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Sample records for american study results

  1. Phonetic study of North American languages history and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddieson, Ian

    2005-04-01

    Serious phonetic study of North America languages started at the beginning of the 20th century. Within limits of available technology, aspects of speech articulation, aerodynamics and acoustics were investigated. One clear motivation was to understand how classes of sounds unfamiliar from study of better-known European and Asian languages were produced. Glottalized consonants and stops then referred to as ``intermediate'' (voiceless unaspirated) received particular attention. Nasal airflow, lip position in vowels, and tone and pitch accent were also investigated. Significant insights on relative timing were obtained, inter alia foreshadowing VOT measurement as a useful discriminator of laryngeal activity and revealing part of the mechanism by which ejective consonants are made. After the 1920's, the idea of ``psychologically real'' phonemes which ignored phonetic differences became the ruling paradigm in American linguistics, contributing to a decline of interest in phonetic studies that basically lasted until around the 1980's. When interest renewed, a new vision that phonetic patterns show regularities independent of phonemic structure guided research, and considerable attention was also paid to how indigenous American languages fit into overall phonetic typologies. Recent work is also often informed by concern for documentation of endangered languages and community interest in language revival.

  2. In-office Discussions of Migraine: Results from the American Migraine Communication Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Steven R.; Cady, Roger K.; Brandes, Jan Lewis; Simons, Suzanne E.; Bain, Philip A.; Nelson, Meaghan R.

    2008-01-01

    Background Research indicates that successful migraine assessment and treatment depends on information obtained during patient and healthcare professional (HCP) discussions. However, no studies outline how migraine is actually discussed during clinical encounters. Objective Record naturally occurring HCP–migraineur interactions, analyzing frequency and impairment assessment, and preventive treatment discussions. Design HCPs seeing high volumes of migraineurs were recruited for a communication study. Patients likely to discuss migraine were recruited immediately before their normally scheduled appointment and, once consented, were audio- and video-recorded without a researcher present. Separate post-visit interviews were conducted with patients and HCPs. All interactions were transcribed. Participants Sixty patients (83% female; mean age 41.7) were analyzed. Patients were diagnosed with migraine 14 years and experienced 5 per month, on average. Approach Transcripts were analyzed using sociolinguistic techniques such as number and type of questions asked and post-visit alignment on migraine frequency and impairment. American Migraine Prevalence and Prevention Study guidelines were utilized. Results Ninety-one percent of HCP-initiated, migraine-specific questions were closed-ended/short answer; assessments focused on frequency and did not focus on attention on impairment. Open-ended questions in patient post-visit interviews yielded robust impairment-related information. Post-visit, 55% of HCP–patient pairs were misaligned regarding frequency; 51% on impairment. Of the 20 (33%) patients who were preventive medication candidates, 80% did not receive it and 50% of their visits lacked discussion of prevention. Conclusions Sociolinguistic analysis revealed that HCPs often used narrowly focused, closed-ended questions and were often unaware of how migraine affected patients’ lives as a result. It is recommended that HCPs assess impairment using open-ended questions

  3. Replication Improves Sorting-Task Results Analyzed by DISTATIS in a Consumer Study of American Bourbon and Rye Whiskeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahne, Jacob; Collins, Thomas S; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2016-05-01

    In consumer food-sensory studies, sorting and closely related methods (for example, projective mapping) have often been applied to large product sets which are complex and fatiguing for panelists. Analysis of sorting by Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS) is common, but this method discards relevant individual decisions; analysis by DISTATIS, which accounts for individual differences, is gaining acceptance. This research posits that replication can improve DISTATIS analysis by stabilizing consumer sensory maps, which are often extremely unstable. As a case study a fatiguing product set was sorted: 10 American whiskeys-5 bourbons and 5 ryes-were sorted into groups by 21 consumers over 2 replications. These products were chosen because American whiskeys are some of the most important distilled beverages in today's market; in particular, "bourbon" (mashbill more than 50% corn) and "rye" (more than 50% rye) whiskeys are important and assumed to be products with distinct sensory attributes. However, there is almost no scientific information about their sensory properties. Data were analyzed using standard and aggregated DISTATIS and MDS. No significant relationship between mashbill and consumer categorization in whiskeys was found; instead, there was evidence of producer and aging effects. aggregated DISTATIS was found to provide more stable results than without replication, and DISTATIS results provided a number of benefits over MDS, including bootstrapped confidence intervals for product separation. In addition, this is the first published evidence that mashbill does not determine sensory properties of American whiskey: bourbons and ryes, while legally distinct, were not separated by consumers. PMID:27088440

  4. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Weaver

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD, including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of left and pulmonary vascular function in African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS: left ventricular ejection fraction, E-wave velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, left atrial diameter index, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. We examined these associations using multivariable linear or logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 4866 participants at study enrollment, 106 lived <150 m, 159 lived 150–299 m, 1161 lived 300–999 m, and 3440 lived ≥1000 m from a major roadway. We did not observe any associations between residential distance to major roads and these markers of cardiac function. Results were similar with additional adjustment for diabetes and hypertension, when considering varying definitions of major roadways, or when limiting analyses to those free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. Overall, we observed little evidence that residential proximity to major roads was associated with cardiac function among African Americans.

  5. Outcomes of cataract surgery in diabetic patients: results of the Pan American Collaborative Retina Study Group

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    Roberto Gallego-Pinazo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was designed to evaluate the visual and anatomical outcomes after cataract surgery in diabetic patients with different intraoperative therapeutic strategies. Methods: The research design comprised of a multicentric, retrospective, interventional study conducted at 6 centers in Argentina, Brazil, Costa Rica, Puerto Rico, Spain, and Venezuela. We included 138 diabetic patients with at least 6-month follow-up following phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA and central subfield thickness were collected at baseline and at 1-, 2-, 3-, and 6-month follow-up. Of these, 42 cases were not treated with any intraoperative coadjuvant medication (Group 1, 59 patients received intraoperative bevacizumab (Group 2 and 37 patients received intraoperative triamcinolone (4 mg/0.1 ml (Group 3. Results: The mean logMAR [± standard deviation (SD] BCVA improved from 0.82 (± 0.43 at baseline, to 0.14 (± 0.23 at 6-month follow-up (p<0.001 in Group 1; from 0.80 (± 0.48 to 0.54 (± 0.45 (p<0.001 in Group 2; and from 1.0 (± 0.40 to 0.46 (± 0.34 (p<0.001 in Group 3. The mean central subfield thickness increased from 263.57 µm (± 35.7 at baseline to 274.57 µm (± 48.7 at 6-month follow-up (p=0.088 in Group 1; from 316.02 µm (± 100.4 to 339.56 µm (± 145.3 (p=0.184 in Group 2; and from 259.18 µm (± 97.9 to 282.21 µm (± 87.24 (p=0.044 in Group 3. Conclusion: Diabetic patients may significantly benefit from cataract surgery. This study provides evidence to support the use of intravitreal triamcinolone or bevacizumab at the time of cataract surgery in cases with pre-existent diabetic macular edema or moderate-severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy.

  6. American Studies in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gülriz Buken

    2006-01-01

    In the discipline of American Studies in Turkey, the major contribution emanates, on the one hand, from the American Culture and Literature Departments instituted in various Universities in Turkey and, on the other, from the American Studies Association of Turkey. Up till now, unfortunately, no Research and Performance Institute or Center for the Study of America has yet been established to secure the necessary contacts with other similar institutions in Europe and in the United States, to fa...

  7. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Anne M; Wellenius, Gregory A; Wu, Wen-Chih; Hickson, DeMarc A; Kamalesh, Masoor; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of left and pulmonary vascular function in African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS): left ventricular ejection fraction, E-wave velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, left atrial diameter index, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. We examined these associations using multivariable linear or logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 4866 participants at study enrollment, 106 lived African Americans. PMID:27304962

  8. American Studies in Romania

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    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  9. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  10. American Studies in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jopi Nyman

    2005-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1996, the Finnish American Studies Association has sought to promote the field of American Studies in Finland by organizing conferences, events and by increasing networking amongst its scattered membership (ca. 35) working at various universities and other higher education institutions. The current President of the Association is Dr Jopi Nyman (University of Joensuu) and its Secretary is Dr Ari Helo (University of Helsinki). While currently only the University of He...

  11. American Studies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Fasce

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s, introducing the Journal of American History’s internationalization project, Maurizio Vaudagna urged his Italian colleagues and all “non-English-speaking American historians in Europe […] to abandon the melancholic but somewhat comfortable situation of being marginal in both worlds.” More than a decade later, now that studying American history has been enormously complicated by the seismic changes connected with the end of the Cold War, the tragedy of 9/11, and the attendan...

  12. American Studies in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Federmayer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of American Studies as an academic discipline at Hungarian colleges and universities is basically coterminous with the watershed years of 1989-1990 when the country made a radical shift from state socialism toward parliamentary democracy and a free economy. This political and economic about-face, which came hand in hand with the undermining of foundationalist certainties and the generation of new anxieties coincided, more or less, with the radical transformation that American St...

  13. Latin American dose survey results in mammography studies under IAEA programme: radiological protection of patients in medical exposures (TSA3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela) working under the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Technical Cooperation Programme: TSA3 Radiological Protection of Patients in Medical Exposures have joined efforts in the optimisation of radiation protection in mammography practice. Through surveys of patient doses, the region has a unique database of diagnostic reference levels for analogue and digital equipment that will direct future optimisation activities towards the early detection of breast cancer among asymptomatic women. During RLA9/057 (2007-09) 24 institutions participated with analogue equipment in a dose survey. Regional training on methodology and measurement equipment was addressed in May 2007. The mean glandular dose (DG) was estimated using the incident kerma in air and relevant conversion coefficients for both projections craneo caudal and mediolateral oblique (CC and MLO). For Phase 2, RLA9/067 (2010-11), it was decided to include also digital systems in order to see their impact in future dose optimisation activities. Any new country that joined the project received training in the activities through IAEA expert missions. Twenty-nine new institutions participated (9 analogue and 20 digital equipment). A total of 2262 patient doses were collected during this study and from them DG (mGy) for both projections were estimated for each institution and country. Regional results (75 percentile in mGy) show for CC and MLO views, respectively: RLA9/057 (analogue) 2.63 and 3.17; RLA/067: 2.57 and 3.15 (analogue) and 2.69 and 2.90 (digital). Regarding only digital equipment for CC and MLO, respectively, computed radiography systems showed 2.59 and 2.78 and direct digital radiography (DDR) systems 2.78 and 3.04. Based on the IAEA Basic Safety Standard (BSS) reference dose (3 mGy), it can be observed that there is enough room to start

  14. American Studies in Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Antsyferova

    2006-01-01

    Interest in the USA, both general and specifically academic, has always existed in Russia, with its own ups and downs. But American studies as an academic discipline started gaining its popularity probably after WWII when there sporadically started to emerge the ever-increasing number of academic books, articles and dissertations in literary and historical research on the USA, the main centers of which were founded at the Academic Research Institute of the USA and Canada, headed by academicia...

  15. Who Stole Native American Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Lynn, Elizabeth

    1997-01-01

    Native American Studies has failed to develop into an academic discipline because of the continued influence of postcolonial theories, attempts to discredit Native American scholars, politically determined research agendas, and the ideology of the "New Historicism." Native American Studies must seek autonomy from other opportunistic epistemologies…

  16. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Anne M.; Wellenius, Gregory A.; Wen-Chih Wu; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Masoor Kamalesh; Yi Wang

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of lef...

  17. Pregnancy Miscarriage and the Role of Direct and Vicarious Racism over the Life Course: Results from the African American Women’s Health & Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Kathryn Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Prior research on racial disparities in maternal health reveals a relationship between racism and pregnancy health outcomes, as measured by low birth weight and preterm birth. This study examines how instances of racism experienced over the life course shape miscarriage risk for black American women. Using data from the African American Women’s Heart & Health Study (AAWHHS) and multivariate logistic regression, this study investigates the relationship between risk of pregnancy miscarriage and...

  18. Prostate-specific antigen levels are higher in African-American than in white patients in a multicenter registration study: Results of RTOG 94-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To compare serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in a national sample of African-American and white men with prostate cancer, and to attempt to explain any differences by using self-reported individual-level socioeconomic status adjustments. Methods and Materials: During 4((1)/(2)) months in 1994-95, 709 patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer were enrolled in this prospective study; 17.5% were African-American and 82.5% were white. Information about clinical stage, tumor grade, pretreatment PSA, type of insurance, and educational and income status was obtained. Serum PSA levels were measured and racial differences were found; how the differences were influenced by other patient- or tumor-related factors and if the differences could be explained by socioeconomic status disparities were determined. In univariate analyses, factors associated with the mean PSA levels were studied; log-converted values were used to yield a normal distribution. Multivariate analyses were done on log-linear models for description of association patterns among various categorical variables; a perfectly fitted model should have a correlation value (CV) of 1.0. Results: The mean PSA level was higher in African-Americans (14.68 ng/ml) than in whites (9.82 ng/ml) (p = 0.001). Clinical stage (p = 0.001), Gleason sum tumor grade (p = 0.0001), educational level (p = 0.001), and household income (p = 0.03) were also associated with mean PSA levels; age, type of biopsy, and insurance status were not. Disease stage (p = 0.0001), grade (p 0.0001), education (p = 0.07), and income (p = 0.02) were all associated with PSA levels for whites, but none of these factors were important for African-Americans (all p values > 0.1). The best fitted log-linear model (CV = 0.99) contained PSA ( 20), Gleason sum grade (2-5, 6-7, and 8-10), race, and two interactions: PSA by race (p = 0.0012) and PSA by Gleason sum (p = 0.0001). Models replacing race for either income (CV = 0.82) or education

  19. American marsupials chromosomes: why study them?

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    Marta Svartman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Marsupials, one of the three main groups of mammals, are only found in Australia and in the American continent. Studies performed in Australian marsupials have demonstrated the great potential provided by the group for the understanding of basic genetic mechanisms and chromosome evolution in mammals. Genetic studies in American marsupials are relatively scarce and cytogenetic data of most species are restricted to karyotype descriptions, usually without banding patterns. Nevertheless, the first marsupial genome sequenced was that of Monodelphis domestica, a South American species. The knowledge about mammalian genome evolution and function that resulted from studies on M. domestica is in sharp contrast with the lack of genetic data on most American marsupial species. Here, we present an overview of the chromosome studies performed in marsupials with emphasis on the South American species.

  20. Charting Transnational Native American Studies

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    Hsinya Huang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum entitled "Charting Transnational Native American Studies: Aesthetics, Politics, Identity," edited by Hsinya Huang, Philip J. Deloria, Laura M. Furlan, and John Gamber

  1. Get Set for American Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashbee, Edward

    The transition between school and university is not an easy one. The pace of learning is much faster, the volume of written work increases and all the deadlines seem to come at once. And then there are the exams. 'Get set for American studies'assumes no prior knowledge of the subject. For students...

  2. An Assessment of the Current US Radiation Oncology Workforce: Methodology and Global Results of the American Society for Radiation Oncology 2012 Workforce Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vichare, Anushree; Washington, Raynard; Patton, Caroline; Arnone, Anna [ASTRO, Fairfax, Virginia (United States); Olsen, Christine [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, (United States); Fung, Claire Y. [Commonwealth Newburyport Cancer Center, Newburyport, Massachusetts (United States); Hopkins, Shane [William R. Bliss Cancer Center, Ames, Iowa (United States); Pohar, Surjeet, E-mail: spohar@netzero.net [Indiana University Health Cancer Center East, Indiana University, Indianapolis, Indiana (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the characteristics, needs, and concerns of the current radiation oncology workforce, evaluate best practices and opportunities for improving quality and safety, and assess what we can predict about the future workforce. Methods and Materials: An online survey was distributed to 35,204 respondents from all segments of the radiation oncology workforce, including radiation oncologists, residents, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, medical physicists, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, and practice managers/administrators. The survey was disseminated by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) together with specialty societies representing other workforce segments. An overview of the methods and global results is presented in this paper. Results: A total of 6765 completed surveys were received, a response rate of 19%, and the final analysis included 5257 respondents. Three-quarters of the radiation oncologists, residents, and physicists who responded were male, in contrast to the other segments in which two-thirds or more were female. The majority of respondents (58%) indicated they were hospital-based, whereas 40% practiced in a free-standing/satellite clinic and 2% in another setting. Among the practices represented in the survey, 21.5% were academic, 25.2% were hospital, and 53.3% were private. A perceived oversupply of professionals relative to demand was reported by the physicist, dosimetrist, and radiation therapist segments. An undersupply was perceived by physician's assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses. The supply of radiation oncologists and residents was considered balanced. Conclusions: This survey was unique as it attempted to comprehensively assess the radiation oncology workforce by directly surveying each segment. The results suggest there is potential to improve the diversity of the workforce and optimize the supply of the workforce segments. The survey also provides a benchmark for

  3. An Assessment of the Current US Radiation Oncology Workforce: Methodology and Global Results of the American Society for Radiation Oncology 2012 Workforce Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine the characteristics, needs, and concerns of the current radiation oncology workforce, evaluate best practices and opportunities for improving quality and safety, and assess what we can predict about the future workforce. Methods and Materials: An online survey was distributed to 35,204 respondents from all segments of the radiation oncology workforce, including radiation oncologists, residents, medical dosimetrists, radiation therapists, medical physicists, nurse practitioners, nurses, physician assistants, and practice managers/administrators. The survey was disseminated by the American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) together with specialty societies representing other workforce segments. An overview of the methods and global results is presented in this paper. Results: A total of 6765 completed surveys were received, a response rate of 19%, and the final analysis included 5257 respondents. Three-quarters of the radiation oncologists, residents, and physicists who responded were male, in contrast to the other segments in which two-thirds or more were female. The majority of respondents (58%) indicated they were hospital-based, whereas 40% practiced in a free-standing/satellite clinic and 2% in another setting. Among the practices represented in the survey, 21.5% were academic, 25.2% were hospital, and 53.3% were private. A perceived oversupply of professionals relative to demand was reported by the physicist, dosimetrist, and radiation therapist segments. An undersupply was perceived by physician's assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses. The supply of radiation oncologists and residents was considered balanced. Conclusions: This survey was unique as it attempted to comprehensively assess the radiation oncology workforce by directly surveying each segment. The results suggest there is potential to improve the diversity of the workforce and optimize the supply of the workforce segments. The survey also provides a benchmark for

  4. Factors Associated With Overweight and Obesity Among Mexican Americans and Central Americans: Results From the 2001 California Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice V. Bowie, PhD, MPH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHispanics are the fastest growing demographic group in the United States; however, “Hispanic” is a broad term that describes people who are from or whose ancestors are from multiple countries of origin. This study examines, separately, the social, cultural, and behavioral factors associated with overweight and obesity among Mexican American adults and among Central American adults. MethodsTo estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans living in California, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey using SUDAAN software to account for the survey’s multistage sampling design.ResultsOf the 8304 Mexican Americans participating in the survey, 36.8% were overweight and 26.2% were obese. Of the 1019 Central Americans, 39.2% were overweight and 22.2% were obese. Among Mexican American men, age and marital status were associated with overweight and obesity; and education, acculturation, health insurance status, health status, and use of vitamins were associated with obesity only. Among Mexican American women, age, education, number of children, health status, and health behavior were associated with overweight and obesity. Among Central American men, age, education, and access to health care were associated with overweight, whereas marital status, acculturation, health care, and binge drinking were associated with obesity. Among Central American women, number of children was associated with overweight and obesity; and age and education were associated with obesity only. ConclusionsOur findings of high rates of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans in California indicate the need for a wide variety of effective weight-loss interventions targeting these populations, and the differences we found in the factors associated with overweight and obesity may suggest the need for unique intervention strategies for different

  5. New Directions in (Transnational) American Literature Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Buell, Lawrence

    2009-01-01

    Never has there been a better moment for foreign scholars outside the English-speaking world to engage in American literature studies. American literature studies is increasingly studied worldwide and the contributions of foreign-born and foreign-based Americanists are becoming increasingly influential. This lecture will attempt to explain this turn of events, with special emphasis on analysis of selected newer transnational and comparative approaches to American literature studies. Backgroun...

  6. TEFTOM: A Promising General Trauma Expectation/Outcome Measure—Results of a Validation Study on Pan-American Ankle and Distal Tibia Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suk, Michael; Buckley, Richard E.; Paccola, Cleber A. J.; Lorich, Dean G.; Helfet, David L.; Hanson, Beate

    2013-01-01

    Background. In orthopedics, there is no instrument specifically designed to assess patients' expectations of their final surgery outcome in general trauma populations. We developed the Trauma Expectation Factor Trauma Outcome Measure (TEFTOM) to investigate the fulfilment of patients' expectations one year after surgery as a measure of general trauma surgical outcomes. The aim of this paper was to assess the psychometric characteristics of this new general trauma outcome measure. Methods. The questionnaire was tested in 201 ankle and distal tibia fracture patients scheduled for surgery. Patients were followed up for twelve months. The TEFTOM questionnaire was evaluated for its criterion validity, internal consistency, reproducibility, and responsiveness. Results. TOM showed good criterion validity against the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons Foot and Ankle Scale (Pearson's correlation coefficient = 0.69–0.77). Internal consistency was acceptable for TEF (Cronbach's alpha = 0.65–0.76) and excellent for TOM (Cronbach's alpha = 0.76–0.85). Reproducibility was moderate to very good (intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) ≥0.67) for TEF and very good (ICC ≥0.92) for TOM. TOM also proved to be responsive to changes in patients' condition over time (Wald test; P < 0.001). Conclusions. TEFTOM is a promising tool for measuring general trauma outcomes in terms of patients' expectation fulfilment that proved to be valid, internally consistent, reproducible, and responsive to change. PMID:24967116

  7. American Studies as a Contemporary Disciplinary Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Stipe Grgas

    2014-01-01

    The departure point of this article is that however one conceives the practice of American Studies one has to recognize that it is a disciplinary practice. In accordance with this contention the author proceeds to discuss the notion of the discipline as such before he goes on to ask and answer the question: “How do American Studies constitute themselves?” The author argues that American Studies, like other disciplines, constituted itself by objectifying an exceptional polity. The crux of his ...

  8. American Studies Center:An Introduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu; HONG

    2013-01-01

    <正>The year 2012 was remarkable in the history of American Studies at Sichuan University.First,it marked the 28thAnniversary of the founding of the American Studies Center,which had its official debut in May,1984,coinciding with the establishment of the US Consulate General in Chengdu.U.S.Vice President George Bush was present at the Inauguration Ceremony of the American Studies Center,and

  9. Placing Asterisks: An Approach to American Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Daniel O.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he co-teaches an interdisciplinary American Studies class that fosters inquiry and reflection on the complexity of an authentic telling of US history. With the help of his partner, a social studies teacher, the author designed an American Studies course that aims to reveal to students that America's…

  10. Archipelagic American Studies and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Russell Roberts

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article, as part of the “American Studies: Caribbean Edition” Special Forum, brings specific focus to the ways in which the Caribbean and the field of Caribbean Studies insists upon a version of American Studies that sheds its post-exceptionalist anti-insularity and, in the process, emerges as transregional and archipelagic.

  11. Curriculum Development of International Business with Language Concentration: Results of a Seven-Year Study of an American Business Executive in China

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jinghui

    2012-01-01

    Existing international business with language concentration curriculum research indicates that little is known about perceptions of current international executives who are working in multinational corporations. This article investigates an American international executive’s perceptions of language and cultural barriers in multiple multinational corporations in China. The researcher’s seven-year period of contact with the business executive from 2003 to 2010 led to the collection of multiple ...

  12. First Results From The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z; Bianco, F B; Lehner, M J; Coehlo, N K; Wang, J; Mondal, S; Alcock, C; Axelrod, T; Byun, Y; Chen, W P; Cook, K H; Dave, R; de Pater, I; Porrata, R; Kim, D; King, S; Lee, T; Lin, H; Lissauer, J J; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, S; Wen, C

    2008-08-22

    Results from the first two years of data from the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) are presented. Stars have been monitored photometrically at 4 Hz or 5 Hz to search for occultations by small ({approx}3 km) Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). No statistically significant events were found, allowing us to present an upper bound to the size distribution of KBOs with diameters 0.5 km < D < 28 km.

  13. First Results From The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS)

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Z -W; Lehner, M J; Coehlo, N K; Wang, J -H; Mondal, S; Alcock, C; Axelrod, T; Byun, Y -I; Chen, W -P; Cook, K H; Davé, R; De Pater, I; Porrata, R; Kim, D -W; King, S -K; Lee, T; Lin, H -C; Lissauer, J J; Marshall, S L; Protopapas, P; Rice, J A; Schwamb, M E; Wang, S -Y; Wen, C -Y

    2008-01-01

    Results from the first two years of data from the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) are presented. Stars have been monitored photometrically at 4 Hz or 5 Hz to search for occultations by small (~3 km) Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). No statistically significant events were found, allowing us to present an upper bound to the size distribution of KBOs with diameters 0.5 km < D < 28 km.

  14. Moroccan American Studies: Assets and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed El Amine Moumine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mohamed El Amine Moumine’s essay, published originally in Moroccan American Studies, edited by Mohamed Benzidan (2010, as an account of the development of American Studies in Morocco, is here republished on the heels of a significant international conference held in Marrakesh, Morocco, in December 2012 on the timely topic of the Arab Spring’s impact on the teaching of American Studies in Arab universities. The conference, organized by Professor Moumine and the Moroccan American Studies faculty at Université Hassan II Mohammedia–Casablanca was a continuation of the inaugural Cairo conference in 2004, which Moumine describes as the event that opened discussions among Americanists from the US and Arab countries on the topic of American Studies. Observing that “Morocco was the first nation to recognize the newly sovereign United States in 1777,” Moumine speaks from the perspective of a long-held diplomatic bond between these two nations. Detailing the role of “comparative cultural pedagogy” in Université Hassan II Mohammedia–Casablanca’s Moroccan American Studies programs at both the undergraduate and graduate levels, Moumine’s essay offers an exciting example of transnational American Studies at work.

  15. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say ... 25, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may pose a significant risk to kidney health ...

  16. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say ... 25, 2016 WEDNESDAY, May 25, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Smoking may pose a significant risk to kidney health ...

  17. American marsupials chromosomes: Why study them?

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Svartman

    2009-01-01

    Marsupials, one of the three main groups of mammals, are only found in Australia and in the American continent. Studies performed in Australian marsupials have demonstrated the great potential provided by the group for the understanding of basic genetic mechanisms and chromosome evolution in mammals. Genetic studies in American marsupials are relatively scarce and cytogenetic data of most species are restricted to karyotype descriptions, usually without banding patterns. Nevertheless, the fir...

  18. California Wellness Study: American Indians and Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Hodge, Felicia Schanche; Kotkin-Jaszi, Suzanne T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper identifies the prevalence and predictors of obesity among California’s American Indian adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted at 13 rural sites. Indian healthcare clinics served as the sampling frame and were selected because of their proximity and access to the target population. Four-hundred and fifty adult American Indians participated; 74 percent were female and 26 percent were male. The average age was 40, ranging from 18–74. Measures included socio-demographics, genera...

  19. Variation in the effects of family background and birth region on adult obesity: results of a prospective cohort study of a Great Depression-era American cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hui; Tumin, Dmitry

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies have identified prenatal and early childhood conditions as important contributors to weight status in later life. To date, however, few studies have considered how weight status in adulthood is shaped by regional variation in early-life conditions, rather than the characteristics of the individual or their family. Furthermore, gender and life course differences in the salience of early life conditions to weight status remain unclear. This study investigates whether the effe...

  20. An intercomparison of satellite-derived ground-level NO2 concentrations with GMSMB modeling results and in-situ measurements – A North American study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the biases associated with the ground-level nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations derived from the satellite Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) NO2 data through comparisons with the modeling and the monitoring results for the state of California in 2008. The seasonal and annual average ground-level NO2 concentrations are both analyzed from the OMI using the local NO2 profile obtained from the GEOS-Chem simulation. The OMI-derived ground-level NO2 concentrations are then compared with the NO2 concentrations predicted by a GIS-Based Multi-Source and Multi-Box model (GMSMB) and the in-situ measurements, correlation coefficients among the three sets of results are all above 0.84 with an average slope of 0.81 ± 0.04. Particularly, various biases associated with the three data sets have been analyzed, and the OMI-derived NO2 concentrations and the GMSMB modeling results have been proven to be essential for assessing regional air pollutant exposure risks with the aid of the extensive remote sensing database. -- Highlights: •Satellite remote sensing is applied to monitor NO2 for the state of California. •Seasonal and annual average ground-level NO2 concentrations are derived from OMI data. •The Satellite data are cross-validated with modeling and monitoring results. •Timely satellite geo-spatial NO2 data and modeling help quantifying exposure risks. -- The satellite derived NO2 data are cross-validated with air quality modeling and in-situ measurement results with extended analyses, to help assessing and managing air pollution issues

  1. Factors Associated With Overweight and Obesity Among Mexican Americans and Central Americans: Results From the 2001 California Health Interview Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bowie, Janice V.; Juon, Hee-Soon; Rodriguez, Elisa M.; Cho, Juhee

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Hispanics are the fastest growing demographic group in the United States; however, "Hispanic" is a broad term that describes people who are from or whose ancestors are from multiple countries of origin. This study examines, separately, the social, cultural, and behavioral factors associated with overweight and obesity among Mexican American adults and among Central American adults. Methods To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans li...

