition); the other was released for lack of evidence. Battered women usually do not press charges against their husbands but may leave them and, if young, marry again. In some cases, battered women seeking divorce have also won compensation for broken bones. Domestic violence may have been especially prevalent in this period because the economic situation deteriorated, men could not find work, and the Rhodesian war added stress and disrupted the local transportation system. In response, men began to drink more heavily and male violence directed against women and men brewed along with locally-produced alcohol. Domestic violence may be exacerbated when men use women as an outlet for their anger and frustration in stressful times of war. PMID:12295013

  8. Radioactive material transportation in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey has thousands of radiation sources and there is an intensive traffic in the region. The number of imported radiation sources for nuclear medicine purposes within a year exceeds 60 000. The number of diagnostic radiology equipment is about 7000, industrial radiography equipment is 353 and therapy equipment is around 120. There are 3 PET machines, 2 Pet cyclotrons, 2 isotope production units, 2 sterilization facilities etc. Besides, in Turkey there is an intensive import of scrap materials as well as export (there are totally around 12 panel detectors, of which 6 are located at customs and 6 are owned by scrap steel operators); 59 online stations are in 24-hrs operation. Some of the radiation protection systems used in Turkey are produced by the Turkish Atomic Energy Authority (TAEK) in accordance with the EC standards. The regulatory actions for the issue of the transport of radioactive materials are summarized briefly together with their design approvals of packaging and storage of nuclear materials and radioactive substances. Underlined are the great importance given to nuclear and radioactive material security and radiation safety due to the presence of thousands of radiation sources in the country and intensive traffic in the region. (author)

  9. Przemoc domowa = Domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Łepecka-Klusek, Celina; Pawłowska-Muc, Agnieszka Konstancja; Pilewska-Kozak, Anna Bogusława; Stadnicka, Grażyna; Pałucka, Klaudia

    2015-01-01

    Łepecka-Klusek Celina, Pawłowska-Muc Agnieszka Konstancja, Pilewska‑Kozak Anna Bogusława, Stadnicka Grażyna, Pałucka Klaudia. Przemoc domowa = Domestic violence. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2015;5(6):169-182. ISSN 2391-8306. DOI 10.5281/zenodo.18420 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/2015%3B5%286%29%3A169-182 https://pbn.nauka.gov.pl/works/564476 http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.18420 Formerly Journal of Health Sciences. ISSN 1429-9623 / 2300-66...

  10. Foreign Firms, Domestic Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj; Markusen, James R.; Schjerning, Bertel

    Foreign-owned firms are often hypothesized to generate productivity "spillovers" to the host country, but both theoretical micro-foundations and empirical evidence for this are limited. We develop a heterogeneous-firm model in which ex-ante identical workers learn from their employers in proportion...... similarly large domestic firms. The empirical implications of the model are tested on matched employer-employee data from Denmark. Consistent with the theory, we find considerable evidence of higher wages and wage growth in large and/or foreign-owned firms. These effects survive controlling for individual...

  11. Invasion by the oak lace bug, Corythucha arcuata (Say) (Heteroptera: Tingidae), in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    MUTUN, Serap; CEYHAN, Zeycan; SÖZEN, Can

    2009-01-01

    Corythucha arcuata (Heteroptera: Tingidae) is an important pest species that causes severe damage to oak species by sucking up the cellular sap material and leaving its eggs on the underside of leaves. Considered a Nearctic species with a wide distribution, especially in the United States and southern Canada, it has recently been reported beyond the North American continent, specifically in Italy, Switzerland, and Turkey. Since its first report from Bolu, in 2003, the oak lace bug has rapidly...

  12. Forensic Aspects in Domestic Homicide

    OpenAIRE

    Kovačević, Dražen; Žarković-Palijan, Tija; Radeljak, Sanja; Marinović, Dunja; Dadić Hero, Elizabeta; Ljubin Golub, Tajana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was investigation of specific forensic aspects in offenders involved in domestic homicide cases in regard to sociodemographic and psychosocial variables and modalities of the offense. The research was conducted at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry in Neuropsychiatric Hospital »Dr. Ivan Barbot« in Popovaca, Croatia. The sample in this study consisted of domestic homicide group (N=162). The results showed certain characteristics within the group of domestic homicide off...

  13. Domestication of Media and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This edited book brings together both theoretical and empirical contributions on the domestication of technology in everyday life. Domestication is a social science approach to study use and acceptance if ICT from the users (and non-users) point of view. Domestication is concept that was much discussed at EMTEL, an FP5 research and training network in which IPTS was a partner. The book is a result of the discussions and contacts that emerged from EMTEL.

  14. Domestication and nutrition in fish

    OpenAIRE

    Cahu, Chantal

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate to what extent, the study of feeding regimes of fish could be valuable to indicate the possibilities and the constraints of their domestication. Though the natural feeding regime of fish seems to be disadvantageous for their domestication, as protein requirement is high, different species could be considered as domesticated. These species are herbivorous, detritivorous, omnivorous as well as carnivorous. In the same way, there are large differences in gut ...

  15. Groundwater balance estimation and sustainability in the Sandıklı Basin (Afyonkarahisar/Turkey)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fatma Aksever; Ayşen Davraz; Remzi Karaguzel

    2015-06-01

    The Sandıklı (Afyonkarahisar) Basin is located in the southwest of Turkey and is a semi-closed basin. Groundwater is widely used for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes in the basin. The mismanagement of groundwater resources in the basin causes negative effects including depletion of the aquifer storage and groundwater level decline. To assure sustainability of the basin, determination of groundwater budget is necessary. In this study, the water-table fluctuation (WTF) and the meteorological water budget (MWB) methods were used to estimate groundwater budget in the Sandıklı basin (Turkey). Conceptual hydrogeological model of the basin was used for understanding the relation between budget parameters. The groundwater potential of the basin calculated with MWB method as 42.10 × 106 m3/year. In addition, it is also calculated with simplified WTF method as 38.48 × 106 m3/year.

  16. Review.Advances in the management of the wastewater in Turkey: natural treatments or constructed wetlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a result of rapid population growth and industrialization with increased water demand, domestic and industrial waste has increased. Wastewater left to streams and rivers without treatment is polluting the environment. The purpose of this study is to explain the importance of the constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and to provide information about applications in Turkey. In this study, constructed wetlands have been introduced, the types, operation systems, performance evaluation, information about the legal regulations for use of waste water in agriculture has been given. Municipal wastewater can be reused with constructed wetlands in rural areas and water saving will be provided. The constructed wetlands should be developed rearranging Turkey's laws. Thus water used for agriculture will be reduced and other sectors needs will be met. (Author) 26 refs.

  17. Turkey - Transport Sector Expenditure Review : Synthesis Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Turkey is an upper-middle income country with a population of 73 million. It has a diversified economy with a strategic geographical position, located on the southeastern side of Europe and southwestern side of Asia. Continued economic growth, combined with increases in the urban population, will place increasing demands on Turkey's transport infrastructure. High middle income countries su...

  18. Eastern Mediterranean Natural Gas: Analyzing Turkey's Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Tanriverdi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale natural gas discoveries in East Mediterranean have drawn attention to the region. The discoveries caused both hope and tension in the region. As stated, the new resources may serve as a new hope for all relevant parties as well as the region if managed in a collaborative and conciliatory way. Energy may be a remedy to Cyprus' financial predicament, initiate a process for resolving differences between Turkey and Cyprus, normalize Israel-Turkey relations and so on. On the contrary, adopting unilateral and uncooperative approach may aggravate the tension and undermine regional stability and security. In this sense, the role of energy in generating hope or tension is dependent on the approaches of related parties. The article will analyze Turkey's attitude in East Mediterranean case in terms of possible negative and positive implications for Turkey in the energy field. The article examines Turkey's position and the reasons behind its stance in the East Mediterranean case. Considering Turkey's energy profile and energy policy goals, the article argues that the newly found hydrocarbons may bring in more stakes for Turkey if Turkey adopts a cooperative approach in this case.

  19. Characteristics of Inclusive Classrooms in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melekoglu, Macid Ayhan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, inclusive classrooms in Turkey are described in terms of the characteristics of both classroom teachers and students with special needs. Participants of this study consisted of 54 teachers working in inclusive classrooms and 54 students with mild intellectual disabilities in those classrooms in Turkey. Data for this study were…

  20. Extreme Forms of Child Labour in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degirmencioglu, Serdar M.; Acar, Hakan; Acar, Yuksel Baykara

    2008-01-01

    Two little known forms of child labour in Turkey are examined. The process through which these children are made to work has parallels with the experiences of slaves. First, a long-standing practice from Northwestern Turkey of parents hiring children to better-off farmers is examined. Further, a more recent problem is examined where children are…

  1. Sustainable investment in Turkey: issue brief

    OpenAIRE

    Ararat, Melsa; Yurtoğlu, Burçin B.; Yurtoglu, Burcin B.; Suel, Esra

    2011-01-01

    IFC launched a series of sustainable investment country reports initially covering the largest emerging capital markets attracting global portfolio investors: Brazil, India, and China. Further reports have been added to the series covering Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East and North Africa, and Turkey. This Issue Brief 's the summary version of the report, “Sustainable Investment in Turkey,”

  2. Liberalising the domestic energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information on the changes involved in the liberalisation of the UK domestic gas and electricity markets. Topics discussed include choices for domestic customers and small businesses due to competition in the energy markets; competition in the deregulated markets; the Association of Energy Suppliers; the electricity market; an update on the open gas market; the link between deregulation and energy efficiency; the local authority view; switchers and stickers in the domestic gas market; the role of voluntary bodies in advising the public; the role of voluntary organisations in deregulation; the beneficiaries in domestic energy liberalisation; and metering and billing. (UK)

  3. Plant domestication and gene banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the time of the dawn of agriculture, plant domestication was very slow. As agriculture progressed, however, domestication began to evolve faster and reached its highest point with the advent of plant breeders who played a very important role in solving the world food problem. One of the fastest moving strategies was a better exploitation of genetic diversity, both natural and induced. However, intensive plant breeding activity caused a heavy fall in genetic variability. Gene banks then provided a further tool for modern agriculture, specifically to preserve genetic resources and to help breeders to further domesticate important crops and to introduce and domesticate new species. (author). 3 refs

  4. Turkey-USA relations in an age of regional and global turmoil: challenges and prospects introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Öniş, Ziya; Yılmaz, Şuhnaz

    2013-01-01

    TURKEY-US RELATIONS IN AN AGE OF REGIONAL AND GLOBAL TURMOIL: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS EDITORIAL INTRODUCTION Ziya Öniş and Şuhnaz Yılmaz This special issue on Turkish-American relations with a specific focus on the Middle East aims to analyze a complex web of relations at a critical regional and global juncture, with important implications well beyond bilateral relations. The idea for this special issue emerged during the “Turkish-American Alliance in a Volatile Region: ...

  5. The Relationship Between Turkey and USA in The Period of The Ottoman Empire (1795-1914

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz GÜLER

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article it was studied, the relationship between Turkey and the USA in the period of the Ottoman Empire. Firstly, it was investigated that foundation of the USA and American foreign policy in Ottoman period. The beginning of the relationship, treaties with Ottoman Empire and the USA; activities of the USA in Otoman werestudied in this article. The idea emphasized in the article that:, the origins of present problems had begun in Ottoman Empire period because of the American activities.

  6. Discourse and Practice in American Security Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Akçay, Engin

    2013-01-01

    The practices of foreign and domestic politics carried out by countries are closely related with their capacities to conduct risks and to utilize opportunities. That is why an effective discourse is needed for managing international and domestic affairs. In this context, the United States as an important player in the history of the past century has also developed a series of discourse and practices. When it comes to security, American approach considerably engages in both soft and hard disco...

  7. [Domestic violence: any progress?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrion, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Since the publication of the French national survey of violence against women in 2000, the fight against domestic violence has made steady progress. Knowledge of the phenomenon has significantly improved. A nationwide study of murders and manslaughters perpetrated by one partner of a couple against the other has been published annually since 2006. In 2012, domestic violence resulted in the deaths of 314 persons: 166 women, 31 men, 25 children, 9 collateral victims, 14 rivals, and two former spouses killed by their ex-fathers in law. In addition, 67 perpetrators committed suicide (51 men and3 women). The number of victims fluctuates from year to year but has remained fairly stable since 2006 (n=168). Legislation has improved significantly: eight new laws have been passed since 2004, all designed to protect women and to ensure that violent men are restrained and treated. New measures to inform and protect women have been implemented and others have been improved, such as the anonymous helpline (phone no 3919, "domestic violence information"). An inter-ministerial committee on the protection of women from violence and the prevention of human trafficking (MIPROF) was created on 3 January 2013. A website entitled "Stop violence against women " (Stop violences faites aux femmes) is now available. The "Imminent Danger" mobile phone system, designed to alert police if a suspected or known perpetrator breaches restraint conditions, will be extended to the entire country from January 2014. Referees charged with coordinating comprehensive long-tern care of women victims have been deployed at the county level. Information centers on the rights of women and families (CIDFF) now form a local nationwide network. Routine interviews with a midwife during the fourth month of pregnancy, focusing on the woman's emotional, economic and social conditions, have been implemented in 21 % of maternity units and should gradually be generalized. The authorities who have enforced the law have

  8. THE AMERICAN DARK AGES

    OpenAIRE

    Hayırlı, Onur; İşler, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    This article historically will review some cases for lynch culture which is again blacks in America. And will examine the term ‘Afro-American’. Cases like ‘Michael Brown’, ‘Eric Garner’ and ‘Antonio Martin’ are proof of violence is still going on again black society.Lynching is a part of America’s dark sides. Behind lynching, it lays a brutal history of domestic violence. For years, maybe for centuries, American people have lynched Black people because of various accusations. These lynching w...

  9. A SNP based linkage map of the turkey genome reveals multiple intrachromosomal rearrangements between the Turkey and Chicken genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aslam, M.L.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Vereijken, A.; Groenen, M.A.M.; Megens, H.J.W.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species that is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. The genomic resources of turkey provide turkey breeders with tools needed for the genetic improvement of commercial breeds of turkey for eco

  10. Development of pathology in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan GEDİKOĞLU

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Autospy is an important tool for the development of pathology as a science. In western civilisation dissection of human body became widespread with Renaissance, in contrast in the Ottoman Empire first dissection was not performed until the 19th century. Mustafa Behçet Efendi, head physician of the Empire, was one of the Ottoman physician who suggested the importance of dissection in the medical education. The first dissection was however performed by Charles Ambroise Bernard, a foreign physician who had been invited to help establishing a new medical school; “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliye-i Şâhâne”, in 1843. The first modern medical schools called “Tıphane” and “Cerrahhane-i Amire” which were founded in 1827, did not have pathology courses. Pathology courses began in “Mekteb-i Tıbbiye-i Adliyei Şâhâne”. Dr. Hamdi Suat (Aknar, educated in anatomic pathology in Germany, was the first pathologist who established the modern pathology in Turkey in “İstanbul Darülfünun” medical school. In 1933 “Darülfünün” was closed and İstanbul University was built and the “University Reform Commission” invited many scientists escaping from Nazi government to study in İstanbul University. Dr. Philipp Schwartz had an important role both in the invitation of these scientists and establishment of the pathology department in İstanbul University. Practical courses were increased, clinicopathologic courses were organized for the first time and a lot of autopsies were performed, as high as 1000 autopsy per year, by Dr. Philipp Schwartz. More progress has takes place in Turkey over the years since pathology was first established. Today Turkey has many pathology departments which keep up with the worldwide advances in the field.

  11. Oil and Gas Emergency Policy: Turkey 2013 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-06-01

    Oil has been one of the main energy sources in Turkey, accounting for some 28% of the country’s total primary energy supply (TPES) in 2011. Turkey’s oil demand slightly increased from 637 kb/d in 2003 to 670 kb/d in 2012, although it dropped down from 678 kb/d in 2009 to 650 kb/d in 2010. The transport sector accounted for half of total oil consumption in 2010. Domestic oil production is in decline in Turkey, amounting to 45 kb/d or about 6.7% of total consumption in 2012. In 2012, Turkey imported 712 kb/d, consisting of about 392 kb/d of crude oil and some 320 kb/d refined products. Around 39% of total crude oil imports came from Iran. Crude oil and petroleum products are mainly undertaken by tankers and two major international pipelines running through the country with a total annual handling capacity of 2.8 mb/d. In the country, there are four operational refineries with a total crude distillation capacity of around 610 kb/d. Turkey meets its 90-day stockholding obligation to the IEA by placing a minimum stockholding obligation on industry. Under the relevant acts, refineries and fuel distribution companies are obliged to hold at least 20 days of product stocks based on the average daily sales of previous year, while eligible consumers that use more than 20,000 tonnes annually are required to hold 15 days’ consumption of each type of liquid fuel. Turkey held some 61 million barrels of oil stocks at the end of January 2013, equating to 99 days of 2011 net-imports. Around 55% of total oil stocks are held in the form of crude oil. The use of emergency oil stocks is central to Turkey’s emergency response policy, which can be complemented by demand restraint measures. The share of natural gas in the country’s TPES significantly increased at 32% in 2011. Turkey’s gas demand significantly increased from 0.7 billion cubic meters (2 mcm/d) in 1987 to 45.3 bcm (124 mcm/d) in 2012, while indigenous natural gas production totalled some 0.63 bcm in the same year

  12. STRUCTURAL VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF MASONRY BUILDINGS IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Korkmaz, Kasım Armagan; CARHOGLU, Asuman Isıl

    2011-01-01

    Turkey is located in an active seismic zone. Mid to high rise R/C building and low rise masonry buildings are very common construction type in Turkey. In recent earthquakes, lots of existing buildings got damage including masonry buildings. Masonry building history in Turkey goes long years back. For sure, it is an important structure type for Turkey. Therefore, earthquake behavior and structural vulnerability of masonry buildings are crucial issues for Turkey as a earthquake prone country. I...

  13. Turkey -a Clash of Civilisations?

    OpenAIRE

    Rude, Cecilie Holdt; Ursin, Malte Grane; Tsagaraki, Maria; Brudvig, Mette Rubeck; Petersen, Sif Johanna Hvid

    2009-01-01

    Taking a starting point in Samuel Huntington’s ‘Clash of Civilisations’, with Turkey as a case study, we will investigate the consequences from the foundation of a nation-state in the country. Which problems can we detect today, which have to do with the cultural change the country has gone through? Are any of the current problems rooted in the enforcement of another culture upon the people and do we detect a sense of division among the Turkish population? We will discuss these problems with ...

  14. [The urbanization rate in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widy-kwiatkowska, J

    1994-01-01

    Data from the annual statistical report on Turkey for 1990 and the results of research from 1985 and 1990 were utilized and compared with the trends of urbanization observed in the 1969 work of Z. Siemek on Turkey. In 1990, Turkey had about 56.5 million people with an average annual natural growth rate of 2.6% and an unemployment rate of 16%. The rural population made up 41% of the total populace. Urbanization was on the increase, from 47% in 1980, to 55% in 1985, and 59% in 1990. Urbanization in Ankara, because of its location in the center of Turkey, was particularly active in the regions of Anatolia, although it was still isolated in terms of intensified development. Istanbul's The population of Istanbul numbered 6,754,000 people in 1990. It is the major industrial center of the country with about 20% of industrial plants and 17% of the work force in the manufacturing industry. The largest degree of urbanization was demonstrated by Ankara: in 1927 its population numbered only 74,500 people, in 1965 about 902,000 inhabitants, and in 1990 about 2,837,000 people. During the period 1985-90, only 2 out of 73 provinces experienced a decline of the urban population: Kirikkale from 70.4% to 69.7% (because of the dynamic development of the Central region) and Istanbul from 95.4% to 92.4%. During this same period, Kirikkale's urban population, compared with the nation's total urban population, also declined from 0.9% to 0.7% because of immigration of both urban and rural people to other, more attractive provinces. The growth of urban population in the province of Istanbul varied from 1% to 10% during the period and made up 20.3% of the entire urban population. The Central region underwent a large degree of urbanization characterized by industrial-agricultural development. The city of Sivas became a center of communication. In the Central and Kurd regions, urbanization proceeded fast owing to the development of the Black Sea region and the immigration of Kurds from Iraq

  15. The Beliefs Of International And Domestic Foreign Language Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Scott Kissau; Maria Yon; Bob Algozzine

    2011-01-01

    In response to the shortage of foreign language (L2) teachers in the United States, many school districts employ individuals from other countries. Despite the benefits offered by such teachers, there is growing concern that they may not be adequately prepared for teaching in American schools. In this mixed method study involving 222 L2 teachers and their supervisors, the teaching-related beliefs of domestic and international L2 teachers in the United States were compared. Survey results in...

