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Sample records for american sturgeon pioneers

  1. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  2. Population status of North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P.B.; Grimes, C.; Hightower, J.E.; Lindley, S.T.; Moser, M.L.; Parsley, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    North American green sturgeon, Acipenser medirostris, was petitioned for listing under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). The two questions that need to be answered when considering an ESA listing are; (1) Is the entity a species under the ESA and if so (2) is the "species" in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range? Green sturgeon genetic analyses showed strong differentiation between northern and southern populations, and therefore, the species was divided into Northern and Southern Distinct Population Segments (DPSs). The Northern DPS includes populations in the Rogue, Klamath-Trinity, and Eel rivers, while the Southern DPS only includes a single population in the Sacramento River. The principal risk factors for green sturgeon include loss of spawning habitat, harvest, and entrainment. The Northern DPS is not considered to be in danger of extinction or likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. The loss of spawning habitat is not large enough to threaten this DPS, although the Eel River has been severely impacted by sedimentation due to poor land use practices and floods. The two main spawning populations in the Rogue and Klamath-Trinity rivers occupy separate basins reducing the potential for loss of the DPS through catastrophic events. Harvest has been substantially reduced and green sturgeon in this DPS do not face substantial entrainment loss. However there are significant concerns due to lack of information, flow and temperature issues, and habitat degradation. The Southern DPS is considered likely to become an endangered species in the foreseeable future. Green sturgeon in this DPS are concentrated into one spawning area outside of their natural habitat in the Sacramento River, making them vulnerable to catastrophic extinction. Green sturgeon spawning areas have been lost from the area above Shasta Dam on the Sacramento River and

  3. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  4. Sperm-cell ultrastructure of North American sturgeons. IV. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLauro, M.N.; Walsh, R.A.; Peiffer, M.; Bennett, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm-cell morphology and ultrastructure in the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Metrics and structure were compared with similar metrics obtained from other published descriptions of sturgeon sperm cells. General morphology was found to be similar to that of sperm cells of the white (Acipenser transmontanus), lake (A. fulvescens), stellate (A. stellatus), Chinese (A. sinensis), Russian (A. gueldenstaedti colchicus), and shortnose (A. brevirostrum) sturgeons, which all shared a gradual tapering of the nuclear diameter from posterior to anterior, unlike that of the Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus). The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon was similar in size to that of the Atlantic sturgeon, being only slightly larger. The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon differed from those of other sturgeons chiefly in the acrosomal region, where the posterolateral projections (PLP) have the shape of an acute triangle and are arranged in a spiral about the longitudinal axis of the cell. The PLP were longer than those of other sturgeons, being twice the length of those of the Atlantic sturgeon and 58% longer than those of the lake sturgeon. Also, in cross section the acrosome had the shape of a hollow cone rather than the cap of an oak tree acorn, as was found in ultrastructural studies of other sturgeons. In addition, we were able to confirm that the structural arrangement of the distal centriole of the midpiece is identical with that of the proximal centriole: nine sets of microtubular triplets around the periphery of the centriole. This information is of potential use to fishery biologists, forensic biologists, zoologists, reproductive physiologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, and aquaculturists.

  5. 50 CFR 223.210 - North American green sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that the likelihood of survival or recovery of the listed species is not reduced; a plan for minimizing... endangered species apply to the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American green... (16 U.S.C. 1539) and other exceptions under the ESA relating to endangered species,...

  6. Before Franz Boas: Pioneering Women in American Anthropology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Tarducci

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One consequence of the impact of the feminist movement in anthropological theory and practice was the recovery of the life and work of women who, despite occupying a peripheral site, made significant contributions to the field. In this paper I focus on the trajectories of these pioneers who, in a time of fast socioeconomic changes (last decades or xix Century and the early xx Century and despite they were self taught, were fundamental to the professionalization of anthropology.

  7. A Tribute to Thomas P. Carter (1927-2001): Activist Scholar and Pioneer in Mexican American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Richard R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a testimony to the late Dr. Thomas P. Carter. Well known for his classic (1970) book, Mexican Americans in School: A History of Educational Neglect, Carter was an activist scholar and pioneer in Mexican American education. His considerable interactions with South Americans, Mexicans, and Mexican Americans served as a…

  8. Habitat use of juvenile pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon with implications for water-level management in a downstream reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrity, P.C.; Guy, C.S.; Gardner, W.M.

    2008-01-01

    as Fort Peck can influence the amount of habitat available for pallid sturgeon. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2008.

  9. Cytogenetics and characterization of microsatellite loci for a South American pioneer tree species, Croton floribundus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrini, Milene; Pinto-Maglio, Cecília A F; Zucchi, Maria I; dos Santos, Flavio A M

    2013-12-01

    Despite the recent advances in plant population genetic studies, the lack of information regarding pedigree, ploidy level, or mode of inheritance for many polyploids can compromise the analysis of the molecular data produced. The aim of this study was to examine both microsatellite and cytogenetic characteristics of the pioneer tree Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae) to test for the occurrence of polyploidy in the species and to evaluate its implications for the appropriate use of SSR markers. Seven microsatellite markers were developed and screened for 62 individuals from a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Brazil. Chromosome number, meiotic behavior, and pollen viability were evaluated from male flower buds. All SSR loci were highly polymorphic. The number of bivalents observed in meiosis n = 56 (2n = 8× = 112) and the maximum number of alleles per individual (Ni = 8) demonstrated the occurrence of polyploidy in C. floribundus. The normal meiotic pairing and the high pollen viability suggested that C. floribundus is a regular and stable polyploid, most likely an allopolyploid. The combined SSR and cytogenetic data provided new evidence on the origin and evolution of the species as well as assured the accurate use of SSR loci for population genetic studies of the polyploid pioneer species.

  10. Outbreak of mortality in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons associated with sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmatic large DNA virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciulli, S; Volpe, E; Sirri, R; Passalacqua, P L; Cesa Bianchi, F; Serratore, P; Mandrioli, L

    2016-08-15

    Diseased outbreaks with high mortality in farmed sturgeon are a limiting factor to the success of this emerging aquaculture sector in Europe. Thorough investigations of outbreaks can determine the aetiological agents, identify important pathological and epidemiological pathways of infections and pave the way for effective control strategies. A thorough investigation of a mortality outbreak in Russian (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) and Siberian (Acipenser baerii) sturgeons in Italy, demonstrated the primary involvement of a sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus (NCLDV). While, the taxonomy classification of this new virus is still uncertain, its involvement in sturgeon mortality outbreaks in Europe is, for the first time, fully investigated and described. Furthermore, the coinfection of bacteria such as motile Aeromonas spp. and Acinetobacter spp. was reported. Genetic characterisation showed the close relationship between the European sturgeon NCLDV with North American sturgeon NCLDVs. Similarly to the latter, the European sturgeon NCLDV persists in survivors. Furthermore, a systemic distribution of the European sturgeon NCLDV was evident in diseased A. baerii and A. gueldenstaedtii and in recovered A. gueldenstaedtii. These epidemiological and pathological findings will help in the identification of effective control strategies for sturgeon NCLDV infection, which afflicts an important and emerging European aquaculture sector. PMID:27374904

  11. Organchlorine compounds in pallid sturgeon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Pallid sturgeon, a federally endangered species, are extremely rare, and few specimens are available for study. We obtained 12 Mississippi River pallid sturgeon for...

  12. Printing Pioneer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wang Xuan,inventor of a laser typesetting system for Chinese characters,ushers in a new age in the printing industry Anyone who reads a book or newspaper in Chinese is indebted to Wang Xuan, a pioneer in modem Chinese-language printing, just as one can thank Thomas Edison for inventing the electric light bulb. Wang invented a computerized laser photocomposition system for Chinese char-

  13. Willa Cather and Her Pioneering Themes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张菁华

    2013-01-01

      This thesis aims at the elaboration of Willa Cather’s pioneering themes based on her major works spanning over the pro⁃logue and epilogue of American pioneering age. Among which, O Pioneers! and My Antonia applause for the transcendent glory of innovative and enterprising pioneer ladies, declined in A Lost Lady and My Mortal Enemy and substituted with hedonism, affinity reliance and mammonism. In her late years, Cather resurrected her pioneering themes through the recollection of the best bygone time spent in waste west land.

  14. White Sturgeon Bibliography, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fickeisen, Duane H. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    1986-03-01

    This bibliography presents citations to the majority of published materials on white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus). The purpose was to assist in planning and implementing research on white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (ACR)

  15. Tragedies and Achievements of Americanization in O Pioneers!%《啊,拓荒者!》:“美国化”的灾难与成就

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许燕

    2011-01-01

    O Pioneers!,Willa Cather's first frontier novel, tells a story of a Sweden immigrant family struggling to get rooted in America. Behind their tragedies and achievements, Cather elaborates her views on the Americanization of overseas immigrants. She condemns those who, departing completely from their old way of their homelands, pursue blindly the American way. At the same time, those who refuse to change and cling obstinately to the old world do not win her applause. Only Alexander, the heroine of the novel, who combines a new experimenting imagination, especially towards land, and a continuous maintenance of old traditions of her homeland, presents an ideal model of Americanization for overseas immigrants.%《啊,拓荒者!》是薇拉·凯瑟的第一部边疆小说。小说通过再现美国化给瑞典移民伯格森一家带来的种种灾难与成就,完成了凯瑟有关"美国化"的意义建构。简而言之,她既不认同移民们绝然割裂与故国文化传统的关联、一味追求美国方式的"美国化",也不主张完全停留在旧世界、与新世界毫无关联的文化模式。主人公亚历山德拉是作者心目中移民"美国化"的理想典范的实现:既获得了作为一个美国人该有的开拓性想象力,又同时坚守故国的文化家园,拒绝被美国价值完全同化。

  16. Contaminants in Atlantic sturgeon and shortnose sturgeon recovered from the Penobscot and Kennebec rivers, Maine.

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In the Gulf of Maine, the shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a federally‐listed endangered species and the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) is a...

  17. Pioneer ACO PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Pioneer ACO PUF - To address the increasing number of requests for Pioneer ACO data, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has created a standard...

  18. Pioneering can be learned

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Potters, J.I.; Buurma, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    A pioneer has specific competencies that a follower does not have, or has to a much lesser degree. For example, the capability of gathering information but also processing this information for use in his own business, are skills that a pioneer has developed to a large degree. But people who are not

  19. Middle Mississippi River Sturgeon Preliminary Contaminants Investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We examined the health of forty-one wild caught sturgeon from a reach of the Mississippi River with an organochlorine consumption advisory and a reference site. The...

  20. 77 FR 44140 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ...; Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, Sturgeon Bay, WI, in the Federal Register (77 FR 21890). We did not receive any... final rule was published on October 24, 2005 in the Federal Register (70 FR 61380) to allow for one... published on June 5, 2009 in the Federal Register (74 FR 26954), effective from June 1, 2009 to November...

  1. Pioneer 12 (PN-12)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, D.; Fimmel, R.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for Pioneer 12 are summarized. The Pioneer 12 spacecraft is in a 24-hour elliptical orbit around Venus. Atmospheric and altimetry data are obtained mainly around periapsis, and planetary imaging is normally performed around apoapsis. The Pioneer 12 mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, command and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  2. Pioneer ACO Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Pioneer ACO Model is designed for health care organizations and providers that are already experienced in coordinating care for patients across care settings....

  3. Pioneering in geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is about pioneering in geese the report gives a history of the goose and its evolution from the Pleistocene to currents species of geese. The report...

  4. The Pioneer Anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    de Diego, Jose A

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the radio-metric data from Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts has indicated the presence of an unmodeled acceleration starting at 20 AU, which has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The nature of this acceleration is uncertain. In this paper we give a description of the effect and review some relevant mechanisms proposed to explain the observed anomaly. We also discuss on some future projects to investigate this phenomenon.

  5. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon. Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2003 began in March and continued through April. Eighty-one adult white sturgeon were captured with 3,576 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Discharge from Libby Dam and river stage at Bonners Ferry in 2003 peaked in May and early June. Flows remained above 500 m{sup 3}/s throughout June, decreased rapidly through mid July, and increased back to near 500 m{sup 3}/s after mid July and through mid August. By late August, flows had decreased to below 400 m{sup 3}/s. We monitored the movements of 24 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from March 15, 2003 to August 31, 2003. Some of the fish were radio or sonic tagged in previous years. Twelve adult white sturgeon were moved upstream to the Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) and released as part of the Set and Jet Program. Transmitters were attached to seven of these fish, and their movements were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Eight additional radio-tagged white sturgeon adults were located in the traditional spawning reach (rkm 228-240) during May and June. Sampling with artificial substrate mats began May 21, 2003 and ended June 30, 2003. We sampled 717 mat d (a mat d is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Three white sturgeon eggs were collected near Shortys Island on June 3, 2003, and five eggs were collected from the Hemlock Bar reach on June 5, 2003. Prejuvenile sampling began June 17, 2003 and continued until July 31, 2003. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from

  6. Length Variation, Heteroplasmy and Sequence Divergence in the Mitochondrial DNA of Four Species of Sturgeon (Acipenser)

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J R; Beckenbach, K.; Beckenbach, A. T.; Smith, M.J

    1996-01-01

    The extent of mtDNA length variation and heteroplasmy as well as DNA sequences of the control region and two tRNA genes were determined for four North American sturgeon species: Acipenser transmontanus, A. medirostris, A. fulvescens and A. oxyrhnychus. Across the Continental Divide, a division in the occurrence of length variation and heteroplasmy was observed that was concordant with species biogeography as well as with phylogenies inferred from restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFL...

  7. Electronic tagging of green sturgeon reveals population structure and movement among estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, S.T.; Erickson, D.L.; Moser, M.L.; Williams, G.; Langness, O.P.; McCovey, B.W., Jr.; Belchik, M.; Vogel, D.; Pinnix, W.; Kelly, J.T.; Heublein, J.C.; Klimley, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    Green sturgeon Acipenser medirostris spend much of their lives outside of their natal rivers, but the details of their migrations and habitat use are poorly known, which limits our understanding of how this species might be affected by human activities and habitat degradation.We tagged 355 green sturgeon with acoustic transmitters on their spawning grounds and in known nonspawning aggregation sites and examined their movement among these sites and other potentially important locations using automated data-logging hydrophones. We found that green sturgeon inhabit a number of estuarine and coastal sites over the summer, including the Columbia River estuary, Willapa Bay, Grays Harbor, and the estuaries of certain smaller rivers in Oregon, especially the Umpqua River estuary. Green sturgeon from different natal rivers exhibited different patterns of habitat use; most notably, San Francisco Bay was used only by Sacramento River fish, while the Umpqua River estuary was used mostly by fish from the Klamath and Rogue rivers. Earlier work, based on analysis of microsatellite markers, suggested that the Columbia River mixed stock was mainly composed of fish from the Sacramento River, but our results indicate that fish from the Rogue and Klamath River populations frequently use the Columbia River as well. We also found evidence for the existence of migratory contingentswithin spawning populations.Our findings have significant implications for the management of the threatened Sacramento River population of green sturgeon, which migrates to inland waters outside of California where anthropogenic impacts, including fisheries bycatch and water pollution, may be a concern. Our results also illustrate the utility of acoustic tracking to elucidate the migratory behavior of animals that are otherwise difficult to observe. ?? American Fisheries Society 2011.

  8. Microsatellites variation in sterlet sturgeon, Acipenser ruthenus from the Lower Danube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Dudu

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sturgeons represent an ancient group of fish with an important scientific and commercial value. The economical significance of these species is due to their meat and roes that are considered to be a gastronomic delicacy. Unfortunately, precisely due to their economical value the sturgeons have been overexploited by fishing and poaching and nowadays are facing extinction. Currently, in the Ponto-Caspian region is found the greatest diversity of acipenserid species and the Lower Danube is the last refuge for the sturgeons from the Black Sea. Acipenser ruthenus (sterlet is a fresh water sturgeon species which has undergone a large population decline, but local populations are still surviving in most parts of the rivers draining to Black, Azov and Caspian Seas. In order to have successful conservation programs of this species is essential to evaluate its genetic diversity. Microsatellites represent valuable markers for genetic analyses aiming the assessment of genetic variability of population. In our study we analyzed the cross-amplification and the polymorphism in A. ruthenus population from the Lower Danube of seven microsatellite loci (LS-19, LS-34, LS-54, LS-57, LS-68, Aox23 and Aox45, originally isolated in North-American sturgeon species. Among the seven loci, three (LS57, Aox23 and Aox45 have showed a tetrasomic profile. The most polymorphic loci were LS-57 with 12 alleles in population, followed by Aox23 and Aox45 with 11 alleles and LS-68 with 10 alleles. Four loci (LS-19, LS-34 and LS-54 presented a lower level of polymorphism, only three alleles being identified for the analyzed individuals.

  9. The Pioneer Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor T. Toth

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Radio-metric Doppler tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from heliocentric distances of 20-70 AU has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted frequency drift uniformly changing with a rate of ~6 × 10–9 Hz/s. Ultimately, the drift was interpreted as a constant sunward deceleration of each particular spacecraft at the level of aP = (8.74 ± 1.33 × 10–10 m/s2. This apparent violation of the Newton's gravitational inverse square law has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the physical properties of the anomaly and the conditions that led to its detection and characterization. We review various mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and discuss the current state of efforts to determine its nature. A comprehensive new investigation of the anomalous behavior of the two Pioneers has begun recently. The new efforts rely on the much-extended set of radio-metric Doppler data for both spacecraft in conjunction with the newly available complete record of their telemetry files and a large archive of original project documentation. As the new study is yet to report its findings, this review provides the necessary background for the new results to appear in the near future. In particular, we provide a significant amount of information on the design, operations and behavior of the two Pioneers during their entire missions, including descriptions of various data formats and techniques used for their navigation and radio-science data analysis. As most of this information was recovered relatively recently, it was not used in the previous studies of the Pioneer anomaly, but it is critical for the new investigation.

  10. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia (Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Boise, ID)

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the response of various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon to mitigation flows supplied by the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE). Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2004 began in March and continued into May. One hundred forty-two adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,146 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Kootenai River discharge and stage at Bonners Ferry in 2004 peaked in mid December. Discharge remained below 400 cubic meters per second (cms) until June 1; then, because of a systems operations request (SOR), increased and remained between 480 and 540 cms through the end of June. From July through September, discharge ranged from 360 to 420 cms, decreasing to 168 cms by the end of October. Discharge increased again to above 625 cms by November 4 to increase winter storage in Lake Koocanusa and ranged from 310 to 925 cms through the end of December. We monitored the movements of 31 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from mid-March until late August 2004. All telemetered fish were dual tagged with external sonic and radio transmitters, and some of the fish were tagged in previous years. Eighteen of the 31 telemetered adult white sturgeon were released at Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) as part of a research project to test the feasibility of moving sexually mature adult white sturgeon to areas with habitat types thought to be more suitable for successful egg hatching and early life stage recruitment. Marked fish were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Sampling for white sturgeon eggs with artificial substrate mats began May 3 and ended June 10, 2004. We sampled 650 mat days

  11. The Pioneer Anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Turyshev, Slava G

    2010-01-01

    Radio-metric Doppler tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from heliocentric distances of 20-70 AU has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted frequency drift uniformly changing with a rate of ~6 x 10^{-9} Hz/s. Ultimately, the drift was interpreted as a constant sunward deceleration of each particular spacecraft at the level of a_P = (8.74 +/- 1.33) x 10^{-10} m/s^2. This apparent violation of the Newton's gravitational inverse-square law has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the physical properties of the discovered effect and the conditions that led to its detection and characterization. We review various mechanisms proposed to explain the anomaly and discuss the current state of efforts to determine its nature. A comprehensive new investigation of the anomalous behavior of the two Pioneers has begun recently. The new efforts rely on the much-extend...

  12. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-11-01

    Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus began in March and continued through April 1999. Forty-six adult sturgeon were captured with 4,091 hours of angling and set-lining effort, while an additional three adult sturgeon were captured during gillnetting for juveniles. Flows for Kootenai River white sturgeon spawning were expected to be high because the snow pack in the basin was estimated at 130% of normal, but runoff came very slowly. Discharge from Libby Dam from mid-March through mid-June was maintained at 113 m{sup 3}/s (4,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry during early April, including local inflow, were 227-255 m{sup 3}/s (8,000-9,000 cfs) but increased gradually in late April to a peak of 657 m{sup 3}/s (23,200 cfs). Flows subsided in early May to about 340 m{sup 3}/s (12,000 cfs), but rose to 1,031 m{sup 3}/s (36,370 cfs) by Mary 26 because of local runoff, and white sturgeon began spawning. However, flows subsided again to 373 m{sup 3}/s (13,200 cfs) June 11, 1999 and some female white sturgeon with transmitters began leaving the spawning reach. Water temperature ranged from about 8 C to 10 C (45 F to 50 F) during these two weeks. On June 13 (two weeks after sturgeon began spawning), spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began. The flow was brought up to 1,136 m{sup 3}/s (40,100 cfs) and temperature rose to about 11 C (52 F). They sampled for 3,387 mat days (one mat day is a single 24 h set) with artificial substrate mats and captured 184 white sturgeon eggs. The Middle Shorty's Island reach (river kilometer [rkm] 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (144), with 388 mat days of effort; the Refuge section (rkm 234.8 to 237.5) with 616 mat days of effort produced 23 eggs; and the Lower Shorty's section produced 19 eggs with 548 days of mat effort. No eggs were collected above the Refuge section (> rkm 240.5) with 988 mat days of effort. They do not believe flows for sturgeon spawning in 1999

  13. Green sturgeon physical habitat use in the coastal Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D Huff

    Full Text Available The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris is a highly migratory, oceanic, anadromous species with a complex life history that makes it vulnerable to species-wide threats in both freshwater and at sea. Green sturgeon population declines have preceded legal protection and curtailment of activities in marine environments deemed to increase its extinction risk. Yet, its marine habitat is poorly understood. We built a statistical model to characterize green sturgeon marine habitat using data from a coastal tracking array located along the Siletz Reef near Newport, Oregon, USA that recorded the passage of 37 acoustically tagged green sturgeon. We classified seafloor physical habitat features with high-resolution bathymetric and backscatter data. We then described the distribution of habitat components and their relationship to green sturgeon presence using ordination and subsequently used generalized linear model selection to identify important habitat components. Finally, we summarized depth and temperature recordings from seven green sturgeon present off the Oregon coast that were fitted with pop-off archival geolocation tags. Our analyses indicated that green sturgeon, on average, spent a longer duration in areas with high seafloor complexity, especially where a greater proportion of the substrate consists of boulders. Green sturgeon in marine habitats are primarily found at depths of 20-60 meters and from 9.5-16.0°C. Many sturgeon in this study were likely migrating in a northward direction, moving deeper, and may have been using complex seafloor habitat because it coincides with the distribution of benthic prey taxa or provides refuge from predators. Identifying important green sturgeon marine habitat is an essential step towards accurately defining the conditions that are necessary for its survival and will eventually yield range-wide, spatially explicit predictions of green sturgeon distribution.

  14. A health risk evaluation for pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Lower Platte River using shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) as a Surrogate

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Most sturgeon species worldwide have been in a steep declince since the 1900s. This research evaluated shovelnose sturgeon health, reproduction, and exposure to...

  15. The effects of dissolved gas supersaturation on white sturgeon larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counihan, T.D.; Miller, A.I.; Mesa, M.G.; Parsley, M.J.

    2000-01-01

    Spill at dams has caused supersaturation of atmospheric gas in waters of the Columbia and Snake rivers and raised concerns about the effects of dissolved gas supersaturation (DGS) on white sturgeons Acipenser transmontanus. The timing and location of white sturgeon spawning and the dispersal of white sturgeon larvae from incubation areas makes the larval stage potentially vulnerable to the effects of DGS. To assess the effects of DGS on white sturgeon larvae, we exposed larvae to mean total dissolved gas (TDG) levels of 118% and 131% saturation in laboratory bioassay tests. Gas bubble trauma (GBT) was manifested as a gas bubble in the buccal cavity, nares, or both and it first occurred at developmental stages characterized by the formation of the mouth and gills. Exposure times of 15 min were sufficient to elicit these signs in larvae in various stages of development. No mortality was observed in larvae exposed to 118% TDG for 10 d, but 50% mortality occurred after a 13-d exposure to 131% TDG. The signs of GBT we observed resulted in positive buoyancy and alterations in behavior that may affect the dispersal and predation vulnerability of white sturgeon larvae. The exact depth distribution of dispersing white sturgeon larvae in the Columbia River currently is unknown. Thus, our results may represent a worst-case scenario if white sturgeon larvae are dispersed at depths with insufficient hydrostatic pressure to compensate for high TDG levels.

  16. Pioneering unquenched desire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Hoffmann

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The book Twórczość Leśmiana w kręgu filozoficznej myśli symbolizmu rosyjskiego written by Sobieska is a pioneering attempt at combining a discussion on the literary output of the author of Dziejba leśna with the reflection stemming from the tradition of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The book, notwithstanding its shortcomings and self-imposed limitations, comprehensively discusses views and opinions hitherto unknown to the Polish reader, introduces and explains the context of the findings of such thinkers as Soloviov or Biely, compares texts written by Russian symbolists with Leśmian’s poems. Sobieska categorizes the problem issues into subsequent thematic ranges (epiphany insight into the nature of being, musicality and the notion of poetical metre, creative imagination, mystical femininity in order to point at potential sources of the recontextualization of Leśmian’s poetical sensitivity. The findings, being an example of classic comparatistic studies, have been enhanced by iconological and musicological observations as well as by some additional guiding elements facilitating the understanding of Orthodox theology. The present sketch discusses the book and is complemented with a polemics with some of its methodological solutions.

  17. REFERENCED TECHNOLOGICAL PERFORMANCES FOR STURGEON FINGERLING BREEDING IN INTENSIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARILENA TALPES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Work objective is to present an oversight regarding the modality to rearing the descendents of anadromous sturgeon species, Acipenser stellatus, Acipenser gueldenstaedti and Huso huso, obtained trough artificial reproduction, indicating successively, the production system, its management, alimentation strategy for sturgeon species and technological performances registered by these. Experiments developed during two phases, respectively the post-embryonary one and sapling rearing during of a 168 days period. Registered performances of sturgeon species material were assessed in conformity with specifically biotechnological indicators.

  18. Application of new phenolic antioxidants for cryopreservation of sturgeon sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipova, V P; Berberova, N T; Gazzaeva, R A; Kudryavtsev, K V

    2016-04-01

    Heterocyclic derivatives of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were studied as cryoprotectants of the basic media for cryopreservation of the Russian sturgeon sperm. Rates of lipid peroxidation of sturgeon sperm before and after cryopreservation were reduced in the presence of the studied compounds, exceeding the effects of BHT and water-soluble analogue of vitamin E, trolox. The most efficient antioxidant has the effective concentration of 0.1 mM. Novel antioxidant agents as cryomedium supplements not only reduced the level of lipid peroxidation, but also enhanced the translational motility of the sperm of the Russian sturgeon after defrosting. PMID:26929990

  19. Pioneering Legacy of Betty Ford

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction The Pioneering Legacy of Betty Ford Past Issues / ... www.bettyfordcenter.org) for treatment of alcohol and drug addiction, located next to the Eisenhower Medical Center in ...

  20. CEO's Forum on Pioneering Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ When people talk about fortune, they are always recalled of the entrepreneurs. However, in the Fortune Global Forum, some well-known domestic entrepreneurs such as Charles Zhang, Peggy Yu and Jack Ma, they are honored as Pioneers.

  1. Gulf sturgeon Critical Habitat Units 1-7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Gulf Sturgeon as designated by Federal Register Vol. 68, No. 53, Wednesday, March 19, 2003, Rules and Regulations.

  2. White Sturgeon Distribution, Pacific Northwest (updated March, 2006)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — This dataset is a record of fish distribution and activity for WHITE STURGEON contained in the StreamNet database. This feature class was created based on linear...

  3. HYDRODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF CHINESE STURGEON SPAWNING GROUND IN YANGTZE RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yu; YAN Zhong-min; CHANG Jian-bo

    2008-01-01

    Since the construction of the Gezhouba Dam on the Yangtze River in 1981, it has been found that the Chinese Sturgeon, Acipensor sinensis, performs natural propagation annually in a narrow reach downstream close to the Gezhouba Dam site. This might allow one to better investigate the river hydrodynamic conditions of the Chinese Sturgeon spawning ground. In this article, spatial Kinetic Energy Gradient (KEG) and absolute value of vorticity were computed along the river sections from measured data. The relation between Spawn Density per Unit Area (SDUA) and vorticity strength and between SDUA and KEG were worked out. The Results showed that the vorticity and KEG were both effective parameters for describing the hydrodynamic characteristics of Chinese Sturgeon spawning ground. The Chinese Sturgeons prefer to spawn in the river sections where the value of vorticity strength is larger than 0.4 s-1 and KEG is larger than 0.029 Jkg-1m-1.

  4. Contaminant evaluation of shovelnose sturgeon from the Atchafalaya River, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Baseline contaminant levels in shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirynchus platorynchus) collected from the outfall channel of the Old River Control Structure (ORCS),...

  5. Gulf sturgeon Critical Habitat Units 8-14

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data represent the critical habitat for Gulf Sturgeon as designated by Federal Register Vol. 68, No. 53, Wednesday, March 19, 2003, Rules and Regulations.

  6. Environmental contaminants in shortnose sturgeon from Bears Bluff National Fish Hatchery, Wadmalaw Island, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) is a federally‐listed endangered species. In 2008, eleven shortnose sturgeon, reared at the Bears Bluff National...

  7. 77 FR 51767 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Five Species of Sturgeon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... spawn in freshwater habitats while spending part of their life cycle in marine or estuarine waters (i.e...--Persian sturgeon; A. stellatus--stellate sturgeon/star sturgeon; A. baerii--Siberian sturgeon; A... species under the ESA (``DPS Policy''; 61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS...

  8. Methods for Predicting Potential Impacts of Pile-Driving Noise on Endangered Sturgeon During Bridge Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Conway, Robert; Popper, Arthur N; Moese, Mark; Rollino, John; Racca, Roberto; Martin, Bruce; MacGillivray, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The potential impacts of pile-driving noise on Hudson River sturgeon during construction of the New NY Bridge were predicted. Abundance data for shortnose and Atlantic sturgeon derived from fisheries sampling were combined with data about the spatial extent of pile-driving noise. This approach was used to calculate the number of sturgeon that could occur within sound level isopleths exceeding peak and cumulative noise criteria used by the National Marine Fisheries Service to determine the incidental take of sturgeon. The number of sturgeon subject to the potential onset of physiological effects during pile driving was predicted to be 35-41 fish for each species.

  9. Pioneer Women in Chaos Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Frank Y

    2009-01-01

    The general public has been made aware of the research field of "chaos" by the book of that title by James Gleick. This paper will focus on the achievements of Sonya Kovalevskaya, Mary Cartwright, and Mary Tsingou, whose pioneer works were not mentioned in Gleick's book.

  10. CEO's Forum on Pioneering Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      When people talk about fortune, they are always recalled of the entrepreneurs. However, in the Fortune Global Forum, some well-known domestic entrepreneurs such as Charles Zhang, Peggy Yu and Jack Ma, they are honored as Pioneers.……

  11. Survival of shovelnose sturgeon after abdominally invasive endoscopic evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trested, D.G.; Goforth, Reuben R.; Kirk, J.P.; Isely, J.J.

    2010-01-01

    The development of effective and minimally invasive techniques to determine gender and gonad developmental stage is particularly important in performing accurate fisheries assessments for use in conservation and restoration. The initial and latent survival of shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus was assessed after exposure to a modified endoscopic technique designed to collect that biological information. Rather than inserting the endoscope through the urogenital canal or directly into the body cavity, we inserted a threaded trocar through a ventral incision and used a low-pressure air supply attached to the trocar to gently insufflate the body cavity. The initial survival of both experimental and control shovelnose sturgeon was 100%. Latent survival was 100% and 90% for the experimental and control fish, respectively. Our study suggests that incision endoscopy coupled with insufflation of the body cavity through the use of a trocar and an air supply is a safe and effective way to determine gender and examine the gonad developmental stage of shovelnose sturgeon. The short duration of the procedure and the high postprocedure survival suggest that this technique is suitable for shovelnose sturgeon and perhaps for the evaluation of other endangered fish species (e.g., pallid sturgeon S. alba) as well.

  12. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Maureen M.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my...

  13. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations : White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Kruse, Gretchen L.; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2001-03-01

    Flows in the Kootenai River for white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus spawning in 1998 were expected to be at a minimum because the snow pack in the basin was only about 79% normal, and local inflow was expected to be very low, <142 m{sup 3}/s (5,000 cfs). Flows in the Kootenai River at Bonners Ferry from late April through early May were at about 425 m{sup 3}/s (15,000 cfs) while water temperature ranged from about 8 to 10 C (45 to 50 F). Spawning and incubation flows from Libby Dam began on May 18 when flow at the dam was brought up to 765 m{sup 3}/s (27,000 cfs). Unusually frequent rains and several enormous storms brought peak flows at Bonners Ferry to over 1,175 m{sup 3}/s (41,500 cfs) on May 27, temperature ranged between 8 and 10.6 C (45 to 51 F). Flow gradually subsided at Bonners Ferry during June and was steady at 708 to 765 m{sup 3}/s (25,000 to 27,000 cfs) while temperature gradually rose to 14.4 C (58 F). Forty-seven adult white sturgeon were captured with 4,220 hours of angling and setlining effort between March 1 and April 15, 1998 by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game (IDFG). Sonic and radio tags were attached to four female and five male sturgeon during this effort. From April 1 through July 31, 1998, a total of 17 fish were monitored specifically for pre-spawn and spawning activities. White sturgeon spawning location, timing, frequency, and habitat were evaluated by sampling for eggs with artificial substrate mats. Four hundred and eighty-four eggs were collected, 393 eggs (81%) were collected on 60 standard mats, and 91 eggs (19%) were collected on seven experimental mats with drift nets. Ten eggs collected with experimental mats were found mixed with sand, suggesting eggs are moving in the lower water column with sand. The middle Shorty's Island reach (rkm 229.6-231.5) produced the most eggs (173) while the Deep Creek section (rkm 237.6-240.5) produced 112 eggs. No eggs were collected above the Deep Creek section (>rkm 240.5). Four

  14. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apperson, Kimberly A.

    1992-07-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 56 white sturgeon Acioenser transmontanus from the Kootenai River in 1991. Of those sampled, nine were recaptures from previous years of this study. A total of 382 white sturgeon were captured from March 1989 through October 1991. Fork lengths of white sturgeon in the sample ranged from 88-274 cm. Our data indicated there was a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class. The population was estimated at 880 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 638 to 1,211. Annual mortality of white sturgeon since 1982 is 3.74%. Approximately 80% of the population was more than 20 years old and was reproductively mature. Surgical examination of 309 white sturgeon since 1989 indicated that approximately 7% of the female white sturgeon and 30% of the male white sturgeon are reproductive each year. The ratio of males to females was estimated at 1:l. White sturgeon sampled and released with and without surgical examination were recaptured at equal rates. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has documented long distance movements by adults. White sturgeon regularly move across the British Columbia - Idaho border. White sturgeon seek out deep holes in the river or migrate to Kootenay Lake during late fall, During spring and early summer of both 1990 and 1991 reproductively mature white sturgeon moved from 15 to 110 km upriver and congregated within 10 km downriver from Bonners Ferry in areas of elevated water velocity. This behavior coincided with increasing discharge and water temperatures. Developing white sturgeon eggs were recovered from the river near Bonners Ferry on July 3, 1991. Contamination of eggs by organochloride compounds were less in recent samples from the Kootenai River than in a single sample collected in 1982. White sturgeon eggs from the Kootenai River fish contained approximately one tenth the organochloride compounds of white sturgeon eggs

  15. The Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2016-08-05

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis (EA) was designed to assess how Missouri River management has affected—and may affect—the endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) population. The EA emerged from the recognition that the direction and focus of the Missouri River Recovery Program would benefit from an updated, thorough evaluation of what is known, what is not known, and what needs to be known for effective actions. This fact sheet documents the steps in the EA process and the four core reports, culminating in the 2016 integrative report.

  16. Memoirs of a Computer Pioneer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillmor, C. Stewart

    Maurice Wilkes is generally known today as the first professor of computers at Cambridge University (Cambridge, U. K. ), director of the Mathematical Laboratory (later Computer Laboratory) there, and designer of the Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) computer, the first operational machine to utilize the concept of stored program. His autobiography, Memoirs of a Computer Pioneer, should be of interest to geophysicists for at least several reasons.

  17. Redox pioneer: professor Helmut Sies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dean P; Radi, Rafael

    2014-12-20

    Dr. Helmut Sies (MD, 1967) is recognized as a Redox Pioneer, because he authored five articles on oxidative stress, lycopene, and glutathione, each of which has been cited more than 1000 times, and coauthored an article on hydroperoxide metabolism in mammalian systems cited more than 5000 times (Google Scholar). He obtained preclinical education at the University of Tübingen and the University of Munich, clinical training at Munich (MD, 1967) and Paris, and completed Habilitation at Munich (Physiological Chemistry and Physical Biochemistry, 1972). In early research, he first identified hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a normal aerobic metabolite and devised a method to quantify H2O2 concentration and turnover in cells. He quantified central redox systems for energy metabolism (NAD, NADP systems) and antioxidant GSH in subcellular compartments. He first described ebselen, a selenoorganic compound, as a glutathione peroxidase mimic. He contributed a fundamental discovery to the physiology of GSH, selenium nutrition, singlet oxygen biochemistry, and health benefits of dietary lycopene and cocoa flavonoids. He has published more than 600 articles, 134 of which are cited at least 100 times, and edited 28 books. His h-index is 115. During the last quarter of the 20th century and well into the 21st, he has served as a scout, trailblazer, and pioneer in redox biology. His formulation of the concept of oxidative stress stimulated and guided research in oxidants and antioxidants; his pioneering research on carotenoids and flavonoids informed nutritional strategies against cancer, cardiovascular disease, and aging; and his quantitative approach to redox biochemistry provides a foundation for modern redox systems biology. Helmut Sies is a true Redox Pioneer. PMID:25178739

  18. Alternative method of removing otoliths from sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Extracting the otoliths (ear bones) from fish that have very thick skulls can be difficult and very time consuming. The common practice of making a transverse vertical incision on the top of the skull with a hand or electrical saw may damage the otolith if not performed correctly. Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one family in particular that have a very large and thick skull. A new laboratory method entering the brain cavity from the ventral side of the fish to expose the otoliths was easier than other otolith extraction methods found in the literature. Methods reviewed in the literature are designed for the field and are more efficient at processing large quantities of fish quickly. However, this new technique was designed to be more suited for a laboratory setting when time is not pressing and successful extraction from each specimen is critical. The success of finding and removing otoliths using this technique is very high and does not compromise the structure in any manner. This alternative technique is applicable to other similar fish species for extracting the otoliths.

  19. Captive breeding programs based on family groups in polyploid sturgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscari, Elisa; Pujolar, Jose Martin; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Corradin, Riccardo; Congiu, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In species with long life cycles and discontinuous availability of individuals to reproduction, implementing a long-term captive breeding program can be difficult or impossible. In such cases, managing diversity among familiar groups instead of individuals could become a suitable approach to avoid inbreeding and increase the possibility to accomplish a breeding scheme. This is the case of several sturgeon species including the Adriatic sturgeon, whose recovery depends on the management of a few captive stocks directly descended from the same group of wild parents. In the present study, relatedness among 445 potential breeders was inferred with a novel software for pedigree reconstruction in tetraploids ("BreedingSturgeons"). This information was used to plan a breeding scheme considering familiar groups as breeding units and identifying mating priorities. A two-step strategy is proposed: a short-term breeding program, relying on the 13 remaining F0 individuals of certain wild origin; and a long-term plan based on F1 families. Simulations to evaluate the loss of alleles in the F2 generation under different pairing strategies and assess the number of individuals to breed, costs and logistical aquaculture constraints were performed. The strategy proposed is transferable to the several other tetraploid sturgeon species on the brink of extinction.

  20. Capture of white sturgeon larvae downstream of The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Wild-spawned white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) larvae captured and reared in aquaculture facilities and subsequently released, are increasingly being used in sturgeon restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin. A reconnaissance study was conducted to determine where to deploy nets to capture white sturgeon larvae downstream of a known white sturgeon spawning area. As a result of the study, 103 white sturgeon larvae and 5 newly hatched free-swimming embryos were captured at 3 of 5 reconnaissance netting sites. The netting, conducted downstream of The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River during June 25–29, 2012, provided information for potentially implementing full-scale collection efforts of large numbers of larvae for rearing in aquaculture facilities and for subsequent release at a larger size in white sturgeon restoration programs.

  1. Optics pioneers scoop Nobel prize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Three physicists who carried out pioneering work in former industrial research labs have picked up this year's Nobel Prize for Physics. One half of the SEK 10m prize has been awarded to Charles Kao, 75, for his work at the UK-based Standard Telephones and Cables (STC) on the transmission of light in optical fibres, which underpinned the telecommunications revolution. The other half of the prize is shared between Willard Boyle, 85, and George Smith, 79, of Bell Laboratories in New Jersey, US, for inventing the charge-coupled device (CCD) - an imaging semiconductor circuit that forms the basis of most digital cameras.

  2. Effects of commercial harvest on shovelnose sturgeon populations in the Upper Mississippi River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Jeff D.; Quist, Michael C.; Pierce, Clay L.; Hansen, Kirk A.; Steuck, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus have become an increasingly important commercial species in the upper Mississippi River (UMR) because of the collapse of foreign sturgeon (family Acipenseridae) populations and bans on imported caviar. In response to concerns about the sustainability of the commercial shovelnose sturgeon fishery in the UMR, we undertook this study to describe the demographics of the shovelnose sturgeon population and evaluate the influence of commercial harvest on shovelnose sturgeon populations in the UMR. A total of 1,682 shovelnose sturgeon were collected from eight study pools in 2006 and 2007 (Pools 4, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 16, and 18). Shovelnose sturgeon from upstream pools generally had greater lengths, weights, and ages than those from downstream pools. Additionally, mortality estimates were lower in upstream pools (Pools 4, 7, 9, and 11) than in downstream pools (Pools 13, 14, 16, and 18). Linear regression suggested that the slower growth of shovelnose sturgeon is a consequence of commercial harvest in the UMR. Modeling of potential management scenarios suggested that a 685-mm minimum length limit is necessary to prevent growth and recruitment overfishing of shovelnose sturgeon in the UMR.

  3. Migration and habitats of diadromous Danube River sturgeons in Romania: 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Suciu, R.; Horgan, M.

    2002-01-01

    Upstream migrant adults of stellate sturgeon, Acipenser stellatus (10 in 1998, 43 in 1999) and Russian sturgeon, A. gueldenstaedtii (three in 1999) were captured at river km (rkm) 58-137, mostly in the spring, and tagged with acoustic tags offering a reward for return. The overharvest was revealed by tag returns (38% in 1998, 28% in 1999) and by harvest within 26 days (and before reaching spawning grounds) of the six stellate sturgeon tracked upstream. A drop-back of > 50% of the tagged sturgeon, some to the Black Sea, shows a high sensitivity to interruption of migration and capture/handling/holding. Harvesting and dropback prevented tracking of sturgeon to spawning sites. Gillnetting and tracking of stellate sturgeon showed that the autumn migration ended in early October (river temperature 16??C) and identified a likely wintering area at river km (rkm) 75-76 (St George Branch). Thus, fishery harvesting after early October captures wintering fish, not migrants. Rare shoreline cliffs in the lower river likely create the only rocky habitat for sturgeon spawning. A survey for potential spawning habitats found five sites with rocky substrate and moderate water velocity, all ???rkm 258. Drift netting caught early life-stages of 17 fish species and one sturgeon, a beluga, Huso huso, larva likely spawned at ???rkm 258. All diadromous Danube sturgeons likely spawn at ???rkm 258.

  4. Laboratory evaluation of effects of early life-stage exposure to selenium on pallid and shovelnose sturgeon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Endangered pallid sturgeon and congeneric shovelnose sturgeon found in the lower Platte River, NE and elsewhere in the Missouri River basin have elevated tissue...

  5. Reminiscence of the Glory of Pioneering Spirits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张菁华

    2013-01-01

      At the end of pioneering age, the women pioneers were substituted by lost ladies from whom the innovation, self-reli⁃ance, tolerance and endurance yielded to nihilism, reliant affinity, mammonism and hedonism. To reminisce the glory of pioneering splendors in the integration with the waste west land spiritually and alienation to the materialized modern society, Cather regressed to the memorable bygones in“The Best Years”, The Professor's House and elegized the spiritual pioneering by means of infusing Christianity into the uncultivated indigenous inhabitants in Death Comes for the Archbishop.

  6. Pioneering Concepts of Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raulin Cerceau, Florence

    Famous astronomers such as Richard A. Proctor (1837-1888), Jules Janssen (1824-1907), and Camille Flammarion (1842-1925) studied the concept of planetary habitability a century before this concept was updated in the context of the recent discoveries of exoplanets and the development of planetary exploration in the solar system. They independently studied the conditions required for other planets to be inhabited, and these considerations led them to specify the term "habitability." Naturally, the planet Mars was at the heart of the discussion. Our neighboring planet, regarded as a sister planet of Earth, looked like a remarkable abode for life. During the second part of the nineteenth century, the possibility of Martian intelligent life was intensively debated, and hopes were still ardent to identify a kind of vegetation specific to the red planet. In such a context, the question of Mars' habitability seemed to be very valuable, especially when studying hypothetical Martian vegetation. At the dawn of the Space Age, German-born physician and pioneer of space medicine Hubertus Strughold (1898-1987) proposed in the book The Green and Red Planet: A Physiological Study of the Possibility of Life on Mars (1954) to examine the planets of the solar system through a "planetary ecology." This innovative notion, which led to a fresh view of the concept of habitability, was supposed to designate a new field involving biology: "the science of planets as an environment for life" (Strughold 1954). This notion was very close to the concept of habitability earlier designated by our nineteenth-century pioneers. Strughold also coined the term "ecosphere" to name the region surrounding a star where conditions allowed life-bearing planets to exist. We highlight in this chapter the historical aspects of the emergence of the (modern) concept of habitability. We will consider the different formulations proposed by the pioneers, and we will see in what way it can be similar to our

  7. Salute to some nursing pioneers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.H. Harrison

    1979-09-01

    Full Text Available This is indeed a very wide meaning for the word, ‘Pioneer’, and it was with some trepidation that I approached this subject. After all, it could end up by being a sort of Biographical Directory of Nurses in South Africa and this is certainly not what our readers would like in this particular journal. In any case, Searle’s History of the Development of Nursing in South Africa covers this field very fully and adequately. So just what sort of people do we regard as pioneers of nursing in our country? Where do we begin? Can one be totally objective about it or would my choice be different from that of readers because of a more subjective attitude.

  8. Seasonal Distribution and Movements of Atlantic and Shortnose Sturgeon in the Penobscot River Estuary, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zydlewski, Joseph; Fernandes, Stephen J.; Zydlewski, Gayle B.; Wippelhauser, Gail S.; Kinnison, Michael T.

    2016-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the distribution and seasonal movement patterns of shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum and Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus occupying rivers in the northern part of their range. During 2006 and 2007, 40 shortnose sturgeon (66–113.4 cm fork length [FL]) and 8 Atlantic sturgeon (76.2–166.2 cm FL) were captured in the Penobscot River, Maine, implanted with acoustic transmitters, and monitored using an array of acoustic receivers in the Penobscot River estuary and Penobscot Bay. Shortnose sturgeon were present year round in the estuary and overwintered from fall (mid-October) to spring (mid-April) in the upper estuary. In early spring, all individuals moved downstream to the middle estuary. Over the course of the summer, many individuals moved upstream to approximately 2 km of the downstream-most dam (46 river kilometers [rkm] from the Penobscot River mouth [rkm 0]) by August. Most aggregated into an overwintering site (rkm 36.5) in mid- to late fall. As many as 50% of the tagged shortnose sturgeon moved into and out of the Penobscot River system during 2007, and 83% were subsequently detected by an acoustic array in the Kennebec River, located 150 km from the Penobscot River estuary. Atlantic sturgeon moved into the estuary from the ocean in the summer and concentrated into a 1.5-km reach. All Atlantic sturgeon moved to the ocean by fall, and two of these were detected in the Kennebec River. Although these behaviors are common for Atlantic sturgeon, regular coastal migrations of shortnose sturgeon have not been documented previously in this region. These results have important implications for future dam removals as well as for rangewide and river-specific shortnose sturgeon management.

  9. Grote Reber, Radio Astronomy Pioneer, Dies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    Grote Reber, one of the earliest pioneers of radio astronomy, died in Tasmania on December 20, just two days shy of his 91st birthday. Reber was the first person to build a radio telescope dedicated to astronomy, opening up a whole new "window" on the Universe that eventually produced such landmark discoveries as quasars, pulsars and the remnant "afterglow" of the Big Bang. His self- financed experiments laid the foundation for today's advanced radio-astronomy facilities. Grote Reber Grote Reber NRAO/AUI photo "Radio astronomy has changed profoundly our understanding of the Universe and has earned the Nobel Prize for several major contributions. All radio astronomers who have followed him owe Grote Reber a deep debt for his pioneering work," said Dr. Fred Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). "Reber was the first to systematically study the sky by observing something other than visible light. This gave astronomy a whole new view of the Universe. The continuing importance of new ways of looking at the Universe is emphasized by this year's Nobel Prizes in physics, which recognized scientists who pioneered X-ray and neutrino observations," Lo added. Reber was a radio engineer and avid amateur "ham" radio operator in Wheaton, Illinois, in the 1930s when he read about Karl Jansky's 1932 discovery of natural radio emissions coming from outer space. As an amateur operator, Reber had won awards and communicated with other amateurs around the world, and later wrote that he had concluded "there were no more worlds to conquer" in radio. Learning of Jansky's discovery gave Reber a whole new challenge that he attacked with vigor. Analyzing the problem as an engineer, Reber concluded that what he needed was a parabolic-dish antenna, something quite uncommon in the 1930s. In 1937, using his own funds, he constructed a 31.4-foot-diameter dish antenna in his back yard. The strange contraption attracted curious attention from his neighbors and became

  10. A nuclear DNA perspective on delineating evolutionarily significant lineages in polyploids: the case of the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Timothy L.; Henderson, Anne P.; Kynard, Boyd E.; Kieffer, Micah C.; Peterson, Douglas L.; Aunins, Aaron W.; Brown, Bonnie L.

    2014-01-01

    The shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, oft considered a phylogenetic relic, is listed as an “endangered species threatened with extinction” in the US and “Vulnerable” on the IUCN Red List. Effective conservation of A. brevirostrum depends on understanding its diversity and evolutionary processes, yet challenges associated with the polyploid nature of its nuclear genome have heretofore limited population genetic analysis to maternally inherited haploid characters. We developed a suite of polysomic microsatellite DNA markers and characterized a sample of 561 shortnose sturgeon collected from major extant populations along the North American Atlantic coast. The 181 alleles observed at 11 loci were scored as binary loci and the data were subjected to multivariate ordination, Bayesian clustering, hierarchical partitioning of variance, and among-population distance metric tests. The methods uncovered moderately high levels of gene diversity suggesting population structuring across and within three metapopulations (Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Southeast) that encompass seven demographically discrete and evolutionarily distinct lineages. The predicted groups are consistent with previously described behavioral patterns, especially dispersal and migration, supporting the interpretation that A. brevirostrum exhibit adaptive differences based on watershed. Combined with results of prior genetic (mitochondrial DNA) and behavioral studies, the current work suggests that dispersal is an important factor in maintaining genetic diversity in A. brevirostrum and that the basic unit for conservation management is arguably the local population.

  11. A nuclear DNA perspective on delineating evolutionarily significant lineages in polyploids: the case of the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim L King

    Full Text Available The shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, oft considered a phylogenetic relic, is listed as an "endangered species threatened with extinction" in the US and "Vulnerable" on the IUCN Red List. Effective conservation of A. brevirostrum depends on understanding its diversity and evolutionary processes, yet challenges associated with the polyploid nature of its nuclear genome have heretofore limited population genetic analysis to maternally inherited haploid characters. We developed a suite of polysomic microsatellite DNA markers and characterized a sample of 561 shortnose sturgeon collected from major extant populations along the North American Atlantic coast. The 181 alleles observed at 11 loci were scored as binary loci and the data were subjected to multivariate ordination, Bayesian clustering, hierarchical partitioning of variance, and among-population distance metric tests. The methods uncovered moderately high levels of gene diversity suggesting population structuring across and within three metapopulations (Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Southeast that encompass seven demographically discrete and evolutionarily distinct lineages. The predicted groups are consistent with previously described behavioral patterns, especially dispersal and migration, supporting the interpretation that A. brevirostrum exhibit adaptive differences based on watershed. Combined with results of prior genetic (mitochondrial DNA and behavioral studies, the current work suggests that dispersal is an important factor in maintaining genetic diversity in A. brevirostrum and that the basic unit for conservation management is arguably the local population.