  2. The Future of American Indian Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Paul

    2011-01-01

    American Indian studies celebrates forty years at a conference in conjunction with a campuswide effort to recognize the development of interdisciplinary studies programs in the second half of the twentieth century. Interdisciplinary programs (IDPs) are a major aspect of the progress of academics in the United States. The author's point at the…

  3. Comparison of results of Chinese and American forecasting of nursing curriculum needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, D K; Smola, B K; Liu, K H

    1990-11-01

    This study used Mengel's (1987) Round Three Questionnaire results from the Fellows of the American Academy of Nursing and baccalaureate nurse educators of Taiwan to compare perceived importance of nursing curriculum needs. The t-test was used as a test of difference between the two groups. Ninety-nine of 129 items were significantly different (p less than .05). This result showed that the forecasting of nursing curriculum needs between R.O.C. and the U.S. generic baccalaureate nursing faculty are different in many ways; specific content areas, sites for clinical experience, and perceived baccalaureate nursing curriculum needs by the year 1995. R.O.C. nurse educators value more highly than the American group six specific content areas: midwifery, nuclear medicine/nursing, space medicine/nursing, geropsychiatry, critical care nursing, and cardiac rehabilitation. American nurse educators pay more attention to 16 specific content areas: palliative care, family and social support systems for the adult, human responses to actual and potential health problems, alcohol, substance abuse and toxicology, life cycle effects on family dynamics, gerentology, health needs of the adolescent, and increasing patient compliance. The emergency care units are placed higher by the R.O.C. nurse educators than by the American group for clinical experiences. R.O.C. nurse educators rated as more important than the American group the ability to speak a second language, the management of contracted nursing services, entrepreneurial activities, and occupational nursing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2176681

  4. The Pan American Advanced Studies Institute

    CERN Document Server

    Arous, Gérard; Ferrari, Pablo; Newman, Charles; Sidoravicius, Vladas; Vares, Maria

    2014-01-01

    This volume features selected and peer-reviewed articles from the Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute (PASI). The chapters are written by international specialists who participated in the conference. Topics include developments based on breakthroughs in the mathematical understanding of phenomena describing systems in highly inhomogeneous and disordered media, including the KPZ universality class (describing the evolution of interfaces in two dimensions), spin glasses, random walks in random environment, and percolative systems. PASI fosters a collaboration between North American and Latin American researchers and students. The conference that inspired this volume took place in January 2012 in both Santiago de Chile and Buenos Aires. Researchers and graduate students will find timely research in probability theory, statistical physics and related disciplines.

  5. American Studies as a Contemporary Disciplinary Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stipe Grgas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The departure point of this article is that however one conceives the practice of American Studies one has to recognize that it is a disciplinary practice. In accordance with this contention the author proceeds to discuss the notion of the discipline as such before he goes on to ask and answer the question: “How do American Studies constitute themselves?” The author argues that American Studies, like other disciplines, constituted itself by objectifying an exceptional polity. The crux of his argument is that this self-constitution was founded on an act of erasure, whereby the evidence of capitalism was elided from the research agenda of the discipline. Contending that this erasure is paradoxical considering that American Studies has as its object the exemplary capitalist nation, the author proceeds to delineate the reasons for this erasure. He goes on to contend that American Studies was complicit with the capitalist system of production and that one can speak of it as being a part of an ideological apparatus. However, he proceeds by showing that the discipline of American Studies has always had to address the evidence of its object, namely the historical transformations in the United States, which have forced the discipline, at different points of the historical continuum, to revise its protocols and research agenda. In the last part of the article the author maintains that the unfolding economic crisis sets the ground for one such transformation and that the “command of money,” which has been revealed by the crisis, beckons us to undertake a new interdisciplinary networking, this time with economics. In the conclusion of the paper the author argues that the challenges of the present moment force the discipline to attend to postdisciplinary developments which have been proposed as ways with which to address the intractability of the present mutation of capitalism. At the very end of the article the author articulates and identifies the

  6. Experimental Results that Question the Ramirez-Castaneda Model for Teaching Reading to First Grade Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S. Alan; Rodriquez, Samuel

    1980-01-01

    Results of a study conducted with first-grade Mexican American children indicate that direct reading instruction to precise behavioral objectives is more effective than teaching to Mexican American children's supposed "cultural learning styles" as recommended by Manuel Ramirez and Alfredo Castaneda in 1974. (GT)

  7. Studies in american orchids, v

    OpenAIRE

    Garay, Leslie A.

    2012-01-01

    While attending the 3rd World Orchid Conference held in London, England, in May 1960, I had the opportunity to study the orchid collections at the leading European Institutions: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew; British Museum, Natural History Museum, Paris; Delessert Herbarium, Geneva and the Botanical Institute, Madrid. These herbaria contain rich collections of type material many of which represent obscurely known concepts, although they are in an excellent condition for diagnostic purpos...

  8. Redefining the American in Asian American Studies: Transnationalism, Diaspora, and Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanfer Emin Tunc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction to the Special Forum in honor of Sau-ling Wong, entitled "Redefining the American in Asian American Studies: Transnationalism, Diaspora, and Representation," edited by Tanfer Emin Tunc, Elisabetta Marino, and Daniel Y. Kim

  9. American Indian Studies, Multiculturalism, and the Academic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, David L.

    2013-01-01

    The current status of multicultural and diversity efforts suggests the need for incorporating into the discussion of librarianship an understanding of previously underrepresented populations such as the American Indian. American Indian Studies speaks from the American Indian perspective and addresses the contemporary condition of American Indians.…

  10. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  11. First results from the Soviet-American Gallium Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, A.I.; Abdurashitov, D.N.; Anosov, O.L.; Eroshkina, L.A.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mezentseva, S.A.; Mirmov, I.N.; Ostrinsky, A.I.; Petukhov, V.V.; Pshukov, A.M.; Revzin, N.Ye.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zakharov, Yu.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Zhandarov, V.I. (AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij); Bowles, T.J.; Cleveland, B.T.; Elliott, S.R.; O' Brien, H.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia (USA)); Cherry, M.L. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA)); Kouzes, R.T. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The Soviet-American Gallium Experiment is the first experiment able to measure the dominant flux of low energy p-p solar neutrinos. Four extractions made during January to May 1950 from 30 tons of gallium have been counted and indicate that the flux is consistent with 0 SNU and is less than 72 SNU (68% GL) and less than 138 SNU (95% CL). This is to be compared wit h the flux of 132 SNU predicted by the Standard Solar Model. (orig.).

  12. Results from the Soviet-American gallium experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anosov, O.L.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mirmov, I.N.; Ostrinsky, A.V.; Pshukov, A.M.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zatsepin, G.T. [AN SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij; Bowles, T.J.; Elliott, S.R.; Nico, J.S.; O`Brien, H.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Cleveland, B.T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Cherry, M.L. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kouzes, R.T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1992-12-01

    A radiochemical {sup 7l}Ga--{sup 7l}Ge experiment to determine the primary flux of neutrinos from the Sun began measurements of the solar neutrino flux at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory in 1990. The number of {sup 7l}Ge atoms extracted from 30 tons of gallium in 1990 and 57 tons in 1991 was measured in twelve runs during the period of January 1990 to December 1991. For the 1990 data, we observed the capture rate to be 20 + 15/{minus}20 (stat) {plus_minus}32 (syst) SNU, resulting in a limit of less than 79 SNU (90% CL). This is to be compared with 132 SNU predicted by the Standard Solar Model. The 1991 data, taken with 57 tons of gallium, shows a non zero {sup 7l}Ge signal. A final result from the 1990 and 1991 data is still pending completion of studies of possible systematic effects.

  13. American Indian Studies: Intellectual Navel Gazing or Academic Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Clara Sue

    2009-01-01

    The academic field of Native American/American Indian studies (NAS/AIS) has been and largely remains a product of political forces at the national level and now at the tribal level. The very recognition of American Indians as a unique group by the U.S. government is a political statement of survival. In this article, the author revisits the…

  14. Portugal and latin american studies : (1980-2000)

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Jorge Fernandes

    2014-01-01

    The studies on Latin America developed in Portugal in the last 20 years have basically focused on the traditional geographical area of Brazil as a consequence of the strong historical ties between the two countries which have strong cultural and economic relations and share Portuguese as their official language. As a result, the number of studies produced on the other Latin American countries is much less in spite of the fact that Portugal has important emigrant communities in countries such ...

  15. Study on Chinese and American Compliments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨东英; 刘宝昌

    2006-01-01

    Chinese and Americans have different cultural background. They value different principles in expressing compliments and respond to them. Chinese tend to be self-denial to show modesty. Americans have a tendency of self-praising to demonstrate their confidence. Based on Leech's politeness principle, the paper analyzes typical instances. In conclusion, as language learner, we should aware it and prepare to be bicultural instead of bilingual. As a Chinese, we should keep our own culture identity instead of Americanized.

  16. 2009 South American benchmarking study: natural gas transportation companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Nathalie [Gas TransBoliviano S.A. (Bolivia); Walter, Juliana S. [TRANSPETRO, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    In the current business environment large corporations are constantly seeking to adapt their strategies. Benchmarking is an important tool for continuous improvement and decision-making. Benchmarking is a methodology that determines which aspects are the most important to be improved upon, and it proposes establishing a competitive parameter in an analysis of the best practices and processes, applying continuous improvement driven by the best organizations in their class. At the beginning of 2008, GTB (Gas TransBoliviano S.A.) contacted several South American gas transportation companies to carry out a regional benchmarking study in 2009. In this study, the key performance indicators of the South American companies, whose reality is similar, for example, in terms of prices, availability of labor, and community relations, will be compared. Within this context, a comparative study of the results, the comparative evaluation among natural gas transportation companies, is becoming an essential management instrument to help with decision-making. (author)

  17. Results from the Soviet-American gallium experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, A.I.; Anosov, O.L.; Faizov, E.L.; Gavrin, V.N.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Knodel, T.V.; Knyshenko, I.I.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Mezentseva, S.A.; Mirmov, I.N.; Ostrinsky, A.V.; Pshukov, A.M.; Revzin, N.E.; Shikhin, A.A.; Timofeyev, P.V.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Zatsepin, G.T. [AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij; Bowles, T.J.; Cleveland, B.T.; Elliott, S.R.; O`Brien, H.A.; Wark, D.L.; Wilkerson, J.F. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Davis, R. Jr.; Lande, K. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Cherry, M.L. [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States); Kouzes, R.T. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1991-12-31

    A radiochemical {sup 71}Ga-{sup 71}Ge experiment to determine the primary flux of neutrinos from the Sun has begun operation at the Baksan Neutrino Observatory. The number of {sup 71}Ge atoms extracted from thirty tons of gallium was measured in five runs during the period of January to July 1990. Assuming that the extraction efficiency for {sup 71}Ge atoms produced by solar neutrinos is the same as from natural Ge carrier, we observed the capture rate to be 20 + 15/{minus}20 (stat) {plus_minus} 32 (syst) SNU, resulting in a limit of less than 79 SNU (90% CL). This is to be compared with 132 SNU predicted by the Standard Solar Model.

  18. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, L. E.; Casas, J. P.; Herrera, V. M.; Miranda, J. J.; Perel, P.; Pichardo, R.; González, A.; Sanchez, J. R.; Ferreccio, C.; Aguilera, X.; Silva, E.; Oróstegui, M.; Gómez, L. F.; Chirinos, J. A.; Medina-Lezama, J.; Pérez, C. M.; Suárez, E.; Ortiz, A. P.; Rosero, L.; Schapochnik, N.; Ortiz, Z.; Ferrante, D.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Current, high-quality data are needed to evaluate the health impact of the epidemic of obesity in Latin America. The Latin American Consortium of Studies of Obesity (LASO) has been established, with the objectives of (i) Accurately estimating the prevalence of obesity and its distribution by sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) Identifying ethnic, socioeconomic and behavioural determinants of obesity; (iii) Estimating the association between various anthropometric indicators or obesity and major cardiovascular risk factors and (iv) Quantifying the validity of standard definitions of the various indexes of obesity in Latin American population. To achieve these objectives, LASO makes use of individual data from existing studies. To date, the LASO consortium includes data from 11 studies from eight countries (Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Peru, Puerto Rico and Venezuela), including a total of 32 462 subjects. This article describes the overall organization of LASO, the individual studies involved and the overall strategy for data analysis. LASO will foster the development of collaborative obesity research among Latin American investigators. More important, results from LASO will be instrumental to inform health policies aiming to curtail the epidemic of obesity in the region. PMID:19438980

  19. The Chinese American Eye Study: Design and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Rohit; Hsu, Chunyi; Wang, Dandan; Torres, Mina; Azen, Stanley P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To summarize the study design, operational strategies and procedures of the Chinese American Eye Study (CHES), a population-based assessment of the prevalence of visual impairment, ocular disease, and visual functioning in Chinese Americans. Methods This population-based, cross-sectional study, included 4,570 Chinese, 50 years and older, residing in the city of Monterey Park, California. Each eligible participant completed a detailed interview and eye examination. The interview included an assessment of demographic, behavioral, and ocular risk factors and health-related and vision-related quality of life. The eye examination included measurements of visual acuity, intraocular pressure, visual fields, fundus and optic disc photography, a detailed anterior and posterior segment examination, and measurements of blood pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and blood glucose levels. Results The objectives of the CHES are to obtain prevalence estimates of visual impairment, refractive error, diabetic retinopathy, open-angle and angle-closure glaucoma, lens opacities, and age-related macular degeneration in Chinese-Americans. In addition, outcomes include effect estimates for risk factors associated with eye diseases. Lastly, CHES will investigate the genetic determinates of myopia and glaucoma. Conclusion The CHES will provide information about the prevalence and risk factors of ocular diseases in one of the fastest growing minority groups in the United States. PMID:24044409

  20. American College Students Studying Abroad in China: Language, Identity, and Self-Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hang

    2015-01-01

    This article reports the results of qualitative analyses of data drawn from monthly informal individual interviews of 29 American college students who were spending one semester studying Mandarin Chinese abroad in a program in China. While some data confirm previous findings that some students' identification as Americans was strengthened during…

  1. Theory and the Subject of Asian American Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo-Liu, David

    1995-01-01

    Addresses how significant the theoretical debates in the humanities and social sciences are for Asian American and ethnic studies and whether theory can be borrowed and applied to Asian American subjects or whether these subjects are too distinctive. The author discusses the intellectual and ideological consequences in deploying postcolonial and…

  2. Native American Career Education Project. State of the Art Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaulis, Saundra; And Others

    One of three major products (state of the art study, curriculum guide, and twelve instructional units) of the Native American Career Education (NACE) project, this report contains a review of current career education literature and materials which provide information or models useful in developing career education for Native American students. In…

  3. Management Studies, Cultural Criticism and American Dreams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guthey, Eric

    2005-01-01

    The article reviews three books related to industrial management, including "False Prophets: The Gurus Who Created Modern Management and Why Their Ideas Are Bad for Business Today," by James Hoopes, "Organization and Innovation: Guru Schemes and American Dreams," by David Knights and Darren Mc...

  4. Learning Science by Studying Native American Pottery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zastrow, Leona M.

    Principles of science and art are found in all phases of daily life. This book helps teachers and students in grades 7 and 8 discover specific scientific information as they experience "making pottery" using Native American pottery techniques. Lessons are built upon discover techniques--observation followed by conclusion--and begin with hands-on…

  5. Asian Americans: A Study Guide and Sourcebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Lynn P.

    One in a series of four, this volume deals with the themes of identity, conflict, and integration/nationalism with a focus on Chinese and Japanese immigrants and their descendants in mainland America. Hawaiian Americans are treated incidentally. Each volume in the series can serve in itself as a text or guide for the student or teacher of a…

  6. A systematic mapping approach of 16q12.2/FTO and BMI in more than 20,000 African Americans narrows in on the underlying functional variation: results from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Peters

    Full Text Available Genetic variants in intron 1 of the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO gene have been consistently associated with body mass index (BMI in Europeans. However, follow-up studies in African Americans (AA have shown no support for some of the most consistently BMI-associated FTO index single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. This is most likely explained by different race-specific linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns and lower correlation overall in AA, which provides the opportunity to fine-map this region and narrow in on the functional variant. To comprehensively explore the 16q12.2/FTO locus and to search for second independent signals in the broader region, we fine-mapped a 646-kb region, encompassing the large FTO gene and the flanking gene RPGRIP1L by investigating a total of 3,756 variants (1,529 genotyped and 2,227 imputed variants in 20,488 AAs across five studies. We observed associations between BMI and variants in the known FTO intron 1 locus: the SNP with the most significant p-value, rs56137030 (8.3 × 10(-6 had not been highlighted in previous studies. While rs56137030was correlated at r(2>0.5 with 103 SNPs in Europeans (including the GWAS index SNPs, this number was reduced to 28 SNPs in AA. Among rs56137030 and the 28 correlated SNPs, six were located within candidate intronic regulatory elements, including rs1421085, for which we predicted allele-specific binding affinity for the transcription factor CUX1, which has recently been implicated in the regulation of FTO. We did not find strong evidence for a second independent signal in the broader region. In summary, this large fine-mapping study in AA has substantially reduced the number of common alleles that are likely to be functional candidates of the known FTO locus. Importantly our study demonstrated that comprehensive fine-mapping in AA provides a powerful approach to narrow in on the functional candidate(s underlying the initial GWAS findings in European populations.

  7. Friendship in Latin American Social Comparative Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Agnaldo Garcia; Julia Sursis Nobre Ferro Bucher-Maluschke; Daniela Marisol Pérez-Angarita; Fábio Nogueira Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Friendship has been traditionally investigated in the field of interpersonal relationships using different theoretical frameworks and approaches. This paper discusses the possibility of investigating friendship from a comparative Latin American perspective, based on a wide literature review on the subject. Based on the theoretical proposals of Hinde (1997) for the investigation of interpersonal relationships, the paper considers that friendship involves several levels of complexity and affect...

  8. Parenting in 2 Worlds: Pilot Results from a Culturally Adapted Parenting Program for Urban American Indians

    OpenAIRE

    Kulis, Stephen; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Baker, Tahnee

    2015-01-01

    This study reports the implementation and feasibility of a culturally adapted parenting curriculum, Parenting in 2 Worlds (P2W), which we designed specifically for urban American Indian families by means of community-based participatory research and then pilot tested in three Arizona cities. Data come from matched pre- and post-test surveys completed in 2012 by 75 American Indian parents of adolescents aged 10–17 who participated in the pilot version of P2W. P2W is a 10-workshop program admin...

  9. Results of interferon-based treatments in Alaska Native and American Indian population with chronic hepatitis C

    OpenAIRE

    Livingston, Stephen E; Bruden, Dana J. T.; Townshend-Bulson, Lisa J.; Chriss E. Homan; Gove, James E.; Plotnik, Julia N.; Spradling, Philip R.; McMahon, Brian J.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. There have been few reports of hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment results with interferon-based regimens in indigenous populations.Objective. To determine interferon-based treatment outcome among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI) population.Design. In an outcomes study of 1,379 AN/AI persons with chronic HCV infection from 1995 through 2013, we examined treatment results of 189 persons treated with standard interferon, interferon plus ribavirin, pegylated interferon plus ri...

  10. American preferences for “smart” guns versus traditional weapons: Results from a nationwide survey

    OpenAIRE

    Wallace, Lacey Nicole

    2016-01-01

    This study examines Americans' preferences regarding smart guns. The study builds on prior research by including previously unexamined factors, specifically victimization and comfort sharing gun ownership status with a doctor. Further, this study examines differences in preference patterns among gun owners and non-owners. Data were obtained from a nationwide online survey with 524 respondents in February 2016. The study finds that, among non-owners, older respondents and those with pro-gun at...

  11. Intervention with African American Premature Infants: Four-Month Results of an Early Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.; Viscardi, Rose; Glass, Penny; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Baker, Linda; Cusson, Regina; Reiner Hess, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of an early intervention program targeting African American mothers and their premature, low birth weight infants at 3 to 4 months' corrected age from four neonatal intensive care units, 173 families are recruited (84 intervention, 89 control). The 8-session, 20-week intervention consists of a psychoeducational…

  12. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: Cultural adaptations and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nangel M.; Stevens, Victor J.; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. Methods This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Results Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62% and 50% respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 kg and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 kg/m2 and 5.5 kg/m2 from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. Discussion This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women. PMID:22460538

  13. On the complementary presentation of results of risk studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation of the loss of years of life provides the opportunity to illustrate in complementary way the mortality risks evaluated as part of risk studies. As phase A of the DRS (German risk study nuclear power plants) bears upon the results of the American ''Reactor Safety Study'' (WASH 1400) it does not contain that factor of failure which has only been determined in subsequent studies. Phase B intends to present the results of risk assessments increasingly in form of abridged lifetime. (orig.)

  14. (North American Studies in Spain: between eclecticism and politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Collado Rodríguez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the Spanish university system does not offer any specific place for American Studies. In practical terms, this means that there is not such a thing as a degree in (North American Studies for undergraduate students. The study of the history and culture of the United States of America is mostly disseminated all over the country in a number of departments of English, English—and English literature—still being the main subject of study in the only BA degree somehow related to our fie...

  15. The Study of American Literature: "Go West,Young Man"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    After some background history of literacy and literacy study in America, the author comments on the current state of the schoolarly study of American literature, including some remarks about where the study of literature seems to be going and the most promsing approaches to take.

  16. The Policy Views of American Economic Association Members: The Results of a New Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Whaples

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a 2007 policy-views survey of a random sample of members of the American Economic Association. The new survey contains questions about many policy issues not treated by previous surveys. The questions treat such issues as trade restrictions, social insurance for those put out of work by international competition, genetically modified foods, curbside recycling, health insurance (several questions), medical malpractice, barriers to entering the medical profe...

  17. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  18. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. RESULTS OF SUPPLEMENTAL MST STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T; David Hobbs, D; Samuel Fink, S

    2006-07-24

    The current design of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) includes an auxiliary facility, the Actinide Finishing Facility, which provides a second contact of monosodium titanate (MST) to remove soluble actinides and strontium from waste if needed. This treatment will occur after cesium removal by Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX). Although the process changes and safety basis implications have not yet been analyzed, provisions also exist to recover the MST from this operation and return to the initial actinide removal step in the SWPF for an additional (third) contact with fresh waste. A U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) request identified the need to study the following issues involving this application of MST: Determine the effect of organics from the solvent extraction (CSSX) process on radionuclide sorption by MST; Determine the efficiency of re-using MST for multiple contacts; and Examine fissile loading on MST under conditions using a waste containing significantly elevated concentrations of plutonium, uranium, neptunium, and strontium. This report describes the results of three experimental studies conducted to address these needs: (1) Addition of high concentrations of entrained CSSX solvent had no noticeable effect, over a two week period, on the sorption of the actinides and strontium by MST in a direct comparison experiment. (2) Test results show that MST still retains appreciable capacity after being used once. For instance, reused MST--in the presence of entrained solvent--continued to sorb actinides and strontium. (3) A single batch of MST was used to sequentially contact five volumes of a simulant solution containing elevated concentrations of the radionuclides of interest. After the five contacts, we measured the following solution actinide loadings on the MST: plutonium: 0.884 {+-} 0.00539 wt % or (1.02 {+-} 0.0112) E+04 {micro}g/g MST, uranium: 12.1 {+-} 0.786 wt % or (1.40 {+-} 0.104) E+05 {micro}g/g MST, and neptunium: 0.426 {+-} 0

  1. PUBLIC PERCEPTIONS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: A NATIONAL STUDY OF AMERICAN KNOWLEDGE AND OPINION

    OpenAIRE

    Hallman, William K.; Hebden, W. Carl; Aquino, Helen L.; Cuite, Cara L.; Lang, John T.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents the results from the second phase of a longitudinal study of Americans' knowledge and feelings about agricultural biotechnology and how those perceptions and attitudes have changed over time. Two independent national probability samples of 1,200 adults were interviewed by phone in the spring of 2001 and 2003. While this report focuses on the findings from 2003, longitudinal comparisons are presented where appropriate. The report begins with an investigation of Americans' ...

  2. Insomnia Symptoms and Cardiovascular Disease among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study

    OpenAIRE

    Charumathi Sabanayagam; Anoop Shankar; Dedra Buchwald; R. Turner Goins

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among American Indians. It is not known if symptoms of insomnia are associated with CVD in this population. Methods. We examined 449 American Indians aged ≥55 years from the Native Elder Care Study. The main outcome-of-interest was self-reported CVD. Results. Short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep were positively associated with CVD after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and clinic...

  3. Directions in german american studies: the challenge of the "New Historicism"

    OpenAIRE

    Ziegler, Heide

    1990-01-01

    The object of American Studies, the culture and civilization of the United States, is, paradoxically, no longer restricted to the United States as subject matter. Instead, American texts must be seen more and more as overarching cultural texts. Second, any method indebted to the New Historicism must itself be put in historical perspective, reflecting the fact that it is usable but uncertain in its results. Interest largely seems to supplant the search for truth. Yet since this interest must b...

  4. American Music Immersion: Influencing Factors and Its Impact on Taiwanese EFL Learners Engaged in Web-Based, Multimedia Music Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Robert; Chuang, Yuangshan; Liao, Chao-chih

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that influence American music immersion (AMI) in Taiwanese English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners and to determine if AMI is a predictor of vocabulary acquisition and American lifestyle literacy improvement during online, multimedia music study. The results of this study suggest that…

  5. Design, recruitment, and retention of African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayo Matthew S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African-Americans remain underrepresented in clinical research despite experiencing a higher burden of disease compared to all other ethnic groups in the United States. The purpose of this article is to describe the study design and discuss strategies used to recruit and retain African-American smokers in a pharmacokinetic study. Methods The parent study was designed to evaluate the differences in the steady-state concentrations of bupropion and its three principal metabolites between African-American menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers. Study participation consisted of four visits at a General Clinical Research Center (GCRC over six weeks. After meeting telephone eligibility requirements, phone-eligible participants underwent additional screening during the first two GCRC visits. The last two visits (pharmacokinetic study phase required repeated blood draws using an intravenous catheter over the course of 12 hours. Results Five hundred and fifteen African-American smokers completed telephone screening; 187 were phone-eligible and 92 were scheduled for the first GCRC visit. Of the 81 who attended the first visit, 48 individuals were enrolled in the pharmacokinetic study, and a total of 40 individuals completed the study (83% retention rate. Conclusions Although recruitment of African-American smokers into a non-treatment, pharmacokinetic study poses challenges, retention is feasible. The results provide valuable information for investigators embarking on non-treatment laboratory-based studies among minority populations.

  6. Learning Achievement Packages. Mexican American Studies, English-Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astacio, Ramon; Iruegas, Efrain

    Developed originally for grades 7-12, the three bilingual Mexican American studies curriculum units on the pre-Hispanic cultures of the Olmecs, Mayas, and Aztecs present information for the teacher and for the student, a glossary, worksheets, an answer key, a test, and a bibliography in Spanish and English. The cross section of materials are…

  7. Results of a prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Weblus, Anna Julka

    2010-01-01

    Listening to music can influence body and mind. But whether aspects of quality of life during the beginning of a systemic cytostatic chemotherapy of women with gynecologic malignancies can be influenced by listening to Mozart or relaxation music is being investigated in this study for the first time. For this purpose 61 women with a malignant tumor of the breast, the ovaries, the cervix, the endometrium or the tubes, in need of a cytostatic chemotherapy, have been investigated during the firs...

  8. Evaluation of diagnostic radiology services in five Latin American countries: Results for mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under the auspices of PAHO/WHO, a multicentric investigation is carried out in five Latin American countries. Its aim is to correlate quality indicators of radiology services with the accuracy of the radiological interpretation as determined by a panel of experts. We present preliminary results from mammographic imaging facilities, which indicate that the failure to comply with the international standards of quality control produces images of unacceptable quality, as measured either by using a phantom or by an independent evaluation of the clinical images. (author)

  9. Native American Student Participation in Study Abroad: An Exploratory Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanger, Stephen P.; Minthorn, Robin Starr; Weinland, Kathryn A.; Appleman, Boomer; James, Michael; Arnold, Allen

    2012-01-01

    This exploratory case study examines the participation of Native American students in study abroad and institutional policies and practices that either impede or enhance participation. The study surveys all Native students enrolled at the American university that produces the most Native graduates with bachelor's degrees. Although Native students…

  10. Infant-feeding practices and American Indian infants' gut microbiome: Rationale of the pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamor-Kapoor, Anna; Sinclair, Ka'imi

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between infant-feeding practices and American Indian infants' gut microbiome--laying the foundation of a research program aimed at identifying potential aetiologies of childhood obesity in this population. Previous studies have emphasised the high prevalence of obesity in American Indian infants, but its underlying causes remain unclear. We received funding from the University of Washington to examine attitudes towards breastfeeding and formula feeding in American Indian mothers, their dietary and physical activity habits and the yield, quality and diversity of their infants' gut microbiome. Our study combines the strengths of qualitative and quantitative data with DNA sequencing. Results will be used to propose a larger study aimed at clarifying aetiologies of childhood obesity in this population and to identify prevention strategies. This protocol describes the theoretical basis of the study, rationale for the target population, study design, participant recruitment and data analysis plan. PMID:27188076

  11. Skylab experiment results: Hematology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, S. L.; Ritzmann, S. E.; Mengel, C. E.; Fischer, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate specific aspects of man's immunologic and hematologic systems that might be altered by or respond to the space flight environment. Biochemical functions investigated included cytogenetic damage to blood cells, immune resistance to disease, regulation of plasma and red cell volumes, metabolic processes of the red blood cell, and physicochemical aspects of red blood cell function. Measurements of hematocrit value showed significant fluctuations postflight, reflecting observed changes in red cell mass and plasma volume. The capacity of lymphocytes to respond to an in vitro mitogenic challenge was repressed postflight, and appeared to be related to mission duration. Most other deviations from earth function in these systems were minor or transient.

  12. Housing the "Other" Half: American Studies' Global Urban Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Faflik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Over the course of its short lifetime, the discipline of American studies has utilized a series of self-defining metaphors. With each successive paradigm shift in the field, each of these disciplinary figures, in turn, has been found wanting, and so replaced. American studies’ current, if not consensual, metaphor—the “border”—resembles not a few of its predecessors in that it is spatial in nature and effectively doubles as a figuration of the greater nation. The premise of this paper is that the “border,” like the figures that came before it, has outlived its serviceable purpose for a discipline that continues to evolve.