  16. Plant domestication slows pest evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Martin M; Lochab, Amaneet K; Turley, Nash E; Johnson, Marc T J

    2015-09-01

    Agricultural practices such as breeding resistant varieties and pesticide use can cause rapid evolution of pest species, but it remains unknown how plant domestication itself impacts pest contemporary evolution. Using experimental evolution on a comparative phylogenetic scale, we compared the evolutionary dynamics of a globally important economic pest - the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) - growing on 34 plant taxa, represented by 17 crop species and their wild relatives. Domestication slowed aphid evolution by 13.5%, maintained 10.4% greater aphid genotypic diversity and 5.6% higher genotypic richness. The direction of evolution (i.e. which genotypes increased in frequency) differed among independent domestication events but was correlated with specific plant traits. Individual-based simulation models suggested that domestication affects aphid evolution directly by reducing the strength of selection and indirectly by increasing aphid density and thus weakening genetic drift. Our results suggest that phenotypic changes during domestication can alter pest evolutionary dynamics. PMID:26100381

  17. Use of Fly Ash as a Potential Coagulant in the Physico-Chemical Treatment of Domestic Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    SARI, Bülent; BAYAT, Belgin

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of fly ash as a coagulant for domestic wastewater treatment was investigated and compared with aluminium sulfate and ferric chloride. In these experiments, four fly ash samples with different chemical compositions obtained from different coal- fired power plants in Turkey were used. In all coagulation-flocculation experiments using fly ash, it was apparent that the predominant removal mechanism varied with the pH and the chemical components of the fly ash. According to our r...

  18. The Puzzle of Rice Domestication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Sang; Song Ge

    2007-01-01

    The origin of cultivated rice has puzzled plant biologists for decades. This is due, at least in part, to the complex evolutionary dynamics in rice cultivars and wild progenitors, particularly rapid adaptive differentiation and continuous gene flow within and between cultivated and wild rice. The long-standing controversy over single versus multiple and annual versus perennial origins of cultivated rice has been brought into shaper focus with the rapid accumulation of genetic and phylogenetic data. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed ancient genomic differentiation between rice cultivars, suggesting that they were domesticated from divergent wild populations. However, the recently cloned domestication gene sh4, responsible for the reduction of grain shattering from wild to cultivated rice, seems to have originated only once. Herein, we propose two models to reconcile apparently conflicting evidence regarding rice domestication. The snow-balling model considers a single origin of cultivated rice. In this model, a core of critical domestication alleles was fixed in the founding cultivar and then acted to increase the genetic diversity of cultivars through hybridization with wild populations. The combination model considers multiple origins of cultivated rice. In this model, initial cultivars were domesticated from divergent wild populations and fixed different sets of domestication alleles. Subsequent crosses among these semi-domesticated cultivars resulted in the fixation of a similar set of critical domestication alleles in the contemporary cultivars. In both models, introgression has played an important role in rice domestication. Recent and future introgression of beneficial genes from the wild gene pool through conventional and molecular breeding programs can be viewed as the continuation of domestication.

  19. Some Aspects of the Feeding Ecology of Otters (Lutra lutra) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Knollseisen

    1996-01-01

    Food of otters Lutra lutra was studied by the analysis of 100 spraints collected in Turkey in summer 1994. The aim of the study was to show whether or not there is an impact of otters on local domestic animals and on game species or not. Fish (mostly Anguilla anguilla and Leuciscus sp.) were the most important prey items (55,7 %). Additionally the study showed that otters were feeding on marine fish. Other important prey categories were amphibians (up to 51,9 %), crustaceans (4,8 %), reptiles...

  20. External Financial Stress and External Financing Vulnerability in Turkey : Some Policy Implications for Financial Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Etkin Ozen; Cem Sahin; Ibrahim Unalmis

    2013-01-01

    External financial stress is one of the causes of capital outflows and reduction in borrowing ability of emerging markets. Sudden reversal of capital inflows and disruption in access to the international capital markets could be threat for the domestic financial stability as in the case of Asian Crisis in 1997-1998. This paper analyses the behavior of external financing sources of Turkey, namely FX non-core liabilities of the banking system and portfolio flows, for periods of 1995-2000 and 20...

  1. Market brief : natural gas in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey may soon become an important transit route to Europe for natural gas imported from the Caucasus, Iran, and other Middle Eastern countries. This market brief provided an overview of Turkey's natural gas market and industry, and examined investment and business opportunities for Canadian businesses. Consumption of natural gas in Turkey has grown by 14.8 per cent annually in the last decade. Transmission equipment expenditures total approximately $400 million annually. It is expected that the demand for environmental and engineering services for natural gas-related industries will grow by 15 per cent annually over the next decade. There are currently several opportunities for Canadian suppliers of equipment, engineering, and construction services. Turkey's expected full European Union (EU) membership will require Turkey to adopt EU environmental and emissions standards. Potential investors in Turkey require operating licences from Turkey's Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA). All state procurement is by tender, while BOTAS, the state-owned gas company dominates both imports and the transmission of gas. Market entry considerations were also presented. 7 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs

  2. Geothermal energy for American Samoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    The geothermal commercialization potential in American Samoa was investigated. With geothermal energy harnessed in American Samoa, a myriad of possibilities would arise. Existing residential and business consumers would benefit from reduced electricity costs. The tuna canneries, demanding about 76% of the island's process heat requirements, may be able to use process heat from a geothermal source. Potential new industries include health spas, aquaculture, wood products, large domestic and transhipment refrigerated warehouses, electric cars, ocean nodule processing, and a hydrogen economy. There are no territorial statutory laws of American Samoa claiming or reserving any special rights (including mineral rights) to the territorial government, or other interests adverse to a land owner, for subsurface content of real property. Technically, an investigation has revealed that American Samoa does possess a geological environment conducive to geothermal energy development. Further studies and test holes are warranted.

  3. Turkey's Increasing Role in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Eksi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is briefly dealing with the current situation in Afghanistan within the context of Turkey’s increasing role in Afghanistan. Turkish-Afghani relations are examined in terms of politics and economy while Turkish foreign policies towards Afghanistan and the Turkish-Pakistani-Afghani triple summit attempts are analyzed. Additionally, Turkey’s security and socio-economic contributions in Afghanistan are emphasized. Turkey’s unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistanfor operational purposes that is frequently debated in national and international circles has been evaluated by stating the advantages and disadvantages of such decision. Turkey’s quiet approach between 2001 and 2004 towards Afghanistan, which have been energizing since 2005 and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu’s visit to Afghanistan on June 2009 have been dealt as well. By considering Davutoglu’s policies, aiming to introduce Turkey as a global actor and as the term President of the UNSC (the UN Security Council, it seems that Turkey is preparing to play a more active role in Afghanistan.

  4. [Current malaria situation in Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gockchinar, T; Kalipsi, S

    2001-01-01

    Geographically, Turkey is situated in an area where malaria is very risky. The climatic conditions in the region are suitable for the malaria vector to proliferate. Due to agricultural infrastructural changes, GAP and other similar projects, insufficient environmental conditions, urbanization, national and international population moves, are a key to manage malaria control activities. It is estimated that malaria will be a potential danger for Turkey in the forthcoming years. The disease is located largely in south-eastern Anatolia. The Diyarbakir, Batman, Sanliurfa, Siirt, and Mardin districts are the most affected areas. In western districts, like Aydin and Manisa, an increase in the number of indigenous cases can be observed from time to time. This is due to workers moving from malaria districts to western parts to final work. Since these workers cannot be controlled, the population living in these regions get infected from indigenous cases. There were 84,345 malaria cases in 1994 and 82,096 in 1995, they decreased to 60,884 in 1996 and numbered 35,456 in 1997. They accounted for 36,842 and 20,963 in 1998 and 1999, respectively. In Turkey there are almost all cases of P. vivax malaria. There are also P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria cases coming from other countries: There were 321 P. vivax cases, including 2 P. falciparum ones, arriving to Turkey from Iraq in 1995. The P. vivax malaria cases accounted for 229 in 1996, and 67, cases P. vivax including 12 P. falciparum cases, in 1997, and 4 P. vivax cases in 1998 that came from that country. One P. vivax case entered Turkey from Georgia in 1998. The cause of higher incidence of P. vivax cases in 1995, it decreasing in 1999, is the lack of border controls over workers coming to Turkey. The other internationally imported cases are from Syria, Sudan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nigeria, India, Azerbaijan, Malaysia, Ghana, Indonesia, Yemen. Our examinations have shown that none of these internationally imported cases

  5. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  6. Investing in Turkey's Next Generation : The School-to-Work Transition and Turkey's Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report assesses the prospects for Turkey's youth by examining the 'school-to-work transition'. Turkey needs to invest in its young people to capture the potentially substantial dividend of today's large youth cohort. Because of the sheer number of young people, Turkey's working-age population will expand by over 800,000 every year during the next decade. This so-called 'productive pop...

  7. Assessing Poverty and Related Factors in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Saatci, Esra; Akpinar, Ersin

    2007-01-01

    Poverty, a complex, multidimensional, and universal problem, has been conceptualized as income and material deprivation. In this article, we discuss poverty and related factors in Turkey. The absolute poverty line for Turkey was US $4 per capita per day. Turkey was ranked 92nd out of 177 countries with moderate human development in the 2006 Human Development Report. The individual food poverty rate was 1.35% and the non-food poverty rate was 25.6%. The highest poverty rate was among primary s...

  8. International Diversification Versus Domestic Diversification: Mean-Variance Portfolio Optimization and Stochastic Dominance Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Fathi Abid; Pui Lam Leung; Mourad Mroua; Wing Keung Wong

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies the mean-variance portfolio optimization (PO) approach and the stochastic dominance (SD) test to examine preferences for international diversification versus domestic diversification from American investors’ viewpoints. Our PO results imply that the domestic diversification strategy dominates the international diversification strategy at a lower risk level and the reverse is true at a higher risk level. Our SD analysis shows that there is no arbitrage opportunity between in...

  9. An Investigation on Satisfaction of Domestic Tourist from Ankara Shopping Fest under the Tourism of Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet TAYFUN

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentration of Tourism mostly in coastal of Turkey, in certain centers and in summer season stands out as a major problem. A tourism mobility that, spread over 12 months, and including inner zones is emphasized also in 2023 Tourism Strategy of Turkey. Therefore, increasing the diversity of tourism such as festivals, which started to increase number of events. Hence, investigated in this study, satisfaction levels from Ankara Shopping Fest of domestic tourists, who came to Ankara during "Ankara Shopping Fest" which, organized in Ankara on 8 June to 1 July 2012 period. Descriptive research method used in the study. The aims in this study, determination of the views of local tourists about Ankara Shopping Fest and to investigate the satisfaction from the festival. 336 domestic tourists as visitors during the festival in Ankara were the sample of research. Questionnaire technique was used as a data collection technique. The questionnaire consisted of three parts, the first section was demographic variables. The second section was located expressions for Ankara Shopping Fest. Some statical analysis made to data in the result of research. These analyses were frequecy analysis, t tests and ANOVA tests. As a result of the t-tests and ANOVA tests significant differences were found between gender, age, level of income and civil staus of domestic tourists who came to Ankara during the festival.

  10. Clinic-based screening for domestic violence: use of a child safety questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisk Doris J

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Domestic violence affects many women during their lifetime. Children living in homes where they are or have been exposed to violence are at increased risk for adverse outcomes. The American Academy of Pediatrics, the American Academy of Family Practice, and the American College of Obstetrics/Gynecology have recently joined in recommending routine screening of all families for the presence of domestic violence. We present our experience with an office-based domestic violence screening questionnaire. Methods A series of four child safety questionnaires (designed for parents of infant, preschool-age, school-age, and adolescent patients, which included specific questions about domestic violence, was given to all mothers presenting to a university out-patient general pediatric clinic. The questionnaires, offered in both English and Spanish, were reviewed for the presence of domestic violence exposure, usually at the time of the clinic visit. The number of women who reported either current or past exposure to domestic violence as disclosed by this active screening process was compared to the number discovered prior to the use of these questionnaires. Results Prior to the use of active screening with a child safety questionnaire, five cases of domestic violence were identified in our clinic population of approximately 5000 children over a 3 month period. Active screening of this population with a parent questionnaire resulted in the identification of 69 cases of current domestic violence exposure (2% of those screened during each of 2 years of screening. Use of the child safety questionnaire was associated with a significantly increased odds of detecting current domestic violence (OR = 3.6, 95% CI [1.4, 9.1], P = 0.007, with 72% [26–84%] of the cases identified being attributable to the use of the questionnaire. Of children screened, 2% were currently exposed to domestic violence, and 13% had been exposed to past domestic violence

  11. Some Aspects of the Feeding Ecology of Otters (Lutra lutra in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Knollseisen

    1996-10-01

    Full Text Available Food of otters Lutra lutra was studied by the analysis of 100 spraints collected in Turkey in summer 1994. The aim of the study was to show whether or not there is an impact of otters on local domestic animals and on game species or not. Fish (mostly Anguilla anguilla and Leuciscus sp. were the most important prey items (55,7 %. Additionally the study showed that otters were feeding on marine fish. Other important prey categories were amphibians (up to 51,9 %, crustaceans (4,8 %, reptiles (up to 9,1 % and birds (2,4 %. The study showed that there is no reason for condemning the otter as a pest for domestic animals and game species

  12. The energy outlook in Turkey and the prospects for nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy planning and policy in Turkey is dependent on domestic resources and international financial and political issues. The limited but varied existence of alternative energy resources has lead to a complex structure of energy production. Energy resources in use range from wood and dung, through coal, oil, natural gas and hydro to geothermal and solar. The inadequate output from these domestic resources set against increasing energy demand and dependence on imported energy, supports the case for the introduction of nuclear energy. Another favourable circumstance for nuclear energy is the availability within the country of considerable amounts of uranium and thorium. However, financial constraints are among the most important factors influencing the final decision making. (U.K.)

  13. Four new records for Physarales from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİREL, Gönül; KAŞIK, Gıyasettin

    2012-01-01

    Physarum didermoides (Pers.) Rostaf., Physarum gyrosum Rostaf., Didymium karstensii Nann.-Bremek., and Didymium trachysporum G.Lister, taxa grown by moist chamber culture method, are 4 new records from Turkey.

  14. Counseling in Turkey: An Evolving Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Rex; Guneri, Oya Yerin

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a brief history of counseling and addresses the current issues and future trends of counseling in Turkey. Special emphasis is placed on the factors that impede the development of school counseling as a discipline.

  15. Opposition to gold mining at Bergama, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Arsel, Murat

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction For much of the 1990s, the tourist town of Bergama was the epicentre of Turkey's most effective and visible environmental social movement against a multinational mining corporation aiming to establish the first modern gold mine in the country. Bringing relatively prosperous peasants together with a small group of ambitious policy entrepreneurs, the movement marked a turning point in environmental politics in Turkey. Motivated primarily by the environmental and public ...

  16. Voluntary emission trading potential of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change is likely to cause serious market failures, and carbon trading as a market instrument can help correct its negative impacts. The global carbon markets established to combat climate change include regulatory and voluntary markets. Turkey cannot utilise regulatory carbon markets under the Kyoto Protocol. As a result of her unique position in the UNFCCC, some offsetting projects in Turkey have benefitted only voluntary emission trading for the reduction of GHG emissions. Due to on-going climate change negotiation under the UNFCCC, it seems that Turkey will not use the current regulatory carbon markets. Thus, Turkey should promote the use of and participation in voluntary carbon markets. In this article, emission reduction potential via energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management, and corresponding offsetting of credits with their estimated prices is investigated for the period between 2013 and 2020. The emission reduction potential for energy efficiency, renewable energy and solid waste management projects are estimated at 403, 312 and 356 million tons of CO2 equivalent emissions respectively, totalling 1,071 million tons of CO2 equivalent. The total revenue of the carbon certificates are estimated in the range of 19,775–33,386 million US Dollars for the same period. -- Highlights: •Turkey has 1,071 million tons GHG emission reduction in three sectors for 2013–2020. •Turkey can only use voluntary emission trading for reduction of GHGs. •Total revenue estimation could be between 19,775 and 33,386 million US Dollars. •Turkey's economy and emissions have been rapidly growing. •Turkey can more easily reduce its emission by using voluntary emission trading

  17. Sustainable Forest Management and Cadastre in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Güler Yalcin

    2012-01-01

    In Turkey the forest is one of the most important natural resources. It both affects the rural development processes and is affected from these. Nevertheless “deforestation” is the main forest problem in Turkey. Sustainable forest management is required for the forests meet the social, economic, ecological, cultural and spiritual needs of the next generation. “To protect and to secure the forest areas” is the initial studies to be done for sustainable forest management. To prevent deforestati...

  18. Evaluation of scorpion sting incidence in turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ozkan, O; R. Uzun; S. Adiguzel; Y. Cesaretli; M Ertek

    2008-01-01

    Scorpion stings are common in Turkey due to its geographical location, climate and socioeconomic structure. Scorpion envenomation cases are a considerable public health problem in all regions of the country. Important health-threatening scorpions in Turkey are Androctonus crassicauda, Leiurus quinquestriatus, Mesobuthus gibbosus and M. eupeus, all of which belong to the Buthidae family. They are described to be potentially dangerous to humans. So far, there is no study about scorpion sting in...

  19. Renewable Energy's Current Position in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Irem DIDINMEZ

    2015-01-01

    Since energy is an important input for the economic growth of countries and the development of industry, it has become an ever-gradually increasing concept. Countries have started to look for the alternative energy sources and to use it in order to ensure the energy security of supply and to decrease their foreign dependence. Turkish economy is an energy intensive economy. Turkey has been in search of sophisticated energy policy to vary the sources on providing energy security. Turkey is loca...

  20. Past nuclear power project experiences of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, developments in the world for utilization of nuclear energy and, in parallel to these developments, works undertaken in Turkey are summarized. Besides this, future prospects in the field of nuclear energy in the world and in Turkey, and our opinion about the action to be taken in our county, in the light of past experiences of nuclear power projects that could not be succeeded, are presented

  1. Turkey “between East and West”

    OpenAIRE

    Heper, Metin

    2004-01-01

    Metin Heper discusses the formation of Turkey’s identity, which came to encompass both an "Eastern" and a "Western" (or European) dimension. Against this background, Heper discusses three main issues within the politics of Turkey that have remained problematic from the perspective of the EU: Islam in politics, nationalism and the consideration of Turkey’s ethnic minorities, and the political role of the military. Based on the "identity history" of Turkey, Heper puts forward some suggestions a...

  2. A HISTORICAL OVERWIEW OF ACCOUNTING IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim MERT

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this article was to review the historical evolution of accounting in the late Ottoman Empire and the modern Republic of Turkey. Prior Work: This paper is trying to extant a research to observe the historical development of accounting practices in Turkey. During the analyses around 2 authors’ books were related to this paper. Approach: During the study it was focused to collect information observation through published academic books and articles. Results: The empiri...

  3. Modernization of Turkey under Kamal Ataturk

    OpenAIRE

    Asyraf Hj Ab Rahman; Wan Ibrahim Wan Ahmad; Nooraihan Ali; Daud Ismail; Fadzli Adam

    2015-01-01

    Mustafa Kamal Ataturk considered one of the important figures who shape the modern life of Turkish nations. Kamal’s ideology and his political structure are important to be studied since both gives important contributions towards the establishment of modern secular Turkey. This paper discusses Turkey under Kamal Atarturk. Using a secondary analysis, published materials written by scholars and writers in the field, some views and analysis of scholars like Bernard Lewis, Kemal H Karpat and seve...

  4. Myxomycetes from Trabzon and Giresun Provinces (Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Ocak, İjlal; İsmet HASENEKOĞLU

    2005-01-01

    This study serves as a checklist of the myxomycetes of Trabzon and Giresun provinces, Turkey. Sixty-one myxomycete were identified, 20 of which were collected in the field and 41 grown in moist chamber culture. In addition, we report all taxa new for Giresun and Trabzon, including the following 15 taxa new to Turkey: Licea biforis Morgan, Cribraria intricata Schrad., C. macrocarpa Schrad., Lycogala exiguum Morgan, Arcyria globosa Schw., A. nigella Emoto, A. magna Rex, Trichia erecta Rex, Dian...

  5. Structural change and industrial policy in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Atiyas, İzak; Atiyas, Izak; Bakış, Ozan; Bakis, Ozan

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents evidence on structural change in Turkey and provides an overview of the evolution of industrial policy in the last three decades. We show that Turkey has experienced substantial growth in labor productivity in the last decade and that this has been associated with substantial change in the composition of value added and employment both in the overall economy and within the manufacturing industry. Using sectoral national accounts data we decompose aggregate productivity g...

  6. Housing Policies in Turkey and Lithuania

    OpenAIRE

    F. Yetgin; N. Lepkova

    2005-01-01

    Housing sector is very important sector in the world. The greater importance of the housing sector broadly defined, to include, financing, upgrading, repairs, management, valuation, taxation, population. The article contains the comparison of housing policies in Turkey and Lithuania. The housing strategiesñtheir differences and common points in Turkey and Lithuania are presented in the article. The housing strategic principles and preferences in the countries under investigation have been ana...