  12. Novel single-nucleotide polymorphism markers confirm successful spawning of endangered pallid sturgeon in the upper Missouri River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichelberger, Jennifer S.; Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D. B.; Krampe, Matthew S.; Heist, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Spawning of the federally endangered Pallid Sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus is known to occur in the upper Missouri River basin, but progeny from natural reproductive events have not been observed and recruitment to juvenile or adult life stages has not been documented in recent decades. Identification of Pallid Sturgeon progeny is confounded by the fact that Shovelnose Sturgeon S. platorynchus occurs throughout the entire range of Pallid Sturgeon and the two species are essentially indistinguishable (morphometrically and meristically) during early life stages. Moreover, free embryos of sympatric Paddlefish Polyodon spathula are very similar to the two sturgeon species. In this study, three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays were employed to screen acipenseriform free embryos and larvae collected from the upper Missouri River basin in 2011, 2012, and 2013. A mitochondrial DNA SNP discriminates Paddlefish from sturgeon, and specific multilocus genotypes at two nuclear DNA SNPs occurred in 98.9% of wild adult Pallid Sturgeon but only in 3% of Shovelnose Sturgeon sampled in the upper Missouri River. Individuals identified as potential Pallid Sturgeon based on SNP genotypes were further analyzed at 19 microsatellite loci for species discrimination. Out of 1,423 free embryos collected over 3 years of sampling, 971 Paddlefish, 446 Shovelnose Sturgeon, and 6 Pallid Sturgeon were identified. Additionally, 249 Scaphirhynchus spp. benthic larvae were screened, but no Pallid Sturgeon were detected. These SNP markers provide an efficient method of screening acipenseriform early life stages for the presence of Pallid Sturgeon in the Missouri River basin. Detection of wild Pallid Sturgeon free embryos in the upper Missouri and Yellowstone rivers supports the hypothesis that the failure of wild Pallid Sturgeon to recruit to the juvenile life stage in the upper Missouri River basin is caused by early life stage mortality rather than by lack of successful spawning.

  13. Effect of dietary selenomethionine on growth performance, tissue burden, and histopathology in green and white sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Riu, Nicola; Lee, Jang-Won; Huang, Susie S Y; Moniello, Giuseppe; Hung, Silas S O

    2014-03-01

    A comparative examination of potential differences in selenium (Se) sensitivity was conducted on two sturgeon species indigenous to the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Juvenile green (Acipenser medirostris), recently given a federally threatened status, and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were exposed to one of four nominal concentrations of dietary l-selenomethionine (SeMet) (0 (control), 50, 100, or 200 mg SeMet/kg diet) for 8 weeks. Mortality, growth performance, whole body composition, histopathology, and Se burdens of the whole body, liver, kidneys, gills, heart, and white muscle were determined every 2 to 4 weeks. Significant (pkidneys and liver of both sturgeon species; however, green sturgeon was more susceptible to SeMet than white sturgeon at all dietary SeMet levels. Our results showed that a dietary Se concentration at 19.7 ± 0.6 mg Se/kg, which is in range with the reported Se concentrations of the benthic macro-vertebrate community of the San Francisco Bay, had adverse effects on both sturgeon species. However, the exposure had a more severe pathological effect on green sturgeon, suggesting that when implementing conservation measures, this federally listed threatened species should be monitored and managed independently from white sturgeon.

  14. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: Annual report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Pherigo, Emily K.; Bergthold, Casey L.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2010-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The general Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project strategy is to integrate field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, habitat requirements, and physiology to produce a predictive understanding of sturgeon population dynamics. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery-Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary research tasks engaging multiple disciplines that primarily address spawning as a probable limiting factor in reproduction and survival of the pallid sturgeon. The research is multifaceted and is designed to provide information needed for management decisions impacting habitat restoration, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research activities and progress towards understanding of the species are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2009.

  15. Electrotherapy for melancholia: the pioneering contributions of Benjamin Franklin and Giovanni Aldini

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolwig, Tom G; Fink, Max

    2009-01-01

    The electrical induction of seizures with a therapeutic aim began in 1938, but the history of electric currents to relieve mental illness began 2 centuries earlier with the pioneering work of the Italian Giovanni Aldini and the American Benjamin Franklin.These early experiments are described...

  16. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokesbury, Michael J W; Logan-Chesney, Laura M; McLean, Montana F; Buhariwalla, Colin F; Redden, Anna M; Beardsall, Jeffrey W; Broome, Jeremy E; Dadswell, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010-2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010-2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012-2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines. PMID:27383274

  17. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokesbury, Michael J. W.; Logan-Chesney, Laura M.; McLean, Montana F.; Buhariwalla, Colin F.; Redden, Anna M.; Beardsall, Jeffrey W.; Broome, Jeremy E.; Dadswell, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010–2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010–2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88). Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012–2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines. PMID:27383274

  18. Atlantic Sturgeon Spatial and Temporal Distribution in Minas Passage, Nova Scotia, Canada, a Region of Future Tidal Energy Extraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J W Stokesbury

    Full Text Available In the Bay of Fundy, Atlantic sturgeon from endangered and threatened populations in the USA and Canada migrate through Minas Passage to enter and leave Minas Basin. A total of 132 sub-adult and adult Atlantic sturgeon were tagged in Minas Basin during the summers of 2010-2014 using pressure measuring, uniquely coded, acoustic transmitters with a four or eight year life span. The aim of this study was to examine spatial and seasonal distribution of sturgeon in Minas Passage during 2010-2014 and test the hypothesis that, when present, Atlantic sturgeon were evenly distributed from north to south across Minas Passage. This information is important as tidal energy extraction using in-stream, hydrokinetic turbines is planned for only the northern portion of Minas Passage. Electronic tracking data from a total of 740 sturgeon days over four years demonstrated that Atlantic sturgeon used the southern portion of Minas Passage significantly more than the northern portion. Sturgeon moved through Minas Passage at depths mostly between 15 and 45 m (n = 10,116; mean = 31.47 m; SD = 14.88. Sturgeon mean swimming depth was not significantly related to bottom depth and in deeper regions they swam pelagically. Sturgeon predominately migrated inward through Minas Passage during spring, and outward during late summer-autumn. Sturgeon were not observed in Minas Passage during winter 2012-2013 when monitoring receivers were present. This information will enable the estimation of encounters of Atlantic sturgeon with in-stream hydrokinetic turbines.

  19. Secrets of PDA's pioneering dynamism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-01

    In 16 years, Thailand's Population and Community Development Association (PDA) went from being gone of the smallest nongovernment organization (NGO) to being the largest, an indication of the success of its innovative development programs. Originally known as the Community-Based Family Planning Services, the organization began 1974 with a staff of 10. Funded entirely through grants from the International Planned Parenthood Federation, its mission was to promote the 1st community-based contraceptive distribution program in Thailand. But now, PDA has a staff of 600 and enjoys the help of 16,000 volunteers across the country. Its more than 50 projects include efforts in family planning, parasite control, sanitation, income-generation, anti-AIDS campaigns, etc. As part of its parasite control project, PDA began promoting water and sanitation improvements. This pioneer program gave PDA invaluable experience in program development. PDA learned of the necessity to take a people-oriented approach to development, involving the local communities in all stages of the project's design and implementation. Furthermore, PDA began encouraging and assisting income-generating activities in the communities, which help fund the parasite control project. While PDA still relies on foreign assistance for 60% of its budget, PDA has launched in Thai Business Initiative in Rural Development, a program to involve Thailand-based companies in rural development by getting them to provide their expertise and technical assistance, this program might serve as a model not only for NGOs in Thailand, but for all other developing countries. PMID:12316321

  20. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1992 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Wakkinen, Virginia (

    1993-11-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 64 white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from the Kootenai River in 1992. Of those sampled, 15 were recaptures from previous years of this study. A total of 429 white sturgeon were captured from March 1989 through September 1992. Fork lengths of white sturgeon in the total sample ranged from 88 to 274 cm. The data indicated there was a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population which was estimated in 1990 at 880 individuals with a 95% confidence interval of 638 to 1,211. Annual mortality of white sturgeon from 1982 to 1991 was 0.0374. Approximately 80% of the population was more than 20 years old and was reproductively mature. An ongoing sonic telemetry study revealed long distance movements among adults. Sturgeon regularly moved across the British Columbia-Idaho border. Sturgeon used deep holes in the river or migrated to Kootenai Lake during late fall. During spring and early summer, reproductively mature sturgeon moved from 15 to 110 kilometers upriver and congregated within 15 kilometers downriver from Bonners Ferry in areas of elevated water velocity. This behavior coincided with increasing discharge and water temperatures. The authors monitored movements of five reproductively mature female white sturgeon. The fish responded to increasing then decreasing flows by moving upriver then downriver, respectively. All five fish quickly moved to Kootenai Lake when flows dropped suddenly from higher than 20 kcfs to less than 10 kcfs. One fish was recaptured and was reabsorbing eggs. Trawling and sampling with mats of artificial substrate failed to capture white sturgeon eggs or larvae in 1992. One hundred and four age 1 and 14 age 2 hatchery-reared Kootenai white sturgeon were released into the Idaho section of the river in 1992. Telemetry of six of the larger juveniles showed general downriver movement from September into November.

  1. The Anomalous Acceleration of the Pioneer Spacecrafts

    CERN Document Server

    de Diego, Jose A

    2008-01-01

    Radiometric data from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts have revealed an unexplained constant acceleration of a_A = (8.74 +/- 1.33) x 10^(-10) m s^(-2) towards the Sun, also known as the Pioneer anomaly. Different groups have analyzed the Pioneer data and have got the same results, which rules out computer programming and handling errors. Attempts to explain this phenomenon arguing intrinsic causes on-board the spacecrafts failed or have lead to inconclusive results. Therefore, the Pioneer anomalous acceleration has motivated the interest of researchers to find out explanations that could bring insight upon the forces acting in the outer Solar Systems or a hint to discover new natural laws.

  2. A Bicentennial Review of the Black Contribution to American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ella D. Lewis

    1976-01-01

    To illustrate the importance of black people in American history, specific individuals are identified who played major roles in the American Revolution, the War of 1812, exploration and pioneering, and science and technology. (AV)

  3. A novel approach to surveying sturgeon using side-scan sonar and occupancy modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, H. Jared; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances represent opportunities to enhance and supplement traditional fisheries sampling approaches. One example with growing importance for fisheries research is hydroacoustic technologies such as side-scan sonar. Advantages of side-scan sonar over traditional techniques include the ability to sample large areas efficiently and the potential to survey fish without physical handling-important for species of conservation concern, such as endangered sturgeons. Our objectives were to design an efficient survey methodology for sampling Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus by using side-scan sonar and to developmethods for analyzing these data. In North Carolina and South Carolina, we surveyed six rivers thought to contain varying abundances of sturgeon by using a combination of side-scan sonar, telemetry, and video cameras (i.e., to sample jumping sturgeon). Lower reaches of each river near the saltwater-freshwater interface were surveyed on three occasions (generally successive days), and we used occupancy modeling to analyze these data.We were able to detect sturgeon in five of six rivers by using these methods. Side-scan sonar was effective in detecting sturgeon, with estimated gear-specific detection probabilities ranging from 0.2 to 0.5 and river-specific occupancy estimates (per 2-km river segment) ranging from 0.0 to 0.8. Future extensions of this occupancy modeling framework will involve the use of side-scan sonar data to assess sturgeon habitat and abundance in different river systems.

  4. Age-0 Shovelnose Sturgeon prey consumption in the Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Miller, M.L.; Gemeinhardt, T.R; Starks, T. A.; Civiello, A.P.; Long, James M.; Bonneau, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    A lack of nutritious food during the first year of life is a hypothesized factor that may limit survival of endangered pallid sturgeonScaphirhynchus albus in the lower Missouri River (LMOR). Unfortunately, information for age-0 pallid sturgeon diets remains limited, but diet analyses for age-0 Scaphirhynchus spp. (sturgeon hereafter) have occurred. Little information, however, exists on age-0 sturgeon diets in the LMOR; thus, our primary objective was to document age-0 sturgeon diets in this system. We examined guts contents from 30 individuals, which were genetically identified as shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, and three stomachs were empty. The remaining age-0 shovelnose sturgeon consumed chironomid larvae almost exclusively (>98% of prey items consumed). Our results were similar to studies conducted in other systems, and it appears unlikely that a lack of nutritious food was a major factor affecting the individuals captured during this study. This effort provides important information to help guide ongoing adaptive management efforts in the LMOR.

  5. A salute to the pioneers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2001-02-01

    An historical account is given of the pioneers who were instrumental in opening up the electrical frontier and paved the way for its phenomenal growth over the past century. The work of Franklin, Volta and Faraday, experimenters of the 18. and 19. century, is mentioned, along with the musings of Roger Bacon, a 13. century philosopher and scientist who postulated theories about magnetism, and that of William Gilbert of some three centuries later who formulated the definition of 'frictional electricity', noting the properties of attraction created by rubbing together amber and other substances. Mention is also made of the discoveries in the 18. and 19. centuries of Andre Marie Ampere of France, Luigi Galvani of Italy, Georg Simon Ohm and Heinrich Rudolph Hertz of Germany, Hans Christian Oersted of Denmark, Joseph Henry of the United States, William Grove and James Clerk Maxwell of Britain, and Aubrey Fessenden of Canada. An account is given of the discoveries of the Yugoslavian-born Nikola Tesla, whose work bridged the 19. and 20. centuries and who made singularly important contributions to the theory of electrical distribution systems, transformers, arc lights, dynamos, electric motors, steam turbines, thermomagnetics and radio systems. His invention of the polyphase alternating current system in 1888 was the turning point for the age of electricity that pushed the geographical distribution boundaries of electricity beyond the restrictive limitations of direct current used for Thomas Edison's electric light system. His work, with the timely support of George Westinghouse, opened the floodgates to electrical progress to bring new levels of productivity to business and industry and a higher standard of living for everyone. Many of the artifacts and memorabilia associated with the development of electrical technology are preserved in special exhibits and museums throughout the country. Brief accounts of some of the publicly accessible exhibits are

  6. Sturgeon nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA virus phylogeny and PCR tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouthier, Sharon C; VanWalleghem, Elissa; Anderson, Eric D

    2015-12-01

    Sturgeon epitheliotropic nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs) can cause a lethal disease of the integumentary system. These viruses have not been assigned to any currently recognized family or genus. In this study, phylogenetic analyses using the major capsid protein (MCP) showed that the sturgeon NCLDVs formed a cohesive taxonomic group, could be identified to the species or possibly sub-species level and formed a distinct evolutionary lineage within the Megavirales. The genetic relatedness of the sturgeon virus MCP allowed design of 3 PCR diagnostic tests with analytical specificity (ASp) inclusive of this group of viruses. The conventional PCR test, C1, had broader ASp than the 2 quantitative PCR tests, Q1 and Q2, and was inclusive of the sturgeon viruses as well as some viruses belonging to the families Mimi-, Phycodna-, or Iridoviridae. Q2 had broader specificity than Q1 but both tests recognized the sturgeon NCLDVs and did not cross-react with co-localizing sturgeon herpesviruses. Analytical test performance characteristics evaluated for Q1 and Q2 revealed sensitive assays with observed 50% limits of detection between 3 and 6.25 plasmid copies and high intra- and inter-assay repeatability. Q1 was used to test for sturgeon viruses in endangered populations of lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens within the Winnipeg River or Nelson River drainage systems of Manitoba, Canada. Test results indicated that namao virus is endemic in the Nelson River water basin. These tests meet the analytical requirements for diagnostic testing in Canada and are useful tools for disease management in sturgeon conservation stocking programs in North America. PMID:26648102

  7. A model of sturgeon distribution under a dam of a hydro-electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is dedicated to the question of passage of sturgeon through a dam of a hydro-electric power plant (HPP) during spawning migrations. A model of distribution of water velocity in the tail water of HPP was constructed. On the basis of this model a model of sturgeon distribution under a dam of HPP was created. The latter model was analyzed numerically in conformity with the largest HPP on the Volga river-Volgograd's HPP (Russia). The results of analysis allowed estimation of sturgeon passage from the tail water to the head race. Measures for increase of effectiveness of this process were elaborated

  8. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—Annual report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Eder, Brandon L; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Fuller, David B.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Wesolek, Christopher J.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of pallid sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with collaborating research partners and in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery—Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that engage multiple disciplines.

  9. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—Annual report 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Eder, Brandon L; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Fuller, David B.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Wesolek, Christopher J.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2016-01-20

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of pallid sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with collaborating research partners and in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery—Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that engage multiple disciplines.

  10. Population viability analysis and potential of its application to Danube sturgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarić I.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sturgeon species in the Danube River basin have experienced severe decline. Besides overexploitation, habitat loss, and pollution, they are further endangered by lack of efficient policy and management, as well as by serious lack of knowledge about their life history. Although population viability analysis (PVA could represent an extremely valuable tool to cope with these problems, it has not so far been applied to Danube populations. This paper represents an assess­ment of different PVA methods and models developed for sturgeon species. It analyzes their results, main advantages, drawbacks, and problems, and discusses the possibility of applying PVA to sturgeon populations in the Danube River basin.

  11. Effects of Seismic Air Guns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N; Carlson, Thomas J; Gross, Jackson A; Hawkins, Anthony D; Zeddies, David; Powell, Lynwood; Young, John

    2016-01-01

    Pallid sturgeon and paddlefish were placed at different distances from a seismic air gun array to determine the potential effects on mortality and nonauditory body tissues from the sound from a single shot. Fish were held 7 days postexposure and then necropsied. No fish died immediately after sound exposure or over the postexposure period. Statistical analysis of injuries showed no differences between the experimental and control animals in either type or severity of injuries. There was also no difference in injuries between fish exposed closest to the source compared with those exposed furthest from the source.

  12. Review of BPA funded sturgeon, resident fish and wildlife projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) held a public meeting on November 19--21, 1991, for the purpose of review, coordination, and consultation of the BPA-funded projects for sturgeon, resident fish, and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin (Basin). The comments received after the meeting were favorable and the participants agreed that the meeting was stimulating and productive. The information exchanged should lead to better coordination with other projects throughout the Basin. This document list the projects by title, the project leaders and BPA's project officers, and an abstract of each leader's presentation

  13. Effects of Seismic Air Guns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N; Carlson, Thomas J; Gross, Jackson A; Hawkins, Anthony D; Zeddies, David; Powell, Lynwood; Young, John

    2016-01-01

    Pallid sturgeon and paddlefish were placed at different distances from a seismic air gun array to determine the potential effects on mortality and nonauditory body tissues from the sound from a single shot. Fish were held 7 days postexposure and then necropsied. No fish died immediately after sound exposure or over the postexposure period. Statistical analysis of injuries showed no differences between the experimental and control animals in either type or severity of injuries. There was also no difference in injuries between fish exposed closest to the source compared with those exposed furthest from the source. PMID:26611044

  14. Pioneer neurons of the antennal nervous system project to protocerebral pioneers in the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyan, George; Ehrhardt, Erica

    2015-11-01

    The twin nerve tracts of the antenna of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria are established early in embryogenesis by sibling pairs of pioneers which delaminate from the epithelium into the lumen at the antennal tip. These cells can be uniquely identified via their co-expression of the neuronal labels horseradish peroxidase and the lipocalin Lazarillo. The apical pioneers direct axons toward the antennal base where they encounter guidepost-like cells called base pioneers which transiently express the same molecular labels as the apical pioneers. To what extent the pioneer growth cones then progress into the brain neuropil proper, and what their targets there might be, has remained unclear. In this study, we show that the apical antennal pioneers project centrally beyond the antennal base first into the deutocerebral, and then into the protocerebral brain neuropils. In the protocerebrum, we identify their target circuitry as being identified Lazarillo-positive cells which themselves pioneer the primary axon scaffold of the brain. The apical and base antennal pioneers therefore form part of a molecularly contiguous pathway from the periphery to an identified central circuit of the embryonic grasshopper brain.

  15. Pioneer Anomaly: Evaluating Newly Recovered Data

    CERN Document Server

    Toth, Viktor T

    2007-01-01

    The Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft yielded the most precise navigation in deep space to date. However, their radio-metric tracking data received from the distances between 20--70 astronomical units from the Sun consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue frequency shift that can be interpreted as a sunward acceleration of a_P = (8.74 +/- 1.33) x 10^(-10) m/s^2 for each particular spacecraft. This signal has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. New Pioneer 10 and 11 radio-metric Doppler data recently became available. The much extended set of Pioneer Doppler data is the primary source for new upcoming investigation of the anomaly. We also have almost entire records of flight telemetry files received from the the Pioneers. Together with original project documentation and newly developed software tools, this additional information is now used to reconstruct the engineering history of both spacecraft. To that ext...

  16. Ludwig Boltzmann A Pioneer of Modern Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Flamm, D

    1997-01-01

    In two respects Ludwig Boltzmann was a pioneer of quantum mechanics. First because in his statistical interpretation of the second law of thermodynamics he introduced the theory of probability into a fundamental law of physics and thus broke with the classical prejudice, that fundamental laws have to be strictly deterministic. Even Max Planck had not been ready to accept Boltzmann's statistical methods until 1900. With Boltzmann's pioneering work the probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics had already a precedent. In fact in a paper in 1897 Boltzmann had already suggested to Planck to use his statistical methods for the treatment of black body radiation. The second pioneering step towards quantum mechanics was Boltzmann's introduction of discrete energy levels. Boltzmann used this method already in his 1872 paper on the H-theorem. One may ask whether Boltzmann considered this procedure only as a mathematical device or whether he attributed physical significance to it. In this connection Ostwald repo...

  17. Organochlorine chemical hazards for sturgeon larvae in the Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We conducted an ecological risk assessment to characterize organochlorine chemical hazards for sturgeon larvae in the Middle Mississippi River National Wildlife...

  18. Food habits of Atlantic sturgeon off the central New Jersey coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.H.; Dropkin, D.S.; Warkentine, B.E.; Rachlin, J.W.; Andrews, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Limited information exists on the marine diet of the Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus. We examined the food habits of 275 Atlantic sturgeon (total length, 106-203 cm) caught in the commercial fishery off the coast of New Jersey. Stomachs were provided by fishermen. Significantly more stomachs were empty in the spring than in the fall. Sand and organic debris were a major component in the stomachs (26.3-75.4% by weight). Polycheates were the primary pre group consumed, although the isopod Politolana conchorum was the most important individual prey eaten. Mollusks and fish contributed little to the diet. Some prey taxa (i.e., polychaetes, isopods, amphipods) exhibited seasonal variation in importance in the diet of Atlantic sturgeon. Identification of the offshore diet of Atlantic sturgeon is an important step in developing a better understanding of the life history requirements and marine ecology of this species.

  19. Environmental contaminants in tissues from an Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus) recovered in Wellfleet, Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — On February 2, 2007, a family walking along a Cape Cod beach in Wellfleet, Massachusetts, came upon a large dead sturgeon in the sand. Since very little information...

  20. Documentation of a Gulf sturgeon spawning site on the Yellow River, Alabama, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiser, Brian R.; Berg, J.; Randall, M.; Parauka, F.; Floyd, S.; Young, B.; Sulak, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    The Gulf Sturgeon Recovery Plan (USFWS, GSMFC and NMFS 1995) stressed the need to provide maximum protection to Gulf sturgeon spawning habitat. The approach employed by various Gulf sturgeon researchers, including ourselves, to document spawning has been to identify potential spawning habitat on the basis of physical characteristics and/or tracking data, collect eggs, and then raise the eggs in the laboratory until the point where the larval fish can be identified (e.g., Marchant and Shutters 1996, Sulak and Clugston 1998, 1999). However, collecting eggs in any appreciable number is usually difficult, and these eggs may not always be viable upon return to the laboratory. Molecular methods provide an alternative means of identifying the species represented by an egg. Notable examples related to sturgeon conservation include cases where molecular markers were used to verify the sources of commercially available caviar (DeSalle and Birstein 1996, Birstein et al. 1999).

  1. Management and recovery options for Ural river beluga sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doukakis, Phaedra; Babcock, Elizabeth A; Pikitch, Ellen K; Sharov, Alexei R; Baimukhanov, Mirgaly; Erbulekov, Sagiden; Bokova, Yelena; Nimatov, Akhat

    2010-06-01

    Management of declining fisheries of anadromous species sometimes relies heavily on supplementation of populations with captive breeding, despite evidence that captive breeding can have negative consequences and may not address the root cause of decline. The beluga sturgeon (Huso huso), a species threatened by the market for black caviar and reductions in habitat quality, is managed through harvest control and hatchery supplementation, with an emphasis on the latter. We used yield per recruit and elasticity analyses to evaluate the population status and current levels of fishing and to identify the life-history stages that are the best targets for conservation of beluga of the Ural River. Harvest rates in recent years were four to five times higher than rates that would sustain population abundance. Sustainable rates of fishing mortality are similar to those for other long-lived marine species such as sharks and mammals. Yield per recruit, which is maximized if fish are first harvested at age 31 years, would be greatly enhanced by raising minimum size limits or reducing illegal take of subadults. Improving the survival of subadult and adult females would increase population productivity by 10 times that achieved by improving fecundity and survival from egg to age 1 year (i.e., hatchery supplementation). These results suggest that reducing mortality of subadults and adult wild fish is a more effective conservation strategy than hatchery supplementation. Because genetics is not factored into hatchery management practices, supplementation may even reduce the viability of the beluga sturgeon.

  2. Lake sturgeon population attributes and reproductive structure in the Namakan Reservoir, Minnesota and Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, S. L.; Chipps, Steven R.; Windels, S. K.; Webb, M.A.H.; McLeod, D. T.; Willis, D.W.

    2012-01-01

    Quantified were the age, growth, mortality and reproductive structure of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) collected in the US and Canadian waters of the Namakan Reservoir. The hypotheses were tested that (i) age and growth of lake sturgeon in the Namakan Reservoir would differ by sex and reproductive stage of maturity, and (ii) that the relative strength of year-classes of lake sturgeon in the reservoir would be affected by environmental variables. To quantify age, growth and mortality of the population, existing data was used from a multi-agency database containing information on all lake sturgeon sampled in the reservoir from 2004 to 2009. Lake sturgeon were sampled in the Minnesota and Ontario waters of the Namakan Reservoir using multi-filament gillnets 1.8 m high and 30–100 m long and varying in mesh size from 178 to 356 mm stretch. Reproductive structure of the lake sturgeon was assessed only during spring 2008 and 2009 using plasma testosterone and estradiol-17β concentrations. Ages of lake sturgeon >75 cm ranged from 9 to 86 years (n = 533, mean = 36 years). A catch-curve analysis using the 1981–1953 year classes estimated total annual mortality of adults to be 4.8% and annual survival as 95.2%. Using logistic regression analysis, it was found that total annual precipitation was positively associated with lake sturgeon year-class strength in the Namakan Reservoir. A 10 cm increase in total annual precipitation was associated with at least a 39% increase in the odds of occurrence of a strong year class of lake sturgeon in the reservoir. Plasma steroid analysis revealed a sex ratio of 2.4 females: 1 male and, on average, 10% of female and 30% of male lake sturgeon were reproductively mature each year (i.e. potential spawners). Moreover, there was evidence based on re-captured male fish of both periodic and annual spawning, as well as the ability of males to rapidly undergo gonadal maturation prior to spawning. Knowledge of lake sturgeon

  3. The pioneer explorers’ movement and the environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Omar Toledo Díaz

    2012-01-01

    The article reveals that Cuban school has the great challenge of formation regarding environmental culture. It is a need to work intensely in the preparation of the pioneers´ guides from the subject of schoolng plan and in the integration of different components including the activities out of the schools. The work describes a proposal of varied activities to reinforce the guides´ knowledge so that they can be able to direct the actions they would develop with pioneers by means of teaching ac...

  4. Neurological examination: pioneering authors and their books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péricles Maranhão-Filho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to highlight some of the most important pioneering books specifically focused on the neurological examination and their authors. During the XIX Century, Alexander Hammond, William Gowers and Charles Mills pioneered the neurological literature, followed in the XX Century by Aloysio de Castro, Monrad-Krohn, Derek Denny-Brown, Robert Wartenberg, Gordon Holmes, and Russel DeJong. With determination and a marked sense of observation and research, they competently developed and spread the technique and art of the neurological exam.

  5. Estimating sturgeon abundance in the Carolinas using side-scan sonar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, H. Jared; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Sturgeons (Acipenseridae) are one of the most threatened taxa worldwide, including species in North Carolina and South Carolina. Populations of Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus in the Carolinas have been significantly reduced from historical levels by a combination of intense fishing and habitat loss. There is a need for estimates of current abundance, to describe status, and for estimates of historical abundance in order to provide realistic recovery goals. In this study we used N-mixture and distance models with data acquired from side-scan sonar surveys to estimate abundance of sturgeon in six major sturgeon rivers in North Carolina and South Carolina. Estimated abundances of sturgeon greater than 1 m TL in the Carolina distinct population segment (DPS) were 2,031 using the count model and 1,912 via the distance model. The Pee Dee River had the highest overall abundance of any river at 1,944 (count model) or 1,823 (distance model). These estimates do not account for sturgeon less than 1 m TL or occurring in riverine reaches not surveyed or in marine waters. Comparing the two models, the N-mixture model produced similar estimates using less data than the distance model with only a slight reduction of estimated precision.

  6. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—Annual report 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Faulkner, Jacob D.A.; Candrl, James S.; Fuller, David B.; Backes, Kenneth M.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Rugg, Matthew L.; Wesolek, Christopher J.; Eder, Brandon L.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2016-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with collaborating research partners and in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery Program–Integrated Science Program. The project research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that involve multiple disciplines.The project research tasks in the 2014 scope of work emphasized understanding of reproductive migrations and spawning of adult pallid sturgeon and hatch and drift of larvae. These tasks were addressed in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam, the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam and downstream reaches of the Milk River, and the Lower Yellowstone River. The project research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2014.

  7. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: Annual report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Pherigo, Emily K.; Haas, Justin D.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2012-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery—Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that engage multiple disciplines. The research tasks in the 2010 scope of work primarily address spawning as a probable factor limiting pallid sturgeon survival and recovery, although limited pilot studies also have been initiated to examine the requirements of early life stages. The research is designed to inform management decisions affecting channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2010.

  8. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River: annual report 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Annis, Mandy L.; Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Fuller, D. B.; Haas, Justin D.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; McElroy, Brandon J.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with cooperating research partners and in collaboration with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery—Integrated Science Program. The research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that engage multiple disciplines. The research tasks in the 2011 scope of work emphasized understanding of reproductive migrations and spawning of adult sturgeon, and hatch and drift of larvae. These tasks were addressed in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam, the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam and including downstream reaches of the Milk River, and the Lower Yellowstone River. The research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River, and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2011.

  9. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—Annual report 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Buhl, Kevin J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Faulkner, Jacob D.A.; Candrl, James S.; Fuller, David B.; Backes, Kenneth M.; Haddix, Tyler M.; Rugg, Matthew L.; Wesolek, Christopher J.; Eder, Brandon L.; Mestl, Gerald E.

    2016-03-16

    The Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project is a multiyear, multiagency collaborative research framework developed to provide information to support pallid sturgeon recovery and Missouri River management decisions. The project strategy integrates field and laboratory studies of sturgeon reproductive ecology, early life history, habitat requirements, and physiology. The project scope of work is developed annually with collaborating research partners and in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery Program–Integrated Science Program. The project research consists of several interdependent and complementary tasks that involve multiple disciplines.The project research tasks in the 2014 scope of work emphasized understanding of reproductive migrations and spawning of adult pallid sturgeon and hatch and drift of larvae. These tasks were addressed in three hydrologically and geomorphologically distinct parts of the Missouri River Basin: the Lower Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam, the Upper Missouri River downstream from Fort Peck Dam and downstream reaches of the Milk River, and the Lower Yellowstone River. The project research is designed to inform management decisions related to channel re-engineering, flow modification, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation on the Missouri River and throughout the range of the species. Research and progress made through this project are reported to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers annually. This annual report details the research effort and progress made by the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Project during 2014.

  10. Species and hybrid identification of sturgeon caviar: a new molecular approach to detect illegal trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscari, E; Barmintseva, A; Pujolar, J M; Doukakis, P; Mugue, N; Congiu, L

    2014-05-01

    Overexploitation of wild populations due to the high economic value of caviar has driven sturgeons to near extinction. The high prices commanded by caviar on world markets have made it a magnet for illegal and fraudulent caviar trade, often involving low-value farmed caviar being sold as top-quality caviar. We present a new molecular approach for the identification of pure sturgeon species and hybrids that are among the most commercialized species in Europe and North America. Our test is based on the discovery of species-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ribosomal protein S7, supplemented with the Vimentin gene and the mitochondrial D-loop. Test validations performed in 702 specimens of target and nontarget sturgeon species demonstrated a 100% identification success for Acipenser naccarii, A. fulvescens, A. stellatus, A. sinensis and A. transmontanus. In addition to species identification, our approach allows the identification of Bester and AL hybrids, two of the most economically important hybrids in the world, with 80% and 100% success, respectively. Moreover, the approach has the potential to identify many other existing sturgeon hybrids. The development of a standardized sturgeon identification tool will directly benefit trade law enforcement, providing the tools to monitor and regulate the legal trade of caviar and protect sturgeon stocks from illicit producers and traders, hence contributing to safeguarding this group of heavily threatened species. PMID:24219811

  11. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations and Experimental Culture, 1989-1990 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apperson, Kimberly A.; Anders, Paul J.

    1991-10-01

    Setline and angling techniques were used to sample 332 sturgeon from the river between Kootenai Falls and Kootenay Lake during 1989 and 1990. Sturgeon were found in Montana within 4 km of Kootenai Falls and downstream from Bonners Ferry, Idaho to Kootenay Lake, British Columbia. Our data indicate there is a complete lack of recruitment of juveniles into the population. The youngest fish sampled was of the 1977 year class, and the population is estimated at 880 individuals with 95% confidence intervals of 638 to 1,211. Culture of one pair of sturgeon in 1990 was of limited success. Less than 5% of eggs hatched with 50% initial mortality of fry. The contribution of contaminants found in eggs (aluminum, copper, zinc, lead, and organochlorides) toward this poor survival is unknown. Handling problems with the eggs at the time of spawning complicated our results. An ongoing sonic telemetry study has revealed definite long distance movements. Sturgeon regularly move across the British Columbia-Idaho border and seek out deep holes or migrate to Kootenay Lake during late fall. Seasonal differences in use of depth and velocity parameters were found between sexes and among seasons. No relationships were found between sturgeon movement and month, water temperature, flow, and flow change. However, multiple regression analysis indicated that up to 30% of the variance in individual sturgeon movement was explained by the combination of the four variables.

  12. Pioneers for the Study on Yangshi Lei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张威; 李晓丹

    2003-01-01

    The architectural graphics and archives of Yangshi Lei collected in the National Library of China and other institutions are of great importance for the research on the architectural history of China. This paper introduces the pioneers for the study on Yangshi Lei and their innovative checkup and research work.

  13. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, Yetta [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL; Peterson, Douglas L. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2011-07-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and added new ones. Groundwater withdrawal was dismissed after a study failed to identify connection with groundwater and the majority of pumping is from a confined aquifer. We also eliminated activities on Fort Stewart as influences on spawning habitat because any successful spawning must occur upstream of Fort Stewart. We added climate change to the list of threats based on our assessment of temperature effects and expectations of sea-level rise. Our study highlighted the role of populations in nearby rivers in providing metapopulation support, raising the concern that the population in the Ogeechee River acts as a demographic sink. As part of this study, we carried out a field sampling study to analyze effects of training activities on headwater streams. We developed a new methodology for sampling design as part of this effort and used a mixed-modeling approach to identify relationships between land cover-land use, including those associated with military training activity and water quality. We found that tank training was associated with higher suspended sediment and equipment training was associated with higher organic carbon) and water quality. We detected effects of training on suspended sediment and organic carbon. We also carried out a field sampling effort in the Canoochee and Ogeechee Rivers. In the Ogeechee River, we found that dissolved oxygen in 40% of measurements during summer were below 4 mg L-1. To evaluate mercury as a potential threat, we developed a mercury uptake model and analyzed mercury levels in

  14. Electrotherapy for melancholia: the pioneering contributions of Benjamin Franklin and Giovanni Aldini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolwig, Tom G; Fink, Max

    2009-03-01

    The electrical induction of seizures with a therapeutic aim began in 1938, but the history of electric currents to relieve mental illness began 2 centuries earlier with the pioneering work of the Italian Giovanni Aldini and the American Benjamin Franklin.These early experiments are described demonstrating that the electrical force encouraged hopeful applications. This history emphasizes the unique contribution in the induction of grand mal seizures as the therapeutic basis rather than the role of electricity alone.

  15. Identification of plasma glucocorticoids in pallid sturgeon in response to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, M.A.H.; Allert, J.A.; Kappenman, K.M.; Marcos, J.; Feist, G.W.; Schreck, C.B.; Shackleton, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Compared to teleosts, little is known about the stress response in chondrosteans, and the glucocorticoid(s) most responsive to stress have never been definitively determined in sturgeon. In terms of cortisol production, pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) have a low physiological response to stress compared to other sturgeons (Acipenser sp.). Because of this, our null hypothesis was that cortisol is not the predominant glucocorticoid secreted in response to stress in pallid sturgeon. Our objective was to identify the putative glucocorticoids present in the plasma of pallid sturgeon during the stress response. Pallid sturgeon were subjected to a severe confinement stress (12 h) with an additional handling stressor for the first 6 h. Control fish were not subjected to confinement but were handled only to collect blood. Blood plasma was collected at time 0, 6, and 12 h. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to screen the plasma for the spectrum of glucocorticoids and determine the putative steroid secreted during the stress response. Cortisol was the primary glucocorticoid detected in stressed pallid sturgeon. In addition, the cortisol metabolites cortisone, alloTHE (5??-pregnane-3??,17??,21-triol-11,20-dione), allo-??-cortolone (3??,17??,20??,21-tetrahydro-5??-pregnan-11-one), and allo-??-cortolone (3??,17??,20??,21-tetrahydro-5??-pregnan-11-one) were detected. Plasma cortisol increased from a resting concentration of 0.67 ng/ml to 10.66 ng/ml at 6 h followed by a decrease to 6.78 ng/ml by 12 h. Plasma glucose increased significantly by time 6 and 12 h in both stressed and unstressed groups and remained elevated at time 12 h, while resting lactate concentrations were low to non-detectable and did not increase significantly with the stressor over time. Cortisol was the primary glucocorticoid synthesized and secreted in response to a stressor in pallid sturgeon. Though the proportional increase in plasma cortisol in stressed pallid sturgeon was lower than

  16. Desk-study on habitat quality for the European Sturgeon in the Dutch Rhine and southern North Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, H.V.; Teal, L.R.; Wolfshaar, van de K.E.; Griffioen, A.B.; Houben, B.; Breve, N.W.P.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most endangered fish species worldwide is the European sturgeon Acipenser sturio. The River Rhine was home to an important sturgeon population that went locally extinct in the first half of the 20th century. In recent decades, many improvements of the ecological quality of the Rhine have

  17. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  18. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2004-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2002 through March 2003 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  19. The pioneer explorers’ movement and the environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Omar Toledo Díaz

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article reveals that Cuban school has the great challenge of formation regarding environmental culture. It is a need to work intensely in the preparation of the pioneers´ guides from the subject of schoolng plan and in the integration of different components including the activities out of the schools. The work describes a proposal of varied activities to reinforce the guides´ knowledge so that they can be able to direct the actions they would develop with pioneers by means of teaching activities and activities out of school where members of family, school and community are inserted and in that way contribute to the formation on environmental culture and the benefit of human being.

  20. Henry Shoobridge, Tasmania's Pioneer of Organic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2010-01-01

    Henry Shoobridge (1874-1963) was the pioneer of organic farming in Tasmania. He was the founder and the president of the island’s earliest organics advocacy group, the Living Soil Association of Tasmania (1946- 1960). The Shoobridge family had emigrated from Kent, England in 1822 bringing with them the hops cuttings with which they established hops as a successful primary industry in Tasmania. Henry Shoobridge was schooled at The Friend’s School, the Quaker school in Hobart. The Shoobridges p...

  1. The Pioneer's acceleration anomaly and Hubble's constant

    OpenAIRE

    Rosales, J. L.

    2002-01-01

    The reported anomalous acceleration acting on the Pioneers spacecrafts could be seen as a consequence of the existence of some local curvature in light geodesics when using the coordinate speed of light in an expanding space-time. The effect is related with the non synchronous character of the underlying metric and therefore, planets closed orbits can not reveal it. It is shown that the cosmic expansion rate -the Hubble parameter H- has been indeed detected. Additionally, a relation for an ex...

  2. Pioneers in Astronomy and Space Exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    The pioneers of astronomy and space exploration have advanced humankind's understanding of the universe. These individuals include earthbound theorists such as Aristotle, Ptolemy, and Galileo, as well as those who put their lives on the line travelling into the great unknown. Readers chronicle the lives of individuals positioned at the vanguard of astronomical discovery, laying the groundwork for space exploration past, present, and yet to come.

  3. A Mission to Explore the Pioneer Anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Dittus, H; Lämmerzahl, C; Theil, S; Foerstner, R; Johann, U; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Dachwald, B; Seboldt, W; Hehl, F W; Kiefer, C; Blome, H J; Kunz, J; Giulini, D; Bingham, R; Kent, B; Sumner, T J; Bertolami, O; Páramos, J; Rosales, J L; Christophe, B; Foulon, B; Touboul, P; Bouyer, P; Reynaud, S; Brillet, A; Bondu, F; Samain, E; De Matos, C J; Erd, C; Grenouilleau, J C; Izzo, D; Rathke, A; Anderson, J D; Asmar, S W; Lau, E E; Nieto, M M; Mashhoon, B

    2005-01-01

    The Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft yielded the most precise navigation in deep space to date. These spacecraft had exceptional acceleration sensitivity. However, analysis of their radio-metric tracking data has consistently indicated that at heliocentric distances of $\\sim 20-70$ astronomical units, the orbit determinations indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue-shift, uniformly changing with a rate of $\\sim(5.99 \\pm 0.01)\\times 10^{-9}$ Hz/s, which can be interpreted as a constant sunward acceleration of each particular spacecraft of $a_P = (8.74 \\pm 1.33)\\times 10^{-10} {\\rm m/s^2}$. This signal has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The inability to explain the anomalous behavior of the Pioneers with conventional physics has contributed to growing discussion about its origin. There is now an increasing number of proposals that attempt to explain the anomaly outside conventional physics. This progress emphasizes the need for a new experiment to explore the...

  4. Comparison of select hematology and serum chemistry analtyes between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiVincenti, Louis; Priest, Heather; Walker, Kyle J.; Wyatt, Jeffrey D.; Dittman, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    Hematology and serum chemistry analytes were compared between wild-caught and aquarium-housed lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) to potentially improve understanding of medical issues in lake sturgeon. Blood samples were taken from 30 lake sturgeon exhibited in 11 institutions in the United States and from 23 experimentally stocked lake sturgeon caught in gill nets in the lower Genesee River in Rochester, New York, USA. For hematology, only segmented neutrophil count was significantly different, with wild-caught fish having a higher number of circulating neutrophils. For clinical chemistry analytes, chloride, uric acid, calcium, phosphate, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, triglycerides, and creatine kinase were significantly different between the two cohorts. These differences are likely not clinically significant and are attributable to handling stress, variability in environmental parameters, or differences in nutritional status. This is the first report of hematology and serum chemistry values in aquarium-housed lake sturgeon and provides useful reference intervals for clinicians.

  5. Avoidance of Pile-Driving Noise by Hudson River Sturgeon During Construction of the New NY Bridge at Tappan Zee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Justin; Jacobs, Fred; Popper, Arthur N

    2016-01-01

    Sturgeon movements were monitored during a pile-driving operation. Fewer sturgeon were detected during pile driving and remained for a shorter time than during silent control periods. Moreover, the short time spent by sturgeon near pile driving suggests that they were unlikely to have reached the criterion of 187 dB re 1 μPa(2)·s cumulative sound exposure level. These results suggest that sturgeon are likely to avoid impact pile driving and not remain long enough to experience physiological effects, thus providing empirical evidence that the 206 dB re 1 μPa peak sound pressure level is the appropriate criterion for assessing the impacts of pile-driving noise on sturgeon.

  6. USE OF BRINE SHRIMP (ARTEMIA IN THE FEEDING OF STURGEON JUVENILES (ACIPENSERIDAE (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the technological and biological characteristics of the use of brine shrimp (Artemia in the feeding of sturgeon juvenilse (Acipenseridae. To highlight the common biotechnological bases of the enrichment of brine shrimp with biologically active substances necessary for the full development of sturgeon juveniles. Findings. The review of scientific papers showed that the technology is the use of brine shrimp in the feeding of sturgeon speices not only had not lost its relevance in aquaculture, but also continued to evolve in response to new challenges. The review contains a description of the peculiarities of the biological structure of brine shrimp eggs and methods of their quality assessment in the field. It describes the nutritional characteristics of Artemia. It is shown that brine shrimp is the best food organism for the use in the feeding of sturgeon fingerlings. The calculation scheme for Artemia decapsulation and incubation is provided. The main technological stages of of the preparation of shrimps before their use in feeding – activation, hydration, decapsulation, incubation, dehydration were described. The effect of brine shrimp nauplia enriched with biologically active substances enriched brine shrimp on sturgeon juveniles was highlighted. Practical value. Fish farm owners search for cost-effective, easy to use, and available food that is preferred by sturgeon juveniles (Acipenseridae. Brine shrimp nauplii obtained from cysts can be readil used to feed fish just after one-day incubation. Instar I (the nauplii that just hatched and contain large yolk reserves in their body and instar II nauplii (the nauplii after first moult and with functional digestive tracts are more widely used in aquaculture, because they are easy for operation, rich in nutrients, and small, which makes them suitable for feeding fish larvae as live feed or after drying. The generalized information will be important for

  7. Effects of feed restriction on the upper temperature tolerance and heat shock response in juvenile green and white sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyung; Hung, Silas S O; Fangue, Nann A; Haller, Liran; Verhille, Christine E; Zhao, Juan; Todgham, Anne E

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction on whole-organism upper thermal tolerance and the heat shock response of green and white sturgeon to determine how changes in food amount might influence physiological performance of each species when faced with temperature stress. Two parallel feed restriction trials were carried out for juvenile green (202g; 222-day post hatch: dph) and white sturgeon (205g; 197-dph) to manipulate nutritional status at 12.5%, 25%, 50%, or 100% of optimum feeding rate (100% OFR were 1.6% and 1.8% body weight/day, respectively) for four weeks. Following the trials, the critical thermal maximum (CTMax, 0.3°C/min) of sturgeon (N=12/treatment/species) was assessed as an indicator of whole-organism upper thermal tolerance. To assess temperature sensitivity, sturgeon (N=9/treatment/species) were acutely transferred to two temperature treatments (28°C and 18°C as a handling control) for 2h followed by 2h of recovery at 18°C before being sacrificed, and gill, brain, and mucus sampled for measurements of 70-kDa heat shock protein levels (Hsc/Hsp70). Feeding rate had species-specific effects on CTMax in green and white sturgeon such that CTMax of green sturgeon decreased as the magnitude of feed restriction increased; whereas, CTMax of white sturgeon did not change with feed restriction. Elevated temperature (28°C) and feed restriction increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the gill tissue of green sturgeon, while heat shock increased Hsc/Hsp70 levels in the mucus of white sturgeon. Our results suggest that green sturgeon may be more susceptible to temperature stress under food-limited conditions. PMID:27095630

  8. Bioaccumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn in the edible and inedible tissues of three sturgeon species in the Iranian coastline of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashroofeh, Abdulreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Pourkazemi, Mohammad; Rasouli, Sana

    2013-01-01

    The accumulations of Cd, Pb and Zn were determined in edible and inedible tissues of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus; n=27), stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus; n=5) and beluga (Huso huso; n=4) collected from coastal waters of the South Caspian Sea from March to April 2011. Concentrations of metals evaluated in the caviar, muscle, liver, kidney, gills, ovary and heart of the three species of sturgeons have been assessed using the flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd in the edible and inedible tissues were apparently different among the three species of sturgeons. Especially, beluga heart showed the highest concentrations of Zn and Pb and Cd in Persian sturgeon liver. The analyzed metals were found in the caviar and muscle samples of Persian sturgeon and likewise muscle samples two other sturgeon species at mean concentrations under the permissible limits proposed by MAFF (2000).

  9. Ecological Requirements for Pallid Sturgeon Reproduction and Recruitment in the Lower Missouri River: A Research Synthesis 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Reuter, Joanna M.; Bonnot, Tom W.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Korschgen, Carl E.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Mac, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a synthesis of results obtained between 2005 and 2008 from the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program, an interagency collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' Missouri River Recovery - Integrated Science Program. The goal of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program is to improve fundamental understanding of reproductive ecology of the pallid sturgeon with the intent that improved understanding will inform river and species management decisions. Specific objectives include: *Determining movement, habitat-use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; *Understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; *Determining origin, transport, and fate of drifting pallid sturgeon larvae, and evaluating bottlenecks for recruitment of early life stages; *Quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages; and *Managing databases, integrating understanding, and publishing relevant information into the public domain. Management actions to increase reproductive success and survival of pallid sturgeon in the Lower Missouri River have been focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. Integration of 2005-08 Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program research provides insight into linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and pallid sturgeon reproduction and survival. The research approach of the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program integrates opportunistic field studies, field-based experiments, and controlled laboratory studies. The field study plan is designed to explore the role of flow regime and associated environmental cues using two complementary approaches. An upstream-downstream approach compares sturgeon reproductive behavior between an upstream section of the Lower Missouri River with highly

  10. Simulated Impacts of Juvenile Mortality on Gulf of Mexico Sturgeon Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William B. Tate

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We used an age-structured computer model to assess the impact of changes in juvenile mortality on the Gulf of Mexico sturgeon population in the Suwannee River, Florida. We simulated population trends under four levels of annual juvenile mortality (20, 25, 30, and 35%. As the rate of mortality increased, population size decreased, and rates of population growth shifted from positive to negative. Our models indicated that juvenile survival is important to the success of gulf sturgeon populations, and mortality estimates are needed to predict population viability. We suggest that life history studies in estuaries should be conducted, and bycatch rates for commercial fisheries should be quantified to aid in the management and conservation of gulf sturgeon.

  11. Fatty acid composition in tissues of the farmed Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Petteri; Westenius, Eini; Halonen, Toivo; Mustonen, Anne-Mari

    2014-09-15

    The fatty acid (FA) compositions of the diet and diverse tissues of the farmed Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were analyzed in detail to assess their nutritional quality. Twelve male fish were sampled for muscle, fat, liver, brain, gill, kidney and gonad and the tissue FA measured by gas-liquid chromatography. The FA profile of the diet diverged from the FA signatures of the tissues, where the sturgeons accumulated particular highly-unsaturated FA (HUFA). They were probably derived from the diet but, as previous studies have shown that fish can also have desaturase enzymes, endogenous synthesis of these FA cannot be excluded. The sturgeon muscle tissue contained HUFA in proportions comparable to those of other fish species that are considered good sources of n-3 polyunsaturated FA. The indices of atherogenicity and thrombogenicity were also within the values considered to be health-promoting. PMID:24767029

  12. Science information to support Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2016-01-26

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis (EA) was commissioned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to develop a foundation of understanding of how pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) population dynamics are linked to management actions in the Missouri River. The EA consists of several steps: (1) development of comprehensive, conceptual ecological models illustrating pallid sturgeon population dynamics and links to management actions and other drivers; (2) compilation and assessment of available scientific literature, databases, and models; (3) development of predictive, quantitative models to explore the system dynamics and population responses to management actions; and (4) analysis and assessment of effects of system operations and actions on species’ habitats and populations. This report addresses the second objective, compilation and assessment of relevant information.

  13. Effects of Acclimation on Poststocking Dispersal and Physiological Condition of Age-1 Pallid Sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Guy, Christopher S.; Cureton, Eli S.; Webb, Molly H.; Gardner, William M.

    2011-03-28

    A propagation program for pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in the upper Missouri River was implemented by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1997. Preliminary research indicated that many hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon were experiencing significant downstream poststocking dispersal, negatively affecting their recruitment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and traditional treatment had no acclimation (reared under traditional protocol). During both years fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach than traditional treatment. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and fish remaining in the Missouri River reach were similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years may be related to fin curl. Fin curl was present in all fish in 2005 and 27% of the fish in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, habitat at release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments in 2006. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) may reduce liver fat content. Acclimation conditions used in this study may not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies are present

  14. On the Pioneer Effect/Anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Nyambuya, G G

    2008-01-01

    We consider an azimuthally symmetric solution to Poison's equation for empty space and so doing, a gravitational potential dependent on both r and the angle theta is obtained. From this potential it is possible to explain qualitatively why Pioneer 10/11 detected an anomalous acceleration of (8.74\\pm1.33)X10^{-10} m/s^2 directed radially toward the Sun. The derived potential has implications for planetary motions in the solar system such as the advance of the perihelion of planetary orbits and also the tilt of some of the planetary orbits. The equation for the planetary orbits are derived but not explored here.

  15. Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis—Integrative report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; James, Daniel A.; Welker, Timothy L.; Parsley, Michael J.