    This essay proposes the global city, or, more accurately, the global slum, as a post-“border” metaphor peculiarly adapted to the principled transnationalism that now defines American studies for many subscribing students and professionals. On the one hand, the urban has become a prevailing demographic fact in this, the new century. Thus, the multiethnic, multinational world metropolis recommends itself as a more-than-metaphor for the dynamic cultural contact that typifies ascendant hemispheric conceptions of the Americas. On the other hand, the figure of the peripheral city similarly, and spatially, evokes the majority “center” and minority “margin” model of American studies that critics would claim inhibits total global integration among the discipline’s geoculturally diverse practitioners, many of whom reside outside the continental United States. This essay conceptually deploys the world city to explore beyond these professional/territorial “borders.” Its three condensed case studies—first, of Gilded Age Manhattan, second, of the modern Turkish metropolis, and third, of a reunified Germany’s ethnic ghetto—constitute a brisk figurative exercise in “marginal” urban migration, wherein resides an alternate model, and metaphor, of American studies praxis today.

  13. Housing the "Other" Half: American Studies' Global Urban Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Faflik

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the course of its short lifetime, the discipline of American studies has utilized a series of self-defining metaphors. With each successive paradigm shift in the field, each of these disciplinary figures, in turn, has been found wanting, and so replaced. American studies’ current, if not consensual, metaphor—the “border”—resembles not a few of its predecessors in that it is spatial in nature and effectively doubles as a figuration of the greater nation. The premise of this paper is that the “border,” like the figures that came before it, has outlived its serviceable purpose for a discipline that continues to evolve. This essay proposes the global city, or, more accurately, the global slum, as a post-“border” metaphor peculiarly adapted to the principled transnationalism that now defines American studies for many subscribing students and professionals. On the one hand, the urban has become a prevailing demographic fact in this, the new century. Thus, the multiethnic, multinational world metropolis recommends itself as a more-than-metaphor for the dynamic cultural contact that typifies ascendant hemispheric conceptions of the Americas. On the other hand, the figure of the peripheral city similarly, and spatially, evokes the majority “center” and minority “margin” model of American studies that critics would claim inhibits total global integration among the discipline’s geoculturally diverse practitioners, many of whom reside outside the continental United States. This essay conceptually deploys the world city to explore beyond these professional/territorial “borders.” Its three condensed case studies—first, of Gilded Age Manhattan, second, of the modern Turkish metropolis, and third, of a reunified Germany’s ethnic ghetto—constitute a brisk figurative exercise in “marginal” urban migration, wherein resides an alternate model, and metaphor, of American studies praxis today.

  14. Borderless STEM education: A study of both American students and foreign students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Kiriko

    This study explores the current status of borderless education in STEM through surveys of two populations of STEM students: American students who studied abroad and foreign students who were studying in the U.S. It was undertaken in response to the U.S. government's desires to strengthen STEM education and to develop American students' global competencies. The purpose was to understand how international experiences can be enhanced in order to increase American STEM students' interest in study abroad programs and in earning advanced STEM degrees and to understand how to attract more foreign STEM students to study in the United States. Issues of particular focus were: the impacts of gender, race/ethnicity, and nationality on STEM students' motivation to participate in, and responses to study abroad programs, and the value of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in borderless STEM education. Several different forms of multivariate analyses were performed on data from surveys at seven public and private colleges and universities in the Southern California area. The results indicated that among American students, greater value was placed on social and cultural experiences gained through studying abroad. In contrast, among foreign students greater value was placed on enhancement of their academic and professional development opportunities. American students whose study abroad included research experiences had a greater interest in international research and teaching in the future. Foreign graduate students majoring in computer science, engineering and biology are the most likely to seek opportunities to study and work in the US. Finally, ICTs were valued by American students as platforms for social interactions and by foreign students for facilitating professional networks. The analyses lead to several recommendations, including: STEM faculty should be made aware of the critical importance of their advising and mentoring in motivating students to choose to

  15. Protracted results of dose-intensive therapy using cyclophosphamide, carmustine, and continuous infusion etoposide with autologous stem cell support in patients with relapse or refractory Hodgkin's disease: a phase II study from the North American Marrow Transplant Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, D R; Wolff, S N; Fay, J W; Brown, R A; Lynch, J P; Bolwell, B J; Stevens, D A; Goodman, S A; Greer, J P; Stein, R S; Pineiro, L A; Collins, R H; Goldsmith, L J; Herzig, G P; Herzig, R H

    1999-09-01

    To determine the long-term results of high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell support in relapsed or primary refractory Hodgkin disease patients. One hundred and thirty-one patients with relapsed or primary refractory Hodgkin's disease were treated with a dose-intensive therapy protocol consisting of etoposide (2400 mg/m2 continuous intravenous infusion) cyclophosphamide (7200 mg/m2 intravenously), and carmustine (300-600 mg/m2 intravenously) CBVi. All patients had previously failed conventional chemoradiotherapy. Severe toxicities were related to infectious, hepatic, and pulmonary complications. Fatal, regimen-related toxicity was 19%; liver and lung dysfunction, as well as infection, were the most frequent problems. Ninety-one (69%) of the patients achieved a complete response (CR) (95% CI = 59% to 75%) after CBVi and autologous stem cell infusion. With a median follow-up of 5.1 years (range 3.0 to 9.5 years), overall and event-free survival are 44% (95% CI = 33% to 47%) and 38% (95% CI = 28% to 46%) respectively. While univariate analysis did not reveal a statistically significant variable to predict a better response, responsiveness to therapy demonstrated a trend. We conclude that CBVi is an effective therapy for relapsed or refractory Hodgkin's disease, producing long-term, durable remissions. PMID:10512166

  16. Preliminary results from the Russian-American gallium experiment Cr-neutrino source measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S.R.; Abdurashitov, J.N.; Bowles, T.J.; Cherry, M.L.; Cleveland, B.T.; Daily, T.; Davis, R. Jr.; Gavrin, V.N.; Girin, S.V.; Gorbatchev, V.V.; Gusev, A.O.; Kalikhov, A.V.; Khairnasov, N.G.; Karaulov, V.N.; Knodel, T.V.; Kornoukhov, V.N.; Khomyakov, Yu.S.; Lande, K.; Lee, C.K.; Levitin, V.L.; Maev, V.I.; Mirmov, I.N.; Nazarenko, P.I.; Nico, J.S.; Pshukov, A.M.; Shalagin, A.M.; Shikhin, A.A.; Shkol`nik, V.S.; Skorikov, N.V.; Teasdale, W.A.; Veretenkin, E.P.; Vermul, V.M.; Wark, D.L.; Wildenhain, P.W.; Wilkerson, J.F.; Yants, V.; Zatsepin, G.T.; Zvonarev, A.V. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)]|[Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 1173122 (Russian Federation)]|[Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]|[Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States)]|[University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)]|[Mangyshlak Atomic Energy Complex, Aktau (Kazakhstan)]|[Power Physics Institute, Obninsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-05-01

    The Russian-American Gallium Experiment has been collecting solar neutrino data since early 1990. The flux measurement of solar neutrinos is well below that expected from solar models. We discuss the initial results of a measurement of experimental efficiencies by exposing the gallium target to neutrinos from an artificial source. The capture rate of neutrinos from this source is very close to that which is expected. The result can be expressed as a ratio of the measured capture rate to the anticipated rate from the source activity. This ratio is 0.93 +0.15, -0.17 where the systematic and statistical errors have been combined. To first order the experimental efficiencies are in agreement with those determined during solar neutrino measurements and in previous auxiliary measurements. One must conclude that the discrepancy between the measured solar neutrino flux and that predicted by the solar models can not arise from an experimental artifact. (orig.).

  17. Recruiting intergenerational African American males for biomedical research Studies: a major research challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Goldie S; Edwards, Christopher L; Kelkar, Vinaya A; Phillips, Ruth G; Byrd, Jennifer R; Pim-Pong, Dora Som; Starks, Takiyah D; Taylor, Ashleigh L; Mckinley, Raechel E; Li, Yi-Ju; Pericak-Vance, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    The health and well-being of all individuals, independent of race, ethnicity, or gender, is a significant public health concern. Despite many improvements in the status of minority health, African American males continue to have the highest age-adjusted mortality rate of any race-sex group in the United States. Such disparities are accounted for by deaths from a number of diseases such as diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as by many historical and present social and cultural constructs that present as obstacles to better health outcomes. Distrust of the medical community, inadequate education, low socioeconomic status, social deprivation, and underutilized primary health care services all contribute to disproportionate health and health care outcomes among African Americans compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Results of clinical research on diseases that disproportionately affect African American males are often limited in their reliability due to common sampling errors existing in the majority of biomedical research studies and clinical trials. There are many reasons for underrepresentation of African American males in clinical trials, including their common recollection and interpretation of relevant historical of biomedical events where minorities were abused or exposed to racial discrimination or racist provocation. In addition, African American males continue to be less educated and more disenfranchised from the majority in society than Caucasian males and females and their African American female counterparts. As such, understanding their perceptions, even in early developmental years, about health and obstacles to involvement in research is important. In an effort to understand perspectives about their level of participation, motivation for participation, impact of education, and engagement in research, this study was designed to explore factors that impact their willingness to participate. Our

  18. The Latin American Consortium of Studies in Obesity (LASO)

    OpenAIRE

    Bautista, L. E.; Casas, J.P.; Herrera, V. M.; Miranda, J.J.; Perel, P; Pichardo, R; González, A.; Sanchez, J R; Ferreccio, C.; Aguilera, X; Silva, E; Oróstegui, M; Gómez, L. F.; Chirinos, J. A.; Medina-Lezama, J.

    2009-01-01

    Current, high-quality data are needed to evaluate the health impact of the epidemic of obesity in Latin America. The Latin American Consortium of Studies of Obesity (LASO) has been established, with the objectives of (i) Accurately estimating the prevalence of obesity and its distribution by sociodemographic characteristics; (ii) Identifying ethnic, socioeconomic and behavioural determinants of obesity; (iii) Estimating the association between various anthropometric indicators or obesity and ...

  19. A Comparative Study of Chinese and American Ways of Address

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2009-01-01

    From a cross-cultural pragmatic perspective,this paper nakes a comparative study on American and Chinese ways of address,and finds that due to different cultural values,languages differ in the actual realization of address strategies and modifications,which leads to varied interactional styles,and thus holds that there exist distinctive cultural differences in the interactional styles of verbal behaviors,which challenges the universality of pragmatic rules among different languages and cultures.

  20. Correlates of Polyvictimization Among African American Youth: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaesser, Caitlin M; Voisin, Dexter R

    2015-10-01

    African American adolescents are exposed to high rates of community violence, and recent evidence indicates that these youth may also be at high risk of polyvictimization. Guided by an ecological approach, this study explored individual, familial, and extra-familial correlates of single and multiple forms of violence exposures (i.e., witnessing verbal parental aggression, witnessing or being a victim of community violence exposures) among a sample of 563 urban African American adolescents. Findings indicated that boys reported higher levels of polyvictimization than girls. In addition, the correlates of violence exposures varied by typology and gender. These findings support the development and use of gender-oriented approaches for identifying youth at risk of various types of violence exposures. PMID:25392381

  1. UNDERSTANDING THE BREAST CANCER EXPERIENCE OF WOMEN: A QUALITATIVE STUDY OF AFRICAN AMERICAN, ASIAN AMERICAN, LATINA AND CAUCASIAN CANCER SURVIVORS

    OpenAIRE

    Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin Tam; PADILLA, GERALDINE; TEJERO, JUDITH; KRAEMER, JANET; Wright, Karen; Coscarelli, Anne; Clayton, Sheila; WILLIAMS, IMANI; HILLS, DAWN

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common form of cancer in American women across most ethnic groups. Although the psychosocial impact of breast cancer is being studied, there is little information on women from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds.

  2. Generational differences in fast food intake among South-Asian Americans: results from a population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Monideepa B; Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to improve dietary outcomes among this fast-growing ethnic population in the United States. PMID:25474383

  3. Generational Differences in Fast Food Intake Among South-Asian Americans: Results From a Population-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra, Monideepa B.; Herring, Patti; Marshak, Helen Hopp; Banta, Jim E.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the association between generational status and fast food consumption among South-Asian Americans. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011. After adjusting for control variables, South-Asian Americans of the third generation or more had a fast food intake rate per week 2.22 times greater than first generation South-Asian Americans. Public health practitioners must focus on ways to imp...

  4. Geography's American Constituency: Results from the AGS Geographic Knowledge and Values Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, Stephanie L.; Dobson, Jerome E.; Wood, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    Does geography have an American constituency? Setbacks for the discipline at all levels of education over the past 65 years would suggest that geography is universally unpopular in the United States, but is that really true? The American Geographical Society (AGS) polled adult US residents on their understanding of the discipline itself and…

  5. American preferences for "smart" guns versus traditional weapons: Results from a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Lacey Nicole

    2016-12-01

    This study examines Americans' preferences regarding smart guns. The study builds on prior research by including previously unexamined factors, specifically victimization and comfort sharing gun ownership status with a doctor. Further, this study examines differences in preference patterns among gun owners and non-owners. Data were obtained from a nationwide online survey with 524 respondents in February 2016. The study finds that, among non-owners, older respondents and those with pro-gun attitudes are less likely to prefer smart guns to traditional firearms. Among gun owners, those with moderate political views, those with a history of victimization, and those residing in the Northeast are all more likely to prefer smart guns. Males and those with pro-gun attitudes are less likely to prefer smart guns. Education, income, race, marital status, presence of children in the home, and comfort discussing gun ownership with a doctor had no significant association with smart gun preference. Practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:27413655

  6. A Contrast Study on Chinese and American Feminism Reflected in Martial Security War and Desperate Housewives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌志

    2015-01-01

    Both Marital Security War and Desperate Housewives reflect modern Chinese and American women's double pressure and challenges in marriage, career, life etc. This paper made a contrast study on Chinese and American feminism.

  7. A Contrast Study on Chinese and American Feminism Reflected in Martial Security War and Desperate Housewives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凌志

    2015-01-01

    Both Marital Security War and Desperate Housewives reflect modern Chinese and American women’s double pressure and challenges in marriage, career, life etc. This paper made a contrast study on Chinese and American feminism.

  8. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS): rationale and study design

    OpenAIRE

    M. Fisberg; Kovalskys, I.; Gómez, G.; Rigotti, A; Cortés, L. Y.; Herrera-Cuenca, M.; Yépez, M. C.; Pareja, R. G.; Guajardo, V.; I.Z. Zimberg; Chiavegatto Filho, A. D. P.; Pratt, M.; Koletzko, B; Tucker, K L; ,

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is growing at an alarming rate in Latin America. Lifestyle behaviours such as physical activity and dietary intake have been largely associated with obesity in many countries; however studies that combine nutrition and physical activity assessment in representative samples of Latin American countries are lacking. The aim of this study is to present the design rationale of the Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health/Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud (ELANS) w...

  9. Following the Money: The Wire and Distant American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Cvek

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, I argue that the pedagogical, or, more generally, heuristic potential of HBO’s crime drama The Wire (2002/2008 is related to the specific institutional developments in post-network television, the show’s didactic intention, and its focus on the delineation of the economic process, or what has been called its “openly class-based” politics. I will dedicate most time to the latter, as it represents a particularly welcome intervention for American Studies, a discipline in which the problem of class has usually been either marginalized, or articulated in terms of the historically hegemonic disciplinary paradigm, that of identityKeywords: The Wire, American studies, cognitive mapping, capitalism, TV, HBOIn this essay, I would like to approach HBO’s crime drama The Wire (2002-2008 based on my experience of teaching the show in an American Studies class in Croatia. The course in which I try to work with it, Cultural Aspects of American Neoliberalism, deals with the gradual departure in the US from the legacy of the New Deal, with a special focus on the cultural articulations of economic inequality from the 1970s onwards. Using The Wire in the classroom is nothing new. It has been taught for years now in different courses, mostly in the US. A quick web search will show that it has appeared in curricula in film studies, media studies, urban studies, ethics, communication, criminal justice, sociology, social anthropology, and social work. The inclusion of the series in these various academic fields seems to confirm what I have learned from experience: the show offers plenty of teachable material. Moreover, the variety of pedagogical uses of The Wire speaks to the series’ ability to serve many different disciplinary interests, both in the US and abroad. Here, I would like to make a point precisely out of the apparent potential of The Wire to provide a common ground for the recognition of a diverse array of particular social

  10. The UCLA Asian Pacific American Voter Registration Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nakanishi, Don T.

    1986-01-01

    Asian Pacific American political involvement is not a new phenomenon, but it has clearly become a significant focus of attention for the Asian Pacific American population. Perhaps at no other period in Asian Pacific American history have so many individuals and organizations of different issue orientations participated in a wide array of political activities, especially in relation to American electoral politics, but also in the affairs of the Pacific Rim. At the same time, what has come to b...

  11. Study on Advertising Awareness and Understanding of the American Economic System. Post Study, Phase III (Summery of Research).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advertising Council, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document is one in a series of follow-up studies of research begun in 1976 into public knowledge of and attitudes toward the American economic system as a result of an economic awareness advertising campaign. Generalizations and tabular information based on progress through the second year of the research is presented. The document begins…

  12. A Qualitative Study of Mexican American Adolescents and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornos, Laura B.; Mika, Virginia Seguin; Bayles, Bryan; Serrano, Alberto C.; Jimenez, Roberto L.; Villarreal, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Depressive disorders are present in a high percentage of Mexican American adolescents. Among the US Mexican American population, suicide is the fourth leading cause of death among 10- to 19-year-olds. Little research, however, has focused on Mexican American adolescents' knowledge and views about depression and seeking help for depression. Results…

  13. A Cross-Cultural Study of Differences in Romantic Attitudes between American and Albanian College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Eneda; Hatala, Mark N.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-cultural differences in romantic attitudes are often taken for granted and accepted. However, very little research has been conducted to clearly state how much and how different Albanian and American college students are in the way they love. Results indicate that Americans are more romantic than Albanians. In addition, Americans are more…

  14. A Comparative Study on Storytelling Perceptions of Chinese, Vietnamese, American, and German Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kate; Stanley, Nile; Stanley, Laurel; Rank, Astrid; Wang, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    The study compared the perceptions of adults from four countries about storytelling. Americans (N = 153), Germans (N = 163), Chinese (N = 324), and Vietnamese (N = 356) completed a survey. Americans' scores on measures of storytelling experiences were the highest overall. Americans and Germans reported having significantly more childhood…

  15. Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native American/span>s (DARTNA): results from a pretest and focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Venner, Kamilla L; Duran, Bonnie; Annon, Jeffrey J; Hale, Benjamin; Funmaker, George

    2014-01-01

    Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA) is a substance abuse treatment intervention for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). This article provides results from 1) an initial pretest of DARTNA provided to 10 AI/AN patients with histories of substance use disorders, and 2) three subsequent focus groups conducted among AI/AN DARTNA pretest participants, substance abuse treatment providers, and the DARTNA Community Advisory Board. These research activities were conducted to finalize the DARTNA treatment manual; participants also provided helpful feedback which will assist toward this goal. Results suggest that DARTNA may be beneficial for AI/ANs with substance use problems. PMID:24788920

  16. Drought Monitoring for 3 North American Case Studies Based on the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Mocko, David; Kumar, Sujay; Ek, Michael; Xia, Youlong; Dong, Jiarui

    2012-01-01

    Both NLDAS Phase 1 (1996-2007) and Phase 2 (1979-present) datasets have been evaluated against in situ observational datasets, and NLDAS forcings and outputs are used by a wide variety of users. Drought indices and drought monitoring from NLDAS were recently examined by Mo et al. (2010) and Sheffield et al. (2010). In this poster, we will present results analyzing NLDAS Phase 2 forcings and outputs for 3 North American Case studies being analyzed as part of the NOAA MAPP Drought Task Force: (1) Western US drought (1998- 2004); (2) plains/southeast US drought (2006-2007); and (3) Current Texas-Mexico drought (2011-). We will examine percentiles of soil moisture consistent with the NLDAS drought monitor.

  17. Unfair Treatment, Racial/Ethnic Discrimination, Ethnic Identification, and Smoking Among Asian Americans in the National Latino and Asian American Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H.; Takeuchi, David T.; Barbeau, Elizabeth M.; Bennett, Gary G.; Lindsey, Jane; Krieger, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relations of self-report of general unfair treatment and self-report of race/ethnicity-specific discrimination with current smoking among Asian Americans. We investigated whether ethnic identification moderated either association. Methods. Weighted logistic regressions were performed among 1977 Asian Americans recruited to the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002–2003). Results. In weighted multivariate logistic regression models including both general unfair treatment and racial/ethnic discrimination, odds of current smoking were higher among Asian Americans who reported high levels of unfair treatment (odds ratio [OR]=2.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.13, 6.95) and high levels of racial/ethnic discrimination (OR=2.40; 95% CI=0.94, 6.12) compared with those who reported no unfair treatment and discrimination, respectively. High levels of ethnic identification moderated racial/ethnic discrimination (F3 =3.25; P =.03). High levels of ethnic identification were associated with lower probability of current smoking among participants reporting high levels of racial/ethnic discrimination. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that experiences of unfair treatment and racial/ethnic discrimination are risk factors for smoking among Asian Americans. Efforts to promote ethnic identification may be effective in mitigating the influence of racial/ethnic discrimination on smoking in this population. PMID:18235073

  18. American Depositary: A Case Study for Brazilian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Machado Caldeira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Specialists often question market efficiency. Some works suggest arbitrage opportunities in several financial operations. Such opportunities can be explained mainly by information asymmetry, since pricing in the stock market is directly linked to information; therefore, the investor that has access to such information the soonest has a competitive advantage. The objective of this paper is to verify the existence of arbitrage opportunities via ADRs, traded in the American market, and their respective stocks, which are traded in the domestic market. Through a case study conducted with four companies, not considering the transition costs, arbitrage opportunity windows were found. Among the companies studied, two had frequent arbitrage opportunities, for one of them the arbitrage opportunity can be shaped by the time series model.

  19. A Case Study of Middle Class African American Males Taking Advanced Mathematics Classes in High School

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Zella Higginbotham

    2011-01-01

    African American males in all socioeconomic levels are underperforming in school. Many researchers have conducted studies hoping to find reasons for the underperformance. This study focused on three middle class African American males in a suburban school district. These African American male students took upper level math courses that included Algebra III, Math Analysis, AP Calculus, and AP Statistics. This study modeled the study by E. Wayne Harris. He believed students were influenced...

  20. Expecting the Unexpected: a Comparative Study of African-American Women's Experiences in Science during the High School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer

    Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes

  1. Postpartum Depression Prevention for Reservation-Based American Indians: Results from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Barlow, Allison; Goklish, Novalene; Hastings, Ranelda; Baker, Elena Varipatis; Mullany, Britta; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Walkup, John

    2012-01-01

    Background: Postpartum depression is a devastating condition that affects a significant number of women and their offspring. Few preventive interventions have targeted high risk youth, such as American Indians (AIs). Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of a depression prevention program for AI adolescents and young adults. Methods: Expectant AI…

  2. Peer navigation improves diagnostic follow-up after breast cancer screening among Korean American women: results of a randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Maxwell, Annette E.; Jo, Angela M.; Crespi, Catherine M; Sudan, Madhuri; Bastani, Roshan

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test an intervention to increase adherence to diagnostic follow-up tests among Asian American women. Methods Korean American women who were referred for a diagnostic follow-up test (mainly diagnostic mammograms) and who had missed their follow-up appointment were eligible to participate in the study. Women from two clinics (n = 176) were randomly allocated to a usual care control arm or a peer navigator intervention arm. A 20-min telephone survey was administered to women in both...

  3. Results of an Assessment to Identify Potential Barriers to Sustainable Agriculture on American Indian Reservations in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singletary, Loretta; Emm, Staci; Brummer, Fara Ann; Hill, George C.; Lewis, Steve; Hebb, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper reports the results of survey research conducted with tribal producers between 2011 and 2012 on 19 of the largest American Indian reservations in Idaho, Nevada, North Dakota, Oregon, South Dakota, and Washington. The purpose of the research was to identify potential barriers to sustainable agriculture on reservation lands. This…

  4. American Academy of School Psychology Survey on the Independent Educational Evaluation for a Specific Learning Disability: Results and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, Fredrick A.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Caterino, Linda C.; Desrochers, John

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a survey of the Fellows of the American Academy of School Psychology (Academy; AASP) regarding the independent educational evaluation (IEE) for a specific learning disability (SLD). Academy Fellows were asked about important components of the IEE, desirable evaluator qualifications, and recommended criteria for…

  5. Lifestyle behaviors of African American breast cancer survivors: a Sisters Network, Inc. study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raheem J Paxton

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: African American breast cancer survivors experience poor cancer outcomes that may, in part, be remedied by healthy lifestyle choices. Few studies have evaluated the health and lifestyle behaviors of this population. The purpose of this study was to characterize the health and lifestyle habits of African American breast cancer survivors and evaluate the socio-demographic and medical correlates of these behaviors. METHODS: A total of 470 African American breast cancer survivors (mean age = 54 years participated in an online survey. All participants completed measures assessing medical and demographic characteristics, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Chi-square tests for association, nonparametric tests, and logistic regression models were used to assess associations. All statistical tests were two sided. RESULTS: Almost half (47% of the women met the current guidelines for physical activity, almost half (47% were obese, and many reported having high blood pressure (53% or diabetes (21%. The prevalence of high blood pressure, diabetes, and high cholesterol increased by age (P<0.001, and obese women had a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (63% vs. 44% and diabetes (21% vs. 12% than did non-obese women (all P<0.05. Obese women participated in significantly fewer total minutes of physical activity per week (100 minutes/week than did non-obese women (150 minutes/week; P<0.05. The number of comorbid conditions was associated with increased odds for physical inactivity (odds ratio = 1.40 and obesity (odds ratio = 2.22. CONCLUSION: Many African American breast cancer survivors had chronic conditions that may be exacerbated by poor lifestyle choices. Our results also provide evidence that healthy lifestyle interventions among obese African American breast cancer survivors are urgently needed.

  6. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W

    2013-10-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants' racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development. PMID:25298617

  7. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; John W. Creswell

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants’ racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized ove...

  8. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.

    2014-01-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing participants’ racial and ethnic identity development. The emergent Asian Indian American racial and ethnic identity model provides a contextualized overview of key developmental periods and turning points within the process of identity development. PMID:25298617

  9. Targeting of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders by the tobacco industry: results from the Minnesota Tobacco Document Depository

    OpenAIRE

    Muggli, M; Pollay, R; Lew, R.; Joseph, A

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to review internal tobacco industry documents written between 1985 and 1995 regarding the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) population in the USA. These documents detail opportunities and barriers to promotion of tobacco products, as viewed by the tobacco industry and its market research firms.

  10. Rates and Correlates of Undetermined Deaths among African Americans: Results from the National Violent Death Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huguet, Nathalie; Kaplan, Mark S.; McFarland, Bentson H.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the factors associated with undetermined death classifications among African Americans. In this study, the rates of undetermined deaths were assessed, the prevalence of missing information was estimated, and whether the circumstances preceding death differ by race were examined. Data were derived from the 2005-2008 National…

  11. Results From NICLAKES Survey of Active Faulting Beneath Lake Nicaragua, Central American Volcanic Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, J.; Mann, P.; McIntosh, K.; Wulf, S.; Dull, R.; Perez, P.; Strauch, W.

    2006-12-01

    In May of 2006 we used a chartered ferry boat to collect 520 km of seismic data, 886 km of 3.5 kHz subbottom profiler data, and 35 cores from Lake Nicaragua. The lake covers an area of 7700 km2 within the active Central American volcanic arc, forms the largest lake in Central America, ranks as the twentieth largest freshwater lake in the world, and has never been previously surveyed or cored in a systematic manner. Two large stratovolcanoes occupy the central part of the lake: Concepcion is presently active, Maderas was last active less than 2000 years ago. Four zones of active faulting and doming of the lake floor were mapped with seismic and 3.5 kHz subbottom profiling. Two of the zones consist of 3-5-km-wide, 20-30-km-long asymmetric rift structures that trend towards the inactive cone of Maderas Volcano in a radial manner. The northeastern rift forms a 20-27-m deep depression on the lake bottom that is controlled by a north-dipping normal fault. The southwestern rift forms a 25-35-m deep depression controlled by a northeast-dipping normal fault. Both depressions contain mound-like features inferred to be hydrothermal deposits. Two zones of active faulting are associated with the active Concepcion stratovolcano. A 600-m-wide and 6-km-long fault bounded horst block extends westward beneath the lake from a promontory on the west side of the volcano. Like the two radial rift features of Maderas, the horst points roughly towards the active caldera of Concepcion. A second north-south zone of active faulting, which also forms a high, extends off the north coast of Concepcion and corresponds to a localized zone of folding and faulting mapped by previous workers and inferred by them to have formed by gravitational spreading of the flank of the volcano. The close spatial relation of these faults to the two volcanic cones in the lake suggests that the mechanism for faulting is a result of either crustal movements related to magma intrusion or gravitational sliding and is

  12. “American” Pictures and (Trans-National Iconographies: Mapping Interpictorial Clusters in American Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo J. Hebel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Udo J. Hebel examines the recent critical history of visual cultures in American Studies in his essay “‘American’ Pictures and (Trans-National Iconographies: Mapping Interpictorial Clusters in American Studies,” focusing his analysis specifically on “political photography” and the concurrency of contexts that inform his reading of the history of US presidential images. This beautifully researched article, previously published in American Studies Today: New Research Agendas (Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag Winter, 2014, takes up questions related to “tensions” between disciplinary concerns and transdisciplinary potentialities for interpreting the representation of the political inside the framework of transnational American Studies.