  7. IFRS implementation and studies in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Cagnur Kaytmaz Balsari; Secil Varan

    2014-01-01

    The development of accounting system and practices in a country is a reflection of its economic development as well as legislative process. Turkey has not been an exception. Its economic development has led the accounting practices to change from tax and state oriented towards international harmonization. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of IFRS (International Financial Reporting Standards) application in Turkey and an extensive review of IFRS related local literature gat...

  8. Macrofungi of Derebucak district (Konya, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    ALKAN, Sinan; KAŞIK, Gıyasettin; AKTAŞ, Sinan

    2010-01-01

    Macrofungi specimens were collected from different localities in Derebucak district (Konya province) between 2005 and 2007, particularly during the autumn and spring. As a result 134 species were identified. Thirteen of them belong to Ascomycota, and the other 121 belong to the division Basidiomycota. According to the present literature about the macrofungi of Turkey, 6 taxa are new records for Turkey. These are Lachnellula calyciformis (Willd.) Dharne of the division Ascomycota, and Hebeloma...

  9. LEADERSHIP ROLE of TURKEY for ICDEEEWA

    OpenAIRE

    Ugur Demiray

    2012-01-01

    This paper will mention the distance education practices in Turkey, and will examine and discuss the role of leadership which should be undertaken by Turkey in the region of Eastern Europe, Scandinavia, Baltic, Turkic, Caucasian, the Middle East and North Africa regions. International distance education organizations in the world are not well organized and functional in this area or for the regional distance education institutions in the name of educational institutionalism. To fill this gap...

  10. Dollarization and External Sustainability of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Amira Karimova; Ahmet Caliskan; Jamshid Karimov

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we attempt to explain that expanding current account deficit of Turkey can be a highlighting signal of its dependency on foreign capital inflows. When private non-financial firms borrow in foreign currency, they face currency mismatch in their balance sheets. Statistical analyses of aggregated balance sheet data of non-financial sector revealed that the negative gap between firms’ dollarized assets and liabilities has been increasing considerably in Turkey. This creates financi...

  11. WOMEN MANAGERS IN PRINTED MEDIA AND TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Senem Besler; Ilke Oruc

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we first offer the recent statistics about the women workforce and women managers in Turkey. Then we focus on the major factors that deprive many working women of the managerial positions and consider the problems that the women managers face in companies. Finally the news texts, including the female managers in the mass media of Turkey will be interpreted through content analysis and textual analysis. The universe of the research consists of the daily newspapers. Through purpo...

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi, causal agent of Chagas disease: The borderline between wild and domestic cycles in Venezuela.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidi eHerrera

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, occurs between triatomine vectors and mammals, including man. T. cruzi has 150 Ma in America with almost 10 million of infected people today. The overlapping of its wild and domestic ecotopes is increasing. The host-parasite imbrications has been discerned by the study of infection patterns, transmissibility and transmission cycles in natural and laboratory models, through to parasitological and molecular tests. This article describes specific parasite niches, as plant biocenosis or biological corridors between domestic and wild ecotopes and helps distinguish Chagas disease risks and the borderline between wild and domestic transmission cycles, with emphasis on Venezuelan studies.

  13. DNA testing and domestic dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mellersh, Cathryn

    2011-01-01

    There are currently about 80 different DNA tests available for mutations that are associated with inherited disease in the domestic dog, and as the tools available with which to dissect the canine genome become increasingly sophisticated, this number can be expected to rise dramatically over the next few years. With unrelenting media pressure focused firmly on the health of the purebred domestic dog, veterinarians and dog breeders are turning increasingly to DNA tests to ensure the health of ...

  14. Domestic Distortions and International Trade.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, James E.; Geoffrey J. Bannister; Neary, J. Peter

    1995-01-01

    In this paper, the authors develop techniques for measuring the trade policy equivalent of domestic distortions using a distance function approach. Their measure, the trade restrictiveness index, is shown to equal the uniform tariff that is welfare equivalent to a given pattern of domestic taxes and subsidies. The authors extend the index to incorporate taxes in markets for nontraded goods and factors of production and illustrate its operationality with an application to liberalization in Mex...

  15. FDI Outflows and Domestic Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Dasgupta, Nandita

    2016-01-01

    The recent phenomenon of rising outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) flows has raised serious policy concerns about its effects on the domestic investment and capital formation in the countries of origin of such FDI flows. Does OFDI stimulate domestic investment or does it crowd it out? The concern arises because OFDI activities could shift not only some of the production activities from home to foreign destinations but also could possibly threaten the availability of scarce financial res...

  16. Domestic violence against elderly women.

    OpenAIRE

    Grunfeld, A F; Larsson, D. M.; Mackay, K; Hotch, D.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the experiences of four elderly abused women to better understand the influence of violence on their lives and the implications for intervention by family physicians. DESIGN: Qualitative case presentations of four elderly women who participated in a hospital-based domestic violence intervention program. SETTING: The Domestic Violence Program of Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre, an intervention program based in the emergency department. PARTICIPANTS: Four En...

  17. International standards and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.; Dokmanović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    The majority states in the world, as well as Serbia and Montenegro, took over the obligations from international law documents with regards to prevention, protection and prosecution of domestic violence. Over the last several years, in Serbia and Montenegro, there have been some positive steps regarding more decisive reaction on domestic violence, in the first place thanks to NGOs advocacy. However, the state involvement and contribution is still symbolic in comparison with obligations that i...

  18. Income Analysis in South American Domestic Camelid Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Ansaloni; Francesco Pyszny; Rodolfo Marquina; Alvaro Claros Liendo; Alvaro Claros Goitia; José Luis Quispe Huanca; Japhet Zapana Pineda

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the production costs and income of eight groups of farms: five private farms and three belonging to the Andean rural community. These farms are located in Peru and Bolivia and breed alpacas and llama for both meat and fibre. The research is based on case studies. Each case study includes several farms, grouped according to similar characteristics: available resources; breeding techniques and geographical location. A farm economic data analysis was undertaken by determining...

  19. Income Analysis in South American Domestic Camelid Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ansaloni

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the production costs and income of eight groups of farms: five private farms and three belonging to the Andean rural community. These farms are located in Peru and Bolivia and breed alpacas and llama for both meat and fibre. The research is based on case studies. Each case study includes several farms, grouped according to similar characteristics: available resources; breeding techniques and geographical location. A farm economic data analysis was undertaken by determining economic budget income. Statistics and data from 2003 were analysed to determine farm resources and farm production costs, per animal head and net farm income per labour unit and livestock head. This paper is relevant as regards economic data for production systems which are more often analysed for sociological and cultural aspects and less often for economic data and identification of real productive economic data which are not generally market driven.

  20. Market Brief : Turkey oil and gas pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presented some quick facts about oil and gas pipelines in Turkey and presented opportunities for trade. The key players and customers in the oil and gas sector were described along with an export check list. Turkey is looking into becoming an energy bridge between oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East, Central Asia and Europe. The oil and gas sectors are dominated by the Turkish Petroleum Corporation, a public enterprise dealing with exploration and production, and the State Pipeline Corporation which deals with energy transmission. They are also the key buyers of oil and gas equipment in Turkey. There are several pipelines connecting countries bordering the Caspian Sea. Opportunities exist in the areas of engineering consulting as well as contracting services for oil and gas pipeline transmission and distribution. Other opportunities lie in the area of pipeline construction, rehabilitation, materials, equipment, installation, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Currently, the major players are suppliers from Italy, Germany, France, United States and Japan. Turkey has no trade barriers and imported equipment and materials are not subjected to any restriction. The oil and gas market in Turkey expected in increase by an average annual growth rate of 15 per cent from 2001 to 2003. A brief description of pipeline projects in Turkey was presented in this report along with a list of key contacts and support services. 25 refs., 1 append

  1. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetin, Muejgan, E-mail: mujgan@sistemyon.com.tr [SISTEM Yoenetim Danismanligi Ltd. Sti. Atatuerk Cad. Ulastirici sok. Eris Sitesi A Blok No:3/7 Sahrayicedid-Erenkoey Istanbul (Turkey); Egrican, Niluefer [Suntek International Orhangazi Cad. No:54/A Dragos- Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-11-15

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: > The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. > Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. > Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. > If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. > Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  2. Thorium research and development in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey has a great potential regarding thorium resources. Thorium exploration activities have been done in the past mainly by state organizations for determining the thorium resources in Turkey. Thorium occurs as complex mineral together with barite, fluorite and rare earth elements (REE). The increase in global demand for REE creates the opportunity for REE production which will also produce thorium as a by-product. The development of nuclear energy program in Turkey provides the stimulus for research and development activities in nuclear technologies. The final declaration of the workshop emphasizes the importance of thorium reserves in Turkey and the necessity for thorium exploration and development activities in order to determine the feasibility of thorium mining and fuel cycle in Turkey. These activities should be conducted together with the development of technologies for separation of these complex minerals and purification of thorium, REE and other minerals to be utilized as commercial products. There are advanced academic research studies on thorium fuel cycle which should be supported by the industry in order to commercialize the results of these studies. Turkey should be integrated to international R and D activities on ADS which is expected to commercialize on medium term. The legislative framework should be developed in order to provide the industrial baseline for nuclear technologies independent from nuclear regulatory activities

  3. Employment impacts of solar energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar energy is considered a key source for the future, not only for Turkey, also for all of the world. Therefore the development and usage of solar energy technologies are increasingly becoming vital for sustainable economic development. The main objective of this study is investigating the employment effects of solar energy industry in Turkey. Some independent reports and studies, which analyze the economic and employment impacts of solar energy industry in the world have been reviewed. A wide range of methods have been used in those studies in order to calculate and to predict the employment effects. Using the capacity targets of the photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar power (CSP) plants in the solar Roadmap of Turkey, the prediction of the direct and indirect employment impacts to Turkey's economy is possible. As a result, solar energy in Turkey would be the primary source of energy demand and would have a big employment effects on the economics. That can only be achieved with the support of governmental feed-in tariff policies of solar energy and by increasing research-development funds. - Highlights: → The objective of the study, is investigating employment effects of solar energy. → Using the capacity targets of the PV and CSP plants in solar roadmap of Turkey. → Direct employment has been calculated by constructing of the solar power plant. → If multiplier effect is accepted as 2, total employment will be doubled. → Validity of the figures depends on the government's policies.

  4. Recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the importance of renewable energy sources has increased significantly as climate change has become an important long term threat to global ecosystems and the world economy. In the face of increased concern about climate change and high fossil fuel costs together with a reduction in the primary energy sources such as oil, natural gas and coal, alternative energy sources (renewables) are increasingly needed to respond to the threat of climate change and growing energy demand in the world. Recent developments in Turkey, such as the liberalization of the electricity market and improvements in the renewable legislations, have accelerated the growth process and investment opportunities in the field of renewable energy. Turkey′s naturally endowed potential for renewables, such as solar, geothermal and wind, also accompanied these developments and attracted world attention to this market. In Turkey, renewable energy sources have gained great importance in the last decades due to growing energy demand and incentive policies which foster the utilization of renewable energy sources. This study aims to explore the availability and potential of renewable energy sources in Turkey and discuss the government policies and economic aspects. - highlights: • Turkey′s potential for renewable energy has attracted world attention. • Turkey has specific energy objectives in promoting renewable energy. • This paper evaluates recent incentives for renewable energy in Turkey. • Incentives in Turkey have led to more investment in renewable energy generation

  5. Ideology, religion and the army in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arslan

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkey has a strategic place in world politics. As Ahmad (1991: 226 and 1993 said, Turkey's strategic location on the Straits and on the cross-roads between Europe and Asia will remain unchanged. Turkey is a meeting point between Europe and Asia not only geographically, but also ideologically between Eastern and Western civilisation The Turkish secular and democratic system has provided a model to both the Islamic Middle East and the new Turkish states of the former Soviet Union.     The new state was created from the ruins of the Ottoman Empire in 1920s. Turkey has turned her face completely to the west since the foundation of the Republic. The economic and social development, as Hale examined (Hale, 1981, have proceeded in a predominantly liberal competitive political system since the 1940s.    This paper will concern itself with the Turkish political leaders. Firstly, a brief information about the political structure of contemporary Turkey will be given. Then, the major findings on Turkish top political elites will be presented. The top political elites comprise all the presidents, presidents of the TGNA, prime ministers, and ministers who served in three or more cabinets during the whole modern Republican history of Turkey. In doing this, the variables of age, educational level, education type, occupation, foreign languages, gender and marital status, family size were used.

  6. Blueprint for domestic uranium enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AEC advisory committee on domestic production of uranium enrichment has studied for more than a year how to achieve the domestic enrichment of uranium by the construction and operation of a commercial enriching plant using centrifugal separation method, and the report was submitted to the Atomic Energy Commission on August 18, 1980. Japan has depended wholly on overseas services for her uranium enrichment needs, but the development of domestic enrichment has been carried on in parallel. The AEC decided to construct a uranium enrichment pilot plant using centrifuges, and it has been forwarded as a national project. The plant is operated by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. since 1979. The capacity of the plant will be raised to approximately 75 ton SWU a year. The centrifuges already operated have provided the first delivery of fuel of about 1 ton for the ATR ''Fugen''. The demand-supply balance of uranium enrichment service, the significance of the domestic enrichment of uranium, the evaluation of uranium enrichment technology, the target for domestic enrichment plan, the measures to promote domestic uranium enrichment, and the promotion of the construction of a demonstration plant are reported. (Kako, I.)

  7. Turkey vulture and California condor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattee, O.H.; Wilbur, S.R.

    1989-01-01

    Populations of turkey vultures in the western states appear stable, with no evidence of recent significant changes in distribution. Turkey vultures occupy a variety of habitats, nest in diverse situations and utilize a wide variety of carrion. Consequently, no particular limiting factor is likely to have a major effect on the total population. California condor numbers, in contrast, have continued to decline. With the capture of the last wild bird in 1987, the species has been extirpated from the wild. Reestablishment will depend on production and introduction of captive-reared birds, hopefully within the next 10 years. In the 18th century, condors inhabited areas along the Pacific coast from British Columbia to Baja California. Since 1950, the range has been restricted to a six county area adjacent to the southern San Joaquin Valley of California. Within this area, there appears to be no shortage of suitable nest sites; all recently used nest sites are within federally-controlled lands. Suitable foraging grounds have continued to diminish and are now largely limited to private rangelands and some Bureau of Land Management rangelands within the foothills of the San Joaquin Valley. Only these areas continue to supply the large mammal carcasses that the California condor needs for survival. The habitat of the condor is subject to a variety of land use practices and development pressures. Excessive mortality, coupled with low reproductive potential, continues to threaten the recovery of the species. Development of management practices to reduce mortality, particularly those that are contaminant-related, and of a preserve design to insure adequate habitat for the reintroduced population are still necessary for eventual recovery of the species.

  8. Radiological maps for Trabzon, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnaz, A., E-mail: asliy@ktu.edu.t [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Kucukomeroglu, B. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey); Damla, N. [Batman University, Department of Physics, 72060 Batman (Turkey); Cevik, U. [Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Physics, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    The activity concentrations and absorbed gamma dose rates due to primordial radionuclides and {sup 137}Cs have been ascertained in 222 soil samples in 18 counties of the Trabzon province of Turkey using a HPGe detector. The mean activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in soil samples were 41, 35, 437 and 21 Bq kg{sup -1}, respectively. Based on the measured concentrations of these radionuclides, the mean absorbed gamma dose in air was calculated as 59 nGy h{sup -1} and hence, the mean annual effective dose due to terrestrial gamma radiation was calculated as 72 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}. In addition, outdoor in situ gamma dose rate (D) measurements were performed in the same 222 locations using a portable NaI detector and the annual effective dose was calculated to be 66 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} from these results. The results presented in this study are compared with other parts of Turkey. Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were composed using the results obtained from the study. - Highlights: {yields} {yields}The study highlights activity concentrations of {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K and {sup 137}Cs in soil. {yields} The absorbed gamma dose in air and the mean annual effective dose were calculated. {yields} The calculated results compared with outdoor in situ gamma dose measurements. {yields} Radiological maps of the Trabzon province were created using ArcGIS applications. {yields} The results will be valuable data for future estimations of radioactive pollution.

  9. Scientific collaboration network of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We parsed the 30 years of scientific collaboration data to construct a network. • We made empirical measurements to uncover topological measurements of the network. • The Turkish scientific collaboration network stated out small-world properties. • We also found the degree distribution indicating the network is scale free. • With a high clustering coefficient, the network is a strongly interconnected one. -- Abstract: Networking via co-authorship is an important area of research and used in many fields such as ranking of the universities/departments. Studying on the data supplied by the Web of Science, we constructed a structural database that defines the scientific collaboration network of the authors from Turkey, based on the publications between 1980 and 2010. To uncover the evolution and structure of this complex network by scientific means, we executed some empirical measurements. The Turkish scientific collaboration network is in an accelerating phase in growth, highly governed by the national policies aiming to develop a competitive higher education system in Turkey. As our results suggest the authors tend to make more number of collaborations in their studies over the years. The results also showed that, node separation of the network slightly converges about 4, consistent with the small world phenomenon. Together with this key indicator, the high clustering coefficient, (which is about 0.75) reveals that our network is strongly interconnected. Another quantity of major interest about such networks is, “the degree distribution”. It has a power-law tail that defines the network as scale-free. Along with the final values, the time evolutions of the above-mentioned parameters are presented in detail with this work. In a good agreement with the recent studies, our network yields some significant differences especially in growing rate, clustering properties and node separation. In contrast with the recent studies, we also showed that

  10. A Research on Social and Political Use of Social Media in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet ÇETİNKAYA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social media, generated by advances in internet technology, are heavily used by individuals of every age and every class both in Turkey and all over the world. Social networking sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Google+ make virtual societies possible, and enable ideas, opinions and comments to be shared. This sh aring of visual and auditory context without any limitations has produced a more democratic platform. The democratic structure specific to social media enables them to be used for social and political purposes. In this study, a research is conducted on soc ial/political use of social media in Turkey. Results of the research revealed that majority of the participants (46.6% spend 2 to 4 hours on social media and 75.6% of the participants use smart phones for social media access. 11.2% of participants stated that they use social media for political and social purposes. 78.9% of the participants use Twitter and Facebook for political/social information sharing. 67.7% of participants frequently use Twitter for political/social purposes. In terms of political iss ues, participants prefer to use social media for domestic affairs rather than international affairs. The most controversial result was about the participants’ pessimistic attitude towards social media. Some part of the participants think that social media will not change anything in Turkey, and the other part states that social media usage will divide up the society. Detailed analyses are given throughout the article.