    2016-07-15

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis was designed to carry out three components of an assessment of how Missouri River management has affected, and will affect, population dynamics of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon): (1) collection of reliable scientific information, (2) critical assessment and synthesis of available data and analyses, and (3) analysis of the effects of actions on listed species and their habitats. This report is a synthesis of the three components emphasizing development of lines of evidence relating potential future management actions to pallid sturgeon population dynamics. We address 21 working management hypotheses that emerged from an expert opinion-based filtering process.The ability to quantify linkages from abiotic changes to pallid sturgeon population dynamics is compromised by fundamental information gaps. Although a substantial foundation of pallid sturgeon science has been developed during the past 20 years, our efforts attempt to push beyond that understanding to provide predictions of how future management actions may affect pallid sturgeon responses. For some of the 21 hypotheses, lines of evidence are limited to theoretical deduction, inference from sparse empirical datasets, or expert opinion. Useful simulation models have been developed to predict the effects of management actions on survival of drifting pallid sturgeon free embryos in the Yellowstone and Upper Missouri River complex (hereafter referred to as the “upper river”), and to assess the effects of flow and channel reconfigurations on habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River, tributaries, and Mississippi River downstream of Gavins Point Dam (hereafter referred to as the “lower river”). A population model also has been developed that can be used to assess sensitivity of the population to survival of specific life stages, assess some hypotheses related to stocking decisions, and explore a limited number of management

  16. Growth rates of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon in the Upper Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, P. J.; Fuller, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    Information on growth during the larval and young-of-year life stages in natural river environments is generally lacking for most sturgeon species. In this study, methods for estimating ages and quantifying growth were developed for field-sampled larval and young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus in the upper Missouri River. First, growth was assessed by partitioning samples of young-of-year shovelnose sturgeon into cohorts, and regressing weekly increases in cohort mean length on sampling date. This method quantified relative growth because ages of the cohorts were unknown. Cohort increases in mean length among sampling dates were positively related (P  0.59 for all cohorts) to sampling date, and yielded growth rate estimates of 0.80–2.95 mm day−1 (2003) and 0.44–2.28 mm day−1 (2004). Highest growth rates occurred in the largest (and earliest spawned) cohorts. Second, a method was developed to estimate cohort hatch dates, thus age on date of sampling could be determined. This method included quantification of post-hatch length increases as a function of water temperature (growth capacity; mm per thermal unit, mm TU−1), and summation of mean daily water temperatures to achieve the required number of thermal units that corresponded to post-hatch lengths of shovelnose sturgeon on sampling dates. For six of seven cohorts of shovelnose sturgeon analyzed, linear growth models (r2 ≥ 0.65, P Gompertz growth models (r2 ≥ 0.83, P < 0.0001) quantified length-at-age from hatch through 55 days post-hatch (98–100 mm). Comparisons of length-at-age derived from the growth models indicated that length-at-age was greater for the earlier-hatched cohorts than later-hatched cohorts. Estimated hatch dates for different cohorts were corroborated based on the dates that newly-hatched larval shovelnose sturgeon were sampled in the drift. These results provide the first quantification of growth dynamics for field-sampled age-0

  17. Awakening Minorities: American Indians, Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John R.; And Others

    As noted in the Preface, social scientists are entering a period of shared realization that the United States is in a crucial period of transition. "Trans-action" magazine, a pioneer in social programs for changing the society, has dedicated itself for 7 years to the task of reporting the strains and conflicts within the American system and has…

  18. John Dique: dialysis pioneer and political advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Charles R P

    2016-02-01

    John Dique (1915-1995) epitomized the internationalism of medicine, the intellectual and manual dexterity of many pioneers of dialysis, and the social concern evinced by many nephrologists. Born in Burma of French, German, British and Indian ancestry; educated in India; an Anglo-Indian who described himself as British without ever having visited Britain; he moved to Australia in 1948 to escape the murderous inter-ethnic conflict that befell multicultural India as it and Pakistan became independent. Settling in Brisbane, he pioneered several novel medical techniques. After inventing some simple equipment to facilitate intravenous therapy, he established a neonatal exchange blood transfusion programme. Then, between 1954 and 1963, he personally constructed and operated two haemodialysis machines with which to treat patients suffering from acute renal failure, the first such treatment performed in Australasia. His patients survival results were, for the era, remarkable. He subsequently helped found the Royal Australasian College of Pathologists and went on to establish a successful private pathology practice. The latter years of his life, however, saw him become a social and political advocate. He fiercely opposed the emerging ideologies of multiculturalism and social liberalism that, he predicted, would seriously damage the national fabric of Western society. Public vilification ensued, his medical achievements disregarded. It does seem likely, however, that in none of the areas that he touched - whether medical, social, or political - has the last word yet been said. PMID:26913881

  19. John Dique: dialysis pioneer and political advocate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Charles R P

    2016-02-01

    John Dique (1915-1995) epitomized the internationalism of medicine, the intellectual and manual dexterity of many pioneers of dialysis, and the social concern evinced by many nephrologists. Born in Burma of French, German, British and Indian ancestry; educated in India; an Anglo-Indian who described himself as British without ever having visited Britain; he moved to Australia in 1948 to escape the murderous inter-ethnic conflict that befell multicultural India as it and Pakistan became independent. Settling in Brisbane, he pioneered several novel medical techniques. After inventing some simple equipment to facilitate intravenous therapy, he established a neonatal exchange blood transfusion programme. Then, between 1954 and 1963, he personally constructed and operated two haemodialysis machines with which to treat patients suffering from acute renal failure, the first such treatment performed in Australasia. His patients survival results were, for the era, remarkable. He subsequently helped found the Royal Australasian College of Pathologists and went on to establish a successful private pathology practice. The latter years of his life, however, saw him become a social and political advocate. He fiercely opposed the emerging ideologies of multiculturalism and social liberalism that, he predicted, would seriously damage the national fabric of Western society. Public vilification ensued, his medical achievements disregarded. It does seem likely, however, that in none of the areas that he touched - whether medical, social, or political - has the last word yet been said.

  20. Lake Roosevelt White Sturgeon Recovery Project : Annual Progress Report, January 2003 – March 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, Matthew D.; McLellan, Jason G. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-15

    This report summarizes catch data collected from white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in Lake Roosevelt during limited setlining and gill netting activities in the fall of 2003, and documents progress toward development of a U.S. white sturgeon conservation aquaculture program for Lake Roosevelt. From 27-30 October, 42 overnight small mesh gill net sets were made between Marcus and Northport, WA for a total catch of 15 juvenile white sturgeon (275-488 mm FL). All sturgeon captured were of Canadian hatchery origin. These fish had been previously released as sub-yearlings into the Canadian portion (Keenleyside Reach) of the Transboundary Reach of the Columbia River during 2002 and 2003. Most sturgeon (n=14) were caught in the most upstream area sampled (Northport) in low velocity eddy areas. Five fish exhibited pectoral fin deformities (curled or stunted). Growth rates were less than for juvenile sturgeon captured in the Keenleyside Reach but condition factor was similar. Condition factor was also similar to that observed in juvenile sturgeon (ages 1-8) captured in the unimpounded Columbia River below Bonneville Dam between 1987-92. From 10-14 November, 28 overnight setline sets were made in the Roosevelt Reach between the confluence of the Spokane River and Marcus Island for a total catch of 17 white sturgeon (94-213 cm FL). Catch was greatest in the most upstream areas sampled, a distribution similar to that observed during a WDFW setline survey in Lake Roosevelt in 1998. The mean W{sub r} index of 110% for fish captured this year was higher than the mean W{sub r} of 91% for fish captured in 1998. Excellent fish condition hindered surgical examination of gonads as lipid deposits made the ventral body wall very thick and difficult to penetrate with available otoscope specula. Acoustic tags (Vemco model V16 coded pingers, 69 kHz, 48-month life expectancy) were internally applied to 15 fish for subsequent telemetry investigations of seasonal and reproductively

  1. Vivien Thomas (1910-1985): the backstage pioneer and educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Chin Ting Justin

    2014-06-01

    Vivien Thomas (1910-1985) was an African-American scientist, pioneer, and renowned educator. Thomas's contributions to cardiovascular surgery were unequivocal, and yet it was only after his death that he gained more widespread recognition. Thomas's more notable work involves aiding in the discovery of the cause of traumatic shock, designing and guiding the first operation to treat Tetralogy of Fallot, carrying out the first atrial septectomy, and helping develop the electrical defibrillator. Thomas struggled amidst the adversities of racism and the Great Depression (1929-1941), armed merely with a high school degree. Nevertheless, his genius and determination eventually led him to receive an honorary doctorate from John Hopkins University. His story inspired the creation of the award winning PBS documentary in 2003 Partners of the Heart and also the 2004 Emmy Award-winning HBO film Something the Lord Made. This article will aim to provide an overview to the more notable events in Thomas's amazing tale, with a particular focus on his work on the Tetralogy of Fallot.

  2. The Female Heroine and Her Natural Counterpart: An Ecofeminist Reading of Willa Cather’s O Pioneers!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Khalil Mostafa el Diwany

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Willa Sibert Cather is an American author famous for her representation of the struggles of the early pioneers. She is mainly concerned with underlining the role of these pioneers in the establishment of the Garden of the World and that is why she sets her stories in the American Midwest, especially the Nebraska prairies. What is special about Cather is her focusing on the female sector of these pioneers, and portraying her female heroines as shattering all common social stereotypes through their struggle with the natural environment in which they have been unwillingly planted. This line of thought adopted by Cather in dealing with her female heroines as well as the natural environment embracing them has been echoed several decades later by scientists and scholars who have sensed the abuse faced by nature and females alike. This feeling has led to the emergence of Ecofeminism. The paper under study adopts an ecofeminist approach in  studying Willa Cather’s O Pioneers! as a significant representation of the female struggle and success with the surrounding natural environment.

  3. Diagnosis of an unidentified sturgeon species using the complete mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jeong-Nam; Kwak, Myounghai; Kweon, Seon-Man; Kwon, O-Nam

    2015-01-01

    A sturgeon of unknown species of 11 kg body weight was caught in Gosung-gun, Gangwon Province, Korea (38°17'10.67″N, 128°33'20.28″E). The morphological characteristics were similar to species of the genus Acipenser such as Acipenser medirostris, A. schrenckii and A. baerii, but it was not an obvious match. To identify the species using genetic tools, we analysed the complete mitogenome of this unidentified sturgeon, and found it to comprise 16,526 bp. The genome encoded 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region. The nucleotide divergence between the complete mitogenome of the unidentified sturgeon and those of four Acipenser spp. (A. transmontanus, A. dabryanus, A. schrenckii and A. baerii) was 0.736%, 3.875%, 0.085% and 5.580%, respectively. This study suggests that the unidentified sturgeon is able to predict the least maternal lines with A. schrenckii.

  4. 78 FR 46813 - Safety Zone; Evening on the Bay Fireworks; Sturgeon Bay, WI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary Final..., WI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone in Sturgeon Bay, WI. This temporary safety zone will restrict vessels from a...

  5. Fish and chips? Implanted transmitters help map the endangered pallid sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Kimberly; DeLonay, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    With a flattened snout, long slender tail and rows of bony plates lining its body, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has a unique, almost pre-historic, appearance. This endangered fish is native to the muddy, free-flowing waters of the Missouri River.

  6. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Enhancement, May 1-December 31, 1983 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, E.L.

    1984-12-01

    Studies were undertaken to examine and define the early life history characteristics of Columbia River white sturgeon as a working base from which enhancement measures could be developed. Adult sturgeon were captured and held for spawning at Covert's Landing, the site of the hatchery facilities below Bonneville Dam. Pituitary hormones stimulated ovulation; ripe females were live spawned surgically and the eggs incubated in hatching jars. Larvae were either reared at the hatchery site after incubation to advanced fingerling stages or transferred to the University laboratory for more detailed study. Displacement downstream occurs as a means of distribution and can last several days before a strong substrate preference is manifested. Once bottom contact is sought by the larvae, displacement is abated, and a general preference for sandy surface appears to predominate. Since potentially extensive displacement downstream could result in the distribution of larvae in saltwater, the tolerance of young sturgeon to saltwater was examined. The responsiveness of young sturgeon to artificial feed was positive. With these results, the original concern for identifying an adequate diet and food source that would be readily accepted by fry was greatly attenuated. The readiness of young fry to initiate feeding on the artificial diet made further study on feeding stimulants unnecessary. Examination of the feeding response suggested that as long as the diet used in the present study was initiated at the proper time and with adequate frequency, the fry would feed quite well and survive. 6 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Integrating water flow, locomotor performance and respiration of Chinese sturgeon during multiple fatigue-recovery cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Cai

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to provide information on metabolic changes occurring in Chinese sturgeon (an ecologically important endangered fish subjected to repeated cycles of fatigue and recovery and the effect on swimming capability. Fatigue-recovery cycles likely occur when fish are moving through the fishways of large dams and the results of this investigation are important for fishway design and conservation of wild Chinese sturgeon populations. A series of four stepped velocity tests were carried out successively in a Steffensen-type swimming respirometer and the effects of repeated fatigue-recovery on swimming capability and metabolism were measured. Significant results include: (1 critical swimming speed decreased from 4.34 bl/s to 2.98 bl/s; (2 active oxygen consumption (i.e. the difference between total oxygen consumption and routine oxygen consumption decreased from 1175 mgO2/kg to 341 mgO2/kg and was the primary reason for the decrease in Ucrit; (3 excess post-exercise oxygen consumption decreased from 36 mgO2/kg to 22 mgO2/kg; (4 with repeated step tests, white muscle (anaerobic metabolism began contributing to propulsion at lower swimming speeds. Therefore, Chinese sturgeon conserve energy by swimming efficiently and have high fatigue recovery capability. These results contribute to our understanding of the physiology of the Chinese sturgeon and support the conservation efforts of wild populations of this important species.

  8. Sex assignment of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fluvescens) based on plasma sex hormone and vitellogenin levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.M.; Papoulias, D.M.; Thomas, M.V.; Annis, M.L.; Boase, J.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on identifying the sex of lake sturgeon by measuring the sex hormones estradiol and testosterone, and the phosphoprotein vitellogenin (Vtg) in blood plasma by radioimmunoassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively, and evaluating these techniques as tools in lake sturgeon population management. Surveys of the St Clair River (SCR) lake sturgeon population have characterized it as rebounding by having steady or increasing recruitment since 1997. However, researchers have not been able to effectively determine the sex for most of the sturgeon they capture because few fish caught during surveys are releasing gametes. A total of 115 fish were sampled from May through June in 2004 and 2005 from the SCR, Michigan, USA. Of these, only four females and eight males were verified (i.e. they were releasing gametes at time of capture), resulting in very few fish with which to validate blood hormone and Vtg biomarkers of sex. Fifty-six percent of the fish were assigned a sex designation based on biomarker criteria. Correspondence between actual gonadal sex and biomarker-directed classification was good for the small subset of fish for which gonadal sex was definitively determined. Moreover, application of the steroid values in a predictive sex assignment model developed for white sturgeon misclassified only the same two fish that were misclassified with the steroid and Vtg biomarkers. The experimental results suggest a sex ratio of 1 : 2.7 (F:M), however more conclusive methods are needed to confirm this ratio because so few fish were available for sex validation. Of the 43 males, 14 were within the legal slot limit, 11 were smaller than 1067 mm total length (TL), and 18 were larger than 1270 mm TL. All 15 females were larger than 1270 mm TL, and thus protected by the slot limit criteria. Considering that lake sturgeon are threatened in Michigan, an advantage to using blood plasma assays was that fish were not harmed, and sample collection was

  9. A Pioneer of Global Change Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ One summer's day in 1984, a meteorologist came all the way from the United States to Prof. Ye Duzheng, a CAS atmospheric scientist in Beijing, in the hope of establishing cooperative research into global climate change, a field unfamiliar to most scientists in the world at that time. His proposal immediately caught the interest of Ye, who was then president of the Chinese Meteorological Society and vice-president of CAS. Prof. Ye believed it to be an extremely important issue requiring sustained and collaborative attention. Already in his seventies, he found some young researchers to work with him in the field. Two decades later, global change is now recognized as a major science branch. As a pioneer of this branch, Prof. Ye was awarded the prestigious Prize of the World Meteorological Organization in 2003, and honored with China's National Supreme S&T Award in 2005.

  10. The "Pioneer effect" a cosmological Foucault's experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Rosales, J L

    2002-01-01

    The reported anomalous acceleration acting on the Pioneers spacecrafts could be seen as a consequence of the existence of some local curvature in light geodesics when using the coordinate speed of light in an expanding space-time. The effect is related with the non synchronous character of the underlying metric and therefore, planets closed orbits can not reveal it. It is shown that the cosmic expansion rate -the Hubble parameter H- has been indeed detected. Additionally, a relation for an existing annual term is obtained which depends on the cosine of the ecliptic latitude of the spacecraft, suggestingan heuristic analogy between the effect and Foucault's experiment - light rays playing a similar role in the expanding space than Foucault's Pendulum does while determining Earth's rotation. This statement could be seen as a benchmark for future experiments.

  11. Oral history in radiography: Listening to pioneers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the professional value of the collection and analysis of oral histories in the history of radiography. Drawing on oral histories collected from radiographers, we analyse accounts of experiences to identify common themes, some of which are of current significance, whilst others have faded from existence. 15 oral histories were collected from radiographers whose combined practice spans the years 1930-1973. The sample consists of 6 male and 9 female radiographers. Themes identified in the oral histories include radiographers as invisible pioneers who worked in professionally unclaimed territory and their dangerous working environment. The oral histories reveal the working world of the radiographer as having encompassed a practice ethos where challenges became an accepted part of work. We gain insight into less observable aspects of the radiographer's role, the difficulties they faced, how they invented techniques and equipment, and how they managed their practice including protecting the public from ionising radiation sources.

  12. Oral history in radiography: Listening to pioneers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferris, Christine [International Development Facilitator, Robert Winston Building, Faculty of Health and Wellbeing, Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield S10 2BP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.m.ferris@shu.ac.uk; Winslow, Michelle [University of Sheffield, Oral History Society, Academic Unit of Supportive Care, Sykes House, Little Common Lane, Sheffield S11 9NE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.winslow@sheffield.ac.uk

    2009-12-15

    We explore the professional value of the collection and analysis of oral histories in the history of radiography. Drawing on oral histories collected from radiographers, we analyse accounts of experiences to identify common themes, some of which are of current significance, whilst others have faded from existence. 15 oral histories were collected from radiographers whose combined practice spans the years 1930-1973. The sample consists of 6 male and 9 female radiographers. Themes identified in the oral histories include radiographers as invisible pioneers who worked in professionally unclaimed territory and their dangerous working environment. The oral histories reveal the working world of the radiographer as having encompassed a practice ethos where challenges became an accepted part of work. We gain insight into less observable aspects of the radiographer's role, the difficulties they faced, how they invented techniques and equipment, and how they managed their practice including protecting the public from ionising radiation sources.

  13. The Pioneer XI high field fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. A.; Ness, N. F.

    1975-01-01

    The high field fluxgate magnetometer experiment flown aboard the Pioneer XI spacecraft is described. This extremely simple instrument was used to extend the spacecraft's upper-limit measurement capability by approximately an order of magnitude (from 0.14 mT to 1.00 mT) with minimum power and volume requirements. This magnetometer was designed to complement the low-field measurements provided by a helium vector magnetometer and utilizes magnetic ring core sensors with biaxial orthogonal sense coils. The instrument is a single-range, triaxial-fluxgate magnetometer capable of measuring fields of up to 1 mT along each orthogonal axis, with a maximum resolution of 1 microT.

  14. Does PIONEER measure local spacetime expansion?

    CERN Document Server

    Fahr, H J; Fahr, Hans-Joerg; Siewert, Mark

    2006-01-01

    There is a longstanding mystery connected with the radiotracking of distant interplanetary spaceprobes like ULYSSES, Galileo and especially the two NASA probes PIONEER 10 and 11. Comparing radiosignals outgoing from the earth to the probe and ingoing again from the probes do show anomalous frequency shifts which up to now have been explained as caused by anomalous non-Newtonian decelerations of these probes recognizable at solar distances beyond 5 AU. In this paper we study cosmological conditions for the transfer of radiosignals between the Earth and these distant probes. Applying general relativity, we derive both the geodetic deceleration as well as the cosmological redshift and compare the resulting frequency shift with the observed effect. We find that anomalous decelerations do act on these probes which are of cosmological nature, but these are, as expected from standard cosmology, much too low to explain the observed effect. In contrast, the cosmological redshift of radiophotons suffered during the iti...

  15. Determination of cutting point of oviduct in minimally invasive surgical technique in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) and Starry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Milad Kabir; Ali Bani

    2011-01-01

    Similar to other Chondrostean fish, Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus Borodin, 1897) andStarry sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus Pallas 1771) have got Gymnovarian ovaries, and structure form oftheir reproduction system is such that eggs cannot readily leave it. In minimally invasive surgicaltechnique, a small incision is made in the wall of oviduct so that the eggs can easily leave it with theminimal manipulation and also the broodstock can survive. The aim of this work is to determine thedist...

  16. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S.; McKee, Michael J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Galat, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196 ng/ g egg (188–203 ng/g) for shovelnose and 159 ng/g egg (122–199 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13 ng/g egg (11–15 ng/g) for shovelnose and 12 ng/g egg (10–14 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists.

  17. Brain ventricle development in H. huso (Beluga sturgeon) larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavighi, S H; Saadatfar, Z; Shojaei, B; Rassouli, M Behnam

    2016-09-01

    The development of ventricles in the brain of H. huso (Beluga sturgeon) from 1 to 54 days old is presented in this study. The components observed in the 1-day-old ventricular system were the telencephalic, tectal, and cerebellar ventricles. These ventricles were not observed to have any recess or sulcus. They were surrounded by copious ependymal and embryonic cells. Two different parts were detected in the 6-day-old telencephalic ventricle: the olfactory and lateral ventricle. The olfactory ventricle was observed as a cranial extension of the telencephalic ventricle from 6 days old, as was the inner cell layer of the olfactory bulb (ic) adjacent to this extension. In the preoptic region, the lateral ventricle was connected to the preoptic recess from 15 days old, and this recess was connected by the interventricular foramen to the third ventricle in the diencephalon. At 6 days old, the third ventricle in the diencephalon was visible at the caudal part of the lateral ventricle, and the third ventricle had a recess near to the inferior lobe of the hypothalamus. At 6 days old, the tectal ventricle was observed to have bilateral extensions which proceeded to grow with age. The cerebellar ventricle, situated between the two lobes of the cerebellum, was observed from 1 day old. The cerebellar ventricle grew with age, extending laterally from 6 days old. The connection of the cerebellar ventricle to the fourth ventricle in the medulla oblongata was visible from 6 days old. Upon dividing the ventricular system into three regions (forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain), stereological studies performed utiizing Cavalieri's principle indicated that the forebrain ventricular region had the smallest volume while the hindbrain ventricular region had the largest. PMID:26530640

  18. [Discrimination of interspecific hybrids in natural populations of Amur sturgeon fishes using multilocus RAPD-PCR markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelomina, G N; Rozhkovan, K V; Ivanov, S A

    2008-01-01

    RAPD-PCR analysis of 46 individuals of sturgeons from Amur River has been carried out. Genetic status of Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii Brandt, 1869 and kaluga Huso dauricus Georgi, 1775 native populations has been estimated. Genetic evidences of hybrid origin for two phenotypical hybrids were obtained; estimations of genetic distances between species and hybrids appeared to be at interspecific level. The exact test for differentiation of populations (Exact test) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis were estimated to be the most effective for species and hybrid discrimination, respectively. According to data obtained populations of sturgeon fishes which inhabit Amur River maintained an essential level of genetic variability; the presence of hybrids is regarded as one of risk factors. Multilocus RAPD-PCR markers admit as the convenient and reliable tool for genetic monitoring of Amur River sturgeons to preserve their gene pool. PMID:19140442

  19. CALCULATION OF FLOW FIELD AND ANALYSIS OF SPAWNING SITES FOR CHINESE STURGEON IN THE DOWNSTREAM OF GEZHOUBA DAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiao-li; LI Da-mei; JIN Guo-yu

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser Sinensis) is one of the unique and important fishery resources in China. Since the construction of the Gezhouba Dam, the traditional migration route of the sturgeon has been blocked; consequently, the length of natural spawning sites is reduced from 800 km in the past to less than 5 km at present. As an endangered species, the Chinese sturgeon has become one of the most conserved aquatic species. In this article, the flow field of its spawning states in the downstream of Gezhouba Dam was simulated and analyzed using N-S equations and turbulence model. Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method with the Finite Volume Method (FVM) was used to simulate the water-air two-phase flow to examine the computed area. On the basis of the ecological-hydraulic characteristics of Chinese sturgeon, the features of the flow field were investigated to provide theoretical support for the proper management of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

  20. In situ evaluation of water quality and contaminants in the Lower Roanoke River : Survival and growth of shortnose sturgeon

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of present conditions in the lower Roanoke River for supporting shortnose sturgeon whether naturally...

  1. USE OF FEED YEAST IN FEEDING OF STURGEON (ACIPENSERINAE SPECIES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the use of feed yeast preparations in feeding of sturgeon species (Acipenserinae. Findings. The review of scientific works demonstrated that feed yeast in the feeding of sturgeons have been used as a source of vitamins and complete protein, the nutritional value of which is significantly higher than in the proteins of plant origin and are similar to the proteins of animal origin. In addition, a unit of yeast protein mass is significantly lower than in the feeds of animal origin. Moreover, based on the content of B group vitamins, feed yeast produced from the grain-potato spent wash exceed fish meal and meat-and-bone meal. The article highlights the peculiarities of the technological process of the production of different feed yeast species, amino acid and fatty acid composition of their preparations, basic physical and chemical parameters of their composition. The examples of feed yeast formulas for sturgeon species based on feed yeast preparations are presented. It was shown that sturgeon species, especially on early stages of their ontogenesis, could effectively use the feed yeast nucleotides. Thus, the latters can be an effective substitute of live zooplanktonic organisms. While the production of some feed yeast preparations (paprin, eprin was stopped in 1990s due to a number of social-economic reasons, the works on the creation of their full analogues was continued later. Currently, the trends of the development of world aquaculture anticipates the return to the use of yeast in fish feeding. Therefore, the interest of the agrarians of Ukraine in yeast lately increased and their use in agricultural sector increased by 2-2.5 times. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study the peculiarities of feeding of sturgeon species, because the data about the use of yeast as sources of complete protein in fish feeds is important in a constant search for the

  2. A novel and ancient group of type I keratins with members in bichir, sturgeon and gar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neumann Sebastian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract 1. Background Vertebrate epithelial cells typically express a specific set of keratins. In teleosts, keratins are also present in a variety of mesenchymal cells, which usually express vimentin. Significantly, our previous studies revealed that virtually all known teleost keratins evolved independently from those present in terrestrial vertebrates. To further elucidate the evolutionary scenario that led to the large variety of keratins and their complex expression patterns in present day teleosts, we have investigated their presence in bichir, sturgeon and gar. 2. Results We have discovered a novel group of type I keratins with members in all three of these ancient ray-finned fish, but apparently no counterparts are present in any other vertebrate class so far investigated, including the modern teleost fish. From sturgeon and gar we sequenced one and from bichir two members of this novel keratin group. By complementary keratin blot-binding assays and peptide mass fingerprinting using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, in sturgeon we were able to assign the sequence to a prominent protein spot, present exclusively in a two-dimensionally separated cytoskeletal preparation of skin, thus identifying it as an epidermally expressed type I keratin. In contrast to the other keratins we have so far sequenced from bichir, sturgeon and gar, these new sequences occupy a rather basal position within the phylogenetic tree of type I keratins, in a close vicinity to the keratins we previously cloned from river lamprey. 3. Conclusion Thus, this new K14 group seem to belong to a very ancient keratin branch, whose functional role has still to be further elucidated. Furthermore, the exclusive presence of this keratin group in bichir, sturgeon and gar points to the close phylogenetic relationship of these ray- finned fish, an issue still under debate among taxonomists.

  3. Effects of feed restriction on salinity tolerance in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Haller, Liran Y; Verhille, Christine E; Fangue, Nann A; Hung, Silas S O

    2015-10-01

    A multistressor study was conducted to investigate interactive effects of nutritional status and salinity on osmoregulation of juvenile white sturgeon. Our hypothesis was that lower nutritional status would decrease the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. A four-week feed restriction (12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100% of optimum feeding rate: OFR defined as the rate (% body weight per day) at which growth is maximal) trial was performed, and relevant indices of nutritional status were measured. Following the trial, sturgeon were acutely exposed to various salinities (0, 8, 16, 24 ppt) for 120 h, and relevant osmoregulatory measurements were made at 12, 72, and 120 h post-salinity exposures. The feed-restriction trial resulted in a graded nutritional response with the most feed-restricted group (12.5% OFR) showing the lowest nutritional status. The salinity exposure trial showed clear evidence that lower nutritional status decreased the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. Increasing salinities resulted in significant alterations in osmoregulatory indices of all feeding groups; however, a significantly slower acclimatory response to 24 ppt was detected in the most feed-restricted group compared to the non-feed-restricted group (100% OFR). Furthermore, evaluation of the effect of nutritional status on the relationship between osmoregulatory measurements and body size showed that there was a significant negative relationship between osmoregulatory performance and body size within the most feed-restricted group. This suggests that there is a certain body size range (200-300 g based on our finding) where juvenile white sturgeon can maximize osmoregulatory capacity at a salinity of 24 ppt. PMID:26123778

  4. Development of working hypotheses linking management of the Missouri River to population dynamics of Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2016-01-20

    This report documents a process of filtering of hypotheses that relate Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) population dynamics to management actions including flow alterations, channel reconfigurations, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation. The filtering process was a partnership among U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to contribute to the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan process. The objective of the filtering process was to produce a set of hypotheses with high relevance to pallid sturgeon population dynamics and decision making on the Missouri River. The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis team filtered hundreds of potential hypotheses implicit in conceptual ecological models to develop a set of 40 candidate dominant hypotheses that were identified by experts as being important in pallid sturgeon population dynamics. Using a modified Delphi process and additional expert opinion, the team reduced this set of hypotheses to 23 working dominant hypotheses. We then matched the 23 hypotheses with management actions that could influence the biotic outcomes, resulting in as many as 176 potential effects between management actions and pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River. This number was consolidated to a candidate set of 53 working management hypotheses because some management actions applied to multiple life stages of the pallid sturgeon. We used an additional round of expert surveys to identify a set of 30 working management hypotheses. Finally, the set of working management hypotheses was filtered by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery Program for actions that were within the agency’s authority and jurisdiction. This round resulted in a set of 21 hypotheses for initial modeling of linkages from management to pallid sturgeon population responses.

  5. Effects of feed restriction on the upper temperature tolerance and heat shock response in juvenile green and white sturgeon

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, S; Hung, SSO; Fangue, NA; Haller, L.; Verhille, CE; Zhao, J; Todgham, AE

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feed restriction on whole-organism upper thermal tolerance and the heat shock response of green and white sturgeon to determine how changes in food amount might influence physiological performance of each species when faced with temperature stress. Two parallel feed restriction trials were carried out for juvenile green (202g; 222-day post hatch: dph) and white sturgeon (205g; 197-dph) to manipulate nutritional status at 12....

  6. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2002-03-01

    In 1998 white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake River between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. A total of 13,785 hours of setline effort and 389 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1998. Of the 278 white sturgeon captured in the Snake River, 238 were marked for future identification. Three sturgeon were captured in the Salmon River and none were captured in the Clearwater River. Since 1997, 6.9% of the tagged fish have been recovered. Movement of recaptured white sturgeon ranged from 98.5 kilometers downstream to 60.7 kilometers upstream, however, less than 25% of the fish moved more than 16 kilometers (10 miles). In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 51.5 cm to 286 cm and averaged 118.9 cm. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). In addition, the proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 37% since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River.

  7. Ancient fish and recent invaders: white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus diet response to invasive-species-mediated changes in a benthic prey assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeug, Steven C; Brodsky, Annie; Kogut, Nina; Stewart, Robin; Merz, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Invasive organisms can have significant impacts on native species, and the San Francisco Estuary (SFE), California, USA, is one of the world's most invaded estuaries. Decline of native white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus abundance in the SFE has been acknowledged, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Invasion by the overbite clam Potamocorbula amurensis has drastically altered the SFE benthic prey community, yet little is known about how this change has affected sturgeon diets. We investigated changes in the diet of white sturgeon following the overbite clam invasion and subsequent shift in the SFE benthic prey assemblage. Gut content analysis was used to compare white sturgeon prey composition and importance between the pre- and post-invasion periods. Additionally, stable isotope analysis was employed to estimate the assimilation of prey items to sturgeon biomass. Overbite clams dominated diets in the post-invasion period, accounting for 82 to 93% of total volume. Stable isotope analysis confirmed the importance of this prey item, although their assimilated contribution to sturgeon biomass was estimated to be less (70 to 83%) than gut contents indicated. The frequency of fish in white sturgeon guts increased in the post-invasion period, and isotope analysis indicated relatively large contributions of fish to sturgeon biomass (3.7 to 19%). The trophic adaptability of white sturgeon has allowed them to exploit this new prey source (overbite clam). Future conservation and restoration efforts must consider a potentially destabilized food web given the large importance of a single prey item.

  8. Annie Marion MacLean: “the mother of contemporary etnography” and pioneer in sociology distance learning

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia García Dauder

    2008-01-01

    The article introduces Anne Marion MacLean into the United States' scientific sociology at its very origins (1892), when the Department of Sociology of the Chicago University was created. It also puts MacLean in a network called "Women's School of Chicago", and the forgotten contributions of these social sciences' pioneers, submitted to the American Journal of Sociology, are analyzed. Two MacLean's key contributions are highlighted: the correspondence courses in teac...

  9. Indication, from Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses Data, of an Apparent Anomalous, Weak, Long-Range Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radio metric data from the Pioneer 10/11, Galileo, and Ulysses spacecraft indicate an apparent anomalous, constant, acceleration acting on the spacecraft with a magnitude ∼8.5x10-8 cm/s2 , directed towards the Sun. Two independent codes and physical strategies have been used to analyze the data. A number of potential causes have been ruled out. We discuss future kinematic tests and possible origins of the signal. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  10. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—A synthesis of science, 2005 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Albers, Janice L.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Bulliner, Edward A.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Fuller, David B; Haas, Justin D.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2016-01-20

    This report is intended to synthesize the state of the scientific understanding of pallid sturgeon ecological requirements to provide recommendations for future science directions and context for Missouri River restoration and management decisions. Recruitment of pallid sturgeon has been low to non-existent throughout its range. Emerging understanding of the genetic structure of pallid sturgeon populations sets a broad framework for species and river management decisions, including decisions about managing the future genetic diversity of the species, but also decisions about where and what type of river restoration actions will be effective for subpopulations of this highly migratory species. Adult pallid sturgeon may migrate hundreds of kilometers (km) to spawn and their progeny may disperse even greater distances downstream as drifting free embryos. As a result of their complex life history pallid sturgeon naturally exploit a wide range of habitats during their life cycles. The construction of dams and reservoirs has fragmented habitats and may have shifted Missouri River subpopulations downstream. Research has not identified one primary biological or ecological constraint that appears to limit populations of the pallid sturgeon. With the present (2013) state of knowledge many life stages and life-stage transitions cannot be ruled out as contributing to recruitment failure.

  11. Ecological requirements for pallid sturgeon reproduction and recruitment in the Missouri River—A synthesis of science, 2005 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delonay, Aaron J.; Chojnacki, Kimberly A.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Albers, Janice L.; Braaten, Patrick J.; Bulliner, Edward A.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Erwin, Susannah O.; Fuller, David B; Haas, Justin D.; Ladd, Hallie L.A.; Mestl, Gerald E.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Wildhaber, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    This report is intended to synthesize the state of the scientific understanding of pallid sturgeon ecological requirements to provide recommendations for future science directions and context for Missouri River restoration and management decisions. Recruitment of pallid sturgeon has been low to non-existent throughout its range. Emerging understanding of the genetic structure of pallid sturgeon populations sets a broad framework for species and river management decisions, including decisions about managing the future genetic diversity of the species, but also decisions about where and what type of river restoration actions will be effective for subpopulations of this highly migratory species. Adult pallid sturgeon may migrate hundreds of kilometers (km) to spawn and their progeny may disperse even greater distances downstream as drifting free embryos. As a result of their complex life history pallid sturgeon naturally exploit a wide range of habitats during their life cycles. The construction of dams and reservoirs has fragmented habitats and may have shifted Missouri River subpopulations downstream. Research has not identified one primary biological or ecological constraint that appears to limit populations of the pallid sturgeon. With the present (2013) state of knowledge many life stages and life-stage transitions cannot be ruled out as contributing to recruitment failure.

  12. Columbia River White Sturgeon Genetics and Early Life History: Population Segregation and Juvenile Feeding Behavior, 1987 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1988-06-01

    The geographic area of the genetics study broadly covered the distribution range of sturgeon in the Columbia from below Bonneville Dam at Ilwaco at Lake Roosevelt, the Upper Snake River, and the Kootenai River. The two remote river sections provided data important for enhancement considerations. There was little electrophoretic variation seen among individuals from the Kootenai River. Upper Snake river sturgeon showed a higher percentage of polymorphic loci than the Kootenai fish, but lower than the other areas in the Columbia River we sampled. Sample size was increased in both Lake Roosevelt and at Electrophoretic variation was specific to an individual sampling area in several cases and this shaped our conclusions. The 1987 early life history studies concentrated on the feeding behavior of juvenile sturgeon. The chemostimulant components in prey attractive to sturgeon were examined, and the sensory systems utilized by foraging sturgeon were determined under different environmental conditions. These results were discussed with regard to the environmental changes that have occurred in the Columbia River. Under present river conditions, the feeding mechanism of sturgeon is more restricted to certain prey types, and their feeding range may be limited. In these situations, enhancement measures cannot be undertaken without consideration given to the introduction of food resources that will be readily available under present conditions. 89 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Distribution and composition pattern of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different tissues of sturgeons collected from Iranian coastline of the Caspian Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashroofeh, Abdulreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Pourkazemi, Mohammad

    2015-02-01

    The levels of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in the liver, kidney, gills and muscle tissues of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus; n=16), and Stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus; n=7) collected from coastal waters of the South Caspian Sea from March and April 2011. The distribution and composition pattern of PAHs in the different tissues of sturgeons, and the effects of lipid content in sturgeon tissues and the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow) of PAHs congeners on them were analyzed. The levels of total PAHs in the various tissues of Persian sturgeon and Stellate sturgeon ranged from 2.095 to 6.587 and 1.942 to 6.206 μg g(-1)dw, respectively. Stellate sturgeon showed significantly higher levels of heavy PAHs (⩾ 4-rings) than Persian sturgeon. The analysis has revealed a high degree of differential accumulation of the studied PAHs in the tissues of the both species. Low molecular weight PAHs predominated in the sturgeons, accounting for 81.89% of the total PAHs. Among the sixteen tested PAHs, naphthalene was the most dominant congener, followed by phenanthrene and fluorene. The PAHs levels and distribution in the tissues of sturgeons are dependent on both the Kow of PAH congeners and the lipid content in these tissues. There was a significant positive relationship (r=0.868, p<0.005) between lipid content and PAHs levels. The statistically significant negative relationships (p<0.01) were found between log Kow and log-transformed PAHs levels for muscle tissues of both sturgeon species.

  14. PECULIARITIES OF THE TRANSITION OF EARLY STURGEON (ACIPENSERIDAE FRY TO ARTIFICIAL FORMULATED FEEDS IN RAS (A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the morphological and ecophysiological peculiarities of the transition of early sturgeon fry (Acipenseridae to artificial formulated feeds. To summarize the biotechnological fundamentals of the use of artificial formulated feeds in the conditions of recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS. Findings. The transition of early sturgeon fry to artificial formulated feeds is one of the most difficult stages of their rearing, even under controlled conditions of RAS. The review contains the description of the peculiarities of sturgeon embryogenesis, their behavior and morpho-physiological changes at this stage of their development. It contains main requirements for the rearing of sturgeon larvae in RAS. We showed that the ultimate refuse from natural (live or frozen forage organisms is not advisable; the optimum is their combination with artificial feeds with gradual predominance of the latters. We provided the schemes of their feeding based on the combination of natural and artificial feeds. We reviewed the most common biologically active supplements, which contributed to better feed digestion during the periods of the transition to exogenous feeding. We highlighted the effect of feeding with brine shrimp nauplii enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids on the growth and development of early sturgeon fry. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study the peculiarities of the transition of early sturgeon fry to artificial formulated feeds in RAS. The data on the biotechnologies of rational feeding of early sturgeon fry in RAS in this period are important in the conditions of continuous search for the most effective replacement of live forage organisms and reduction of fish fry mortality in postembryogenesis.

  15. Determination of the Ovarian Stages in Wild Persian Sturgeon, Acipenser persicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboubeh HOSSENZADE

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we investigated the histological changes in the ovary of 35 female Persian sturgeon. Ovarian samples were taken from the females stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining and sexual maturity was determined by examining the sections under a light microscope. Four developmental stages of ovary including cortical alveoli formation stage (ΙΙ, vitellogenic stage (ΙII, mature stage (IV and ovulation stage (V were recognized during development. The gonadosomatic index (GSI of female Persian sturgeon gradually increased during the development of ovary. The lowest GSI was recorded in stage II (2.57 ± 0.28 and the highest GSI was shown in stage V (23.58 ± 1.08. Therefore, GSI may be useful to determining maturity stages; however histological experiments of ovaries should be considered as the most accurate method for all stages.doi:10.14456/WJST.2014.80

  16. Does Increased Spending on Pharmaceutical Marketing Inhibit Pioneering Innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Denis G; Troyer, Jennifer L

    2016-04-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has been criticized for developing and aggressively marketing drugs that do not provide significant health benefits relative to existing drugs but retain the benefits of patent protection. Critics argue that drug marketing increases health care expenditures and provides a disincentive for pioneering drug innovation. However, evidence that marketing expenditures have any relationship to new drug approvals has been anecdotal. We hypothesized that, at publicly traded pharmaceutical firms, increased marketing expenditures will result in a reduced volume of pioneering new drugs in comparison to less innovative new drugs. We also hypothesized that additional research and development spending will result in an increased volume of pioneering new drugs in comparison to less innovative drugs. Results confirm our hypotheses. Specific policy recommendations for altering firms' incentives for the development of pioneering drugs are provided. PMID:26732315

  17. Does Increased Spending on Pharmaceutical Marketing Inhibit Pioneering Innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Denis G; Troyer, Jennifer L

    2016-04-01

    The pharmaceutical industry has been criticized for developing and aggressively marketing drugs that do not provide significant health benefits relative to existing drugs but retain the benefits of patent protection. Critics argue that drug marketing increases health care expenditures and provides a disincentive for pioneering drug innovation. However, evidence that marketing expenditures have any relationship to new drug approvals has been anecdotal. We hypothesized that, at publicly traded pharmaceutical firms, increased marketing expenditures will result in a reduced volume of pioneering new drugs in comparison to less innovative new drugs. We also hypothesized that additional research and development spending will result in an increased volume of pioneering new drugs in comparison to less innovative drugs. Results confirm our hypotheses. Specific policy recommendations for altering firms' incentives for the development of pioneering drugs are provided.

  18. Transcriptome analysis and de novo annotation of the critically endangered Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X J; Jiang, H Y; Li, L M; Yuan, L H; Chen, J P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide comprehensive insights into the genetic background of sturgeon by transcriptome study. We performed a de novo assembly of the Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii transcriptome using Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing. A total of 148,817 non-redundant unigenes with base length of approximately 121,698,536 bp and ranges from 201 to 26,789 bp were obtained. All the unigenes were classified into 3368 distinct categories and 145,449 singletons by homologous transcript cluster analysis. In all, 46,865 (31.49%) unigenes showed homologous matches with Nr database and 32,214 (21.65%) unigenes were matched to Nt database. In total, 24,862 unigenes were categorized into significantly enriched 52 function groups by GO analysis, and 38,436 unigenes were classified into 25 groups by KOG prediction, as well as 128 enriched KEGG pathways were identified by 45,598 unigenes (P < 0.05). Subsequently, a total of 19,860 SSRs markers were identified with the abundant di-nucleotide type (10,658; 53.67%) and the most AT/TA motif repeats (2689; 13.54%). A total of 1341 conserved lncRNAs were identified by a customized pipeline. Our study provides new sequence and function information for A. schrenckii, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on sturgeon species. The huge number of potential SSRs and putatively conserved lncRNAs isolated by the transcriptome also shed light on research in many fields, including the evolution, conservation management, and biological processes in sturgeon. PMID:27420941

  19. A habitat suitability model for Chinese sturgeon determined using the generalized additive method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Yujun; Sun, Jie; Zhang, Shanghong

    2016-03-01

    The Chinese sturgeon is a type of large anadromous fish that migrates between the ocean and rivers. Because of the construction of dams, this sturgeon's migration path has been cut off, and this species currently is on the verge of extinction. Simulating suitable environmental conditions for spawning followed by repairing or rebuilding its spawning grounds are effective ways to protect this species. Various habitat suitability models based on expert knowledge have been used to evaluate the suitability of spawning habitat. In this study, a two-dimensional hydraulic simulation is used to inform a habitat suitability model based on the generalized additive method (GAM). The GAM is based on real data. The values of water depth and velocity are calculated first via the hydrodynamic model and later applied in the GAM. The final habitat suitability model is validated using the catch per unit effort (CPUEd) data of 1999 and 2003. The model results show that a velocity of 1.06-1.56 m/s and a depth of 13.33-20.33 m are highly suitable ranges for the Chinese sturgeon to spawn. The hydraulic habitat suitability indexes (HHSI) for seven discharges (4000; 9000; 12,000; 16,000; 20,000; 30,000; and 40,000 m3/s) are calculated to evaluate integrated habitat suitability. The results show that the integrated habitat suitability reaches its highest value at a discharge of 16,000 m3/s. This study is the first to apply a GAM to evaluate the suitability of spawning grounds for the Chinese sturgeon. The study provides a reference for the identification of potential spawning grounds in the entire basin.

  20. Interrelationships among egg, larvae and maternal characteristics in Persian sturgeon Acipenser persicus

    OpenAIRE

    Rajab Mohammad Nazari; Mohammad Reza Ghomi; Laura Aquiloni

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe the correlations among egg, larvae and maternal characteristics of Persian sturgeon. A total of 41 females were used and the variables including fertilization rate, incubation survival rate, larvae survival rate during yolk sac absorption (before feeding), and larvae survival rate after first feeding were determined. As a result, fertilization rate was positively correlated with three variables: incubation survival, larvae survival during yolk sac absorption, a...

  1. Origin of Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during spring months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirgin, Isaac; Breece, Matthew W.; Fox, Dewayne A.; Maceda, Lorraine; Wark, Kevin W.; King, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Atlantic Sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus was federally listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act as five distinct population segments (DPS). Currently, at least 18 estuaries coastwide host spawning populations and the viability of these vary, requiring differing levels of protection. Subadults emigrate from their natal estuaries to marine waters where they are vulnerable to bycatch; one of the major threats to the rebuilding of populations. As a result, identifying the population origin of Atlantic Sturgeon in coastal waters is critical to development of management plans intended to minimize interactions of the most imperiled populations with damaging fisheries. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequencing and microsatellite DNA analyses to determine the origin of 261 Atlantic Sturgeon collected off the Delaware coast during the spring months. Using individual-based assignment (IBA) testing and mixed stock analysis, we found that specimens originated from all nine of our reference populations and the five DPSs used in the listing determination. Using IBA, we found that the Hudson River population was the largest contributor (38.3%) to our coastal collection. The James (19.9%) and Delaware (13.8%) river populations, at one time thought to be extirpated or nearly so, were the next largest contributors. The three populations combined in the South Atlantic DPS contributed 21% of specimens; the Altamaha River, the largest population in the South Atlantic DPS, only contributed a single specimen to the collection. While the origin of specimens collected on the Delaware coast was most likely within rivers of the New York Bight DPS (52.1%), specimens that originated elsewhere were also well represented. Genetic analyses provide a robust tool to identify the population origin of individual sturgeon outside of their natal estuaries and to determine the quantitative contributions of individual populations to coastal aggregations that are vulnerable to

  2. Transcriptome analysis and de novo annotation of the critically endangered Amur sturgeon (Acipenser schrenckii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X J; Jiang, H Y; Li, L M; Yuan, L H; Chen, J P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide comprehensive insights into the genetic background of sturgeon by transcriptome study. We performed a de novo assembly of the Amur sturgeon Acipenser schrenckii transcriptome using Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing. A total of 148,817 non-redundant unigenes with base length of approximately 121,698,536 bp and ranges from 201 to 26,789 bp were obtained. All the unigenes were classified into 3368 distinct categories and 145,449 singletons by homologous transcript cluster analysis. In all, 46,865 (31.49%) unigenes showed homologous matches with Nr database and 32,214 (21.65%) unigenes were matched to Nt database. In total, 24,862 unigenes were categorized into significantly enriched 52 function groups by GO analysis, and 38,436 unigenes were classified into 25 groups by KOG prediction, as well as 128 enriched KEGG pathways were identified by 45,598 unigenes (P < 0.05). Subsequently, a total of 19,860 SSRs markers were identified with the abundant di-nucleotide type (10,658; 53.67%) and the most AT/TA motif repeats (2689; 13.54%). A total of 1341 conserved lncRNAs were identified by a customized pipeline. Our study provides new sequence and function information for A. schrenckii, which will be the basis for further genetic studies on sturgeon species. The huge number of potential SSRs and putatively conserved lncRNAs isolated by the transcriptome also shed light on research in many fields, including the evolution, conservation management, and biological processes in sturgeon.

  3. Effects of acclimation on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenburg, E.W.; Guy, C.S.; Cureton, E.S.; Webb, M.A.H.; Gardner, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and controls had no acclimation (reared under traditional conservation propagation protocol). During both years, fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach as compared to control fish. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and the number of fish remaining in the Missouri River reach was similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years were related to fin curl which was present in all fish in 2005 and only 26% in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) prevented fat accumulation from rupturing hepatocytes. Acclimation conditions used in this study did not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies were present. Overriding all treatment effects was stocking location; thus, natural resource agencies need to consider stocking location carefully to reduce poststocking dispersal. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  4. Effects of incubation substrates on hatch timing and success of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; Kofoot, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act in 1994 because several decades of failed spawning had put the population at risk of extinction. Natural spawning is known to occur at several locations in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but there is little natural recruitment. Microhabitat where embryo incubation occurs is known to be an important factor in white sturgeon reproductive success. This study was conducted to address questions regarding the suitability of different substrates as egg attachment and incubation sites for these fish. A comparative laboratory study using six types of incubation substrates—clean river rocks, periphyton- and algae-covered rocks, waterlogged wood, sand, riparian vegetation, and clean glass plates—tested the hypothesis that survival to hatch of white sturgeon eggs differs among incubation substrates. The results showed that sand was unsuitable as an incubation substrate, as the adhesive embryos were easily dislodged. Periphyton- and algae-covered rocks had the lowest hatch success, and all other substrates had similar hatch success.

  5. Turnover of hydrogen isotopes in lake sturgeon blood: implications for tracking movements of wild populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreitals, Natasha M; Hobson, Keith A; Hoemsen, Brittney M; Crane, Adam L; Wishingrad, Van; Sloychuk, Janelle; Pollock, Michael S; Chivers, Douglas P; Phillips, Iain D

    2016-12-01

    Naturally occurring deuterium ((2)H) in biota can be used to trace movement, migration and geographic origin of a range of organisms. However, to evaluate movements of animals using δ(2)H measurements of tissues, it is necessary to establish the turnover time of (2)H in the tissues and the extent of isotopic discrimination from different environmental (2)H sources to those tissues. We investigated the turnover of (2)H in lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) blood by manipulating both environmental water δ(2)H and diet δ(2)H over a four-month period. The half-life of deuterium in lake sturgeon blood was 37.9 days after an increase in the environmental water δ(2)H of +714 ‰. However, no clear turnover in blood (2)H occurred over the same period in a separate trial following a change of -63.8 ‰ or +94.2 ‰ in diet. These findings suggest that environmental water (2)H exchanges much faster with blood than diets and that blood δ(2)H values can be used to trace movements of sturgeon and other fish moving among isotopically distinct waters.

  6. Assigning sex and reproductive stage to adult Lake Sturgeon using ultrasonography and common morphological measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiotti, Justin A.; Boase, James C.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Briggs, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Sex determination of fish species is difficult to assess when sexual dimorphism and gametes are not apparent. For threatened and endangered fish species, noninvasive techniques are needed when determining sex to minimize stress and the potential for mortality. We evaluated the use of a portable ultrasound unit to determine sex of Lake Sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens in the field. Ultrasound images were collected from 9 yellow-egg (F2, F3), 32 black-egg (F4, F5), and 107 fully developed male (M2) Lake Sturgeon. Two readers accurately assigned sex to 88–96% of fish, but accuracy varied in relation to maturity stage. Black-egg females and fully developed males were correctly identified for 89–100% of the fish sampled, while these two readers identified yellow-egg females only 33% and 67% of the time. Time spent collecting images ranged between 2 and 3 min once the user was comfortable with operating procedures. Discriminant analysis revealed the total length : girth ratio was a strong predictor of sex and maturity, correctly classifying 81% of black-egg females and 97% of the fully developed males. However, yellow-egg females were incorrectly classified on all occasions. This study shows the utility of using ultrasonography and a total length : girth ratio for sex determination of Lake Sturgeon in later reproductive stages around the spawning season.