  13. Anthropometric Changes Using a Walking Intervention in African American Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kilpatrick, PhD

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction African American women exhibit a higher mortality rate from breast cancer than do white women. African American women are more likely to gain weight at diagnosis, which may increase their risk of cancer recurrence and comorbidities. Physical activity has been shown to decrease body mass index and improve quality of life in cancer survivors. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and impact of a community-based exercise intervention in African American breast cancer survivors. Methods A theory-based eight-week community intervention using pedometers with scheduling, goal setting, and self-assessment was tested in a convenience sample of African American breast cancer survivors (n = 24. Data were collected at three time points to examine changes in steps walked per day, body mass index, and other anthropometric measures, attitudes, and demographic variables. Results Statistically significant increases in steps walked per day and attitude toward exercise as well as significant decreases in body mass index, body weight, percentage of body fat, and waist, hip, and forearm circumferences, as well as blood pressure, were reported from baseline to immediate post-intervention. Positive changes were retained or improved further at three-month follow-up except for attitude toward exercise. Participant retention rate during eight-week intervention was 92%. Conclusion Increasing walking for exercise, without making other changes, can improve body mass index, anthropometric measures, and attitudes, which are associated with improved quality of life and reduced risk of cancer recurrence. The high participant retention rate, along with significant study outcomes, demonstrate that among this sample of African American breast cancer survivors, participants were motivated to improve their exercise habits.

  14. Lifestyle Behaviors of African American Breast Cancer Survivors: A Sisters Network, Inc. Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Wendell C Taylor; Shine Chang; Courneya, Kerry S.; Jones, Lovell A.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: African American breast cancer survivors experience poor cancer outcomes that may, in part, be remedied by healthy lifestyle choices. Few studies have evaluated the health and lifestyle behaviors of this population. The purpose of this study was to characterize the health and lifestyle habits of African American breast cancer survivors and evaluate the socio-demographic and medical correlates of these behaviors. METHODS: A total of 470 African American breast cancer survivors (m...

  15. Borderless STEM Education: A Study of Both American Students and Foreign Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komura, Kiriko

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the current status of borderless education in STEM through surveys of two populations of STEM students: American students who studied abroad and foreign students who were studying in the U.S. It was undertaken in response to the U.S. government's desires to strengthen STEM education and to develop American students' global…

  16. Spirituality, Religiosity, and Weight Management Among African American Adolescent Males: The Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Marino A; Beech, Bettina M; Griffith, Derek M; Thorpe, Roland J

    2016-01-01

    Spirituality and religion have been identified as important determinants of health for adults; however, the impact of faith-oriented factors on health behaviors and outcomes among African American adolescent males has not been well studied. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between religiosity and spirituality and obesity-related behaviors among 12-19 year old African American males (N = 105) in the Jackson Heart KIDS Pilot Study. Key variables of interest are church attendance, prayer, daily spirituality, weight status, attempts to lose weight, nutrition, physical activity, and stress. Daily spirituality is associated with whether an individual attempts to lose weight. The results from logistic regression models suggest that daily spirituality increases the odds that African American male adolescents attempt to lose weight (OR = 1.22, CI: 1.07-1.41) and have a history of diet-focused weight management (OR = 1.13, CI: 1.02-1.26). Future studies are needed to further explore the association between religion, spirituality, and obesity-related behaviors. PMID:27337622

  17. Measuring Sojourner Adjustment among American students studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Neighbors, Clayton; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2011-11-01

    The literature on "Sojourner Adjustment," a term expanding on the acculturation concept to apply to groups residing temporarily in foreign environments, suggests that engagement, participation, and temporary integration into the host culture may contribute to less psychological and sociocultural difficulty while abroad. The present study was designed to establish a brief multi-component measure of Sojourner Adjustment (the Sojourner Adjustment Measure; SAM) to be used in work with populations residing temporarily in foreign environments (e.g., international students, foreign aid workers). Using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on a sample of 248 American study abroad college students, we established a 24-item measure of Sojourner Adjustment composed of four positive factors (social interaction with host nationals, cultural understanding and participation, language development and use, host culture identification) and two negative factors (social interaction with co-nationals, homesickness/feeling out of place). Preliminary convergent validity was examined through correlations with established measures of acculturation. Further research with the SAM is encouraged to explore the relevance of this measure with other groups of sojourners (e.g., foreign aid workers, international businessmen, military personnel) and to determine how SAM factors relate to psychological well-being, health behaviors, and risk behaviors abroad among these diverse groups. PMID:22125351

  18. Geographical deviations in foreign trade statistics: A study into European trade with Latin American Countries, 1925

    OpenAIRE

    Carreras-Mar??n, Anna; Badia-Mir??, Marc

    2005-01-01

    We have analyzed the spatial accuracy of European foreign trade statistics compared to Latin American. We have also included USA?s data because of the importance of this country in Latin American trade. We have developed a method for mapping discrepancies between exporters and importers, trying to isolate systematic spatial deviations. Although our results don?t allow a unique explanation, they present some interesting clues to the distribution channels in the Latin American Continent as well...

  19. Participation of Asian-American Women in Cancer Treatment Research: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Tung T.; Somkin, Carol P.; Ma, Yifei; Fung, Lei-Chun; Nguyen, Thoa

    2005-01-01

    Few Asian-American women participate in cancer treatment trials. In a pilot study to assess barriers to participation, we mailed surveys to 132 oncologists and interviewed 19 Asian-American women with cancer from Northern California. Forty-four oncologists responded. They reported as barriers language problems, lack of culturally relevant cancer information, and complex protocols. Most stated that they informed Asian-American women about treatment trials. Only four women interviewed knew abou...

  20. Strengthening the voice of African American parents : a study of the College Bound San Diego program

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, John Peter

    2008-01-01

    The academic achievement gap between African American and Latino students and their White and Asian peers in K-12 American schools is an educational crisis of major proportions. While achievement gaps in schools exist for various subgroups, this study focused on the gaps between African American and White students. Of particular interest was the research that indicated the achievement gaps are not only present in low-performing, high-poverty, diverse school settings, but exist even at high-pe...

  1. Assessment of Genotype Imputation Performance Using 1000 Genomes in African American Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Dana B.; Levy, Joshua L.; Gaddis, Nathan C.; Bierut, Laura J; Saccone, Nancy L.; Page, Grier P.; Johnson, Eric O.

    2012-01-01

    Genotype imputation, used in genome-wide association studies to expand coverage of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), has performed poorly in African Americans compared to less admixed populations. Overall, imputation has typically relied on HapMap reference haplotype panels from Africans (YRI), European Americans (CEU), and Asians (CHB/JPT). The 1000 Genomes project offers a wider range of reference populations, such as African Americans (ASW), but their imputation performance has had l...

  2. Diabetes, gender, and left ventricular structure in African-Americans: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebson Philip R

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes may be partially attributed to left ventricular structural abnormalities. However, the relations between left ventricular structure and diabetes have not been extensively studied in African-Americans. Methods We studied 514 male and 965 female African-Americans 51 to 70 years old, in whom echocardiographic left ventricular mass measurements were collected for the ARIC Study. In these, we investigated the independent association of diabetes with left ventricular structural abnormalities. Results Diabetes, hypertension and obesity prevalences were 22%, 57% and 45%, respectively. Unindexed left ventricular mass was higher with diabetes in both men (238.3 ± 79.4 g vs. 213.7 ± 58.6 g; p Conclusion In African-Americans, diabetes is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and, with different patterns of left ventricular structural abnormalities between genders. Attenuation seen in adjusted associations suggests that the higher frequency of structural abnormalities seen in diabetes may be due to factors other than hyperglycemia.

  3. Digital Storytelling and American Studies: Critical Trajectories from the Emotional to the Epistemological

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppermann, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, digital storytelling has emerged as an alternative medium of knowledge production for students in American studies. A growing number of faculty are creating assignments which combine methodological markers of American studies and reinvented notions of critical pedagogy in a multimedia learning environment. Based on an analysis of…

  4. Returned Solar Max hardware degradation study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Solar Maximum Repair Mission returned with the replaced hardware that had been in low Earth orbit for over four years. The materials of this returned hardware gave the aerospace community an opportunity to study the realtime effects of atomic oxygen, solar radiation, impact particles, charged particle radiation, and molecular contamination. The results of these studies are summarized

  5. African American Male Discipline Patterns and School District Responses Resulting Impact on Academic Achievement: Implications for Urban Educators and Policy Makers

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Joubert; Fred A. Bonner, III; Chance W. Lewis; Bettie Ray Butler

    2010-01-01

    This study, utilizing a sample of more than 3,500 African American males in a Midwestern urban school district, investigates the discipline patterns of African American males and school district responses that impact their academic achievement on state standardized tests. To fulfill the goals of this study, we have four interrelated objectives: (1) to investigate all documented behavior occurrences of African American males in comparison to their peers during the 2005-2006 academic school yea...

  6. Teaching the Japanese American Internment: A Case Study of Social Studies Curriculum Conflict and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camicia, Steven P.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines a case of curriculum conflict in order to understand how the social studies curriculum is changed by such conflicts. In the case, a small group of activists challenged a local sixth grade history curriculum, which claimed that the WWII internment of Japanese Americans was a mistake. Activists claimed that the internment was…

  7. American Studies Without Tears, or What Does America Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Kennedy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    As Americanists, we commonly approach "America" with suspicion, fear, even anger; we view it as a powerful, duplicitous force to be denounced or demystified. This paper speculates on why this might be so and in particular considers the troubled relationships at that heart of this dilemma—relations between pleasure and knowledge, and between sentiment and critique. This trouble is evident in the difficulties we experience in working through these relationships in our critical approaches, the difficulties in balancing intellectual comprehension and emotional apprehension of America. This is evident in the field imaginary of American Studies, which is posited here not only as a sphere of collective knowledge that is regulated by disciplinary practices but also as a field of less-regulated desires. I consider what the construction of a field imaginary leaves out, what it represses or disavows, in producing America as an object of knowledge. In an attempt to illustrate some of these considerations in relation to critical practice, this essay concludes by looking at a photographic image.

  8. American Studies Without Tears, or What Does America Want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam Kennedy

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available As Americanists, we commonly approach "America" with suspicion, fear, even anger; we view it as a powerful, duplicitous force to be denounced or demystified. This paper speculates on why this might be so and in particular considers the troubled relationships at that heart of this dilemma—relations between pleasure and knowledge, and between sentiment and critique. This trouble is evident in the difficulties we experience in working through these relationships in our critical approaches, the difficulties in balancing intellectual comprehension and emotional apprehension of America. This is evident in the field imaginary of American Studies, which is posited here not only as a sphere of collective knowledge that is regulated by disciplinary practices but also as a field of less-regulated desires. I consider what the construction of a field imaginary leaves out, what it represses or disavows, in producing America as an object of knowledge. In an attempt to illustrate some of these considerations in relation to critical practice, this essay concludes by looking at a photographic image.

  9. A study of a culturally focused psychiatric consultation service for Asian American and Latino American primary care patients with depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fava Maurizio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic minorities with depression are more likely to seek mental health care through primary care providers (PCPs than mental health specialists. However, both provider and patient-specific challenges exist. PCP-specific challenges include unfamiliarity with depressive symptom profiles in diverse patient populations, limited time to address mental health, and limited referral options for mental health care. Patient-specific challenges include stigma around mental health issues and reluctance to seek mental health treatment. To address these issues, we implemented a multi-component intervention for Asian American and Latino American primary care patients with depression at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH. Methods/Design We propose a randomized controlled trial to evaluate a culturally appropriate intervention to improve the diagnosis and treatment of depression in our target population. Our goals are to facilitate a primary care providers' ability to provide appropriate, culturally informed care of depression, and b patients' knowledge of and resources for receiving treatment for depression. Our two-year long intervention targets Asian American and Latino American adult (18 years of age or older primary care patients at MGH screening positive for symptoms of depression. All eligible patients in the intervention arm of the study who screen positive will be offered a culturally focused psychiatric (CFP consultation. Patients will meet with a study clinician and receive toolkits that include psychoeducational booklets, worksheets and community resources. Within two weeks of the initial consultation, patients will attend a follow-up visit with the CFP clinicians. Primary outcomes will determine the feasibility and cost associated with implementation of the service, and evaluate patient and provider satisfaction with the CFP service. Exploratory aims will describe the study population at screening, recruitment, and enrollment

  10. Parameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma in pediatric age: results of a pooled analysis from North American and European cooperative groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merks, J. H. M.; De Salvo, G. L.; Bergeron, C.; Bisogno, G.; De Paoli, A.; Ferrari, A.; Rey, A.; Oberlin, O.; Stevens, M. C. G.; Kelsey, A.; Michalski, J.; Hawkins, D. S.; Anderson, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Parameningeal (PM) site is a well-known adverse prognostic factor in children with localized rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS). To identify risk factors associated with outcome at this site, we pooled data from 1105 patients treated in 10 studies conducted by European and North American cooperative groups between 1984 and 2004. Patients and methods Clinical factors including age, histology, size, invasiveness, nodal involvement, Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study (IRS) clinical group, site, risk factors for meningeal involvement (MI), study group, and application of radiotherapy (RT) were studied for their impact on event-free and overall survival (EFS and OS). Results Ten-year EFS and OS were 62.6 and 66.1% for the whole group. Patients without initial RT showed worse survival (10-year OS 40.8% versus 68.5% for RT treated patients). Multivariate analysis focusing on 862 patients who received RT as part of their initial treatment revealed four unfavorable prognostic factors: age 10 years, signs of MI, unfavorable site, and tumor size. Utilizing these prognostic factors, patients could be classified into different risk groups with 10-year OS ranging between 51.1 and 80.9%. Conclusions While, in general, PM localization is regarded as an adverse prognostic factor, the current analysis differentiates those with good prognosis (36% patients with 0–1 risk factor: 10-year OS 80.9%) from high-risk PM patients (28% with 3–4 factors: 10-year OS 51.1%). Furthermore, this analysis reinforces the necessity for RT in PM RMS. PMID:24356633

  11. Increasing HIV/AIDS awareness among African-American women: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ludella; Tabi, Marian M

    2013-07-01

    This exploratory study was conducted to assess the effect of an HIV/AIDS prevention program on producing positive changing attitudes among African-American women in Southeast Georgia. This study used a faith-based approach. Data were collected from 23 respondents recruited from a local African-American church. HIV training was conducted over four 1-hour sessions using web-based interactive videos and lectures on HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory comprised the framework upon which the women received HIV/AIDS prevention training. Participants completed a 25-item pre- and post-intervention questionnaire to measure any changes that occurred in their attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS. Results showed a statistically significant difference in mean scores of individual knowledge and attitudes about HIV. The difference in mean scores for the remaining items was found to be statistically insignificant. The overall change in attitudes was also statistically significant, t = 2.27, df = 22, p < 0.05, which provided further evidence that when peers educate their communities on HIV/AIDS, it makes a significant difference in changing their attitudes about this disease. Although findings were positive, further data is needed to substantiate and validate the use of community peers to increase knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS among the African-American population. PMID:24218873

  12. A Phenomenological Study of Undergraduate African American College Students' Decision to Participate in Study Abroad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheppel, Alena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological qualitative study was to explore African American undergraduate college students' intentions and reasons for participation in study abroad programs. The study involved gathering data from recorded and transcribed semi-structured interviews with 20 African American volunteer participants. Data analysis…

  13. Results of interferon-based treatments in Alaska Native and American Indian population with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E. Livingston

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been few reports of hepatitis C virus (HCV treatment results with interferon-based regimens in indigenous populations. Objective: To determine interferon-based treatment outcome among Alaska Native and American Indian (AN/AI population. Design: In an outcomes study of 1,379 AN/AI persons with chronic HCV infection from 1995 through 2013, we examined treatment results of 189 persons treated with standard interferon, interferon plus ribavirin, pegylated interferon plus ribavirin and triple therapy with a protease inhibitor. For individuals treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, the effect of patient characteristics on response was also examined. Results: Sustained virologic response (SVR with standard interferon was 16.7% (3/18 and with standard interferon and ribavirin was 29.7% (11/37. Of 119 persons treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin, 61 achieved SVR (51.3%, including 10 of 46 with genotype 1 (21.7%, 38 of 51 with genotype 2 (74.5% and 13 of 22 with genotype 3 (59.1%. By multivariate analysis, SVR in the pegylated interferon group was associated with female sex (p=0.002, estimated duration of infection (p=0.034 and HCV genotype (p<0.0001. There was a high discontinuation rate due to side effects in those treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for genotype 1 (52.2%. Seven of 15 genotype 1 patients treated with pegylated interferon, ribavirin and telaprevir or boceprevir achieved SVR (46.7%. Conclusions: We had success with pegylated interferon-based treatment of AN/AI people with genotypes 2 and 3. However, there were low SVR and high discontinuation rates for those with genotype 1.

  14. A Study on Positive Aspects of American Family Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐睿; 熊行

    2015-01-01

    As we al know,education is more about imparting knowledge of how to think rather than dead and roten facts piled up in textbooks. Apart from formal education-schooling,family education also helps to shape the way we think and behave. Globaly speaking,American family education is comparatively more succesful than any other nations,which is wel-evidenced by its world-leading economy that primarily is fueled by its unparaleled technological and educational levels. According to my research,American family education realy builds its deserved succes upon its practice of individual focus,that is,enough consciousnes of treating children in a scientific way-human atention on brain development, psychological patern and identity cultivation of children. American family succeeds in its conformity to the brain development,psychological paterns and identity cultivation.

  15. The Effects of Music and Movement Opportunity on the Analogical Reasoning Performance of African American and White School Children: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brenda A.; Butler, Lisa

    1996-01-01

    Studies contextual factors informed by cultural experiences and their influence on learning task performance in 15 African American and 13 white children. The African American children performed better when allowed to coordinate movement and music to the learning task while white students had the opposite results. (GR)

  16. Problem gambling and homelessness: results from an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nower, Lia; Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Pollio, David E; North, Carol S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of gambling disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders in a homeless population and identify features related to potential subtypes. At baseline, participants were administered a structured interview including socio-demographic sections of the National Comorbidity Study (NCS) interview; seven diagnostic sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS); the alcohol and drug abuse sections of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Module (CIDI-SAM); and the Homeless Supplement to the DIS. At nine months post-baseline assessment, participants were administered additional NCS family history questions and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Participants were an epidemiologic sample of 275 predominately African-American homeless individuals, grouped as lifetime non-gamblers (n = 60), recreational gamblers (n = 152), and problem gamblers (n = 63), recruited on the street and through homeless shelters. Results indicate that lifetime rates of sub-clinical problem (46.2%) and disordered (12.0%) gambling were significantly higher than in the general population. Problem gamblers were more likely than non-problem gamblers to meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, and any psychiatric disorder, and more likely than non-gamblers to use illicit drugs or meet criteria for abuse/dependence for nicotine, alcohol, or any substance. This study provides evidence that problem gambling is a significant public health issue among the African-American homeless population. Homeless services should include assessment for problem gambling along with psychiatric disorders and referrals to resources and treatment programs. Future studies should explore the relationship of the onset and course of problem gambling and other psychiatric disorders with homelessness as well as racial differences in gambling patterns and problem severity

  17. Acculturation of personality: A three-culture study of Japanese, Japanese Americans, and European Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Güngör De Bruyn, Derya; Bornstein, Marc H; De Leersnyder, Jozefien; Cote, Linda; Ceulemans, Eva; Mesquita, Batja

    2013-01-01

    The present study tests the hypothesis that involvement with a new culture instigates changes in personality of immigrants that result in (a) better fit with the norms of the culture of destination and (b) reduced fit with the norms of the culture of origin. Participants were 40 Japanese first-generation immigrants to the United States, 57 Japanese monoculturals, and 60 U.S. monoculturals. All participants completed the Jackson Personality Inventory (JPI) as a measure of the Big Five; immigr...

  18. A Cross-Cultural Study of Anxiety among Chinese and Caucasian American University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Dong; Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the cross-cultural differences on state, trait, and social anxiety between Chinese and Caucasian American university students. Chinese students reported higher levels of social anxiety than did Caucasian American students. Correlations between trait and state anxiety were compared in light of the trait model of…

  19. For My Children: Mexican American Women, Work, and Welfare. Focus Study Report #2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa; Tosca, Regina

    This is the final report of the National Council of La Raza's (NCLR) Focus Study examining the opinions, attitudes, and needs of Mexican American single women, relating to implementation of national welfare reform legislation. Over a 2-year period NCLR staff held focus groups with Mexican American women in four communities: Phoenix, Arizona; Mora,…

  20. Using Culturally Sensitive Frameworks to Study Asian American Leaders in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilson, Patricia A.; Suyemoto, Karen L.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a brief discussion of the challenges posed by traditional approaches and the need for race- and culture-specific methods in the study of Asian American administrators. The authors discuss a research project, conducted by the first author, that focused on exploring the experiences of Asian American senior…

  1. Socioeconomic disparities in intimate partner violence against Native American women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duran Bonnie M

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intimate partner violence (IPV against women is a global public health problem, yet data on IPV against Native American women are extremely limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study of Native American women to determine prevalence of lifetime and past-year IPV and partner injury; examine IPV in relation to pregnancy; and assess demographic and socioeconomic correlates of past-year IPV. Methods Participants were recruited from a tribally-operated clinic serving low-income pregnant and childbearing women in southwest Oklahoma. A self-administered survey was completed by 312 Native American women (96% response rate attending the clinic from June through August 1997. Lifetime and past-year IPV were measured using modified 18-item Conflict Tactics Scales. A socioeconomic index was created based on partner's education, public assistance receipt, and poverty level. Results More than half (58.7% of participants reported lifetime physical and/or sexual IPV; 39.1% experienced severe physical IPV; 12.2% reported partner-forced sexual activity; and 40.1% reported lifetime partner-perpetrated injuries. A total of 273 women had a spouse or boyfriend during the previous 12 months (although all participants were Native American, 59.0% of partners were non-Native. Among these women, past-year prevalence was 30.1% for physical and/or sexual IPV; 15.8% for severe physical IPV; 3.3% for forced partner-perpetrated sexual activity; and 16.4% for intimate partner injury. Reported IPV prevalence during pregnancy was 9.3%. Pregnancy was not associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 0.9. Past-year IPV prevalence was 42.8% among women scoring low on the socioeconomic index, compared with 10.1% among the reference group. After adjusting for age, relationship status, and household size, low socioeconomic index remained strongly associated with past-year IPV (odds ratio = 5.0; 95% confidence interval: 2.4, 10.7. Conclusions Native American women in

  2. Rape Victimization and High Risk Sexual Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study of African-American Adolescent Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang, Delia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: African-American women are affected by disproportionately high rates of violence and sexually transmitted infections (STI/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. It is imperative to address the intersection of these two urgent public health issues, particularly as these affect African-American adolescent girls. This study assessed the prevalence of rape victimization (RV among a sample of African-American adolescent females and examined the extent to which participants with a history of RV engage in STI/HIV associated risk behaviors over a 12-month time period.Methods: Three hundred sixty-seven African-American adolescent females ages 15-21, seeking sexual health services at three local teenager-oriented community health agencies in an urban area of the Southeastern United States, participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI at baseline, six- and 12-month follow-up. We assessed sociodemographics, history of RV and sexual practices. At baseline, participants indicating they had experienced forced sex were classified as having a history of RV.Results: Twenty-five percent of participants reported a history of RV at baseline. At six- and 12-months, victims of RV had significantly lower proportions of condom-protected sex (p=.008, higher frequency of sex while intoxicated (p=.005, more inconsistent condom use (p=.008, less condom use at last sex (p=.017, and more sex partners (p=.0001 than non-RV victims. Over the 12-month follow-up period, of those who did not report RV at baseline, 9.5% reported that they too had experienced RV at some point during the 12-month time frame.Conclusion: African-American adolescent females who experience RV are engaging in more risky sexual behaviors over time than non-RV girls, thereby placing themselves at higher risk for contracting STIs. In light of the results from this unique longitudinal study, we discuss considerations for

  3. Insomnia Symptoms and Cardiovascular Disease among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death among American Indians. It is not known if symptoms of insomnia are associated with CVD in this population. Methods. We examined 449 American Indians aged =55 years from the Native Elder Care Study. The main outcome-of-interest was self-reported CVD. Results. Short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep were positively associated with CVD after adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, and clinical risk factors. Compared with a sleep duration of 7 h, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of CVD among those with sleep duration =5 h was 2.89 (1.17-7.16). Similarly, the multivariable OR (95% CI) of CVD was 4.45 (1.85-10.72) and 2.60 (1.25-5.42) for daytime sleepiness >2 h and difficulty falling asleep often/always. Conclusion. Symptoms of insomnia including short sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and difficulty falling asleep are independently associated with CVD in American Indians aged =55 years

  4. Studies on Relevance, Ranking and Results Display

    CERN Document Server

    Gelernter, Judith; Carbonell, Jaime

    2010-01-01

    This study considers the extent to which users with the same query agree as to what is relevant, and how what is considered relevant may translate into a retrieval algorithm and results display. To combine user perceptions of relevance with algorithm rank and to present results, we created a prototype digital library of scholarly literature. We confine studies to one population of scientists (paleontologists), one domain of scholarly scientific articles (paleo-related), and a prototype system (PaleoLit) that we built for the purpose. Based on the principle that users do not pre-suppose answers to a given query but that they will recognize what they want when they see it, our system uses a rules-based algorithm to cluster results into fuzzy categories with three relevance levels. Our system matches at least 1/3 of our participants' relevancy ratings 87% of the time. Our subsequent usability study found that participants trusted our uncertainty labels but did not value our color-coded horizontal results layout ...

  5. American Indians' Knowledge about Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, Myra; Brown, Lester B.

    1995-01-01

    A survey examined knowledge about fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and about the effects of prenatal maternal drinking on the fetus among 76 American Indians in Los Angeles, including undergraduate and graduate students and participants in a residential alcohol treatment program. Also reviews the literature on FAS symptoms, outcomes, and incidence,…

  6. American Headache Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us American Migraine Foundation Login THE AMERICAN Headache Society is a professional society of health care providers dedicated to the study ... MIGRAINE MOMENT” FILM CONTEST WINNERS The American Headache Society and American Migraine Foundation, the AHS’s charitable division, ...

  7. Results from USGS Geodesy Projects Funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N. E.; Hudnut, K.; Leith, W. S.; Lisowski, M.; Murray-Moraleda, J. R.; Prentice, C. S.; Roeloffs, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) provided money to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for many projects, including improvements to earthquake and volcano monitoring. The USGS Earthquake Hazards Program's geodetic projects included station upgrades, a few new stations in special cases where new recurring costs would be minimal, new equipment and software tools, and improvements to geodetic infrastructure. USGS awarded $2.7 million for six cooperative agreements to the University of California, Berkeley (UCB); Central Washington University (CWU), University of California, San Diego (UCSD), and UNAVCO, Inc., with UCSD and UNAVCO each receiving two different grants. The cooperative agreements provided funding and government-furnished GNSS receivers and antennas to upgrade telemetry and replace obsolete equipment at GPS stations in California and the Pacific Northwest. The USGS Earthquake and Volcano Hazards Programs is upgrading USGS-operated GPS networks with ARRA-funded GNSS equipment. ARRA emphasized upgrades at existing stations. However, in cases where new stations eliminated existing costs or partners assumed costs, a few stations were built to install a demonstration fault slip sensor along the southern San Andreas fault and to enhance the USGS mission in the San Francisco Bay Area. GNSS equipment was added to existing seismic stations in northern California. The cooperative agreements also provided funding for replacement of borehole strainmeters in central California, and long-delayed infrastructure maintenance at UCSD's Piñon Flat and Durmid Hill observatories. Finally, the Earthquake Hazards Program used ARRA funding to acquire high-resolution LiDAR data in the eastern San Francisco Bay Area, the central California Coast Ranges, and the New Madrid Seismic Zone, and, in cooperation with the Volcano Hazards Program, to develop software for data visualization, editing and statistics.

  8. Examining science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools: A mixed methods study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, Kecia C.

    This dissertation examined factors that affected the science achievement of African American females in suburban middle schools. The research literature informed that African American females are facing the barriers of race, gender, socioeconomic status, and cultural learning style preferences. Nationally used measurements of science achievement such as the Standardized Achievement Test, Tenth edition (SAT-10), National Assessment for Educational Progress, and National Center for Educational Statistics showed that African American females are continuing to falter in the areas of science when compared to other ethnic groups. This study used a transformative sequential explanatory mixed methods design. In the first, quantitative, phase, the relationships among the dependent variables, science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores, yearly averages, and the independent variables, attitude toward science scores obtained from the Modified Fennema-Sherman Attitudes toward Science Scale, socioeconomics, and caregiver status were tested. The participants were 150 African American females in grades 6 through 8 in four suburban middle schools located in the Southeastern United States. The results showed a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitude and their science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores and a positive, significant linear relationship between the females' attitudes and their yearly averages in science. The results also confirmed that attitude was a significant predictor of science subscale SAT-10 NCE scores for these females and that attitude and socioeconomics were significant predictors of the females' yearly averages in science. In the second, qualitative, phase, nine females purposefully selected from those who had high and low attitude towards science scores on the scale in the quantitative phase were interviewed. The themes that emerged revealed seven additional factors that impacted the females' science achievement. They were usefulness of science

  9. Barwood CNG Cab Fleet Study: Final Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whalen, P.; Kelly, K.; John, M.

    1999-05-03

    This report describes a fleet study conducted over a 12-month period to evaluate the operation of dedicated compress natural gas (CNG) Ford Crown Victoria sedans in a taxicab fleet. In the study, we assess the performance and reliability of the vehicles and the cost of operating the CNG vehicles compared to gasoline vehicles. The study results reveal that the CNG vehicles operated by this fleet offer both economic and environmental advantages. The total operating costs of the CNG vehicles were about 25% lower than those of the gasoline vehicles. The CNG vehicles performed as well as the gasoline vehicles, and were just as reliable. Barwood representatives and drivers have come to consider the CNG vehicles an asset to their business and to the air quality of the local community.