  11. Energy consumption and economic growth in Turkey during the past two decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Turkish economy has undergone a transformation from agricultural to industrial, enhanced by rapid urbanization, especially after 1982. Turkey's gross national production has grown at an average annual rate of 5% since 1983, ranking it at the top of the OECD countries, although the growth pattern has been uneven. Economic growth in recent years has been associated with the privatization of public enterprises. Turkey's energy demand has risen rapidly as a result of social and economic development. The country's energy consumption has grown considerably since the beginning of the 1980s. The Turkish government encourages foreign and Turkish private sector investors to implement the energy projects and is currently working on a new investment model for the construction of new generation plants to create the additional capacity needed. The Turkish energy sector, with its current size of 30 billion US dollars and projected size of 55 billion US dollars by 2015, as well as the fundamental restructuring process it has been going through since 2001, attracts both local and foreign investors. The sector needs an investment amount of approximately 130 billion US dollars by 2020. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the increasing of Turkish energy demand with the growth of the economy and utilization of domestic energy sources and the case of investments and imports in Turkey during the past two decades. (author)

  12. Energy consumption and economic growth in Turkey during the past two decades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Turkish economy has undergone a transformation from agricultural to industrial, enhanced by rapid urbanization, especially after 1982. Turkey's gross national production has grown at an average annual rate of 5% since 1983, ranking it at the top of the OECD countries, although the growth pattern has been uneven. Economic growth in recent years has been associated with the privatization of public enterprises. Turkey's energy demand has risen rapidly as a result of social and economic development. The country's energy consumption has grown considerably since the beginning of the 1980s. The Turkish government encourages foreign and Turkish private sector investors to implement the energy projects and is currently working on a new investment model for the construction of new generation plants to create the additional capacity needed. The Turkish energy sector, with its current size of 30 billion US dollars and projected size of 55 billion US dollars by 2015, as well as the fundamental restructuring process it has been going through since 2001, attracts both local and foreign investors. The sector needs an investment amount of approximately 130 billion US dollars by 2020. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the increasing of Turkish energy demand with the growth of the economy and utilization of domestic energy sources and the case of investments and imports in Turkey during the past two decades

  13. Energy consumption and economic growth in Turkey during the past two decades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balat, Mustafa [Sila Science, University Mahallesi, Trabzon 61000 (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    The Turkish economy has undergone a transformation from agricultural to industrial, enhanced by rapid urbanization, especially after 1982. Turkey's gross national production has grown at an average annual rate of 5% since 1983, ranking it at the top of the OECD countries, although the growth pattern has been uneven. Economic growth in recent years has been associated with the privatization of public enterprises. Turkey's energy demand has risen rapidly as a result of social and economic development. The country's energy consumption has grown considerably since the beginning of the 1980s. The Turkish government encourages foreign and Turkish private sector investors to implement the energy projects and is currently working on a new investment model for the construction of new generation plants to create the additional capacity needed. The Turkish energy sector, with its current size of 30 billion US dollars and projected size of 55 billion US dollars by 2015, as well as the fundamental restructuring process it has been going through since 2001, attracts both local and foreign investors. The sector needs an investment amount of approximately 130 billion US dollars by 2020. The aim of the present paper is to investigate the increasing of Turkish energy demand with the growth of the economy and utilization of domestic energy sources and the case of investments and imports in Turkey during the past two decades. (author)

  14. The Relationship Between Corruption and Foreign Direct Investment Inflows in Turkey: An Empirical Examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Umur TOSUN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the corruption literature, most of the studies indicate that corruption has adverse effects on the investment environment and thus it diminishes foreign direct investment (FDI inflows. However, regarding the so-called adverse effects between FDI and corruption, it is noticed that some studies reached to conclusions in the opposite direction. In this study, the causality relationship among corruption, political risk, industrial production index (as a proxy to gross domestic product and FDI entrance variables for Turkey over the period 1992M01-2010M12 is analyzed by means of Pesaran, Shin and Smith (2001 bounds test approach of cointegration and error correction methods. As a result, it is found that corruption has distortive effects on FDI in Turkey both for short and long run periods and this indicates that ‘helping hand’ corruption does not exist in Turkey. In addition, in the long run, FDI increases with raising income. Contrary to the expectations, it is detected that increase in political risk contributes to FDI inflows in the short run.

  15. RODOS - The domestic counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One term of reference for validly teaming up with Project RODOS (Real-Time-On-Line Decision Support System for Nuclear Emergencies in Europe) is to institutionally - contribute research initiatives geared towards emulating the RODOS functions on novel conceptual pathways, expand system's coverage of issues that are relevant in a nuclear crisis management and bring in a domestic perspective on how the system may best perform in each and every national - i.e. legal, managerial, logistic and cultural environment. On this line, one reviews the approach taken in the IFIN-HH RODOS Group to address the challenge, as well a number of representative outputs. These include: i) A phase-one, pre-RODOS, period (1990 - 1994), involving topical field orientation, feasibility demonstrations and expertise acquisition by hands-on training in environmental radiology modeling and DSS code development, the resulting products - codes in the 'APUD' and 'ACA-IFA' family, including custom versions developed by appointment of the IAEA Safety Section and AECL-Research, Ontario, Canada - being favourably reviewed by the NEA/OECD Data Bank; ii) A phase-two, upgrading and consolidation period (1994 -1996), assisted by the IAEA fellowship system and the US Government via the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Washington, D.C, having on record an effective participation in the development of the US NRC, EPA, and DOE's 'FRMAC Assessment Manual - The Federal manual for Assessing Environmental Data during a Radiological Emergency', and the 'RTM-95 International Technical Response Manual', and the research initiative of developing a software support for the manuals' implementation - the codes 'ROBOT' (Rule-Oriented Basic Operational Tool); iii) A phase-three period (1996 - ), evolving within the RODOS framework and featuring, inter alia: (a) the application of the ROBOT concept in the development of a standalone software platform, code-named NOTEPAD for DSS support in field operations, nuclear accident

  16. Policy Options for Turkey: A Critique of the Interpretation and Utilization of PISA Results in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Bekir S.; Celik, Zafer; Ozoglu, Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this article we provide a critique of the interpretation and utilization of Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) results by the National Education Authorities in Turkey. First, we define and explain what OECD's PISA is. Second, we make an overview of the media coverage in Turkey of the PISA 2003 and 2006 results. Third, we…

  17. Factors Influencing International Students' Choice to Study in Turkey and Challenges They Experience in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özoglu, Murat; Gür, Bekir S.; Coskun, Ipek

    2015-01-01

    Turkey is increasingly becoming a regional hub for international students. The number of international students in Turkish universities has grown by almost 300% in the last decade. The current internationalization efforts of the Turkish government and universities have the potential to make Turkey an even more attractive destination for…

  18. Wind energy status in renewable electrical energy production in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Main electrical energy sources of Turkey are thermal and hydraulic. Most of the thermal sources are derived from natural gas. Turkey imports natural gas; therefore, decreasing usage of natural gas is very important for both economical and environmental aspects. Because of disadvantages of fossil fuels, renewable energy sources are getting importance for sustainable energy development and environmental protection. Among the renewable sources, Turkey has very high wind energy potential. The estimated wind power capacity of Turkey is about 83,000 MW while only 10,000 MW of it seems to be economically feasible to use. Start 2009, the total installed wind power capacity of Turkey was only 4.3% of its total economical wind power potential (433 MW). However, the strong development of wind energy in Turkey is expected to continue in the coming years. In this study, Turkey's installed electric power capacity, electric energy production is investigated and also Turkey current wind energy status is examined. (author)

  19. The Genetic Architecture of Domestication in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Dominic Wright

    2015-01-01

    Domestication has been essential to the progress of human civilization, and the process itself has fascinated biologists for hundreds of years. Domestication has led to a series of remarkable changes in a variety of plants and animals, in what is termed the "domestication phenotype." In domesticated animals, this general phenotype typically consists of similar changes in tameness, behavior, size/morphology, color, brain composition, and adrenal gland size. This domestication phenotype is seen...

  20. Multi-perpetrator domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Michael

    2014-04-01

    A significant proportion of reports of domestic violence against women involve multiple perpetrators. Although the number of perpetrators has been consistently identified as a measure of abuse severity, only a minority of studies of domestic violence examine the role of multiple offenders. Data on multi-perpetrator domestic violence (MDV) is frequently removed from analysis in domestic violence studies, or multi-perpetrator incidents are treated as single-perpetrator incidents. However, the available research links MDV to negative mental and physical health outcomes, intimate partner homicide, homelessness among women, and severe mental illness and suicidality. This article reviews the available prevalence data on MDV and draws together research on the contexts in which MDV takes place. It highlights two groups that are particularly vulnerable to MDV: (1) girls and women partnered to members of gangs and organized crime groups and (2) girls and women in some ethnic minority communities. While discussions of honor in relation to domestic violence are often racialized in Western media, this article highlights the cross-cultural role of masculine honor in collective violence against women in the working class and impoverished communities of majority cultures as well as in migrant and ethnic minority communities. It is clear that such complex forms of violence present a range of challenges for intervention and treatment and the article emphasizes the need for specialized and coordinated modes of investigation, support, and care. PMID:24217092

  1. The Direction, Timing and Causality Relationships Between The Cyclical Components of Real and Financial Variables During The Financial Liberalization Period in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Insel, Aysu; Soytaş, Mehmet Ali; Gündüz, Seda

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the determination of sources and pattern of business cycle in Turkey throughout the period 1988-2002 using quarterly data. The question of the paper is “Has financial liberalization increased the fragility of the financial and real sides of the Turkish economy?” The quantitative analysis of the paper includes the cross correlation and causality analysis. Financial development indicators are the bank credits and capital flows, efficiency indicators are the domestic...

  2. Cost-Effectiveness of Increasing Influenza Vaccination Coverage in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, Levent; Macabéo, Bérengère; Caliskan, Zafer; Altinel, Serdar; Satman, Ilhan

    2016-01-01

    Objective In Turkey, the prevalence of diabetes is high but the influenza vaccination coverage rate (VCR) is low (9.1% in 2014), despite vaccination being recommended and reimbursed. This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of increasing the influenza VCR of adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to 20%. Methods A decision-analytic model was adapted to Turkey using data derived from published sources. Direct medical costs and indirect costs due to productivity loss were included in the societal perspective. The time horizon was set at 1 year to reflect the seasonality of influenza. Results Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes to 20% is predicted to avert an additional 19,777 influenza cases, 2376 hospitalizations, and 236 deaths. Associated influenza costs avoided were estimated at more than 8.3 million Turkish Lira (TRY), while the cost of vaccination would be more than TRY 8.4 million. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated at TRY 64/quality-adjusted life years, which is below the per capita gross domestic product of TRY 21,511 and therefore very cost-effective according to World Health Organization guidelines. Factors most influencing the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were the excess hospitalization rate, inpatient cost, vaccine effectiveness against hospitalization, and influenza attack rate. Increasing the VCR to >20% was also estimated to be very cost-effective. Conclusions Increasing the VCR for adults with type 2 diabetes in Turkey to ≥20% would be very cost-effective. PMID:27322384

  3. Regional security overlaps in EU-Turkey affairs

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Søren Cramer

    2013-01-01

    Throughout this project I analyze how the EU security community operates to secure dependable expectations of peaceful outcomes through its security cooperation with Turkey. This is done by examining EU security overlaps in the Turkey-EU security cooperation, Turkey EU-accession and the EU-Turkish energy security cooperation in the Caspian region with a focus on the Nabucco project. I conclude that the integration of Turkey into the EU security community reveals overlapping security concerns ...

  4. Two new records of the genus Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ZARE, Golshan; DÖNMEZ, Ali Aslan

    2013-01-01

    Two new records of Orobanche L. have been added to the 37 species of this genus previously reported from Turkey. Orobanche owerini (Beck) Beck is reported as a new record to flora of Turkey for the first time, and the existence of O. reticulata Wall. that was mentioned as a doubtful record for Turkey has been confirmed. Macro- and micromorphology of the taxa are discussed, geographical distributions in Turkey are mapped, and details of their habitat, ecology, and taxonomic remarks of the stud...

  5. Designing a new EU-Turkey strategic gas partnership

    OpenAIRE

    Tagliapietra, Simone; Georg ZACHMANN

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission's February 2015 Energy Union Communication calls for intensified work on the Southern Gas Corridor (SGC) and the establishment of a new strategic energy partnership with Turkey. The presence of the European Union and Turkey in the region is complementary in a number of ways. Building on this could unlock the region's gas export potential and make gas supplies to the EU and Turkey more secure. The EU should establish dedicated energy diplomacy taskforces with Turkey and...

  6. Recent status of nuclear power program in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this study, briefly energy policy of Turkey, past nuclear experience, institutional structure and authorized organizations in nuclear field are explained. In addition, information and recent status of Intergovernmental Agreement (IGA) between Russian Federation and Turkey in relation to the construction and operation of a nuclear power plant at the Akkuyu Site in Turkey is given. Besides, bilateral and international agreements which, the Turkey are the Party of are explained. Finally, near term agenda and challenges are discussed. (authors)

  7. The Iraqi Refugee Crisis and Turkey: a Legal Outlook

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) Abstract: Turkey witnessed a massive influx of Iraqis in both 1988 and 1991, when respectively around 50,000 and 460,000 Iraqis sought refuge there. In 2003, Turkey took measures to guard against another mass influx: and though around two million Iraqis fled out of the country, only 10,000 arrived in Turkey. However, a larger number may flee to Turkey, particularly if security deteriorates in the northern...

  8. A Snapshot of Geothermal Energy Potential and Utilization in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2009-01-01

    Turkey is one of the countries with significant potential in geothermal energy. It is estimated that if Turkey utilizes all of her geothermal potential, she can meet 14% of her total energy need (heat and electricity) from geothermal sources. Therefore, today geothermal energy is an attractive option in Turkey to replace fossil fuels. Besides, increase in negative effects of fossil fuels on the environment has forced many countries, including Turkey, to use renewable energy sources. Also, Tur...

  9. Mitochondrial DNA and the origins of the domestic horse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Thomas; Forster, Peter; Levine, Marsha A.; Oelke, Hardy; Hurles, Matthew; Renfrew, Colin; Weber, Jürgen; Olek, Klaus

    2002-01-01

    The place and date of the domestication of the horse has long been a matter for debate among archaeologists. To determine whether horses were domesticated from one or several ancestral horse populations, we sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop for 318 horses from 25 oriental and European breeds, including American mustangs. Adding these sequences to previously published data, the total comes to 652, the largest currently available database. From these sequences, a phylogenetic network was constructed that showed that most of the 93 different mitochondrial (mt)DNA types grouped into 17 distinct phylogenetic clusters. Several of the clusters correspond to breeds and/or geographic areas, notably cluster A2, which is specific to Przewalski's horses, cluster C1, which is distinctive for northern European ponies, and cluster D1, which is well represented in Iberian and northwest African breeds. A consideration of the horse mtDNA mutation rate together with the archaeological timeframe for domestication requires at least 77 successfully breeding mares recruited from the wild. The extensive genetic diversity of these 77 ancestral mares leads us to conclude that several distinct horse populations were involved in the domestication of the horse. PMID:12130666

  10. Obstacles to growth for small and medium enterprises in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Şeker, Murat; Correa, Paulo Guilherme

    2010-01-01

    Many studies have shown that firm growth decreases monotonically with size and age. In this study, the authors investigate employment growth of firms in Turkey with an emphasis on small and medium size enterprises. In Turkey, small and medium size enterprises account for almost 77 percent of employment and play a crucial role in the economy. However, the analysis of firm dynamics in Turkey ...

  11. The printer insects in quarantine list of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    YEŞİLAYAR, Ayşe; Çobanoğlu, Sultan

    2010-01-01

    Quarantine pests are very important in the world. There were 66 insects listed in agricultural quarantine regulations in law no. 6968 in Turkey, 28 of there are causing damage in the Turkey forests. Among them 17 scolytid species. The bark beetles listed in the forest quarantine list of Turkey were discussed in this paper.

  12. Turkey - Improving Conditions for SME Growth Finance and Innovation

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Facilitating the growth of Small- and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) is central to creating jobs for an underutilized and growing labor force in Turkey as SMEs account for 79 percent of jobs in Turkey. Creating jobs for Turkey's unemployed and for the rapidly growing labor force, though partly a social challenge, is an important economic opportunity. Turkish SME growth performance and pro...

  13. Turkey - Energy and the Environment : Issues and Options Paper

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2000-01-01

    This report represents an initial effort to assist Turkey in developing its energy-environment strategy. It represents the first phase of the Turkey Energy and Environment Review. A previous draft of the paper, translated into Turkish, served as the basic discussion document at an Energy and Environment workshop on the environmental impact of energy development in turkey held in Ankara on ...

  14. [Seroprevalence of tularemia in risk groups of humans and animals in Van, eastern Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Yasemin; Özkaçmaz, Ayşe; Parlak, Mehmet; Başbuğan, Yıldıray; Kılıç, Selçuk; Güdücüoğlu, Hüseyin

    2015-10-01

    Tularemia has become a re-emerging zoonotic disease in Turkey recently. The aims of this study were to determine the seroprevalence of tularemia in humans and their animals living in rural risky areas of our region and to investigate the risk factors. Between January and July 2012, people living in rural areas of Van province (located at eastern part of Turkey) and their domestic animals were included in the study. The sample size was determined by using cluster sampling method like in an event with known prevalence and planned as a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Proportional random sampling method was used to determine which individuals will be included in the study. Presence of tularemia antibodies in the sera of a total 495 voluntary persons (343 female, 152 male; age range: 18-79 years, mean age: 40.61) and their 171 animals (40 cattle, 124 sheep and 7 goats) were screened by microagglutination test using safranin O-stained F.tularensis antigen (Public Health Agency of Turkey). For the evaluation of cross-reactivity between Brucella spp., tularemia positive serum samples were also tested with brucella microagglutination test. Among human and animal samples, 11.9% (59/495) and 44% (76/171) yielded positive results with the titers of ≥ 1:20 in F.tularensis microagglutination test, respectively. However, 69.5% (41/59) of human sera and 78.9% (60/76) of animal sera demonstrated equal or higher titers in the brucella test, so those sera were considered as cross-reactive. After exclusion of these sera, the seroprevalence for F.tularensis were calculated as 3.6% (18/495) for humans and 9.4% (16/171) for animals. Among the 16 animals with positive results, 12 were sheep, three were cattle and one was goat. The difference between seropositivity rates among the domestic animal species was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). In addition, no statistically significant differences were found between risk factors including insect bite, tick bite, contact with

  15. Estimating the net electricity energy generation and demand using the ant colony optimization approach. Case of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents Turkey's net electricity energy generation and demand based on economic indicators. Forecasting model for electricity energy generation and demand is first proposed by the ant colony optimization (ACO) approach. It is multi-agent system in which the behavior of each ant is inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants to solve optimization problem. Ant colony optimization electricity energy estimation (ACOEEE) model is developed using population, gross domestic product (GDP), import and export. All equations proposed here are linear electricity energy generation and demand (linearACOEEGE and linear ACOEEDE) and quadratic energy generation and demand (quadraticACOEEGE and quadratic ACOEEDE). Quadratic models for both generation and demand provided better fit solution due to the fluctuations of the economic indicators. The ACOEEGE and ACOEEDE models indicate Turkey's net electricity energy generation and demand until 2025 according to three scenarios. (author)

  16. Estimating the net electricity energy generation and demand using the ant colony optimization approach. Case of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toksari, M. Duran [Engineering Faculty, Industrial Engineering Department, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents Turkey's net electricity energy generation and demand based on economic indicators. Forecasting model for electricity energy generation and demand is first proposed by the ant colony optimization (ACO) approach. It is multi-agent system in which the behavior of each ant is inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants to solve optimization problem. Ant colony optimization electricity energy estimation (ACOEEE) model is developed using population, gross domestic product (GDP), import and export. All equations proposed here are linear electricity energy generation and demand (linear{sub A}COEEGE and linear ACOEEDE) and quadratic energy generation and demand (quadratic{sub A}COEEGE and quadratic ACOEEDE). Quadratic models for both generation and demand provided better fit solution due to the fluctuations of the economic indicators. The ACOEEGE and ACOEEDE models indicate Turkey's net electricity energy generation and demand until 2025 according to three scenarios. (author)

  17. Estimating the net electricity energy generation and demand using the ant colony optimization approach: Case of Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toksari, M. Duran [Engineering Faculty, Industrial Engineering Department, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: dtoksari@erciyes.edu.tr

    2009-03-15

    This paper presents Turkey's net electricity energy generation and demand based on economic indicators. Forecasting model for electricity energy generation and demand is first proposed by the ant colony optimization (ACO) approach. It is multi-agent system in which the behavior of each ant is inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants to solve optimization problem. Ant colony optimization electricity energy estimation (ACOEEE) model is developed using population, gross domestic product (GDP), import and export. All equations proposed here are linear electricity energy generation and demand (linear{sub A}COEEGE and linear ACOEEDE) and quadratic energy generation and demand (quadratic{sub A}COEEGE and quadratic ACOEEDE). Quadratic models for both generation and demand provided better fit solution due to the fluctuations of the economic indicators. The ACOEEGE and ACOEEDE models indicate Turkey's net electricity energy generation and demand until 2025 according to three scenarios.

  18. Measurement of efficiency of fiscal policies implemented for global crisis: Did Turkey have success in crisis management?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coşkun Karaca

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Even if fiscal policy measures of countries show similarities, these measures have an important role in depth of recession and depression, reestablishment of market confidence and determination of the duration of economic recovery together with stability and elasticity of domestic financial and economic system. In the study, the effects of fiscal policies, which were implemented in Turkey during global crisis, on growth trend of the country in the period of crisis were examined. The effects of fiscal policy shocks on national income were examined through structural VAR system by using the data of the period of 2006-2012 and it was seen that the effects of net tax income and public expenditures in the model on growth was positive. On the basis of empirical findings of the study, it can be said that fiscal policies which were implemented in Turkey during last global crisis partially have growth-increasing effect.