  7. Assessing water quality suitability for shortnose sturgeon in the Roanoke River, North Carolina, USA with an in situ bioassay approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, W.G.; Holliman, F.M.; Kwak, T.J.; Oakley, N.C.; Lazaro, P.R.; Shea, D.; Augspurger, T.; Law, J.M.; Henne, J.P.; Ware, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suitability of water quality in the Roanoke River of North Carolina for supporting shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum, an endangered species in the United States. Fathead minnows Pimephales promelas were also evaluated alongside the sturgeon as a comparative species to measure potential differences in fish survival, growth, contaminant accumulation, and histopathology in a 28-day in situ toxicity test. Captively propagated juvenile shortnose sturgeon (total length 49??8mm, mean??SD) and fathead minnows (total length 39??3mm, mean??SD) were used in the test and their outcomes were compared to simultaneous measurements of water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, conductivity, total ammonia nitrogen, hardness, alkalinity, turbidity) and contaminant chemistry (metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, current use pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls) in river water and sediment. In the in situ test, there were three non-riverine control sites and eight riverine test sites with three replicate cages (25??15-cm (OD) clear plexiglass with 200-??m tear-resistant Nitex?? screen over each end) of 20 shortnose sturgeon per cage at each site. There was a single cage of fathead minnows also deployed at each site alongside the sturgeon cages. Survival of caged shortnose sturgeon among the riverine sites averaged 9% (range 1.7-25%) on day 22 of the 28-day study, whereas sturgeon survival at the non-riverine control sites averaged 64% (range 33-98%). In contrast to sturgeon, only one riverine deployed fathead minnow died (average 99.4% survival) over the 28-day test period and none of the control fathead minnows died. Although chemical analyses revealed the presence of retene (7-isopropyl-1-methylphenanthrene), a pulp and paper mill derived compound with known dioxin-like toxicity to early life stages of fish, in significant quantities in the water (251-603ngL-1) and sediment (up to 5000ngg-1

  8. Pioneering new approaches. Educating girls in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namuddu, K

    1993-01-01

    education. Women's groups are also questioning policies that bar girls from reentering school after a childhood pregnancy. Uganda has a program to help girls resume their studies after pregnancy, but not within the main educational system. Pioneering new approaches is occurring and the Rockefeller Foundation is taking the lead in an 18-member international donor group in supporting the promotion of female education.

  9. Sir Charles Ballance: pioneer British neurological surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J L

    1999-03-01

    nerve regeneration and nerve grafting, and after many years of devoted research, he devised successful operations for facial nerve paralysis. For this and early vascular work, he is often credited as the first English surgeon to reintroduce classical Hunterian methods of experiment into surgery. He was honored as the founder and President of The Society of British Neurological Surgeons in 1926. Perhaps best known as a general and aural surgeon, Ballance was second only to Horsley in reputation as a pioneer British neurological surgeon. Described as a painstakingly slow but delicate and meticulous operator, Ballance made a contribution to neurosurgery and temporal bone surgery that was immense.

  10. Optimization of enzyme-assisted extraction and characterization of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Feng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skin contains high amount of nutrients including unsaturated fatty acids and collagen. A pepsin-assisted extraction procedure was developed and optimized for the extraction of collagen from Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sturio Linnaeus skins. Objective: To determine the optimum conditions with the maximum yield of the pepsin-soluble collagen (PSC extraction. Materials and Methods: The conditions of the extraction were optimized using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the three independent variables (extraction time, enzyme concentration, and solid-liquid ratio on the PSC yield of the sturgeon skin. Results: The optimal conditions were: solid-liquid ratio of 1:11.88, enzyme concentration of 2.42%, and extraction time of 6.45 h. The maximum yield of 86.69% of PSC was obtained under the optimal conditions. This value was not significantly different from the predicted value (87.4% of the RSM (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that the production of PSC from sturgeon skin is feasible and beneficial. The patterns of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic patterns (SDS-PAGE indicated that the sturgeon skin contains type I collagen, which is made of α-chain and β-chain. The infrared spectra of the collagens also indicated that pepsin hydrolysis does not affect the secondary structure of collagen, especially triple-helical structure.

  11. Electronic archival tags provide first glimpse of bathythermal habitat use by free-ranging adult lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Andrew S.; Hondorp, Darryl W.; Quinlan, Henry R.; Boase, James C.; Mohr, Lloyd C.

    2016-01-01

    Information on lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) depth and thermal habitat use during non-spawning periods is unavailable due to the difficulty of observing lake sturgeon away from shallow water spawning sites. In 2002 and 2003, lake sturgeon captured in commercial trap nets near Sarnia, Ontario were implanted with archival tags and released back into southern Lake Huron. Five of the 40 tagged individuals were recaptured and were at large for 32, 57, 286, 301, and 880 days. Temperatures and depths recorded by archival tags ranged from 0 to 23.5 ºC and 0.1 to 42.4 m, respectively. For the three lake sturgeon that were at large for over 200 days, temperatures occupied emulated seasonal fluctuations. Two of these fish occupied deeper waters during winter than summer while the other occupied similar depths during non-spawning periods. This study provides important insight into depth and thermal habitat use of lake sturgeon throughout the calendar year along with exploring the feasibility of using archival tags to obtain important physical habitat attributes during non-spawning periods.

  12. 76 FR 83 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition and Environmental Assessment for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition... has received a petition from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., seeking a determination of...) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc. (Pioneer) of Johnston, IA, seeking a determination...

  13. Study on artificial hatching of sturgeon. Ovulation induction and artificial hatching of sturgeon; Chozame no jinko fuka ni kansuru kenkyu. Chozame (besuteru) no hairan yuhatsu to jinko fuka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omoto, N.; Maebayashi, M. [Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Inc., Sapporo (Japan)

    1999-03-19

    With an objective to develop a technology serving for making Hokkaido more active industrially, a study has been carried out on culturing sturgeons by the biological environment group at the general research institute of Hokkaido Electric Power Company. The study has performed induction of ovulation and spermatozoon discharge by hormone treatment, artificial fecundation and hatching. In hormone treatment, emulstified LH-RHa was injected first into male individuals anticipated to have matured, and into female 24 hours later. Fecundation was performed by inseminating into roes the spermatozoon diluted by fresh water of volume as great as 100 times that of the spermatozoon. The result of this experiment revealed that artificial hatching is possible even under the frigid environment of Hokkaido by giving matured sturgeons a hormone treatment. However, such problems are still left that there are individuals that do not ovulate even the hormone is given, and hatching rate of obtained roes is low. The important point in the hormone treatment technology is in selection of matured parent fishes. Regarding female individuals, a more efficient and precise maturity determination method is desired than the method to observe gonads by biopsy. (NEDO)

  14. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2001 annual report covers the fifth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 45,907 hours of setline effort and 186 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2001. A total of 390 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 12 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 36.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 42 cm to 307 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 66 cm to 235 cm and averaged 160 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. An additional 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 2001. The locations of 17 radio-tagged white sturgeon were monitored in 2001. The movement of these fish ranged from 38.6 km (24 miles) downstream to 54.7 km (34 miles) upstream; however, 62.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish

  15. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Summer 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-06-01

    DOE's Wind Powering America program has initiated a quarterly NAWIG newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events.

  16. Axogenesis in the antennal nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria revisited: the base pioneers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, Erica; Liu, Yu; Boyan, George

    2015-01-01

    The antennal nervous system of the grasshopper Schistocerca gregaria comprises two parallel pathways projecting to the brain, each pioneered early in embryogenesis by a pair of sibling cells located at the antennal tip. En route, the growth cones of pioneers from one pathway have been shown to contact a guidepost-like cell called the base pioneer. Its role in axon guidance remains unclear as do the cellular guidance cues regulating axogenesis in the other pathway supposedly without a base pioneer. Further, while the tip pioneers are known to delaminate from the antennal epithelium into the lumen, the origin of this base pioneer is unknown. Here, we use immunolabeling and immunoblocking methods to clarify these issues. Co-labeling against the neuron-specific marker horseradish peroxidase and the pioneer-specific cell surface glycoprotein Lazarillo identifies not only the tip pioneers but also a base pioneer associated with each of the developing antennal pathways. Both base pioneers co-express the mesodermal label Mes3, consistent with a lumenal origin, whereas the tip pioneers proved Mes3-negative confirming their affiliation with the ectodermal epithelium. Lazarillo antigen expression in the antennal pioneers followed a different temporal dynamic: continuous in the tip pioneers, but in the base pioneers, only at the time their filopodia and those of the tip pioneers first recognize one another. Immunoblocking of Lazarillo expression in cultured embryos disrupts this recognition resulting in misguided axogenesis in both antennal pathways.

  17. The interactive effects of selenomethionine and methylmercury on their absorption, disposition, and elimination in juvenile white sturgeon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Susie Shih-Yin; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Fadel, James G.;

    2013-01-01

    complexes and/or associating with selenoproteins. Despite concerns with aquatic contaminations, relatively little information is available on the interaction in aquatic organisms. In the present study, the interactive effects of Se and Hg on their absorption, disposition, and elimination were examined...... in juvenile white sturgeon, a benthic fish species at high risk to exposures of both contaminants. Selenium and Hg were provided as L-selenomethionine (SeMet) and methylmercury (MeHg), respectively. Groups of 10 sturgeon were orally intubated with a single dose of either 0 (control), SeMet (500 µg Se/kg body...

  18. Physiological stress response, reflex impairment and delayed mortality of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus exposed to simulated fisheries stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Montana F.; Hanson, Kyle C.; Cooke, Steven J.; Hinch, Scott G.; Patterson, David A.; Nettles, Taylor L.; Litvak, Matt K.; Crossin, Glenn T.

    2016-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are the largest freshwater fish in North America and a species exposed to widespread fishing pressure. Despite the growing interest in recreational fishing for white sturgeon, little is known about the sublethal and lethal impacts of angling on released sturgeon. In summer (July 2014, mean water temperature 15.3°C) and winter (February 2015, mean water temperature 6.6°C), captive white sturgeon (n = 48) were exposed to a combination of exercise and air exposure as a method of simulating an angling event. After the stressor, sturgeon were assessed for a physiological stress response, and reflex impairments were quantified to determine overall fish vitality (i.e. capacity for survival). A physiological stress response occurred in all sturgeon exposed to a fishing-related stressor, with the magnitude of the response correlated with the duration of the stressor. Moreover, the stress from exercise was more pronounced in summer, leading to higher reflex impairment scores (mean ± SEM, 0.44 ± 0.07 and 0.25 ± 0.05 in summer and winter, respectively). Reflex impairment was also correlated with lactate concentrations (e.g. physiological stress measures related to exhaustive exercise; r = 0.53) and recovery time (r = 0.76). Two mortalities occurred >24 h after the cessation of treatment in the summer. Given that natural habitats for white sturgeon can reach much higher temperatures than those presented in our study, we caution the use of this mortality estimate for a summer season, because latent mortality could be much higher when temperatures exceed 16°C. This is the first experiment investigating the physiological disturbance and reflex impairment of capture and release at two temperatures on subadult/adult white sturgeon, and the results suggest that future research needs to examine the longer term and fitness consequences of extended play and air exposure times, because these are largely unknown for wild populations

  19. The influence of dietary fatty acid composition on the respiratory and cardiovascular physiology of Adriatic sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii): a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, DJ; Piraccini, G; Agnisola, C;

    1999-01-01

    as 15% of dry feed weight), with an elevated content of highly unsaturated fatty acids of the co3 series (¿3 HUFA), had a significantly lower standard metabolic rate (SMR) and routine oxygen consumption (Mo2) than those fed a diet enriched with the same quantity of hydrogenated coconut oil......This paper reviews evidence that the fatty acid composition of dietary lipids influences the respiratory and cardiovascular physiology of Adriatic sturgeon {Acipenser naccarii) and, thereby, their tolerance of the stress of hypoxia. Sturgeon fed a commercial diet enriched in fish oil (menhaden oil...

  20. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rien, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2006-03-01

    We report on our progress from April 2004 through March 2005 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  1. White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR)

    2005-08-01

    We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  2. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fishereis Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2000 annual report covers the fourth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2000 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 53,277 hours of setline effort and 630 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2000. A total of 538 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 25 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 32.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 48 cm to 271 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 103 cm to 227 cm and averaged 163 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber open population estimator, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,725 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,668-5,783. A total of 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 54.7 km (34 miles) downstream to 78.8 km (49 miles) upstream; however, 43.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of

  3. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuell, Michael A.; Everett, Scott R. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 1999 annual report covers the third year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 1999 white sturgeon were captured, marked and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. A total of 33,943 hours of setline effort and 2,112 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1999. A total of 289 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 29 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 11.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 27 cm to 261 cm and averaged 110 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 98 cm to 244 cm and averaged 183.5 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon < 60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 1,823 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,052-4,221. A total of 15 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 6.4 km (4 miles) downstream to 13.7 km (8.5 miles) upstream; however, 83.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 kilometers (0.5 miles). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River

  4. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from the McNary Dam, 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beiningen, Kirk T. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (US)

    1996-03-01

    The author reports on progress from April 1994 through March 1995 of research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state and tribal fisheries entities to determine the (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. This report describes activities conducted during the third year of this contract's second phase. Information was collected, analyzed, and evaluated on sub-adult and adult life histories, population dynamics, quantity and quality of habitat, and production enhancement strategies. The report is divided into sections that evaluate success of developing and implementing a management plan for white sturgeon; evaluate growth, mortality, and contributions to fisheries of juvenile white sturgeon transplanted from areas downstream; describe the life history and population dynamics of sub-adult a nd adult white sturgeon; define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing of white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available; describe reproductive and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon; and quantify physical habitat used by spawning and rearing white sturgeon in the free-flowing portion of the Columbia River.

  5. Effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and determine status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers upstream from the McNary Dam. Annual progress report, April 1994--March 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports on progress from April 1994 through March 1994 of research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state and tribal fisheries entities to determine the (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Columbia River. This report describes activities conducted during the third year of this contract's second phase. Information was collected, analyzed, and evaluated on subadult and adult life histories, population dynamics, quantity and quality of habitat, and production enhancement strategies. The report is divided into sections that evaluate success of developing and implementing a management plan for white sturgeon; evaluate growth, mortality, and contributions to fisheries of juvenile white sturgeon transplanted from areas downstream; describe the life history and population dynamics of subadult and adult white sturgeon; define habitat requirements for spawning and rearing of white sturgeon and quantify the extent of habitat available; describe reproductive and early life history characteristics of white sturgeon; and quantify physical habitat used by spawning and rearing white sturgeon in the free-flowing portion of the Columbia River

  6. A possible explanation for the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10

    OpenAIRE

    Crawford, David F.

    1999-01-01

    The reported anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10 spacecraft of -8.5X10^{-10} m/s^2 (i.e. towards the sun) can be explained by a gravitational interaction on the S-band signals traveling between Pioneer 10 and the earth. The effect of this gravitational interaction is a frequency shift that is proportional to the distance and the square root of the density of the medium in which it travels. If changes in this frequency are interpreted as a Doppler shift the result is an apparent accelerat...

  7. Thermal recoil force, telemetry, and the Pioneer anomaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Precision navigation of spacecraft requires accurate knowledge of small forces, including the recoil force due to anisotropies of thermal radiation emitted by spacecraft systems. We develop a formalism to derive the thermal recoil force from the basic principles of radiative heat exchange and energy-momentum conservation. The thermal power emitted by the spacecraft can be computed from engineering data obtained from flight telemetry, which yields a practical approach to incorporate the thermal recoil force into precision spacecraft navigation. Alternatively, orbit determination can be used to estimate the contribution of the thermal recoil force. We apply this approach to the Pioneer anomaly using a simulated Pioneer 10 Doppler data set.

  8. UNSTABLE CRITICAL EQUILIBRIUM IN THE DYNAMICS OF COMPLEX STRUCTURED POPULATION OF STURGEON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Dubrovskaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the consequences of the existence of special conditions that determine the character of the rapid further development of population processes. The most probable connection of these critical conditions deals with the optimal number of subpopulation groups. These groups are formed by the evolutionary adaptation of the form of restricted access to resources for reproduction. We have proposed a model of population processes, which formalizes the influence of uneven growth rate for two different groups of reproductive sturgeon mortality of migratory fish in the juvenile period of Acipenser gueldenstaedtii development. In the computing environment was investigated the hybrid system, which simulates the effects of the existence of the situation for the population of migrating juvenile disproportionate reduction in the river. Such cases are established by us according to the rapid decline in sturgeon spawning the Volga. For the exploited population threshold effect after the unstable equilibrium with the minimum necessary for the well being of the form number is the count in the implementation of the «collapse». The phenomenon of collapse detached among all scenarios the most valuable long-term degradation of the reproductive group. In addition to the apparent sharp reduction in reproductive performance, threshold effect is reflected in the adverse events previously dominated evolutionary trend for the survival of certain forms of the life cycle of fish in terms of reorganization of the fishery. Informative, that the Volga stellate sturgeon Acipencer stellatus observed some form of non-linearity in the efficiency of spawning and require a different kind of fish-specific mathematical model.

  9. Movement and habitat studies of chinook salmon and white sturgeon. [Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, Acipenser transmontanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haynes, J.M.

    1978-09-01

    Swimming depths of adult chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), in relation to hydroelectric dam created gas supersaturation levels in the Snake River, were evaluated using pressure-sensitive radiofrequency transmitters. Gas saturation levels in spring 1976 ranged from 120 to 130% and chinook salmon depth of travel averaged 6.4 m. In fall 1976 and spring 1977, when gas saturation levels were below 108%, average salmon depths of travel were 3.0 and 4.0 m, respectively. In all cases, average depth of travel was below the critical zone (110% effective saturation), but spring 1976 chinook salmon traveled significantly deeper than fall 1976 and spring 1977 salmon. Internal and external radio transmitter attachment techniques were compared and results indicated the methods are equally reliable given proper insertion and attachment procedures. Percent returning and travel times to upstream dams were compared between equal numbers of radiotagged and spaghetti-anchor tagged control salmon. There were no significant differences in percent return or travel times between control and externally tagged salmon, but procedural difficulties involving internally tagged salmon altered their behavior to preclude such comparisons. Presence and operation of hydroelectric dams delayed salmon passage through the river and appeared to alter upstream migratory behavior. Movements of radiotagged white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) from 1975 through 1977 were highly seasonal, beginning in June and ending in October. River temperatures apparently influenced both seasonal and diurnal movement activities. Movements began in June after water temperatures passed 13/sup 0/C and ceased when temperatures reached 13/sup 0/C (again) in autumn each year. Information derived from sturgeon carrying temperature sensing transmitters, combined with position determinations, indicated apparent diurnal movement cycles for sturgeon.

  10. Hematocrit and plasma osmolality values of young-of-year shortnose sturgeon following acute exposures to combinations of salinity and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegeweid, J.R.; Black, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological capabilities of young-of-year (YOY) shortnose sturgeon. In this study, plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were measured for YOY shortnose sturgeon following 48-h exposures to 12 different combinations of salinity and temperature. Hematocrit levels varied significantly with temperature and age, and plasma osmolalities varied significantly with salinity and age. Plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were similar to previously published values for other sturgeons of similar age and size in similar treatment conditions. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. (1809-1894): physician, jurist, poet, inventor, pioneer, and anatomist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Loukas, Marios; Carmichael, Stephen W

    2012-11-01

    Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. was a physician, dean of the Harvard Medical School, one of the best regarded American poets of the 19th century, father of a future United States Supreme Court Justice, inventor and - unknown to many - an anatomist. His friends included Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, and Louis Pasteur. He trained with some of the most influential anatomists/surgeons of his day including Lisfranc, Larrey, Velpeau, Bigelow, and Dupuytren. As a teacher of anatomy, he had strong feelings regarding medical curricular reform and to some, was considered one of the best lecturers in the discipline. As dean, he pioneered social reform by admitting both white women and free black men to Harvard Medical School. He coined the term "anesthesia," was the first American to introduce microscopy to a medical curriculum, and made important contributions to the understanding of the spread of infectious disease. Herein, we review the life of this influential American academic and focus on his contributions to the field of anatomy.

  12. A tribute to Charles David Kelman MD: ophthalmologist, inventor and pioneer of phacoemulsification surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Suresh K; Milverton, E John; Maloof, Anthony J

    2004-10-01

    Charles David Kelman was born in Brooklyn, New York, USA, on 23 May 1930 and passed away in Boca Raton, Florida, USA, on 1 June 2004 at the age of 74 years after a long battle with cancer. He received a Bachelor of Science degree from Tufts University in 1950 and completed medical studies at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, in 1956. He was Clinical Professor of Ophthalmology at New York Medical College and an Attending Surgeon at New York Eye and Ear Infirmary and Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital. Although a prolific inventor, he will be best remembered for developing phacoemulsification, following his realization while sitting in a dentist's chair, that ultrasonic vibrations could be used to emulsify the aged crystalline lens through a very small incision. His pioneering work revolutionized cataract surgery. He also pioneered cryo-extraction of cataracts, the use of freezing for the repair of retinal detachments and designed numerous ophthalmic instruments and intraocular lenses. Dr Kelman received numerous awards, including the American Academy of Ophthalmology Achievement Award (1970), the Ridley Medal from the International Congress of Ophthalmology (1990), and the Inventor of the Year Award from The New York Patent, Trademark and Copyright Law Association (1992). Most recently (2003), Dr Kelman was honoured by the American Academy of Ophthalmology with the Laureate Recognition award. Dr Kelman was also an accomplished Broadway producer, composer and jazz saxophonist. With his demise, the ophthalmic and medical community lost a famed inventor with multifaceted talents and one of the great ophthalmologists of the twentieth century.

  13. Review of BPA Funded Sturgeon, Resident Fish and Wildlife Projects for 1990/1991.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) held a public meeting on November 19--21, 1991, for the purpose of review, coordination, and consultation of the BPA-funded projects for sturgeon, resident fish, and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin (Basin). The comments received after the meeting were favorable and the participants agreed that the meeting was stimulating and productive. The information exchanged should lead to better coordination with other projects throughout the Basin. This document list the projects by title, the project leaders and BPA's project officers, and an abstract of each leader's presentation.

  14. VISTA: Pioneering New Survey Telescope Starts Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    A new telescope - VISTA (the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy) - has just started work at ESO's Paranal Observatory and has made its first release of pictures. VISTA is a survey telescope working at infrared wavelengths and is the world's largest telescope dedicated to mapping the sky. Its large mirror, wide field of view and very sensitive detectors will reveal a completely new view of the southern sky. Spectacular new images of the Flame Nebula, the centre of our Milky Way galaxy and the Fornax Galaxy Cluster show that it is working extremely well. VISTA is the latest telescope to be added to ESO's Paranal Observatory in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. It is housed on the peak adjacent to the one hosting the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) and shares the same exceptional observing conditions. VISTA's main mirror is 4.1 metres across and is the most highly curved mirror of this size and quality ever made - its deviations from a perfect surface are less than a few thousandths of the thickness of a human hair - and its construction and polishing presented formidable challenges. VISTA was conceived and developed by a consortium of 18 universities in the United Kingdom [1] led by Queen Mary, University of London and became an in-kind contribution to ESO as part of the UK's accession agreement. The telescope design and construction were project-managed by the Science and Technology Facilities Council's UK Astronomy Technology Centre (STFC, UK ATC). Provisional acceptance of VISTA was formally granted by ESO at a ceremony at ESO's Headquarters in Garching, Germany, attended by representatives of Queen Mary, University of London and STFC, on 10 December 2009 and the telescope will now be operated by ESO. "VISTA is a unique addition to ESO's observatory on Cerro Paranal. It will play a pioneering role in surveying the southern sky at infrared wavelengths and will find many interesting targets for further study by the Very Large Telescope, ALMA and

  15. Measurements of cosmic ray anisotropies from Pioneers 10 and 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosmic ray anisotropy measurements are performed by the University of California, San Diego experiments on Pioneers 10 and 11. A directional Cerenkov counter sensitive to protons and α particles with kinetic energies >= 480 MeV/nucleon is used to determine east-west and north-south anisotropies. (orig./WBU)

  16. Pioneer and climax tree regeneration following selective logging in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, M.; Graaf, de N.R.

    2003-01-01

    In the tropical rain forest of Suriname the occurrence of eight test species, four pioneer and four climax species, was analyzed in a silvicultural field experiment about 20 years old, in three replications of treated forest plots in which 15, 23 and 46m3 had been extracted. Extraction levels 23 and

  17. [Pioneers of medical physics--Theophil Christen (1873-1920)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Uwe; Bautz, Werner

    2005-01-01

    The Swiss mathematician and physician Theophil Christen was one of the first important pioneers in Medical Physics. He structured the previously confused field of physical concepts and definitions for medical applications of X-rays and paved the way for the modern understanding of dosimetry. PMID:15830786

  18. Increasing capture efficiency of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus (Forbes and Richardson, 1905) and the reliability of catch rate estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, R. J.; Hann, D. A.; Schramm, H.L., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of environmental parameters on the probability of capturing endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) using trotlines in the lower Mississippi River. Pallid sturgeon were sampled by trotlines year round from 2008 to 2011. A logistic regression model indicated water temperature (T; P < 0.01) and depth (D; P = 0.03) had significant effects on capture probability (Y = −1.75 − 0.06T + 0.10D). Habitat type, surface current velocity, river stage, stage change and non-sturgeon bycatch were not significant predictors (P = 0.26–0.63). Although pallid sturgeon were caught throughout the year, the model predicted that sampling should focus on times when the water temperature is less than 12°C and in deeper water to maximize capture probability; these water temperature conditions commonly occur during November to March in the lower Mississippi River. Further, the significant effect of water temperature which varies widely over time, as well as water depth indicate that any efforts to use the catch rate to infer population trends will require the consideration of temperature and depth in standardized sampling efforts or adjustment of estimates.

  19. Discovery and identification of candidate sex-related genes based on transcriptome sequencing of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) gonads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yadong; Xia, Yongtao; Shao, Changwei; Han, Lei; Chen, Xuejie; Yu, Mengjun; Sha, Zhenxia

    2016-07-01

    As the Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii) is an important food and is the main source of caviar, it is necessary to discover the genes associated with its sex differentiation. However, the complicated life and maturity cycles of the Russian sturgeon restrict the accurate identification of sex in early development. To generate a first look at specific sex-related genes, we sequenced the transcriptome of gonads in different development stages (1, 2, and 5 yr old stages) with next-generation RNA sequencing. We generated >60 million raw reads, and the filtered reads were assembled into 263,341 contigs, which produced 38,505 unigenes. Genes involved in signal transduction mechanisms were the most abundant, suggesting that development of sturgeon gonads is under control of signal transduction mechanisms. Differentially expressed gene analysis suggests that more genes for protein synthesis, cytochrome c oxidase subunits, and ribosomal proteins were expressed in female gonads than in male. Meanwhile, male gonads expressed more transposable element transposase, reverse transcriptase, and transposase-related genes than female. In total, 342, 782, and 7,845 genes were detected in intersex, male, and female transcriptomes, respectively. The female gonad expressed more genes than the male gonad, and more genes were involved in female gonadal development. Genes (sox9, foxl2) are differentially expressed in different sexes and may be important sex-related genes in Russian sturgeon. Sox9 genes are responsible for the development of male gonads and foxl2 for female gonads.

  20. The effects of Amax yeast fed to Persian sturgeon (Acipencer persicus larvae via bioenrichment of Daphnia magna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Lashkar Boloki

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the product of commercial live bakers’ yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae so called Amax on the growth and survival of Persian sturgeon( Acipenser persicus larvae via enrichment of Daphnia magna . The blends of Amax were used in three concentrations of 50, 100, 150 mg L-1 with Daphnia in suspension of broth. Every day Daphnia by one of concentrations was bioencapsulated for 10 hours and Persian sturgeon larvae were fed on it. The Acipenser persicus larvae were fed from Daphnia on the base of the 50 percent of their body weight five times a day. The control group was fed on not enriched Daphnia. The gained body weight in experimental treatments of sturgeon larvae had significant difference compared to control treatment (p0.05. The Amax had significant positive effects on survival rate in comparison with control treatment (p<0.05. The experiments indicated that the product of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a high ability to increase the growth parameters and feeding efficiency in cultivation system of sturgeon fish.

  1. Using a semi-natural stream to produce young sturgeons for conservation stocking: Maintaining natural selection during spawning and rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kynard, B.; Pugh, D.; Parker, T.; Kieffer, M.

    2011-01-01

    Young sturgeons used for conservation stocking are presently produced using the same methods used for commercial culture. To determine if young sturgeons could be produced without relaxing natural selection factors, we developed a semi-natural stream where we annually studied mating of wild shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) observed movement of gametes released freely during spawning, and estimated the number of larvae produced by various densities of spawned eggs. The stream had a bottom area of 18.8m2, a rubble-gravel bottom, and a mean bottom current at 0.6 depth during spawning of 48cms-1 (range, 17-126cms-1). Wild adults successfully spawned in the stream each year for 7years (2002-2008). Some females and males were more successful during spawning than others, suggesting an unequal fitness during spawning among wild individuals, which is different than the controlled spawning fitness of individuals in hatcheries. Male and female gametes spawned naturally must connect quickly in the fast current or fail, a selection factor absent in hatcheries. The number of larvae produced was inversely related to spawned egg densitym-2 (R2=0.65) and the maximum number of larvae produced was 8000-16000 (425-851larvaem-2 of bottom). Artificial spawning streams have the potential to contribute to sturgeon restoration. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  2. STUDY ABOUT CORPORAL INDICATORS IN JUVENILE OF RUSSIAN STURGEON (ACIPENSER GÜELDENSTAEDTI RAISED IN RECIRCULATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.T. SZELEI

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted on a population of Russian sturgeon (Acipenser güeldenstaedti age between 132-175 days, raised in recirculation system. Based on body weight, the population was divided into two categories: 50-100 g and 100-150 g. On the 42 individuals were performed determinations of weight, length, width, height and circumference. It was also determined the number of shields which comprise the five lines of shields, which are endowed with Russian sturgeons. On the basis of weighing and measurements taken have resulted following body indices: the index of profile (height, the index of thickness (width spinal, the fattening index (Fulton index, quality index and the index of fleshiness. At the lot of Russian sturgeons with average body weight of 127.55 ± 3.75 g, body length is 76.27% of total body length, head length is 20.11% of the total length of the body, caudal peduncle length measured 16.39% of total body length and length of snout reaches 45.56% of head length. Index of profile (height has highlighted that juvenile Russian sturgeon has an elongated body and a straight back.

  3. 75 FR 2102 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rule To List the Shovelnose Sturgeon as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... Sturgeon Recovery Coordinator, Billings Field Office, 2900 4th Avenue North, Room 301, Billings, MT 59101... week. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On September 22, 2009, we published a proposed rule (74 FR..., 2009 proposal required written requests for a public hearing to be submitted by November 6, 2009 (74...

  4. Genetic effects of habitat restoration in the Laurentian Great Lakes: an assessment of lake sturgeon origin and genetic diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie Marie Marranca; Amy Welsh; Roseman, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) have experienced significant habitat loss, resulting in reduced population sizes. Three artificial reefs were built in the Huron-Erie corridor in the Great Lakes to replace lost spawning habitat. Genetic data were collected to determine the source and numbers of adult lake sturgeon spawning on the reefs and to determine if the founder effect resulted in reduced genetic diversity. DNA was extracted from larval tail clips and 12 microsatellite loci were amplified. Larval genotypes were then compared to 22 previously studied spawning lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes to determine the source of the parental population. The effective number of breeders (Nb) was calculated for each reef cohort. The larval genotypes were then compared to the source population to determine if there were any losses in genetic diversity that are indicative of the founder effect. The St. Clair and Detroit River adult populations were found to be the source parental population for the larvae collected on all three artificial reefs. There were large numbers of contributing adults relative to the number of sampled larvae. There was no significant difference between levels of genetic diversity in the source population and larval samples from the artificial reefs; however, there is some evidence for a genetic bottleneck in the reef populations likely due to the founder effect. Habitat restoration in the Huron-Erie corridor is likely resulting in increased habitat for the large lake sturgeon population in the system and in maintenance of the population's genetic diversity.

  5. Then & Now: Research Pays Off for All Americans / Dr. Virginia Apgar: Keeping Score at Baby's First Cry | NIH ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Pays Off for All Americans Dr. Virginia Apgar: Keeping Score at Baby's First Cry Past Issues / ... Every baby born in America benefits from Dr. Apgar's pioneering work to identify quickly which newborns need ...

  6. Evaluate Potenial Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.; Hesse, Jay A. (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-02-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This report presents a summary of results from the 1997-2002 Phase II data collection and represents the end of phase II. From 1997 to 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon. A total of 1,785 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 77 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 25.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. Relative density of white sturgeon was highest in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River, with reduced densities of fish in Lower Granite Reservoir, and low densities the Salmon River. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir, the free-flowing Snake River and the Salmon River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. Total annual mortality rate was estimated to be 0.14 (95% confidence interval of 0.12 to 0.17). A total of 35 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 1999-2002. The movement of these fish ranged from 53 km (33 miles) downstream to 77 km (48 miles) upstream; however, 38.8 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No

  7. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1988-1989 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR (USA))

    1989-09-01

    We report on our progress from April 1988 through March 1989 on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Highlights of results of our work in the Dalles and Bonneville reservoirs are: using setlines, we caught 1,586 sturgeon in The Dalles Reservoir and 484 sturgeon in Bonneville Reservoir in 1988. Fork length of fish caught ranged from 34 cm to 274 cm. Of the fish caught we marked 1,248 in The Dalles Reservoir and 341 in Bonneville Reservoir. Of the fish marked in 1988, we recaptured 82 in The Dalles Reservoir and none in Bonneville Reservoir. We recaptured 89 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 35 fish marked in 1988 and 16 fish marked in 1987 in The Dalles Reservoir. Anglers recaptured 2 sturgeon marked in 1988 in Bonneville Reservoir. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base.

  8. Summary of Stock Identification Research on White Sturgeon of the Columbia River, 1985-1991 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setter, Ann L.; Brannon, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are a long-lived, primitive fish species which forage primarily along the river bottom of large river systems in the Pacific Northwest. Historically, as an anadromous species, they could distribute downstream to feed in the rich estuary or marine areas and then migrate back up the river to spawn. With the historic river becoming a series of flooded impoundments, sturgeon were denied open river access, but they appear to have been able to adapt to the altered environment. White sturgeon are found throughout the Columbia River and are thought to be successfully reproducing in some of the impoundments. In those reservoirs where little or no reproduction takes place, enhancement hatcheries may be an option for use in rebuilding isolated populations. However, the degree of stock specificity that exists in the Columbia River was unknown and precluded the use of the more abundant lower river fish as a common egg source to repropagate the upper river unless genetic similarity could be demonstrated among sturgeon throughout the river system. To resolve the issue, research was conducted to determine what level of genetic differentiation exists among sturgeon in the Columbia River system, using starch gel electrophoresis to enable a baseline of population genetic structure data to be assembled. A greater diversity in electrophoretic pattern was observed in the lower portions of the river. The bulk of the qualitative variability we noted was consistent throughout all sections of the river. Some specific quantitative differences were apparent between the areas we examined. Interpretation of the results was complicated by the fact that dam construction would tend to isolate and mix stocks by preventing the migration of fish returning upstream.

  9. Discovery and evaluation of candidate sex-determining genes and xenobiotics in the gonads of lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Matthew C; Jackson, James R; Dewoody, J Andrew

    2010-07-01

    Modern pyrosequencing has the potential to uncover many interesting aspects of genome evolution, even in lineages where genomic resources are scarce. In particular, 454 pyrosequencing of nonmodel species has been used to characterize expressed sequence tags, xenobiotics, gene ontologies, and relative levels of gene expression. Herein, we use pyrosequencing to study the evolution of genes expressed in the gonads of a polyploid fish, the lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens). Using 454 pyrosequencing of transcribed genes, we produced more than 125 MB of sequence data from 473,577 high-quality sequencing reads. Sequences that passed stringent quality control thresholds were assembled into 12,791 male contigs and 32,629 female contigs. Average depth of coverage was 4.2 x for the male assembly and 5.5x for the female assembly. Analytical rarefaction indicates that our assemblies include most of the genes expressed in lake sturgeon gonads. Over 86,700 sequencing reads were assigned gene ontologies, many to general housekeeping genes like protein, RNA, and ion binding genes. We searched specifically for sex determining genes and documented significant sex differences in the expression of two genes involved in animal sex determination, DMRT1 and TRA-1. DMRT1 is the master sex determining gene in birds and in medaka (Oryzias latipes) whereas TRA-1 helps direct sexual differentiation in nematodes. We also searched the lake sturgeon assembly for evidence of xenobiotic organisms that may exist as endosymbionts. Our results suggest that exogenous parasites (trematodes) and pathogens (protozoans) apparently have infected lake sturgeon gonads, and the trematodes have horizontally transferred some genes to the lake sturgeon genome.

  10. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N; Gross, Jackson A; Carlson, Thomas J; Skalski, John; Young, John V; Hawkins, Anthony D; Zeddies, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA). The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL) reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]). Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3) was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined.

  11. Denaturation and intermediates study of two sturgeon hemoglobins by n-dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariaeenejad, Shohreh; Habibi-Rezaei, Mehran; Kavousi, Kaveh; Jamili, Shahla; Fatemi, Mohammad Reza; Hong, Jun; Poursasan, Najmeh; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali. A.

    2013-01-01

    Varieties of hemoglobin (Hb) forms exist in fish, which are usually well adapted to the different ecological conditions or various habitats. In the current study, Hbs from two Sturgeon species of the Southern Caspian Sea Basin were purified and studied upon interaction with n-dodecyl trimethylammonium bromide (DTAB; as a cationic surfactant) by various methods including UV-visible absorption, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and ANS fluorescence spectrophotometry. The chemometric analysis of Hbs was investigated upon interaction with DTAB under titration, using UV-visible absorption spectra. The chemometric resolution techniques were used to determine the number of the components and mole fraction of the oxidized Hbs. These results provided the evidence for the existence of three different molecular components including native (N), intermediate (I) and denatured (D) in sturgeon Hbs. According to the distribution of intermediates, which were broadened in a range of DTAB concentration, the aggregation states, DLS experiments, and thermal stability (Tm obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)), the Acipenser stellatus Hb was more stable compared to Acipenser persicus Hb. These results demonstrate a significant relationship between the stability of fish Hbs and the habitat depth requirements. PMID:23142155

  12. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N; Gross, Jackson A; Carlson, Thomas J; Skalski, John; Young, John V; Hawkins, Anthony D; Zeddies, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA). The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL) reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]). Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3) was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined. PMID:27505029

  13. Vegetable Production in an Integrated Aquaponic System with Stellate Sturgeon and Spinach – Matador variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mihai Petrea

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the performances parameters, both in terms of quantity and quality, for spinach (Spinacia oleracea - Matador variety, growth in an aquaponic integrated system, along with stellate sturgeons (A. stellatus under three crops densities (V1 - 59 crops/m2, V2 – 48 crops/m2 and V3 – 39 crops/m2, by using hydroton as growing substrate, under a continuous flow hydraulic regime. The experiment was run in triplicate for each one of the three variants. The water quality was monitored and a series of growth parameters were determined, as follows: leaf area index (LAI, relative growth rate (RGR, average net assimilation rate (NAR, mean leaf area ratio (LAR and crop growth rate (CGR. Also the concentration of chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids, ash and dry matter for spinach leaf, from each of the three experimental variants was determined and compared with the one of marketable spinach, growth conventional, in soil. It can be concluded that statistical significant differences (p<0.05 were recorded in terms of growth performance and crops quality, between the experimental variants. Also the quality of spinach grown in aquaponic conditions, by using effluent derived from stellate sturgeon intensive aquaculture is similar to that of the marketable spinach, growth conventional.

  14. Hierarchical Bayesian Markov switching models with application to predicting spawning success of shovelnose sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holan, S.H.; Davis, G.M.; Wildhaber, M.L.; DeLonay, A.J.; Papoulias, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    The timing of spawning in fish is tightly linked to environmental factors; however, these factors are not very well understood for many species. Specifically, little information is available to guide recruitment efforts for endangered species such as the sturgeon. Therefore, we propose a Bayesian hierarchical model for predicting the success of spawning of the shovelnose sturgeon which uses both biological and behavioural (longitudinal) data. In particular, we use data that were produced from a tracking study that was conducted in the Lower Missouri River. The data that were produced from this study consist of biological variables associated with readiness to spawn along with longitudinal behavioural data collected by using telemetry and archival data storage tags. These high frequency data are complex both biologically and in the underlying behavioural process. To accommodate such complexity we developed a hierarchical linear regression model that uses an eigenvalue predictor, derived from the transition probability matrix of a two-state Markov switching model with generalized auto-regressive conditional heteroscedastic dynamics. Finally, to minimize the computational burden that is associated with estimation of this model, a parallel computing approach is proposed. ?? Journal compilation 2009 Royal Statistical Society.

  15. The effects of Amax yeast fed to Persian sturgeon (Acipencer persicus) larvae via bioenrichment of Daphnia magna

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Lashkar Boloki; Hojatollah Jafaryan; Moein Faramarzi; Hosein Adineh

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the product of commercial live bakers’ yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) so called Amax on the growth and survival of Persian sturgeon( Acipenser persicus ) larvae via enrichment of Daphnia magna . The blends of Amax were used in three concentrations of 50, 100, 150 mg L-1 with Daphnia in suspension of broth. Every day Daphnia by one of concentrations was bioencapsulated for 10 hours and Persian sturgeon larvae were fed on it. The Aci...

  16. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Juan C; Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1-6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon. PMID:27547524

  17. 76 FR 37767 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Corn Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ..., 2011 (76 FR 83-84, Docket No. APHIS-2010-0041), APHIS announced the availability of the Pioneer... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of... determination that a corn line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc., designated as event...

  18. Solar wind stream structure at large heliocentric distances Pioneer observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazis, P. R.

    1987-01-01

    Time profiles and histograms of plasma data from Pioneers 10 and 11 are examined for the period between 1975 and 1983. During this time, Pioneer 10 traveled between a heliocentric distance of 8.7 and 30.4 AU. The velocity structure of the solar wind at these heliocentric distances is found to have one of two distinct forms: approximately 70 percent of the time the solar wind has a nearly flat velocity profile. Occasionally, this flat velocity profile is accompanied by quasi-periodic variations in density and in thermal speed consistent with the concept that the 'corotating interaction regions' which are produced by the interaction of high- and low-speed streams at intermediate heliocentric distances are replaced by 'pressure regions' in the outer heliosphere. The remaining 30 percent of the time the solar wind is marked by large (50-200 km/s) long-term (30-120 days) shifts in the average solar wind velocity.

  19. A Quick and Dirty Approach to Verify the Pioneer Anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Unzicker, A; Schmidle, Daniel; Unzicker, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    We present source code for the computer algebra system Mathematica that analyzes the motion of the Pioneer spacecraft using the public available ephemeris data from JPL's website. Within 15 minutes, the reader can verify that the Pioneer anomalous acceleration a_p (1) exists in the order of magnitude of c H_0, (2) is not due to mismodeling of gravitational attraction, solar pressure or spacecraft attitude maneuvers. The simple code of about 100 lines may easily be extended by the reader to include further tests. Due to the limitations of our approach, we do not know (1) whether the unknown raw data were correctly processed to generate the trajectory files (2) how the apparent mismatch of ephemerides before 1990 had occurred.

  20. Support for the thermal origin of the Pioneer anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Turyshev, Slava G; Kinsella, Gary; Lee, Siu-Chun; Lok, Shing M; Ellis, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft is due to the recoil force associated with an anisotropic emission of thermal radiation off the vehicles. To this end, relying on the project and spacecraft design documentation, we constructed a comprehensive finite-element thermal model of the two spacecraft. Then, we numerically solve thermal conduction and radiation equations using the actual flight telemetry as boundary conditions. We use the results of this model to evaluate the effect of the thermal recoil force on the Pioneer 10 spacecraft at various heliocentric distances. We found that the magnitude, temporal behavior, and direction of the resulting thermal acceleration are all similar to the properties of the observed anomaly. As a novel element of our investigation, we develop a parameterized model for the thermal recoil force and estimate the coefficients of this model independently from navigational Doppler data. We find no statistically significan...

  1. Long range gravity tests and the Pioneer anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Reynaud, S; Jaekel, Marc-Thierry; Reynaud, Serge

    2006-01-01

    Experimental tests of gravity performed in the solar system show a good agreement with general relativity. The latter is however challenged by the Pioneer anomaly which might be pointing at some modification of gravity law at ranges of the order of the size of the solar system. As this question could be related to the puzzles of ``dark matter'' or ``dark energy'', it is important to test it with care. There exist metric extensions of general relativity which preserve the well verified equivalence principle while possibly changing the metric solution in the solar system. Such extensions have the capability to preserve compatibility with existing gravity tests while opening free space for the Pioneer anomaly. They constitute arguments for new mission designs and new space technologies as well as for having a new look at data of already performed experiments.

  2. Ernesto Genoni: Australia’s pioneer of biodynamic agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2014-01-01

    Ernesto Genoni (1885-1975) pioneered biodynamic agriculture in Australia. In 1928 he was the first of (ultimately) twelve Australians to join Rudolf Steiner’s Experimental Circle of Anthroposophical Farmers and Gardeners (ECAFG) which was based at the Goetheanum, Dornach, Switzerland. Ernesto trained as an artist for five years at Milan’s prestigious Brera Academy. He visited his brothers in Australia, broad-acre immigrant farmers in Western Australia, in 1912 and 1914 and during these visits...

  3. Structure of the Jovian envelope from Pioneer 10 gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. D.; Hubbard, W. B.; Slattery, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    Measurement of Jupiter's zonal harmonics J2 and J4 by the celestial mechanics experiment on Pioneer 10 may be used to obtain a constraint on the structure of the outer envelope of Jupiter, using an inversion technique which is insensitive to the structure of the deep interior for a plausible class of planetary models. The derived structure is consistent with an adiabatic, solar-composition envelope with a starting temperature of 250 plus or minus 40 K at 1 bar pressure.

  4. Pioneer 10 studies of interplanetary shocks at large heliocentric distances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalov, J. D.; Wolfe, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    Pioneer 10 Ames plasma analyzer data collected in the 6.1 to 12.6 AU range of heliocentric distances (November 1974 to April 1977) have been examined for interplanetary shock waves. Eighteen shock signatures have been identified, with four of these being of the reverse type and the remainder the forward type. Sonic Mach numbers in the range from 3 to 10 are estimated for these events.

  5. Radio communication systems simulation: from the pioneers to the present

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Penin, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Simulation plays an important role in computer-aided analysis and design of communication systems. This paper is related with an historical perspective of the Radio Communication Systems (RCS) simulation from the early history in the 50's of 20th century to the present. In describing the history of simulation five distinct periods may be identified: early history, pioneering, innovation, revolution and evolution. Digital signal processing and programming languages were decisive in the simulat...

  6. Pedro Paulet: Peruvian Pioneer of the Space Age

    OpenAIRE

    Canales Romero, Martin Juan

    2010-01-01

    1969 was the year when man stepped on the Moon. Many space pioneers have contributed to carry out the major endeavor achieved by humankind. Pedro Paulet (July 2, 1874 in Arequipa, Peru – 1945 in Buenos Aires, Argentina) was a Peruvian scientist who in 1895 conducted experiments on a rocket motor made of vanadium steel that burned a combination of nitrogen peroxide and gasoline. There are indications that actually Paulet had invented the rocket engine in the Sorbonne University, France, where ...

  7. Physics Engineering in the Study of the Pioneer Anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Turyshev, Slava G

    2007-01-01

    The Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft yielded the most precise navigation in deep space to date. However, their radio-metric tracking data received from the distances between 20--70 astronomical units from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, Doppler frequency drift. The drift is a blue frequency shift that can be interpreted as a sunward acceleration of a_P = (8.74 +/- 1.33) x 10^{-10} m/s^2 for each particular spacecraft. This signal has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. Recently new Pioneer 10 and 11 radio-metric Doppler and flight telemetry data became available. The newly available Doppler data set is significantly enlarged when compared to the data used in previous investigations and is expected to be the primary source for the investigation of the anomaly. In addition, the flight telemetry files, original project documentation, and newly developed software tools are now used to reconstruct the engineering history of both spacec...

  8. The Pioneer Anomaly: Seeking an explanation in newly recovered data

    CERN Document Server

    Toth, V T; Toth, Viktor T; Turyshev, Slava G

    2006-01-01

    The Pioneer 10/11 spacecraft yielded a very accurate navigation that was limited only by a small, anomalous frequency drift of their carrier signals received by the NASA Deep Space Network (DSN). This discrepancy, evident in the data for both spacecraft, was interpreted as an approximately constant acceleration and has become known as the Pioneer anomaly. The origin of this anomaly is as of yet unknown. Recent efforts to explain the effect included a search for independent confirmation, analyses of conventional mechanisms, even ideas rooted in new physics and proposals for a dedicated mission. We assert that before any discussion of new physics and/or a dedicated mission can take place, one must analyze the entire set of radiometric Doppler data received from Pioneers 10 and 11. We report on our efforts to recover and utilize the complete set of radio Doppler and telemetry records of both spacecraft. The collection of radio Doppler data for both missions is now complete; we are ready to begin its evaluation. ...

  9. The Pioneer Anomaly in the Light of New Data

    CERN Document Server

    Turyshev, Slava G

    2009-01-01

    The radio-metric tracking data received from the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft from the distances between 20-70 astronomical units from the Sun has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, blue-shifted Doppler frequency drift that limited the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction for these vehicles. This drift was interpreted as a sunward acceleration of a_P = (8.74+/-1.33)x10^{-10} m/s^2 for each particular spacecraft. This signal has become known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly is still being investigated. Recently new Pioneer 10 and 11 radio-metric Doppler and flight telemetry data became available. The newly available Doppler data set is much larger when compared to the data used in previous investigations and is the primary source for new investigation of the anomaly. In addition, the flight telemetry files, original project documentation, and newly developed software tools are now used to reconstruct the engineering history of spacecraft. With the help of this informat...

  10. The Analysis of the Value Chain of Beijing Sturgeon Industry%北京市鲟鱼产业价值链分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄薇; 史亚军

    2013-01-01

      为了促进北京市鲟鱼产业的快速发展和优化北京市鲟鱼产业价值链,运用现场调研与调查问卷的方式,对北京市13个区县的40家鲟鱼养殖场和2个鲟鱼繁育基地、13个大型水产批发市场及北京朝阳区、海淀区、西城区以及东城区近20家大中型超市消费者进行了调研。研究表明:经过近20年的发展,北京市鲟鱼产业价值链已初步形成,但是在鲟鱼优良品种、鲟鱼养殖技术、鲟鱼深加工、鲟鱼批发与零售、鲟鱼自有品牌建设以及鲟鱼产品的销售和推广方面仍有很大的不足,需要不断地优化和完善北京市鲟鱼产业价值链的各个环节。基于此,以调研所获取的第一手资料为基础,对北京市鲟鱼产业价值链各个环节进行分析,并提出优化北京市鲟鱼产业价值链的七大相应措施,从而带动北京市鲟鱼产业的发展。%In order to promote the rapid development of Beijing sturgeon industry and optimize the industrial value chain of the sturgeon in Beijing, this paper used the survey questionnaire method to research 40 sturgeon farms in 13 districts and counties in Beijing and 2 sturgeon breeding base, 13 large aquatic products wholesale market, and the consumers of nearly 20 large and medium-sized supermarket in Chaoyang District, Haidian District, Xicheng District, Dongcheng District in Beijing. The research showed that after nearly 20 years of the development, the value chain of Beijing sturgeon industry has been initially formed, but the superior varieties of the sturgeon, sturgeon farming techniques, deep processing of the sturgeon, the wholesale and retail, sturgeon building its own brand as well as sturgeon product sales and promotion still exist big problems. It needs to constantly optimize and improve the various segments of the value chain of Beijing sturgeon industry. Based on this, this paper was to take the first-hand data as the foundation, carries

  11. Acute and chronic sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc in laboratory water-only exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Contributions by Wang, Ning; Calfee, Robin D.; Beahan, Erinn; Brumbaugh, William G.; Dorman, Rebecca A.; Hardesty, Doug K.; Kunz, James L.; Little, Edward E.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Puglis, Holly J.

    2014-01-01

    White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) are experiencing poor recruitment in the trans boundary reach of the upper Columbia River in eastern Washington State. Limited toxicity data indicated that early life stages of white sturgeon are sensitive to metals. In acute 4-day (d) exposures with larval white sturgeon, previous studies have reported that the 4-day median lethal concentrations (LC50) based on biotic ligand model (BLM) normalization for copper were below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency national recommended acute water-quality criterion. In previously published chronic 66-d exposures starting with newly fertilized eggs of white sturgeon, 20-percent lethal effect concentrations (LC20s) for copper, cadmium, or zinc generally were within a factor of two of the chronic values of the most sensitive fish species in the databases of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water-quality criteria (WQC) for the three metals. However, there were some uncertainties in the chronic exposures previously performed with white sturgeon, including (1) low control survival (37 percent), (2) more control fish tested in each replicate compared to other treatments, (3) limited replication of treatments (n=2), (4) lack of reported growth data (such as dry weight), and (5) wide dilution factors for exposure concentrations (6- to 8-fold dilutions). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency concluded that additional studies are needed to generate more toxicity data to better define lethal and sublethal toxicity thresholds for metals for white sturgeon. The objective of the study was to further evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium, copper, lead, or zinc to early life stages of white sturgeon in water-only exposures. Toxicity tests also were performed with commonly tested rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under similar test conditions to determine the relative sensitivity between white sturgeon and rainbow trout to these metals. Toxicity data generated from

  12. The Multimedia Dictionary of American Sign Language: Learning Lessons About Language, Technology, and Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sherman

    2003-01-01

    Reports on the the Multimedia Dictionary of American Sign language, which was was conceived in he late 1980s as a melding of the pioneering work in American Sign language lexicography that had been carried out decades earlier and the newly emerging computer technologies that were integrating use of graphical user-interface designs, rapidly…

  13. Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysate in unwashed fish mince.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikoo, Mehdi; Benjakul, Soottawat; Xu, Xueming

    2015-08-15

    Antioxidant and cryoprotective effects of Amur sturgeon skin gelatin hydrolysates prepared using different commercial proteases in unwashed fish mince were investigated. Gelatin hydrolysates prepared using either Alcalase or Flavourzyme, were effective in preventing lipid oxidation as evidenced by the lower thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances formation. Gelatin hydrolysates were able to retard protein oxidation as indicated by the retarded protein carbonyl formation and lower loss in sulfhydryl content. In the presence of gelatin hydrolysates, unwashed mince had higher transition temperature of myosin and higher enthalpy of myosin and actin as determined by differential scanning calorimetry. Based on low field proton nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, gelatin hydrolysates prevented the displacement of water molecules between the different compartments, thus stabilizing the water associated with myofibrils in unwashed mince induced by repeated freeze-thawing. Oligopeptides in gelatin hydrolysates more likely contributed to the cryoprotective effect. Thus, gelatin hydrolysate could act as both antioxidant and cryoprotectant in unwashed fish mince.