  10. Thyroid doses to Belarussian children from the Chernobyl accident: results of an American-Belarussian collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI), in cooperation with the Ministry of Health of Belarus is involved in epidemiological studies of thyroid diseases in children presumably related to the Chernobyl accident. Within the framework of this study, individual thyroid absorbed doses, as well as uncertainties, have been estimated for all members of the cohort (11,918), who were selected from the large group of children aged 0 to 18 whose thyroids were monitored for gamma radiation within a few weeks after the accident. Information on the residence history and dietary habits of each cohort member was obtained during personal interviews. The methodology used to estimate the thyroid absorbed doses resulting from intakes of I 131 by the Belarussian cohort subjects is described. The model of thyroid dose estimation is run in two modes: deterministic and stochastic. In the stochastic mode, the model is run 1,000 times for each subject using a Monte-Carlo procedure. The geometric means of the individual thyroid absorbed doses obtained in the stochastic mode range from 0.0006 to 55 Gy. The arithmetic and geometric means of these individual thyroid absorbed doses over the entire cohort are found to be 1.39 and 0.35 Gy, respectively. On average, the individual thyroid dose estimates obtained in the deterministic mode are about the same as the geometric mean doses obtained in the stochastic mode, while the arithmetic mean thyroid absorbed doses obtained in the stochastic mode are about 25% higher than those obtained in the deterministic mode. The distributions of the 1000 values of the individual thyroid absorbed dose estimates are found to be approximately lognormal, with geometric standard deviations ranging from 1.7 to 4.2 for most cohort subjects. For the time being, only the thyroid doses resulting from intakes of I 131 have been estimated for all subjects. Future work will include the estimation of the contributions to the thyroid doses resulting from external

  11. The Lady in Blue: a Mexican American Cultural Studies Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nogar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La trajectoire déambulatoire de la narration transatlantique de la Dame Bleue exige une seule approche critique afin de contextualiser correctement toutes ses manifestations. Il est donc question, dans cet article, de la méthodologie employée dans l’étude de ce type de récit complexe, produit sous la colonisation au XVIIe siècle. En outre, il s’agit aussi de montrer comment la structure de cette méthodologie résulte du champ d’études culturelles mexicano-américaines, et plus particulièrement des travaux entrepris par Américo Paredes, José Limón, Richard Flores et Domino Perez, ainsi que de l’ouvrage critique Images at War de Serge Gruzinksi.The peripatetic four-hundred year trajectory of the transatlantic Lady in Blue narrative demands a unique analytical approach to effectively contextualize its diverse manifestations. This paper discusses the methodology employed in the study of this multifaceted 17th-century colonizing narrative, drawing from the field of Mexican American cultural studies, particularly the works of Américo Paredes, José Limón, Richard Flores and Domino Perez, and from Serge Gruzinski’s Images at War.La trayectoria peripatética de la narrativa transatlántica de la Dama Azul exige un acercamiento crítico único para contextualizar eficazmente sus manifestaciones diversas. Este trabajo trata la metodología empleada en el estudio de esta narrativa multifacética de la colonización del siglo 17, que deriva sus estructura del campo de estudios culturales mexicanoamericanos, en particular de los trabajos de Américo Paredes, José Limón, Richard Flores and Domino Perez, y también del trabajo crítico de Serge Gruzinksi Images at War.

  12. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z; Tucker, Katherine L; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952

  13. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalskys, Irina; Fisberg, Mauro; Gómez, Georgina; Rigotti, Attilio; Cortés, Lilia Yadira; Yépez, Martha Cecilia; Pareja, Rossina G.; Herrera-Cuenca, Marianella; Zimberg, Ioná Z.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Koletzko, Berthold; Pratt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R) program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region. PMID:26389952

  14. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Kovalskys

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American countries. A standard study protocol was designed to investigate dietary intake of 9000 participants enrolled. Two 24-h recalls using the Multiple Pass Method were applied among the individuals of all countries. Data from 24-h dietary recalls were entered into the Nutrition Data System for Research (NDS-R program after a harmonization process between countries to include local foods and appropriately adapt the NDS-R database. A food matching standardized procedure involving nutritional equivalency of local food reported by the study participants with foods available in the NDS-R database was strictly conducted by each country. Standardization of food and nutrient assessments has the potential to minimize systematic and random errors in nutrient intake estimations in the ELANS project. This study is expected to result in a unique dataset for Latin America, enabling cross-country comparisons of energy, macro- and micro-nutrient intake within this region.

  15. Role of Social Support in Examining Acculturative Stress and Psychological Distress Among Asian American Immigrants and Three Sub-groups: Results from NLAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups. PMID:25910620

  16. Hydraulic fracture model comparison study: Complete results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warpinski, N.R. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Abou-Sayed, I.S. [Mobil Exploration and Production Services (United States); Moschovidis, Z. [Amoco Production Co. (US); Parker, C. [CONOCO (US)

    1993-02-01

    Large quantities of natural gas exist in low permeability reservoirs throughout the US. Characteristics of these reservoirs, however, make production difficult and often economic and stimulation is required. Because of the diversity of application, hydraulic fracture design models must be able to account for widely varying rock properties, reservoir properties, in situ stresses, fracturing fluids, and proppant loads. As a result, fracture simulation has emerged as a highly complex endeavor that must be able to describe many different physical processes. The objective of this study was to develop a comparative study of hydraulic-fracture simulators in order to provide stimulation engineers with the necessary information to make rational decisions on the type of models most suited for their needs. This report compares the fracture modeling results of twelve different simulators, some of them run in different modes for eight separate design cases. Comparisons of length, width, height, net pressure, maximum width at the wellbore, average width at the wellbore, and average width in the fracture have been made, both for the final geometry and as a function of time. For the models in this study, differences in fracture length, height and width are often greater than a factor of two. In addition, several comparisons of the same model with different options show a large variability in model output depending upon the options chosen. Two comparisons were made of the same model run by different companies; in both cases the agreement was good. 41 refs., 54 figs., 83 tabs.

  17. The Racial and Ethnic Identity Formation Process of Second-Generation Asian Indian Americans: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; Negi, Nalini Junko; Partiali, Rachel Negar; Creswell, John W.

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study elucidates the identity development processes of 12 second-generation adult Asian Indian Americans. The results identify salient sociocultural factors and multidimensional processes of racial and ethnic identity development. Discrimination, parental, and community factors seemed to play a salient role in influencing…

  18. Experiences and Perspectives of African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American Psychology Graduate Students: A National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maton, Kenneth I.; Wimms, Harriette E.; Grant, Sheila K.; Wittig, Michele A.; Rogers, Margaret R.; Vasquez, Melba J. T.

    2011-01-01

    A national, web-based survey of 1,222 African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color differed from European-American students in perceptions of fairness of rep...

  19. Diabetes in Native Americans: elevated risk as a result of exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, Zafar; Haase, Richard; Carpenter, David O

    2016-03-01

    We have studied rates of diabetes in 601 members of the Mohawk Nation at Akwesasne, ages 18-84 years, in relation to serum concentrations of 101 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners and three chlorinated pesticides [dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and mirex]. Diabetes was determined from either a diagnosis by a physician or by having a fasting glucose concentration of >125 mg/dL. Rates of diabetes are high in this community. Three models were used. In the first model rate ratios (RR) were determined for quartiles of total PCBs after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI) and total serum lipids. For total PCBs RR=2.21 (1.2-4.2), while for total pesticides RR=3.75 (1.3-10.7). When the total PCB results were also adjusted for total pesticides and the total pesticide results were also adjusted for total PCBs (Model 2) the RRs were somewhat reduced. In Model 3 we considered subgroups of PCBs based on numbers of chlorines on the molecule (tri-/tetra, penta-/hexa, hepta plus) and numbers of ortho chlorines (non-/mono; di-, tri-/tetra-), and considered each of the pesticides individually after adjustment for all other contaminants as well as age, sex, BMI and serum lipids. We found a highly significant association between diabetes and PCBs with only three or four chlorines (RR=5.02), but no significant association with those with greater chlorination. When evaluating PCBs based on numbers of ortho chlorines only, those with no or one ortho chlorine showed significant associations. As mono-ortho PCBs include some with dioxin-like activity, we compared those with and without a TEF, and found that the association with diabetes was exclusively with the non-dioxin-like congeners. Of the pesticides only hexachlorobenzene showed a small but significant association with diabetes. Because lower chlorinated PCBs are more volatile and do not greatly accumulate in fish, these results suggest that inhalation is the major route of exposure to

  20. The historical study of an ethics for American pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, K; Okuda, J

    1999-01-01

    The Code of Ethics for pharmacists clarifies the standards of professional conduct. The code should be positively enforced in every country, and must play its role as the conduct standard for pharmacists at all times. American pharmacists did not suddenly become ethical in the 1980s. An appreciation of the importance of professional ethics has a long history starting when the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy adopted a Code of Ethics in 1848. Since the first legislation of the American Pharmacy Code of Ethics as far back as 1852, the code has been revised in 1922, 1952, 1969, 1981 and 1994. The term of between revisions has gotten shorter over the years, reflecting the change in the status and the proficiency of pharmacists in 146 years. Its historical meaning is quite significant. PMID:11623965

  1. Standardization of the Food Composition Database Used in the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study (ELANS)

    OpenAIRE

    Irina Kovalskys; Mauro Fisberg; Georgina Gómez; Attilio Rigotti; Lilia Yadira Cortés; Martha Cecilia Yépez; Rossina G. Pareja; Marianella Herrera-Cuenca; Ioná Z. Zimberg; Tucker, Katherine L.; Berthold Koletzko; Michael Pratt; on behalf of the ELANS Study Group

    2015-01-01

    Between-country comparisons of estimated dietary intake are particularly prone to error when different food composition tables are used. The objective of this study was to describe our procedures and rationale for the selection and adaptation of available food composition to a single database to enable cross-country nutritional intake comparisons. Latin American Study of Nutrition and Health (ELANS) is a multicenter cross-sectional study of representative samples from eight Latin American cou...

  2. Assessment of genotype imputation performance using 1000 Genomes in African American studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana B Hancock

    Full Text Available Genotype imputation, used in genome-wide association studies to expand coverage of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, has performed poorly in African Americans compared to less admixed populations. Overall, imputation has typically relied on HapMap reference haplotype panels from Africans (YRI, European Americans (CEU, and Asians (CHB/JPT. The 1000 Genomes project offers a wider range of reference populations, such as African Americans (ASW, but their imputation performance has had limited evaluation. Using 595 African Americans genotyped on Illumina's HumanHap550v3 BeadChip, we compared imputation results from four software programs (IMPUTE2, BEAGLE, MaCH, and MaCH-Admix and three reference panels consisting of different combinations of 1000 Genomes populations (February 2012 release: (1 3 specifically selected populations (YRI, CEU, and ASW; (2 8 populations of diverse African (AFR or European (AFR descent; and (3 all 14 available populations (ALL. Based on chromosome 22, we calculated three performance metrics: (1 concordance (percentage of masked genotyped SNPs with imputed and true genotype agreement; (2 imputation quality score (IQS; concordance adjusted for chance agreement, which is particularly informative for low minor allele frequency [MAF] SNPs; and (3 average r2hat (estimated correlation between the imputed and true genotypes, for all imputed SNPs. Across the reference panels, IMPUTE2 and MaCH had the highest concordance (91%-93%, but IMPUTE2 had the highest IQS (81%-83% and average r2hat (0.68 using YRI+ASW+CEU, 0.62 using AFR+EUR, and 0.55 using ALL. Imputation quality for most programs was reduced by the addition of more distantly related reference populations, due entirely to the introduction of low frequency SNPs (MAF≤2% that are monomorphic in the more closely related panels. While imputation was optimized by using IMPUTE2 with reference to the ALL panel (average r2hat = 0.86 for SNPs with MAF>2%, use of the ALL

  3. Results from NICLAKES Survey of Active Faulting Beneath Lake Managua,Central American Volcanic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, K.; Funk, J.; Mann, P.; Perez, P.; Strauch, W.

    2006-12-01

    Lake Managua covers an area of 1,035 km2 of the Central American volcanic arc and is enclosed by three major stratovolcanoes: Momotombo to the northwest was last active in AD 1905, Apoyeque in the center on the Chiltepe Peninsula was last active ca. 4600 years BP, and Masaya to the southeast was last active in AD 2003. A much smaller volcano in the lake (Momotombito) is thought to have been active <4500 yrs B.P. In May of 2006, we used a chartered barge to collect 330 km of 3.5 kHz profiler data along with coincident 274 km of sidescan sonar and 27 km of seismic reflection data. These data identify three zones of faulting on the lake floor: 1) A zone of north-northeast-striking faults in the shallow (2.5-7.5 m deep) eastern part of the lake that extends from the capital city of Managua, which was severely damaged by shallow, left-lateral strike-slip displacements on two of these faults in 1931 (M 5.6) and 1972 (M 6.2): these faults exhibit a horst and graben character and include possible offsets on drowned river valleys 2) a semicircular rift zone that is 1 km wide and can be traced over a distance of 30 km in the central part of the lake; the rift structure defines the deepest parts of the lake ranging from 12 to 18 m deep and is concentric about the Apoyeque stratocone/Chiltepe Peninsula; and 3) a zone of fault scarps defining the northwestern lake shore that may correlate to the northwestern extension of the Mateare fault zone, a major scarp-forming fault that separates the Managua lowlands from the highlands south and west of the city. Following previous workers, we interpret the northeast- trending group of faults in the eastern part of the lake as part of a 15-km-long discontinuity where the trend of the volcanic arc is offset in a right-lateral sense. The semi-circular pattern of the rift zone that is centered on Chiltepe Peninsula appears to have formed as a distal effect of either magma intrusion or withdrawal from beneath this volcanic complex. The

  4. Results and future programme of HTR's study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study on the application of HTRs for the enhanced oil recovery in the Duri oil field (Sumatra, Indonesia) was performed in 1986/1987. The economic and technological advantages over crude burning option were identified. Crude oil prices, HTR capital costs, discount rates and company's income structure represented dominant parameters. Further sensitivity calculations on important economic parameters were obtained to reflect the condition of 1988. This nuclear option was also incorporated in the energy planning study for the whole of Indonesia using the MARKAL model, and resulted in the conditions of its applicability. The scenarios chosen in this MARKAL study were high and low GDP growth rate, whereas the criteria chosen were the minimum cost with and without a predetermined policy of reduced domestic use of oil. In the high scenario the HTRs as well as the natural gas options could not compete against the low cost boilers with crude-oil fuel. But in the case of reduced domestic oil use the HTRs came out to supplement the crudeburning boilers starting in the sixth five year plan (1994-999), even earlier than the natural gas option. The authors further discuss the industrial environment, in relation to the regional development, the possible local participation, as well as the plan to materialize the merits of this novel application. (author)

  5. An exploratory study of sexual assertiveness and characteristics of African American women in negotiating condom use at an HBCU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Chalice C; Kennedy, Bernice Roberts

    2013-01-01

    The transmission of HIV/AIDS among African American women through heterosexual sex is an epidemic. Critical themes extracted from the HIV/AIDS sexual assertiveness literature revealed that: (a) sexual assertiveness is related to HIV risk, (b) sexual assertiveness is related to communication, and (c) women with low sexual assertiveness are at risk for HIV. This descriptive study sought to answer the following research question: What do young adult college attending African American women self-report about asking information about their partner's sexual history? The multifaceted model of HIV risk is the theoretical framework which guided this descriptive study. A basic tenet of the multifaceted model of HIV risk is that there is no single predictor of women's HIV risk behavior. Results revealed that 104 young adult college attending African American women who volunteered to attend a one day HIV prevention training overall scored high on a Sexual Assertive Scale on subscales of Information Communication, Refusal, and Pregnancy/STD Prevention Subscale, and scored in the medium range on the Initiation Subscales. The Information Communication and Pregnancy/ STD Prevention Subscale received the highest scores. More research is needed targeting diverse African American females with different socioeconomic status, various locations, and educated to determine their sexual assertiveness with partners which are essential in developing specific programs for diverse groups of African American females. PMID:24279130

  6. A study of the lived experiences of African American women STEM doctoral degree completers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Stephanie Michelle

    This study examined the lived experiences of African American women (AAW) who completed doctoral degrees in a STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) discipline in the United States. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature by examining how AAW described and made meaning of lived STEM educational experiences during doctoral degree completion in the context of the intersection of being African American and a woman. This study utilized a theoretical perspective based upon three theories: (a) critical race theory as a framework to gather AAW's narratives about STEM doctorate education, (b) Black feminist thought as a framework to view the intersection of being African American and a woman in the United States, and (c) the science identity model as a framework to view how women of color successfully complete scientific graduate degrees. Participants revealed that being an African American and a woman in a STEM doctoral program often complicated an already difficult process of completing the doctoral degree. The participants described the educational experience as challenging, particularly the writing of the dissertation. The challenges that the participants faced were due to various factors such as difficult advisor/advisee relationships, tedious writing and revision processes, politics, and lack of information regarding the doctoral degree process. The findings suggested that AAW participants confronted intrinsic bias while completing STEM doctoral degrees, which led to isolation and feelings of being an impostor---or feelings of not belonging in scientific studies. The findings also indicated that the women in this study ascribed success in dissertation writing and degree completion to one or more of the following attributes: (a) having a clear plan, (b) taking ownership of the writing process, (c) having an engaged advisor, (d) learning the writing style of the advisor, (e) understanding the temperament of the advisor, (f) personal will

  7. Latin American immigrants have limited access to health insurance in Japan: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suguimoto S Pilar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Japan provides universal health insurance to all legal residents. Prior research has suggested that immigrants to Japan disproportionately lack health insurance coverage, but no prior study has used rigorous methodology to examine this issue among Latin American immigrants in Japan. The aim of our study, therefore, was to assess the pattern of health insurance coverage and predictors of uninsurance among documented Latin American immigrants in Japan. Methods We used a cross sectional, mixed method approach using a probability proportional to estimated size sampling procedure. Of 1052 eligible Latin American residents mapped through extensive fieldwork in selected clusters, 400 immigrant residents living in Nagahama City, Japan were randomly selected for our study. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire developed from qualitative interviews. Results Our response rate was 70.5% (n = 282. Respondents were mainly from Brazil (69.9%, under 40 years of age (64.5% and had lived in Japan for 9.45 years (SE 0.44; median, 8.00. We found a high prevalence of uninsurance (19.8% among our sample compared with the estimated national average of 1.3% in the general population. Among the insured full time workers (n = 209, 55.5% were not covered by the Employee's Health Insurance. Many immigrants cited financial trade-offs as the main reasons for uninsurance. Lacking of knowledge that health insurance is mandatory in Japan, not having a chronic disease, and having one or no children were strong predictors of uninsurance. Conclusions Lack of health insurance for immigrants in Japan is a serious concern for this population as well as for the Japanese health care system. Appropriate measures should be taken to facilitate access to health insurance for this vulnerable population.

  8. Invasive aspergillosis: results of multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Klimko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a multicenter study of 445 patients with “proven” and “probable” invasive aspergillosis (EORTC/MSG, 2008. Invasive aspergillosis usually occurs in patients with hematological malignancies (88 %, main underlying diseases were acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The risk factors: prolonged agranulocytosis (64 %, cytostatic chemotherapy (57 %, corticosteroid treatment (45 %, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (29 %. The pathogens – A. fumigatus (42 %, A. niger (33 %, and A. flavus (21 %. The main site of infection were lungs (86 %. 12 week overall survival was 83 %. Bronchoscopy use for the early diagnosis (p = 0.01, adequatetherapy with voriconazole (p = 0.002 and secondary antifungal prophylaxis (p = 0.0003 were positive prognostic factors for survival of patients with invasive aspergillosis.

  9. Invasive aspergillosis: results of multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Klimko

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a multicenter study of 445 patients with “proven” and “probable” invasive aspergillosis (EORTC/MSG, 2008. Invasive aspergillosis usually occurs in patients with hematological malignancies (88 %, main underlying diseases were acute myeloid and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The risk factors: prolonged agranulocytosis (64 %, cytostatic chemotherapy (57 %, corticosteroid treatment (45 %, and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (29 %. The pathogens – A. fumigatus (42 %, A. niger (33 %, and A. flavus (21 %. The main site of infection were lungs (86 %. 12 week overall survival was 83 %. Bronchoscopy use for the early diagnosis (p = 0.01, adequatetherapy with voriconazole (p = 0.002 and secondary antifungal prophylaxis (p = 0.0003 were positive prognostic factors for survival of patients with invasive aspergillosis.

  10. Does CSR Foster Inclusion and Diversity? An Exploratory Study of Ibero American Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, E.; Susaeta, L.; Alcaraz, J.M.; Perelló, R.; Colon, C; Gutierrez, I.; Cunha, R.; Leguizamón , F.; Idrobo, S.; Weisz, N. (Natalia); Correia, M.; Apascaritei, P.; Pin , José Ramón

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to develop the theoretical concept of the social dimension of corporate social responsibility (CSR) through an empirical study focusing on the Ibero-American hospitality industry. We examined social initiatives in general and, in particular, diversity and social inclusion initiatives in four different Ibero-American countries: Argentina, Colombia, Mexico and Spain. We conducted 54 interviews involving 37 hotel chains. Our study revealed that a significant number of the actions...

  11. Depression, Anxiety, and Suicidal Ideation Among Chinese Americans: A Study of Immigration-Related Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jie; Fang, Le; Wu, Yow-Wu B.; Wieczorek, William F.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation disparities among Chinese Americans and how immigration-related factors affected the outcomes. We tried to explain the differences as a function of the Chinese culture. Data were derived from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first national epidemiological survey of these populations in the United States. We used only the Chinese sample (N = 600) and focused on depressive disorder, anxiety disorde...

  12. Managing for Development Results at the Inter-American Development Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Koldo Echebarría

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides effective management strategies and instruments to measure results of interventions at the project and country level. The presenter includes portions of the Development Effectiveness Matrix as well as a review of the Progress Monitoring Report and results-based budgeting.

  13. Dopaminergic Polymorphisms and Educational Achievement: Results from a Longitudinal Sample of Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Wright, John Paul; DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Although educational attainment has been found to be moderately heritable, research has yet to explore candidate genes for it. Drawing on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, in the current study, we examined the association between polymorphisms in three dopaminergic genes (DAT1, DRD2, and DRD4), a dopamine index, and…

  14. Political Cartoons in the EFL and American Studies Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christianna Stavroudis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Political cartoons are anything but innocent caricatures. They have been described as “a confrontational art form” (Oliphant 25, as “purposefully designed to elicit strong emotions and reactions from readers” (Long, Bunch, and Lloyd 651, and as “among the more extreme forms of expression” (Long, Bunch, and Lloyd 651. Stories abound with the harsh punishments endured by political cartoonists under oppressive regimes. One might even say that what allows liberal and conservative American cartoonists to feel any sense of solidarity with one another is their bond through the First Amendment and their belief in the democratic enterprise that is criticizing government.

  15. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  16. Essential elements of treatment: a comparative study between European and American therapeutic communities for addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, Ilse; Soyez, Veerle; Melnick, Gerald; De Leon, George; Broekaert, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether European and American therapeutic communities (TCs) for addiction, both traditional and modified, share a common perspective on what is essential in treatment using the Survey of Essential Elements Questionnaire (SEEQ). The European sample (N = 19) was gathered in 2009. For the American sample (N = 19), we used previously published research data. Despite comparable perspectives, European traditional TCs (N = 11) scored significantly higher than their American predecessors (N = 11) on four SEEQ domains. Cluster differences were more pronounced in Europe than in America. PMID:21235341

  17. The Mediated Figure of Hmong Farmer, Hmong Studies, and Asian American Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Niu Wilcox

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is two-fold: First, it argues for critical engagement between Hmong Studies and Asian American Studies. Second, to illustrate the productivity of such engagement,this article analyzes the media coverage of an incident involving Hmong American farmers and their white neighbors in Eagan, Minnesota, June 2010. The focal question is how media discourses around farming and immigration serve to racialize Hmong American identities. Thisanalysis shows that Hmong Americans experience “Asiatic racialization” in that they are either discursively cast outside of the imagined American nation, or included contingent uponassimilation and conformity. Critiquing both the exclusionary and assimilative narratives, this article explicates the inherent contradictions of the U.S. nationalism, referencing both existingHmong Studies literature and Asian Americanist discourses on race and nation. Both bodies of work foreground the historical and social construction of identities, as well as the simultaneous,intertwined workings of race, class, gender/sexuality and nation. Critical dialogues could generate new ideas and possibilities for both Asian American Studies and Hmong Studies.

  18. A Study on Cross-Cultural Adjustment of Japanese and American Expatriates in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xingying Zhou; Jie Qin

    2009-01-01

    A survey has been made on Japanese and American business expatriates who are currently working in China in order to explore the relationship between cultural distance and expatriate adjustment. Based on the reviewed literature and the theory, the authors put forward two hypotheses which are tested by a specially designed 34-item questionnaire distributed to 41 Japanese subjects and 53 American subjects. The results partly prove the expectation that cultural distance is negatively correlated w...

  19. A Comparative Study on Chinese and American Sports News Reports on Print Media

    OpenAIRE

    Haixin Yao

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we give the research data which shows that the refining of the content of the important American news is worth learning, which often express the important content of the article with just a few short words. The function of the American sports version locates explicitly and the daily publication are reported with the classification of sports. As for worldwide major tournaments, the United States all attaches great importance, not only designate the special monograph to report, b...

  20. Religious Authority in African American Churches: A Study of Six Churches

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary

    2011-01-01

    A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congre...

  1. Chemical and pharmacological studies of saponins with a focus on American ginseng

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Chun-Su; WANG, CHONG-ZHI; Wicks, Sheila M.; Qi, Lian-Wen

    2010-01-01

    Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) and American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) are the two most recognized ginseng botanicals. It is believed that the ginseng saponins called ginsenosides are the major active constituents in both ginsengs. Although American ginseng is not as extensively studied as Asian ginseng, it is one of the best selling herbs in the U.S., and has garnered increasing attention from scientists in recent years. In this article, after a brief introduction of the distribution an...

  2. The Treatment of Depressed Chinese Americans Using Qigong in a Health Care Setting: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Yeung; Lauren E. Slipp; Jolene Jacquart; Maurizio Fava; Denninger, John W.; Herbert Benson; Fricchione, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    Background. This pilot study examined the feasibility and efficacy of providing Qigong treatment in a health center to Chinese Americans with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods. Fourteen Chinese Americans with MDD were enrolled, and they received a 12-week Qigong intervention. The key outcome measurement was the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D17); the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S) and -Improvement (CGI-I), the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction...

  3. Considering Context, Place, and Culture: The National Latino and Asian American Study

    OpenAIRE

    Alegria, Margarita; Takeuchi, David; Canino, Glorisa; Duan, Naihua; Shrout, Patrick; Meng, Xiao-Li; Vega, William; Zane, Nolan; Vila, Doryliz; Woo, Meghan; Vera, Mildred; Guarnaccia, Peter; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Sue, Stanley; Escobar, Javier

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a rationale and overview of procedures used to develop the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). The NLAAS is nationally representative community household survey that estimates the prevalence of mental disorders and rates of mental health service utilization of Latinos and Asian Americans in the United States. The central aims of the NLAAS are to: 1) describe the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the rates of mental health services ...

  4. U.S. Forest Disturbance Evaluated using Landsat Observations and FIA Measurements: Initial Results and Ongoing Research in the North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Goward, S. N.; Masek, J.; Cohen, W. B.; Moisen, G. G.; Huang, C.; Kennedy, R. E.; Healey, S. P.; Powell, S. L.; Schleeweis, K.; Hinds, A.; Rishmawi, K.