  19. Estimating the net electricity energy generation and demand using the ant colony optimization approach: Case of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents Turkey's net electricity energy generation and demand based on economic indicators. Forecasting model for electricity energy generation and demand is first proposed by the ant colony optimization (ACO) approach. It is multi-agent system in which the behavior of each ant is inspired by the foraging behavior of real ants to solve optimization problem. Ant colony optimization electricity energy estimation (ACOEEE) model is developed using population, gross domestic product (GDP), import and export. All equations proposed here are linear electricity energy generation and demand (linearACOEEGE and linear ACOEEDE) and quadratic energy generation and demand (quadraticACOEEGE and quadratic ACOEEDE). Quadratic models for both generation and demand provided better fit solution due to the fluctuations of the economic indicators. The ACOEEGE and ACOEEDE models indicate Turkey's net electricity energy generation and demand until 2025 according to three scenarios

  20. LGBT in Turkey: Policies and Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceylan Engin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available While LGBT studies have been problematizing normative categories of sexuality primarily in Western cultures, the status of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT individuals in non-Western societies remains understudied. This study examines the political attitudes toward LGBT individuals in Turkish society and explores the experiences of transgender individuals. While Turkey holds a strong economic position among Western countries, the situation of sexual minorities lags behind international standards. This study explores two research questions. First, what is the Turkish government’s outlook for the LGBT community? Secondly, what kind of problems and challenges do trans-individuals experience in Turkey? This study first introduces a macro-level analysis of the politics of gender identity in Turkey by analyzing the debates of four deputies in the Turkish Parliament, each representing their parties’ disparate viewpoints. Secondly, a micro-level analysis of previously collected interviews with twenty-five trans-individuals are also examined that shed light on the difficulties of being a trans-individual in Turkey. The content analysis shows that trans-individuals experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence, in addition to experiencing discrimination in employment, housing, and healthcare. The findings of this micro-level analysis elucidate the continuous discrimination, inequality, and violence that these individuals experience, while the macro-level analysis portrays the state’s discriminatory policies toward LGBT individuals in Turkey.

  1. Radiographic anatomy of Japanese domestic cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Of 51 Japanese domestic cats the number of vertebrae, the distance between the occipital bone and the 1st cervical vertebra (C1), and that between C1 and the 2nd cervical vertebra (C2), as well as the sizes of the cardiac and local great vessels and kidneys were measured radiographically. The proportion of the C1 vertebral canal to the distance between the caudal margin of the occipital bone and C1 was 1 0.61, and that of the C1 diameter to the minimum distance between C1 and C2 was 1 0.19. The diameters of the trachea, thoracic aorta and caudal vena cave were almost similar and the diameters of the both pulmonary trank and pulmonary vein were almost equivalent to the smallest diameters of the 8th and 10th ribs, respectively. The depth of the thorax was greater in Japanese domestic cats than in the American mixed breed (Hamlin et al., 1963). The V-D view of the abdominal region showed that the proportions of L2 to the longitudinal length of the right and left kidneys were 1: 2.49 and 1: 2.38, respectively. The ratio of L2 to the transversal length of the right and left kidneys were 1 3.05 and 1 3.03, respectively. On the lateral view, the proportions of L 2 length to the longitudinal length of the right and left kidneys were 1 2.39, while those to the transversal length of the right and left kidneys were 1 5.25 and 1 5.20, respectively

  2. A Positive Domestic Violence Screen Predicts Future Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houry, Debra; Feldhaus, Kim; Peery, Benjamin; Abbott, Jean; Lowenstein, Steven R.; al-Bataa-de-Montero, Sameerah; Levine, Saul

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a brief screen for domestic violence (DV) predicts future violence. We conducted a cohort study of adult women who presented to an inner-city emergency department during an 8-week study period. Participants were screened for DV using the Partner Violence Screen (PVS). At 4 months, follow-up telephone…

  3. Site selection methodology in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the site selection process, all site characteristics that could be acceptable from a safety viewpoint are considered. The site selection process is important from not only the safety point of view, but also economical concerns. Some of the countries have important difficulties in finding locations to build nuclear power plants. Because these countries are encountering different evidences during the site selection, such as seismic unstability, inadequate cooling water availability (river site case) and the difficulties of the transportation of heavy equipment etc. Site selection study is performed in three phases; site survey, site evaluation and site confirmation. The purpose of the site survey is to identify one or more site that are likely to be suitable for detailed characterization during the site evaluation phase. In the evaluation stage, in order to demonstrate whether the site is acceptable, the studies and investigations are focused on the one or more preferable sites. Finally in the site confirmation stage which is a pre-operational stage , the activities are accumulated in detail and performed during construction of the nuclear power plants. In Turkey the siting study is performed in accordance with the decree on pertaining to issue of licenses for nuclear installations.In fact, this decree is mainly adapted from the IAEA safety guides and NRC experiences. But the decree doesn't have selection procedures. These are defined in the related regulations

  4. Basic sciences agonize in Turkey!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Fatma; Araz, Asli; Akman, Ferdi; Durak, Rıdvan

    2016-04-01

    In this study, changes from past to present in the departments of physics, chemistry, biology and mathematics, which are considered as the basic sciences in Turkey, are shown. The importance of basic science for the country emphasized and the status of our country was discussed with a critical perspective. The number of academic staff, the number of students, opened quotas according to years for these four departments at universities were calculated and analysis of the resulting changes were made. In examined graphics changes to these four departments were similar. Especially a significant change was observed in the physics department. Lack of jobs employing young people who have graduated from basic science is also an issue that must be discussed. There are also qualitative results of this study that we have discussed as quantitative. Psychological problems caused by unemployment have become a disease among young people. This study was focused on more quantitative results. We have tried to explain the causes of obtained results and propose solutions.

  5. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some research suggests that taking a specific American ginseng extract called CVT-E002 (Cold-FX, Afexa Life Sciences, ... AD-fX, Afexa Life Sciences, Canada) containing American ginseng extract in combination with ginkgo leaf extract might help ...

  6. Epidemiological analysis of poisoning cases in Van, Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the etiological and demographical characteristics of acute adult poisoning cases in eastern Turkey. Methods: The retrospective study was conducted at the Emergency Department of Yuzuncu Yil University, School of Medicine, and comprised data related to the period between 2007 and 2009. The data obtained included age, gender, referrals, manner of poisoning, manner of application, the department which followed up on the patients, duration of hospital stay. All data was noted on proforma. SPSS 15 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total cases visiting the Emergency Department, 1207 (1.1%) related to poisoning. Of them, 880 (72.9%) had attempted suicide; 858 (71.1%) were female; 349 (29%) were male. The average age of the females was 25.4+-8.5 years, and that of the males 28.3+-14.3 years. Single-medicine was noted in poisoning 544 (45.1%) patients. Other poisoning types were multidrugs 373 (30.9%); rat poisoning, insecticide and pesticides, 145 (12%); corrosives 38 (3.1%); and weed, mushroomang; food 47 (3.8%). Oral poisoning was noted in 1141 (94.5%) cases. A total of 1019 (84.4%) patients received treatment and were followed up in the Emergency Department. Six (0.6%) patients died. Conclusion: There is a need to generate more awareness about the hazards of domestic cleaning products and to keep it away at some distinct place to minimised chances of confusion. (author)

  7. Fluidized bed combustion research in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present 20% of the total energy consumption in Turkey is met by combustion of lignites. The amount of lignite utilization in the total energy consumption in the year 2000 is expected to double compared to the present. The prevalent characteristics of Turkish lignites are high volatile matter, moisture, ash, and sulfur contents and low calorific value. Also, there are combustion difficulties in conventional combustors associated with the low ash sintering temperatures. For these reasons, there is a major air pollution problem in the main cities of Turkey during winter months. In this paper, the authors review the fluidized bed combustion research work undertaken in Turkey in the last decade and discuss the relevant problem of volatile matter combustion, stability and design

  8. Characterisation of cement plant emissions in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekinci, E.; Munlafalioglu, I.; Tiris, M.; Pekin, A.V. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1998-08-01

    In cement plants in Turkey CO, NO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions were measured using standard measurement techniques and equipment. Emission factors are calculated by dividing the emission rates by capacity of production at the time of measurements for each plant. The results of this study show that the dominant emissions from cement production in Turkey is CO followed by NO{sub 2}, dust and SO{sub 2} in decreasing order. National averages for the emission factors are calculated and compared to international emission factors. On average the Turkish dust emission factor is higher than the German factor, however NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} emission factors are lower in Turkey. 7 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Governmentalities of Alevi Cultural Heritage: On Recognition, Surveillance and "Domesticated Diversity" in Contemporary Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weineck

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Although Cultural Heritage as such has a rather positive connotation, bringing together notions of safeguarding and human creativity, critical investigations have underlined the various strategic, economic and political rationalities inscribed in this term. In 2010 the UNESCO rendered the Alevi ritual sequence semah Intangible Cultural Heritage and as such it was inscribed in the Turkish National Inventory of Cultural Heritage – although Alevis are not recognized by the Turkish state and its Sunni-Turkist understandings of belonging. The celebration of an Alevi ritual as enriching Turkey’s ‘cultural diversity’ thus asks for an analytical approach that comes to terms with this tension of recognition, ongoing political surveillance and the very specific understandings of diversity that are put into play. With reference to Foucaults (and particularly Roses approach to contemporary government as “governmentality”, Cultural Heritage can be grasped in its ambivalent (but not necessarily conflicting nature as cultural self-fulfillment and governmental control. The paper thus enlarges the analytical scale of thinking about Cultural Heritage in its correlation with identity-formation, the politics of recognition and governance.

  10. Turkey's policy toward Syrian refugees: domestic repercussions and the need for international support

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadoun, Souad

    2014-01-01

    Turkey’s humanitarian activities toward Syrian refugees are part and parcel of its overall policy in the Syria conflict. Yet, it has become increasingly clear that the Turkish government has overestimated its capacities, and thus failed to deliver sufficient assistance to Syrian refugees on its territory. At the same time the government’s handling of the refugee issue has led to stark tensions among Turkey’s political and societal forces, as Turkey’s border regions contend with increasing sec...

  11. Examining domestic transactions of incoming tourists with credit cards in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    KOZAK, Ridvan; Sezgin, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine factors influencing the choice of university and study program in management and economics for first-year students in public and private universities in Lithuania. The quantitative research method – Internet survey – was used to survey first-year management and economics students studying at Lithuanian universities. The survey questionnaire consists of questions relating to the factors of study program selection, university selection, and general ques...

  12. Cultural Influence on Crowding Norms in Outdoor Recreation: A Comparative Analysis of Visitors to National Parks in Turkey and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayan, Selcuk; Krymkowski, Daniel H.; Manning, Robert E.; Valliere, William A.; Rovelstad, Ellen L.

    2013-08-01

    Formulation of standards of quality in parks and outdoor recreation can be guided by normative theory and related empirical methods. We apply this approach to measure the acceptability of a range of use levels in national parks in Turkey and the United States. Using statistical methods for comparing norm curves across contexts, we find significant differences among Americans, British, and Turkish respondents. In particular, American and British respondents were substantially less tolerant of seeing other visitors and demonstrated higher norm intensity than Turkish respondents. We discuss the role of culture in explaining these findings, paying particular attention to Turkey as a traditional "contact culture" and the conventional emphasis on solitude and escape in American environmental history and policy. We conclude with a number of recommendations to stimulate more research on the relationship between culture and outdoor recreation.

  13. EDUCATIONAL RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TURKEY AND AUSTRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necati DEMİR

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Relationship between Turkey (Ottoman Empire and Austria started nearly 500 years ago. Towards the end of the Ottoman Empire the educational relationship began to concentrate. After 1850, Austrian scientists and teachers have made valuable services at educational institutions for Ottoman Empire. When archival documents had evaluated, it was understood that some of Ottoman citizens had completed their education at Austrian schools. As far as we know, Austrian teachers and clergy in Ottoman lands established fifteen schools especially in the 20th beginning of the century. The most well-established educational institutions of the Austrian School has been preparing to celebrate 130th anniversary in 2012. Other schools closed over time is understood. Austria and Turkey signed "Friendship Treaty" on 10 December 1923 in Ankara. This treaty is important in terms of the first treaty of the Republic of Turkey after Lausanne. Dozens of Austrian scientists and teachers from the first year of the Republic, came to Turkey, and have made services in various educational institutions. This development is too important for Republic of Turkey. Paul Wittek a scientist studied on Turkish language, history and culture, and other scientists specializing in the fields of architecture, such as Clemens Holzmeister makes this development more important for us. Since 1964, labor migration began to Austria from Turkey. The number of Turks in Austria, close to 220.000 due to migration of workers today. Recently, about 30.000 Turkish children living abroad has received their education with so many difficulties. Turkish children studying in Austria has been waiting an agreement between two countries for solutions.

  14. Turkey - An 'Ormuz strait' in the US strategy for global energy control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the events of September 11, 2001, rivalry in the Caspian region has taken the form of open conflicts in which the various powers confront one another via zones and 'proxy' ethnic and/or cultural communities. Alliances are circumstantial and can be changed as the geostrategic interests of the protagonists dictate. This is a rivalry that is re-shaping the geopolitical and strategic order in this region. New facts come along to expose a new American strategy for the global control of energy resources. Turkey appears as a Eurasian barrier in this new strategy and warfare as a means to open up the Caspian region. (authors)

  15. Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Stress Disorder Reporting Domestic Abuse Reporting Suspected Child Abuse or Neglect Traumatic Brain Injury Family & Relationships There’s more to a military family than moving and deployments — take us along through each phase of your military ... Care and Youth Programs Parenting Military Youth on ...

  16. Sinopec Focuses on Domestic Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China Petrochemical Corporation (Sinopec Group) halted fuel exports to ensure domestic supply as high crude costs and retail price caps cause private refiners to cut back on production. The giant refiner recently said that it "stopped exporting to other r

  17. Genetic bank of domestic fowl

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pojezdná, A.; Bainová, Z.; Bainová, H.; Chudárková, A.; Bryjová, Anna; Bryja, J.; Vinkler, Michal

    Brno: Ústav biologie obratlovců AV ČR, 2013 - (Bryja, J.; Řehák, Z.; Zukal, J.). s. 180-181 ISBN 978-80-87189-14-6. [Zoologické dny. 07.02.2013-08.02.2013, Brno] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : domestic fowl * genetic diversity Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. ‘CHILD BRIDE’ PROBLEM IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    MALATYALI, Meryem KAYNAK

    2014-01-01

    ‘Child Brides’ are described as girls who are forced to get married before they are 18 year old. The issue of child brides is a concern for undeveloped and developing countries as well as Turkey. This work aims to explore the prevalence, problems and causes related to the problem of ‘child brides’ as well as offering solutions for this problem. The literature shows that ‘child bride’ is quite widespread practice in Turkey. Moreover, forced marriage at an early age is problematic in many ways....

  19. Indoor radon measurements in Turkey dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, indoor radon radioactivity concentration levels have been measured in dwellings of Turkey within the frame of the National Radon Monitoring Programme. The 222Rn concentrations were measured with time-integrating passive nuclear etched track detectors in 7293 dwellings in 153 residential units of 81 provinces, and the radon map of Turkey was prepared. Indoor radon concentrations were distributed in the range of 1-1400 Bq m-3. The arithmetic mean of the radon gas concentration was found to be 81 Bq m-3; the geometric mean was 57 Bq m-3 with a geometric standard deviation of 2.3. (authors)

  20. ‘CHILD BRIDE’ PROBLEM IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Meryem Kaynak Malatyali

    2015-01-01

    ‘Child Brides’ are described as girls who are forced to get married before they are 18 year old. The issue of child brides is a concern for undeveloped and developing countries as well as Turkey. This work aims to explore the prevalence, problems and causes related to the problem of ‘child brides’ as well as offering solutions for this problem. The literature shows that ‘child bride’ is quite widespread practice in Turkey. Moreover, forced marriage at an early age is problematic in many ways....

  1. Potential Prospects of Turkey in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gorgulu, Mehmet Emre

    2010-01-01

    As the global crisis surrounds us, Turkey, as a country with huge prospects, needs to establish new political and commercial links with the rest of the world in order to lessen the effects of the global crisis. This can be a way to take the load off Turkey’s shoulders. These links can be found in the continent Africa. As the host of world’s several fastest growing economies, the continent offers new opportunities for Turkey. These opportunities can be utilized as either in the form of Foreign...

  2. Energy production and sustainable energy policies in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey's demand for energy and electricity is increasing rapidly. Turkey is heavily dependent on expensive imported energy resources that place a big burden on the economy and air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern in the country. Turkey's energy production meets nearly 28% of its total primary energy consumption. As would be expected, the rapid expansion of energy production and consumption has brought with it a wide range of environmental issues at the local, regional and global levels. With respect to global environmental issues, Turkey's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have grown along with its energy consumption. States have played a leading role in protecting the environment by reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be the one of the most efficient and effective solutions for clean and sustainable energy development in Turkey. Turkey presently has considerable renewable energy sources. The most important renewable sources are hydropower, biomass, geothermal, solar and wind. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of these renewable energy sources. Turkey has a great and ever-intensifying need for power and water supplies and they also have the greatest remaining hydro potential. Hydropower and especially small hydropower are emphasized as Turkey's renewable energy sources. Turkey's hydro electric potential can meet 33-46% of its electric energy demand in 2020 and this potential may easily and economically be developed. This paper presents a review of the potential and utilization of the renewable energy sources in Turkey. (author)

  3. Domestic abuse and the duties of physicians: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Nazli; Khan, Sharmeen

    2015-01-01

    laws into actual practice. In Nepal, special cells have been set up in police stations to offer services to women reporting domestic violence. Among those responsible for the implementation of these services, only a few were found to be aware of the fact that such services were supposed to be provided (5). Only 8% of women knew that such services were available (6). In Bangladesh, crisis centres have been established in tertiary care hospitals to deal with domestic abuse. Manuals have been designed for the attending doctors on how to provide assistance to the women and on the reporting of such events (6). In India, providers of medical care do not consider it their duty to report domestic violence (4).There is a need to sensitise the medical fraternity to this issue, especially since many victims present to hospitals. Health providers also need to be given guidance on the steps they can take when confronted with cases of domestic violence. Around two decades ago, the American Medical Association recommended universal screening for intimate partner violence. This led to a sharp increase of 30% in reporting of intimate partner violence among certain groups of the population (7). PMID:26592790

  4. Domestic minor sex trafficking: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Human trafficking is a major global public health problem and represents a substantial human rights violation. Human trafficking has been receiving attention in both the lay media and professional literature. Human trafficking can include commercial sex, forced labor, child soldiers, and stealing of human organs. One form of human trafficking represents a significant American pediatric health problem: domestic minor sex trafficking (DMST). DMST is the commercial sexual abuse of children by selling, buying, or trading their sexual service. This continuing education article will define DMST and discuss it in terms of prevalence, risk factors, and practice implications for the pediatric nurse practitioner. PMID:25497135

  5. Evaluation of different fuel cycle options in accordance with nuclear energy production planning in Turkey. Final report for the period 15 December 1995 - 1 July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For two decades, Turkey has been considering the implementation of a nuclear power program in order to ensure a secure and ecologically non-pollutant electricity supply, and a site was selected at Akkuyu on the Mediterranean coaast. The energy gap predicted in recent projections could be partly filled by nuclear power. The present plan of the Ministry of Energy schedules the commissioning of at least 2,000 MWe nuclear capacity by 2010. In this report, firstly reference reactors were selected and then requirements of fuel material and services for these reactors were discussed according to Turkey's energy generation scenarios. For this study the reactor selection criteria are: 1) Provenness by operation, 2) Plant power rating, 3) Generic safety, and 4) Licensability. In this study, two types of reactors (PWR and PHWR) that meet the safety and selection criteria were taken into consideration. For Turkey's case, fuel demand and options were discussed according to these reactor types. Status and trends in the world in nuclear electricity generation, nuclear power projection, uranium production, uranium supply and demand relationships, future trends in supply and demand and supply projection were investigated. World uranium market, uranium prices analysis, refining and conversion, enrichment, fuel fabrication, fuel burnup and back-end options were thoroughly discussed. The economics of the nuclear fuel cycle was investigated, fuel costs for PWR and PHWR were calculated. As a result of the obtained reference data a table was prepared for fuel material and services requirements according to reactor type and size. The need for nuclear power in Turkey was discussed in detail, focussing on primary resources in Turkey, demand predictions, usage ratios of domestic and imported resources. Electricity generation scenarios for Turkey were discussed and final conclusions were drawn for Turkey's case. Comparisons of the domestic and imported resources in accordance with the

  6. Operational EEW Networks in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar, Can; Pinar, Ali

    2016-04-01

    There are several EEW networks and algorithms under operation in Turkey. The first EEW system was deployed in Istanbul in 2002 after the 1999 Mw7.4 Kocaeli and Mw7.1 Duzce earthquake events. The system consisted of 10 strong motion stations located as close as possible to the main Marmara Fault line. The system was upgraded by 5 OBS (Ocean Bottom Seismometer) in 2012 located in Marmara Sea. The system works in threshold based algorithm. The alert is given according to exceedance of certain threshold levels of amplitude of ground motion acceleration in certain time interval at least in 3 stations. Currently, there are two end-users of EEW system in Istanbul. The critical facilities of Istanbul Gas Distribution Company (IGDAS) and Marmaray Tube tunnel receives the EEW information in order to activate their automatic shut-off mechanisms. The IGDAS has their own strong motion network located at their district regulators. After receiving the EEW signal if the threshold values of ground motion parameters are exceeded the gas-flow is cut automatically at the district regulators. The IGDAS has 750 district regulators distributed in Istanbul. At the moment, the 110 of them are instrumented with strong motion accelerometers. As a 2nd stage of the on-going project, the IGDAS company proposes to install strong motion accelerometers to all remaining district regulators. The Marmaray railway tube tunnel is the world's deepest immersed tube tunnel with 60m undersea depth. The tunnel has 1.4km length with 13 segments. The tunnel is monitored with 2 strong motion accelerometers in each segment, 26 in total. Once the EEW signal is received, the monitoring system is activated and the recording ground motion parameters are calculated in real-time. Depending on the exceedance of threshold levels, further actions are taken such as reducing the train speed, stopping the train before entering the tunnel etc. In Istanbul, there are also on-site EEW system applied in several high