  14. Assessment of essential elements in the wild Beluga Sturgeon (Huso huso caviar from Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Vali Hosseini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the concentration of Calcium (Ca, Cobalt (Co, Chromium (Cr, Copper (Cu, Iron (Fe, Potassium (K, Magnesium (Mg, Manganese (Mn, Selenium (Se and Zinc (Zn as essential metals, were determined in caviar of wild beluga sturgeon caught from the Caspian Sea in March 2012. Potassium (4885.51± 17.81 µg g-1 and Magnesium (346.61± 6.6 µg g-1 had the highest concentration and Cobalt and Manganese levels were less than 0.01 mg kg-1 wet weight. The mean concentration of Copper and Zinc in the caviar samples were under the permissible limits proposed by the UK’s Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Foods. The caviar maximum allowable daily consumption rate was calculated. However, the health risks from caviar consumption are uncertain because the amount of caviar consumed by heavy users is not known.

  15. Review of BPA Funded Sturgeon, Resident Fish and Wildlife Projects, 1989/1990.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-12-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) held a public meeting on November 6-7, 1990, for the purpose of review, coordination, and consultation of the BPA-funded projects for sturgeon, resident fish, and wildlife in the Columbia River Basin (Basin). The comments received after the meeting were favorable and the participants agreed that the meeting was stimulating and productive. The information exchanged should lead to better coordination with other projects throughout the Basin. The following pages list the projects by title, the project leaders and BPA's project officers, and an abstract of each leaders presentation. These summaries are in some cases preliminary; they are subject to change and should not be quoted without consulting the project leader.

  16. Sequencing and De Novo Assembly of the Gonadal Transcriptome of the Endangered Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huamei Yue

    Full Text Available The Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis is endangered through anthropogenic activities including over-fishing, damming, shipping, and pollution. Controlled reproduction has been adopted and successfully conducted for conservation. However, little information is available on the reproductive regulation of the species. In this study, we conducted de novo transcriptome assembly of the gonad tissue to create a comprehensive dataset for A. sinensis.The Illumina sequencing platform was adopted to obtain 47,333,701 and 47,229,705 high quality reads from testis and ovary cDNA libraries generated from three-year-old A. sinensis. We identified 86,027 unigenes of which 30,268 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 28,281 were annotated in the Swiss-prot database. Among the annotated unigenes, 26,152 and 7,734 unigenes, respectively, were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups. In addition, 12,557 unigenes were mapped to 231 pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database. A total of 1,896 unigenes, potentially differentially expressed between the two gonad types, were found, with 1,894 predicted to be up-regulated in ovary and only two in testis. Fifty-five potential gametogenesis-related genes were screened in the transcriptome and 34 genes with significant matches were found. Besides, more paralogs of 11 genes in three gene families (sox, apolipoprotein and cyclin were found in A. sinensis compared to their orthologs in the diploid Danio rerio. In addition, 12,151 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs were detected.This study provides the first de novo transcriptome analysis currently available for A. sinensis. The transcriptomic data represents the fundamental resource for future research on the mechanism of early gametogenesis in sturgeons. The SSRs identified in this work will be valuable for assessment of genetic diversity of wild fish and genealogy management of

  17. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  18. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Population Genetics and Early Life History Study, January 1, 1986 to December 31, 1986, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1986-12-01

    The 1986 Columbia River white sturgeon investigations continued to assess genetic variability of sturgeon populations isolated in various areas of the Columbia River, and to examine environmental factors in the habitat that may affect early life history success. Baseline data have been collected for three character sets. Twenty-eight loci have been analyzed for differences using electrophoresis, snout shapes were assessed for multivariate distinction, and scute counts have been examined as an index of variability. Fish that reside in the mid-Columbia and lower river have been sufficiently characterized by electrophoresis to compare with up-river areas. To date, few electrophoretic differences have been identified. However, Lake Roosevelt sturgeon sample size will be increased to determine if some of the observed differences from lower river fish are significant. Snout shape has been shown to be easily quantifiable using the digitizing technique. Scute count data initially indicate that variability exists within as well as between areas. Patterns of differentiation of one or more of these data sets may be used to formulate stock transplant guidelines essential for proper management or enhancement of this species. The historical habitat available to sturgeon in the Columbia River has changed through the development of hydroelectric projects. Dams have reduced the velocity and turbulence, and increased light penetration in the water column from less silt. These changes have affected the ability of sturgeon to feed and have made them more vulnerable to predation, which appear to have altered the ability of populations isolated in the reservoirs to sustain themselves. Present studies support the theory that both the biological and physical habitat characteristics of the Columbia River are responsible for reduced sturgeon survival, and justify consideration of enhancement initiatives above Bonneville to improve sturgeon reproductive success.

  19. Shifting distributions of adult Atlantic sturgeon amidst post-industrialization and future impacts in the Delaware River: a maximum entropy approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Breece

    Full Text Available Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus experienced severe declines due to habitat destruction and overfishing beginning in the late 19(th century. Subsequent to the boom and bust period of exploitation, there has been minimal fishing pressure and improving habitats. However, lack of recovery led to the 2012 listing of Atlantic sturgeon under the Endangered Species Act. Although habitats may be improving, the availability of high quality spawning habitat, essential for the survival and development of eggs and larvae may still be a limiting factor in the recovery of Atlantic sturgeon. To estimate adult Atlantic sturgeon spatial distributions during riverine occupancy in the Delaware River, we utilized a maximum entropy (MaxEnt approach along with passive biotelemetry during the likely spawning season. We found that substrate composition and distance from the salt front significantly influenced the locations of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River. To broaden the scope of this study we projected our model onto four scenarios depicting varying locations of the salt front in the Delaware River: the contemporary location of the salt front during the likely spawning season, the location of the salt front during the historic fishery in the late 19(th century, an estimated shift in the salt front by the year 2100 due to climate change, and an extreme drought scenario, similar to that which occurred in the 1960's. The movement of the salt front upstream as a result of dredging and climate change likely eliminated historic spawning habitats and currently threatens areas where Atlantic sturgeon spawning may be taking place. Identifying where suitable spawning substrate and water chemistry intersect with the likely occurrence of adult Atlantic sturgeon in the Delaware River highlights essential spawning habitats, enhancing recovery prospects for this imperiled species.

  20. Optimizing the co-feeding strategy of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae using Artemia nauplii and formulated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Agh

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available High mortality and labor costs are associated with first-feeding sturgeon culture, particularly during the period of dietary transition from live to formulated feed. Therefore we investigated the effects of various feeding treatments on the survival and growth of the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus larvae during a 20-day culture period. Three replicate groups (250 fish/replicate of first-feeding larvae were fed according to four main feeding regimes: (1 live food (live nauplii of brine shrimp Artemia urmiana; (2 indirect transition (5 days live food followed by gradual transition to formulated diet; (3 direct transition (using different combinations of live and formulated diet from the start feeding onwards; (4 formulated feed (FD from the start feeding. Results indicated that growth and survival were higher in the indirect transition feeding regime than in other regimes. Based on our study, co-feeding of A. persicus should start five days after prior feeding with live food.

  1. 77 FR 35959 - Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc.; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Atlas Pipeline Mid-Continent WestTex, LLC; Pioneer Natural Resources...Tex, LLC (Atlas) and Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc. (Pioneer), filed in the above referenced..., Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc., 5205 North O'Connor Blvd., Suite 200, Irving, TX 75039, by...

  2. Tall Tales: The Simpsons deconstructing the american myth

    OpenAIRE

    Hanna Betina Götz; Sergio Romanelli

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the episode Tall Tales from the series The Simpsons that revisits legends of the American folklore. The TV series pays homage to both the time of the pioneers in their travels to the Far West in the nineteenth century, as well as to one of the most iconic and folk characters of the American culture from that period: the Hobo was a beggar, a figure of the American folklore during the Great Depression. It is also interesting to focus on the American imaginary in ord...

  3. Tall Tales: The Simpsons deconstructing the american myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Betina Götz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the episode Tall Tales from the series The Simpsons that revisits legends of the American folklore. The TV series pays homage to both the time of the pioneers in their travels to the Far West in the nineteenth century, as well as to one of the most iconic and folk characters of the American culture from that period: the Hobo was a beggar, a figure of the American folklore during the Great Depression. It is also interesting to focus on the American imaginary in order to understand how the authors of The Simpsons perform these recreations in contemporary times

  4. Parasitic worms and their histopathological effects in four sturgeon species from the southwest shores of the Caspian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Noei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study conducted to provide the status of parasite communities of four sturgeon species viz. Acipenser stellatus, A. gueldenstaedtii, A. nudiventris, and Huso huso in the southwest of the Caspian Sea and their histopathological effects on the examined fishes. For this purpose a total of 93 individuals of four sturgeon species were caught in two fisheries regions from the southwest of the Caspian Sea (Guilan Province, Iran from March 2010 to May 2011. The histological slides of the infested tissues of the examined fishes were prepared for study of the histopathological effects of the parasites. Classical epidemiological variables, including mean intensity, prevalence, abundance and dominance were calculated for overall samples, grouped by season, geographical region, and sex. Five worm species, including two nematodes (Cucullanus   sphaerocephalus and Eustrongylides excisus larvae, one cestode (Bothrimonus fallax, one acanthocephalans (Leptorhynchoide plagicephalus and one digenean trematode (Skrjabinopsolus   semiarmatus were found in examined sturgeons and their histopathological effects on the fish tissues were assessed. Based on the results, the diversity of the parasites (including freshwater ones in the southern part of the Caspian Sea have decreased since the time of the first study in 1972. This may be related to unfavorable conditions in freshwater ecosystems.

  5. Contributions to understanding the fall migration of beluga sturgeon (Huso huso on the Lower Danube River, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin M. Bâdiliţă

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Within this article the authors present the processing of an informational volume, unique on bothnational and international plan, referring to sturgeons’ migration on Danube. In order to present the results ofthe monitoring activity, carried out by a researching mix team of the above mentioned institutes, we chose themarine sturgeon beluga (Huso huso. The objective is to offer exclusive results regarding the migration of thissturgeon species in order to elaborate some protection and conservation measures in the future, taking intoconsideration the fact that this species is mentioned starting April the 1st 1998 in the 2nd axis of The Conventionof International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora. This paper is based on Lower Danube’smonitoring section, covered between km 175-375, using specific techniques (DKTB station to monitor theichtyofauna, especially sturgeons, through remote sensing, with ultrasonic tags in different hydromorphologicalconditions, file number: no. A100773/30.10.2012. The article presents the results that come to improve theexistent informational volume throughout the identification of some migrating routes of the sturgeon (belugaspecies directly correlated to water temperature, swimming depth and geodesic localization as well asindirectly with the average velocity of movement. The exceptional character of this paper consists in the factthat until now, in Romania, there has not been possible the accomplishment of sturgeons’ migration monitoringon a significant number of individuals and on a distance of more than 400 km, using ultrasonic tags.

  6. Identification and Characterization of GH Receptor and Serum GH-binding Protein in Chinese Sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yong LIAO; Shang-Quan ZHU

    2004-01-01

    Chinese sturgeon, a kind of cartilage ganoid, has a history of over one billion years and it is called the living fossil of aquatic biology since it keeps some evolutionary trace. Here, we characterized the growth hormone receptor (GHR) and serum growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) of Chinese sturgeon. It was shown that GHR was expressed in various tissues, mainly in hepatic, kidney and intestine tissues. GHR on the hepatic membrane has high and specific affinity for bream GH (brGH) and Scatchard analysis of the binding data showed a single class of high affinity binding site with an association constant Ka of 3.1×109 M-1. A specific band around 94 kD was detected by SDS-PAGE in cross-linking studies of membrane receptors. After incubation of Chinese sturgeon serum with 125I-brGH, a 125I-brGH-GHBP complex was identified by Sephadex G-75, indicating that in the serum exists GHBP specially binding to brGH.

  7. Influence of Glutamine Supplementation on Motility and Fertilization Success of Frozen-Thawed Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) Sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramli, M S; Golshahi, K; Nazari, R M; Golpour, A; Aramli, S

    2016-08-01

    Amino acids have an important biological role for the prevention of cell damage during cryopreservation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of glutamine on post-thaw sperm motility and fertilization success in the Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). Sperm collected from six fish was cryopreserved in extenders containing different glutamine concentrations (2.5, 5 and 10 mm). Sperm samples diluted at the ratio of 1 : 1 using the extenders were subjected to cryopreservation. After dilution, the sperm suspensions were sucked into 250-μl straws; the straws were placed on the tray, frozen in nitrogen vapour and plunged into liquid nitrogen. Then, sperm were thawed in a water bath at 40°C for 5 s and used for analysis. Our results revealed that an increase in the concentration of glutamine caused a significant increase in the motility percentage, curvilinear velocity (VCL) and also fertilization success in the Persian sturgeon (p < 0.05). Comparing all concentrations of glutamine, the best concentration for sperm motility and fertilization rate was 10 mm. In addition, higher post-thaw motility percentage, VCL, and fertilization and hatching rates were obtained with the extender at the concentration of 10 mm (p < 0.05). The findings of this study showed that glutamine was of greater benefit to Persian sturgeon sperm motility during frozen-thawed process.

  8. Impact of the Three Gorges Dam on the spawning stock and natural reproduction of Chinese sturgeon in Changjiang River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Lin, Pengcheng; Li, Mingzheng; Duan, Zhonghua; Liu, Huanzhang

    2016-09-01

    Chinese sturgeon ( Acipenser sinensis) is the flagship species of the Changjiang River. The migration route of this species is blocked by the first dam, the Gezhou Dam, and its reproduction is affected by the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), one of the largest dams in the world. We studied the impact of the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) since 2003 on the spawning stock and the natural reproduction of the Chinese sturgeon by using our monitoring data from 1997 to 2013. Results indicate that TGR impoundment has delayed the first spawning dates of the fish from middle-late October to late November, decreased the amount of spawning activities from twice to only once each year, and significantly reduced egg production. In particular, the fish did not demonstrate any spawning activities in 2013. Therefore, TGR impoundment significantly affects the natural reproduction of the fish downstream of the TGD. The spawning stock size of the fish is also predicted to further decrease in the future, which will lead to a risk of population extinction. Ecological regulations must be imposed on decreasing the water temperature to 20°C before mid-October and increasing water discharge downstream of the TGD in October to induce spawning of the Chinese sturgeon.

  9. The Pioneer's Anomalous Doppler Drift as a Berry Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Rosales, J L

    2004-01-01

    The detected anomalous frequency drift acceleration in Pioneer's radar data finds its explanation in a Berry phase that obtains the quantum state of a photon that propagates within an expanding space-time. The clock acceleration is just the adiabatic expansion rate and an analogy between the effect and Foucault's experiment is fully suggested. In this sense, light rays play a similar role in the expanding space than Foucault's Pendulum does while determining Earth's rotation. On the other hand, one could speculate about a suitable future experiment at "laboratory" scales able to measure the local cosmological expansion rate using the procedure of outlined in this paper.

  10. SNAP 19 Pioneer F and G. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-06-01

    The generator developed for the Pioneer mission evolved from the SNAP 19 RTG`s launched aboard the NIMBUS III spacecraft. In order to satisfy the power requirements and environment of earth escape trajectory, significant modifications were made to the thermoelectric converter, heat source, and structural configuration. Specifically, a TAGS 2N thermoelectric couple was designed to provide higher efficiency and improved long term power performance, and the electrical circuitry was modified to yield very low magnetic field from current flow in the RTG. A new heat source was employed to satisfy operational requirements and its integration with the generator required alteration to the method of providing support to the fuel capsule.

  11. Geometrical rectification of spin-scan images from Pioneer 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, R. N.; Burke, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Images of Saturn received from Pioneer 11 suffer from geometrical distortions due to the curvilinear scan lines and the unequal sampling intervals in orthogonal directions, which are inherent in spin-scan imaging. In this paper geometrical image rectification by polynomial transformation based on control points is discussed. Factors that affect the accuracy of reconstruction are shown to include the spatial distribution and spatial density of control points, and the order of the polynomial distortion model. A computer implementation of the technique is described.

  12. On the gravitational origin of the Pioneer Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Siutsou, I. A.; Tomilchik, L. M.

    2009-01-01

    From Doppler tracking data and data on circular motion of astronomical objects we obtain a metric of the Pioneer Anomaly. The metric resolves the issue of manifest absence of anomaly acceleration in orbits of the outer planets and extra-Pluto objects of the Solar system. However, it turns out that the energy-momentum tensor of matter, which generates such a gravitational field in GR, violates energy dominance conditions. At the same time the equation of state derived from the energy-momentum ...

  13. Remote-sensing of Riverine Environments Utilized by Spawning Pallid Sturgeon Using a Suite of Hydroacoustic Tools and High-resolution DEMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, C. M.; Jacobson, R. B.; DeLonay, A. J.; Braaten, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirynchus albus) inhabits sandy-bedded rivers in the Mississippi River basin including the Missouri and Lower Yellowstone Rivers and has experienced decline generally associated with the fragmentation and alteration of these river systems. Knowledge gaps in the life history of the pallid sturgeon include lack of an understanding of conditions needed for successful reproduction and recruitment. We employed hydroacoustic tools to investigate habitats utilized by spawning pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River in Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, and Nebraska, and the Yellowstone River in Montana and North Dakota USA from 2008-2013. Reproductive pallid sturgeon were tracked to suspected spawning locations by field crews using either acoustic or radio telemetry, a custom mobile mapping application, and differential global positioning systems (DGPS). Female pallid sturgeon were recaptured soon after spawning events to validate that eggs had been released. Habitats were mapped at presumed spawning and embryo incubation sites using a multibeam echosounder system (MBES), sidescan sonar, acoustic Doppler current profiler, an acoustic camera and either a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK GPS) or DGPS. High-resolution DEM's and velocimetric maps were gridded from at a variety of scales from 0.10 to 5 meters for characterization and visualization at spawning and presumed embryo incubation sites. Pallid sturgeon spawning sites on the Missouri River are deep (6-8 meters) and have high current velocities (>1.5 meters per second). These sites are also characterized by high turbidity and high rates of bedload sediment transport in the form of migrating sand dunes. Spawning on the channelized Lower Missouri River occurs on or adjacent to coarse angular bank revetment or bedrock. Collecting biophysical information in these environmental conditions is challenging, and there is a need to characterize the substrate and substrate condition at a scale

  14. A NEO-NEWTONIAN EXPLANATION OF THE PIONEER ANOMALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Greaves

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available For over 20 years NASA has struggled to nd an explanation for the Pioneer anomaly, an unmodelled weak acceleration towards the sun (= 8:5 x 10-10 m s-2, observed in deep space probes Pioneer 10, 11, Galileo and Ulysses (Anderson et al. 1998, 1999; Katz 1999. No consensus explanation has been given since the anomaly was rst announced, suggesting that new physics is involved. The riddle may be solved if we assume that c, the speed of light, is not a universal constant. Newtonian mechanics, together with the hypothesis by C spedes-Cur (2002 that the index of refraction is a function of the gravitational energy density of space, leads to values of c slightly higher for interstellar space dominated by the primordial energy density p* due to galaxies and far away stars, far from the gravitational in uence of Earth, Moon, and Sun. The value derived for the index of refraction of space (n0 < 1, implies a Doppler shift of the radio signal received from the probes which results in a decrease of the frequency received at Earth and interpreted as a weak acceleration towards the Sun.

  15. Postmitotic specification of Drosophila insulinergic neurons from pioneer neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Miguel-Aliaga

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Insulin and related peptides play important and conserved functions in growth and metabolism. Although Drosophila has proved useful for the genetic analysis of insulin functions, little is known about the transcription factors and cell lineages involved in insulin production. Within the embryonic central nervous system, the MP2 neuroblast divides once to generate a dMP2 neuron that initially functions as a pioneer, guiding the axons of other later-born embryonic neurons. Later during development, dMP2 neurons in anterior segments undergo apoptosis but their posterior counterparts persist. We show here that surviving posterior dMP2 neurons no longer function in axonal scaffolding but differentiate into neuroendocrine cells that express insulin-like peptide 7 (Ilp7 and innervate the hindgut. We find that the postmitotic transition from pioneer to insulin-producing neuron is a multistep process requiring retrograde bone morphogenetic protein (BMP signalling and four transcription factors: Abdominal-B, Hb9, Fork Head, and Dimmed. These five inputs contribute in a partially overlapping manner to combinatorial codes for dMP2 apoptosis, survival, and insulinergic differentiation. Ectopic reconstitution of this code is sufficient to activate Ilp7 expression in other postmitotic neurons. These studies reveal striking similarities between the transcription factors regulating insulin expression in insect neurons and mammalian pancreatic beta-cells.

  16. Festival Works to Save Pioneering Dances by Black Choreographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biemiller, Lawrence

    1988-01-01

    The American Dance Festival has begun a three-year effort to encourage scholars to delve into the history and influences of black modern dance, and the Ford Foundation has promised $300,000 to the project. Some express concern about separating black choreography from other American dance. (MSE)

  17. Highlights of 50 years of Aerojet, a pioneering American rocket company, 1942-1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Frank H.; James, George S.

    1995-05-01

    The "pre-history" of Aerojet is recalled, followed by a survey of Aerojet's solid-fuel and liquid-fuel JATOs (Jet-Assisted Take-Off) to aircraft prime powerplants, missile sustainer motors, boosters, sounding rocket engines and, finally, nuclear powered rocket engines (NERVA).

  18. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Implementation Plan and Schedule; 2005-2010, Technical Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Paul

    2007-03-01

    Kootenai River white sturgeon have been declining for at least 50 years and extinction of the wild population is now imminent (Paragamian et al. 2005). Only 630 adults were estimated to remain in 2002 from a population ten times that size just 20 years ago. Significant recruitment of young sturgeon has not been observed since the early 1970s and consistent annual recruitment has not been seen since the 1950s. The remaining wild population consists of a cohort of large, old fish that is declining by about 9% per year as fish die naturally and are not replaced. At this rate, the wild population will disappear around the year 2040. Numbers have already reached critical low levels where genetic and demographic risks are acute. The Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team was convened in 1994, provided a draft Recovery Plan in 1996 and the first complete Recovery Plan for Kootenai River white sturgeon in 1999 (USFWS 1996, 1999). The Plan outlined a four part strategy for recovery, including: (1) measures to restore natural recruitment, (2) use of conservation aquaculture to prevent extinction, (3) monitoring survival and recovery, and (4) updating and revising recovery plan criteria and objectives as new information becomes available. Sturgeon recovery efforts are occurring against a backdrop of a broader ecosystem protection and restoration program for the Kootenai River ecosystem. With abundance halving time of approximately 8 years, the Kootenai River white sturgeon population is rapidly dwindling, leaving managers little time to act. Decades of study consistently indicate that recruitment failure occurs between embryo and larval stages. This assertion is based on four key observations. First, almost no recruitment has occurred during the last 30 years. Second, thousands of naturally produced white sturgeon embryos, most viable, have been collected over the past decade, resulting from an estimated 9 to 20 spawning events each year. Third, Kootenai River white

  19. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were "global" in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others. PMID:26689938

  20. Competition between selenomethionine and methionine absorption in the intestinal tract of green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L-Selenomethionine (SeMet) is a dominant form of selenium (Se) found in organisms at all levels of aquatic food chains and a key source of Se bioaccumulation and ecotoxicity. In mammals, intestinal absorption of SeMet is at least partly via the Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transporter. The mechanism of SeMet absorption and competitive effects of other dietary components on SeMet absorption in fish are unknown. Thus the in vitro uptake rates of L-methionine (Met) and the competitive effect of SeMet on Met absorption, an indicator that SeMet uses the same nutrient transporter(s) for absorption, in the various regions of the green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris) intestine were investigated using intact tissues (a modified everted sleeve method). Intestinal tissue was incubated in Ringer's solution containing 0-10 mmol L-1 Met or SeMet (n = 5 for each substrate's concentration and intestinal region), respectively, as well as constant tracer levels of isotope-labeled Met. The data indicate that SeMet uptake was mediated by the same transporter(s) as Met and that the absorption kinetics were similar for both substrates. When there were differences in absorption they appeared to be mostly due to higher permeability (passive uptake) of the tissue for Met than for SeMet, particularly in the pyloric caeca (PC) and distal intestine (DI). Maximum rates of absorption, on the other hand, tended to be higher for SeMet than Met in the mid intestine and DI, whereas differences in affinity for the transporters varied between these tissues but were very similar in the PC. These differences may be due to differences in regional intestinal characteristics such as amount of mucus secreted and degree of tissue contraction, and/or substrate differences regarding solubility in and movement through the mucus, influence on tissue contraction, permeability through membranes or between cells, intracellular metabolism, as well as basolateral transport. Interestingly, an increasing proximal

  1. RESEARCH REGARDING THE EVOLUTION OF CORPORAL WEIGHTES AND FOOD CONVERSSION ON JUVENILE OF SIBERIAN STURGEON (Acipenser baeri RAISED IN RECIRCULATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BURA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The research was performed within the recirculating aquaculture system for sturgeon growth, in Banat's Universsity of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine from Timisoara, on 2851 juveniles of Siberian sturgeons (Acipenser baeri, aged between 132-175 days. Juveniles were maintained in 4 tanks with volume of 5.63 m3, fed with granulated feed of 2 mm (44 & 22% PB and GB. Every 2 weeks the weight and body length was determinate on an effective of 30 individuals from each tank. Based on the obtained body weight, it has been established the food quantity used and bioproductive indicators. Having the weight differences between the individuals of a Siberian sturgeon population, it is needed at certain time intervals to practice assortment by body development. At the age of 175 days, Siberian sturgeons reached an average body weight between 90.13 ± 4.56 g and 197.63 ± 7.22 g and average body length between 28.73 ± 0.43 cm and 37.55 ± 0.38 cm. Individual values of minimum and maximum body weight varied between 32 g and 307 g and body length between 24.5 cm and 42 cm. For the entire population of Siberian sturgeons, there is a middle and high variability for the average body weight and a small variability for the average body length. During the 43 experimental days, the 2851 Siberian sturgeons have acquired a real weight gain of 184.66 kg, with a conversion factor of 0.84 kilograms of feed / kg growth and an index of feed conversion of 1.19 kilograms spore / kg feed consumed.

  2. Propulsion by light: visions of the German pioneer Eugen Saenger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2005-03-01

    Although the laser was not yet invented Eugen Sanger, one of the most prominent German personalities in the early development of hypersonic flight and rocket technology suggested to use photons for the propulsion of spacecrafts in the fifties. In contrast to current schemes which are mostly aimed at laser induced ablation processes, Eugen Sanger started with the idea of using the radiation pressure itself for propulsion purposes. A review of his pioneering work in that area will be supported by numerous historical documents and personal remembrance showing his effort to promote unconventional ideas. The paper also emphasizes how some of the original concepts are being revisited and partly implemented by using today's laser technology.

  3. Pioneers of laser propulsion: Saenger, Marx, Moeckel, and Kantrowitz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Max M.; Hey, John D.

    2002-09-01

    The strength of empires and civilizations has often depended on novel forms of transportation: the Viking long boat, the Roman road, Iberian galleons, French and British steam ships, Indian trains, the car of the early twentieth century, the plane of the middle and the rocket of late. But Space has now come up against a barrier: the enormous and barely affordable expense of putting things into orbit and the unaffordable energy required to travel to the stars. The recent advent of very energetic lasers may reduce the cost. The pioneering ideas of the mid sixties appear less fanciful. Laser space propulsion is about to become such an important topic that its scientific origin and engineering roots need to be investigated. This is by no means an exhaustive survey. We review here the laser propulsion work of four eminent experts: Eugen Saenger, George Marx, Wolfgang Moeckel and Arthur Kantrowitz.

  4. A tribute to Oscar Buneman -- Pioneer of plasma simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buneman, R.; Barker, R.J. (Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Washington, DC (United States)); Peratt, A.L. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Brecht, S.H. (Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., CA (United States)); Langdon, A.B. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). X-Division); Lewis, H.R. (Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy)

    1994-02-01

    Highlights are presented from among the many contributions made by Oscar Buneman to the science, engineering, and mathematics communities. Emphasis is placed not only on ''what'' this pioneer of computational plasma physics contributed but, of equal importance, on ''how'' he made his contributions. Therein lies the difference between technical competence and scientific greatness. The picture which emerges illustrates the open-mindedness, enthusiasm, intellectual/physical stamina, imagination, intellectual integrity, interdisciplinary curiosity, and deep humanity that made this individual unique. As a gentleman and a scholar, he had mastered the art of making cold technical facts ''come to life.'' Oscar Buneman died peacefully at his home near Stanford University on Sunday, January 24th, 1993. The profound influence he has had on many of his colleagues guarantees his immortality.

  5. Grete Kellenberger-Gujer: Molecular biology research pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citi, Sandra; Berg, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    Grete Kellenberger-Gujer was a Swiss molecular biologist who pioneered fundamental studies of bacteriophage in the mid-20(th) century at the University of Geneva. Her life and career stories are reviewed here, focusing on her fundamental contributions to our early understanding of phage biology via her insightful analyses of phenomena such as the lysogenic state of a temperate phage (λ), genetic recombination, radiation's in vivo consequences, and DNA restriction-modification; on her creative personality and interactions with peers; and how her academic advancement was affected by gender, societal conditions and cultural attitudes of the time. Her story is important scientifically, putting into perspective features of the scientific community from just before the molecular biology era started through its early years, and also sociologically, in illustrating the numerous "glass ceilings" that, especially then, often hampered the advancement of creative women. PMID:27607140

  6. The magnetic field of Saturn - Pioneer 11 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1980-01-01

    The Pioneer 11 high-field fluxgate magnetometer experiment consists of two biaxial fluxgate sensors assemblies and an associated electronics system that is designed to measure fields up to 10 gauss along three orthogonal axes. It was used to provide a higher upper range than that provided by the helium vector magnetometer whose maximum measureable field is only 1.4 gauss. Observations of the intrinsic magnetic field of Saturn measured by the high-field fluxgate magnetometer were found to be much weaker than expected. An analysis of preliminary data combined with the preliminary trajectory yield a model for the main planetary field which is a simple centered dipole. It was determined that the polarity of Saturn is opposite that of Earth, and that the tilt is small, within 2 deg plus or minus 1 deg.

  7. Reinterpreting the Pioneer anomaly and its annual residual

    CERN Document Server

    Boom, P G

    2005-01-01

    In addition to its long-term constancy, the Pioneer spacecraft anomaly appears to only exist for bodies whose mass is less than that of: planets, moons, comets, and heavy asteroids of known mass. Assuming the observational evidence is reliable, and not the result of an unknown systematic effect, a violation of the Weak Principle of Equivalence is implied. To propose an additional force fails to satisfy this constraint. This paper presents a new hypothesis involving additional field energy in the form of: a finite number of lunar sourced constant amplitude (Lorentz invariant) wave-like undulations upon the gravitational field. Although apparently a futile suggestion, the author's model overcomes concerns regarding wave dissipation, wave generation, and the apparent constancy of the anomaly. A shortfall in motion arises because a tiny proportion of spacecraft kinetic energy is directed into a superposition of non-translational longitudinal oscillatory components. The restriction of this effect to low mass bodie...

  8. Grete Kellenberger-Gujer: Molecular biology research pioneer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citi, Sandra; Berg, Douglas E

    2016-01-01

    Grete Kellenberger-Gujer was a Swiss molecular biologist who pioneered fundamental studies of bacteriophage in the mid-20(th) century at the University of Geneva. Her life and career stories are reviewed here, focusing on her fundamental contributions to our early understanding of phage biology via her insightful analyses of phenomena such as the lysogenic state of a temperate phage (λ), genetic recombination, radiation's in vivo consequences, and DNA restriction-modification; on her creative personality and interactions with peers; and how her academic advancement was affected by gender, societal conditions and cultural attitudes of the time. Her story is important scientifically, putting into perspective features of the scientific community from just before the molecular biology era started through its early years, and also sociologically, in illustrating the numerous "glass ceilings" that, especially then, often hampered the advancement of creative women.

  9. Constraining an Expanding Locally Anisotropic metric from the Pioneer anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, P Castelo

    2012-01-01

    It is discussed the possibility of a fine-tuneable contribution to the two way Doppler acceleration either towards, either outwards the Sun for heliocentric distances above 20 AU by considering a background described by an Expanding Locally Anisotropic (ELA) metric. This metric encodes both the standard local Schwarzschild gravitational effects and the cosmological Universe expansion effects allowing simultaneously to fine-tune other gravitational effects at intermediate scales, which may be tentatively interpreted as a covariant parameterization of either cold dark matter either gravitational interaction corrections. Are derived bounds for the ELA metric functional parameter by considering the bounds on the deviation from standard General Relativity imposed by the current updated limits for the Pioneer anomaly, taking in consideration both the natural outgassing and on-board radiation pressure, resulting in an average Doppler acceleration outwards the Sun of a_p = +0.4^{+2.1}_{-2.0} x 10^{-10} (m/s^2). It is...

  10. COUNTERING RADICALISATION ACROSS EUROPE – THE PIONEERING ISDEP PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozila Kana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The changing landscape of the global terrorism threat coupled with increasing concern about home grown extremism means that the need to tackle the root causes of radicalisation across the European Union has never been greater. The pathway to violent extremism and terrorism is, however, undeniably complex. Frontline practitioners working with those vulnerable to radicalisation need to have the right tools to allow them to recognise, respond to and challenge ideologies and narratives associated with any form of terrorism. A pioneering EU Commission funded project is the first of its kind designed to offer consistency around, and increase awareness of, counter radicalisation specifically for frontline practitioners. Improving Security by Democratic Participation (ISDEP is a two year programme based on the EU Commission’s Prevent strand of the Counter Terrorism Strategy. Training themes focus on helping practitioners to identify the influences and vulnerabilities that shape an individual’s thought processes towards violent extremism.

  11. Acute sensitivity of white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to copper, cadmium, or zinc in water-only laboratory exposures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calfee, Robin D.; Little, Edward E.; Puglis, Holly J.; Scott, Erinn L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Mebane, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    The acute toxicity of cadmium, copper, and zinc to white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were determined for 7 developmental life stages in flow-through water-only exposures. Metal toxicity varied by species and by life stage. Rainbow trout were more sensitive to cadmium than white sturgeon across all life stages, with median effect concentrations (hardness-normalized EC50s) ranging from 1.47 µg Cd/L to 2.62 µg Cd/L with sensitivity remaining consistent during later stages of development. Rainbow trout at 46 d posthatch (dph) ranked at the 2nd percentile of a compiled database for Cd species sensitivity distribution with an EC50 of 1.46 µg Cd/L and 72 dph sturgeon ranked at the 19th percentile (EC50 of 3.02 µg Cd/L). White sturgeon were more sensitive to copper than rainbow trout in 5 of the 7 life stages tested with biotic ligand model (BLM)-normalized EC50s ranging from 1.51 µg Cu/L to 21.9 µg Cu/L. In turn, rainbow trout at 74 dph and 95 dph were more sensitive to copper than white sturgeon at 72 dph and 89 dph, indicating sturgeon become more tolerant in older life stages, whereas older trout become more sensitive to copper exposure. White sturgeon at 2 dph, 16 dph, and 30 dph ranked in the lower percentiles of a compiled database for copper species sensitivity distribution, ranking at the 3rd (2 dph), 5th (16 dph), and 10th (30 dph) percentiles. White sturgeon were more sensitive to zinc than rainbow trout for 1 out of 7 life stages tested (2 dph with an biotic ligand model–normalized EC50 of 209 µg Zn/L) and ranked in the 1st percentile of a compiled database for zinc species sensitivity distribution.

  12. The effects on growth and survival of probiotic Bacillus spp. fed to Persian sturgeon (Acipencer persicus) larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Moein Faramarzi; Hojatollah Jafaryan; Amin Farahi; M. Lashkar Boloki; Farnaz Iranshahi

    2011-01-01

    This study addressed if sturgeon larvae grew and survived better when fed a probiotic.Bacillus spp. were bioencapsulated in Daphnia magna (Straus 1820) and fed toAcipencer persicus(Borodin 1897) larvae. Bacillus bacteria (three species in a commercial preparation, Protexin Aquatic)were bioencapsulated within Daphnia at three concentrations by holding the Daphnia in suspensions of1×107, 2×107or 3×107 bacteria per milliliter for 10 hours. The sturgeon larvae were fed one of the three probiotic ...

  13. Traveling Wavefronts of Competing Pioneer and Climax Model with Nonlocal Diffusion

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaojing Yu; Peixuan Weng; Yehui Huang

    2013-01-01

    We study a competing pioneer-climax species model with nonlocal diffusion. By constructing a pair of upper-lower solutions and using the iterative technique, we establish the existence of traveling wavefronts connecting the pioneer-existence equilibrium and the coexistence equilibrium. We also discuss the asymptotic behavior of the wave tail for the traveling wavefronts as $s=x+ct\\to -\\infty $ .

  14. 75 FR 2592 - Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.-Trackage Rights Exemption-Central Illinois Railroad Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... Surface Transportation Board Pioneer Industrial Railway Co.--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Central Illinois Railroad Company Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Central Illinois Railroad Company (CIRY) has agreed to grant non-exclusive local trackage rights to Pioneer Industrial Railway Co. (PIRY)...

  15. 77 FR 41364 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... determination of nonregulated status. On March 6, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition... Hi-Bred ] International, Inc., (Pioneer) seeking a determination of nonregulated status of...

  16. 78 FR 37201 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status of Maize Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... Register on February 27, 2013 (78 FR 13312-13313, Docket No. APHIS-2012-0026), APHIS announced the... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of... determination that a maize line developed by Pioneer Hi-Bred International Inc., designated as maize event...

  17. Willem J Kolff (1911-2009): physician, inventor and pioneer: father of artificial organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Megan

    2012-08-01

    Medical pioneer Willem Johan Kolff was an inspirational father, son, physician and inventor. He founded the development of the first kidney dialysis machine, pioneered advances in the heart and lung machine, laid down the foundations for the first mainland blood bank in Europe and successfully implanted the first artificial heart into humans.

  18. Sediment cores and chemistry for the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Habitat Restoration Project, Boundary County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.; Weakland, Rhonda J.; Fosness, Ryan L.; Cox, Stephen E.; Williams, Marshall L.

    2012-01-01

    The Kootenai Tribe of Idaho, in cooperation with local, State, Federal, and Canadian agency co-managers and scientists, is assessing the feasibility of a Kootenai River habitat restoration project in Boundary County, Idaho. This project is oriented toward recovery of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population, and simultaneously targets habitat-based recovery of other native river biota. Projects currently (2010) under consideration include modifying the channel and flood plain, installing in-stream structures, and creating wetlands to improve the physical and biological functions of the ecosystem. River restoration is a complex undertaking that requires a thorough understanding of the river. To assist in evaluating the feasibility of this endeavor, the U.S. Geological Survey collected and analyzed the physical and chemical nature of sediment cores collected at 24 locations in the river. Core depths ranged from 4.6 to 15.2 meters; 21 cores reached a depth of 15.2 meters. The sediment was screened for the presence of chemical constituents that could have harmful effects if released during restoration activities. The analysis shows that concentrations of harmful chemical constituents do not exceed guideline limits that were published by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2006.

  19. Vulnerability of larval and juvenile white sturgeon to barotrauma: can they handle the pressure?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard S.; Cook, Katrina V.; Pflugrath, Brett D.; Rozeboom, Latricia L.; Johnson, Rachelle C.; McLellan, Jason; Linley, Timothy J.; Gao, Yong; Baumgartner, Lee J.; Dowell, Frederick E.; Miller, Erin A.; White, Timothy A.

    2013-07-01

    Techniques were developed to determine which life stages of fish are vulnerable to barotrauma from expansion of internal gases during decompression. Eggs, larvae and juvenile hatchery-reared white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus; up to 91 days post hatch; dph), were decompressed to assess vulnerability to barotrauma and identify initial swim bladder inflation. Barotrauma related injury and mortality were first observed 9 dph, on the same day as initial exogenous feeding. However, barotrauma related injury did not occur again until swim bladder inflation 75 dph (visible from necropsy and x-ray radiographs). Swim bladder inflation was not consistent among individuals, with only 44% being inflated 91 dph. Additionally, swim bladder inflation did not appear to be size dependent among fish ranging in total length from 61-153 mm at 91 dph. The use of a combination of decompression tests and x-ray radiography was validated as a method to determine initial swim bladder inflation and vulnerability to barotrauma. Extending these techniques to other species and life history stages would help to determine fish susceptibility to hydroturbine passage and aid in fish conservation.

  20. Decision 99-18: Range Petroleum Corporation application for a well licence, Sturgeon Lake Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Range Petroleum Corporation (Range) applied to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) pursuant to Section 2.020 of the Oil and Gas Conservation Regulations for a well licence to drill a sour oil well from a surface location in Legal Subdivision 4, Section 34, West of the fifth Meridian, directionally to a bottom-hole location under Sturgeon Lake. The purpose of the proposed well would be to obtain sour oil production from the Leduc Formation. The well would be a Level 1 well because it would have a potential maximum hydrogen sulphide release rate of 0.0412 cubic m/s. The EUB received objections to the application from landowners, cattle ranchers, farmers, residents, and cottage owners in the area of the proposed well. The application and intervention were considered at a public hearing on 26 January 1999 in Grande Prairie, Alberta, and the Board viewed the proposed surface location, the previous Lds 3-2 surface location, and the surrounding area prior to the hearing. Having carefully considered the evidence, the Board believed that it would be possible to drill the proposed well safely and with minimal risk, subject to attached conditions. But in light of the unique setting of the area, including the residences and the road and lake configurations, and the difficulty that would exist preparing an effective environmental review process (ERP), the Board deferred its decision on the well licence application until an approved ERP is in place

  1. Phylogeography of the European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio): A critically endangered species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Olivier; Desse-Berset, Nathalie; Hänni, Catherine; Hughes, Sandrine; Berrebi, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The European sturgeon (Acipenser sturio) was once a common species throughout Europe, but the sole remaining natural population presently inhabits the Gironde Estuary in France (Atlantic coast). The species was classified as 'Critically Endangered' in 1996, and the Gironde population is now on the verge of extinction. In this setting, and for the first time, we present the past phylogeographical features of this species throughout Europe along with an assessment of its former genetic diversity. This study was based on a molecular analysis (mtDNA CR sequencing) of 10 living specimens from the Gironde Estuary, 55 museum specimens that had been caught along 19th and 20th centuries, and 59 archaeological remains dating back to 260-5000years BP, from which mitochondrial DNA was extracted and amplified. Although discontinuous, the produced data provided a realistic image of the former structure of A. sturio in Europe. Reconstruction of the phylogenetic trees and haplotypes network led to the identification of several clades. The mitochondrial genetic diversity of this species was found to be much greater at the core (Iberian Peninsula, Mediterranean and Adriatic regions) than along the margins (Atlantic-Northern Europe, Black Sea) of its range. A series of hypotheses on the dates and causes of changes in the species' major structures are put forward on the basis of these data. Finally, competition with A. oxyrinchus, a sibling species whose presence in Northern Europe was recently reconsidered, is presented as a major factor in the evolution of this species. PMID:26424382

  2. Gonadotropins in the Russian Sturgeon: Their Role in Steroid Secretion and the Effect of Hormonal Treatment on Their Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom-Din, Svetlana; Hollander-Cohen, Lian; Aizen, Joseph; Boehm, Benjamin; Shpilman, Michal; Golan, Matan; Hurvitz, Avshalom; Degani, Gad; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2016-01-01

    In the reproduction process of male and female fish, pituitary derived gonadotropins (GTHs) play a key role. To be able to specifically investigate certain functions of Luteinizing (LH) and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii; st), we produced recombinant variants of the hormones using the yeast Pichia pastoris as a protein production system. We accomplished to create in vitro biologically active heterodimeric glycoproteins consisting of two associated α- and β-subunits in sufficient quantities. Three dimensional modelling of both GTHs was conducted in order to study the differences between the two GTHs. Antibodies were produced against the unique β-subunit of each of the GTHs, in order to be used for immunohistochemical analysis and to develop an ELISA for blood and pituitary hormone quantification. This detection technique revealed the specific localization of the LH and FSH cells in the sturgeon pituitary and pointed out that both cell types are present in substantially higher numbers in mature males and females, compared to immature fish. With the newly attained option to prevent cross-contamination when investigating on the effects of GTH administration, we compared the steroidogeneic response (estradiol and 11-Keto testosterone (11-KT) in female and males, respectively) of recombinant stLH, stFSH, and carp pituitary extract in male and female sturgeon gonads at different developmental stages. Finally, we injected commercially available gonadotropin releasing hormones analog (GnRH) to mature females, and found a moderate effect on the development of ovarian follicles. Application of only testosterone (T) resulted in a significant increase in circulating levels of 11-KT whereas the combination of GnRH + T did not affect steroid levels at all. The response pattern for estradiol demonstrated a similar situation. FSH levels showed significant increases when GnRH + T was administered, while no changes were present in

  3. De novo annotation of the immune-enriched transcriptome provides insights into immune system genes of Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Rong; Du, He-Jun; Li, Shun-Yi; Li, Ya-Dong; Ni, Hong; Yu, Xue-Jing; Yang, Yan-Yan; Fan, Yu-Ding; Jiang, Nan; Zeng, Ling-Bing; Wang, Xing-Guo

    2016-08-01

    Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis), one of the oldest extant actinopterygian fishes with very high evolutionary, economical and conservation interest, is considered to be one of the critically endangered aquatic animals in China. Up to date, the immune system of this species remains largely undetermined with little sequence information publicly available. Herein, the first comprehensive transcriptome of immune tissues for Chinese sturgeon was characterized using Illumina deep sequencing. Over 67 million high-quality reads were generated and de novo assembled into the final set of 91,739 unique sequences. The annotation pipeline revealed that 25,871 unigenes were successfully annotated in the public databases, of which only 2002 had significant match to the existing sequences for the genus Acipenser. Overall 22,827 unigenes were categorized into 52 GO terms, 12,742 were classified into 26 KOG categories, and 4968 were assigned to 339 KEGG pathways. A more detailed annotation search showed the presence of a notable representation of immune-related genes, which suggests that this non-teleost actinopterygian fish harbors the same intermediates as in the well known immune pathways from mammals and teleosts, such as pattern recognition receptor (PRR) signaling pathway, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, complement and coagulation pathway, T-cell receptor (TCR) and B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathways. Additional genetic marker discovery led to the retrieval of 20,056 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and 327,140 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This immune-enriched transcriptome of Chinese sturgeon represents a rich resource that adds to the currently nascent field of chondrostean fish immunogenetics and furthers the conservation and management of this valuable fish. PMID:27368537

  4. Gonadotropins in the Russian Sturgeon: Their Role in Steroid Secretion and the Effect of Hormonal Treatment on Their Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yom-Din, Svetlana; Hollander-Cohen, Lian; Aizen, Joseph; Boehm, Benjamin; Shpilman, Michal; Golan, Matan; Hurvitz, Avshalom; Degani, Gad; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2016-01-01

    In the reproduction process of male and female fish, pituitary derived gonadotropins (GTHs) play a key role. To be able to specifically investigate certain functions of Luteinizing (LH) and Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in Russian sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedtii; st), we produced recombinant variants of the hormones using the yeast Pichia pastoris as a protein production system. We accomplished to create in vitro biologically active heterodimeric glycoproteins consisting of two associated α- and β-subunits in sufficient quantities. Three dimensional modelling of both GTHs was conducted in order to study the differences between the two GTHs. Antibodies were produced against the unique β-subunit of each of the GTHs, in order to be used for immunohistochemical analysis and to develop an ELISA for blood and pituitary hormone quantification. This detection technique revealed the specific localization of the LH and FSH cells in the sturgeon pituitary and pointed out that both cell types are present in substantially higher numbers in mature males and females, compared to immature fish. With the newly attained option to prevent cross-contamination when investigating on the effects of GTH administration, we compared the steroidogeneic response (estradiol and 11-Keto testosterone (11-KT) in female and males, respectively) of recombinant stLH, stFSH, and carp pituitary extract in male and female sturgeon gonads at different developmental stages. Finally, we injected commercially available gonadotropin releasing hormones analog (GnRH) to mature females, and found a moderate effect on the development of ovarian follicles. Application of only testosterone (T) resulted in a significant increase in circulating levels of 11-KT whereas the combination of GnRH + T did not affect steroid levels at all. The response pattern for estradiol demonstrated a similar situation. FSH levels showed significant increases when GnRH + T was administered, while no changes were present in

  5. Effects of Mitigation Measures on Productivity of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, and Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1992-1993 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamesdorfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1993-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 1992-March 1993 in research on white sturgeon in the lower Columbia River. The study began in July 1986 and progress through 1992 was summarized in a comprehensive report in 2 volumes (Beamesderfer and Nigro 1993a, 1993b). This report details activities during the first year of Phase II of this sturgeon research. In Phase I, we assessed the status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Phase II will examine the effects on white sturgeon productivity of mitigative measures recommended in Phase I. The status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations upstream from McNary Dam will also be examined in Phase II. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Fisheries, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service. Work during the past year has focused on: (1) analysis of results of limited sampling conducted in 1992, (2) submission of Phase I results to the peer-review literature to ensure widespread dissemination, clarity of presentation, and credibility of findings, and (3) preparations for additional field work in 1993. In report sections A to D, each agency reports 1992 results if applicable and the current status of manuscripts. Results of field work conducted in 1993 will be reported in the 1994 annual report.

  6. 50 CFR 226.219 - Critical habitat for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....); Richardson Bay, unnamed tributary (37°54′2″ N./122°31′36″ W.); San Antonio Creek, unnamed tributary (38°9′45... areas and bays and estuaries are delineated by the COLREGS lines (33 CFR 80). Critical habitat in... following coastal bays and estuaries in California, Oregon, and Washington: (i) San Francisco Bay, San...

  7. Interspecific variation in vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in pioneer and non-pioneer species used in tropical forest restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contin, Daniele R; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-09-01

    Reforestation projects have gained interest over recent years due to the loss of biodiversity in tropical regions as a result of large deforestation by anthropogenic actions. However, better knowledge on the tolerance of plant species to environmental stresses is needed for reforestation success. Here, we evaluated the photoprotective and antioxidant capacity, in terms of vitamin E accumulation, of five pioneer (Platypodium elegans Vogel, Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil, Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. and Aegiphila sellowiana Cham.) and five non-pioneer (Myracrodruon urundeuva Allemão, Cedrela fissilis Vell., Genipa americana L., Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. and Hymenaea courbaril L.) species, in relation to the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. Furthermore, we examined differences between sun and shade leaves on vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation. Pioneer plants showed on average 33% higher malondialdehyde levels, an indicator of lipid peroxidation, than non-pioneer species, but no significant differences in vitamin E contents. In contrast, a marked interspecific variation was observed in the levels of α-tocopherol and its precursor, γ-tocopherol. Natural variation revealed interesting relationships between vitamin E levels and the extent of lipid peroxidation in leaves. The pioneer species, P. elegans, did not accumulate α-tocopherol and displayed the highest levels of malondialdehyde. Sun and shade leaves accumulated vitamin E levels to a similar extent, except for the pioneer L. pacari and the non-pioneer C. langsdorffii, the former accumulating more α-tocopherol in sun leaves and the latter in shade leaves. We conclude that interspecific variation is higher than both leaf type and successional-group variation in terms of vitamin E accumulation and the extent of lipid peroxidation, and that vitamin E levels, particularly those of α-tocopherol, negatively correlate with the extent of lipid

  8. Status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, annual progress report, July 1986 - March 1987.; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts

  9. Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1986-1987 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Jr., George T. (National Marine Fisheries Service, Environmental and Technical Services Division, Portland, OR); Beckman, Lance G. (US Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR); Kreitman, Gayle (Washington Department of Fisheries, Olympia, WA)

    1987-06-01

    Measure 804(e)(8) of the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) Fish and Wildlife Program states that Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) ''shall fund research to determine the impacts of development and operation of the hydroelectric power system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin...'' In June 1985, BPA sponsored a workshop to define and list in priority order research needs in the basin (Fickeisen 1985a). In December 1985, BPA submitted a research program implementation plan (Fickeisen 1985b) to the NPPC. The purpose of the plan is to provide guidance for conducting research necessary to address four objectives identified by regional fishery interests for protecting, mitigating and enhancing white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River basin. The plan's objectives are: (1) Assess the current status of Columbia River basin white sturgeon stocks. (2) Provide the basis to evaluate the need for protection, mitigation and enhancement of white sturgeon in the Columbia River system. (3) Provide information that can be used to evaluate potential methods of protection, mitigation and enhancement of existing stocks. (4) Provide tools to assess the effectiveness of protection, mitigation and enhancement efforts.