    2009-12-01

    The importance of forests as carbon sources or sinks depends, in part, upon stand age, which in turn is generally dependent on time since last disturbance. Uncertainties in North American carbon fluxes originate from poor understanding of forest dynamics, specifically disturbance and regeneration. The North American Forest Dynamics (NAFD) study, which supports North American Carbon Program (NACP) science goals, is improving understanding of North American forest dynamics through integration of U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service (USFS) Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) field observations and biennial Landsat imagery to evaluate disturbance and regrowth patterns over the last ~ 35 years. NAFD Phase I (2005-2008) detailed forest disturbance history from Landsat time series stacks (LTSS) for 23 sample locations across the United States. Results of Phase I NAFD disturbance mapping reveal generally high rates of forest disturbance (0.5 - 3.0% per year across the U.S). These rates vary both spatially and temporally. Ongoing Phase II (2008-2011) work is refining the Phase I approach. Additional sample locations in the conterminous U.S are being added to reduce error in nationwide disturbance estimates. Detection of partial disturbances is being improved by moving toward annual rather then biennial LTSS. This is being accomplished with cloud clearing through image merging to provide within-growing season clear surface views. Additional elements of the NAFD Phase II work include partnering with Canada and Mexico to better understand North American continent-wide forest dynamics. We are also extending our effort to consider regrowth dynamics using the FIA data to support both radiative transfer modeling and synthesis of FIA and the remote sensing data to estimate biomass accumulation trends. We are also collaborating with other NACP- investigators where the NAFD products inform their alternate approaches (modeling and/ or accounting) for carbon assessment

  5. Shippingport aging studies - results and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the materials obtained from the primary- and secondary-coolant systems and the neutron shield tank of the Shippingport reactor and the initial work done to characterize the materials. The samples from the primary- and secondary-coolant systems include primary coolant system valves, sections of a coolant pipe, a main steam pipe, a feedwater pipe, an instrument pipe, a purification pipe, and a fuel pool pipe; and two cast pump volutes. Eleven samples, approximately 6 in. in diameter were obtained from the inner wall of the shield tank along with the corresponding samples from the very slightly irradiated outer wall. Test plans and initial Charpy-impact test data for the shield tank material are presented. Although large uncertainties exist at present, the preliminary results suggest that the changes in transition temperature are not as sever as might be expected on the basis of the changes observed in HFIR. However, the actual value of the transition temperature is high, and the toughness at service temperature is low, even when compared with the HFIR data. The chemical composition, hardness, and the amount and distribution of ferrite for the cast materials obtained from Shippingport are described. All materials are CF-8-grade cast stainless steel. Examination of specimens from the valves by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed very finely scaled mottle images (∼ 1-2 nm) in the ferrite, which are known to be characteristic of α' prime formation by spinodal decomposition. G phase was also observed in the ferrite. These observations are consistent with studies on laboratory-aged materials. 6 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs

  6. The acquisition of Arabic geminate consonants by American English speakers: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelfattah A. Moftah

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the acquisition of some Arabic geminate consonants by American English speakers learning Arabic. The study starts by describing the phonetic and phonological characteristics of geminate and long consonants and how they differ in nature and distribution from singleton consonants. Two groups of native and non-native speakers (American learners of Cairene Arabic were recorded as producing one sentence that carries the token geminate consonants. The productions of the Arabic geminate consonants by the two groups are described and compared to study the features of such geminate sounds when produced by non-native learners of Arabic. The phonological and phonetic characteristics of these consonants in the production of the non-native group are discussed to see how far they were successful in their overall achievement of the task they were assigned in the experiment. The results of the production study show that non-native speakers of Cairene Arabic produced significantly longer Arabic geminates in general, particularly stops and nasals.  Non-native informants also produced significantly different adjacent vowels to the target geminates from those produced by the native informants in the study. A perception experiment was carried out to verify the acceptability of the produced sounds by non-natives using native speakers of Cairene Arabic as listeners. Native listeners were able to identify the production of Arabic geminates by non native speakers as different in the present study. The results of the perception test clearly reflect the findings of the production experiments. Key Words: Geminates- Arabic- Optimality theory- non native speakers

  7. Understanding fruit and vegetable intake of Native American children: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinley, Rachel C; Albrecht, Julie A

    2016-06-01

    Native American children experience greater rates of obesity and risk for chronic diseases in comparison to their counterparts in other ethnic groups. Contributing to this risk may be inadequate consumption of fruits and vegetables. The objective of this study was to investigate the fruit and vegetable consumption of Native American children between the ages of 2 and 5 by using an exploratory sequential mixed methods research design. This study first collected qualitative data from caregivers of Native American children (n = 45) and stakeholders in Native American communities (n = 10) to gain perspectives of fruit and vegetable consumption. Data was then utilized to develop a fruit and vegetable survey which was administered with a fruit and vegetable food frequency questionnaire. These quantitative assessments were administered to caregivers of Native American children (n = 92) to gain an understanding of predictors of fruit and vegetable intake among this population. This study was guided by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model of health behavior. Findings from the mixed methods analysis demonstrate that, while the IMB model may be a useful tool to utilize in explaining the complex relationship between factors that impact fruit and vegetable consumption among Native American children, a revised model may be appropriate to use in future intervention development. PMID:26964690

  8. Hurricane Val in American Samoa: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On Monday, December 9, 1991, Hurricane Val hit American Samoa. Along with the many homes and buildings that had been destroyed, nine abandoned fishing vessels were torn from their mooring and washed up onto the reef in Pago Pago Harbor. Several hundred gallons of diesel fuel were released into the water; about 12,000 gallons remained onboard the vessels. The efforts of the US Coast Guard (USCG), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Samoa Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA), and local contractors helped mitigate the damage. The USCG Pacific Strike Team (PST) was tasked with monitoring, removing, and disposing of the petroleum products that remained onboard the vessels. The strike team also investigated reports of chemical spills throughout the island

  9. The impact of gout on patient’s lives: a study of African-American and Caucasian men and women with gout

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jasvinder A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the impact of gout on quality of life (QOL) and study differences by gender and race. Methods Ten race- and sex-stratified nominal groups were conducted, oversampling for African-Americans and women with gout. Patients presented, discussed, combined and rank-ordered their concerns. Results A total of 62 patients with mean age 65.1 years, 60% men, 64% African-American, participated in 10 nominal groups: African-American men (n = 23; 3 groups); ...

  10. The North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP): Status and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutowski, W. J.

    2009-12-01

    NARCCAP is a multi-institutional program that is investigating systematically the uncertainties in regional scale simulations of contemporary climate and projections of future climate. NARCCAP is supported by multiple federal agencies. NARCCAP is producing an ensemble of high-resolution climate-change scenarios by nesting multiple RCMs in reanalyses and multiple atmosphere-ocean GCM simulations of contemporary and future-scenario climates. The RCM domains cover the contiguous U.S., northern Mexico, and most of Canada. The simulation suite also includes time-slice, high resolution GCMs that use sea-surface temperatures from parent atmosphere-ocean GCMs. The baseline resolution of the RCMs and time-slice GCMs is 50 km. Simulations use three sources of boundary conditions: National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Department of Energy (DOE) AMIP-II Reanalysis, GCMs simulating contemporary climate and GCMs using the A2 SRES emission scenario for the twenty-first century. Simulations cover 1979-2004 and 2038-2060, with the first 3 years discarded for spin-up. The resulting RCM and time-slice simulations offer opportunity for extensive analysis of RCM simulations as well as a basis for multiple high-resolution climate scenarios for climate change impacts assessments. Geophysical statisticians are developing measures of uncertainty from the ensemble. To enable very high-resolution simulations of specific regions, both RCM and high-resolution time-slice simulations are saving output needed for further downscaling. All output is publically available to the climate analysis and the climate impacts assessment community, through an archiving and data-distribution plan. Some initial results show that the models closely reproduce ENSO-related precipitation variations in coastal California, where the correlation between the simulated and observed monthly time series exceeds 0.94 for all models. The strong El Nino events of 1982-83 and 1997-98 are well reproduced for

  11. Encouraging Sustainable Transport Choices in American Households: Results from an Empirically Grounded Agent-Based Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Natalini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport sector needs to go through an extended process of decarbonisation to counter the threat of climate change. Unfortunately, the International Energy Agency forecasts an enormous growth in the number of cars and greenhouse gas emissions by 2050. Two issues can thus be identified: (1 the need for a new methodology that could evaluate the policy performances ex-ante and (2 the need for more effective policies. To help address these issues, we developed an Agent-Based Model called Mobility USA aimed at: (1 testing whether this could be an effective approach in analysing ex-ante policy implementation in the transport sector; and (2 evaluating the effects of alternative policy scenarios on commuting behaviours in the USA. Particularly, we tested the effects of two sets of policies, namely market-based and preference-change ones. The model results suggest that this type of agent-based approach will provide a useful tool for testing policy interventions and their effectiveness.

  12. Actually Existing Indian Nations: Modernity, Diversity, and the Future of Native American Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Scott Richard

    2011-01-01

    The field of Native American studies was invented during the 1960s, a product of the Red Power civil rights movement, which is to suggest that it shares an origin story with ethnic studies in general. The field was at the center of the ethnic studies movement, and it radically transformed how Native peoples and cultures were studied. The author…

  13. A Comparative Study of the Use of Collocation in Iranian High School Textbooks and American English File Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shahrokhi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the extent to which lexical and grammatical collocations are used in Iranian high school English textbooks, compared with the American English File books. To achieve the purposes of this study, this study had to be carried out in two phases. In the first phase, the content of the instructional textbooks, that is, American English File book series, Book 2 and Iranian high school English Book 3, were analyzed to find the frequencies and proportions of the collocations used in the textbooks. Since the instructional textbooks used in the two teaching environments (i.e., Iranian high schools and language institutes were not equal with regard to the density of texts, from each textbook just the first 6000 words, content words as well as function words, were considered. Then, the frequencies of the collocations among the first 6000 words in high school English Book 3 and American English File Book 2 were determined.The results of the statistical analyses revealed that the two text book series differ marginally in terms of frequency and type of collocations. Major difference existed between them when it came to lexical collocations in American English File book 2.Keywords: Grammatical and lexical collocation, Textbook, Public school, Language institute.

  14. An acoustical study of English word stress produced by Americans and Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Byunggon

    2002-05-01

    Acoustical correlates of stress can be divided into duration, intensity, and fundamental frequency. This study examined the acoustical difference in the first two syllables of stressed English words produced by ten American and Korean speakers. The Korean subjects scored very high in TOEFL. They read, at a normal speed, a fable from which the acoustical parameters of eight words were analyzed. In order to make the data comparison meaningful, each parameter was collected at 100 dynamic time points proportional to the total duration of the two syllables. Then, the ratio of the parameter sum of the first rime to that of the second rime was calculated to determine the relative prominence of the syllables. Results showed that the durations of the first two syllables were almost comparable between the Americans and Koreans. However, statistically significant differences showed up in the diphthong pronunciations and in the words with the second syllable stressed. Also, remarkably high r-squared values were found between pairs of the three acoustical parameters, which suggests that either one or a combination of two or more parameters may account for the prominence of a syllable within a word. [Work supported by Korea Science Foundation R01-1999-00229.

  15. Seismic Study of the Southernmost Andes. The Contact Between Scotia and South American Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassone, A.; Cominguez, A. H.; Yagupsky, D.; Alvarado, P.; Lodolo, E.; Menichetti, M.

    2003-12-01

    The relationships between the sinistral Magallanes-Fagnano continental transform fault (MFS), a major segment of the boundary between Scotia-South American plates, and the northern flank of the western Scotia Sea, characterized mostly by compressional structures, have not been yet clearly identified. From data processing, depth seismic-migration modeling and interpretation of 800 km of seismic reflection profiles, this study presents one morpho-structural analysis of these two main tectonic elements. In the offshore part of the Malvinas fold-and-thrust belt, five main seismic units have been recognized. Steeply dipping (mainly to the south) reverse faults cut through the folds. Some of these faults represent old extensional faults of the Middle-Mesozoic Rocas Verdes marginal basin rifting, which have been subsequently inverted by compressional stress fields. A noticeable fault system is recognized in the seismic profile, which involves both the sedimentary cover and the acoustic basement. This fault is interpreted as the result of shear stresses produced along the transcurrent South American-Scotia plate boundary. In the SW border of Malvinas Basin, four major discontinuities were recognized. Each discontinuity represents important changes in the regional geodynamic evolution: Early-Late Jurassic rift; Thermal subsidence (Late Jurassic-Late Cretaceous); Transitional stage, to Foreland basin (Late Cretaceous-Eocene) and Foreland (since Eocene).

  16. Shippingport aging studies: Results and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this program is to develop an understanding of the metallurgical phenomena that may occur in nuclear reactor structural materials as a consequence of extended service at operating temperatures within and outside of the radiation environment and to assess the impact of these phenomena on structural integrity. Although many aging phenomena such as the embrittlement of cast stainless steel, low-temperature sensitization of austenitic stainless steels, and radiation embrittlement of pressure vessel steels have been studied in the laboratory, most of the studies have been based on simulation of actual reactor conditions. The Shippingport reactor offers a unique opportunity to validate and benchmark the laboratory studies, and thereby, provide a sound basis for evaluating the integrity of structural components near the end of the projected life of the plant. Additional work will be undertaken to identify the possibility of new, previously unknown mechanisms of component degradation. 6 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  17. Complaint studies: Methodological considerations and a result

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Poulsen, Carsten Stig; Thøgersen, John

    are developed, ranging from the Rasch model via latent structure analysis with several correlated latent variables to suggestions about a comprehensive framework, combining Fishbein-Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour and latent trait models. The empirical results show that the propensity to complain...

  18. Meeting the Information Needs of Lower Income Cancer Survivors: Results of a Randomized Control Trial Evaluating the American Cancer Society’s “I Can Cope”

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Michelle Y.; Evans, Mary B; KRATT, POLLY; Pollack, Lori A.; Smith, Judith Lee; Oster, Robert; Dignan, Mark; Prayor-Patterson, Heather; Watson, Christopher; HOUSTON, PETER; ANDREWS, SHIQUINA; LIWO, AMANDIY; TSENG, TUNG SUNG; HULLETT, SANDRAL; OLIVER, JOANN

    2014-01-01

    The American Cancer Society is a leader in the development of cancer survivorship resources. One resource of the American Cancer Society is the I Can Cope program, an educational program for cancer survivors and their families. Evaluations of this program indicate that cancer patients highly rate its objectives. Yet, there are gaps in the understanding of the full impact of the program on diverse cancer survivors. In this study, the authors used a randomized trial to evaluate the program. Par...

  19. Genomic African and Native American Ancestry and Chagas Disease: The Bambui (Brazil) Epigen Cohort Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of genetic ancestry on Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease outcomes is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We used 370,539 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to examine the association between individual proportions of African, European and Native American genomic ancestry with T. cruzi infection and related outcomes in 1,341 participants (aged ≥ 60 years) of the Bambui (Brazil) population-based cohort study of aging. Potential confounding variables included sociodemographic characteristics and an array of health measures. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 37.5% and 56.3% of those infected had a major ECG abnormality. Baseline T. cruzi infection was correlated with higher levels of African and Native American ancestry, which in turn were strongly associated with poor socioeconomic circumstances. Cardiomyopathy in infected persons was not significantly associated with African or Native American ancestry levels. Infected persons with a major ECG abnormality were at increased risk of 15-year mortality relative to their counterparts with no such abnormalities (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.80; 95% 1.41, 2.32). African and Native American ancestry levels had no significant effect modifying this association. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that African and Native American ancestry have no influence on the presence of major ECG abnormalities and had no influence on the ability of an ECG abnormality to predict mortality in older people infected with T. cruzi. In contrast, our results revealed a strong and independent association between prevalent T. cruzi infection and higher levels of African and Native American ancestry. Whether this association is a consequence of genetic background or differential exposure to infection remains to be determined. PMID:27182885

  20. American Influence on Chinese Physics Study in the Early Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Danian

    2016-01-01

    To save China from the perils she faced in the early twentieth century, the majority of the Chinese seemed to agree that it was necessary to strengthen the country by developing shiye or industry and commerce. For this purpose, they overhauled China's education system and sent a large number of students to study overseas. Many of them enrolled in American colleges, sponsored either by governmental grants or by private funds. As American physics advanced rapidly during the early twentieth century, Chinese physicists studying in top US institutions received first-class professional training. They later went on to become a main driving force in Chinese physics development. The study-in-America programs were apparently more successful than other study-overseas programs. Among other factors, the historical lessons learned from the aborted Chinese Educational Mission in the 1870s, the prevalent and long-time presence of American mission schools in China, and stable public and private funding contributed to their success. American-trained Chinese physicists not only advanced physics study in China but also played leading roles in the development of Chinese science and technology during the twentieth century. This fertile and far-reaching American influence has been embedded in all their accomplishments.

  1. Internationalisation in US Higher Education: Studying the Middle East in the American University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Idriss, Cynthia; Worden, Elizabeth Anderson

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the organisation of the production of knowledge about international issues in US higher education, drawing on six case studies of Middle East studies. We review three key findings. First, we suggest that the American model for studying "the international" is rooted in a default, and outmoded, way of thinking about international…

  2. An Exploratory Study of the Implementation of Computer Technology in an American Islamic Private School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mohammed M.

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study of the implementation of computer technology in an American Islamic private school leveraged the case study methodology and ethnographic methods informed by symbolic interactionism and the framework of the Muslim Diaspora. The study focused on describing the implementation of computer technology and identifying the…

  3. New results of the extreme multiplicity studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kokoulina, E; Petukhov, Yu; Karpov, A; Kutov, A

    2009-01-01

    Extreme multiplicity studies at 50 GeV in pp interactions are discussed. Preliminary multiplicity distributions at U-70 (IHEP, Protvino) energy have been obtained for more than 20 charged particles. A new elaborated algorithm for the track reconstruction in a drift tube tracker and magnetic spectrometer, has been checked . The collective behavior of secondary particles is manifested in these interactions in the extreme multiplicity region. For the first time the ring events in pp interactions have been observed in this region. A possibility of detecting the Bose-Einstein condensation detection is discussed.

  4. Pediatric esophageal scintigraphy. Results of 200 studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillet, J.; Wynchank, S.; Basse-Cathalinat, B.; Christophe, E.; Ducassou, D.; Blanquet, P.

    1983-09-01

    Esophageal transit of a small volume of watery liquid has been observed scintigraphically in 200 studies performed on patients aged between 6 days and 16 years. Qualitative information concerning esophageal morphology and function in the various phases of deglutition, and scintigraphic features of achalasia, stenosis, and other pathologies are described. Measured esophageal transit time and its normal variation, its relevance to the diagnosis of esophagitis, and the monitoring of treatment are discussed. This technique observing distinct deglutitions has proven a useful diagnostic tool. Its advantages and limitations are discussed in comparison with other methods.

  5. Pediatric esophageal scintigraphy. Results of 200 studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esophageal transit of a small volume of watery liquid has been observed scintigraphically in 200 studies performed on patients aged between 6 days and 16 years. Qualitative information concerning esophageal morphology and function in the various phases of deglutition, and scintigraphic features of achalasia, stenosis, and other pathologies are described. Measured esophageal transit time and its normal variation, its relevance to the diagnosis of esophagitis, and the monitoring of treatment are discussed. This technique observing distinct deglutitions has proven a useful diagnostic tool. Its advantages and limitations are discussed in comparison with other methods

  6. Neuronal calcium sensor-1 and cocaine addiction: A genetic association study in African-Americans and European Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Pushpinder K.; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Narasimhan, Sneha; Ambrose-Lanci, Lisa; Kampman, Kyle M.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Oslin, David W.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Berrettini, Wade H.; Lohoff, Falk W.

    2013-01-01

    Genes involved in drug reward pathways are plausible candidates for susceptibility to substance use disorders. Given the prominent role of dopamine in drug reward, dopamine receptor-interacting proteins (DRIPs) such as the neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) protein have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathophysiology of cocaine addiction (CA). In this study, we investigated whether genetic variants in the NCS-1 gene confer risk to CA. We genotyped 8 SNPs (rs4837479, rs7849345, rs3824544, rs10819611, rs947513, rs2277200, rs7873936 and rs1342043) in our discovery sample (cases n = 796, controls n = 416) of African descent. Confirmation of associated or trending SNPs (rs7849345, rs10819611, rs1342043) was attempted using a replication sample of African American (AA) ethnicity (cases n = 335, controls n = 336) and European-American (EA) ancestry (cases n = 336, controls n = 656). Secondary sex specific analysis was also carried out for each SNP in both AA and EA individuals. Genotyping of the discovery cohort showed significant genotypic (p = 0.0005, corrected q-value) as well as allelic (p = 0.005, corrected q-value) associations of rs1342043 with CA in AAs; however, this marker could not be confirmed in either the AA or EA replication sample. Combined analysis of all AA samples (n = 1883) for rs1342043 showed a significant association with CA (genotypic p = 0.0001, allelic p = 0.002) with a gender specific effect for males (allelic p = 0.005, genotypic p = 0.0003). Our data suggest that genetic variants in the NCS-1 gene contribute to susceptibility of CA in individuals of African descent. PMID:22999924

  7. Risk factors related to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide: comparative study of Korean and American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-12-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both countries, depression was the most predominant predictor to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide. Unique predictors of suicidal youth in each country were also found. In America, attempted suicide was predicted by poor body image, whereas in Korea attempted suicide was predicted by medical diagnosis such as asthma, concern about weight, and alcohol consumption. The value of our approach lies in the comparative analysis of analogous and unique characteristics of suicidal youths in these two huge data sets from different countries. These results should be helpful for school and mental health care providers to plan interventions for youth at risk of suicide to prevent suicidal completion in these nations. PMID:22554898

  8. Qualitative study of African-American job satisfaction in a scientific/technical research environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krossa, C.D. [San Francisco Univ. (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Many studies have been conducted in the area of job satisfaction. Its necessary attributes sor components have been studied, analyzed, validated, standardized, and normed, onpredominantly white male populations. Few of these studies have focused on people of color, specifically African-Americans, and fewer still on those African-Americans working in a high-tech, scientific and research environments. The researchers have defined what is necessary for the current dominent culture`s population, but are their findings applicable and valid for our nation`s other cultures and ethnic groups? Among the conclusions: the subjects felt that there was no real difference in job satisfiers from their white colleagues; however the subjects had the sense of community (African-American) and the need to give back to it. Frustrations included politics, funding, and lack of control.

  9. When in Rome: factors associated with changes in drinking behavior among American college students studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2010-09-01

    Study abroad programs have the potential to promote cultural, experiential, and personal development for escalating numbers of American college students each year. Despite reports that study abroad students may be at particular risk for increased and problematic alcohol use, there is limited empirical documentation of this risk. Thus, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the factors associated with changes in alcohol use among college students studying in foreign countries. A sample of 177 students completed measures of demographics, drinking behavior, and perceived peer drinking behavior 1 month before departure and 1-month postreturn from study abroad trips. Analyses revealed that participants more than doubled their drinking during study abroad trips and those who drank at heavier levels while abroad returned home drinking at significantly elevated levels. This pattern of increased use while abroad was moderated by several factors, with participants studying abroad in Europe (e.g., Italy, France) and Oceania (e.g., Australia, New Zealand), those under the age of 21, those with higher intentions of drinking while abroad, and those with higher drinking perceptions of other study abroad students in their host country increased their alcohol consumption to a greater extent than other participants. Results suggest drinking while abroad is a concern warranting further investigation, especially regarding how changes in drinking may contribute to the experience of alcohol-related consequences abroad. Continued identification of the risk factors associated with increased drinking can help inform targeted predeparture preventive interventions with these students. PMID:20853940

  10. Interaction of sleep quality and psychosocial stress on obesity in African Americans: the Cardiovascular Health Epidemiology Study (CHES)

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Yuan-Xiang; Chen Zhimin; Coverson Dorothy L; Din-Dzietham Rebecca; Bidulescu Aurelian; Buxbaum Sarah G; Gibbons Gary H; Welch Verna L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Compared with whites, sleep disturbance and sleep deprivation appear more prevalent in African Americans (AA). Long-term sleep deprivation may increase the risk of obesity through multiple metabolic and endocrine alterations. Previous studies have reported contradictory results on the association between habitual sleep duration and obesity. Accordingly, we aimed to assess whether sleep quality and duration are inversely associated with body mass index (BMI) and obesity and...

  11. Joint Effects of Smoking and Sedentary Lifestyle on Lung Function in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Clifton Addison; Monique S. White; Hickson, DeMarc A; Wendy White; Cecil Burchfiel

    2014-01-01

    This study examined: (a) differences in lung function between current and non current smokers who had sedentary lifestyles and non sedentary lifestyles and (b) the mediating effect of sedentary lifestyle on the association between smoking and lung function in African Americans. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as the lowest quartile of the total physical activity score. The results of linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that non smokers with non sedentary lifestyles had the highes...

  12. Facilitators and barriers to adherence to urate-lowering therapy in African-Americans with gout: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Jasvinder A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Limited literature exists for qualitative studies of medication adherence in gout, especially in African-Americans. The aim of this study was to examine the facilitators and barriers to adherence to urate-lowering therapy (ULT) in African-Americans with gout. Methods In this study, nine nominal groups lasting 1 to 1.5 hours each were conducted in African-Americans with gout, six with low ULT and three with high ULT adherence (medication possession ratios of

  13. Huitzilopochtli: The Will and Resiliency of Tucson Youth to Keep Mexican American Studies Alive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    In response to the banning of Mexican American Studies in Tucson, students in the newly formed Chican@ Literature, Art, and Social Studies program displayed their resiliency in the face of the oppressive actions of the Tucson Unified School District and the state of Arizona. This article serves as a platform for the voices of these dedicated youth…

  14. Language Interdependence between American Sign Language and English: A Review of Empirical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusher, Melissa Ausbrooks

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a contemporary definition of American Sign Language/English bilingual education (AEBE) and outlines an essential theoretical framework. Included is a history and evolution of the methodology. The author also summarizes the general findings of twenty-six (26) empirical studies conducted in the United States that directly or…

  15. Cultural Tension and Career Development for Asian American College Students: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eddie Kyo

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods, phenomenological study examined how cultural tension influences career development for Asian American community college students. Students initially completed Phinney's (1992) Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM) and an instrument developed for this study called the Cultural Identification Survey. The mean for ethnic…

  16. A Phenomenological Study on the Leadership Development of African American Women Executives in Academia and Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Deanna Rachelle

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the intersectionality of race and gender for African American women through their lived experiences of how they developed into leaders. This research study was designed to determine how the intersection of race and gender identities contributed to the elements of leadership…

  17. Cancer, Employment, and American Indians: A Participatory Action Research Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sharon R.; Finifrock, DeAnna; Marshall, Catherine A.; Jaakola, Julia; Setterquist, Janette; Burross, Heidi L.; Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2011-01-01

    American Indian cancer survivors are an underserved and understudied group. In this pilot study we attempted to address, through participatory action research, missing information about those factors that serve to either facilitate employment or hinder it for adult cancer survivors. One task of the study was to develop and/or modify…

  18. Characteristics of La Literatura: A Reference Study of Spanish and Latin American Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen, David S.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the characteristics of scholarly communication, with particular emphasis on the usage of the monograph, in the field of Spanish and Latin American literature over a 30-year period. In addition, this study examines the age of materials referenced in an effort to gain insight into the shelf-life of these…

  19. US country studies program: Results from mitigation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the U.S. Country Studies Program which was implemented to support the principles and objectives of the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC). There were three principle objectives in this program: to enhance capabilities to conduct climate change assessments, prepare action plans, and implement technology projects; to help establish a process for developing and implementing national policies and measures; to support principles and objective of the FCCC. As a result, 55 countries are completing studies, more than 2000 analysts engaged in the studies have been trained, and there is a much broader understanding and support for climate change concerns. The article describes experiences of some countries, and general observations and conclusions which are broadly seperated into developed countries and those with economies in transition.

  20. White pine blister rust resistance in North American, Asian and european species - results from artificial inoculartion trials in Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Sniezko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dorena Genetic Resource Center (DGRC has used artificial inoculation trials to evaluate progenies of thousands of Pinus monticola and P. lambertiana selections from Oregon and Washington for resistance to white pine blister rust caused by Cronartium ribicola. In addition, early results are now available for P. albicaulis and P. strobiformis. DGRC has also recently evaluated seed orchard progenies of P. strobus, as well as bulked seedlots from P. armandii and P. peuce. The majority of P. monticola, P. lambertiana, P. albicaulis, and P. strobus progenies are very susceptible to blister rust. However, resistance exists in all these species. P. strobiformis showed relatively high levels of resistance for the eight progenies tested. Resistance in P. armandii was mainly reflected in the very low percentage of cankered seedlings; for P. peuce, the high percentage of cankered seedlings alive three years after inoculation was notable. R-genes are present in some of the North American five-needle pine species, but partial resistance traits (e.g. bark reaction will play a major role in breeding activities for P. monticola and P. lambertiana and will likely be the key to developing durable resistance.

  1. A joint Russian-American field test at the Chelyabinsk-65 (Mayak) Site: Test description and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wollenberg, H.; Tsang, C.F.; Frangos, W. [and others

    1995-05-01

    In September 1994, a Russian-American team conducted hydrogeological, geochemical, geophysical, and radiometric measurements in the territory of the Mayak Production Association. The primary purpose of these operations was to examine the groundwater plume moving from Lake Karachai toward the river. Activities encompassed isolation of hydrologic intervals in two wells and production of water from these intervals, to compare isolated versus open-well sampling methods; surface and soil-water sampling, accompanying radiometric measurements and subsequent chemical analyses; and electrical resistivity profiling in areas of expected contrasting resistivity. Preliminary results indicate that (1) {sup 60}Co and {sup 137}Cs are present in small concentrations in water of the Mishelyak River, (2) analyses of water samples collected by a downhole sampler and of water produced from packed-off intervals agree within limits of laboratory accuracy, attesting to the efficacy of the sampling methods presently used by the Russian workers; and (3) strong contrasts occur between the electrical resistivities of soil and bedrock. Further collaborative work is strongly recommended, and should include more detailed isolation of intervals in wells by multi-packer installations, to better determine the geochemical and hydrological characteristics of the Karachai-Mishelyak system; deployment of a broader soil-water and soil sampling array; a more detailed examination of the distribution and concentration of radionuclides by high-resolution field gamma spectrometry; and a detailing of the area`s electrical resistivity setting, using a mobile electromagnetic measurement system.

  2. A joint Russian-American field test at the Chelyabinsk-65 (Mayak) Site: Test description and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In September 1994, a Russian-American team conducted hydrogeological, geochemical, geophysical, and radiometric measurements in the territory of the Mayak Production Association. The primary purpose of these operations was to examine the groundwater plume moving from Lake Karachai toward the river. Activities encompassed isolation of hydrologic intervals in two wells and production of water from these intervals, to compare isolated versus open-well sampling methods; surface and soil-water sampling, accompanying radiometric measurements and subsequent chemical analyses; and electrical resistivity profiling in areas of expected contrasting resistivity. Preliminary results indicate that (1) 60Co and 137Cs are present in small concentrations in water of the Mishelyak River, (2) analyses of water samples collected by a downhole sampler and of water produced from packed-off intervals agree within limits of laboratory accuracy, attesting to the efficacy of the sampling methods presently used by the Russian workers; and (3) strong contrasts occur between the electrical resistivities of soil and bedrock. Further collaborative work is strongly recommended, and should include more detailed isolation of intervals in wells by multi-packer installations, to better determine the geochemical and hydrological characteristics of the Karachai-Mishelyak system; deployment of a broader soil-water and soil sampling array; a more detailed examination of the distribution and concentration of radionuclides by high-resolution field gamma spectrometry; and a detailing of the area's electrical resistivity setting, using a mobile electromagnetic measurement system

  3. Genome-wide joint SNP and CNV analysis of aortic root diameter in African Americans: the HyperGEN study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devereux Richard B

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aortic root diameter is a clinically relevant trait due to its known relationship with the pathogenesis of aortic regurgitation and risk for aortic dissection. African Americans are an understudied population despite a particularly high burden of cardiovascular diseases. We report a genome-wide association study on aortic root diameter among African Americans enrolled in the HyperGEN study. We invoked a two-stage, mixed model procedure to jointly identify SNP allele and copy number variation effects. Results Results suggest novel genetic contributors along a large region between the CRCP and KCTD7 genes on chromosome 7 (p = 4.26 × 10-7; and the SIRPA and PDYN genes on chromosome 20 (p = 3.28 × 10-8. Conclusions The regions we discovered are candidates for future studies on cardiovascular outcomes, particularly in African Americans. The methods we employed can also provide an outline for genetic researchers interested in jointly testing SNP and CNV effects and/or applying mixed model procedures on a genome-wide scale.