  7. [Tularemia in Konya region, Turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikici, Nebahat; Ural, Onur; Sümer, Sua; Oztürk, Kayhan; Albayrak Yiğit, Ozgen; Katlanır, Eda; Keleş, Bahar

    2012-04-01

    Tularemia is a zoonotic infection caused by Francisella tularensis. In the recent years tularemia has become a re-emerging infection in Turkey with epidemics and also sporadic cases. Transmission occurs most often through consumption of contaminated water and food, direct contact with animals and insect/ tick bites. In this study, we evaluated clinical features and laboratory findings of 35 tularemia cases diagnosed during two outbreaks that occurred in two different villages during two different periods in Konya (located in Central Anatolia), Turkey and five sporadic cases. In both outbreaks, first (index) cases were admitted to our outpatient clinic with the complaints of cervical lympadenopathy. After diagnosis of tularemia, an organized team visited the villages to search if more cases existed. For microbiological diagnosis, blood, throat and tonsil swabs and lymph node aspirate specimens were collected from the suspected cases. Diagnostic tests (culture, serology, molecular methods) for tularemia were performed in reference center, Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency. Drinking and potable water samples from those villages were also collected by provincial health authorities. The cases (n= 14) that belonged to the first epidemics were detected in February 2010 and cases (n= 21) of the second epidemics in November- December 2010; five cases were followed as sporadic. The mean age of the 40 patients (25 females, 15 males) was 37.6 (age range: 5-80 years; five of them were pediatric group) years. The most common complaints of patients were cervical mass (90%), sore throat (63%), chills (60%) and fever (58%). The most frequently detected clinical findings were enlarged lymph nodes (n= 34, 85%), followed by tonsillitis (20%), skin lesions (15%) and conjunctivitis (8%). Most of the patients (82.5%) had been misdignosed as acute tonsillitis, suppurative lymphadenitis, tuberculous lymphadenitis and brucellosis, before their admission to our hospital and treated

  8. Characterization of Clostridium perfringens isolates from healthy turkeys and from turkeys with necrotic enteritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhs, Ulrike; Perko-Mäkelä, P.; Kallio, H.; Brockmann, A.; Heinikainen, S.; Tuuri, H.; Pedersen, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is an important bacterial pathogen, especially in poultry, where it can lead to both subclinical and clinical disease. The aim of this study was to present data on pathological findings at outbreaks of necrotic enteritis (NE) in turkey production in Finland during the period...... from 1998 to 2012. Furthermore, C. perfringens isolates from healthy and diseased turkeys were characterized and their genetic diversity was investigated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates (n = 212) from birds with necrotic gut lesions and from healthy flocks of 30 commercial...... turkey farms were characterized for the presence of cpa, cpb, iA, etx, cpb2, and cpe and netB genes. A total of 93 C. perfringens isolates, including 55 from birds with necrotic gut lesions and 38 from healthy birds from 13 different farms, were analyzed with PFGE. All contract turkey farmers (n = 48) of...

  9. Turkey Public Finance Review : Turkey in Transition--Time for a Fiscal Policy Pivot?

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Turkey has experienced rapid growth and improved social outcomes over the past decade. Per-capita income in United States dollar (USD) terms tripled during the first decade of the 21th century, and Turkey is now the world's 17th largest economy. Fiscal policy was an important component of the reform program that delivered these successes. Prudent fiscal policy also provided the fiscal spac...

  10. Domestic Hypermedia: Mixed Media in the Home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    , domestic materials, such as photos, music, messages. become digitized. Based on the analyses we propose a Domestic Hypermedia infrastructure combining spatial, context-aware and physical hypermedia to support collaborative structuring and ambient presentation of materials in homes....

  11. Modelling and forecasting Australian domestic tourism

    OpenAIRE

    George Athanasopoulos; Rob J Hyndman

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we model and forecast Australian domestic tourism demand. We use a regression framework to estimate important economic relationships for domestic tourism demand. We also identify the impact of world events such as the 2000 Sydney Olympics and the 2002 Bali bombings on Australian domestic tourism. To explore the time series nature of the data, we use innovation state space models to forecast the domestic tourism demand. Combining these two frameworks, we build innovation state s...

  12. THE ROLE OF COUNSELING IN DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mayuri Sahay; G. S. Venumadhava

    2016-01-01

    The role of counseling dealing with domestic violence cases is excessively significant undoubtedly. This article describes to find out the role of counseling in order to deal with domestic violence cases and to understand the role of domestic violence counselor. There are, though, new domestic violence prevention strategies emerging, and prevention approaches from the counseling field can serve as models for further development of these strategies.

  13. Domestic Abuse Groupwork Service 2003 – 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Deery, Ruth; Hughes, Deborah

    2006-01-01

    The Calderdale Women’s Centre provides, amongst it range of services1, extensive domestic violence support services2 in close liaison with the West Yorkshire Police and other agencies. From July 2003 to March 2006, Domestic Abuse Groupwork, for women who have experienced or are experiencing domestic abuse, formed part of this service. This evaluation outlines the history and working of the Domestic Abuse Groupwork Service and its programme, presents a collation of qualitativ...

  14. The Relief of American Red Cross to Greek Refugees after World War Ⅰ(1922-1923)%1922—1923年美国红十字会对希腊难民的救济

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾国梅

    2012-01-01

    From 1922 to 1923,the American Red Cross provided emergency relief to Greek refugees fleeing from Turkey including fund raising,supply of daily necessities,medical aid and health assistance,characterized by extensive support from the domestic American society and strong pertinence of the relief.Its ultimate purpose is to enable the refugees to earn their own living and the Greek government to take on the major economic responsibility.%1922-1923年美国红十字会对逃离土耳其的希腊难民实施了紧急救济,主要有资金筹集、生活必需品供给、医疗和卫生援助等举措。其主要特特点是:获得美国国内的广泛支持;救济的针对性较强;让希腊政府承担主要的救济职责。

  15. The decision to exclude agricultural and domestic workers from the 1935 Social Security Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Larry

    2010-01-01

    The Social Security Act of 1935 excluded from coverage about half the workers in the American economy. Among the excluded groups were agricultural and domestic workers-a large percentage of whom were African Americans. This has led some scholars to conclude that policymakers in 1935 deliberately excluded African Americans from the Social Security system because of prevailing racial biases during that period. This article examines both the logic of this thesis and the available empirical evidence on the origins of the coverage exclusions. The author concludes that the racial-bias thesis is both conceptually flawed and unsupported by the existing empirical evidence. The exclusion of agricultural and domestic workers from the early program was due to considerations of administrative feasibility involving tax-collection procedures. The author finds no evidence of any other policy motive involving racial bias. PMID:21261169

  16. Risk Factors for Domestic Violence in Curacao

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, N. Ph. L.; de Bruijn, J. G. M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence victimization in childhood. Divorce, single…

  17. A pipeline strategy for grain crop domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent decades, in the interest of diversifying the global food system, improving human nutrition, or making agriculture more sustainable, there have been many proposals for domesticating or completing the domestication of wild plants or semi-domesticated “orphan” crops. However, very few new cro...

  18. 25 CFR 11.454 - Domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Domestic violence. 11.454 Section 11.454 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.454 Domestic violence. (a) A person who commits domestic violence...

  19. 31 CFR 500.320 - Domestic bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 500.320 Section 500... § 500.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of any designated foreign country: Any bank or...

  20. 31 CFR 535.320 - Domestic bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 535.320 Section 535... § 535.320 Domestic bank. (a) The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not Iran or an Iranian entity: any bank or trust...

  1. 31 CFR 515.320 - Domestic bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Domestic bank. 515.320 Section 515... § 515.320 Domestic bank. The term domestic bank shall mean any branch or office within the United States of any of the following which is not a national of a designated foreign country; any bank or...

  2. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.Ph.L.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence v

  3. FISH PARASITES OF THE SAKARYA RIVER, TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Akmirza, Ahmet; YARDIMCI, Remziye Eda

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed in the Sakarya River, Turkey and found 11 parasite species (Trichodina sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus elegans, Ancylodiscoides vistulensis, Paradiplozon homoion, Allocreadium lobatum, Caryophyllaeus laticeps, Raphidascaris acus, Neoechinorhynchus agilis, Pomphorhynchus leavis, Glochidia larvae) on 9 out of 11 fish species (Abramis brama, Blicca björkna, Rutilus rutilus, Silurus glanis, Esox lucius, Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus barbus, Scardinius erythrophtalmus, Pe...

  4. Turkey: Greater Prosperity with Social Justice

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2002-01-01

    These policy notes are intended as background for initial discussions between the new Government and the World Bank about the development strategy for Turkey, and the possible support the World Bank could bring to implement that strategy. This paper presents recent work on specific sectors where action by the government would be needed. The main points in each note are outlined here: Stric...

  5. Vocational and Technical Education Reform in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Abdurrahman

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is a country where individual rights and freedom of people are improving. It is known that a free market economy is in its infancy. There is a strong relationship between developed human resources and the production sector. In this sense, vocational and technical education is very important. It cannot be said that the efforts for…

  6. Market Potential and Regional Disparities in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Dogruel, Fatma; Dogruel, A. Suut; Karahasan, B.Can

    2011-01-01

    Regional disparity is one of the important characteristics of Turkish economy. The paper focuses on the explanatory power of market potential on the regional differences in Turkey. Regional divergences in wages and employment are used as the proxies for regional differences. Empirical results reveal that, under various specifications, variation in market potential is an important determinant of regional differences.

  7. Internet Censorship in Turkey: University Students' Opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hasan; Arikan, Arda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study university students' opinions toward online censorship with references to their socio-political and economic variables. Considering the upwards trend and the increasing number of online restrictions in Turkey, the opinions of university students (n=138) are thought to give significant findings. The questionnaire…

  8. Geography, GIS and Employability in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet, Mehmet; Chalkley, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Although higher education in Turkey does not have especially well-advanced systems and resources for addressing graduate employability, two developments are making it particularly important for Turkish geography departments to give increased priority to this agenda. One is the country's new Higher Education Qualifications Framework and the other…

  9. Opposition to gold mining at Bergama, Turkey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Arsel (Murat)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction For much of the 1990s, the tourist town of Bergama was the epicentre of Turkey's most effective and visible environmental social movement against a multinational mining corporation aiming to establish the first modern gold mine in the country. Bringing relatively prosperous

  10. Review of Turkey's renewable energy potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of renewable energy has a long history. Biomass, for instance, has been used for heating and cooking, while wind has been used in the irrigation of fields and to drive windmills for centuries. Although Turkey has many energy resources, all of these with the exception of coal and hydropower, cannot meet the total energy demand. Turkey has been importing resources to meet this deficit. These resources have become increasingly expensive and also have undesirably high emissions ratings. Turkey has an extensive shoreline and mountains and is rich in renewable energy potential. The share of renewables on total electricity generation is 29.63% while that of natural gas is 45% for the year 2006. The projection prepared for the period between 2006 and 2020 aims an annual growth of 8% for the total electricity generation. According to this projection, it is expected that renewables will have a share about 23.68% with a decrease of 5.95% while natural gas will have a share about 33.38% for 2020. This paper presents the present state of world renewable energy sources and then looks in detail at the potential resources available in Turkey. Energy politics are also considered. (author)

  11. Globalization and English Language Policy in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkgoz, Yasemin

    2009-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that globalization has made a considerable impact on multidimensional aspects of human life including the language policies of many countries. This article examines the adjustment of Turkey's language policy in response to the global influence of English at different levels of Turkish national education, including its…

  12. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN TURKEY: LEGAL FRAMEWORK

    OpenAIRE

    Baklacı, Pınar; Akıntürk, Esen

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the current situation in the Turkish legislation on foreign direct investments. It reviews the Turkish Foreign Direct Investment Law (Law No 4875), which involves main concepts, definitions and principles on foreign direct investments in Turkey; acquisition of real estate by foreigners, employment of foreigners and settlement of investment disputes.

  13. Global attention to Turkey due to desertification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camci Cetin, S; Karaca, A; Haktanir, K; Yildiz, H

    2007-05-01

    Desertification has recognized as an environmental problem by many international organizations such as UN, NATO and FAO. Desertification in Turkey is generally caused by incorrect land use, excessive grazing, forest fires, urbanization, industry, genetic erosion, soil erosion, salinization, and uncontrolled wild type plants picking. Due to anthropogenic destruction of forest, steppe flora gradually became dominant in Anatolia. In terms of biodiversity, Turkey has a significant importance in Europe and Middle East. Nine thousands plant species naturally grown in Turkey, one third of them are endemic. Also, endemic species of vertebrates, thrive in the lakes and marshy areas. The studies of modelling simulation of vegetation on the effects of Mediterranean climate during the Roman Classical period by using vegetation history showed that, in 2000 years BP, Mediterranean countries were more humid than today. Turkey is a special place on the global concern in terms of desertification because of biodiversity, agricultural potential, high population, social and economical structure, topographical factors and strategic regional location. Communication among scientists, decision makers and international non-profit organizations must be improved. PMID:17057981

  14. STATUS OF THE CHILD LABOR IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer TOR

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes numerical data and sectoral distribution relating to child labor in Turkey. The information is taken the labor force research data collected by the Turkish Statistical Institute. Several attempts have been made to resolve the problems of child workers in Turkey. The first stage was the implementation of the International Program on the Elimination of Child Labor (ILO/IPEC. After introduction of the program, many organizations started various activities directed towards children workers in Turkey. Since these initiatives were coordinated and complementary activities there were remarkable developments in the fight against problems of the child workers. The Turkish Statistical Institute examined the child labor force proportion by means of three separate statistical components and the results revealed that number of the child workers has a tendency to decrease. Despite some statistical research carried out in Turkey, the precise number of children that are working cannot be determined. Some of the leading factors can be listed as paucity of research carried out in this area, inaccurate official statistical data regarding the number of children who are working illegally, employed as unpaid family workers, working in the streets, working on the temporary or seasonal basis, and other related factors.

  15. Erythrocyte sizes of some Urodeles from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    ATATÜR, Mehmet K.; ARIKAN, H.; MERMER, A.

    1998-01-01

    This study is on the erythrocyte sizes of some urodeles ( Salamandra salamandra, Triturus vulgaris, Triturus karelinii, Tri-turus vittatus, Mertensiella luschani, Mertensiella caucasica) living in various localities of Turkey. Blood smears stained with Wright's stain were utilized.

  16. 77 FR 65864 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review...

  17. 76 FR 4633 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section, International Trade Administration, Department... Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') establishes a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review...

  18. Genetic testing in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Leslie A

    2012-12-01

    Varieties of genetic tests are currently available for the domestic cat that support veterinary health care, breed management, species identification, and forensic investigations. Approximately thirty-five genes contain over fifty mutations that cause feline health problems or alterations in the cat's appearance. Specific genes, such as sweet and drug receptors, have been knocked-out of Felidae during evolution and can be used along with mtDNA markers for species identification. Both STR and SNP panels differentiate cat race, breed, and individual identity, as well as gender-specific markers to determine sex of an individual. Cat genetic tests are common offerings for commercial laboratories, allowing both the veterinary clinician and the private owner to obtain DNA test results. This article will review the genetic tests for the domestic cat, and their various applications in different fields of science. Highlighted are genetic tests specific to the individual cat, which are a part of the cat's genome. PMID:22546621

  19. Domestication of Cuphea through mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuphea plants have promising characteristics as unique source of medium chain fatty acids. Although several groups of researchers in the world are working to domesticate this promising plant species, it still has many unfavorable wild characters, preventing it from becoming a practical agricultural crop at the present stage. In the present research, mutation breeding methods were adopted to domesticate the species in hope of inducing genetic modifications, but retaining its fatty acid constitution. Among the problematic characters, indeterminate growth pattern and non-uniform maturity, dormancy/germination, shattering of seeds and other plant morphology or plant-architecture traits must be modified to adapt it to the modern agricultural system. Several species of Cuphea were evaluated as the initial material. Problems of seed germination and those encountered in soaking the seeds in water or aqueous chemical mutagen solution could be solved and several promising and interesting mutant lines could be obtained. (author). 15 refs, 5 tabs

  20. Artificial cloning of domestic animals

    OpenAIRE

    Keefer, Carol L.

    2015-01-01

    Domestic animals can be cloned using techniques such as embryo splitting and nuclear transfer to produce genetically identical individuals. Although embryo splitting is limited to the production of only a few identical individuals, nuclear transfer of donor nuclei into recipient oocytes, whose own nuclear DNA has been removed, can result in large numbers of identical individuals. Moreover, clones can be produced using donor cells from sterile animals, such as steers and geldings, and, unlike ...

  1. Domestic Abuse and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlings, Samantha; Siddique, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    We examine the effects of different kinds of domestic abuse (physical violence, emotional abuse, sexual abuse and physical violence while the victim is pregnant) on health outcomes of children born to victims. We use data on approximately 0.6 million children born between 1975 and 2013 across thirty different developing countries to investigate this relationship. Comparing children of abused mothers with otherwise similar children whose mothers were not victims of abuse, we find these childre...

  2. Domestic and international border effects

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Kazunobu; 早川, 和伸

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies in the border-effect literature surprisingly found that domestic border effects are larger than international border effects (e.g., in the United States or Brazil). One interpretation of this result is that these estimates include the effects of producer agglomeration. Therefore, in this study, we estimate those border effects exclusively for transactions for final consumption, in which such agglomeration forces will be weak, in China and Japan. As a result, we found larger i...

  3. Abused domestic workers in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    This study analyses au pair arrangements in six EU Member States (Denmark, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands, Poland and Spain) through descriptions of national and international legal frameworks and practices of au pairing. The findings show different patterns of au pair migration and different...... situations of au pairing as well as different strategies to protect the au pairs. The overall recommendation is to separate current au pair immigration into two programmes: one of cultural exchange and one of domestic and care work....

  4. Domestic Violence, Employment, and Divorce

    OpenAIRE

    Audra Bowlus; Shannon Seitz

    2005-01-01

    Using unique, representative data on domestic violence, we document several stylized facts on abuse: the average characteristics of abused wives and abusive husbands are markedly different than the characteristics of individuals in non-violent marriages, the vast majority of violent marriages end in divorce, and employment rates are lower for women who experience abuse. We then construct a sequential model of employment, marriage and abuse. The results indicate abuse is the primary factor in ...

  5. Plant domestication by induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Advisory Group Meeting was convened to consider possibilities and limitations of induced mutation technology for the purpose of domestication, to discuss the methodology, identify target species, and to define the character changes required. The meeting took place in Vienna at the IAEA Headquarters from 17-21 November 1986. This publication contains the review papers as well as the results of discussions in the form of conclusions and recommendations. As a supplement, a bibliography has been added. Refs, figs and tabs

  6. Toward a phenology network in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalfes, H. N.; Ülgen, H.; Zeydanli, U.; Durak, A. T.

    2012-04-01

    All climate projections indicate that drastic changes are to occur in the Mediterranean Basin and Southwestern Asia. Detailed studies also foresee strong patterns of change in seasonality for most climate fields all across the country, threatening Turkey's rich biodiversity and diverse ecosystems already in trouble due to massive land use changes and careless resource extraction projects. It is therefore obvious that climate impact studies can benefit from detailed and continuous monitoring of relationships between climate and natural systems. Recently started efforts to build a phenology network for Turkey will hopefully constitute a component of a more comprehensive ecological observation infrastructure. The Phenology Network of Turkey Project saw its debut as a joint initiative of an academic institution (Istanbul Technical University) and a research NGO (Nature Conservation Center). It has been decided from the very beginning to rely a much as possible on Internet technologies (provided by the National High Performance Computing Center of Turkey). The effort is also inspired by and collaborates with already established networks in general and USA National Phenology Network in particular. Many protocols, instructional materials and Nature's Notebook application has been barrowed from the USA NPN. The project has been designed from the start as a two-faceted effort: an infrastructure to accumulate/provide useful data to climate/ecosystem research communities and a 'citizen science' project to raise nature and climate change awareness among all components of the society in Turkey in general and secondary education teachers and students in particular. It has been opted to start by gathering plant phenological data. A set with 20 plant species has been designed to serve as a countrywide 'calibration set'. It is also anticipated to salvage and extend as much of possible historical animal (especially bird and butterfly) observations.