  10. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam, 1990-1991 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigro, Anthony A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1991-09-01

    We report on our effort from April 1990 to March 1991 to describe the life history and population dynamics of white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus in.John Day Reservoir. We set 1188 set lines and 26 gill nets. We caught 623 white sturgeon with set lines and 236 with gill nets. Catch per unit effort was much higher in areas near the tailrace than in downstream sites. Our setlines were size selective. We recaptured 3 fish released in John Day Reservoir in 1989 and 28 fish released in 1990. Sport and commercial fishermen recovered 62 tags from fish we tagged in Bonneville, The Dalles and John Day reservoirs, 1987-1990. We observed extensive movements of marked sturgeon within the reservoirs. We completed aging of available samples from all three reservoirs from 1987-1990. We aged fish as old as 46 years. Bone marks were observed on 74 of 78 fish previously injected with oxytetracycline and annulus formation was generally complete after June. We estimated parameters in a length-weight equation. About 1.5% of the female white sturgeon we examined to date had early or late vitellogenic eggs and would be expected to spawn the following year.

  11. An experimental test and models of drift and dispersal processes of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) free embryos in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Ruggles, M.P.; Brandt, T.F.; Legare, R.G.; Holm, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Free embryos of wild pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus were released in the Missouri River and captured at downstream sites through a 180-km reach of the river to examine ontogenetic drift and dispersal processes. Free embryos drifted primarily in the fastest portion of the river channel, and initial drift velocities for all age groups (mean = 0.66–0.70 m s−1) were only slightly slower than mean water column velocity (0.72 m s−1). During the multi-day long-distance drift period, drift velocities of all age groups declined an average of 9.7% day−1. Younger free embryos remained in the drift upon termination of the study; whereas, older age groups transitioned from drifting to settling during the study. Models based on growth of free embryos, drift behavior, size-related variations in drift rates, and channel hydraulic characteristics were developed to estimate cumulative distance drifted during ontogenetic development through a range of simulated water temperatures and velocity conditions. Those models indicated that the average free embryo would be expected to drift several hundred km during ontogenetic development. Empirical data and model results highlight the long-duration, long-distance drift and dispersal processes for pallid sturgeon early life stages. In addition, results provide a likely mechanism for lack of pallid sturgeon recruitment in fragmented river reaches where dams and reservoirs reduce the length of free-flowing river available for pallid sturgeon free embryos during ontogenetic development.

  12. Effects of dietary prebiotic GroBiotic®- A on growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon, Huso huso (Linnaeus, 1758)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adel, M.; Nayak, S.; Lazado, Carlo Cabacang;

    2016-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Grobiotic®-A, a commercial prebiotics, when administered in feed on the growth performance, plasma thyroid hormones and mucosal immunity of great sturgeon (Huso huso). The commercial prebiotic mixture was supplemented in the diets at four...

  13. 78 FR 13312 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition, Plant Pest Risk Assessment, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Petition... Plant Health Inspection Service has received a petition from Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc... has received a petition (APHIS Petition Number 11-244-01p) from Pioneer Hi-Bred International,...

  14. Steven J. Ostro: Pioneer in Asteroid Lightcurve Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alan W.

    2009-09-01

    In 1906, Henry Norris Russell wrote a landmark paper (Astrophys. J. 24, 1-18, 1906) that set the field of lightcurve inversion back by more than three quarters of a century, until Steve Ostro and Robert Connolly published a paper on "convex profile inversion” (Icarus 57, 443-463, 1984). Russell's stifling contribution was innocent enough, and entirely correct: he showed that with "two cans of paint", one can decorate any arbitrarily shaped body in an infinite number of ways to yield any particular lightcurve, even, for example, a cigar shape that is brightest viewed end-on. This sufficed to discourage serious mathematical attack on the problem until Ostro & Connolly's landmark paper of 1984. They showed that if you have only "one can of paint", that is, in the absence of albedo variegation, the problem is tractable and one can make remarkable progress in lightcurve inversion to obtain shapes, or at least the "convex profile” of the real shape. As we now know, nature appears to have only one can of paint (per asteroid), that is, asteroids seem to paint themselves grey so that the uniform reflectivity assumption is quite excellent. Both radar and optical lightcurve inversion techniques are now quite mature, thanks to Steve's pioneering insights.

  15. Hermann Karsten, pioneer of geologic mapping in northwestern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto, K. R.

    2015-06-01

    In the late 19th century, a regional map of Nueva Granada (present-day Colombia, Panama and parts of Venezuela and Ecuador) was published by German botanist and geologist Hermann Karsten (1817-1908). Karsten's work was incorporated by Agustín Codazzi (1793-1859), an Italian who emigrated to Venezuela and Colombia to serve as a government cartographer and geographer, in his popular Atlas geográfico e histórico de la Republica de Colombia (1889). Geologic mapping and most observations provided in this 1889 atlas were taken from Karsten's Géologie de l'ancienne Colombie bolivarienne: Vénézuela, Nouvelle-Grenade et Ecuador (1886), as cited by Manual Paz and/or Felipe Pérez, who edited this edition of the atlas. Karsten defined four epochs in Earth history: Primera - without life - primary crystalline rocks, Segunda - with only marine life - chiefly sedimentary rocks, Tercera - with terrestrial quadrupeds and fresh water life forms life - chiefly sedimentary rocks, and Cuarta - mankind appears, includes diluvial (glacigenic) and post-diluvial terranes. He noted that Colombia is composed of chiefly of Quaternary, Tertiary and Cretaceous plutonic, volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and that Earth's internal heat (calor central) accounted, by escape of inner gases, for volcanism, seismicity and uplift of mountains. Karsten's regional mapping and interpretation thus constitutes the primary source and ultimate pioneering geologic research.

  16. Interior structure of Saturn inferred from Pioneer 11 gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Macfarlane, J. J.; Anderson, J. D.; Null, G. W.; Biller, E. D.

    1980-01-01

    The structure of Saturn is studied via a fourth-order theory for rotating planets and equations of state for the envelope which depend parametrically on the helium abundance, on the starting temperature for the adiabat, and on adopted forms of the pressure-density curve in the region of transition from molecular to metallic hydrogen. Models are constrained by the values of J2 and J4 obtained from the Pioneer-Saturn celestial mechanics experiment. Equations of state are tested by computing Jupiter models, which can now be subjected to a more stringent comparison with observed zonal harmonics. It is found that Saturn has a low-density hydrogen-helium envelope with no evidence for enhancement of H2O, CH4, or other abundant compounds. Such compounds are presumably located near the core. The helium mass abundance for Saturn's envelope appears to be in the range of approximately 0.12 to 0.19, but this result is very model-dependent. The helium abundance in the envelope of Jupiter is apparently very similar to that of Saturn.

  17. Pioneer vegetation on ash dumps in Oswiecim (southern Poland)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojarczuk, T.; Kuczynski, B.

    1972-01-01

    The authors found fifty-three plant species growing on the ash dumps in Oswiecim, while in 1963 twenty-two species only were encountered there. Most of the self-sown plants belong to calciphilous, ruderal and xerophilous species. The pH of the ashes amounts to 9.5. Some of them, e.g. Matricaria chamomilla are index plants for acid habitats; others were hitherto encountered in wet habitats, e.g. Rumex obtusifolias, Myricaria germanica, Epilobium roseum, and others. Their occurrence on ash dumps is possible thanks to the considerable amount of precipitation (465 mm) during the vegetative period. The mosses are the pioneers of these dumps, e.g. Funaria hygromertrica and Bryum argenteum, which usually appear on the site of fire. The authors are of the opinion that a better knowledge of the plants appearing spontaneously on dumps and waste heaps may provide many useful conclusions which will help to obtain positive results at the recultivation of spoil heaps and industrial wastes. 9 references, 3 tables.

  18. Sir Victor Horsley (1857-1916): pioneer of neurological surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Tze-Ching; Black, Peter McL

    2002-03-01

    Immortalized in surgical history for the introduction of "antiseptic wax," Sir Victor Horsley played a pivotal role in shaping the face of standard neurosurgical practice. His contributions include the first laminectomy for spinal neoplasm, the first carotid ligation for cerebral aneurysm, the curved skin flap, the transcranial approach to the pituitary gland, intradural division of the trigeminal nerve root for trigeminal neuralgia, and surface marking of the cerebral cortex. A tireless scientist, he was a significant player in discovering the cure for myxedema, the eradication of rabies from England, and the invention of the Horsley-Clarke stereotactic frame. As a pathologist, Horsley performed research on bacteria and edema and founded the Journal of Pathology. Horsley's kindness, humility, and generous spirit endeared him to patients, colleagues, and students. Born to privilege, he was nonetheless dedicated to improving the lot of the common man and directed his efforts toward the suffrage of women, medical reform, and free health care for the working class. Knighted in 1902 for his many contributions to medicine, Sir Victor met an untimely death during World War I from heat stroke at the age of 59. An iconoclast of keen intellect, unlimited energy, and consummate skill, his life and work justify his epitaph as a "pioneer of neurological surgery." PMID:11841730

  19. The monopropellant hydrazine propulsion subsystem for the Pioneer Venus spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, F. C.

    1979-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus Orbiter and the Multiprobe spacecraft propulsion subsystems and their performance are presented. Monopropellant hydrazine subsystems on each spacecraft provided the capability to spin up the spacecraft after separation and perform all spin rate, velocity, and attitude changes required by the control subsystem to satisfy mission objectives. The propulsion subsystem provides thrust on demand by supplying anhydrous hydrazine from the propellant tanks through manifolds, filters and valves to the thrust chamber assemblies where the hydrazine is catalytically decomposed and expanded in a conical nozzle. The subsystems consist of seven 1 lbf thrusters for the Orbiter and six 1 lbf thrusters for the multiprobe which are isolated by two latch valves from the two propellant tanks so that two redundant thruster clusters are provided to ensure mission completion in the event of a single point failure. The propellant feed system is of all-welded construction to minimize weight and leakage and titanium is used as the primary material of construction. The multiprobe burned up on entering the Venus atmosphere with enough propellant left for the mission and the Orbiter was inserted into Venus orbit with enough propellant remaining for more than 2 earth years of orbital operations.

  20. Ira Maximilian Altshuler: psychiatrist and pioneer music therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William B

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the life of Ira Maximilian Altshuler, psychiatrist and pioneer music therapist. In 1938, Dr. Altshuler initiated one of the first large-scale music therapy programs for mentally ill persons in the country at Detroit's Eloise Hospital. His innovative programs combined psychoanalytic techniques and music therapy methods specifically designed for use with large groups of clients. He later trained some of the first music therapy interns in the country, including Carol Collins, who served for many years as Professor of Music Therapy at Wayne State University, and Esther Goetz Gilliland, who later became President of NAMT. Dr. Altshuler promoted the practice and profession tirelessly, speaking to numerous audiences over the years and writing 19 articles about music therapy. Altshuler participated in the National Association for Music Therapy (NAMT) organizational meeting held in New York City in 1950. An active member of the organization for many years, he served on the Research Committee and hosted the 1955 national NAMT conference in Detroit. Even after Altshuler's retirement from Eloise Hospital in 1963, he remained active in numerous civic, music, and music therapy activities until his death 5 year later. Ira Altshuler should be remembered along with other music therapists from the time-Willem Van de Wall, Harriet Ayer Seymour and others-who vigorously embraced and advanced the status of the profession. PMID:14567731

  1. Length-weight relationship and a relative condition factor equation for lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) from the St. Clair River system (Michigan, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Jaquelyn; Thomas, Michael V.; Nichols, Susan Jerrine

    2005-01-01

    Several USA state, federal, and Canadian agencies study lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) within the St Clair River and Lake St Clair, collectively referred to hereafter as the St Clair River (SCR) system. Previously, there has been no set standard for determining condition for SCR system lake sturgeon. Condition measures the variation from the expected weight for length as an indicator of fatness, general well-being, gonad development, etc. The aim of this project was to determine the length–weight relationship of lake sturgeon caught from the SCR system, from which a relative condition factor (Kn) equation could be derived. Total length (TL, mm) and weight (W, kg) were measured for 1074 lake sturgeon (101 males and 16 females were identifiable) collected by setline and bottom trawl from the SCR system in May–September, 1997–2002. Analysis of covariance found no difference in the length–weight relationship between sampling gear or sex. Least-squares regression of log10W × log10TL produced the overall equation logW = 3.365logTL − 9.320. Using the exponential form of the slope and y-intercept, relative condition factor for lake sturgeon from the SCR system can be calculated as Kn = W/[(4.786 × 10−10)(TL3.365)]. Equations for males and females were also developed. Overall, body condition was significantly correlated with both age and girth; no significant difference in Kn by sex was found. In general, the SCR lake sturgeon population was near the upper ends of growth and condition ranges listed in the literature, comparable with those populations that are at similar latitudes. Although condition factors should be interpreted with caution, proper use of a standard equation provides a non-lethal measure of overall fish health that can be used by biologists and managers in ongoing efforts to restore lake sturgeon throughout the Great Lakes.

  2. White Sturgeon Management Plan in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams; Nez Perce Tribe, 1997-2005 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nez Perce Tribe Resources Management Staff, (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-09-01

    White sturgeon in the Hells Canyon reach (HCR) of the Snake River are of cultural importance to the Nez Perce Tribe. However, subsistence and ceremonial fishing opportunities have been severely limited as a result of low numbers of white sturgeon in the HCR. Hydrosystem development in the Columbia River Basin has depressed numbers and productivity of white sturgeon in the HCR by isolating fish in impounded reaches of the basin, restricting access to optimal rearing habitats, reducing the anadromous forage base, and modifying early life-history habitats. Consequently, a proactive management plan is needed to mitigate for the loss of white sturgeon production in the HCR, and to identify and implement feasible measures that will restore and rebuild the white sturgeon population to a level that sustains viability and can support an annual harvest. This comprehensive and adaptive management plan describes the goals, objectives, strategies, actions, and expected evaluative timeframes for restoring the white sturgeon population in the HCR. The goal of this plan, which is to maintain a viable, persistent population that can support a sustainable fishery, is supported by the following objectives: (1) a natural, stable age structure comprising both juveniles and a broad spectrum of spawning age-classes; (2) stable or increasing numbers of both juveniles and adults; (3) consistent levels of average recruitment to ensure future contribution to reproductive potential; (4) stable genetic diversity comparable to current levels; (5) a minimum level of abundance of 2,500 adults to minimize extinction risk; and (6) provision of an annual sustainable harvest of 5 kg/ha. To achieve management objectives, potential mitigative actions were developed by a Biological Risk Assessment Team (BRAT). Identified strategies and actions included enhancing growth and survival rates by restoring anadromous fish runs and increasing passage opportunities for white sturgeon, reducing mortality rates

  3. Pioneer 10 observation of the solar wind proton temperature heliocentric gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalov, J. D.; Wolfe, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Solar wind isotropic proton temperatures as measured out to 12.2 AU heliocentric distance by the Ames plasma analyzer aboard Pioneer 10 are presented as consecutive averages over three Carrington solar rotations and discussed. The weighted least-squares fit of average temperature to heliocentric radial distance, R, yields the power law R sup -.52. These average proton temperatures are not correlated as well with Pioneer 10's heliocentric radial distance (-.85) as are the corresponding average Zurich sunspot numbers R sub z (-.95). Consequently, it is difficult to isolate the spatial gradient in the Pioneer 10 solar wind proton temperatures using that data alone.

  4. Application of non-lethal stable isotope analysis to assess feeding patterns of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus: a comparison of tissue types and sample preservation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andvik, R.T.; VanDeHey, J.A.; Fincel, M.J.; French, William E.; Bertrand, K.N.; Chipps, Steven R.; Klumb, R.A.; Graeb, B.D.S.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional techniques for stable isotope analysis (SIA) generally require sacrificing animals to collect tissue samples; this can be problematic when studying diets of endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Our objectives were to (i) determine if pectoral fin tissue (non-lethal) could be a substitute for muscle tissue (lethal) in SIA of juvenile pallid sturgeon, and (ii) evaluate the influence of preservation techniques on stable isotope values. In the laboratory, individual juvenile pallid sturgeon were held for up to 186 day and fed chironomids, fish, or a commercially available pellet diet. Significant, positive relationships (r² ≥ 0.8) were observed between fin and muscle tissues for both δ15N and δ13C; in all samples isotopes were enriched in fins compared to muscle tissue. Chironomid and fish based diets of juvenile pallid sturgeon were distinguishable for fast growing fish (0.3 mm day−1) using stable δ15N and δ13C isotopes. Frozen and preserved fin tissue δ15N isotopes were strongly related (r2 = 0.89) but δ13C isotopes were weakly related (r2 = 0.16). Therefore, freezing is recommended for preservation of fin clips to avoid the confounding effect of enrichment by ethanol. This study demonstrates the utility of a non-lethal technique to assess time integrated food habits of juvenile pallid sturgeon and should be applicable to other threatened or endangered species.

  5. Toxicity of smelter slag-contaminated sediments from Upper Lake Roosevelt and associated metals to early life stage White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, E.E.; Calfee, R.D.; Linder, G.

    2014-01-01

    The toxicity of five smelter slag-contaminated sediments from the upper Columbia River and metals associated with those slags (cadmium, copper, zinc) was evaluated in 96-h exposures of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus Richardson, 1836) at 8 and 30 days post-hatch. Leachates prepared from slag-contaminated sediments were evaluated for toxicity. Leachates yielded a maximum aqueous copper concentration of 11.8 μg L−1 observed in sediment collected at Dead Man's Eddy (DME), the sampling site nearest the smelter. All leachates were nonlethal to sturgeon that were 8 day post-hatch (dph), but leachates from three of the five sediments were toxic to fish that were 30 dph, suggesting that the latter life stage is highly vulnerable to metals exposure. Fish maintained consistent and prolonged contact with sediments and did not avoid contaminated sediments when provided a choice between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. White Sturgeon also failed to avoid aqueous copper (1.5–20 μg L−1). In water-only 96-h exposures of 35 dph sturgeon with the three metals, similar toxicity was observed during exposure to water spiked with copper alone and in combination with cadmium and zinc. Cadmium ranging from 3.2 to 41 μg L−1 or zinc ranging from 21 to 275 μg L−1 was not lethal, but induced adverse behavioral changes including a loss of equilibrium. These results suggest that metals associated with smelter slags may pose an increased exposure risk to early life stage sturgeon if fish occupy areas contaminated by slags.

  6. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 1998-1999 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L.

    2000-12-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1998 through March 1999 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report D), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report E), and the University of Idaho (UI; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1998 through March 1999 are given.

  7. Dietary Administration of Lactobacillus plantarum Enhanced Growth Performance and Innate Immune Response of Siberian Sturgeon, Acipenser baerii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourgholam, Moheb Ali; Khara, Hossein; Safari, Reza; Sadati, Mohammad Ali Yazdani; Aramli, Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum used as a dietary supplement on the growth performance and innate immune response in juvenile Siberian sturgeon Acipenser baerii. Juvenile fish (14.6 ± 2.3 g) were fed three experimental diets prepared by supplementing a basal diet with L. plantarum at different concentrations [1 × 10(7), 1 × 10(8) and 1 × 10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) g(-1)] and a control (non-supplemented basal) diet for 8 weeks. Growth performance indices were increased in fish fed the 1 × 10(8) cfu g(-1) L. plantarum diet compared to the other groups. There was an increased innate immune response in fish fed the experimental diets. The highest levels of lysozyme activity, total immunoglobulin (IgM) and complement component 3 (C3) were observed in fish fed the diet containing L. plantarum at a concentration of 1 × 10(8) cfu g(-1), but there was no significant difference in the level of complement component 4 (C4) in fish fed the experimental diets or the control diet. The present study underlying some positive effects (growth performance and immune indices) of dietary administration of L. plantarum at a concentration of 1 × 10(8) cfu g(-1) in the Siberian sturgeon. PMID:26686864

  8. The effects on growth and survival of probiotic Bacillus spp. fed to Persian sturgeon (Acipencer persicus larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moein Faramarzi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addressed if sturgeon larvae grew and survived better when fed a probiotic.Bacillus spp. were bioencapsulated in Daphnia magna (Straus 1820 and fed toAcipencer persicus(Borodin 1897 larvae. Bacillus bacteria (three species in a commercial preparation, Protexin Aquaticwere bioencapsulated within Daphnia at three concentrations by holding the Daphnia in suspensions of1×107, 2×107or 3×107 bacteria per milliliter for 10 hours. The sturgeon larvae were fed one of the three probiotic treatments at a level of 30 percent body weight 5 times a day. The growth and survival oflarvae fed the protbiotic enriched Daphnia were compared to those larvae fed a control treatment ofunbioencapsulated Daphnia magna. The results showed that larvae fed the probioticBacillus spp. hadincreased final body weight and specific growth rate in comparison to control treatment. The probioticbacillus also had significant positive effects on daily growth ratio, daily growth coefficient, averageweight gain and survival in comparison to those fed the control treatment. The food conversation ratiowas the one factor that decreased significantly in comparison with the control treatment. The amount ofprobiotic used did not improve performance, so larviculture can be increased merely by the addition of oflow level of probiotics.

  9. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam, 1999-2000 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    2001-04-01

    We report on our progress from April 1999 through March 2000 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1999 through March 2000 are given.

  10. Age and Heat Stress as Determinants of Telomere Length in a Long-Lived Fish, the Siberian Sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simide, Rémy; Angelier, Frédéric; Gaillard, Sandrine; Stier, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten at each cell division due to the end-replication problem but also in response to oxidative stress. Consequently, telomeres shorten with age in many endotherms, and this shortening is accelerated under stressful environmental conditions. Data in ectotherm vertebrates remain scarce so far, so our goal was to review existing data for fish and to test the influence of age and stress on telomere length in a very long-lived fish, the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Our review of the literature revealed age-related telomere shortening in approximately half of the published studies. In the Siberian sturgeon, we found a significant telomere shortening with age, both at the intraindividual level using red blood cells (-12.5% in 16 mo) and at the interindividual level using cross-sectional samples of fin over an age range of 8 yr. We also found that heat stress (30°C) significantly reduced telomere length by 15.0% after only 1 mo of exposure. Our results highlight that both age and stressful environmental conditions might be important determinants of telomere length in fish. PMID:27617363

  11. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, J. Chris; Ward, David L.; Farr, Ruth A. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife)

    2002-02-01

    We report on our progress from April 2000 through March 2001 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Oregon State University (OSU; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 2000 through March 2001 are listed.

  12. Notes on Pioneer Anomaly Explanation by Sattellite-Shift Formula of Quaternion Relativity: Remarks on "Less Mundane Explanation of Pioneer Anomaly from Q-Relativity"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yefremov A.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Use of satellite shift formula emerging in Quaternion (Q- model of relativity theory for explanation of Pioneer anomaly [1] is critically discussed. A cinematic scheme more suitable for the case is constructed with the help of Q-model methods. An appropriate formula for apparent deceleration resulting from existence of observer- object relative velocity is derived. Preliminary quantitative assessments made on the base of Pioneer 10/11 data demonstrate closure of the assumed “relativistic deceleration” and observed “Doppler deceleration” values.

  13. Duchenne De Boulogne: a pioneer in neurology and medical photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, André

    2005-08-01

    Guillaume-Benjamin-Amand Duchenne was born 200 years ago in Boulogne-sur-Mer (Pas-de-Calais, France). He studied medicine in Paris and became a physician in 1831. He practiced general medicine in his native town for about 11 years and then returned to Paris to initiate pioneering studies on electrical stimulation of muscles. Duchenne used electricity not only as a therapeutic agent, as it was commonly the case earlier in the 19th century, but chiefly as a physiological investigation tool to study the anatomy of the living body. Without formal appointment he visited hospital wards across Paris searching for rare cases of neuromuscular disorders. He built a portable electrical device that he used to functionally map all bodily muscles and to study their coordinating action in health and disease. He gave accurate descriptions of many neuromuscular disorders, including pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy to which his name is still attached (Duchenne muscular dystrophy). He also invented a needle system (Duchenne's histological harpoon) for percutaneous sampling of muscular tissue without anesthesia, a forerunner of today's biopsy. Duchenne summarized his work in two major treatises entitled De l'électrisation localisée (1855) and Physiologie des mouvements (1867). Duchenne's iconographic work stands at the crossroads of three major discoveries of the 19th century: electricity, physiology and photography. This is best exemplified by his investigation of the mechanisms of human physiognomy in which he used localized faradic stimulation to reproduce various forms of human facial expression. The album that complements his book on this issue is considered a true incunabulum of photography. Duchenne de Boulogne, a shy but hard-working, acute and ingenious observer, became one of most original clinicians of the 19th century. He died in Paris in 1875.

  14. Sophus Peter Tromholt: an outstanding pioneer in auroral research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Moss

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Danish school teacher Sophus Peter Tromholt (1851–1896 was self-taught in physics, astronomy, and auroral sciences. Still, he was one of the brightest auroral researchers of the 19th century. He was the first scientist ever to organize and analyse correlated auroral observations over a wide area (entire Scandinavia moving away from incomplete localized observations. Tromholt documented the relation between auroras and sunspots and demonstrated the daily, seasonal and solar cycle-related variations in high-latitude auroral occurrence frequencies. Thus, Tromholt was the first ever to deduce from auroral observations the variations associated with what is now known as the auroral oval termed so by Khorosheva (1962 and Feldstein (1963 more than 80 yr later. He made reliable and accurate estimates of the heights of auroras several decades before this important issue was finally settled through Størmer's brilliant photographic technique. In addition to his three major scientific works (Tromholt, 1880a, 1882a, and 1885a, he wrote numerous short science notes and made huge efforts to collect historical auroral observations (Tromholt, 1898. Furthermore, Tromholt wrote a large number of popular science articles in newspapers and journals and made lecture tours all over Scandinavia and Germany, contributing to enhance the public educational level and awareness. He devoted most of his life to auroral research but as a self-taught scientist, he received little acclaim within the contemporary academic scientific society. With his non-academic background, trained at a college of education – not a university – he was never offered a position at a university or a research institution. However, Sophus Tromholt was an outstanding pioneer in auroral research.

  15. Sophus Peter Tromholt: an outstanding pioneer in auroral research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, K.; Stauning, P.

    2012-03-01

    The Danish school teacher Sophus Peter Tromholt (1851-1896) was self-taught in physics, astronomy, and auroral sciences. Still, he was one of the brightest auroral researchers of the 19th century. He was the first scientist ever to organize and analyse correlated auroral observations over a wide area (entire Scandinavia) moving away from incomplete localized observations. Tromholt documented the relation between auroras and sunspots and demonstrated the daily, seasonal and solar cycle-related variations in high-latitude auroral occurrence frequencies. Thus, Tromholt was the first ever to deduce from auroral observations the variations associated with what is now known as the auroral oval termed so by Khorosheva (1962) and Feldstein (1963) more than 80 yr later. He made reliable and accurate estimates of the heights of auroras several decades before this important issue was finally settled through Størmer's brilliant photographic technique. In addition to his three major scientific works (Tromholt, 1880a, 1882a, and 1885a), he wrote numerous short science notes and made huge efforts to collect historical auroral observations (Tromholt, 1898). Furthermore, Tromholt wrote a large number of popular science articles in newspapers and journals and made lecture tours all over Scandinavia and Germany, contributing to enhance the public educational level and awareness. He devoted most of his life to auroral research but as a self-taught scientist, he received little acclaim within the contemporary academic scientific society. With his non-academic background, trained at a college of education - not a university - he was never offered a position at a university or a research institution. However, Sophus Tromholt was an outstanding pioneer in auroral research.

  16. San Francisco's Pioneer Mother Monument: maternalism, racial order, and the politics of memorialization, 1907–1915.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frink, Brenda D

    2012-01-01

    The 1907–1915 campaign to create San Francisco's Pioneer Mother Monument provides both a case study of conservative uses of maternalism and a window into the political mutability of maternalist rhetoric. Ella Sterling Mighels, a pioneer descendant, utilized the monument campaign to promote white women's moral influence over middle-class men, to argue against Asian immigration and labor unrest, and to inculcate old-fashioned moral values among urban children. Although some of Mighels's contemporaries cited pioneer mothers as proof of women's fitness for suffrage, Mighels herself used the pioneer mother to argue against suffrage. The final statue, created by the sculptor Charles Grafly, failed to encapsulate Mighels's multivalent political message and to express her ideals about gender, race, class, and morality. PMID:22826896

  17. Nuclear Medicine at Berkeley Lab: From Pioneering Beginnings to Today (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summer Lecture Series 2006: Thomas Budinger, head of Berkeley Lab's Center for Functional Imaging, discusses Berkeley Lab's rich history pioneering the field of nuclear medicine, from radioisotopes to medical imaging.

  18. Pioneering efforts for minority appointments and academic surgery. A narrative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwick, W O

    1999-05-01

    The author gives a narrative chronologic explanation for the early inclusion of African Americans and other minorities into the Yale University Orthopaedic Surgical Residency Training Program. The author's early isolation from racial problems living in rural Nebraska and the paucity of racial friction at the University of Nebraska gave him a more neutral or positive view of other cultures. Sudden exposure to the racial tension and police brutality toward African Americans in Boston followed by the well defined racial bias in the Southern city of Baltimore showed the plight of minorities. At that same time the author encountered many gentle and extremely intelligent African Americans who performed outstanding medical tasks for the Johns Hopkins Hospital hospital with little educational background. The author's experience with Shirley Moore and Augustus White at Yale made it possible to recruit a diverse group of gifted and loyal resident staff. The high number of academic appointments in minority and majority residents has evolved from the Academic Training and Research Program and a special selection process for choosing residents.

  19. Subpallial origin of a population of projecting pioneer neurons during corticogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Morante-Oria, Javier; Carleton, Alan; Ortino, Barbara; Kremer, Eric J.; Fairén, Alfonso; Lledo, Pierre-Marie

    2003-01-01

    Pyramidal neurons of the mammalian cerebral cortex are generated in the ventricular zone of the pallium whereas the subpallium provides the cortex with inhibitory interneurons. The marginal zone contains a subpial stream of migratory interneurons and two different classes of transient neurons, the pioneer neurons provided with corticofugal axons, and the reelin-expressing Cajal–Retzius cells. We found in cultured slices that the medial ganglionic eminence provides the reelin-negative pioneer ...

  20. Emotion regulation strategies education guide book : - mental coaching guide for China Pioneers

    OpenAIRE

    Lunkka, Aleksi

    2014-01-01

    This product based Bachelosr’s Thesis, Emotion Regulation Strategies education and implementation guide book- Mental coaching guide for China Pioneers, was made based on a product called Guide Book to Emotion Regulation Strategies, which is a mental coaching guide book desinged for the use of ice hockey coaches in the 2012 founded ice hockey club, China Pioneers HC,Beijing, China. The main objective of the product is to provide a simple, easy to read information pa-package about the purpos...

  1. American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists: how are they doing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peishan; Hu, Fengling

    2016-09-01

    More than 60 years have passed since 3 pioneer Chinese anesthesiologists were trained by American physicians. After returning to China, they applied their new knowledge and skills to develop a new anesthesia specialty in their own country. Over the past 2 decades, close to 600 Chinese medical graduates have been trained in the United States and have become part of the American anesthesia workforce. Unlike their elder generation, they did not go back to China after their training. People are always wondering how this new generation of American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists is doing in a different culture and different health care and political systems. This review indicates that these newly American-trained Chinese anesthesiologists not only provide high-quality patient care but also conduct outstanding anesthesia teaching and research. In addition, as their pioneer anesthesiologists did in China, they use professional organizations and publications as 2 major means to advance professional development and promote academic exchanges between Chinese and American anesthesiologists, through which American anesthesiology continues to have influence on modern Chinese anesthesiology. PMID:27555192

  2. The Portrayal of Industrial Melanism in American College General Biology Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulford, Janice Marie; Rudge, David Wÿss

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of industrial melanism (IM) became widely acknowledged as a well-documented example of natural selection largely as a result of H.B.D. Kettlewell's pioneering research on the subject in the early 1950s. It was quickly picked up by American biology textbooks starting in the early 1960s and became ubiquitous throughout the 1970s,…

  3. Effects of body mass and water temperature on routine metabolism of American paddlefish Polyodon spathula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J T; Mims, S D; Wright, R A

    2013-04-01

    This study quantified the effects of temperature and fish mass on routine metabolism of the American paddlefish Polyodon spathula. Thermal sensitivity, as measured by Q(10) value, was low in P. spathula. Mean Q(10) was 1·78 while poikilotherms are generally expected to have Q(10) values in the 2·00-2·50 range. Mass-specific metabolism did not decrease with increased fish size to the extent that this phenomenon is observed in teleosts, as evidenced by a mass exponent (β) value of 0·92 for P. spathula compared with 0·79 in a review of teleost species. Other Acipenseriformes have exhibited relatively high β values for mass-specific respiration. Overall P. spathula metabolism appears to be more dependent on body mass and less dependent on temperature than for many other fishes. An equation utilizing temperature and fish mass to estimate gross respiration for P. spathula was derived and this equation was applied to respiratory data from other Acipenseriformes to assess inter-species variation. Polyodon spathula respiration rates across water temperature and fish mass appear most similar to those of Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser naccarii and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus. PMID:23557305

  4. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Spring 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-01-01

    As part of its Native American outreach, DOE's Wind Powering America program has initiated a NAWIG newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events. It is our hope that this newsletter will both inform and elicit comments and input on wind development in Indian Country. This issue profiles the Banner Wind Project in Nome, Alaska, and a new Native project in Kansas.

  5. Defining winter trophic habitat of juvenile Gulf Sturgeon in the Suwannee and Apalachicola rivermouth estuaries, acoustic telemetry investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulak, K.J.; Randall, M.T.; Edwards, R.E.; Summers, T.M.; Luke, K.E.; Smith, W.T.; Norem, A.D.; Harden, William M.; Lukens, R.H.; Parauka, F.; Bolden, S.; Lehnert, R.

    2009-01-01

    Three automated listening post-telemetry studies were undertaken in the Suwannee and Apalachicola estuaries to gain knowledge of habitats use by juvenile Gulf Sturgeons (Acipenser oxyrinchus desotoi) on winter feeding grounds. A simple and reliable method for external attachment of small acoustic tags to the dorsal fin base was developed using shrink-tubing. Suspending receivers on masts below anchored buoys improved reception and facilitated downloading; a detection range of 500–2500 m was realized. In the Apalachicola estuary, juvenile GS stayed in shallow water (< 2 m) within the estuarine transition zone all winter in the vicinity of the Apalachicola River mouth. Juvenile GS high-use areas did not coincide with high density benthic macrofauna areas from the most recent (1999) benthos survey. In the Suwannee estuary, juveniles ranged widely and individually throughout oligohaline to mesohaline subareas of the estuary, preferentially using mesohaline subareas seaward of Suwannee Reef (52% of acoustic detections). The river mouth subarea was important only in early and late winter, during the times of adult Gulf Sturgeon migrations (41% of detections). Preferred winter feeding subareas coincided spatially with known areas of dense macrofaunal benthos concentrations. Following a dramatic drop in air and water temperatures, juvenile GS left the river mouth and estuary, subsequently being detected 8 km offshore in polyhaline open Gulf of Mexico waters, before returning to the estuary. Cold-event offshore excursions demonstrate that they can tolerate full-salinity polyhaline waters in the open Gulf of Mexico, for at least several days at a time. For juvenile sturgeons, the stress and metabolic cost of enduring high salinity (Jarvis et al., 2001; McKenzie et al., 2001; Singer and Ballantyne, 2002) for short periods in deep offshore waters seems adaptively advantageous relative to the risk of cold-event mortality in shallow inshore waters of lower salinity. Thus

  6. Visual Basic, Excel-based fish population modeling tool—The pallid sturgeon example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Green, Nicholas S.; Albers, Janice L.

    2016-02-10

    The model presented in this report is a spreadsheet-based model using Visual Basic for Applications within Microsoft Excel (http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7057D0Z) prepared in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. It uses the same model structure and, initially, parameters as used by Wildhaber and others (2015) for pallid sturgeon. The difference between the model structure used for this report and that used by Wildhaber and others (2015) is that variance is not partitioned. For the model of this report, all variance is applied at the iteration and time-step levels of the model. Wildhaber and others (2015) partition variance into parameter variance (uncertainty about the value of a parameter itself) applied at the iteration level and temporal variance (uncertainty caused by random environmental fluctuations with time) applied at the time-step level. They included implicit individual variance (uncertainty caused by differences between individuals) within the time-step level.The interface developed for the model of this report is designed to allow the user the flexibility to change population model structure and parameter values and uncertainty separately for every component of the model. This flexibility makes the modeling tool potentially applicable to any fish species; however, the flexibility inherent in this modeling tool makes it possible for the user to obtain spurious outputs. The value and reliability of the model outputs are only as good as the model inputs. Using this modeling tool with improper or inaccurate parameter values, or for species for which the structure of the model is inappropriate, could lead to untenable management decisions. By facilitating fish population modeling, this modeling tool allows the user to evaluate a range of management options and implications. The goal of this modeling tool is to be a user-friendly modeling tool for developing fish population models useful to natural resource

  7. Effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers upstream from McNary Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details activities during the first year of Phase II of this sturgeon research. In Phase I, the authors assessed the status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Phase II will examine the effects on white sturgeon productivity of mitigative measures recommended in Phase I. The status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations upstream from McNary Dam will also be examined in Phase II. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Fisheries, US Fish and Wildlife Service, and National Marine Fisheries Service. Work during the past year has focused on: (1) analysis of results of limited sampling conducted in 1992, (2) submission of Phase I results to the peer-review literature to ensure widespread dissemination, clarity of presentation, and credibility of findings, and (3) preparation for additional field work in 1993. In report sections A to D, each agency reports 1992 results if applicable and the current status of manuscripts. Results of field work conducted in 1993 will be reported in the 1994 annual report

  8. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rien, Thomas A.; Beiningen, Kirk T. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1997-07-01

    This project began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state, and tribal fisheries entities to determine (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Colombia and Snake rivers.

  9. STUDIES REGARDING THE PRESENCE OF THE PATHOGENS BACTERIA INTO A RECIRCULATING SYSTEM OF BELUGA STURGEON INTENSIVE REARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELICA DOCAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Recirculating aquaculture offers good potential for successful fish farming since is often independent of environmental conditions. Maintaining healthy fish in a recirculating system involves establishing adequate dissolved oxygen levels, removal of solid wastes, and sufficient ammonia nitrification to assure optimal rearing conditions. Neglecting these, the fish immune system will depress, the facultative pathogen germs will be able to provoke important disease outbreaks into cultured biomass, as was happened in our recirculating pilot system. In this study are presented the pathological aspects registered to the beluga sturgeon of 1 year, reared into our recirculating pilot system, pathological aspects generated by a haemorrhagic bacterial septicaemia which was manifested in the conditions of low concentrations of DO. The disease was diagnosed to the affected fish through anatomopathological and clinical exam, haematological exam and microbiological exam.

  10. Using drift nets to capture early life stages and monitor spawning of the yangtze river chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Q.W.; Kynard, B.; Yang, D.G.; Chen, X.H.; Du, H.; Shen, L.; Zhang, H.

    2009-01-01

    A sampling system for capturing sturgeon eggs using a D-shaped bottom anchored drift net was used to capture early life stages (ELS) of Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, and monitor annual spawning success at Yichang on the Yangtze River, 1996-2004, before and just after the Three Gorges Dam began operation. Captured were 96 875 ELS (early life stages: eggs, yolk-sac larvae = eleuthero embryos, and larvae); most were eggs and only 2477 were yolk-sac larvae. Most ELS were captured in the main river channel and inside the bend at the Yichang spawning reach. Yolk-sac larvae were captured for a maximum of 3 days after hatching began, indicating quick dispersal downstream. The back-calculated day of egg fertilization over the eight years indicated a maximum spawning window of 23 days (20 October-10 November). Spawning in all years was restricted temporally, occurred mostly at night and during one or two spawning periods, each lasting several days. The brief temporal spawning window may reduce egg predation by opportunistic predators by flooding the river bottom with millions of eggs. During 1996-2002, the percentage of fertilized eggs in an annual 20-egg sample was between 63.5 to 94.1%; however, in 2003 the percentage fertilized was only 23.8%. This sudden decline may be related to the altered environmental conditions at Yichang caused by operation of the Three Gorges Dam. Further studies are needed to monitor spawning and changes in egg fertilization in this threatened population. ?? 2009 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effect of anaesthetics MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G.; Zhuang, P.; Zhang, L.; Kynard, B.; Shi, X.; Duan, M.; Liu, J.; Huang, X.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of MS-222 and clove oil on blood biochemical parameters of juvenile Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) were studied. MS-222 caused higher glucose (GLU) concentrations in anaesthetic test groups than for the control group. Triglyceride (TGL) concentrations of fish in the 140 and 160mgL-1 groups were also significantly higher than those of other groups. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than the level in 80, 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity in the 140mgL-1 group was significantly higher than those in the 100 and 120mgL-1 groups. Levels of total protein (TP), cholesterol (CHOL) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in anaesthetic test groups were not significantly influenced by MS-222. Clove oil did not have significant effects on levels of GLU, TP, CHOL, ALT and ALP. TGL concentration of fish exposed to 180mgL-1 clove oil was significantly higher than those of the rest anaesthetic groups. AST activities of fish exposed to 120, 150 and 180mgL-1 were significantly higher than those of 60 and 90mgL-1. Overall, TGL and AST could be potentially used as indicators of anaesthetic stress for juvenile Siberian sturgeon. Based on blood biochemical parameters, the appropriate anaesthetic concentrations of MS-222 and clove oil were 80-120mgL-1 and 60-90mgL-1, respectively. Clove oil was a promising alternative to MS-222. ?? 2011 Blackwell Verlag, Berlin.

  12. Franz Ulinski, an Almost Forgotten Early Pioneer of Rocketry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, B. P.

    2002-01-01

    During the early period of rocket development several pioneers originating from the former Austro-Hungarian empire contributed their ideas to the new field of rocketry. The most well known - regarded as the "father of rocketry" in Western Europe - is Hermann Oberth. The others were Max Valier, Franz von Hoefft, Guido von Pirquet, Hermann Potocnik, Friedrich Schmiedl, Franz Ulinski, Eugen Saenger and others. Franz Ulinski (1890-1974) was born 1890 in Blosdorf, Moravia (now Mljadejow, Czech Republic). After attending schools in Wels, Upper Austria, he started a career in the Austro-Hungarian Army in 1910. During his service he worked beginning 1917 at an airplane engine plant in Fischamend and in 1919/20 at the "Fliegerarsenal" (aircraft arsenal) in Vienna. End of 1920 the army of the remaining republic of Austria had to severely reduce its forces and Ulinski was superannuated without further payment. Since 1917 he was also inscribed at the College for Advanced Technology in Vienna ("Technische Hochschule Wien"), but he never graduated, instead he autodidactically attained the VDI-Engineering-Diploma (VDI = "Verein Deutscher Ingenieure"- Association of German Engineers). During 1921-1924 he worked as a development engineer and later as a design engineer for a car factory. In 1925 he set up and ran his own company (radio sale enterprise) and in 1929 an engineering workshop. From 1938 to 1945 he first served as technical staff and later as a design engineer at the Siebel- Flugzeugwerke (Airplane-Factory) in Halle/Saale, Germany. After the Second World War he was employed as a design engineer at different engineering companies in Austria and he died 1974 in Wels. Ulinski's first contact with the topic of space flight occurred during the time period when he was a member of the Austro- Hungarian Army. Ulinski was one of the first in the german speaking part of Europe to publish an article with his ideas about space flight in 1920 (three years before Herman Oberth

  13. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Early Life History and Genertics Study, August 1, 1984 to December 31, 1985 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1985-12-01

    Research on Columbia River white sturgeon has been directed at their early life history as it may apply to production and enhancement strategies for management of the species. The river environment in which sturgeon historically migrated, spawned, and reared has changed through development. Habitat changes are expected to precipitate genetic changes in the fish, as well as reduce the fitness in populations. Genetic analysis of samples taken from various locations over the length of the Columbia River have indicated that observed gene frequencies in all areas sampled were not in Hardy-Weinburg equilibrium, which could suggest that the general population is experiencing perturbation in the system. Analysis thus far has exposed few differences between samples from the lower, middle, and upper portions of the system. Allelic differences were identified in fish from the Roosevelt Lake, which may be evidence of unique characteristics among fish from that general area.

  14. Effect of dietary macronutrient proportion on intermediate metabolism and oxidative status in sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furné, M; García-Gallego, M; Hidalgo, M C; Sanz, A

    2016-08-01

    Three isoenergetic diets varying the proportion of dietary energy supplied by each of the macronutrients (carbohydrate, lipid, or protein) were delivered, to farmed sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), to test the possible effects on the intermediate metabolism and oxidative status in liver, white muscle, and heart. In trout, there is an adaptive metabolic response to an increase in lipids and carbohydrates in the diet. However, this does not happen in the sturgeon. These differences may be due to different dietary habits of both species. In terms of oxidative status, only the liver displayed oxidative stress in both species, showing an increase in the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities after feeding with the high-lipid and high-protein diet. PMID:26970754

  15. Effects of dietary Spirulina platensis on growth performance, humoral and mucosal immune responses and disease resistance in juvenile great sturgeon (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, Milad; Yeganeh, Sakineh; Dadar, Maryam; Sakai, Masahiro; Dawood, Mahmoud A O

    2016-09-01

    Dietary supplementation of Spirulina platensis at different levels (0% control, 2.5%, 5% and 10%) was evaluated to find out the effects on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, humoral and skin innate immune responses and disease resistance in the great sturgeon (Huso huso). After 8 weeks of experimental trial, growth parameters, intestinal lactic acid bacteria count, protease and lipase activities were significantly high in 10% S. platensis fed group (P alkaline phosphatase was significantly high in fish fed 10% S. platensis (P diet supplemented with S. platensis. The present results demonstrate that this dietary supplementation with S. platensis (mainly at 10% level) could be useful for maintaining the overall health status of great sturgeon. PMID:27506276

  16. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; Annual Progress Report, April 2007 - March 2008.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallette, Christine [Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-07-28

    We report on our progress from April 2007 through March 2008 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report C), and Montana State University (MSU; Report D). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  17. Contrasting the morphology, anatomy and fungal colonization of new pioneer and fibrous roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadworny, Marcin; Eissenstat, David M

    2011-04-01

    Not all roots born as first-order branches are the same and this has important consequences for overall function. We hypothesized that, compared with fibrous roots, pioneer roots are built to live longer at the expense of absorptive capacity. We tested this hypothesis by investigating pioneer and fibrous roots in their first 14 d of life in the arbuscular mycorrhizal tree species: Acer negundo, Acer saccharum, Juglans nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera and Populus tremuloides. Root observations were made with root-access boxes that allowed roots to be sampled at known ages in field-grown trees. Compared to fibrous roots, pioneer roots had larger diameter, lower specific root length, greater average length and a lack of mycorrhizal or nonmycorrhizal fungal colonization. Pioneer roots < 14 d old had more layers of hypodermis with a lower percentage of putative passage cells and more protoxylem groups than similar age fibrous roots. Our results suggest that pioneer roots are constructed for defense against biotic and abiotic challenges, exploration of soil distal to the stem, high fibrous root branching and secondary development with high axial hydraulic conductivity at the expense of mycorrhizal colonization and high absorptive capacity for water and nutrients.

  18. Contributions to understanding the fall migration of beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) on the Lower Danube River, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Alin M. Bâdiliţă; György Deák; Carmen G. Nicolae; Ştefan Diaconescu

    2013-01-01

    Within this article the authors present the processing of an informational volume, unique on bothnational and international plan, referring to sturgeons’ migration on Danube. In order to present the results ofthe monitoring activity, carried out by a researching mix team of the above mentioned institutes, we chose themarine sturgeon beluga (Huso huso). The objective is to offer exclusive results regarding the migration of thissturgeon species in order to elaborate some protection and conserva...

  19. Growth Performance and Feed Utilization of Russian Sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii Brandt&Ratzeburg, 1833 in Grow-out Phase Cultured in the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kocabaş

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to determine the growth performance of Russian sturgeon Acipenser gueldenstaedtii throughout 5 years and to investigate problems encountered in grow-out phase. Fish samples (2750.88±351.18 g, 80.18±6.49 cm mean±SD were equally stocked into fiberglass tanks, three replicate per treatment and fed for 5 years. Gain of weight and length, Specific Growth Rate (SGR, Condition Factor (CF and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR were determined. Our results indicated that mean final length and weight were 106.34±2.79 (cm and 6651.16±3.16 (g. The mean condition factor (CF at year 5 was 0.51. FCR values fluctuated and the highest value of food conversion rate (FCR was determined in 4th year. During the rearing period of Russian sturgeon, SGR values decreased dramatically from 2.88 to 1.83. In conclusion, slow growth was determined in Russian sturgeon A. gueldenstaedtii. Therefore, there is need for extensive evaluation and comparison of data obtained from field studies and those obtained from laboratory studies.

  20. Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on growth performance, survival, body composition, and some hematological parameters in giant sturgeon juvenile (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeghi Mansour, M; Akrami, R; Ghobadi, S H; Amani Denji, K; Ezatrahimi, N; Gharaei, A

    2012-06-01

    The effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS; activeMOS®) on growth, survival, and body composition in giant sturgeon juvenile (Huso huso) with initially average weight 46.89 ± 2.57 was investigated for a period of 46 days. Basal diet were supplemented with 0 (control), 2, and 4 g kg(-1) MOS in a totally randomized design trial in triplicate groups. The results showed no significant differences in growth and feeding parameters between control and treatment groups (MOS supplementation diets) (P > 0.05). There was a statistically significant decrease (P fish level in only group treated with 4 g kg(-1) MOS. The highest and the lowest growth performances were observed in 2 and 4 g kg(-1) MOS, respectively. There were no significant differences in survival rate among all treatment groups (P > 0.05). In group treated with 2 g kg(-1) MOS was a significant difference in lipid carcass (P protein, ash, and moisture remained unaffected (P > 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in intestinal lactic acid bacteria between all treatment groups (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in hematological parameters between control and MOS treatment groups (P > 0.05). These results suggested that the prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide did not influence the growth performance in giant sturgeon juvenile, and it is not appropriate for supplementation in the diet of cultured juvenile giant sturgeon.

  1. Status and habitat requirements of the white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam. Volume 2: Supplemental papers and data documentation; Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary

  2. A fully-stochasticized, age-structured population model for population viability analysis of fish: Lower Missouri River endangered pallid sturgeon example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Albers, Janice; Green, Nicholas; Moran, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a fully-stochasticized, age-structured population model suitable for population viability analysis (PVA) of fish and demonstrate its use with the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) of the Lower Missouri River as an example. The model incorporates three levels of variance: parameter variance (uncertainty about the value of a parameter itself) applied at the iteration level, temporal variance (uncertainty caused by random environmental fluctuations over time) applied at the time-step level, and implicit individual variance (uncertainty caused by differences between individuals) applied within the time-step level. We found that population dynamics were most sensitive to survival rates, particularly age-2+ survival, and to fecundity-at-length. The inclusion of variance (unpartitioned or partitioned), stocking, or both generally decreased the influence of individual parameters on population growth rate. The partitioning of variance into parameter and temporal components had a strong influence on the importance of individual parameters, uncertainty of model predictions, and quasiextinction risk (i.e., pallid sturgeon population size falling below 50 age-1+ individuals). Our findings show that appropriately applying variance in PVA is important when evaluating the relative importance of parameters, and reinforce the need for better and more precise estimates of crucial life-history parameters for pallid sturgeon.

  3. Assessing the risk to green sturgeon from application of imidacloprid to control burrowing shrimp in Willapa Bay, Washington-Part I: exposure characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, John A; Sadilek, Martin; Grue, Christian E

    2015-11-01

    Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor (WA, USA) comprise the largest region of commercial oyster cultivation on the Pacific Coast. The activities of 2 species of burrowing shrimp impair growth and survival of oysters reared on the intertidal mudflats. To maintain viable harvests, the oyster growers have proposed controlling the shrimp by applying the insecticide imidacloprid onto harvested beds. Green sturgeon (listed in the Endangered Species Act) forage on burrowing shrimp and could be exposed to imidacloprid in the sediment porewater and through consumed prey. Studies were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that green sturgeon would be exposed to imidacloprid and to characterize the subsequent environmental exposure. Comparisons between treated and untreated control beds following test application of the insecticide suggested that green sturgeon fed opportunistically on imidacloprid-impaired shrimp. The highest interpolated imidacloprid residue concentrations in field samples following chemical application were 27.8 µg kg(-1) and 31.4 µg kg(-1) in porewater and shrimp, respectively. Results from modeled branchial and dietary uptake, based on conservative assumptions, indicated that the porewater exposure route had the greatest contribution to systemic absorption of imidacloprid. The highest average daily uptake from porewater (177.9 µg kg(-1) body wt) was 9.5-fold greater than total dietary uptake (18.8 µg kg(-1) body wt). Concentrations and durations of exposure would be lower than the levels expected to elicit direct acute or chronic toxic effects.