  4. A study of the historical role of African Americans in science, engineering and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Keith Wayne

    2000-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is adequate documentation of an historical role of African and African American involvement in science, engineering, and technology. Through the use of history of science and technology research methodology, along with an examination of the sociological and economic impacts of adequately accredited innovations and inventions contributed by Africans and African Americans, the researcher investigated their contributions to the following areas of science and technology: life science, physical sciences and chemistry, engineering, and science education. In regard to the timeframe for this study, the researcher specifically investigated African and African American involvement in science and technology that includes periods prior to black enslavement, scientific racism and colonialism, as well as during and after those periods. This research study reveals that there are adequate historical data regarding African and African American contributions to science, engineering, and technology. The data reveals that for many millennia African peoples have been continually involved in science and world science histories. The data further show that the numbers of African Americans acquiring BS, MS, Ph.D., Doctor of Science and Doctor of Engineering degrees in science and engineering disciplines are increasing. That these increases are not happening at a rate representative of the present or future African American percentages of the population. Consequently, because of future changes in our nation's demographics, increasing the numbers of people from under-represented groups who pursue scientific and engineering professions has become a matter of national security at the highest levels of government. Moreover, African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans are not pursuing careers or taking courses in science and engineering at a rate high enough to fulfill the prospective needs for the United States' industries, government

  5. A Psychometric Revision of the European American Values Scale for Asian Americans Using the Rasch Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sehee; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Wolfe, Maren M.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the 18-item European American Values Scale for Asian Americans (M. M. Wolfe, P. H. Yang, E. C. Wong, & D. R. Atkinson, 2001) was revised on the basis of results from a psychometric analysis using the Rasch Model (G. Rasch, 1960). The results led to the establishment of the 25-item European American Values Scale for Asian…

  6. Enterococcal Infections in Children: Results of a 8 Year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solmaz Çelebi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Enterococci have become a leading cause of nosocomial infection. These microorganisms are normal inhabitants of the human gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to evaluate the enterococcal infection in children. Material and Methods: All patients with enterococcal infection between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2007 were included in this study. Our study is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. American Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria were used as standard definitions for nosocomial infections.Results: Enterococcus spp. infections were diagnosed in 164 of the 15.558 patients hospitalized in our center between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2007 (overall incidence, 10.5 per 1,000 admissions. During the study period, a total of 209 Enterococcus spp. isolates were recovered from sterile body site cultures. Seventy-seven percent of enterococcal infections were nosocomial. The mean age of patients was 53.1±61.5 months (9 days-17 years and 56% were male. The most common species of enterococci causing clinical infection were Enterococcus faecalis (55.5%, Enterococcus faecium (42.1% and Enterococcus durans (2.4%. Most of the Enterococcus spp. (44.5% were isolated from urine, followed by blood (19.5%, peritoneal fluid (14.6%, cerebrospinal fluid (12.1% and catheter segment (4.8%. Vancomycin resistance was seen in 2.4 percent of Enterococcus spp., all of which were E. faecium. The most frequently seen enterococcal infections were urinary tract infections (32.3%, neonatal sepsis (22%, sepsis (14.6%, peritonitis (11.5% and shunt meningitis (10.3%. Previous therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics, underlying disease and prolonged hospitalization were commonly seen in patients with enterococcal infections. The mortality rate was found as 3.6% of all children with enterococcal infections.Conclusions: The two most common species of enterococci causing clinical infection were E. faecalis (55

  7. The Caribbean-South American plate boundary at 65°W: Results from wide-angle seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, M. J.; Magnani, M. B.; Zelt, C. A.; Schmitz, M.; Levander, A.

    2010-08-01

    We present the results of the analysis of new wide-angle seismic data across the Caribbean-South American plate boundary in eastern Venezuela at about 65°W. The ˜500 km long profile crosses the boundary in one of the few regions dominated by extensional structures, as most of the southeastern Caribbean margin is characterized by the presence of fold and thrust belts. A combination of first-arrival traveltime inversion and simultaneous inversion of PmP and Pn arrivals was used to develop a P wave velocity model of the crust and the uppermost mantle. At the main strike-slip fault system, we image the Cariaco Trough, a major pull-apart basin along the plate boundary. The crust under the Southern Caribbean Deformed Belt exhibits a thickness of ˜15 km, suggesting that the Caribbean Large Igneous Province extends to this part of the Caribbean plate. The velocity structures of basement highs and offshore sedimentary basins imaged by the profile are comparable to those of features found in other parts of the margin, suggesting similarities in their tectonic history. We do not image an abrupt change in Moho depth or velocity structure across the main strike-slip system, as has been observed elsewhere along the margin. It is possible that a terrane of Caribbean island arc origin was accreted to South America at this site and was subsequently bisected by the strike-slip fault system. The crust under the continental portion of the profile is thinner than observed elsewhere along the margin, possibly as a result of thinning during Jurassic rifting.

  8. Decolonizing the Classroom through Critical Consciousness: Navigating Solidarity "en La Lucha" for Mexican American Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza-Gonzalez, Daniel; French, Kristen B.; Gallardo, Stephanie; Glemaker, Ethan; Noel, Saraswati; Marsura, Michelle; Mehary, Elaine; Saldaña-Spiegle, Nadia; Schimpf, Brendan; Thaw, Chelsea

    2014-01-01

    In this article, college students and faculty narrate their co-constructed journey across differences, through intersecting identities and intertwining paths in an effort to stand in solidarity with students, teachers, and community members resisting the removal of the Mexican-American Studies (MAS) program in the Tucson Unified School District in…

  9. A Factor Analytic Study of the Attributional Style Questionnaire with Central American Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Schreiber, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ; C. Peterson et al., 1982) has been the subject of some debate challenging its usefulness in research. This study examines the ASQ component structure for Central American immigrants to the United States. Research and cultural implications are discussed.

  10. Recruitment Challenges: Lessons from Senior Centers and Older African-American Participants in a Literacy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntiri, Daphne W.; Stewart, Merry

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the challenges encountered in the recruitment of urban older African-Americans in a study to explore the effects of interactive educational intervention on functional health literacy and diabetes knowledge. Our methods included identification of challenges related to the individual characteristics of seniors' centers that…

  11. Strategies for Successful Retention of Alaska Native and American Indian Study Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redwood, Diana; Leston, Jessica; Asay, Elvin; Ferucci, Elizabeth; Etzel, Ruth; Lanier, Anne P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports the strategies used to track and follow 3,828 Alaska Native and American Indian study participants in the city of Anchorage and more rural areas of Alaska and provides characteristics of respondents and non-respondents. Over 88% were successfully followed-up, with 49% of respondents completed in three or fewer attempts.…

  12. A Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Program for American Indians with Metabolic Syndrome: The Balance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elisa T.; Jobe, Jared B.; Yeh, Jeunliang; Ali, Tauqeer; Rhoades, Everett R.; Knehans, Allen W.; Willis, Diane J.; Johnson, Melanie R.; Zhang, Ying; Poolaw, Bryce; Rogers, Billy

    2012-01-01

    The Balance Study is a randomized controlled trial designed to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in 200 American Indian (AI) participants with metabolic syndrome who reside in southwestern Oklahoma. Major risk factors targeted include weight, diet, and physical activity. Participants are assigned randomly to one of two groups, a guided or a…

  13. Risk Factors Related to Suicidal Ideation and Attempted Suicide: Comparative Study of Korean and American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Suicidal trends and related characteristics such as sociodemographic factors, psychological factors, and health behaviors can differ between countries. This study investigated the predictors of suicidal ideation and attempted suicide including health behaviors among American and Korean youth from two national representative data sets. In both…

  14. The Constraints of History: Revision and Revolution in American Literary Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carafiol, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that rigorous historicism might change the following: (1) American literary study, by dropping the traditional nationalist project; (2) the notion of canon, by abandoning it; (3) and the institutional structure that supports academic literary criticism, by interrogating current critical conversation and, by recuperating its history,…

  15. Heritage-Language Literacy Practices: A Case Study of Three Japanese American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kumi; Lee, Jin Sook

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the heritage-language (HL) literacy practices of three Japanese American families residing in a predominantly Anglo and Latino community. Through interviews and observations, this study investigates Japanese children's HL-literacy practices, parental attitudes toward HL literacy, and challenges in HL-literacy development in…

  16. Korean-American Student Perceptions on Literacy and Identity: Perspectives from an Ethnographic Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeonghee; Godina, Heriberto; Ro, Yeon Sun

    2014-01-01

    This ethnographic case study examines perceptions of literacy and identity for a Korean-American student in a third-grade classroom. The researchers examine how teachers can misinterpret Asian identity in the classroom due to perceptions related to the "Model Minority Myth" and other stereotypical representations of Asian culture. By…

  17. Producing American English Vowels during Vocal Tract Growth: A Perceptual Categorization Study of Synthesized Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Lucie; Davis, Barbara L.; Boe, Louis-Jean; Roy, Johanna-Pascale

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To consider interactions of vocal tract change with growth and perceived output patterns across development, the influence of nonuniform vocal tract growth on the ability to reach acoustic-perceptual targets for English vowels was studied. Method: Thirty-seven American English speakers participated in a perceptual categorization…

  18. African American Women in Higher Education Attainment: A Qualitative Narrative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, Inga D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative narrative study was to look at how African American women who are learners or who have been learners in higher education settings have internalized and interpreted the issues that have occurred in their teaching-learning environments and what coping mechanisms they have used to resolve or deflect negative…

  19. The Invisible Giant: The Place of Brazil in (Latin) American Studies: An NEH Summer Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costigan, Lucia Helena

    2002-01-01

    Describes the planning, implementation, and evaluation of a Seminar for College Teachers at Ohio State University. Funded by the National Endowment for the humanities, the seminar brought together faculty from several parts of the country to study Colonial Latin American literature from the Brazilian perspective. (Author/VWL)

  20. Polar Bears, Hot Coffee, Wireless Schools, and Much More: Teaching American Studies in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experience and her observations as a Roving Scholar of American Studies in Norway through the Norway Fulbright Foundation grant. The author visited upper secondary schools all over Norway, teaching lessons to both students and teachers on topics related to U.S. history, government, culture, and geography. She…

  1. A Contrastive Study of Chinese and American University Students' "Friend" Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The research aims to get representations and cultural causes of cross-cultural differences in Chinese and American University Students' "friend" concepts by empirical studies including questionnaire and interviews. Based on the statistics of the research, the research analyzes the different interactions of "friends" in…

  2. Acculturation, Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms among Chinese American Adolescents: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, Linda P.; Cookston, Jeffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on the perceptions of discrimination for Chinese American adolescents: how perceptions changed over time, how generational status and acculturation were related to these changes, and whether earlier discrimination experiences were related to subsequent depressive symptomatology. The sample included 309 Chinese American…

  3. Developing an American Indian Studies Program: A View from Ground Zero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Samuel R.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the development of the Virginia Tech American Indian Studies (AIS) program. This program, though a fledgling one, has embodied the guiding principles of an authentic AIS program throughout its brief existence. This program was created in 1999 at the request of some of the state's indigenous peoples and has…

  4. A Case Study of an African American Teacher's Self-Efficacy, Stereotype Threat, and Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, H. Richard; Hoy, Anita Woolfolk

    2003-01-01

    This case study examined sources of self-efficacy for a suburban African American high school teacher who persisted despite many challenges that could have affected her self-efficacy. Data from interviews and observations highlighted several themes regarding sources of and influences on self-efficacy (e.g., experience of social and collegial…

  5. Asian American College Students' Suicide Ideation: A Mixed-Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. Joel; Koo, Kelly; Tran, Kimberly K.; Chiu, Yu-Chen; Mok, Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore the phenomenon of suicide ideation among 293 Asian American college students. Guided by T. Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior, the authors examined the relationships among perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, self-construals, and suicide…

  6. Biomarkers of brain injury following an American football game: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatzki, Matthew J; Soja, Scott E; McCabe, Colleen A; Breckenridge, Ryanne E; White, Jeffrey L; Baker, Julien S

    2016-09-01

    The goals of this study were to determine if the biomarkers of head injury, NSE and S100B, increased in serum following an American football game. Serum creatine kinase (CK) and cortisol levels were also measured to determine muscle damage and stress caused by the football game. NSE, S100B, CK, and cortisol were measured in the serum of 17 football players before and after a collegiate junior varsity football game. No head injuries were reported by the players, athletic training staff, or coaches yet both NSE (Pre-game: 7.0 μg•L-1 ± 2.2 versus Post-game: 13.1 μg•L-1 ± 7.0, P <0.001) and S100B (Pre-game: 0.013 μg•L-1 ± 0.012 versus Post-game: 0.069 μg•L-1 ± 0.036, P <0.001) increased significantly. Neither CK (Pre-game: 90.5 U•L-1 ± 41.9 versus Post-game: 120.2 U•L-1 ± 62.7, P = 0.116) nor cortisol (Pre-game: 369.2 nmoles•L-1 ± 159.8 versus Post-game: 353.0 nmoles•L-1 ± 170.5, P = 0.349) increased significantly following the football game. There was little correlation found between S100B and body mass (R2 = 0.029) or CK (R2 = 0.352) levels. Although serum NSE and S100B increase as a result of playing in an American football game, the values are similar to or lower than levels found following competition in other contact and non-contact sports. Furthermore, the lack of correlation between S100B and body mass or CK indicates that S100B increases independent of body mass or muscle injury. PMID:27387898

  7. The potential for enhancing the power of genetic association studies in African Americans through the reuse of existing genotype data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Chen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the feasibility of reusing existing control data obtained in genetic association studies in order to reduce costs for new studies. We discuss controlling for the population differences between cases and controls that are implicit in studies utilizing external control data. We give theoretical calculations of the statistical power of a test due to Bourgain et al (Am J Human Genet 2003, applied to the problem of dealing with case-control differences in genetic ancestry related to population isolation or population admixture. Theoretical results show that there may exist bounds for the non-centrality parameter for a test of association that places limits on study power even if sample sizes can grow arbitrarily large. We apply this method to data from a multi-center, geographically-diverse, genome-wide association study of breast cancer in African-American women. Our analysis of these data shows that admixture proportions differ by center with the average fraction of European admixture ranging from approximately 20% for participants from study sites in the Eastern United States to 25% for participants from West Coast sites. However, these differences in average admixture fraction between sites are largely counterbalanced by considerable diversity in individual admixture proportion within each study site. Our results suggest that statistical correction for admixture differences is feasible for future studies of African-Americans, utilizing the existing controls from the African-American Breast Cancer study, even if case ascertainment for the future studies is not balanced over the same centers or regions that supplied the controls for the current study.

  8. Workplace Discrimination and Americans with Psychiatric Disabilities: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sunghee; Roessler, Richard T.; McMahon, Brian T.

    2011-01-01

    This study reports findings from an analysis of employment allegations and resolutions maintained in the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) database. Spanning the years 1992 to 2005, the data were aggregated for individuals with psychiatric disabilities and individuals with a variety of physical, sensory, and neurological…

  9. Religious Socialization and Benevolence: A Study among American Pentecostals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores benevolent action among Pentecostals in the USA using a congregational questionnaire survey of worshippers among the Church of God (Cleveland, TN) (N = 1522). The influence of religiosity and the socialization of a perceived relationship of love with God (Godly Love) are explored, while controlling for background variables. The…

  10. A focus group study of Latin American immigrants' financial behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Katy Jacob; Carrie Jankowski

    2008-01-01

    The subject of U.S. immigration – particularly more recent immigration trends – has generated many contentious debates around crime, impacts of worker skill levels on economic growth patterns, and on relative wage rates, among other areas. Further, analysis and focused studies of immigrant populations reveal varied and disjointed economic behaviors.

  11. The Role of Chinese-American Scientists in China-US Scientific Collaboration: A Study in Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xianwen; Xu, Shenmeng; Liu, Di; Liang, Yongxia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use bibliometric methods and social network analysis to analyze the pattern of China-US scientific collaboration on individual level in nanotechnology. Results show that Chinese-American scientists have been playing an important role in China-US scientific collaboration. We find that China-US collaboration in nanotechnology mainly occurs between Chinese and Chinese-American scientists. In the co-authorship network, Chinese-American scientists tend to have higher betweenness ...

  12. Metabolic profiles of biological aging in American Indians: The strong heart family study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jinying; Zhu, Yun; Uppal, Karan; ViLinh T Tran; Yu, Tianwei; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Jones, Dean; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.

    2014-01-01

    Short telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with age-related metabolic disorders. Telomere attrition induces profound metabolic dysfunction in animal models, but no study has examined the metabolome of telomeric aging in human. Here we studied 423 apparently healthy American Indians participating in the Strong Family Heart Study. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured by qPCR. Metabolites in fasting plasma were detected by untargeted LC/MS. Associations of L...

  13. The Determinants of University Entrepreneurship. An American Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rubini Lauretta; Miglietta Marco Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many so-called developed countries had to change their competitive strategies, due to the emergence on the international scenario of countries based on low labour costs. A growing number of studies signals the need for the advance countries to increase the technological content of their products, while at the same time dealing with increasingly fragmented and integrated production systems and more and more complex innovation processes. This implies the necessity to look for e...

  14. Cancer Information Seeking Behaviors of Korean American Women: A Mixed-Methods Study Using Surveys and Focus Group Interviews

    OpenAIRE

    Oh, KM; Jun, J; Zhao, X.; Kreps, GL; Lee, EE

    2015-01-01

    Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC 2015. Despite the high risk of cancer to the population, Korean Americans are known to have lower knowledge about cancer related information and a lower level of adherence to cancer prevention guidelines. This indicates the necessity of cancer interventions targeting the Korean American population. To reach this population effectively, it is imperative to understand Korean Americans cancer information seeking behaviors. This study (a) identified cancer ...

  15. Effectiveness of the Relaxation Response-Based Group Intervention for Treating Depressed Chinese American Immigrants: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Yeung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an 8-week Relaxation Response (RR-based group. Methods: Twenty-two depressed Chinese American immigrants were recruited. Outcomes measures were response and remission rates, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Clinical Global Impressions Scale, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale. Results: Participants (N = 22 were 82% female, mean age was 53 (±12. After intervention, completers (N = 15 showed a 40% response rate and a 27% remission rate, and statistically significant improvement in most outcome measures. Discussion: The RR-based group is feasible and safe in treating Chinese American immigrants with depression.

  16. The Balance of Two Worlds: A Study of the Perceptions of African American Female Principals and Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Caprica

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study focused on the power of story and narrative through examining the perceptions of African American female principals who are passionate about social justice leadership and making a real difference in the lives of students. The study also shared the perceptions of African American female principals regarding the challenges…

  17. A Phenomenological Study of Perceptions of Identity and Leadership among African-American Female Administrators within Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, June Pickett

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study explores how African-American female administrators (individually and collectively) perceive the relationship between their identity and their leadership voice. The study focuses upon perceptions of 11 African-American female administrators who serve the 14 main campuses of the universities constituting the Pennsylvania…

  18. Causes of Mortality Among American College Students: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, James C.; Leno, E. Victor; Keller, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study from self-selected institutions of higher education provides an estimate of the causes and rates of mortality among college students between the ages of 18 and 24 years old. One hundred fifty-seven 4-year colleges participated in an online survey of student deaths during one academic year. A total of 254 deaths were reported. The mortality rates (per 100,000) were as follows: total accidental injuries, 10.80; suicide, 6.17; cancer, 1.94; and homicide, 0.53. Within the acciden...

  19. Demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American troops of World War II: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Cesar Alves Ferraz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to discuss the results of a comparative study of demobilization and social reintegration of Brazilian and American veterans of World War II. . In spite of the obvious difference in scale of the two military experiences, I argue that the study of the two experiences can offer new insights into lights on various common issues to both countries: the relationship between the societies and their armed forces, between the governments and their citizens, social and racial inequalities and, finally, the experiences of building welfare state structures during the war and postwar periods. Based on international studies of demobilization and social integration war veterans, the variables that were decisive for the success or failure of adaptation were: a past experiences in the reintegration of war veterans; b the nature and consequences of recruitment of future veterans; c planning by the State and the Armed Forces of procedures for post-bellum demobilization and reintegration; d the implementation of demobilization and the effects within the military institution and in civil society.

  20. Measuring Athletic Facility Managers’ Knowledge Of Access And The Americans With Disabilities Act: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua R. Pate

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this exploratory research was measuring facility managers’ knowledge of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA, and it may assist in decreasing the gap in knowledge between facility managers and the needs of people with physical disabilities. An existing survey examining ADA knowledge was slightly modified and used for this study. Four athletic facility managers from universities in a large Bowl Championship Series conference participated in the study. Results provided a preliminary sketch of who athletic facility manages may be, and how athletic facility managers may be educating themselves and others about accessibility. This exploratory study shows that facility managers may be knowledgeable of specific ADA requirements but may not have a firm grasp on more general issues patrons with physical disabilities face and that have often been the point of contention in the courts such as parking, entranceways, seating, and sightlines. Additionally, athletic facility managers may not be seeking to expand their education on ADA-related matters or educate others on the topics, which could be a missed opportunity to position themselves as a topic expert in the field of ADA compliance for athletic facilities.

  1. EEG alpha phenotypes: linkage analyses and relation to alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Evelyn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence for a high degree of heritability of EEG alpha phenotypes has been demonstrated in twin and family studies in a number of populations. However, information on linkage of this phenotype to specific chromosome locations is still limited. This study's aims were to map loci linked to EEG alpha phenotypes and to determine if there was overlap with loci previously mapped for alcohol dependence in an American Indian community at high risk for substance dependence. Methods Each participant gave a blood sample and completed a structured diagnostic interview using the Semi Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism. Bipolar EEGs were collected and spectral power determined in the alpha (7.5-12.0 Hz frequency band for two composite scalp locations previously identified by principal components analyses (bilateral fronto-central and bilateral centro-parietal-occipital. Genotypes were determined for a panel of 791 micro-satellite polymorphisms in 410 members of multiplex families using SOLAR. Results Sixty percent of this study population had a lifetime diagnosis of alcohol dependence. Analyses of multipoint variance component LOD scores, for the EEG alpha power phenotype, revealed two loci that had a LOD score of 3.0 or above for the fronto-central scalp region on chromosomes 1 and 6. Additionally, 4 locations were identified with LOD scores above 2.0 on chromosomes 4, 11, 14, 16 for the fronto-central location and one on chromosome 2 for the centro-parietal-occipital location. Conclusion These results corroborate the importance of regions on chromosome 4 and 6 highlighted in prior segregation studies in this and other populations for alcohol dependence-related phenotypes, as well as other areas that overlap with other substance dependence phenotypes identified in previous linkage studies in other populations. These studies additionally support the construct that EEG alpha recorded from fronto-central scalp areas may

  2. Biosphere reserves in action: Case studies of the American experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1995-06-26

    For nearly 20 years, biosphere reserves have offered a unique framework for building the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems. The 12 case studies in this volume chronicle many of the cooperative efforts to implement the biosphere reserve concept in the United States. Considered together, these efforts involve more than 20 types of protected areas, and the participation of all levels of government, and many private organizations, academic institutions, citizens groups, and individuals. Biosphere reserves are multi-purpose areas that are nominated by the national committee of the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) and designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to serve as demonstration areas for cooperation in building harmonious relationships between human activities and the conservation of ecosystems and biological diversity. Each biosphere reserve exemplifies the characteristic ecosystems of one of the worlds biogeographical regions. It is a land or coas%arine area involving human communities as integral components and including resources managed for objectives ranging from complete protection to intensive, yet sustainable development. A biosphere reserve is envisioned as a regional ''landscape for learning'' in which monitoring, research, education, and training are encouraged to support sustainable conservation of natural and managed ecosystems. It is a framework for regional cooperation involving government decisionmakers, scientists, resource managers, private organizations and local people (i.e., the biosphere reserve ''stakeholders''). Finally, each biosphere reserve is part of a global network for sharing information and experience to help address complex problems of conservation and development. The 12 case studies presented in this report represent only a few of the possible evolutions of a biosphere reserve in

  3. A national study of burnout among American transplant surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertges Yost, W; Eshelman, A; Raoufi, M; Abouljoud, M S

    2005-03-01

    This study examines burnout in a national sample of transplant surgeons. Data analyses were conducted on a sample of 209 actively practicing transplant surgeons. Measures included the Maslach Burnout Inventory, a demographic survey, and the Surgeon Coping Inventory. Burnout was reflected in 38% of surgeons scoring high on the Emotional Exhaustion dimension, whereas 27% showed high levels of Depersonalization, and 16% had low levels of Personal Accomplishment. Several significant predictors of emotional exhaustion were identified and included questioning one's career choice, giving up activities, and perceiving oneself as having limited control over the delivery of medical services (R2= 0.43). Those who perceived themselves as having a higher ability to control delivery of medical services and who felt more appreciated by patients had lower levels of depersonalization and were less likely to question their career choice (R2= 0.16). Surgeons with high personal accomplishment experienced greater professional growth opportunities, perceived their institution as supportive, felt more appreciated by patients, and were less likely to question their career (R2= 0.24). The prioritization of goals to reflect both professional and personal values accounted for a significant amount of the variance in predicting both emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment in separate regression equations. Recommendations to decrease burnout would include greater institutional support, increased opportunities for professional growth, and greater surgeon control over important services to facilitate efficient work. Coping strategies to moderate stress and burnout are also beneficial and should include prioritizing goals to reflect both professional and personal values. PMID:15848732

  4. Business Guests Satisfaction in the Hotel Industry: A Case Study of North American Hotel Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Bradić; Ljiljana Kosar; Bojana Kalenjuk

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of satisfaction of business guests with hotel brands in North America. In analysis we used the guests responses (scores) given for 12 different elements of hotel product. In order to arrive at more accurate results, monitored hotel chains are grouped into price tiers. The aim of this paper is to indicate what facilities and services the North American business guests appreciate most. Industry trends and results may be beneficial to all hoteliers, especially in...

  5. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  6. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease in Mexican American Children Aged 5 to 17 Years: Results from Southwestern HHANES, 1982-83.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Amid L.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease in Mexican American children of the southwestern United States occur mainly in molars, lending strong support for the use of fissure sealants as a preventive procedure. This study also reports on the prevalence of fillings decay and gingivitis in this population. (VM)

  7. A Measurement of Readiness for Tennessee Hospitals to Implement "Meaningful Use" Criteria Resulting from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhoit, Kathryn W.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act was signed into law. This legislation provided for monetary rewards for those acute-care hospitals that meet "meaningful use" computerization and reporting criteria. The study used a descriptive, nonexperimental design to answer three research questions (1) What is the level of readiness to meet…

  8. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    OpenAIRE

    Demerath, Ellen W; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T. L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide associati...

  9. Market power consolidation and M&A success: A study of US-American and German utility takeovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Fraunhoffer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A wave of mergers and acquisitions (M&A was observed in the North American and European energy utilities market. We analyze the impact of these M&A transactions on market power, studying 139 takeovers of energy utilities by applying event study methodology. Stock price reactions of acquiring and target firms as well as of their competitors are used to detect changes of market power. While we do not find any significant results pointing in this direction for transactions in the US, our findings indicate that the potential to increase market power is indeed an important motive for takeovers within the German energy utilities market.

  10. INTRODUCING INSTITUTIONAL VARIABLES IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL KUZNETS CURVE (EKC: A LATIN AMERICAN STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ITALO ARBULÚ VILLANUEVA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have examined the relationship between environmental degradation and per capita income.However, most of them did not take into account institutional quality and just focused on macroeconomicdeterminants. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap in the literature by assessing the effects on theEnvironmental Kuznets Curve (EKC when institutional quality variables are introduced, especially those related tocorruption and rent-seeking behavior.This study considers 18 Latin American economies and panel data for 1998–2005. A standard reducedformmodeling approach with pool estimation was employed and, in order to introduce the heterogeneity of thedifferent countries, three different models were estimated. The first model corresponds to the basic EnvironmentalKuznets Curve (Basic Model, the second model introduced a sets of additional economic variables (ExtendedModel Nº 1, and finally, the third one introduced institutional variables into the previous formulation (ExtendedModel Nº 2.The expected results from this investigation lead us to support the EKC hypothesis while confirming theimportance of improvements in political institutions and governance for better environmental performances in theregion.

  11. Studying Gender in Conference Talks -- data from the 223rd meeting of the American Astronomical Society

    CERN Document Server

    Davenport, James R A; Grand, Erin; Hagen, Alex; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Watkins, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    We present a study on the gender balance, in speakers and attendees, at the recent major astronomical conference, the American Astronomical Society meeting 223, in Washington, DC. We conducted an informal survey, yielding over 300 responses by volunteers at the meeting. Each response included gender data about a single talk given at the meeting, recording the gender of the speaker and all question-askers. In total, 225 individual AAS talks were sampled. We analyze basic statistical properties of this sample. We find that the gender ratio of the speakers closely matched the gender ratio of the conference attendees. The audience asked an average of 2.8 questions per talk. Talks given by women had a slightly higher number of questions asked (3.2$\\pm$0.2) than talks given by men (2.6$\\pm$0.1). The most significant result from this study is that while the gender ratio of speakers very closely mirrors that of conference attendees, women are under-represented in the question-asker category. We interpret this to be a...