  7. Decreasing trend of groundwater in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarachi, S.; Moghim, S.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2010-12-01

    In these days the increasing demand for water has created problems for availability of its resources. Some recent issues like population growth, global warming and inefficient methods of water consumption, generated the need to find sources of water other than surface water such as ground water. Excess using of groundwater in most parts of the world causes depletion of ground water in those areas. Scientists are trying to find efficient means to quantify these trends. GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) including two satellites launched in March 2002, is making measurements of the Earth's gravity field which is used to display the change of storage of the water on the Earth. GRACE makes it possible to find the trend of the change of storage all over the world.It can show specific areas in the world that have dramatic decreasing trend of water storage. One of these regions that have been considered in this study is Turkey in western Asia, as one of the countries deeply affected by global warming. Turkey is identified as one of the first places where desertification will start in Europe, according to estimates by the UN Environment Program (UNEP). Turkey has 25 underground water tables and they had a decrease in level of 27 meters in the past 25 years (Turkey water report 2009). In this paper the change of the ground water is evaluated by applying the GRACE storage anomalies and the mass conservation equation that concludes the reduction trend in groundwater. The results clarify that decreasing trend of groundwater is more noticeable during recent years, particularly since 2006. Our results show that in recent years the average decrease in ground water level is 2.5 cm per year and the maximum decrease occurred in May 2007 with the value of about 7.9 cm. KEY WORDS: water resources; Ground water; Turkey; GRACE

  8. Turkey Psoriasis Treatment Guide-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melih Akyol

    2016-08-01

    used for biologic therapy for treatment of psoriasis. In this guideline severity of psoriasis has been determined, treatment phases and treatment goals have been identified and consensus recommendations have been proposed about appropiate treatment modalities in the light of recent guidelines, meta-analytic studies and experiences in Turkey. This guideline, published in 2012, have been updated in 2016 by adding new information.

  9. Environmental radioactivity in Turkey, 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities measured in the environmental and food samples provided from Turkey's seven geographical regions within the environmental radioactivity monitoring program in 2009 and absorbed gamma dose rates in outdoor obtained by means of car-borne measurement system (Mobysis) are presented. The activity concentrations of the natural and artificial radionuclides and gross alpha/beta activities in the samples were measured by using the gamma spectrometry, the alpha spectrometry, the liquid scintillation counter and the gross alpha /beta counting system. The mean activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th and 40K in the analyzed surface samples were found as 34,7 ± 1,7 Bq kg-1, 35,4 ± 0,8 Bq kg-1 and 450,0 ± 17,9 Bq kg-1, respectively, while the mean activity concentration of the fission product 137Cs was found as 11,6 ± 0,5 Bq kg-1. The mean absorbed gamma dose rate in outdoor due to external exposure emitted by natural radionuclides in soil samples and the corresponding annual effective dose were evaluated as 54,6 nGy h-1 and 0,07 mSv y-1, respectively. The activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th and 226Ra in the analyzed food samples were lower than the minimum detectable activity (MDA) while 134Cs radionuclide was not observed. The mean activity concentrations of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides measured in the milk samples are 0,28 Bq L-1 and 0.05 Bq L-1, respectively. These values are lower than the limit value specified for foods subjected to control based on the regulation of the EU 737/90/EC. The total annual effective dose arising from the internal exposure from radiation emitting from 40K, l37Cs and 90Sr radionuclides analyzed in the food samples are evaluated as 193,0 μSv. In conclusion, the results of the monitoring programme in 2009 show that the levels of radioactivity in the environment are low and do not pose any significant risk to human health and the

  10. Neuropsychological correlates of domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R A; Rosenbaum, A; Kane, R L; Warnken, W J; Benjamin, S

    1999-01-01

    Neuropsychological functioning was assessed in 39 males who had committed domestic violence (batterers) and compared to 63 nonviolent (both maritally discordant and satisfied) subjects recruited by advertisement. Subjects were subsequently divided into two groups (head injured, nonhead injured) and these groups were also contrasted as a function of batterer status. Tests were administered to assess for cognitive and behavioral functions, including executive dysfunction, hypothesized to be a factor contributing to propensity for violence. Questionnaires and structured clinical interviews were used to assess marital discord, emotional distress, and violent behaviors. Batterers differed from nonbatterers across several cognitive domains: executive, learning, memory, and verbal functioning. Batterers were reliably discriminated from nonbatterers based on three neuropsychological tasks: Digit Symbol, Recognition Memory Test-Words, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. Neuropsychological performance was the strongest correlate of domestic violence of all clinical variables measured. However, the inclusion of two other variables, severity of emotional distress and history of head injury, together with the neuropsychological indices provided the strongest correlation with batterers status. Among batterers, neuropsychological performance did not vary as a function of head injury status, indicating that while prior head injury was correlated with batterer status, it was not the sole basis for their impairments. The findings suggest that current cognitive status, prior brain injury, childhood academic problems, as well as psychosocial influences, contribute along with coexisting emotional distress to a propensity for domestic violence. PMID:10751047

  11. State Support of Domestic Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy Wright

    2007-12-30

    This project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the State Support of Domestic Production DE-FC26-04NT15456. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) performed efforts in support of State programs related to the security, reliability and growth if our nation's domestic production of oil and natural gas. The project objectives were to improve the States ability to monitor the security of oil and gas operations; to maximize the production of domestic oil and natural gas thereby minimizing the threat to national security posed by interruptions in energy imports; to assist States in developing and maintaining high standards of environmental protection; to assist in addressing issues that limit the capacity of the industry; to promote the deployment of the appropriate application of technology for regulatory efficiency; and to inform the public about emerging energy issues.

  12. International standards and domestic violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić-Ristanović Vesna Ž.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority states in the world, as well as Serbia and Montenegro, took over the obligations from international law documents with regards to prevention, protection and prosecution of domestic violence. Over the last several years, in Serbia and Montenegro, there have been some positive steps regarding more decisive reaction on domestic violence, in the first place thanks to NGOs advocacy. However, the state involvement and contribution is still symbolic in comparison with obligations that international documents require from it. Having that in mind, authors try to explain the role and significance of international law for improving social responses on family violence. They also give systematic review of the most important demands that international law set up before the state. The main aim of the text is the analysis of the role that international law has in making state strategies in the field of domestic violence, as well as systematic review of existing international standards in this area which have to be taken into consideration in legislative, institutionalized and other reforms which are on going in Serbia and Montenegro.

  13. Implications of the globalization of the banking sector: the Latin American experience

    OpenAIRE

    Joe Peek; Rosengren, Eric S.

    2000-01-01

    Foreign entry into domestic banking markets remains a contentious issue. Whether privatizing a state bank in Brazil or selling a failed bank in Japan, the proposed sale of a large domestic financial institution, possibly to a foreign acquirer, frequently results in a major controversy. Many Asian countries have yet to experience major foreign penetration of domestic banking markets, while Latin American countries have privatized many of their banks and have encouraged foreign banks to enter t...

  14. A CONTlRUBUTION TO THE FLORA OF TURKEY: Silene fabaroides

    OpenAIRE

    F. DANE, G. DALGIÇ

    2015-01-01

    Silene fabaroides Hausskn. is added to the flora of Turkey with the specimenscollected from European Turkey (A1 (E) Edirne). Description of the species with illustration is given.Key words: Flora of Turkey, Silene fabaroides.

  15. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  16. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Hillis, David M

    2013-04-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  17. 75 FR 70897 - Notice of Request for Extension of Approval of an Information Collection; South American Cactus...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... Collection; South American Cactus Moth; Quarantine and Regulations AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... regulations for the interstate movement of regulated articles to prevent the spread of South American cactus... American cactus moth, contact Dr. Robyn Rose, Program Manager, Emergency and Domestic Programs, PPQ,...

  18. 76 FR 42115 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews... of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel... North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace domestic...

  19. 77 FR 26252 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First... North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace domestic judicial... States Section of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free...

  20. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to make it a crossroads of multiple

  1. The Geopolitics of Water and Oil in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Throughout history, few nations have been as successful in leveraging their geographic location as Turkey. As the center of two of the most powerful civilizations of all time, the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires, Turkey was the bridge between East and West, a bustling center of trade and a strategic economic and political nexus between regions of the world. In addition to its geographic power, Turkey has historically possessed substantial water resources. Unlike many water parched areas of the Middle East, Turkey's water capacity has allowed it to grow large populations and build elaborate cities. In the modern era, Turkey once again has an opportunity to regain its historical role, as the state where today's geopolitics of energy coincides with Turkey's traditional geopolitics of water. Turkey's central location, this time not between East and West, but between producers and consumers of energy, gives it a central, geopolitical role in world affairs, both in oil and gas. Moreover, Turkey's water resources can be utilized to reinforce Turkey's strategic energy role in the region, by building a strategy of cooperation with water-poor countries from the Levant to the Arabian Peninsula. Throughout history, water and energy have been among the most fundamental resources of civilization, at the very base of Maslow's hierarchy of needs essential to fostering human growth and development for thousands of years. It is seldom appreciated how linked water and energy truly are. Producing, transferring, and supplying energy requires a significant amount of water, just as the extraction, purification, and even desalination of water requires a significant amount of energy. As both energy and water grow scarcer throughout the future, nations such as Turkey can gain considerable influence as a result of their geographic locations and natural endowments. Turkey can benefit from pipeline diplomacy, taking advantage of its geographical location to

  2. Husbandry Practices and Outbreak Features of Natural Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 in Turkey Flocks in Nigeria 2006-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Babatunde Akanbi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI outbreaks in Nigeria that occurred during 2006-2008, affected 80 farms that kept subsistence indigenous chicken, duck, turkey, guinea fowl and geese in 15 states of the country including the capital, Abuja resulting in a total loss of more than 14,000 birds in backyard, semi-intensive or free-ranged flocks. The rearing of rural poultry in free-range, multispecies, multiage holdings that have low biosecurity levels have shown to expose them to many contact risks. In order to sustain turkey production in the country in view of the ongoing resurgent HPAI outbreaks, it is necessary to assess the impact of HPAI on this species and to evaluate the husbandry and outbreak features of affected flocks. Spatial data confirmed the presence of HPAI virus in both domestic and commercial poultry farms from 25 States and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT in Nigeria were added to a Geographical Information System (GIS using ESRI ArcGIS 10.3 (ESRI®, USA and QGIS 2.8.2 Desktop (OSGeo and visualized using QGIS. Post mortem examinations of submitted carcasses were carried out and swabs and tissues were analyzed by virus isolation (VI and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. HPAI in turkey flocks were mostly in northern part of the country where most poultry mainly subsistence are domiciled and are more in the densely cities of the north. The poultry management systems employed by the subsistence turkey farmers were mainly semi-intensive backyard and free-ranged system of poultry. HPAI introduction sources vary from the introduction of new poultry species (geese and turkey from LBM, to the death of neighborhood poultry and extension to turkey flocks and/or contact with free-ranging local chickens. It is obvious that the husbandry and the management system had influenced on the introduction of the virus and the course of the disease.

  3. Tectonic interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. In this presentation, an interpretation of the aeromagnetic anomalies of Turkey will be discussed. Aeromagnetic data acquired by the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration of Turkey (MTA) is used in this study. Sensitivity of these data are suitable for regional studies. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) correction and advanced geophysical data processing methods were applied, and then data were gridded with 5x5 km intervals. Initially, aeromagnetic anomalies were upward continued to be at 2, 3, 5 and 7 km heights (including flight altitude). This application suppressed near surface effects and revealed that the 3 km upward continued aeromagnetic anomaly map is the most convenient map to reflect the deep-seated structures in Anatolia. Then, Reduction to the Pole (RTP) method was applied to the 3 km upward continued anomalies. Hence, it was observed that polarities of the most anomalies were aligned along the North-South direction. It is thought that the remanent magnetization is not existent in the west and the centre of Anatolia, in contrast to the east where polarities of the most anomalies are different from the north-south direction by the presence of strong remanent magnetization. In order to delineate the boundaries of the causative structures, Analytical Signal (AS) method was applied on the aeromagnetic anomalies. A sinuous boundary in the south of Turkey is apparent in the AS map which can be evaluated as suture zone between the Anatolides and non-magnetic African/Arabian Plate. Several important anomalies became more visible after AS transformation in Anatolia. These are, from west to east, the Suluklu-Cihanbeyli-Goloren (SCGA), Konya (KA), Cappadocian Volcanic Complex (CVCA) and Van Lake (VLA) magnetic anomalies. The East Anatolian Contractional Province Anomalies (EACPA) are intensively gathered in the East Anatolia where intensive earthquake activities are also observed. Magnetic

  4. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  5. Lifting the veil. Reform vs tradition in Turkey. An interview with Nilofer Gole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    This article is based on an interview with a Turkish sociologist, Nilofer Gole, concerning the practice of veiling of women in Turkey. Turks have argued about the permissibility of veiling for over a decade. The issue of veiling marks the intersection between modernization and the Islamic movement and is a symbolic marker of the meaning of women's bodies. Turkish women wear a traditional long head scarf that has nothing to do with a modern Islamic head scarf. Turkish and Indian women are pressured by fathers, husbands, and brothers to completely cover themselves. Turkish women who put on the veil come from modest social origins, peripheral cities, and small towns with a conservative background. Turkish women wearing the veil do so when they move to urban areas and pass the university entrance exams. Rural women maintain the classical head scarf. Urban women wearing veils are leaving the domestic space and private sphere and distancing themselves from traditional women's roles. These Islamic radical women are a small minority of about 10% of the population. Most of the population follow a modern way of life with a different ideology. Modernization began in Turkey in 1876, and the formation of a secular, republican nation-state began with Mustafa Attaturk in 1923. Attaturk based the Turkish civil code on the Swiss civil code, which was the most progressive at that time and promoted the emancipation of women. Turkey, unlike Iran, had a "very rich democratic life, the defeat of a monarchy, and the growth of the middle class." Religious law and marriage were abolished. The veil was not allowed in public places and its use discouraged. PMID:12321488

  6. Crude oil import policy of Turkey: Historical analysis of determinants and implications since 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ediger, Volkan S., E-mail: volkanediger@gmail.co [Izmir University of Economics, Sakarya Caddesi, No. 156, 35330 Izmir (Turkey); Berk, Istemi [Izmir University of Economics, Sakarya Caddesi, No. 156, 35330 Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-04-15

    Turkey is one of the most energy import dependent countries in the world, suffering deeply from the economic and strategic burdens of oil importation. Our purpose is to determine the factors behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey and to measure their contribution to a well-organized import strategy. We implemented a principle component analysis to construct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index (OIVI) based on four factors, which are crude oil import dependency of primary energy consumption, crude oil import bill as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), non-diversification of import sources, and share of oil in total energy import. The contribution of these factors to the OIVI is found to be approximately equal. While an overall deterioration in the OIVI has been observed during periods of increasing oil prices, better diversification of oil import sources has lead to significant improvements. We suggest Turkish policy-makers implement sound policies, emphasizing diversification of crude oil import sources and reduction of the share of crude oil in primary energy imports to increase energy supply security. This study has also demonstrated that it is possible to construct an index representing crude oil vulnerability caused by import dependency. - Research highlights: {yields}We examine the factors lying behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey. {yields} We measure the contribution of each factor to a well-organized import strategy. {yields} We constrtuct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index using principle component analysis. {yields} We suggest that four factors affect oil import policies with almost equal weights. {yields} Source diversification is found to be the core issue in oil import policies.

  7. Prioritization of renewable energy sources for Turkey by using a hybrid MCDM methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The paper proposes a hybrid model to prioritize RE sources for Turkey. • The hybrid model based on BOCR and ANP is proposed under linguistic values. • Strategic criteria are economy, security, wellbeing, technology and global effects. • Nineteen criteria are used to evaluate hydro, geothermal, solar, wind and biomass. - Abstract: Developing countries such as Turkey, with their fast growing population and economy, are facing an increasing demand for energy. Turkey does not possess a sufficient quantity of domestic oil and natural gas resources to support this growing demand. On the other hand, the country does have abundant reserves of renewable energy that can be a major component in providing part of the overall energy supply. The country plans to explore its renewable energy (RE) sources and increase the renewable energy share in near future. With this in mind, this paper proposes a hybrid model based on BOCR (Benefits, Opportunities, Costs and Risks) and ANP (Analytic Network Process) to determine Turkey’s energy status and prioritize alternative RE sources. BOCR analysis provides a strategic analysis and detailed overview of the country’s energy issues. ANP is a practical multi criteria decision making (MCDM) method and offers the advantages of decision making models, based on tangible and intangible factors. 19 criteria are used to evaluate five alternative RE sources (Hydro, Geothermal, Solar, Wind and Biomass). The subsequent results show that the most important strategic criterion is economy; other criteria include security, human wellbeing, technology and global effects. Their weights are 0.485, 0.235, 0.130, 0.097 and 0.053, respectively. In the conclusion of this paper, the authors propose hydro power as the optimal RE source for the country

  8. STRATEGIES FOR THE MARKETING OF HIGHER EDUCATION WITH COMPARATIVE CONTEXTUAL REFERENCES BETWEEN AUSTRALIA AND TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ayhan YILMAZ

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Ugur DEMIRAYAnadolu University andEditor-in-Chief of TOJDEEskisehir, TURKEYEducation is now a global product with institutions worldwide competing for students and finding ever more creative ways to satisfy student needs and preferences. With the continuing rise in the preference for flexible distance learning, educational institutions are finding that when students and faculty have significantly different cultural backgrounds and learning styles that the expectations of the learning experience can be unfulfilled. In Australia, international students have made education Australia’s third largest service export, earning $5.8 billion. This means that student populations have moved from being homogenous and captive to domestic constraints and expectations, to being multi-cultural, dispersed and subject to a plethora of constraints and expectations. Today in Turkey, education is the responsibility of government however, in recent years, the private sector has entered the market providing educational services at all levels. In particular, after the 1990s, private higher education institutions (HEIs with a commercial focus have mushroomed. In 2007, there are 25 private universities in Turkey with more than 2.000.000 students enrolled in these universities. Of these students, more than 1.000.000 are registered in distance education faculties. With such large student numbers competition between private universities for students has intensified particularly over the last 15 years. As a consequence the need to develop strategies for attracting students has become more important. Marketing strategies in Turkey have tended to concentrate on three distinct categories: strategies between governmental HEIs, private HEIs and distance education HEIs. The contribution of technologies to education processes has been immense with students and faculty each learning to adapt to an environment of continuous change and opportunities. This paper seeks to explore

  9. Crude oil import policy of Turkey: Historical analysis of determinants and implications since 1968

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkey is one of the most energy import dependent countries in the world, suffering deeply from the economic and strategic burdens of oil importation. Our purpose is to determine the factors behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey and to measure their contribution to a well-organized import strategy. We implemented a principle component analysis to construct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index (OIVI) based on four factors, which are crude oil import dependency of primary energy consumption, crude oil import bill as a share of Gross Domestic Product (GDP), non-diversification of import sources, and share of oil in total energy import. The contribution of these factors to the OIVI is found to be approximately equal. While an overall deterioration in the OIVI has been observed during periods of increasing oil prices, better diversification of oil import sources has lead to significant improvements. We suggest Turkish policy-makers implement sound policies, emphasizing diversification of crude oil import sources and reduction of the share of crude oil in primary energy imports to increase energy supply security. This study has also demonstrated that it is possible to construct an index representing crude oil vulnerability caused by import dependency. - Research highlights: →We examine the factors lying behind the crude oil import policy of Turkey. → We measure the contribution of each factor to a well-organized import strategy. → We constrtuct an Oil Import Vulnerability Index using principle component analysis. → We suggest that four factors affect oil import policies with almost equal weights. → Source diversification is found to be the core issue in oil import policies.

  10. A Partial Equilibrium Analysis of Sunflower Market in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    B. Miran; G. Unakitan

    2006-01-01

    Sunflower oil is the most preferred vegetable oil in Turkey. 35% of total consumption of vegetable oil issunflower oil. Sunflower seed import is approximately 500-650 thousand tons while sunflower seedproduction is 800-850 thousand tons in the last years. The main objective of this study is to determine thereasons of deficiency of vegetable oil in Turkey and to suggest some solutions. For this objective, theprospective situation and the market structure of sunflower seed in Turkey has estimat...

  11. Gender Equality from a Constitutional Perspective - The Case of Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Elver, Hilal

    2006-01-01

    Turkey, a bridge connecting Asia and Europe, occupies the geographic border zone between two vastly different regions of the world: the East and the West. This gives Turkey a unique position, as it has cultural, social, and legal characteristics of both regions and tries to achieve the values of both in its current search for identity. This makes it difficult and puzzling to evaluate the status of women in Turkey.