  4. High precision thermal modeling of complex systems with application to the flyby and Pioneer anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Rievers, Benny

    2011-01-01

    Thermal modeling of complex systems faces the problems of an effective digitalization of the detailed geometry and properties of the system, calculation of the thermal flows and temperature maps, treatment of the thermal radiation including possible multiple reflections, inclusion of additional external influences, extraction of the radiation pressure from calculated surface data, and computational effectiveness. In previous publications the solution to these problems have been outlined and a first application to the Pioneer spacecraft have been shown. Here we like to present the application of our thermal modeling to the Rosetta flyby anomaly as well as to the Pioneer anomaly. The analysis outlines that thermal recoil pressure is not the cause of the Rosetta flyby anomaly but likely resolves the anomalous acceleration observed for Pioneer 10.

  5. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  6. Can conventional forces really explain the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10/11 ?

    CERN Document Server

    Mbelek, J P

    2003-01-01

    A conventional explanation of the correlation between the Pioneer 10/11 anomalous acceleration and spin-rate change is given. First, the rotational Doppler shift analysis is improved. Finally, a relation between the radio beam reaction force and the spin-rate change is established. Computations are found in good agreement with observational data. The relevance of our result to the main Pioneer 10/11 anomalous acceleration is emphasized. Our analysis leads us to conclude that the latter may not be merely artificial.

  7. Pioneer and Voyager observations of the solar wind at large heliocentric distances and latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazis, P. R.; Mihalov, J. D.; Barnes, A.; Lazarus, A. J.; Smith, E. J.

    1989-01-01

    Data obtained from the electrostatic analyzers aboard the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft and from the Faraday cup aboard Voyager 2 were used to study spatial gradients in the distant solar wind. Prior to mid-1985, both spacecraft observed nearly identical solar wind structures. After day 150 of 1985, the velocity structure at Voyager 2 became flatter, and the Voyager 2 velocities were smaller than those observed by Pioneer 11. It is suggested that these changes in the solar wind at low latitudes may be related to a change which occurred in the coronal hole structure in early 1985.

  8. The Variable-c Cosmology as a Solution to Pioneer Anomaly

    OpenAIRE

    Shojaie, Hossein

    2010-01-01

    It is shown that the Pioneer anomaly is a natural consequence of variable speed of light cosmological models wherein the speed of light is assumed to be a power-law function of the scale factor (or cosmic time). In other words, the Pioneer anomaly can be regarded as a non-gravitational effect of the continuously decreasing speed of light which indicates itself as an anomalous light propagation time delay in local frames. This time delay is accordingly interpreted as an additional Doppler blue...

  9. Plasma cholinesterase activity as a biomarker for quantifying exposure of green sturgeon to carbaryl following applications to control burrowing shrimp in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troiano, Alexandra T; Grue, Christian E

    2016-08-01

    Willapa Bay (Washington State, USA) has been 1 of the rare intertidal locations where large-scale pesticide applications occur. Until recently, carbaryl was applied to control burrowing shrimp that decrease commercial oyster productivity. The bay is a critical habitat for green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), an anadromous species listed as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. However, the hazard that carbaryl poses is unknown. Surrogate seawater-acclimated white sturgeon (A. transmontanus) were exposed to 0 μg L(-1) , 30 μg L(-1) , 100 μg L(-1) , 300 μg L(-1) , 1000 μg L(-1) , and 3000 μg L(-1) carbaryl for 6 h, and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and plasma butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activities were measured. Enzyme recovery was measured in an additional cohort exposed to 1000 μg L(-1) carbaryl for 6 h. Activity of AChE was reduced (p ≤ 0.001) at concentrations ≥ 100 μg L(-1) with recovery in the 1000 μg L(-1) cohort by 72 h. Surprisingly, BChE activity was greater than controls at concentrations ≥ 300 μg L(-1) (p > 0.05), a finding confirmed in additional fish exposed to 3000 μg L(-1) for 6 h (+30%, p recovery by 48 h. Plasma samples were collected from free-living green sturgeon before and 4 d to 5 d after application of carbaryl in Willapa Bay. Activity of BChE after application was reduced 28% (p < 0.001), indicating exposure to the pesticide. However, the lack of congruence between BChE and AChE activity in captive white sturgeon exposed to carbaryl indicates that further studies are needed to better understand the risk carbaryl exposure poses to green sturgeon. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:2003-2015. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26678014

  10. Separation of sturgeon bile by thin layer of chromatography silica%薄层层析分离鲟鱼胆汁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金芳; 郭振林; 龚世伟; 陈蓉; 陈启明

    2012-01-01

    To effectively transform useless sturgeon bile into medicinal products with high added-value, a process concerning medicinal resource of separating sturgeon bile was proposed. Effective ingredients of sturgeon bile were separated by the developing solvent with different solvent systems. Solvent systems of unary, binary and ternary were used as developing solvents in experiment. The influence of separating the sturgeon bile was investigated by the developing solvent with different solvent systems. The results show that the unary solvents such as toluene and chloroform have a fine separability, the binary solvents of chloroform/ethanol, chloroform/methanol, and petroleum ether/acetone have a better separation effect, the ternary solvents of petroleum ether/acetone/toluene (3:1:1, volume ratio) and chloroform/methanol/toluene (5:1:1, volume ratio) have obvious separation effects. Therefore, we selected Chloroform/methanol (10:1, volume ratio) as an appropriate solvent system to follow-up separation of sturgeon bile by column chromatography.%为了综合利用鲟鱼加工下脚料,提高鲟鱼附加值和中药产业临床应用价值,提出了采用不同的溶剂系统作展开剂分离鲟鱼胆汁的有效成分的方法.实验过程中,分别以单元溶剂、二元溶剂以及三元溶剂体系作展开剂,考察了不同体系的展开剂对鲟鱼胆汁分离效果的影响.结果表明:单元溶剂中甲苯和氯仿分离效果好,二元溶剂体系中氯仿/乙醇、氯仿/甲醇、石油醚/丙酮以及三元溶剂体系中石油醚/丙酮/甲苯(3:1:1,体积比)、氯仿/甲醇/甲苯(5:1:1,体积比)分离效果较佳.筛选出二元溶剂氯仿/甲醇(10:1,体积比)最适宜后续的柱层析分离鲟鱼胆汁.

  11. MEDLINE in the UK: pioneering the past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Steve J; Weightman, Alison L

    2005-09-01

    This article provides a brief history of the development of the MEDLINE database and its huge impact within the UK, from its inception to the present time. The origins of MEDLINE can be traced back to a collection of books in the US Surgeon General's Office during the American Civil War and John Shaw Billings' decision, during 1867, to make this Library as complete as possible. From these beginnings, Index Medicus was developed in the early years of the 20th century, and electronic versions of the database began with the computerized on-demand search service MEDLARS in 1964 and then via CD-ROM and Internet Grateful Med to the web-based and free-to-all service, PubMed, in 1997. The response to PubMed was immediate and startling with usage increasing from 7 million searches per annum in 1996 to 400 million searches per annum in 2001 and the service continues to improve. MEDLINE providers are now offering mapping of natural language queries to the sophisticated indexing vocabulary (Medical Subject Headings, MeSH) and the provision of specific filters for different types of publication to improve searching efficiency, as well as links to full-text versions of the papers where available. The next steps are likely to involve an increased blurring of database and full-text boundaries, incorporating seamless access to the best available evidence within MEDLINE and a wide range of other information resources within a single search and to an increasing amount of full-text via various open-archive initiatives. As ever, the US National Library of Medicine is in the vanguard of research and further applications of its MEDLINE database for users within the UK will be awaited with great interest. PMID:16109026

  12. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  13. Haiku: A Dance in Solitude --- The Separateness of Asian Americans in Hisaye Yamamoto’s “Seventeen Syllables”

    OpenAIRE

    Shenli Song

    2010-01-01

    The short story “Seventeen Syllables” written by Japanese American woman writer, Hisaye Yamamoto embroiders on the style of intergenerational communication among Issei and Nisei, which is complicated by cultural differences. Focused on the experience of Tome, the Issei mother, a gentle and intelligent Asian American woman, who is consumed by an urgent need to create and express herself, being submerged and destroyed by a male dominant society with a stoic, pioneering moral system and a suffoc...

  14. NAWIG News: The Quarterly Newsletter of the Native American Wind Interest Group, Fall 2008, Wind & Hydropower Technologies Program (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-09-01

    As part of its Native American outreach, DOE?s Wind Powering America program produces a newsletter to present Native American wind information, including projects, interviews with pioneers, issues, WPA activities, and related events. This issue features an interview with Dave Danz, a tribal planner for the Grand Portage Band of Chippewa in northeastern Minnesota, and a feature on the new turbine that powers the KILI radio station on the Pine Ridge Reservation.

  15. 76 FR 10581 - Pioneer Trail Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pioneer Trail Wind Farm, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Pioneer Trail Wind Farm, LLC's application for market-based...

  16. Pioneering Mars: Turning the Red Planet Green with Earth's Smallest Settlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cwikla, Julie; Milroy, Scott; Reider, David; Skelton, Tara

    2014-01-01

    Pioneering Mars: Turning the Red Planet Green with the Earth's Smallest Settlers (http://pioneeringmars.org) provides a partnership model for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) learning that brings university scientists together with high school students to investigate whether cyanobacteria from Antarctica could survive…

  17. A Comparative Study of Pioneer Entry Decisions in the United States and China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y. Lisa; Song, Michael; Parry, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    According to the resource-based view of the firm, competitive advantages arise from control and deployment of productive resources that are rare and difficult to imitate. Through early entry, pioneers can gain preferential access to key resources. However, the value of that access depends on the pre

  18. Turning Points in the Lives of Two Pioneer Arab Women Principals in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arar, Khalid Husny; Abu-Rabia-Queder, Sarab

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the managerial career development of two Arab women, pioneer principals within the Arab education system in Israel. Using in-depth interviews relating to the characteristics of the different stages leading up to and within their careers as school principals (childhood and academic studies; the struggle to achieve the…

  19. Pioneering the human development revolution: Analysing the trajectory of Mahbub ul Haq

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMahbub ul Haq's work to coordinate, establish and propagate the human development approach offers an example of effective leadership in promoting more ethical socio-economic development. This article reviews Pioneering the Human Development Revolution-An Intellectual Biography of Mahbub

  20. The mechanical design of an imaging photopolarimeter for the Jupiter missions (Pioneer 10 and 11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodak, J. C.

    1975-01-01

    The mechanical design and fabrication are discussed of the imaging photopolarimeter (IPP), a multifunction space-qualified instrument used on the Jupiter Pioneer missions. The extreme environmental requirements for the structural design, optical system, and mechanisms are described with detailed discussion of some of the design and fabrication problems encountered.

  1. Giuseppe Pasta (1742-1823): protophysician and pioneer of psychological studies in the medical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Carlo Alfredo; Veneroni, Laura; Poli, Marco

    2009-11-01

    Giuseppe Pasta was a pioneer of psychological support in physical disease. Born in Bergamo, Italy, he was a cousin of the physician Andrea Pasta who was a pupil of Giovanni Battista Morgagni. Giuseppe's cultural and clinical resources were the teachings of Francesco Redi's medical school in Tuscany. This paper discusses the courage and philosophical tolerance of disease and the etiquette of the physician.

  2. 75 FR 32356 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination of Nonregulated Status for Genetically...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...' regulations in 7 CFR part 340. In a notice \\1\\ published in the Federal Register on September 2, 2009 (74 FR... published in the Federal Register on October 26, 2009 (74 FR 54950-54951, Docket No. APHIS-2007-0156), we... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Determination...

  3. 78 FR 32231 - Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of Plant Pest Risk Assessment, Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... In a notice \\2\\ published in the Federal Register on July 13, 2012, (77 FR 41364-41366, Docket No... (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011-0129) a notice describing our public review process for... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Pioneer Hi-Bred International, Inc.; Availability of...

  4. The Now Frontier. Pioneer to Jupiter. Man Links Earth and Planets. Issue No. 1-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973

    This packet of space science instructional materials includes five issues related to the planet Jupiter. Each issue presents factual material about the planet, diagramatic representations of its movements and positions relative to bright stars or the earth, actual photographs and/or tables of data collected relevant to Pioneer 10, the spacecraft…

  5. Ir A.H. de Voogt: life and career of a radio pioneer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Strom

    2007-01-01

    There are probably few radio astronomers who would be able to recall A.H. de Voogt, which is unfortunate, but at the same time unsurprising: for he published no original astronomical research, never carried out pioneering observations, nor is his name linked to either theoretical or instrumental bre

  6. The Study of the Pioneer Anomaly: New Data and Objectives for New Investigation

    CERN Document Server

    Turyshev, S G; Lau, E L; Lee, K J; Toth, V T; Kellogg, Larry R.; Lau, Eunice. L.; Lee, Kyong J.; Toth, Viktor T.; Turyshev, Slava G.

    2006-01-01

    Radiometric tracking data of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft has consistently indicated the presence of a small, anomalous, Doppler frequency drift, uniformly changing with a rate of ~6 x 10^{-9} Hz/s that can be interpreted as a constant sunward acceleration of each particular spacecraft of a_P = (8.74 \\pm 1.33) x 10^{-10} m/s^2. This signal is known as the Pioneer anomaly; the nature of this anomaly remains unexplained. We discuss the efforts to retrieve the entire data sets of the Pioneer 10/11 radiometric Doppler data. We also report on the recently recovered telemetry files that may be used to reconstruct the engineering history of both spacecraft using original project documentation and newly developed software tools. We discuss possible ways to further investigate the discovered effect using these telemetry files in conjunction with the analysis of the much extended Doppler data. We present the main objectives of new upcoming study of the Pioneer anomaly, namely i) analysis of the early data that could yi...

  7. De Vries & Mul, A.M. Cooper, Pioneer of Puppet Animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wells, Paul

    2012-01-01

    abstractReview of Tjitte de Vries and Ati Mul, ‘They Thought it was a Marvel’. Arthur Melbourne Cooper (1874-1961) Pioneer of Puppet Animation. Amsterdam (Pallas Publications/AmsterdamUniversity Press) 2009, 576 p., 105 ill.; includesdvd of 6 films, isbn 978 908 555016 7

  8. Irradiation to control quarantine insects in exported fresh commodities: Pioneering generic doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Food and Drug Administration has approved radiation doses up to 1000 Gy (1 kGy) for preservation and disinfestation of fresh fruits and vegetables. In 2006, USDA-APHIS published a pioneering rule providing generic low-dose radiation quarantine treatments to control insects. A gener...

  9. Robert Owen: A Historiographic Study of a Pioneer of Human Resource Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatcher, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the ideals and activities of the nineteenth century Welsh industrialist and reformer Robert Owen (1771-1858), and how they informed modern human resource development (HRD) concepts and practices and provided evidence of Owen as a HRD pioneer. Design/methodology/approach: Historiography provided…

  10. The Solar House: Pioneering Sustainable Design. By Anthony Denzer. New York: Rizzoli, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Koehler

    2014-01-01

    This review of The Solar House: Pioneering Sustainable Design, by Anthony Denzer, discusses the important contributions of this book to the history of midcentury modern architecture, and considers the role of solar houses in the context of current debates over sustainability.

  11. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near South Pioneer Bank (100-003), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-003b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near south Pioneer Bank in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced...

  12. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  13. American Occupation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Angry Americans across the country are protesting against inequality, greed and corruption The "Occupy Wall Street" protests have grown from an insignificant lower Manhattan gathering of around 1,500 people to tens of thousands of people across the United States, from Anchorage,

  14. Research and Development of Nutritional and Healthy Function of Sturgeon and its Deep Processing Products%鲟鱼营养保健功能及其深加工产品的开发研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕊

    2014-01-01

    为提高鲟鱼的养殖效益,探索鲟鱼发展产业链,使更多人享用肉味鲜美、营养保健的鲟鱼产品,通过查阅文献资料,对制约鲟鱼产业瓶颈的主要因素进行了研究。结果表明,由于养殖规模的快速扩张、深加工技术研究相对滞后、农户养殖效益下降,严重制约了该产业的可持续发展。解决鲟鱼蛋白低温抗冻技术,开发鲟鱼速冻调理食品、特色风味休闲食品和针对不同消费人群的功能性食品是鲟鱼产业未来的主要发展方向。%To improve the benefit of the sturgeon breeding,then explore the d industrial chain of evelopment,the sturgeon products,which are delicious,nutrition,care,are enjoyed by more people,the main factors restraining the sturgeon industry was learned through consulting literature material.The results show that because of the rapid expansion of scale of breeding and the relative lag of deep processing technology ,so that the benefit of farmers breeding drop,severely restricted the sustainable development of this industry.So solving the antifreeze technology of sturgeon protein in low temperature,then the sturgeon frozen prepared food,unique flavor snack food and functional food for different consumers will be developed,these are the main development direction of sturgeon industry in the future.

  15. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  16. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  17. 俄罗斯鲟鱼配合饲料主要营养指标的试验%Test on main nutrient indexes of assorted forage in feeding Russian Sturgeon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林茂苍

    2001-01-01

    用蛋白梯度及脂肪梯度进行工厂化养殖俄罗斯鲟鱼,经过78d养殖试验,认为适宜俄罗斯鲟的蛋白质含量为41%左右,脂肪含量为9%左右.%Using different contents of protein and fat in assorted forage in industrial Russian Sturgeon (Acipenser gueldenstaedti) farming, after the trial of 78d, the conclusion is that the forage contents 41% of protein and 9% fat in weight are fit for feeding Russian Sturgeon.

  18. Effects of water temperature and discharge on natural reproduction time of the Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, in the Yangtze River, China and impacts of the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xin; Lin, Pengcheng; Li, Mingzheng; Duan, Zhonghua; Liu, Huanzhang

    2014-05-01

    Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, is a critically endangered anadromous fish species spawning in the Yangtze River of China during October and November. In this study, we analyzed the effects of hydrological factors, such as water temperature and discharge, on the natural reproduction time of the Chinese sturgeon and evaluated the impact of the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) based on our survey data from 1998 to 2011. The results showed that the first spawning dates were significantly (P Three Gorges Dam (TGD), to enhance water discharge downstream in October, and to complete impoundment before October. PMID:24832899

  19. [Effects of initial feeding on the growth, survival, and body biochemical composition of Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) larvae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Zhuang, Ping; Zhang, Long-Zhen; Wang, Bin; Gao, Lu-Jiao; Xia, Yong-Tao; Tian, Mei-Ping

    2009-02-01

    Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) larvae were raised with Limnodrilus sp., Artemia nauplii, Moina sp., and artificial commercial diet for 30 days to investigate the effects of different initial feeding diets on the growth, survival, and body biochemical composition of the larvae. The results showed that A. nauplii was the best initial feeding diet, with the survival rate of A. baerii larvae being significant higher (96.67%) than the others. Feeding with Limnodrilus sp. gave the highest growth rate of A. baerii larvae, while feeding with artificial commercial diet gave the lowest efficiency on the growth rate and survival rate of the larvae. The larvae raised with different diets had significantly different body biochemical composition. After fed with artificial commercial diet, the larvae had the highest moisture content but the lowest crude protein and crude ash contents. Taking A. nauplii as the initial feeding diet and then feeding with Limnodrilus sp. could gave the ideal growth and survival rates of A. baerii larvae. PMID:19459376

  20. Effective properties of a sturgeon-based bioactive compound on stress-induced hippocampal degeneration and on in vitro neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, F; Chui, D H; Yadav, H; Lorenzetti, A; Celep, G; Jain, S; Bomba, A; Polimeni, A; Zhong, K; Allegri, F

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to test the activity of a marine bioactive compound containing high-purity caviar-derived DNA, collagen elastin and protein extracts from sturgeon (LD-1227, Caviarlieri, Laboratoires Dom, Switzerland) to exert neuroprotective properties in an experimental setting while also being potential triggers of neurogenesis in a separate in vitro study. Supplementation with high-DHA mixture of LD-1227 was applied for 30 days to stress model rats. Both supplementations significantly mitigated the histological brain damage when analyzing hippocampal subregions and corticosterone level. However, LD-1227 was most significantly efficient in preventing SOD, Catalase and ascorbic acid decrease in brain tissue. Both supplementations stimulated neurogenesis in vitro and neuron markers in particular but og olygodendrocyte markers and glia increased only in LD-1227-enriched medium. Taken together, these data suggest that LD-1227 is able to significantly protect the brain structure redox system to higher degree than DHA. Moreover, from in vitro study it appears that marine bioactive compound, through it wide array of small unsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids and neurotransmitter precursors, is likely to influence neuronal and glial lineage to act differently from a DHA-rich mixture. PMID:23034252

  1. Comparative study of haematological, serum electrolyte and nonelectrolyte parameters of male and female Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) brood stocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ADEL Milad; PALANISAMY Satheesh Kumar; SHAFIEI Shafigh; FAZLI Hasan; ZORRIEHZAHRA Mohammad Jalil

    2016-01-01

    Sturgeons are the most important principal market species in the Caspian Sea. In the present study, measurement of blood parameters was carried out with the aim of evaluating the normal value of hematological and serum biochemical parameters of brood stocksAcipenser persicus during spawning season. Blood samples were collected from 36 brood stocks ofA. persicus (18 males and 18 females) during the spawning season. Higher value of red blood cells, white blood cells, haemoglobin, haematocrit was observed in male breeders with significant differences between female breeders (p>0.05). Haemoglobin and haematocrit value in this study was within the range of 8.70 to 9.2 g/dL and 29.73% to 30.26%, respectively. The statistically significant differences between mean corpuscular volumes, mean corpuscular haemoglobin, lymphocyte and neutrophil percentages, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase were observed in the male and female brood stocks. It is concluded from this study, some of the hematological and serum biochemical parameters of male and female A. persicus breeders were significantly varied from each other. In comparative investigation with earlier reports, the values of red blood cells, haemoglobin and haematocrit are highly varied due to age variations of fish. However, further studies are necessary to understand the impact of sexual, age, size, length, and season and habitat variation. Serum biochemical parameters can be used for confirming the maturity ofA. persicus and monitoring any changes in the water quality parameters and soil.

  2. Effects of Pediococcus pentosaceus as a probiotic on intestinal microbiota and body composition of Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii Brandt, 1869

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fateme Moslehi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An eight-week experiment was carried out to determine the effects of dietary Pediococcus pentosaceus as probiotic on the body composition and gut microbiota of Siberian sturgeon, Acipenser baerii. A total of 180 fish with mean body weight of 143±0.01g were randomly distributed into 12 200L fiberglass tanks as four treatments with three replicates, including groups fed with diet containing 2×107, 2×108 and 2×109 CFU g-1 of P. pentosaceus and probiotic-free as control group. Body composition of treatment groups was not influenced by P. pentosaceus except for fat and moisture. The bacteria had a significant colonization in the intestine of fish fed with supplemented diet with P. pentosaceus. High level of acid lactic bacterial load was found in the treatment fed with highest amount of the probiotic i.e. 2×109 CFU g-1. The results showed that application of P. pentosaceus has positive effect on the body composition and intestinal microflora of the A. baerii.

  3. Molecular cloning of cDNA of gonadotropin-releasing hormones in the Chinese sturgeon (Acipenser sinensis) and the effect of 17β-estradiol on gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Huamei; Ye, Huan; Chen, Xihua; Cao, Hong; Li, Chuangju

    2013-12-01

    The Chinese sturgeon, Acipenser sinensis, is a rare and large-sized anadromous bony fish and understanding of its reproductive regulation is a precondition for controlled reproduction. In this study, two gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) precursor cDNAs, AsGnRH1 (mammalian type) and AsGnRH2 (chicken type 2), were sequenced in A. sinensis. The precursor cDNAs of the AsGnRH1 and AsGnRH2 are 381 and 649 base pairs (bp), encoding signal peptide plus precursors of 92 and 86 amino acids, respectively. Multiple sequence alignment suggests that AsGnRH1 and AsGnRH2 decapeptides are highly conserved among vertebrates. Besides, AsGnRH1 had closer evolutionary relationship with tetrapods, while AsGnRH2 was conservatively grouped with teleosts in the phylogenetic analysis. Tissue distribution analysis shows that AsGnRH2 is exclusively transcribed in the brain, whereas AsGnRH1 exhibits more extensive tissue distribution including brain, liver, spleen and gonad. Furthermore, Chinese sturgeons were subcutaneously implanted with 17β-estradiol (E2) and the effect of E2 on brain GnRH mRNA levels was evaluated by real-time PCR. A significant increase in AsGnRH1 and AsGnRH2 mRNA levels is detected in fish receiving E2 implantation compared to controls after one month (P<0.05). These results indicate that E2 exerts positive feedback effects on the transcription of the two GnRHs in immature Chinese sturgeon. PMID:23994573

  4. Concentrations of Cd, Ni, V and Zn in Muscle and Caviar of Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus with Emphasis on Risk Assessment Due to Consumption of Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulreza Mashroofeh

    2014-03-01

    Material and Methods: A total number of 24 samples of Persian sturgeon were collected from two important sturgeon fishery zones in Guilan and Mazandaran Provinces and were stored at −20°C until chemical analysis. About one gram of each sample dried was added to 10 ml of concentrated (65% supra-pure HNO3 (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany in a Teflon PTFE tube and then it was incubated for 1 h at 40 °C in a hot block digester, followed by heating at 140 °C for 3 h. The samples digested were diluted to a measured volume using double deionized water. Samples were filtered through Whatman No. 1 filter paper, and the filtrate was stored until metal determination. Results: Mean Cd, Ni, V and Zn concentrations in muscle tissues were 0.005 ± 0.002, 0.06 ± 0.03, 0.13 ± 0.04 and 7.49 ± 3.07 µg/g wet weight basis respectively. The mean Cd, Ni, V and Zn concentrations in caviar samples were 0.007 ± 0.006, 0.09 ± 0.07, 0.12 ± 0.15 and 21.23 ± 5.75 µg/g wet weight basis respectively. Conculation: The mean concentrations of Zn, Cd and V in caviar and muscle samples were less than the permissible limits proposed by the United Kingdom's Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (MAFF 2000 and World Health Organization (W.H.O.. The guidelines for Cd, V and Zn are 0.2, 0.5 and 50 µg/g wet weight respectively. Therefore, the measured concentrations for these particular metals are below the published guidelines, and the levels would appear not to constitute any threat to the human population that may consume sturgeon or caviar obtained from these study locations.

  5. PIONEER PLANTS FOR ECOSYSTEM RECOVERY IN DRAINAGE BASIN OF ERLONGSHAN RESERVOIR IN HEILONGJIANG PROVINCE, CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xue-ping; ZHANG Yi; CAO Hui-cong

    2004-01-01

    This article reveals the ecological features and the theories and methods of introducing pioneer plants in the process of eco-restoring in different degenerative ecosystems in the drainage basin of Erlongshan Reservoir in Heilongjiang Province by systemically studying the deteriorative ecosystems and using recovery theory. The study shows that with the rise in degenerative degrees of the ecosystems, bio-species and bio-diversity sharply decrease in the study area and microclimate becomes warmer and drier in natural ecosystem. Therefore, we must attach importance to the construction of plants and biodiversity. In the study, different pioneer plants are selected for different degenerative ecosystems to restore and maintain the service functions of the ecosystems.

  6. Reproductive technologies and the quality of offspring in Asia: reproductive pioneering and moral pragmatism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret

    2010-02-01

    This paper highlights a number of theoretical issues relevant to this special issue of Culture, Health & Sexuality on the quality of offspring, including gender selection, ecofeminism, eugenics, reproductive agency, moral pioneering and reproductive pragmatism in China, India and Japan. First, it discusses various approaches to choice in sex selection, focusing on an instrumentalist and an ecofeminist approach. Second, it discusses issues of reproductive choice in the light of various concepts of eugenics and power, which have been used to characterise the relationship between the state, the individual and prenatal genetic testing. Third, it queries Foucault's notion of biopower in relation to reproductive agency. In reviewing the evidence, the chapter raises questions about how women and parents in Asian societies can be understood in terms of 'reproductive pragmatism', 'empowerment' and/or 'moral pioneering' when faced with the use of new reproductive technologies in modern societies. PMID:19499397

  7. Reply on "Notes on Pioneer Anomaly Explanation by Sattellite-Shift Formula of Quaternion Relativity"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianto V.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we would like to make a few comments on a recent paper by A. Yefremov in this journal [1]. It is interesting to note here that he concludes his analysis by pointing out that using full machinery of Quaternion Relativity it is possible to explain Pioneer XI anomaly with excellent agreement compared with observed data, and explain around 45% of Pioneer X anomalous acceleration. We argue that perhaps it will be necessary to consider extension of Lorentz transformation to Finsler-Berwald metric, as discussed by a number of authors in the past few years. In this regard, it would be interesting to see if the use of extended Lorentz transformation could also elucidate the long-lasting problem known as Ehrenfest paradox. Further observation is of course recommended in order to refute or verify this proposition.

  8. Study on Vegetation Root Strength of Pioneer Plants for Forest Areas in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jun-bin; LIANG Da-qing; YE Xu-rong

    2005-01-01

    Forest plant roots may restrain the occurrence of shallow landslides for forest land and pioneer tree species can also reduce runoff and soil erosion;thus they are useful practical ecological materials for landslide control and erosion control.In this study,two important pioneer plant species;Formosan Alder (Alnus formosana Makino) and Roxburgh Sumac (Rhus chinensis Mill.Var.roxburghi i(DC.) Rehd.) were selected at landslide areas under vegetation treatments for soil and water conservation.In order to obtain the root strength model for the factors affecting pulling resistance and root tensile strength,experimental materials were tested and the data were analyzed using regression techniques.These models could be used to provide the index of slope stability and to quantify the root-strength using non-destructive methods.

  9. Research on the weed control degree and glyphosate soil biodegradation in apple plantations (Pioneer variety)

    OpenAIRE

    Alexa, Ersilia; Roxana MICU; Monica NEGREA; Renata SUMALAN; Olimpia IORDANESCU

    2010-01-01

    In this study we follow control degree of glyphosate herbicide on weeds in apple plantations (Pioneer variety) of the Research Station Timisoara. It was also followed glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the soil by determining the amount of CO2 released by the action of microorganisms on C14 glyphosate marked isotope. Laboratory analysis of glyphosate residues in soil was made using a Liquid Scintillation TRIATHLER. Glyphosate biodegradation ability in the presence of soil microorganisms is...

  10. In memory of Eugene (Jenő) von Gothard: a pioneering nineteenth century Hungarian astrophysicist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, Ildikő J.; Jankovics, István

    2012-07-01

    Eugene von Gothard was a Hungarian engineer/scientist, instrument-maker and astrophysicist who founded the Herény Astrophysical Observatory in 1881 and carried out pioneering work in astronomical photography and spectroscopy. In this paper we provide biographical material about von Gothard and describe his observatory, before discussing his astronomical observations and the contribution that hemade to the early development of astrophysics.

  11. Pioneers' Marketing Mix Reactions to Entry in Different Competitive Game Structures: Theoretical Analysis and Empirical Illustration

    OpenAIRE

    Venkatesh Shankar

    1997-01-01

    Pioneers' marketing mix reactions to new entries are recognized as important determinants of the outcome of pioneerlate mover competition, particularly in price-inelastic markets such as those for pharmaceuticals, cigarettes, and luxury goods. Managers in such markets are interested in better understanding when to accommodate (i.e., decrease marketing spending) or retaliate (i.e., increase spending) in nonprice marketing variables such as advertising and salesforce. In addition, the reallocat...

  12. The effects of inter-industry and country difference in supplier relationships on pioneering innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; Vanhaverbeke, Wim

    2009-01-01

    and their suppliers in Canada are likely to result in pioneering innovations. The knowledge difference is decomposed into two dimensions: the inter-industrial dimension and the geographic dimension in national context. Using the Canadian Innovation database, we found the inter-industry difference has a positive...... external knowledge sources but also to find suppliers from the same or nearby countries for the sake of communication and coordination....

  13. The emergence of pioneering public health education programs in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Viseltear, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers the social forces leading to the establishment of pioneering public health education programs in the United States. Schools of Public Health emerged in the United States as the result of a confluence of factors, including the changing nature of higher education, the development of commerce and industry, the rise to prominence of the science of bacteriology, and the urbanization of the nation, all coupled with a pervasive spirit of utility and a desire to be, in a word, us...

  14. George Ryerson Fowler: Brooklyn's surgical pioneer: a biographical sketch based on historical documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Mary E; Swan, Kenneth G; Kelleher, Denis P

    2011-06-01

    The Fowler position, widely used in surgery and obstetrics for patient placement, marks a fraction of 19th-century Brooklyn surgeon George Ryerson Fowler's prodigious accomplishments. Fowler was a pioneer who refined the appendectomy, performed the first lung decortication, advocated for sterile techniques, introduced first aid in the US Army, and helped start a precursor to Annals of Surgery. His publications include the first US textbook on appendicitis--ironically, the disease that killed him.

  15. Elevation, Not Deforestation, Promotes Genetic Differentiation in a Pioneer Tropical Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Castilla, Antonio R.; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Jha, Shalene

    2016-01-01

    The regeneration of disturbed forest is an essential part of tropical forest ecology, both with respect to natural disturbance regimes and large-scale human-mediated logging, grazing, and agriculture. Pioneer tree species are critical for facilitating the transition from deforested land to secondary forest because they stabilize terrain and enhance connectivity between forest fragments by increasing matrix permeability and initiating disperser community assembly. Despite the ecological import...

  16. Caroline B. Palmer: Pioneer Physician Anesthetist and First Chair of Anesthesia at Stanford.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Jay B; Saidman, Lawrence J

    2015-12-01

    Caroline B. Palmer was appointed as Chief of Anesthesia at Cooper Medical College (soon renamed as Stanford Medical School) in 1909. For the next 28 years, she was an innovative leader, a clinical researcher, and a strong advocate for recognition of anesthesiology as a medical specialty. To honor her accomplishments, the operating room suite in the new Stanford Hospital will be named after this pioneering woman anesthesiologist.

  17. Pioneering mobilities: new patterns of movement and motility in a mobile world

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Kesselring

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents empirical data from a research project on mobility pioneers. It shows new mobility patterns and constellations of mobility and immobility, movement and motility (mobility potential). The author raises the question as to whether the reported subject-oriented strategies for coping with the modern ‘mobility imperative’ open up a perspective on a structural change in the modern concept of mobility and mobility practice. The theory of reflexive modernization is used to discuss t...

  18. Xinxing Cathay Group and Weiqiao Pioneering Group entered Global Fortune500Companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Beijing time on 9th July 2012, United States Fortune- global officially released the 2012 Global Fortune 500 Companies list. Xinxing Cathay Group and Weiqiao Pioneering Group entered Global Fortune 500 Companies. In 2011, Xinxing Cathay Group topped the ranking of Global Fortune 500 Companies, ranked No. 484 by operating income of CNY 147.6 billion (equivalent to USD 22.832 billion). Xinxing Cathay Group is the country’s largest military supplier,

  19. A Comparative Study of Pioneer Entry Decisions in the United States and China

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Y. Lisa; Song, Michael; Parry, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    According to the resource-based view of the firm, competitive advantages arise from control and deployment of productive resources that are rare and difficult to imitate. Through early entry, pioneers can gain preferential access to key resources. However, the value of that access depends on the presence of isolating mechanisms that limit or prevent competitive imitation. Isolating mechanisms increase the desirability of early entry by lengthening the time horizon over which the firm can earn...

  20. Restoration potential of pioneer plants growing on lead-zinc mine tailings in Lanping, southwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Dongmei; DUAN Changqun

    2008-01-01

    This study focused on the restoration potential of ten pioneer plants (Artemisia roxburghiana, Artemisia tangutica, Carex inanis,Cyperaceae hebecarpus, Plantago depresa, Cynoglossum lanceolatum, Potentilla saundesiana, Coriaria sinica, Oxyria sinensis, andMiscanthus nepalensis) during the early phase of Pb-Zn mine tailings phytostabilization, in Lanping, China. The concentrations ofheavy metals (Pb, Zn, and Cu) and soil fertility (the available N, P, K, and organic matter) in the rhizosphere of these species have been compared. The results showed a general improvement in the rhizosphere soil properties of pioneer plants. Of the ten species, theconcentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cu in the rhizosphere of A. Roxburghiana have the greatest reduction of 56.23%, 83.00%, and 84.36%,respectively, compared to the bulk soil. The best improvement in soil fertility was found in the rhizosphere of P. Saundesiana, with anincrease of 241.83%, 170.76%, 49.09%, and 81.60%, respectively, in the available N, E K, and organic matter. Metals accumulated bythe plants have been mainly distributed in the root tissues, and only small amounts transferred m the aboveground tissues. The highestcontents of Pb and Zn have been recorded in C. Hebecarpus with 57.84 and 87.92 mg/kg dry weight (dw), respectively. The maximumCu content was observed in C. Inanis with 1.19 mg/kg dw. Overall, pioneer plants will be ideal species for the phytostabilization of minetailings, but the potential use varies in different pioneer plant species. Among these ten species, A. Roxburghiana has been identified tobe the most suitable for phytostabilization programs, due to its greatest improvement on physicai-chemical properties in the rhizospheresoil.

  1. GENETIC GAIN OBTAINED BY INTRODUCTION OF PIONEER CORN HYBRIDS IN ROMANIA OVER FOUR DECADES

    OpenAIRE

    Valentin MANDACHE; Viorel DINCA; Ion CIOCAZANU; Gabriela VALSAN

    2012-01-01

    Corn PIONEER hybrids representing breeding introduction and cultivation in Romania in several eras (decades) were reproduced and tested during 2008 and 2009. Experiments design was a split-split-plot: four densities were split in two water stress (full irrigated and limited surviving irrigation) while hybrids representing different decades were splits into densities. Full input technology was applied to the trials field and supporting traits were collected and used to estimate the genetic gai...

  2. Pioneers Past and Present: Curriculum Insights from Stories that Link through Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Gail M.

    2005-01-01

    Stories that were written by my grandfather at the turn of the 20th century spiraled into my daily life as a nurse-teacher at the turn of the 21st century. In this paper, I explore a common plotline of my Afi (Islandic for grandfather) and me as pioneers by linking his life stories to the tensions I experience in my contemporary professional…

  3. Pioneer Entrepreneurs : Legal Capital and Social Network Changes in a First Generation Mexican Community

    OpenAIRE

    Muse-Orlinoff, Leah

    2014-01-01

    In their efforts to mobilize the resources they need to start and run their businesses, pioneer entrepreneurs from a first-generation, low-resource immigrant community exemplify the interactive relationship between social capital and social networks: the individual social capital entrepreneurs have affects their position within a network, and their network position shapes how much access to latent social capital they have. Throughout this dissertation, I use concepts from social network analy...

  4. Modelling the reflective thermal contribution to the acceleration of the Pioneer spacecraft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, F., E-mail: frederico.francisco@ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Bertolami, O., E-mail: orfeu.bertolami@fc.up.pt [Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Gil, P.J.S., E-mail: p.gil@dem.ist.utl.pt [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica and IDMEC - Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Paramos, J., E-mail: paramos@ist.edu [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2012-05-23

    We present an improved method to compute the radiative momentum transfer in the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft that takes into account both diffusive and specular reflection. The method allows for more reliable results regarding the thermal acceleration of the deep-space probes, confirming previous findings. A parametric analysis is performed in order to set upper and lower bounds for the thermal acceleration and its evolution with time.

  5. Pioneer years of electron probe microanalysis in Slovenia: Pionirsko obdobje elektronske mikroanalize v Sloveniji:

    OpenAIRE

    Vodopivec, Franc

    1997-01-01

    Two periods are found in the pioneer years of electrons probe microanalysis (EPMA) in Slovenia: - a longer period up to 1969 when an electron probe microanalyser was put in operation in the Institute of metallurgy in Ljubljana, and - a shorter period after this date until the spreading of EPMA backed by sufficient research achievents demonstrating it wide field of use and the sufficient mastering methodology. The use of EPMA up to 1969 was of marginal extent but not of marginal scientific mer...

  6. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2008-01-01

    <正>American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television.A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage.美国住房通常有私人厨房,一间起居室,有时吃饭和看电视的地方是分开的。一所房子通常有自己的邮箱,一个种有植物或者有草坪的院子,还有存放垃圾的地方。

  7. "One Grand Pursuit": A Brief History of the American Philosophical Society's First 250 Years. 1743-1993 by Edward C. Carter II. American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Woodbury

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The American Philosophical Society (APS was founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin (then only 37 years old and is North America's oldest scholarly organization. The archaeological interests of Thomas Jefferson, who became its third president in 1797, are not mentioned in this history but it is worth noting that besides his well known pioneering excavation of a burial mound in 1784 he sent out a circular letter for the APS to secure information on archaeological remains, stating, "The American Philosophical Society have [sic] always considered the antiquity, changes, and present state of their own country as primary objects of their research".

  8. What was the source of Magnetic Field Measured by Pioneer V In 1960?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, M. E.

    2013-12-01

    The engulfment of Pioneer V with solar plasma on March 30, 1960, and the later measurement of high interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) by the probe were interpreted as of solar origin. Studies and analysis of that event showed that the maximum IMF was measured six hours after that engulfment and two hours after been measured by Honolulu earth station. Such IMF is thought to be produced at around 12.5RE within the magnetosheath in form of an external magnetic field (ExMF). A suggestion which can easily be tested by two probes such as NASA THEMIS satellites, as it is crucial for the current human knowledge, which is seeking such mechanism for related energization process. Fig.1. Re-analysis of March 30/31, geomagnetic storms, by combining Fig.2.a&b Coleman et al. [1961], with Fig.2-A Fan et al. [1960]. The figure shows the following sequence: Starts of the solar flare, plasma arriving at Pioneer V (no detection of an embedded solar field), arrival to the earth, registration of Horizontal field at Honolulu, and high magnetic field measured 6 hours later at Pioneer V satellite.

  9. CO2 impact ionization-driven plasma instability observed by Pioneer Venus Orbiter at Periapsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, S. A.; Brace, L. H.; Niemann, H. B.; Scarf, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of enhanced ac electric field noise about Pioneer Venus periapsis are shown to be related to spacecraft-generated impact ionization of the ambient CO2. The frequency of the electric field noise is found to peak in the vicinity of the CO2(+) ion plasma frequency and to closely follow the form of the neutral CO2 density profile. When the electric field noise in all channels is normalized by the square root of the CO2 number density, the ratio is constant. Since the impact electron density measured by the Pioneer Venus Langmuir probe, is observed to scale directly with the neutral CO2, the growth of the electric field amplitude is found to be linear in time with a growth rate proportional to the CO2(+) ion plasma frequency. On the basis of these results the impact ionization-driven instability is shown to be the ion acoustic instability. Implications for the lack of observations by Pioneer Venus of reflected-O(+)-driven instabilities, as have been proposed for the space shuttle, are discussed.

  10. The Solitary Place Shall Be Glad for Them: Understanding and Treating Mormon Pioneer Gardens as Cultural Landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Emily Anne Brooksby

    2011-01-01

    The gardens of early Mormon pioneers are a unique cultural resource in the western United States, but little guidance has been provided for understanding or providing landscape treatments for Mormon landscapes. Mormon pioneers came to Utah and the Great Basin to escape religious persecution and build their own holy kingdom. In relative geographical isolation, they built towns that have a distinctive character delineating a Mormon cultural region in the West. Self-sufficiency was an important ...

  11. Industrial pioneers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2014-01-01

    With their knowledge of metallurgy, mechanics and thermodynamics, mechanical engineers had to give shape to the industrial revolution in the Netherlands 150 years ago. This revolution only slowly gathered momentum, however, especially in comparison with England.

  12. Biomarker responses in persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus exposed to benzo-a-pyrene and beta-naphthoflavone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimzadeh Katayoon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Biotransformation enzymes of xenobiotics (ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase, cytochrome P4501A1 content and glutathione-S-transferase were investigated in the liver of Persian Sturgeon (Acipenser persicus after a 96-hour exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, premutagenic benzo[a]pyrene (BaP and beta-naphthoflavone (BNF. The fish were injected 10 mg/kg wet-body weight in corn oil for 96 hours every days. Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activity (EROD and glutathione s-transferase activity (GST were measured in the fish liver. Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1 content was estimated by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The response appeared as early as 12 hours post exposure. A time-dependent response was observed in the EROD activity, being significantly higher at 48 hours post exposure to 10 mg/kg of BaP. The greatest induction occurred in the fish treated with 10 mg/kg BaP, in which a 32.1- fold increase in EROD activity was observed. Results showed that EROD activity in A. persicus is significantly increased by BaP and BNF treatments. Both chemicals showed higher values of EROD activity compared to the liver CYP1A content. There was a rise in glutathione-S-transferase activity in fish exposed to BNF, but no increase was observed in fish treated with BaP. The results showed that hepatic CYP1A expression in terms of induction of EROD activity might be suited as a biomarker of organic contamination in aquatic environments and led to lower sensitivity of the second phase in the detoxification enzyme.

  13. Histopathological and bacterial study of Persian sturgeon fry, Acipenser persicus (Borodin, 1897) exposed to copper sulfate and potassium permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshtaghi, Batol; Khara, Hossein; Pazhan, Zabiyollah; Shenavar, Alireza

    2016-09-01

    Persian sturgeon frys were exposed to different concentrations of copper sulfate and potassium permanganate in order to the evaluation of their impacts on bacterial load of skin, gill and surrounding water and also the histopathological alternations of gill tissue. For this purpose, the sublethal doses were determined after a pre-test and then the experiment was done in 4 (for copper sulfate: 0.07, 0.14, 026 and 0.5 mg/l) and 5 (for potassium permanganate: 0.07, 0.14, 026, 0.5 and 1 mg/l) treatments with three replicates inside the glass aquaria. Also, one group without disinfecting drug was considered as control for each experiment. The microbial and histopathological investigations were done after 96 h exposure. According to our results, a range of histopathological alternations were observed in gills tissue including mucus coagulation and secretion, hyperplasia, lamellar necrosis, hyperplasia, lamellar adhesion, haemorrhage, thickening of secondary lamellae, hypertrophy of supporter cartilage, clubbing of gill lamellae and sliming of primary lamellae. The severity of these alternations increased with increasing of the doses of the copper sulfate and potassium permanganate. The bacterial load (CFU/g) of gill, skin and surrounding water was lower in 0.07 mg/l copper sulfate treatment and 1 mg/l potassium permanganate treatment (P treatments. In conclusion, our results showed that the certain doses of the copper sulfate and potassium permanganate have disinfecting effects on bacterial load of gill, skin and surrounding water, although this is along with some histopathological alternations. Also, it seems that the copper sulfate has higher disinfecting power than potassium permanganate. PMID:27605784

  14. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam: annual progress report: April 1999 - March 2000; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on our progress from April 1999 through March 2000 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report D), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1999 through March 2000 are given

  15. White sturgeon mitigation and restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers upstream from Bonneville Dam; Annual progress report; April 1998-March 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report on their progress from April 1998 through March 1999 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report D), Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report E), and the University of Idaho (UI; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of our work from April 1998 through March 1999 are given

  16. Hierarchical stochastic modeling of large river ecosystems and fish growth across spatio-temporal scales and climate models: the Missouri River endangered pallid sturgeon example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Wikle, Christopher K.; Moran, Edward H.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Franz, Kristie J.; Dey, Rima

    2015-01-01

    We present a hierarchical series of spatially decreasing and temporally increasing models to evaluate the uncertainty in the atmosphere – ocean global climate model (AOGCM) and the regional climate model (RCM) relative to the uncertainty in the somatic growth of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). For effects on fish populations of riverine ecosystems, cli- mate output simulated by coarse-resolution AOGCMs and RCMs must be downscaled to basins to river hydrology to population response. One needs to transfer the information from these climate simulations down to the individual scale in a way that minimizes extrapolation and can account for spatio-temporal variability in the intervening stages. The goal is a framework to determine whether, given uncertainties in the climate models and the biological response, meaningful inference can still be made. The non-linear downscaling of climate information to the river scale requires that one realistically account for spatial and temporal variability across scale. Our down- scaling procedure includes the use of fixed/calibrated hydrological flow and temperature models coupled with a stochastically parameterized sturgeon bioenergetics model. We show that, although there is a large amount of uncertainty associated with both the climate model output and the fish growth process, one can establish significant differences in fish growth distributions between models, and between future and current climates for a given model.

  17. Characterization of the contents and histology of the gastrointestinal tracts of White Sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from Upper Lake Roosevelt, Washington, October 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsley, Michael J.; van der Leeuw, Bjorn K.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2010-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tracts of 37 juvenile white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) captured from the upper part of Lake Roosevelt during October 2008, were examined to identify prey taxa and to determine if the fish were consuming smelter slag along with other sediments. Histological examination of the gastrointestinal tract tissues and comparison with similar tissues from hatchery-reared fish also was performed. The contents of the gastro-intestinal tracts (guts) indicated that white sturgeon were actively foraging on various benthic invertebrates and the diet was quite diverse, with more than 50 percent of the fish feeding on five or more different taxa. Slag was present in 76 percent of the guts examined. Although not all guts contained slag particles, larger fish tended to have greater amounts of slag in their guts. Histology of the gut tissues showed the presence of a chronic inflammatory response, and the severity of the response had a significant positive correlation (P = 0.01) with fish length and weight suggesting that the inflammation represented a response to long-term exposure to one or more stressors. However, additional work is needed to determine if the physical or chemical properties of slag contributed to this response.

  18. Effect of dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on growth performance, survival, lactobacillus bacterial population and hemato-immunological parameters of stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) juvenile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Reza; Iri, Yousef; Rostami, Hosseinali Khoshbavar; Razeghi Mansour, Majid

    2013-10-01

    The dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) in stellate sturgeon juvenile, Acipenser stellatus (with mean initial body weight of 30.16 ± 0.14 g) was evaluated for the effect on growth, autochthonous intestinal microbiata and hemato-immunological parameters for 11 weeks. FOS was added at a level of 0, 1% and 2% to the commercial pellet diet (BioMar). At the end of the experiment, growth parameters, survival rate, lactobacillus bacterial population, hematological and immunological parameters were determined. The fish fed on 1% FOS significantly showed higher final weight, WG%, SGR and PER and lower FCR compared to those of the control group (P  0.05). However, FOS administration resulted in lower survival. The serum lysozyme activity was significantly affected by dietary 1% FOS (P  0.05). In fish fed on the diet with 1% FOS showed a significant increase of total heterotrophic autochthonous bacterial and presumptive LAB levels (P prebiotics. In addition to increase in WBC, RBC, MCV, hematocrit, hemoglobin and lymphocyte levels were observed in this group. These results indicated that dietary supplementation of FOS at a dose of 1% improved growth performance, beneficial intestinal microbiata and stimulate immune response of stellate sturgeon juvenile. PMID:23973846

  19. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  20. The African American Image in American Cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, St. Clair

    1990-01-01

    Political conditions have influenced the screen images of U.S. cinema, and the images of African Americans have reflected prevailing social stereotypes. The history of African-American representation in films is traced, and it is noted that the tendency to portray African Americans stereotypically has not changed. (SLD)

  1. Historiography, American Theatre, and the First Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Linda Walsh

    American theatre history should include a study of Native American performances, since these performances are rich with "American" symbolic materials such as imagery, symbols, and heraldic visions of animals and landscapes. Indian cultures understood the importance of performance for both the visionary and the community at large. Even the pow-wow…

  2. EFFECT OF INOCULANT PIONEER 1188 IN MAIZE SILAGE ON COW MILKING CAPACITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Zimmer

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available First investigation part, started on 1 September 2001 by feeding 473 cows (401 dairy and 72 dry and finished on 13 November by feeding 474 cows (409 dairy and 65 dry, was characterized by the main ration consisting of maize silage without inoculant. This period was known for a maximum number of housed cows being 490 (423 dairy and 67 dry and minimum 469 (395 dairy and 74 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 17.06 l with 3.48% of lactic fat on the average. Second part of the investigation, started on 14 November 2001 by feeding 474 cows (411 dairy and 63 dry and finished on 31 March 2002 by feeding 464 cows (395 dairy and 69 dry, was known for the basic ration contained maize silage enriched by inoculant Pioneer 1188.This period was characterized by a maximum number of housed cows being 482 (404 dairy and 57 dry. Daily average of stable milk production was 18.67 l and 3.58% of lactic fat. The main ration was composed of silage maize, highly wet maize, pearl barley, stock meal, sunflower cake, hay, salt and VAM. Inoculant Pioneer contained 6 strains of lactic-sour fermentation selected bacteria whose viability is basis of a successful product. In fact, it is a micro-granulated product added, by Gandy doser, to amount of 0.5 kg per green mass/t. Inoculant Pioneer 1188 was in this research added in a dose of 0.436 kg t-1 silage maize. Daily average of stable milk production increased by 1.61l i.e. 9.4% and lactic fat from 3.48% to 3.58% i.e. 2.9%.

  3. On the Origin of the Dark Matter/Energy in the Universe and the Pioneer Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham A. Ungar

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Einstein's special relativity is a theory rich of paradoxes, one of which is the recently discovered Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox. According to this Paradox, the relativistic invariant mass of a galaxy of moving stars exceeds the sum of the relativistic invariant masses of the constituent stars owing to their motion relative to each other. This excess of mass is the mass of virtual matter that has no physical properties other than positive relativistic invariant mass and, hence, that reveals its presence by no means other than gravity. As such, this virtual matter is the dark matter that cosmologists believe is necessary in order to supply the missing gravity that keeps galaxies stable. Based on the Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox we offer in this article a model which quantifies the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts and other deep space missions, and explains the presence of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. It turns out that the origin of dark matter and dark energy in the Universe lies in the Paradox, and that the origin of the Pioneer anomaly results from neglecting the Paradox. In order to appreciate the physical significance of the Paradox within the frame of Einstein's special theory of relativity, following the presentation of the Paradox we demonstrate that the Paradox is responsible for the extension of the kinetic energy theorem and of the additivity of energy and momentum from classical to relativistic mechanics. Clearly, the claim that the acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts is anomalous is incomplete, within the frame of Einstein's special relativity, since those who made the claim did not take into account the presence of the Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox (which is understandable since the Paradox, published in the author's 2008 book, was discovered by the author only recently. It remains to test how well the Paradox accords with observations.

  4. On the Origin of the Dark Matter/Energy in the Universe and the Pioneer Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ungar A. A.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Einstein’s special relativity is a theory rich of paradoxes, one of which is the recently discovered Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox . According to this Paradox, the rela- tivistic invariant mass of a galaxy of moving stars exceeds the sum of the relativistic invariant masses of the constituent stars owing to their motion relative to each other. This excess of mass is the mass of virtual matter that has no physical properties other than positive relativistic invariant mass and, hence, that reveals its presence by no means other than gravity. As such, this virtual matter is the dark matter that cosmologists be- lieve is necessary in order to supply the missing gravity that keeps galaxies stable. Based on the Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox we offer in this article a model which quan- tifies the anomalous acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts and other deep space missions, and explains the presence of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. It turns out that the origin of dark matter and dark energy in the Universe lies in the Para- dox, and that the origin of the Pioneer anomaly results from neglecting the Paradox. In order to appreciate the physical significance of the Paradox within the frame of Ein- stein’s special theory of relativity, following the presentation of the Paradox we demon- strate that the Paradox is responsible for the extension of the kinetic energy theorem and of the additivity of energy and momentum from classical to relativistic mechanics. Clearly, the claim that the acceleration of Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecrafts is anomalous is incomplete, within the frame of Einstein’s special relativity, since those who made the claim did not take into account the presence of the Relativistic Invariant Mass Paradox (which is understandable since the Paradox, published in the author’s 2008 book, was discovered by the author only recently. It remains to test how well the Paradox accords with observations.

  5. Jewish Family and Children's Services: a pioneering human service organization (1850-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Jewish Family and Children's Services of San Francisco, the Peninsula, Marin, and Sonoma Counties is a pioneering nonprofit human service organization that has delivered services for 157 years. Over the course of its history, the organization has transformed itself from an all-volunteer agency delivering aid to immigrant families during the Gold Rush era to a $30 million nonprofit human service organization offering a full-range of services to adults, children, and families. The history of Jewish Family and Children's Services sheds light on the importance of strong leadership, strategic planning, external relationships, and strong donor support. PMID:21416438

  6. The Living Soil Association: Pioneering Organic Farming and Innovating Social Inclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Paull, John

    2009-01-01

    The Living Soil Association of Tasmania (LSAT) (1946-1960) pioneered the concepts of organic food and farming in Australiaʼs smallest state, for the decade immediately after WWII. The LSAT was one of the worldʼs first organisations to promote organic farming. It was preceded by New Zealandʼs Humic Compost Society (founded in 1941), the Australian Organic Farming and Gardening Society (1944), Australiaʼs Victorian Compost Society (1945), and Englandʼs Soil Association (1946). The Tasmanian Ass...

  7. William and Caroline Herschel pioneers in late 18th-century astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Hoskin, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This beautifully structured book presents the essentials of William and Caroline Herschel's pioneering achievements in late 18th-century astronomy. Michael Hoskin shows that William Herschel was the first observational cosmologist and one of the first observers to attack the sidereal universe beyond the solar system:Herschel built instruments far better than any being used at the royal observatory. Aided by his sister Caroline, he commenced a great systematic survey that led to his discovery of Uranus in 1781.Unlike observers before him, whose telescopes did not reveal them as astronomical obj

  8. Pioneer 10 observations of zodiacal light brightness near the ecliptic - Changes with heliocentric distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanner, M. S.; Weinberg, J. L.; Beeson, D. E.; Sparrow, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Sky maps made by the Pioneer 10 Imaging Photopolarimeter (IPP) at sun-spacecraft distances from 1 to 3 AU have been analyzed to derive the brightness of the zodiacal light near the ecliptic at elongations greater than 90 degrees. The change in zodiacal light brightness with heliocentric distance is compared with models of the spatial distribution of the dust. Use of background starlight brightnesses derived from IPP measurements beyond the asteroid belt, where the zodiacal light is not detected, and, especially, use of a corrected calibration lead to considerably lower values for zodiacal light than those reported by us previously.

  9. The Pioneer anomaly as an effect of the dynamics of time

    OpenAIRE

    Ranada, Antonio F.

    2004-01-01

    A model is presented in which the Pioneer anomaly is not related to the motion of the spaceship, but is a consequence of the acceleration of the cosmological proper time $\\tau$ with respect to the coordinate parametric time $t$, what is an effect of the background gravitational potential of the entire universe. The light speed, while being constant if defined with respect to $\\tau$ ({\\it i. e.} as ${\\rm d}\\ell /{\\rm d} \\tau$), would suffer an adiabatic secular acceleration, $a_\\ell={\\rm d}c/{...

  10. The emergence of pioneering public health education programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viseltear, A J

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers the social forces leading to the establishment of pioneering public health education programs in the United States. Schools of Public Health emerged in the United States as the result of a confluence of factors, including the changing nature of higher education, the development of commerce and industry, the rise to prominence of the science of bacteriology, and the urbanization of the nation, all coupled with a pervasive spirit of utility and a desire to be, in a word, useful. Each line leading to the establishment of five public health institutions at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Harvard-M.I.T., Yale, Michigan, and Pennsylvania is explored. PMID:3071923

  11. Jewish Family and Children's Services: a pioneering human service organization (1850-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Sara L; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Jewish Family and Children's Services of San Francisco, the Peninsula, Marin, and Sonoma Counties is a pioneering nonprofit human service organization that has delivered services for 157 years. Over the course of its history, the organization has transformed itself from an all-volunteer agency delivering aid to immigrant families during the Gold Rush era to a $30 million nonprofit human service organization offering a full-range of services to adults, children, and families. The history of Jewish Family and Children's Services sheds light on the importance of strong leadership, strategic planning, external relationships, and strong donor support.

  12. Early Pioneers of Telescopic Astronomy in India: G.V.Juggarow and His Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, N Kameswara; Birdie, Christina

    2011-01-01

    G.V.Juggarow was one of the early pioneers of observational astronomy in India who built his own observatory in 1840 at Vizagapatnam. His legacy was continued by his son-in-law A.V.Nursing Row till 1892, his daughter till 1894, Madras Government till 1898, and his grandson till it became inactive in early 1900s. Observations of comets, planetary transits, stellar occultations etc have been continued along with meteorological observations. Celestial photography was also started at the observatory. After 1898 the observatory's activities were re-oriented towards meteorology. The establishment of the observatory, the personalities involved and the final closing of the institution are described here.

  13. Definition of Saturn's magnetospheric model parameters for the Pioneer 11 flyby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Belenkaya

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a description of a method for selection parameters for a global paraboloid model of Saturn's magnetosphere. The model is based on the preexisting paraboloid terrestrial and Jovian models of the magnetospheric field. Interaction of the solar wind with the magnetosphere, i.e. the magnetotail current system, and the magnetopause currents screening all magnetospheric field sources, is taken into account. The input model parameters are determined from observations of the Pioneer 11 inbound flyby.

  14. Victor Kandinsky (1849-89): pioneer of modern Russian forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Vladimir; Margolin, Jacob; Witztum, Eliezer

    2012-06-01

    The paper describes Victor Kandinsky's professional achievements within nineteenth-century Russian forensic psychiatry. A thorough review of nineteenth-century Russian psychiatry is presented, followed by a short biographical account of Kandinsky's personal life. Within the backdrop of Russian forensic psychiatry toward the end of nineteenth century, Kandinsky's pioneer innovations in psychopathology and classification as well as his contributions to Russian forensic psychiatry are reviewed. These are exemplified by two of his forensic case studies relating to forensic responsibility and malingering, which are included in his famous book 'On Irresponsibility'.

  15. 史氏鲟鱼皮制革工艺研究%On leatherworking technology of Amur sturgeon ( Acipenser schrenckii) fishskin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许永安; 吴靖娜

    2011-01-01

    The Amur sturgeon cartilaginous taked as the material, the leatherworking technology was studied. Results showed that the optimum formaldehyde addition was 0.4% ; 8% lime, 3% sodimum sulfide (60% content) and 1.5% sodium hydrosulfide (60% content) , the sensory evaluation of leather by this ratio was better; the sensory evaluation of leather in the condition of 0.8 enzyme amount , 35 ℃, and 1.5 h was better; and the combination of 2% sodium chlorite and 1.5% sodium bisulfite showed the best bleaching effect. Based on above research, the optimizing leather technology of amur sturgeon fishskin was established. The physical and chemical properties of amur sturgeon leather by this technology were better than the standard of shoe upper leather QB/T 1873 -2004 and the standard of clothes leather QB 1872 -1993.%以史氏鲟(Acipenser schrenckii鱼皮为原料,对其制革工艺进行研究,结果表明,预浸水中添加0.4%的甲醛,防止鲟鱼皮大骨板松动的效果最佳;浸灰液配比为8%石灰、3%硫化钠(含量60%)、1.5%硫氢化钠(含量60%)时,研制的皮革感官评价较佳;软化工艺以酶量0.8%、温度35℃、时间1.5h研制的皮革感官评价较好;鲟鱼皮的脱色效果以亚氯酸钠(2%)和亚硫酸氢钠(1.5%)组合的氧化还原漂白法效果最佳.研究确立了鲟鱼皮制革优化工艺,该工艺试制的鲟鱼皮革其物理、化学性能指标总体上大大优于QB/T 1873-2004鞋面用皮革标准和QB 1872-1993服装用皮革标准.

  16. 葛洲坝电厂调度对中华鲟产卵场水流条件的影响%Influence of Gezhouba Project Dispatching on the Flow Condition of Chinese Sturgeon's Spawning Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄明海; 郭辉; 邢领航; 姜伟; 杨伟

    2013-01-01

    建立中华鲟产卵场三维水流数学模型,模拟葛洲坝电厂不同调度情况下产卵场水流条件;分析了葛洲坝下游近坝段适宜中华鲟产卵的水深、近底层流速和两者叠加的区域范围;研究了葛洲坝电厂调度对中华鲟产卵场水流条件影响,并初步提出了中华鲟产卵场水流条件改善措施.研究结果表明:葛洲坝下泄流量在15 000~6 000 m3/s范围变化时,适宜中华鲟产卵的水流区域范围随下泄流量减小相应减小;在下泄流量为6000 m3/s情况下,若下泄流量全由大江电厂泄流时有利于增大大江尾水区适宜产卵的水流区域范围.%A three-dimensional mathematical model of the flow at Chinese sturgeon's spawning ground was established.The flow condition in the presence of different dispatching operation modes of Gezhouba power station was simulated by this model.The area of water depth,bottom velocity and the superposing of the two suitable for Chinese sturgeon' s spawning in the downstream near the Gezhouba Project was analyzed.The influence of Gezhouba Project dispatching on the flow condition of Chinese sturgeon' s spawning ground was studied,and measures of improving the flow condition of Chinese sturgeon' s spawning ground were discussed.The results show that:when the discharge of Gezhouba Project varies in the range of 15 000-6 000 m3/s,the flow area suitable for Chinese sturgeon' s spawning decreases accordingly with the reducing of discharge ; when the discharge is 6 000 m3/s,if all the flow is discharged by Dajiang Powerplant,it will be beneficial to increase the suitable flow area for Chinese sturgeon spawning.

  17. Breeding Plan to Preserve the Genetic Variability of the Kootenai River White Sturgeon, Final Report, December 1993.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kincaid, Harold L.

    1993-11-01

    Natural reproduction in the Kootenai River white sturgeon population has not produced a successful year class since 1974, resulting in a declining broodstock and 20 consecutive year classes missing from the age-class structure. This report describes a captive breeding plan designed to preserve the remaining genetic variability and to begin rebuilding the natural age class structure. The captive breeding program will use 3--9 females and an equal number of males captured from the Kootenai River each spring. Fish will be spawned in pairs or in diallel mating designs to produce individual families that will be reared separately to maintain family identity. Fish will be marked to identify family and year class before return to the river. Fish should be returned to the river as fall fingerlings to minimize potential adaptation to the hatchery environment Initially, while tagging methods are tested to ensure positive identification after return to the river, it may be necessary to plant fish as spring yearlings. Number of fish planted will be equalized at 5,000 per family if fall fingerlings or 1,000 per family if spring yearlings. Assuming annual survival rates of 20% during the first winter for fall fingerling plants and 50% for years 1--3, and 85% for years 4--20 of all fish planted, the target numbers would yield 7.9 progeny per family or about 4 breeding pairs at age 20. Natural survival in the river environment during the 19+ years from planting to maturity would result in variability in genetic contribution of families to the next broodstock generation. Fish planted per family would be adjusted in future years when actual survival rate information is known. Broodfish will be tagged when captured to minimize multiple spawning of the same fish. implementation of this breeding plan each year for the 20-year generation interval, using 5 different mating pairs each year, will yield an effective population size of 200, or 22.5% of the estimated 1990 population.

  18. Nutrient capital sequestration in pioneer plant communities on surface-mine spoil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    Four pioneer plant communities on a surface-mine spoil were compared in terms of biomass production and nutrient capital sequestration. A chenopodium album-dominated community (Treatment 4) produced the greatest amount of biomass. Next were a community derived from a forest topsoil seed bank spread over mine spoil (Treatment 2), a seed bank community with common reclamation species seeded into it (Treatment 3), and a mix of grasses and Lespedeza commonly used in reclamation (Treatment 1). Amounts of nutrients sequestered in vegetation were not strictly proportional to biomass. Community nutrient contents were largely influenced by community biomass and the nutrient uptake characteristics of the species with most biomass. Significant changes in soil chemistry were found after one growing season. Addition of the reclamation mix of grasses and Lespedeza to the seed bank resulted in significantly fewer established native species. Native species lost their normal dominance and exhibited stunted growth and phenological delay in Treatment 3. Nutrient content niche, nutrient content niche share, and niche breadth (Levins; B) were calculated for important species in each community. Native species generally had reduced niche breadths and niche shares when reclamation species were added to the community. Community content niche, the sums of species content niches, varied between different types of pioneer communities.

  19. Otto von Gericke (1602-1686) and his pioneering vacuum experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, Viktor

    2007-11-01

    The German scholar Otto von Guericke (1602-1686) is regarded as one of the most prominent figures of the scientific revolution in the 17th century. A politician, physicist, engineer, and natural philosopher, von Guericke invented the world's first air pump in 1650. By performing and interpreting some pioneering vacuum experiments, he made important contributions to the basic principles of the physics of fluids and gases. He is most recognized for his so-called Magdeburg experiments, in which two copper hemispheres were placed together, the interior evacuated, and two teams of horses were unable to pull the evacuated hemispheres apart until the air was readmitted. In this way in 1654 he first demonstrated the enormous power of the atmosphere. Through this and other experiments, Otto von Guericke significantly contributed to the understanding of high altitude physiology, and was the first to experiment with an artificial vacuum. However, it took more than three centuries before his pioneering book, Experimenta Nova Magdeburgica de Vacua Spatio (1672), was translated into English in 1994, bringing his genius, scientific ideas, and philosophical understanding to a wider audience.

  20. Long-term persistence of pioneer species in tropical forest soil seed banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalling, J W; Brown, T A

    2008-10-05

    In tropical forests, pioneer species regenerate from seeds dispersed directly into canopy gaps, and from seeds that persisted in soil seed banks before gap formation. However, life-history models suggest that selection for long-term persistence of seeds in soil should be weak, as persistence incurs a fitness cost resulting from prolonged generation time. We use a carbon dating technique to provide the first direct measurements of seed persistence in undisturbed tropical forest seed banks. We show that seeds germinate successfully from surface soil microsites up to 38 years after dispersal. Decades-long persistence may be common in pioneers with relatively large mass, and appears to be unrelated to specific regeneration requirements. In Croton billbergianus, a sub-canopy tree that recruits in abundant small gaps, long-term persistence is associated with short-distance ballistic seed dispersal. In Trema micrantha, a canopy tree with widespread dispersal, persistence is associated with a requirement for large gaps that form infrequently in old-growth forest.

  1. Professor Peter Choyce: an early pioneer of intraocular lenses and corneal/refractive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Suresh K; Apple, David J

    2005-06-01

    Professor Peter Choyce, FRCS, DOMS, MS, was one of the pioneers of intraocular lens implant surgery. He developed an interest in artificial lens implantation following cataract surgery, a procedure that was widely criticized by the ophthalmic establishment in the UK, Europe, North America and other countries. Owing to the opposition to the intraocular lenses, Peter Choyce together with Sir Harold Ridley co-founded the International Intraocular Implant Club in 1966, which was responsible for the gradual acceptance of artificial lens implantation. Peter Choyce developed several models of intraocular lens, but did not patent the majority of them. The Choyce Mark IX, manufactured by Rayner Intraocular Lenses, became the first US Food and Drug Administration-approved intraocular lens in 1981. A review of Peter Choyce's record confirms a significant number of original innovations in the field of anterior segment surgery, including many procedures taken for granted today, but not associated with his name. These include early work on both kerato- and intraocular lens-refractive procedures, keratoprosthesis, pioneering paediatric implant procedures and others. Unfortunately his tenacious adherence to anterior chamber lens technology, while in general clinically sound, caused many to question his influence and hence he remained poorly understood even until after his death. He passed away on 8 August 2001 after a long fight with colon cancer. In this article, we provide evidence and elaborate Peter Choyce's accomplishments, which places him as one of the most innovative ophthalmologist in his surgical field in the twentieth century.

  2. Elevation, Not Deforestation, Promotes Genetic Differentiation in a Pioneer Tropical Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Antonio R.; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Jha, Shalene

    2016-01-01

    The regeneration of disturbed forest is an essential part of tropical forest ecology, both with respect to natural disturbance regimes and large-scale human-mediated logging, grazing, and agriculture. Pioneer tree species are critical for facilitating the transition from deforested land to secondary forest because they stabilize terrain and enhance connectivity between forest fragments by increasing matrix permeability and initiating disperser community assembly. Despite the ecological importance of early successional species, little is known about their ability to maintain gene flow across deforested landscapes. Utilizing highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we examined patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation for the pioneer understory tree Miconia affinis across the Isthmus of Panama. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of geographic distance, forest cover, and elevation on genetic differentiation among populations using circuit theory and regression modeling within a landscape genetics framework. We report marked differences in historical and contemporary migration rates and moderately high levels of genetic differentiation in M. affinis populations across the Isthmus of Panama. Genetic differentiation increased significantly with elevation and geographic distance among populations; however, we did not find that forest cover enhanced or reduced genetic differentiation in the study region. Overall, our results reveal strong dispersal for M. affinis across human-altered landscapes, highlighting the potential use of this species for reforestation in tropical regions. Additionally, this study demonstrates the importance of considering topography when designing programs aimed at conserving genetic diversity within degraded tropical landscapes. PMID:27280872

  3. Bacterial Rhizosphere Biodiversity from Several Pioneer Desert Sand Plants Near Jizan, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Osman, Jorge R.

    2016-04-08

    Life in arid regions and, in particular, hot deserts is often limited due to their harsh environmental conditions, such as large temperature fluctuations and low amounts of water. These extreme environments can influence the microbial community present on the surface sands and any rhizosphere members surrounding desert plant roots. The Jizan desert area, located in Saudi Arabia, supports particular vegetation that grows in the large sandy flat terrain. We examined five different samples, four from the rhizosphere of pioneer plants plus a surface sand sample, and used pyrosequencing of PCR-amplified V1-V3 regions of 16S rDNA genes from total extracted DNA to reveal and compare the bacterial population diversity of the samples. The results showed a total of 3,530 OTUs in the five samples, calculated using ≥ 97% sequence similarity levels. The Chao1 estimation of the bacterial diversity fluctuated from 637 to 2,026 OTUs for a given sample. The most abundant members found in the samples belong to the Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria phyla. This work shows that the Jizan desert area of Saudi Arabia can contain a diverse bacterial community on the sand and surrounding the roots of pioneer desert plants. It also shows that desert sand microbiomes can vary depending on conditions, with broad implications for sandstone monument bacterial communities

  4. Solar wind structure at large heliocentric distances - An interpretation of Pioneer 10 observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundhausen, A. J.; Gosling, J. T.

    1976-01-01

    Examination of hourly values of the solar wind speed observed by the Pioneer 10 spacecraft beyond a heliocentric distance of 4 AU reveals (1) a prevalent 'sawtoothlike' speed-time profile, most speed fluctuations displaying a rapid rise and a much slower decline, and (2) the nearly universal appearance of abrupt (on the 1-hour time resolution of these data) changes in the speed on the rising portions of the speed fluctuations. These previously unreported characteristics, as well as the rate of decay of stream amplitudes derived earlier by Collard and Wolfe, are in general agreement with the predictions of stream propagation models that neglect any conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy outside of shock fronts. Thus the Pioneer 10 observations give the first confirmation of the general concept of solar wind stream evolution employed in these models, i.e., that solar wind speed inhomogeneities appear to steepen to form shock waves and that the 'wave amplitudes' decay slowly as the shock waves propagate outward from the sun.

  5. Elevation, Not Deforestation, Promotes Genetic Differentiation in a Pioneer Tropical Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla, Antonio R; Pope, Nathaniel; Jaffé, Rodolfo; Jha, Shalene

    2016-01-01

    The regeneration of disturbed forest is an essential part of tropical forest ecology, both with respect to natural disturbance regimes and large-scale human-mediated logging, grazing, and agriculture. Pioneer tree species are critical for facilitating the transition from deforested land to secondary forest because they stabilize terrain and enhance connectivity between forest fragments by increasing matrix permeability and initiating disperser community assembly. Despite the ecological importance of early successional species, little is known about their ability to maintain gene flow across deforested landscapes. Utilizing highly polymorphic microsatellite markers, we examined patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation for the pioneer understory tree Miconia affinis across the Isthmus of Panama. Furthermore, we investigated the impact of geographic distance, forest cover, and elevation on genetic differentiation among populations using circuit theory and regression modeling within a landscape genetics framework. We report marked differences in historical and contemporary migration rates and moderately high levels of genetic differentiation in M. affinis populations across the Isthmus of Panama. Genetic differentiation increased significantly with elevation and geographic distance among populations; however, we did not find that forest cover enhanced or reduced genetic differentiation in the study region. Overall, our results reveal strong dispersal for M. affinis across human-altered landscapes, highlighting the potential use of this species for reforestation in tropical regions. Additionally, this study demonstrates the importance of considering topography when designing programs aimed at conserving genetic diversity within degraded tropical landscapes. PMID:27280872

  6. Readiness to adopt e-learning: pioneering a course in school librarianship education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Zinn

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available E-learning has come of age in South African higher education but scepticism, caution and an inadequate reward system for innovative teaching methods have resulted in a slow uptake by academics. Within this milieu the author pioneered a course in the ACE School Librarianship programme. The study describes the e-learning experiences of the course participants gleaned from questionnaire responses to questions related to experiences of ICTs, the Internet and online learning, ability to navigate the e-learning environment, utilization of elements of the learning management system and implementation of course ideas in their respective schools and personal lives. The study also provides an opportunity for the author to reflect on her pioneering experiences with e-learning and how she would approach it differently next time. The main lessons learned were that 1 the e-learning environment is not necessarily intuitive and participants need opportunities to digest novel features such as the discussion forum; 2 several of the advantages and disadvantages of e-learning that appear in the research literature are identified in this study; and 3 setting up an e-learning course is best achieved incrementally.

  7. Estrogen receptor coregulators and pioneer factors: The orchestrators of mammary gland cell fate and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramanandam eManavathi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The 17-beta estradiol (E2, a steroid hormone, which play critical role in various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis, is essential for reproduction and mammary gland development. E2 actions are mediated by two classical nuclear hormone receptors, estrogen receptor alpha and beta (ERs. The activity of ERs depends on the coordinate activity of ligand binding, posttranslational modification, and importantly their interaction with their partner proteins called ‘coregulators’. Because majority of breast cancers are ERalpha positive and coregulators are proved to be crucial for ER transcriptional activity, an increased interest in the field has led to the identification of a large number of coregulators. In the last decade, gene knockout studies using mouse models provided impetus to our further understanding of the role of these coregulators in mammary gland development. Several coregulators appear to be critical for terminal end bud formation, ductal branching and alveologenesis during mammary gland development. The emerging studies support that, in addition to these coregulators, the other ER partner proteins ‘pioneering factors’ also seems to contribute significantly to E2 signaling and mammary cell fate. This review discusses emerging themes in coregulator- and pioneering factor-mediated action on ER functions, particularly their role in mammary gland cell fate and development.

  8. Doomed pioneers: Gravity-flow deposition and bioturbation in marine oxygen-deficient environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Föilmi, Karl B.; Grimm, Kurt A.

    1990-11-01

    Isolated horizons of Thalassinoides and Gyrolithes burrows appear in exclusive association with gravity-flow deposits within sequences of nonbioturbated hernipelagic sedimentary rocks of the Miocene Monterey Formation of California and the Oligocene-Miocene San Gregorio Formation of Baja California. These burrowed levels are not associated with other ichnogenera such as Zoophycos and Chondrites. We infer a causal relation between gravity flow deposition and the presence of Thalassinoides and Gyrolithes and suggest that these gravity flows entrained thalassinidean crustacea. Upon deposition in oxygen-deficient environments, the surviving borrowers reworked substantial quantities of aminated, commonly organic-rich sediments in an environment from which they were previously excluded. The persistence of or the ecologically rapid return to oxygen-depleted conditions limited the survival time and ecological complexity of the transported infaunal dwellers and rendered them doomed pioneers. Ecological and physiological data support this hypothesis: thalassinidean crustacea have the capability to endure turbulent transport and survive up to 5-7 days of anoxia without being severely limited in their biological activities. The accurate recognition of doomed pioneer trace-fossil assemblages as ephemeral ecological phenomena in otherwise laminated successions may contribute to a better understanding and interpretation of paleo-oxygen levels and basin history.

  9. Geochronology and Geomorphology of the Pioneer Archaeological Site (10BT676), Upper Snake River Plain, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keene, Joshua L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    The Pioneer site in southeastern Idaho, an open-air, stratified, multi-component archaeological locality on the upper Snake River Plain, provides an ideal situation for understanding the geomorphic history of the Big Lost River drainage system. We conducted a block excavation with the goal of understanding the geochronological context of both cultural and geomorphological components at the site. The results of this study show a sequence of five soil formation episodes forming three terraces beginning prior to 7200 cal yr BP and lasting until the historic period, preserving one cultural component dated to ~3800 cal yr BP and multiple components dating to the last 800 cal yr BP. In addition, periods of deposition and stability at Pioneer indicate climate fluctuation during the middle Holocene (~7200-3800 cal yr BP), minimal deposition during the late Holocene, and a period of increased deposition potentially linked to the Little Ice Age. In addition, evidence for a high-energy erosion event dated to ~3800 cal yr BP suggest a catastrophic flood event during the middle Holocene that may correlate with volcanic activity at the Craters of the Moon lava fields to the northwest. This study provides a model for the study of alluvial terrace formations in arid environments and their potential to preserve stratified archaeological deposits.

  10. [Sir Geoffrey Keynes 1887-1982. Surgical pioneer, medical historian, humanist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergljung, Lars

    2005-01-01

    Sir Geoffrey Keynes (1887 - 1982), was a pioneer in the surgery of breast cancer and thymic deseases, n.b. in patients suffering from myastenia gravis. He strongly disapproved of the longstanding dogma of so called radical mastectomy in breast cancer, and advocated a more limited surgical approach, followed by radiation therapy. This was done more than fifty years before breastconserving surgery has become the therapy of choice and against considerable opposition from the surgical establishment of his days. He also became a pioneer in the surgical treatment of myastenia gravis by thymectomy, at a time when there was no real understanding of the pathophysiology of the disease and when considerable controversy existed as to the importance or non importance of concomitant tumour formation in the thymus. Besides being a busy surgeon Sir Geoffrey was a medical historian, writing the biography of among others William Harvey, a bibliographer with a special interest in the poet and artist William Blake and a bibliophil with a large book collection of great value to medical history.

  11. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  12. The Pioneer Transcription Factor FoxA Maintains an Accessible Nucleosome Configuration at Enhancers for Tissue-Specific Gene Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwafuchi-Doi, Makiko; Donahue, Greg; Kakumanu, Akshay; Watts, Jason A; Mahony, Shaun; Pugh, B Franklin; Lee, Dolim; Kaestner, Klaus H; Zaret, Kenneth S

    2016-04-01

    Nuclear DNA wraps around core histones to form nucleosomes, which restricts the binding of transcription factors to gene regulatory sequences. Pioneer transcription factors can bind DNA sites on nucleosomes and initiate gene regulatory events, often leading to the local opening of chromatin. However, the nucleosomal configuration of open chromatin and the basis for its regulation is unclear. We combined low and high levels of micrococcal nuclease (MNase) digestion along with core histone mapping to assess the nucleosomal configuration at enhancers and promoters in mouse liver. We find that MNase-accessible nucleosomes, bound by transcription factors, are retained more at liver-specific enhancers than at promoters and ubiquitous enhancers. The pioneer factor FoxA displaces linker histone H1, thereby keeping enhancer nucleosomes accessible in chromatin and allowing other liver-specific transcription factors to bind and stimulate transcription. Thus, nucleosomes are not exclusively repressive to gene regulation when they are retained with, and exposed by, pioneer factors.

  13. Understanding the joint effects of Cognitive Distance and Competition on Pioneering Innovations through the Dynamics between Suppliers and Competitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ying; Salomo, Søren

    2010-01-01

    for firms to take these potential opportunities. As far as innovation is concerned, the joint effects of cognitive distance and competition have only been roughly discussed and rarely investigated in an empirical setting in the literature. Thus, the aim of this study is not only to empirically test...... the individual effects of cognitive distance and competition on innovation but also try to understand their joint effects in a coherent way based on a resource-based view and through the product life cycle as a link of cognitive distance and competition. Competition is multidimensional and innovation has many...... between cognitive distance and pioneering innovations, and a negative effect of competition on pioneering innovations. It also suggests that the relationship between cognitive distance and pioneering innovations is negatively moderated by competition. These findings and the research design in this study...

  14. Oceanic Distribution, Behaviour, and a Winter Aggregation Area of Adult Atlantic Sturgeon, Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus, in the Bay of Fundy, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Douglas Taylor

    Full Text Available Seasonal distribution of adult Atlantic sturgeon was examined using pop-up satellite archival tags (PSATs and ultrasonic transmitters deployed in the Saint John River, New Brunswick, Canada. Seven MK10 PSATs programmed for release in June 2012 and seven MiniPAT PSATs programmed for release in February and April 2013 were deployed in August 2011 and 2012, respectively. Eleven of 14 PSATs surfaced and transmitted depth and temperature data archived for the duration of their deployment (121-302 days. Among these eleven PSATs, five were recovered and 15-sec archival data was downloaded. Following exit from the Saint John River in the fall, tagged fish occupied a mean monthly depth of 76.3-81.6 m at temperatures as low as 4.9˚C throughout the winter before returning to shallower areas in the spring. The majority of ultrasonic detections occurred in the Bay of Fundy, but fish were detected as far as Riviere Saint-Jean, Quebec, approximately 1500 km from the Bay of Fundy (representing long-distance migratory rates of up to 44 km/day. All PSATs were first detected in the Bay of Fundy. Tags that released in February and April were found 5-21 km offshore of the Saint John Harbour, while tags that released in June were first detected in near shore areas throughout the Bay of Fundy. The substrate at winter tag release locations (estimated from backward numerical particle-tracking experiments consisted primarily of moraines and postglacial mud substrate with low backscatter strength, indicative of soft or smooth seabed. Based on the proximity of winter tag release locations, the consistent depths observed between fish, and previous research, it is suspected that a winter aggregation exists in the Bay of Fundy. This study expands the understanding of the marine distribution and range of Atlantic sturgeon on the east coast of Canada.

  15. The effects of time of reproductive migration on the biochemical composition and mobility trait of sperm in Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus brood stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Kabir

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effects of reproductive migration of Persian sturgeon on some mobility traitsof sperm (duration of sperm movement and the percentage of motile sperms and on biochemicalcompounds (e.g. calcium, magnesium, glucose, total protein, sodium and potassium of semen wasinvestigated. For this purpose, time of reproductive migration in these brood stocks were divided to threeperiods (i.e. treatment 1 = March, treatment 2 = April and treatment 3 = May and in each period wesampled from those male fishes which had approximately the same sizes. The results showed that theduration of sperm movement (110.00±28.28, 327.85±85.38 and 55.00±7.07, the percentage of motilesperms (70.50±2.12, 88.60±8.38 and 66.00±0.00 and amounts of glucose (6.25±2.78, 1.18±0.44 and7.78±1.25, total protein (0.19±0.05, 0.41±0.10 and 0.07±0.00, potassium (3.57±1.31, 2.57±0.77 and4.46±0.14 and calcium (2.19±0.31, 2.59±0.81 and 11.99±6.35 of these fishes were significantlydifferent at different times of the reproductive migration (P0.05. Generally speaking, male brood stocks of Persian sturgeons in terms ofmentioned parameters are more appropriate in April compare to March and May months.

  16. Predicted effects of future climate warming on thermal habitat suitability for Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) in rivers in Wisconsin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John D.; Stewart, Jana S.

    2015-01-01

    The Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) may be threatened by future climate warming. The purpose of this study was to identify river reaches in Wisconsin, USA, where they might be vulnerable to warming water temperatures. In Wisconsin, A. fulvescens is known from 2291 km of large-river habitat that has been fragmented into 48 discrete river-lake networks isolated by impassable dams. Although the exact temperature tolerances are uncertain, water temperatures above 28–30°C are potentially less suitable for this coolwater species. Predictions from 13 downscaled global climate models were input to a lotic water temperature model to estimate amounts of potential thermally less-suitable habitat at present and for 2046–2065. Currently, 341 km (14.9%) of the known habitat are estimated to regularly exceed 28°C for an entire day, but only 6 km (0.3%) to exceed 30°C. In 2046–2065, 685–2164 km (29.9–94.5%) are projected to exceed 28°C and 33–1056 km (1.4–46.1%) to exceed 30°C. Most river-lake networks have cooler segments, large tributaries, or lakes that might provide temporary escape from potentially less suitable temperatures, but 12 short networks in the Lower Fox and Middle Wisconsin rivers totaling 93.6 km are projected to have no potential thermal refugia. One possible adaptation to climate change could be to provide fish passage or translocation so that riverine Lake Sturgeon might have access to more thermally suitable habitats.

  17. The influence of stocking density on growth performance and hematological profile of stellate sturgeon (A. stellatus, Pallas, 1771, reared in an industrial ,, flow-through’’ aquaculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desimira Maria Dicu Stroe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 The aim of this paper is to evaluate the influence of four different stocking densities, ranging from 18.7 to 28.6 kg m3, on growth performance and welfare of juvenile stellate sturgeons, reared in an industrial ,,flow-through’’ aquaculture system. At the end of 60 days experimental period, a survival rate of 98% and a stocking density that ranged from 32.5 to 39.8 kg m-3 were registered. The physiological state of biological material is characterized by the values ​​of hematological indices, that are not significant from the statistical point of view (p> 0.05, both at the beginning and at the end of experimental period, as well as between experimental variants. To assess the biological material growth performance, feed conversion ratio (FCR, specific growth rate (SGR and profile index were calculated. Regarding the growth performance parameters, better value are encountered at B1 (18.7 kg m-3 and B3 (23.3 kg m-3, appreciable values ​​at B2 (20.4 kg m-3 and low values at B4 (28.6 kg m-3. As conclusion, it can be assert that the initial stocking density of 28.6 kg m-3 is not optimal for rearing juvenile stellate sturgeons in an industrial ,,flow-through’’ aquaculture system. Normal 0 21 false false false RO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  18. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam: Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, David L. (Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Portland, OR)

    1999-02-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1997 through March 1998 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS; Report D), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of the work from April 1997 through March 1998 listed.

  19. The Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Central District of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance (Des Moines, IA, April 29-May 3, 1992). [Abstracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, James A., Ed.; Hoadley, Michael, Ed.

    This publication is designed to communicate the history and research activities of members of the Central District of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance. It presents summaries of 30 papers and conference presentations on such topics as pioneering physical educators; cholesterol in college football players;…

  20. Development and certification of the innovative pioneer oil burner for residential heating appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamath, B. [Heat Wise Inc., Ridge, NY (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The Pioneer burner represents another important milestone for the oil heat industry. It is the first practical burner design that is designated for use in small capacity heating appliances matching the needs of modern energy efficient home designs. Firing in the range of 0.3 GPH to 0.65 GPH (40,000-90,000 Btu/hr) it allows for new oil heating appliance designs to compete with the other major fuel choices in the small design load residential market. This market includes energy efficient single family houses, town-houses, condominiums, modular units, and mobile homes. The firing range also is wide enough to cover a large percentage of more conventional heating equipment and home designs as well. Having recently passed Underwriters Laboratory certification tests the burner in now being field tested in several homes and samples are being made available to interested boiler and furnace manufacturers for product development and application testing.

  1. Propulsion by light: a tribute to the German pioneer Eugen Saenger (Plenary Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Willy L.

    2004-09-01

    Although the laser was not yet invented Eugen Saenger, one of the most prominent German personalities in the early development of rocket science and technology suggested to use photons for the propulsion of spacecrafts in the fifties. In contrast to current schemes which are basically aimed at laser induced ablation processes, Eugen Saenger started with the idea of using the radiation pressure itself for propulsion purposes. A review of his pioneering work in that area will be supported by numerous historical documents and personal remembrance showing his effort to promote unconventional ideas. The paper also emphasizes how some of the original concepts are being revisited and partly implemented by using today"s laser technology.

  2. A study on the vegetation succession of pioneer trees in landslide control areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. H.; Lin, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    Located in subtropics, the steep terrain, concentrated rainy season, natural disaster, and artificial development have damaged the surface vegetation and resulted in soil loss and landslide in Taiwan. The control of landslide should stabilize the side slope as the priority. Furthermore, a proper engineering is applied to grow plants for the rapid forestation on landslide. Taking the location which has been done hydroseeding in the Shihmen Reservoir watershed as the example, the vegetation succession within the 8 years after the hydroseeding is investigated in this study. The growth and decline of pioneer trees like Rhus javanica is particularly discussed the vegetation recovery role and function on landslide. The research result could provide reference for the planning and design of vegetation recovery.

  3. O. Ivar lovaas: pioneer of applied behavior analysis and intervention for children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tristram; Eikeseth, Svein

    2011-03-01

    O. Ivar Lovaas (1927-2010) devoted nearly half a century to ground-breaking research and practice aimed at improving the lives of children with autism and their families. In the 1960s, he pioneered applied behavior analytic (ABA) interventions to decrease severe challenging behaviors and establish communicative language. Later, he sought to improve outcomes by emphasizing early intervention for preschoolers with autism, provided in family homes with active parental participation. His studies indicated that many children who received early intensive ABA made dramatic gains in development. Lovaas also disseminated ABA widely through intervention manuals, educational films, and public speaking. Moreover, as an enthusiastic teacher and devoted mentor, he inspired many students and colleagues to enter the field of ABA and autism intervention. PMID:21153872

  4. Stem cell research and therapy in the Islamic republic of Iran: pioneering in the Islamic world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miremadi, Tahereh; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Aghdami, Nasser; Gharanfoli, Mohsen; Vasei, Mohammad; Kouhkan, Azam; Baharvand, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    In the early 2000s, the Iranian stem cell research and technology had a relatively strong start that benefited from religious blessings, political and public support, as well as scientific endeavors on the part of non-governmental and public research organizations and universities. Later on, it developed a dynamic niche market of public, private start-up, and spin-off companies and organizations that pioneered in the Islamic world in terms of ISI papers, clinical trials, and cell therapy. However, at present, it faces new challenges stemming from the insufficient finance and a comprehensive law and regulation structure to keep its momentum. To remedy this situation, the scientific community and other stakeholders need to have a series of shared long-time goals and try to build consensus on how to achieve them through nationally approved policy documents. PMID:22816315

  5. The Awakening,One of the Pioneer Works in Feminist Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕灿

    2008-01-01

    Kate Chopin's The Awakening,is a portrayal of the life of the well-to-do but unhappy married woman Edna Pontellier.Edna enjoys all the advantaged provided by her husband and ahs two lovely children.She is unhappy because she is confined to her house and expected to be a dutiful wife and a loving mother.When she begins to change her way of living,to live for herself instead of her husband and children,she is opposed by her family,her friends and others.To finds her freedom,she drowns herself in the sea.The tragedy of Edna is the tragedy of most women in a patriarchal society,and the novel which caused a storm of criticism at its publication has been considered to be a pioneer work in feminist movement.

  6. A Novel Time of Flight Detector for the Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Richard; Drummond, Kirk; Powell, William; Chiu, Mickey

    2010-11-01

    Time-of Flight (TOF) detectors allow one to identify particles created in collider experiments. The Pioneering High Energy Nuclear Interaction eXperiment (PHENIX) at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory is proposing new forward timing detectors to measure the TOF with a 10 picosecond (ps) timing resolution. A prototype of the detector electronics system was tested by using Cherenkov signals from cosmic rays and translating them into digital signals. Each signal was split and delivered to two analog-to-digital-converters (ADCs). C++ and ROOT were used to write programs to compare voltage readings reported by the two ADC channels and determine the time difference between them, which was 76 ps. Using new ADCs, which run 17 times faster, the timing resolution will be 5 ps. This will allow PHENIX to probe the meson-baryon anomaly at intermediate, transverse momentum by making detailed measurements in a psuedorapidity region which has not been well measured.

  7. Quality and Safety in Health Care, Part I: Five Pioneers in Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harolds, Jay

    2015-08-01

    Five pioneers had a huge impact on the quality movement in health care in the United States. Ernest Codman contributed in many ways, including his focus on outcome analysis. Avidis Donabedian is known for his focus on the 3 domains of structure, process, and outcome in health care. Walter Shewhart is known especially for the control chart and early work on what W. Edwards Deming made into the PDSA cycle. Deming is also known for other contributions, including his 14 points of management, correcting system problems rather than blaming the workers, and his System of Profound Knowledge. Juran is known for the Pareto principle and his emphasis on customer satisfaction and addressing the human, not just statistical side, of quality improvement. PMID:26147460

  8. A renaissance for the pioneering 16S rRNA gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, Susannah; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2008-09-07

    Culture-independent molecular surveys using the 16S rRNA gene have become a mainstay for characterizing microbial community structure over the last quarter century. More recently this approach has been overshadowed by metagenomics, which provides a global overview of a community's functional potential rather than just an inventory of its inhabitants. However, the pioneering 16S rRNA gene is making a comeback in its own right thanks to a number of methodological advancements including higher resolution (more sequences), analysis of multiple related samples (e.g. spatial and temporal series) and improved metadata and use of metadata. The standard conclusion that microbial ecosystems are remarkably complex and diverse is now being replaced by detailed insights into microbial ecology and evolution based only on this one historically important marker gene.

  9. 略论《数学先锋》%On Mathematics Pioneer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤彬如

    2015-01-01

    《数学先锋》是一部数学家传记,它简明扼要,具有知识性、可读性、教育性,适合高中生、大学生以及数学教师和数学爱好者阅读。但该书在原著以及翻译上存在一些问题,值得商榷。%Mathematics Pioneer is a mathematician biography,this is a concise book,has many admirable qualities such as informative,readable,educational,which makes itself suitable for high school students,college students,and math teachers and math lovers to read.However,this book still has somewhere debatable about it’s translation and the book itself.

  10. System design of the Pioneer Venus spacecraft. Volume 10: Propulsion/orbit insertion subsystem studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenstein, B. J.

    1973-01-01

    The Pioneer Venus orbiter and multiprobe missions require spacecraft maneuvers for successful accomplishment. This report presents the results of studies performed to define the propulsion subsystems required to perform those maneuvers. Primary goals were to define low mass subsystems capable of performing the required missions with a high degree of reliability for low cost. A review was performed of all applicable propellants and thruster types, as well as propellant management techniques. Based on this review, a liquid monopropellant hydrazine propulsion subsystem was selected for all multiprobe mission maneuvers, and for all orbiter mission maneuvers except orbit insertion. A pressure blowdown operating mode was selected using helium as the pressurizing gas. The forces associated with spacecraft rotations were used to control the liquid-gas interface and resulting propellant orientation within the tank.

  11. Pioneering Metal-Free Oxidative Coupling Strategy of Aromatic Compounds Using Hypervalent Iodine Reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Yasuyuki; Dohi, Toshifumi

    2015-10-01

    We started our hypervalent iodine research about 30 years ago in the mid-1980s. We soon successfully developed the single-electron-transfer oxidation ability of a hypervalent iodine reagent, specifically, phenyliodine(III) bis(trifluoroacetate) (PIFA), toward aromatic rings of phenyl ethers for forming aromatic cation radicals. This was one of the exciting and unexpected events in our research studies so far, and the discovery was reported in 1991. It also led to the next challenge, developing the metal-free oxidative couplings for C-H functionalizations and direct couplings between the C-H bonds of valuable aromatic compounds in organic synthesis. In order to realize the effective oxidative coupling, pioneering new aromatic ring activations was essential and several useful methodologies have been found for oxidizable arenes. The achievements regarding this objective obtained in our continuous research are herein summarized with classification of the aromatic ring activation strategies.

  12. Coleman Advocates for Children And Youth: a pioneering child advocacy organization (1974-2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Austin, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Coleman Advocates for Youth and Children is a pioneering 30-year-old child advocacy organization founded by several affluent community members and children's service professionals to stop housing abused and neglected children in juvenile hall. Today, low-income youth and parents in families of color are now assuming leadership in developing a unique hybrid approach that integrates community organizing with more traditional child advocacy strategies and focuses on increasing affordable housing and improving the city's educational system. The strategies employed by Coleman have also evolved, shifting from insider advocacy with administrative officials to public campaigns targeting the city budget process, to local initiative campaigns, and most recently to electoral politics. This organizational history features the issues mission and structure, leadership, managing issues, advocacy strategies and community relations, and funding.

  13. Young at Heart: Pioneering Approaches to Model Nonischaemic Cardiomyopathy with Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowran, Aoife; Rasponi, Marco; Perrucci, Gianluca L.; Righetti, Stefano; Zanobini, Marco; Pompilio, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    A mere 9 years have passed since the revolutionary report describing the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human fibroblasts and the first in-patient translational use of cells obtained from these stem cells has already been achieved. From the perspectives of clinicians and researchers alike, the promise of induced pluripotent stem cells is alluring if somewhat beguiling. It is now evident that this technology is nascent and many areas for refinement have been identified and need to be considered before induced pluripotent stem cells can be routinely used to stratify, treat and cure patients, and to faithfully model diseases for drug screening purposes. This review specifically addresses the pioneering approaches to improve induced pluripotent stem cell based models of nonischaemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:27110250

  14. Hooked on a New Technology: The Automation Pioneers in Post-War Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Kvaal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the initial activities in servo engineering in Norway originating in the early 1950s based on contacts at the Massachusets Institute of Technology. The activities were initiated by a small group of servo enthusiasts who, through the Feedback Control Committee in the research council, managed to coordinate national activities and establish strong research groups in Trondheim, Bergen and Oslo. After the initial phase of establishing the research groups, there was a continuous strong focus on connections with industry and industrial applications. In the mid-1960s the committee was strengthened and became the Automation and Data Processing Committee. The initial group of automation pioneers have left a lasting impact on the academic and industrial fields of servo engineering and automation in Norway.

  15. Status and Habitat Requirements of the White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam Volume II; Supplemental Papers and Data Documentation, 1986-1992 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamesderfer, Raymond C.; Nigro, Anthony A. [Oregon Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, Clackamas, OR (US)

    1995-01-01

    This is the final report for research on white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus from 1986--92 and conducted by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW), US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Washington Department of Fisheries (WDF). Findings are presented as a series of papers, each detailing objectives, methods, results, and conclusions for a portion of this research. This volume includes supplemental papers which provide background information needed to support results of the primary investigations addressed in Volume 1. This study addresses measure 903(e)(1) of the Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Fish and Wildlife Program that calls for ''research to determine the impact of development and operation of the hydropower system on sturgeon in the Columbia River Basin.'' Study objectives correspond to those of the ''White Sturgeon Research Program Implementation Plan'' developed by BPA and approved by the Northwest Power Planning Council in 1985. Work was conducted on the Columbia River from McNary Dam to the estuary.

  16. Studies using IMP, Voyager and Pioneer cosmic ray data to determine the size of the heliosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, John A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use the cosmic ray data from the IMP, Voyager and Pioneer spacecraft in the heliosphere out to approximately 65 AU to estimate the size of the heliosphere. We used several techniques to develop a consistent picture of the size of the heliosphere. The first method used a response function approach which determined the intensity as a function of time by scaling the modulation effect as they move outward and eventually reach the boundary of the heliosphere. In this model the effects of transient cosmic ray disturbances is included. A second approach using the perturbation method in which drifts are considered as a perturbation to the standard diffusion-convection modulation models was not fully developed. In a third approach the location of the modulation boundary beyond the termination shock was estimated using observations of the intensity and radial gradients between Voyager 2 and Pioneer 10 along with new estimates of the interstellar intensity of more than 70 MeV galactic cosmic rays. Using this method we found that for 7 years, from 1983 to 1990, the modulation boundary remained constant at 83 +/- 5 AU. We infer from these studies that a modulation boundary can be estimated only by extrapolating the observed radial gradients when the solar magnetic field polarity is such that cosmic-ray particles are drifting in the heliosphere inward toward the Earth along the neutral sheet. The boundary distance is larger than the estimates of the location of the termination shock at 67 +/- 5 AU using the same method. Two other studies partially supported by this grant are attached. The first deals with the recovery period of the greater than 70 MeV cosmic rays in the outer heliosphere from 1992-1995. In the second paper we compare the rigidity dependence of the 11-year cosmic ray variation at the Earth in two cycles of opposite solar magnetic field polarity.

  17. Roots of pioneer trees in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yan-ru; PENG Shao-lin; MO Jiang-ming; LIU Xin-wei; CHEN Zhuo-quan; ZHOU Kai; WU Jin-rong

    2006-01-01

    Representative pioneer tree root systems in the subtropical area of South China were examined with regard to their structure, underground stratification and biomass distribution. Excavation of skeleton roots and observation of fine roots of seven species including the Euphorbiaceae, Theaceae, Melastomataceae, Lauraceae and Fagaceae families was carried out. The results showed that: (1) Pioneer tree roots in the first stage of natural succession were of two types, one characterized by taproot system with bulky plagiotropic branches; the other characterized by flat root system with several tabular roots. The late mesophilous tree roots were characterized by one obvious taproot and tactic braches roots up and down. Shrub species roots were characterized by heart fibrous root type featured both by horizontally and transversally growing branches. Root shapes varied in different dominant species at different stages of succession. (2) Roots of the different species varied in the external features-color, periderm and structure of freshly cut slash. (3) In a set of successional stages the biomass of tree roots increased linearly with the age of growth. During monsoon, the total root biomass amounted to 115.70 t/ha in the evergreen broad-leaved forest; 50.61t/ha in needle and broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by coniferous forest; and 64.20 t/ha in broad-and needle-leaved mixed forest dominated by broad-leaved heliophytes, and are comparable to the underground biomass observed in similar tropical forests. Thisis the first report about roots characteristics of forest in the lower sub-tropical area of Dinghushan, Guangdong, China.

  18. Biomass allocation and photosynthetic responses of lianas and pioneer tree seedlings to light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Aceves, Tarin; Swaine, Michael D.

    2008-07-01

    Lianas are frequently considered as light demanding plants due to their proliferation in gaps and forest edges. Since lianas are exposed to a very heterogeneous light environment, they could be expected to express morphological and physiological plasticity in response to changes in the light environment, as high as that found in pioneer trees. We compared the biomass allocation and photosynthetic responses of seedlings of three species of lianas and two species of pioneer trees to increased light availability. Seedlings were transferred from medium (4-5 mol m -2 d -1) to high irradiance (12-15 mol m -2 d -1) in a controlled environment. In general the three liana species allocated fewer resources to the stem in comparison with the trees. The difference in the response between irradiance regimes was similar among the species, with no strong differences between trees and lianas probably due the early stage of the plants. With increase in irradiance plants accumulated more biomass, allocated more resources to the roots and less to the leaves, reduced the leaf area ratio (LAR) and specific leaf area (SLA). The photosynthetic rates recorded were not related to the rates of growth as measured by the increase in dry biomass (RGRm). Regardless of the life form, plants under higher irradiance increased their light compensation point (Lcp) and attained light saturation (Lsp) at higher levels of irradiance, while the saturated photosynthetic rate (A max) did not show a clear pattern, and dark respiration (R d) and quantum yield (Q) were not affected by the transference. The understanding of liana and tree seedlings responses to the light environment may have important implications in the dynamics of tropical forest regeneration.

  19. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy ...

  20. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...