  12. Regional Economic Activity in Turkey: A New Economic Geography Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Turgut, Mehmet Burak

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the spatial economic activity in Turkey and estimates the correlation between wages and consumer demand across NUTS1 regions of Turkey. First, I estimate simple market potential function to test whether closeness to larger markets has impact on wages. Second, I estimate Krugman (1993) economic geography model to see the agglomeration forces in Turkey. The results suggest that wages are higher in the regions close to larger markets and low trade costs and high share of expen...

  13. Free Zones in Turkey and Their Macroeconomic Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Aykut Kibritcioglu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the author presents a simple theoretical framework to discuss the potential contributions of free trade zones on the host country. Then, he mainly concentrates on the effects of free zones in Turkey on the Turkish economy. Note: This is the revised version of the paper which is presented at the seminar on "The Concepts and Instruments of the Economic Development in Turkey: A Model for Palestine?", October 26-30, 1995, Antalya, Turkey. (This Version: February 5, 1996)

  14. Scientific Relations Between Turkey and Germany: Turkish-German Universities

    OpenAIRE

    Fahri Türk; Servet Çınar

    2013-01-01

    Turkey and Germany are two countries which have well advanced relations in the fields of politics, economy, military, education and science for many years. These relations contribute to both sides in different aspects. However, when two countries are compared with each other, Germany transfers massive amounts of science and especially technology to Turkey. The present study deals with the transferring scientific experience from Germany to Turkey within the framework of universities, especiall...

  15. SHADOW ECONOMY AND PUBLIC DEBT SUSTAINABILITY IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Burçin Yereli Ahmet; Seçilmiş Erdem İbrahim; Başaran Alparslan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the shadow economy and public debt in Turkey. We elaborate on the questions regarding the negative effects of shadow economy on the sustainability of public debt observing the estimates about the size of shadow economy in Turkey. In the light of some scholars’ estimates, we re-evaluate the macroeconomic situation of Turkey. At the core of the study, we discuss how the government borrowing policies would differ if the shadow economy ...

  16. Turkey and the Middle East: threats and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Hasan

    2001-01-01

    The end of the Cold War and the Second Gulf War affected the Middle East prodoundly. The role of regional countries changed when the end of the superpower competition transformed frozen animosities into new conflict areas. In this context, Turkey extremely involved in regional politics. During the 1989-2000 period Turkey's policy toward the Middle East in general centered on security issues while Turkey encouraged regional cooperation simultaneously. PKK terrorism and the prospect of a Kurdis...

  17. SECURITIZATION OF MIGRATION: THE CASE OF TURKEY-EU RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Yüksel, Sinem

    2015-01-01

    This article aims at analyzing “securitization of migration” in TurkeyEuropean Union (EU) relations. The Copenhagen School’s theory of securitization, multisectoral security approach and speech act are given special emphasis in this regard. The major argument of this article is that the EU has securitized migration from Turkey mainly for political reasons; thus, securitization of migration in Turkey-EU relations is a political choice. Firstly, it is aimed to set theoretical foundation of the ...

  18. The data collection tools in nursing researches in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ünsal, Ayla; Ergül, Nilüfer

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine data collection tools in nursing researches in Turkey.Methods: This study included nine literatures. This literature were that had ten national/international nursing congress and symposium books realized in Turkey and five in peer reviewed nursing journals in Turkey. Consequently, the sample of these study 1328 researches that wasn't had article and that literatures was during the period 1991-2008 years. Methods of researches in sample was overviewe...

  19. Overwinter survival of wild turkeys on central Virginia's industrial forests

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, John T.

    1989-01-01

    Overwinter survival of wild turkeys on industrial forests managed for short-rotation pines (treatment) and typical Piedmont forests and farmland (control), was investigated in Virginia's central Piedmont during 1986-1988. Ninety-six percent of the turkeys (N =106) were captured in early fall with alpha-chloralose laced bait. Sixty-three percent of the captured turkeys recovered and were released with transmitters; 15% were released without transmitters; and 21% died from capture r...

  20. Presence of Senecio sylvaticus L. (Asteraceae in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunçkol Bilge

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The annual plant Senecio sylvaticus L. (Asteraceae is regarded as a doubtfully recorded in Turkey. It has not been collected in the country since the first report of its occurrence in the north eastern Black Sea Region in 1875. This paper reconfirms the occurrence of Senecio sylvaticus in Turkey. New specimens were collected from the Ereğli and Alaplı regions (Zonguldak province, NW Turkey in 2014. The species description, distribution maps and photographs are given.

  1. Turkey-Azerbaijan Energy Relations: A Political and Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cagla Gul YESEVI; Burcu Yavuz TIFTIKCIGIL

    2015-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that Turkey-Azerbaijan relations have always been strong and described with the phrase "one nation with two states”. This paper is concerned with economic and political nature of Turkey-Azerbaijan relations. Initially, the evolution of Turkish- Azerbaijani relations after the independence of Azerbaijan has been examined. This paper gives an overview of the impacts of Nagorno-Karabagh issue and efforts to normalize the relations between Turkey and Armenia on relatio...

  2. Electrical energy consumption and production of Turkey versus world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy issues are directly related to the development of a country and the living standards of its people. In this study, Turkey's energy resources, installed electric power capacity, electric energy production and consumption rates are investigated and compared with some other countries. And some comments have been made on the future electric energy production investments. Besides, the potentials of Turkey's energy resources are exposed also Turkey's electric energy production strategy is interpreted

  3. NOVUS ORTUS: THE AWAKENING OF LAZ LANGUAGE IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Nurdan KAVAKLI

    2015-01-01

    Laz (South Caucasian) language, which is spoken primarily on the southeastern coast of the Black Sea in Turkey, is being threatened by language endangerment. Having no official status, Laz language is considered to be an ethnic minority language in Turkey. All Laz people residing in Turkey are bilingual with the official language in the country, Turkish, and use Laz most frequently in intrafamilial conversations. In this article, Laz language is removed from the dusty pages of Turkish history...

  4. Nuclear power plant attempts in Turkey and the first licensed site of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In this paper, detailed information regarding Turkey's past attempts for the construction of a nuclear power plant and site survey studies conducted for this plant is given. Also, some important characteristics of the first licensed NPP site of Turkey, namely Akkuyu, are summarized. Turkey is a fast developing country and has limited indigenous energy resources, therefore needs to import energy. For the purpose of diversification of imported energy resources, there were four attempts made for the construction of an NPP in the past. However, all of them failed due to technical, economical and/or political reasons. Akkuyu site has been selected among around 25 candidate sites for the reasons that bulky materials can be transported there by sea; it is located near the major electricity demand centers; soil-structure interaction and slab stability are suitable for the construction of a NPP; its surrounding is one of the most sparsely populated areas of Turkey; and it is seismically the most stable region in earthquake-prone Turkey, e.g.. TEK was granted a site license for the Akkuyu by General Secretariat of Atomic Energy Commission on June 1976. Detailed investigations have been carried out on the site to make the suitability of the site definite and to precisely define the design basis site parameters for the approval of them

  5. Residential-commercial energy input estimation based on genetic algorithm (GA) approaches: an application of Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the present study is to develop the energy input estimation equations for the residential-commercial sector (RCS) in order to estimate the future projections based on genetic algorithm (GA) notion and to examine the effect of the design parameters on the energy input of the sector. For this purpose, the Turkish RCS is given as an example. The GA Energy Input Estimation Model (GAEIEM) is used to estimate Turkey's future residential-commercial energy input demand based on gross domestic product (GDP), population, import, export, house production, cement production and basic house appliances consumption figures. It may be concluded that the three various forms of models proposed here can be used as an alternative solution and estimation techniques to available estimation techniques. It is also expected that this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies. (author)

  6. Banded karyotype of the Konya wild sheep (Ovis orientalis anatolica Valenciennes, 1856) from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Atilla; Zima, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Thekaryotype, C-banding, and nucleoar organizer regions (NORs) of eight specimens ofKonya wild sheepfrom Turkey were examined. The complement included six large metacentric autosomes, 46 acrocentric autosomes of decreasing size, a medium-sized acrocentric X chromosome, and a small bi-armed Y chromosome (the diploid chromosome number 2n=54, the number of autosomal arms NFa=58, the number of chromosome arms NF=61). G-banding allowed reliable identification of all the chromosome pairs and the pairing of homologous elements. All the autosomes possessed distinct centromeric or pericentromeric C-positive bands. The X chromosome had a pericentromeric C-positive band, and the Y chromosome was entirely C-heterochromatic. The NORs were located in the terminal regions of the long arms of three metacentric and two acrocentric autosomes. The karyotype of the Konya wild sheep and its banding patterns are quite similar to chromosome complement reported in domestic sheep and European mouflon. PMID:24260621

  7. High interest rate policy in Turkey and factors influencing interest rate spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Yurdakul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to examine what factors explain the difference between effective interest rates of Turkey and USA. The paper considers seven variables explaining interest rate spread such as general prices, Gross Domestic Product (GDP, exchange rate, credibility index, level of international reserves, foreign trade deficit, and budget deficit. Four distinct periods were selected to explore the influences of the above mentioned variables on on interest rate spreads in these different time periods. The period covering 1994.1-2006:12 was splitted into three sub-periods: the sub-period covering 1994:1-1998:12, crisis period covering 1999:1-2001:.12, and post-crisis period covering 2002:1-2006.12.                            Employing the data for Turkey and applying Engle and Granger two-step procedure, this paper concludes that the only variable reducing interest rate spreads in all periods is GDP. The other variables generally increase the interest rate spreads.Engle and Granger estimation procedure, unit-root test, interest rate spreads, interest rate.    

  8. Estimation of real GDP and unrecorded economy in Turkey based on environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper estimates the real gross domestic product (GDP) and unrecorded economy for Turkey using the Kalman filter technique. Using different tests, most of the research articles on energy policy investigate the causal relationship between energy consumption and GDP for different countries. On the other hand, other studies on climate change try to show the effects of both energy consumption and GDP on carbon dioxide (CO2) emission. Since the unreported economy has an important weight in developing countries where the recorded (or official) GDP suffers from considerable measurement problems, investigation of the relationship between the recorded GDP and energy consumption may lead to biased results. In this paper, the economic variables (GDP, country population) as well as environmental variables (CO2 emission, forest area) are used in order to estimate GDP, which is an unobserved variable in our model. The results clearly indicate that: first, the true GDP in Turkey, that our model estimates, is higher than the observed (recorded) GDP in the whole period of observation (1973-2003) and the size of unrecorded economy varies between 12 and 30 percent of the observed GDP; second, the gap between the true GDP and the observed GDP has an increasing trend; third, if the change in GDP per primary energy supply is smaller than the change in CO2 per primary energy supply, then there may exist unrecorded economy

  9. Fatty acid composition of hemp seed oils from different locations in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiralan, M.; Gul, V.; Metin Kara, S.

    2010-07-01

    Recent interest in hemp seed as a source of food has largely focused on its oil content and fatty acid profile. The oil content and fatty acid composition (15 fatty acids) of twenty one different hemp seed samples of domestic origin from north-western Turkey were monitored. The samples were obtained from seed wholesalers and local spice shops and are of unknown genetic origin. The oil content of the hemp seeds ranged between 29.6 to 36.5%. Out of the 15 detected fatty acids, the omega-6 linoleic acid (18:2n-6) was predominant and fluctuated from 55.4 to 56.9%, while the omega-3 a-linolenic (18:3n-3) acid ranged from 16.5 to 20.4% and the omega-9 oleic acid (18:1n-9) ranged from 11.4 to 15.9%. Of the minor fatty acids, the highest concentrations were found for {gamma}-linolenic acid (18:3n-6), range 0.6-1.1%, followed by stearidonic acid (18:4n-3), range 0.3-0.5%. These results show that hemp seed grown in north-western Turkey provides a well balanced and rich source of dietary omega-6 and -3 essential fatty acids and appears to be a potentially valuable source of food. (Author) 31 refs.

  10. Short-run and long-run elasticities of import demand for crude oil in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to attempt to estimate the short-run and the long-run elasticities of demand for crude oil in Turkey by the recent autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration. As a developing country, Turkey meets its growing demand for oil principally by foreign suppliers. Thus, the study focuses on modelling the demand for imported crude oil using annual data covering the period 1980-2005. The bounds test results reveal that a long-run cointegration relationship exists between the crude oil import and the explanatory variables: nominal price and income, but not in the model that includes real price in domestic currency. The long-run parameters are estimated through a long-run static solution of the estimated ARDL model, and then the short-run dynamics are estimated by the error correction model. The estimated models pass the diagnostic tests successfully. The findings reveal that the income and price elasticities of import demand for crude oil are inelastic both in the short run and in the long run

  11. Short-run and long-run elasticities of import demand for crude oil in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to attempt to estimate the short-run and the long-run elasticities of demand for crude oil in Turkey by the recent autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to cointegration. As a developing country, Turkey meets its growing demand for oil principally by foreign suppliers. Thus, the study focuses on modelling the demand for imported crude oil using annual data covering the period 1980-2005. The bounds test results reveal that a long-run cointegration relationship exists between the crude oil import and the explanatory variables: nominal price and income, but not in the model that includes real price in domestic currency. The long-run parameters are estimated through a long-run static solution of the estimated ARDL model, and then the short-run dynamics are estimated by the error correction model. The estimated models pass the diagnostic tests successfully. The findings reveal that the income and price elasticities of import demand for crude oil are inelastic both in the short run and in the long run. (author)

  12. High interest rate policy in Turkey and factors influencing interest rate spreads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Yurdakul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to examine what factors explain the difference between effective interest rates of Turkey and USA. The paper considers seven variables explaining interest rate spread such as general prices, Gross Domestic Product (GDP, exchange rate, credibility index, level of international reserves, foreign trade deficit, and budget deficit. Four distinct periods were selected to explore the influences of the above mentioned variables on on interest rate spreads in these different time periods. The period covering 1994.1-2006:12 was splitted into three sub-periods: the sub-period covering 1994:1-1998:12, crisis period covering 1999:1-2001:.12, and post-crisis period covering 2002:1-2006.12. Employing the data for Turkey and applying Engle and Granger two-step procedure, this paper concludes that the only variable reducing interest rate spreads in all periods is GDP. The other variables generally increase the interest rate spreads.Engle and Granger estimation procedure, unit-root test, interest rate spreads, interest rate.

  13. Assessing the Environmental Sustainability of Electricity Generation in Turkey on a Life Cycle Basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcin Atilgan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey’s electricity mix is dominated by fossil fuels, but the country has ambitious future targets for renewable and nuclear energy. At present, environmental impacts of electricity generation in Turkey are unknown so this paper represents a first attempt to fill this knowledge gap. Taking a life cycle approach, the study considers eleven impacts from electricity generation over the period 1990–2014. All 516 power plants currently operational in Turkey are assessed: lignite, hard coal, natural gas, hydro, onshore wind and geothermal. The results show that the annual impacts from electricity have been going up steadily over the period, increasing by 2–9 times, with the global warming potential being higher by a factor of five. This is due to a four-fold increase in electricity demand and a growing share of fossil fuels. The impact trends per unit of electricity generated differ from those for the annual impacts, with only four impacts being higher today than in 1990, including the global warming potential. Most other impacts are lower from 35% to two times. These findings demonstrate the need for diversifying the electricity mix by increasing the share of domestically-abundant renewable resources, such as geothermal, wind, and solar energy.

  14. Turkey and European Union Relations: Concept of Customs Union

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk, Ilhan; Sertoglu, Kamil

    2006-01-01

    Turkey is the only pluralist secular democracy in the Moslem world and has always targeted herself as being part of the western world and values. Turkey started to establish close economic relations with Europe by the 1963 Ankara Agreement. By 1995, Turkey abolished most of the barriers in her trade through a customs union agreement with the European Union. Customs union is widely discussed in the sense that the terms of trade between the two sides have not evolved in favour of Turkey. Howeve...

  15. Natural infection of turkeys by infectious laryngotracheitis virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portz, Cristiana; Beltrão, Nilzane; Furian, Thales Quedi; Júnior, Alfredo Bianco; Macagnan, Marisa; Griebeler, Josiane; Lima Rosa, Carlos André Veiga; Colodel, Edson Moleta; Driemeier, David; Back, Alberto; Barth Schatzmayr, Ortrud Monika; Canal, Cláudio Wageck

    2008-09-18

    The infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV) is an important respiratory pathogen of chickens that also infects pheasants and peafowl. Epidemiologically non-related commercial turkey flocks with clinical signs such as tracheitis, swollen sinuses, conjunctivitis and expectoration of bloody mucus were examined for the presence of the virus. Laboratory ILTV detection was performed by virus isolation in embryonated eggs and cell cultures, PCR and sequencing of amplification products, histopathology, indirect immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. One ILTV turkey isolate was also experimentally inoculated into susceptible chickens and turkeys, reproducing a mild respiratory disease. This is the first description of natural infections with ILTV in turkeys. PMID:18436397

  16. Foundation Networks and American Hegemony

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inderjeet Parmar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The major American foundations constructed and sustained the rich texture of cooperative social, intellectual and political relations between key actors and institutions supportive of specific modes of thought that promoted US hegemony. Foundations also fostered and developed the attractive power-knowledge networks that not only radiated intellectual influence but also attracted some of the most creative minds. Finally, liberal internationalist foundations fostered globalism even when the American state was ‘isolationist’, and when US influence abroad unwelcome. Their significance in American hegemony building lay in their sustained, long-term cooperative relationship with the American state through which they helped build national, international and global institutions and networks. The latter process evidences the most significant impact of US foundations – the building of the domestic and international infrastructure for liberal internationalism which has transformed into a kind of “social neoliberalism”. Theoretical conclusions follow from these claims: the sustained and deep cooperation between the state and foundations suggests that we must revise our views of “how power works” in the United States and therefore influences its foreign relations. Therefore, the article shows that elite networks, consisting of state officials and private citizens are powerful means by which foreign policy shifts may be prepared, elite and mass opinion primed and mobilised, new consensus built, ‘old’ forces marginalised, and US hegemony constructed.

  17. TURKEY AND THE EUROPEAN UNION: DIVERGENT DISCOURSES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Moxon-Browne

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available It has become almost axiomatic to argue that the prospect of Turkish accession to the European Union (EU poses unprecedented challenges to its cohesion, its institutional structure, and to its identity.1 No country has waited longer to open negotiations with the EU, and no country has embarked on negotiations with such a distant prospect for those negotiations being concluded. Our purpose here is not to consider the wide range of problems faced by Turkey in these negotiations, or even to make a judgement on whether these negotiations will, or ought to be, successful. Our objective is to consider public opinion in the EU, and in Turkey with a view to isolating perceptions on both sides that may be complicating factors in an already intricate relationship.

  18. Agritourist Motivations: The Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savas Artuger

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine what motivated agritourists of Turkish origin to participate in agritourismin Turkey. In line with this target a survey has been carried out with 196 Turkish agritourists who participated inagritourism in Turkey. Agritourist motivation scale was used as a tool to collect data for the application and anonline survey link was dispatched to the e-mail addresses of the agritourists to be filled between January andMarch of 2013. Arithmetical average, standard deviation, factor analysis and reliability analysis were used in thestudy. The results of the study revealed that Turkish agritourists had participated in agritourism for reasons suchas to enjoy scenery, life and mental relaxation. In other words agritourists participated in agritourism in order torelax physically or mentally and be in touch with nature.

  19. Nuclear energy in Turkey. Recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text : The global demand for electricity is rapidly increasing. There is growing uncertainty in regard to the supply and prices of oil and natural gas. These considerations have opened new prospects for the development of nuclear energy on a global state. Despite the negative impact of the Fukushima Daichi accident, still some countries are considering or have expressed interest in developing nuclear power programmes. As the country using nuclear technology is primarily responsible for safety and as operational safety cannot be out sourced, building of sound safety expertise and strong safety culture is an essential precondition for the country introducing nuclear technology. Turkey's energy policy is naturally focused on the security, sustainability and competitiveness of energy supply. It is designed to sustain targeted economic and social growth in the long run. Turkey remains resolutely committed to the goal of ensuring safe, secure and peaceful utilization of nuclear energy

  20. ‘CHILD BRIDE’ PROBLEM IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Kaynak Malatyali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ‘Child Brides’ are described as girls who are forced to get married before they are 18 year old. The issue of child brides is a concern for undeveloped and developing countries as well as Turkey. This work aims to explore the prevalence, problems and causes related to the problem of ‘child brides’ as well as offering solutions for this problem. The literature shows that ‘child bride’ is quite widespread practice in Turkey. Moreover, forced marriage at an early age is problematic in many ways. In addition, there are some factors which contribute the problem including legal gaps, education level of the family and the daughter, economical conditions, stereotypes, traditional practices and sexism level. Finally, it is suggested that the reasons for the problem of ‘child brides’ are multi-dimensional and therefore it requires a similar approach.