  12. A Comparative Study on American and Turkish Students? Self Esteem in Terms of Sport Participation: A Study on Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigiter, Korkmaz

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted in order to compare self-esteem of American students with Turkish students in terms of the sport participation at the universities. For this purpose, a total of 460 students (M age = 19,61 ± 1,64) voluntarily participated in the study from two universities. As data collection tool, Rosenberg (1965) Self-esteem…

  13. Teaching Them All: An Exploratory Mixed Methods Study of African American Students' Perceptions of Their Middle School's Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankerson, Henry

    2009-01-01

    Research indicates school culture impacts student achievement. At Teach Them All Middle School (TTA), an achievement gap exists between African American and White students. The purpose of the current study was to examine the perceptions of African American students concerning the school culture at TTA. The research questions explored the…

  14. Intelligence of Mexican American Children: A Field Study Comparing Neo-Piagetian and Traditional Capacity and Achievement Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avila, Edward A.; Havassy, Barbara

    Approximately 1,225 Mexican American and Anglo American children in grades 1-6 (ages 6-14) from California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas were tested using school achievement and IQ standardized tests and four Piagetian-derived measures (Cartoon Conservation Scales, Water Level Task, Figural Intersection Test, and Serial Task). The field study's…

  15. A Multimethod Study of Problem Behavior among Thai and American Children in School: Teacher Reports versus Direct Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Trained observers conducted direct observations of Thai and American children's school behavior and obtained teacher reports on the same children. Observers reported twice as much problem behavior and off-task behavior in American children as in their Thai age-mates, contradicting some earlier studies. Findings support the value of direct behavior…

  16. The A.A.A.A. [American Association of Advertising Agencies] Educational Foundation Grants: Purpose, Results, Application; On the 22 Research Grants Awarded by the Foundation from 1968 through 1973, with Bibliographies of Published Material Which Resulted from the Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkham, Spencer F.

    The Educational Foundation of the American Association of Advertising Agencies was established by the Association's board to foster the accomplishment of six major goals: to create a bridge between advertising and university research, to attract top young people to the study of advertising, to raise the academic stature of advertising, to enlarge…

  17. Exploring Stress and Coping Among Urban African American Adolescents: The Shifting the Lens Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anita Chandra, DrPH; Ameena Batada, DrPH

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Stress can have a significant effect on an adolescent's long-term physical and mental well-being. An understanding of the role of unmanaged stress during early adolescence is critical for the prevention of chronic diseases such as depression. The purpose of the Shifting the Lens study was to explore perceptions of stress, sources of social support, and use of coping strategies among urban African American ninth graders. Methods A youth-driven, mixed-method approach was used ...

  18. A Prospective Study of Mexican American Adolescents’ Academic Success: Considering Family and Individual Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Roosa, Mark W.; O’Donnell, Megan; Cham, Heining; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Zeiders, Katherine. H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American youth are at greater risk of school failure than their peers. To identify factors that may contribute to academic success in this population, this study examined the prospective relationships from 5th grade to 7th grade of family (i.e., human capital [a parent with at least a high school education], residential stability, academically and occupationally positive family role models, and family structure) and individual characteristics (i.e., externalizing symptoms, bilingualis...

  19. Lessons for American companies in adapting to local cultures: a case study of EDS in Bahrain

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Jassim

    2010-01-01

    This research focuses on American companies operating in Bahrain, employing Bahrainis whose national culture governs their daily routine. Making EDS a case study, this research explores the conflicts that arise at the work place when organisational culture encounters national culture and customs. Even with extensive globalization, particularly in the Middle East, there is a lack of research exploring the influence of national culture on the local employees, the impact of national culture of h...

  20. Drug Addiction and Stress-Response Genetic Variability: Association Study in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Levran, Orna; Randesi, Matthew; Li, Yi; Rotrosen, John; Ott, Jurg; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Stress is a significant risk factor in the development of drug addictions and in addiction relapse susceptibility. This hypothesis-driven study was designed to determine if specific SNPs in genes related to stress response are associated with heroin and/or cocaine addiction in African Americans. The analysis included 27 genes (124 SNPs) and was performed independently for each addiction. The sample consisted of former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance treatment (n = 314), cocaine addict...

  1. Consumer acculturation of Latin American visitors in Taiwan : a study of food and clothing products

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Aihwa; Lee, Yi-Fan

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to determine the factors influencing consumer acculturation of Latin American student visitors in Taiwan for the product categories of food and clothing. This research found: (1) some variables of acculturation influence, marketing practices, and situation factors are significantly related to consumer acculturation; (2) four acculturation patterns are discovered and they coincide with Berry's (1997) typology;(3) visitors do not travel in family units, hence their food habits ...

  2. North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study: A Collaborative Multisite Approach to Prodromal Schizophrenia Research

    OpenAIRE

    Addington, Jean; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Cornblatt, Barbara; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O.; Seidman, Larry J.; Tsuang, Ming; Walker, Elaine F.; Woods, Scott W.; Heinssen, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the rationale, design, and preliminary findings of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS), a collaborative, multisite investigation into the earliest phase of psychotic illness. We describe how 8 independently conceived research projects were integrated methodologically, how diagnostic reliability was achieved across sites on the Structured Interview for Prodromal Syndromes, and how baseline and follow-up data were aggregated for 888 at risk and compariso...

  3. Gambling in the Iranian-American Community and an Assessment of Motives: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Parhami, Iman; Siani, Aaron; Campos, Michael D.; Rosenthal, Richard J.; Fong, Timothy W.

    2012-01-01

    Nearly half a million United States residents identify themselves as being of Iranian origin, and many in this population are of high socioeconomic status. Although games of chance have been a notable part of Iranian culture for thousands of years, there is almost no research exploring gambling in this population. The objective of this case study is to explore gambling pathology, gambling behavior, and gambling motives among Iranian-Americans using a convenience sample (N=182) at a September ...

  4. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: A path analytic study

    OpenAIRE

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) throug...

  5. Religious Authority in African American Churches: A Study of Six Churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congregational culture of female-headed vs. male-headed churches. Among male-headed congregations, views of gender and leadership were complex, with beliefs ranging from no support to full support for female-headed congregations. Two congregational cultures emerged from the data: Congregations with a Social Activist orientation focused on meeting the social needs of the community through Christ, whereas congregations with a Teach the Word orientation stressed the importance of meeting the spiritual needs of the community through knowing the Word of God. Although aspects of both congregational cultures were present to some extentin all six congregations studied, the Social Activist culture played a more dominant narrative in female-headed congregations, whereas the Teach the Word culture was more evident in male-headed congregations. This study reports preliminary information about gender and religious authority in rural African American churches by revealing the different clergy training requirements and church placements of female and male clergy, a myriad of views about female religious authority in the African American faith community, and through uncovering two distinct congregational cultures. This study also enhances understanding on the role of gender in Black churches’ perceptions and interactions with rural, socioeconomically challenged communities.

  6. Comparative study of matrix metalloproteinase expression between African American and Caucasian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lashley Kerrie; Jett Marty; Mason Jacquline; Yancy Haile; Day Agnes

    2004-01-01

    Abstract To date there are 26 human matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are classified according to their substrate specificity and structural similarities. The four major subgroups of MMPs are gelatinases, interstitial collagenases, stromelysins, and membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs). This study investigates the expression of 26 MMPs, which have been shown to play a role in cancer metastasis. Breast tissues and cell lines derived from African American patients and Caucasia...

  7. Comparative study of matrix metalloproteinase expression between African American and Caucasian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Jacquline A; Yancy, Haile F; Lashley, Kerrie; Jett, Marty; Day, Agnes A

    2004-01-01

    To date there are 26 human matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) which are classified according to their substrate specificity and structural similarities. The four major subgroups of MMPs are gelatinases, interstitial collagenases, stromelysins, and membrane-type matrix metalloproteinases (MT-MMPs). This study investigates the expression of 26 MMPs, which have been shown to play a role in cancer metastasis. Breast tissues and cell lines derived from African American patients and Caucasian patient...

  8. Heroin addiction in African Americans: a hypothesis-driven association study

    OpenAIRE

    Levran, Orna; Londono, Douglas; O'Hara, Kim; Randesi, Matthew; Rotrosen, John; Casadonte, Paul; Linzy, Shirley; Ott, Jurg; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a chronic complex disease with a substantial genetic contribution. This study was designed to identify gene variants associated with heroin addiction in African Americans. The emphasis was on genes involved in reward modulation, behavioral control, cognitive function, signal transduction, and stress response. We have performed a case-control association analysis by screening with 1350 variants of 130 genes. The sample consisted of 202 former severe heroin addicts in methad...

  9. Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies: expanded AVLT Recognition Trial norms for ages 57 to 98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Milton E; Ivnik, Robert J; Smith, Glenn E

    2002-04-01

    This paper expands upon previously published Mayo's Older Americans Normative Studies (MOANS) Auditory Verbal Learning Test (AVLT) norms by presenting age and gender specific data for Recognition Trial accuracy (recognition 'hits' corrected for false positive errors) in a total of 836 subjects (the original sample, augmented by an additional 311 subjects). Observations are offered concerning clinical implications of AVLT Recognition Trial performance. Gender differences in recognition memory are discussed. PMID:11992204

  10. Attitudes and behavior of african-americans regarding the consumption of herbal products--an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Bob S; Emmett, Dennis; Chandra, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Herbal product consumption has gained increasing attention by consumers over the past several years. Many assume that herbal products are natural and hence cannot do any harm. However, there is no doubt that the consumption of herbal products has often been influenced by an individual's cultural and racial backgrounds. This article is based on a survey of one such population subgroup--the African-American population. The results from this study will hopefully enlighten the marketers of herbal products and help them in devising appropriate marketing strategies when targeting this particular population subgroup. PMID:19197655

  11. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) 2012 Workforce Study: The Radiation Oncologists' and Residents' Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) conducted the 2012 Radiation Oncology Workforce Survey to obtain an up-to-date picture of the workforce, assess its needs and concerns, and identify quality and safety improvement opportunities. The results pertaining to radiation oncologists (ROs) and residents (RORs) are presented here. Methods: The ASTRO Workforce Subcommittee, in collaboration with allied radiation oncology professional societies, conducted a survey study in early 2012. An online survey questionnaire was sent to all segments of the radiation oncology workforce. Respondents who were actively working were included in the analysis. This manuscript describes the data for ROs and RORs. Results: A total of 3618 ROs and 568 RORs were surveyed. The response rate for both groups was 29%, with 1047 RO and 165 ROR responses. Among ROs, the 2 most common racial groups were white (80%) and Asian (15%), and the male-to-female ratio was 2.85 (74% male). The median age of ROs was 51. ROs averaged 253.4 new patient consults in a year and 22.9 on-treatment patients. More than 86% of ROs reported being satisfied or very satisfied overall with their career. Close to half of ROs reported having burnout feelings. There was a trend toward more frequent burnout feelings with increasing numbers of new patient consults. ROs' top concerns were related to documentation, reimbursement, and patients' health insurance coverage. Ninety-five percent of ROs felt confident when implementing new technology. Fifty-one percent of ROs thought that the supply of ROs was balanced with demand, and 33% perceived an oversupply. Conclusions: This study provides a current snapshot of the 2012 radiation oncology physician workforce. There was a predominance of whites and men. Job satisfaction level was high. However a substantial fraction of ROs reported burnout feelings. Perceptions about supply and demand balance were mixed. ROs top concerns reflect areas of attention for the

  12. Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation for American Indians: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireman Theresa I

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is the number one cause of preventable death among American Indian and Alaska Natives, AI/ANs. Two out of every five AI/AN will die from tobacco-related diseases if the current smoking rates of AI/ANs (40.8% persist. Currently, there is no proven, effective culturally-tailored smoking cessation program designed specifically for a heterogeneous population of AI. The primary aim of this group randomized clinical trial is to test the efficacy of "All Nations Breath of Life" (ANBL program compared to a non-tailored "Current Best Practices" smoking cessation program among AI smokers. Methods We will randomize 56 groups (8 smokers per group to the tailored program or non-tailored program for a total sample size of 448 American Indian smokers. All participants in the proposed study will be offered pharmacotherapy, regardless of group assignment. This study is the first controlled trial to examine the efficacy of a culturally-tailored smoking cessation program for American Indians. If the intervention is successful, the potential health impact is significant because the prevalence of smoking is the highest in this population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01106456

  13. Laser fusion study. Final report, volume I, study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary goal of this study was to devise, evaluate, and conceptually design a complete, end-to-end, alignment system capable of handling 30 to 32 Shiva amplifier chains to specified accuracies in space and time. A secondary goal was to accomplish the primary goal with an acceptably low development and procurement cost and with an acceptably high day-after-day performance reliability. This report presents such a system: it is comprised of sensors, actuating mechanisms, controls, and displays that perform well within the current art-state. (U.S.)

  14. Remember the Alamo: Imperialism, Memory, and Postcolonial Educational Studies. American Educational Studies Association 1997 Presidential Address.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Bernardo P.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses narratives of the subaltern, their intersection with academic discourse, and their significance for minority scholars and educators. Draws on background related to U.S. invasion of Mexican territory, Proposition 187, and the author's familial and professional experiences as a Mexican American to demonstrate the importance of locating…

  15. Mergers and Acquisitions: A study of the performance of North American oil and gas firms

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, John

    2015-01-01

    Employing a quantitative approach, this dissertation contributes to the theories on the performance of mergers and acquisitions (M&As) of international oil and gas (O&G) companies. The study uses both an event study and accounting based methodology to assess both the short and long term impact of the announcement of a merger or acquisition on the acquiring firm. The study focuses on North American firms between 1998 and 2002, a period during which a major consolidation of the O&G sector occur...

  16. Obesity and hypertension in an Iranian cohort study; Iranian women experience higher rates of obesity and hypertension than American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouraei Mehdi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Once considered as the main public health problem in developed countries, obesity has become a major problem throughout the world and developing countries, like Iran, are joining the global obesity pandemic. We determined the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension in a large cohort of Iranians and compared age-adjusted rates with the rates in the US. Methods Golestan Cohort Study is a population-based study of 8,998 men and women, aged 35-81 years, from urban and rural areas. Anthropometric parameters were measured by interviewers. Prevalence rates were directly adjusted to the 2000 United States standard population. Results The age-adjusted prevalence rates of overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 in this Iranian population were 62.2% and 28.0%, respectively. Both overweight and obesity were more common in women than men. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight was significantly higher in Iranian women compared to the American women (68.6% vs. 61.6%, while the age-adjusted prevalence of obesity is closer in these two populations (34.9% vs. 33.2%. Iranian men—compared to American men—had significantly lower age-adjusted prevalence of overweight (53.7% vs. 68.8% and obesity (16.2% vs. 27.5%. Age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was higher in Iranian women than American women (35.7% vs. 30.5%. Diabetes mellitus was reported in 6.2% of participants. Mean waist-to-hip ratio (WHR among women was 0.96. Smoking rates in men and women were 33.2% and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusion The prevalence of obesity, overweight, and hypertension in Iran is as high as the US. However, Iranian women are more obese than American women and Iranian men are less obese than their American counterparts. This discrepancy might be due to the low rate of smoking among Iranian women. Iranian women have higher mean WHR than what WHO has defined in 19 other populations.

  17. Contributions for Repositioning a Regional Strategy for Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C): Results of a Pan-American Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Meresman, Sergio; Rice, Marilyn; Vizzotti, Carlos; Frassia, Romina; Vizzotti, Pablo; Akerman, Marco

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of the 1st Regional Survey of Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C) carried out in 2008 by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and ISALUD University of Argentina. It discusses the responses obtained from 12 countries in the Americas Region. Key informants in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay were selected and encouraged to answer the survey, while informants from Canada and Hondur...

  18. INVOLVING PARENTS IN A COMMUNITY-BASED, CULTURALLY-GROUNDED MENTAL HEALTH INTERVENTION FOR AMERICAN INDIAN YOUTH: PARENT PERSPECTIVES, CHALLENGES, AND RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Goodkind, Jessica R.; LaNoue, Marianna D.; Lee, Christopher(Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS B283, Los Alamos, NM, 87545, USA); Freeland, Lance R.; Freund, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    An important predictor of youth well-being and resilience is the presence of nurturing adults in a youth’s life. Parents are ideally situated to fulfill this role but often face challenges and stressors that impede their ability to provide adequate support and guidance. American Indian parents may also be affected by intergenerational transmission of trauma and loss of traditional parenting practices, as a result of forced boarding school and/or relocation. Members of a community-university p...

  19. Characterizing inflammatory breast cancer among Arab Americans in the California, Detroit and New Jersey Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registries (1988–2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Hirko, Kelly A.; Soliman, Amr S; Banerjee, Mousumi; Ruterbusch, Julie; Harford, Joe B; Chamberlain, Robert M.; Graff, John J.; Merajver, Sofia D; Schwartz, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is characterized by an apparent geographical distribution in incidence, being more common in North Africa than other parts of the world. Despite the rapid growth of immigrants to the United States from Arab nations, little is known about disease patterns among Arab Americans because a racial category is rarely considered for this group. The aim of this study was to advance our understanding of the burden of IBC in Arab ethnic populations by descri...

  20. Social determinants of health, universal health coverage, and sustainable development: case studies from Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Odorico Monteiro; Pellegrini Filho, Alberto; Solar, Orielle; Rígoli, Félix; de Salazar, Lígia Malagon; Serrate, Pastor Castell-Florit; Ribeiro, Kelen Gomes; Koller, Theadora Swift; Cruz, Fernanda Natasha Bravo; Atun, Rifat

    2015-04-01

    Many intrinsically related determinants of health and disease exist, including social and economic status, education, employment, housing, and physical and environmental exposures. These factors interact to cumulatively affect health and disease burden of individuals and populations, and to establish health inequities and disparities across and within countries. Biomedical models of health care decrease adverse consequences of disease, but are not enough to effectively improve individual and population health and advance health equity. Social determinants of health are especially important in Latin American countries, which are characterised by adverse colonial legacies, tremendous social injustice, huge socioeconomic disparities, and wide health inequities. Poverty and inequality worsened substantially in the 1980s, 1990s, and early 2000s in these countries. Many Latin American countries have introduced public policies that integrate health, social, and economic actions, and have sought to develop health systems that incorporate multisectoral interventions when introducing universal health coverage to improve health and its upstream determinants. We present case studies from four Latin American countries to show the design and implementation of health programmes underpinned by intersectoral action and social participation that have reached national scale to effectively address social determinants of health, improve health outcomes, and reduce health inequities. Investment in managerial and political capacity, strong political and managerial commitment, and state programmes, not just time-limited government actions, have been crucial in underpinning the success of these policies. PMID:25458716

  1. A Comparative Study on Chinese and American Sports News Reports on Print Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixin Yao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we give the research data which shows that the refining of the content of the important American news is worth learning, which often express the important content of the article with just a few short words. The function of the American sports version locates explicitly and the daily publication are reported with the classification of sports. As for worldwide major tournaments, the United States all attaches great importance, not only designate the special monograph to report, but also develop detailed reporting plan to make preparation for the special issue. Chinese attaches great importance to the competition report, which is consistent with its status of the world’s large newspapers. China attaches great importance to the competition report because the manager knows that competition is the important selling points of the newspapers, which should make efforts to conduct. Generally speaking, the American people are not too concerned about the events of the outside and the range of their loved sports are very narrow, only several sports, basketball, baseball, rugby, tennis and ice hockey. Another feature of the long articles in the United States is that the reporters don’t spend too much energy to describe the tidbits outside, but simply focus on the sports itself and the sports stadium itself.

  2. Asian American college students' suicide ideation: a mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y Joel; Koo, Kelly; Tran, Kimberly K; Chiu, Yu-Chen; Mok, Yvonne

    2011-04-01

    The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore the phenomenon of suicide ideation among 293 Asian American college students. Guided by T. Joiner's (2005) interpersonal-psychological theory of suicidal behavior, the authors examined the relationships among perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, self-construals, and suicide ideation. Compared with thwarted belongingness, perceived burdensomeness was a more robust predictor of suicide ideation. However, thwarted belongingness moderated the positive association between perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation. Furthermore, interdependent self-construal and independent self-construal both weakened the link between perceived burdensomeness and suicide ideation and between thwarted belongingness and suicide ideation. The authors also conducted a qualitative analysis of participants' open-ended responses about their perceptions of why Asian American college students might consider suicide. The authors identified a core phenomenon of unfulfilled expectations as well as 2 broad themes related to this core phenomenon: unfulfilled intrapersonal expectations and unfulfilled interpersonal expectations, comprising the subthemes of (a) family, (b) relationship, (c) cultural differences, and (d) racism. These findings are discussed in terms of implications for suicide-related clinical interventions and primary prevention efforts among Asian American college students. PMID:21463030

  3. A qualitative study of factors affecting pregnancy weight gain in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kara; Cregger, Mary; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong

    2013-04-01

    African Americans and overweight or obese women are at increased risk for excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and postpartum weight retention. Interventions are needed to promote healthy GWG in this population; however, research on exercise and nutritional barriers during pregnancy in African American women is limited. The objective of this qualitative study is to better inform intervention messages by eliciting information on perceptions of appropriate weight gain, barriers to and enablers of exercise and healthy eating, and other influences on healthy weight gain during pregnancy in overweight or obese African American women. In-depth interviews were conducted with 33 overweight or obese African American women in Columbia, South Carolina. Women were recruited in early to mid-pregnancy (8-23 weeks gestation, n = 10), mid to late pregnancy (24-36 weeks, n = 15), and early postpartum (6-12 weeks postpartum, n = 8). Interview questions and data analysis were informed using a social ecological framework. Over 50 % of women thought they should gain weight in excess of the range recommended by the Institute of Medicine. Participants were motivated to exercise for personal health benefits; however they also cited many barriers to exercise, including safety concerns for the fetus. Awareness of the maternal and fetal benefits of healthy eating was high. Commonly cited barriers to healthy eating include cravings and availability of unhealthy foods. The majority of women were motivated to engage in healthy behaviors during pregnancy. However, the interviews also uncovered a number of misconceptions and barriers that can serve as future intervention messages and strategies. PMID:22527762

  4. Business Guests Satisfaction in the Hotel Industry: A Case Study of North American Hotel Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Bradić

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the problem of satisfaction of business guests with hotel brands in North America. In analysis we used the guests responses (scores given for 12 different elements of hotel product. In order to arrive at more accurate results, monitored hotel chains are grouped into price tiers. The aim of this paper is to indicate what facilities and services the North American business guests appreciate most. Industry trends and results may be beneficial to all hoteliers, especially in business tourism segment.

  5. Exploring Stress and Coping Among Urban African American Adolescents: The Shifting the Lens Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Chandra, DrPH

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Stress can have a significant effect on an adolescent's long-term physical and mental well-being. An understanding of the role of unmanaged stress during early adolescence is critical for the prevention of chronic diseases such as depression. The purpose of the Shifting the Lens study was to explore perceptions of stress, sources of social support, and use of coping strategies among urban African American ninth graders. Methods A youth-driven, mixed-method approach was used to assess teens’ perceptions of stress. During the 2001–2002 school year, teen participants (N = 26 from East Baltimore, Md, completed questionnaires, audio journals, pile-sort activities, and personal social support network maps. Results In contrast with existing literature that emphasizes the influence of violence and neighborhood factors on stress among teens, teens prioritized other sources of stress, particularly from school, friends, and family. For support, they relied on different individuals, depending on the source of the stress — friends for romantic relationship stress and family for job, school, and family stress. Sex differences in the coping styles of the participating teens were found. Girls reported more frequent use of support-seeking and active coping strategies than boys. Conclusion The use of multiple data collection strategies to explore stress uniquely contributes to our understanding of how one group of teens perceives and copes with stress. Future research should explore stress from the youth perspective in communities that are similar to East Baltimore, Md. In addition, programmatic recommendations include the need for sex-specific stress management activities and education about youth stress for adults. Community participatory translation interventions based on study findings, such as a youth-produced video and a resource guide for youth service providers, were implemented.

  6. Burkitt's lymphoma between African and American types in Turkish children: clinical, viral (EBV), and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavdar, A O; Gözdaşoğlu, S; Yavuz, G; Babacan, E; Unal, E; Uluoğlu, O; Yücesan, S; Magrath, I T; Akar, N

    1993-01-01

    Seventy-two Turkish children with Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) observed during a period of 22 years (1968-1990) have been analysed retrospectively. The diagnosis was established histologically according to WHO criteria. BL represented 50% of NHL in this series. The patients were staged according to Ziegler's system. The median age of patients was 5.5 years with a sex (M/F) ratio of 2.1/1. The most common primary site of tumor involvement was the abdomen (69.4%), which was followed by facial tumors, in particular the jaw and orbit (49.9%). There were 21 cases with jaw (29.1%) and 15 cases with orbital involvement (20.8%) at initial presentation. The majority of the patients (84.4%) were in advanced stages (C and D) at initial diagnosis. Facial tumors observed in Turkish children with BL were more similar to African Burkitt's lymphoma than American or European cases. High titers of antibodies against VCA and EA of EBV were also seen in our recent cases of BL. Two main treatment regimens, namely, single agent chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide (CYX) (1968-1974) and three drug (COM) combination chemotherapy, were used consecutively (1974-1988). COM has been shown to produce better results than single agent therapy. The clinical presentation, mean age, and high antibodies (IgG) to EBV and preliminary molecular studies revealed that BL appears to be in between African and non-African types in Turkish children. This will be further elucidated by direct examination of tumor cells for EBV and investigation of the molecular characteristics of Turkish tumors. Such studies are presently under way. PMID:8381202

  7. Historiography, American Theatre, and the First Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Linda Walsh

    American theatre history should include a study of Native American performances, since these performances are rich with "American" symbolic materials such as imagery, symbols, and heraldic visions of animals and landscapes. Indian cultures understood the importance of performance for both the visionary and the community at large. Even the pow-wow…

  8. Understanding the Breast Cancer Experience of Survivors: a Qualitative Study of African American Women in Rural Eastern North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Essie; Dixon, Crystal; Richman, Alice R

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of African American breast cancer survivors' experiences, barriers and facilitators in accessing breast cancer treatment, and challenges in adherence to follow-up care. We conducted seven focus groups with 32 African American women with breast cancer in three rural counties in eastern North Carolina during August-November 2013. Surveys were also utilized to gather basic demographic and breast health history information. Thematic analysis was performed using the immersion crystallization approach. Several common areas of life affected by breast cancer included faith and support networks, psychosocial well-being, and quality of care issues. Faith in God was an important coping mechanism essential to all women in the study and a critical facilitator in survivorship. Support networks consisted of family, church-family, friends, and co-workers. The concept of fear included the discovery of breast cancer and fear of death, negative side effects of treatment, and social stigma of having breast cancer. Factors that influenced provider-patient relationship were age of provider, perceived lack of empathy, and providers leaving during treatment. Participants also expressed their lack of knowledge regarding a number of the side effects they were experiencing during and after their treatment. Results of this study contribute to the assessment of potential coping mechanisms used by African American breast cancer survivors (i.e., spirituality, positive attitudes, and support networks) that can potentially be effective and have a positive impact on the adjustment of life for survivors. PMID:25877467

  9. The Role of Chinese-American Scientists in China-US Scientific Collaboration: A Study in Nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xianwen; Liu, Di; Liang, Yongxia

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use bibliometric methods and social network analysis to analyze the pattern of China-US scientific collaboration on individual level in nanotechnology. Results show that Chinese-American scientists have been playing an important role in China-US scientific collaboration. We find that China-US collaboration in nanotechnology mainly occurs between Chinese and Chinese-American scientists. In the co-authorship network, Chinese-American scientists tend to have higher betweenness centrality. Moreover, the series of polices implemented by the Chinese government to recruit oversea experts seems to contribute a lot to China-US scientific collaboration.

  10. Contextual influences on ethnic identity formation: a case study of second-generation Korean Americans Baby Boomers in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Linda S

    2015-03-01

    This paper details a study on ethnic identity in midlife, illuminating identity formation as a complex life course phenomenon. The study addresses the importance of ethnic identity in understanding the experiences of racial and ethnic Baby Boomers as both recipients of care and as caregivers to their aging parents (first generation immigrants). Using a case study of second-generation Korean American Baby Boomers, the primary aims of this study are: (a) to explore how the relationship between age and race/ethnicity influences identity formation, and (b) how contexts influence ethnic identity formation. Findings reveal that cumulative experiences over earlier developmental years resulted in resolutions to appreciate their ethnic identity at midlife. Increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the U.S., combined with the large number of aging Baby Boomers, necessitate recognition of the cultural and racial differences within the Baby Boomer generation. PMID:25370357

  11. African American Advanced Placement chemistry students and their developing study habits: A phenomenologically-based interpretive study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Natalie D.

    The academic achievement gap between African American and White students has gained much attention in recent years. Much has been written about the causes of and reasons for this problem ranging from the vestigial effects of slavery to poor parenting. Much less has been written or understood about its solution. While it is impossible for educators to change the pasts of their African American students, it is possible to effect change for the few minutes in which they are in direct contact with them each day. If African American science students are taught effective study skills and habits, then perhaps they might have the tools to close the achievement gap themselves. The participants in this phenomenologically based interpretive study were five African American Advanced Placement Chemistry students from an inner-city high school. Three in-depth interviews were conducted with each of the participants during the beginning, middle and end of a semester. The purpose of the interviews was to locate the students in terms of their thought processes, experiences and perceived barriers concerning the nature and practice of effective study and retention of chemistry content. The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The texts were then analyzed for common themes. Five common themes emerged from the interviews. These were: (1) Homework vs. Study: a distinction between homework---which students knew how to approach; and study---which they did not. (2) Student Effort: their changing perception of adequate and effective study practices while in a rigorous course. (3) Teacher Rigor: they perceived high expectations and challenging work as a sign of respect from their teachers. (4) Parental Involvement: students' admission that they desired more input from parents regarding their academic performance. (5) Racial Considerations: their need to disprove negative stereotypes and their personal observations regarding racial differences in studying. A discussion of the themes and

  12. HPV prevalence at enrollment and baseline results from the Carolina Women’s Care Study, a longitudinal study of HPV persistence in women of college age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banister CE

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Carolyn E Banister,1,* Amy R Messersmith,2,* Hrishikesh Chakraborty,3 Yinding Wang,3 Lisa B Spiryda,4 Saundra H Glover,5 Lucia Pirisi,6 Kim E Creek1 1Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Presbyterian College School of Pharmacy, Clinton, 3Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine Columbia, 5Department of Health Services Policy and Management, and Institute for Partnerships to Eliminate Health Disparities, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, 6Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, SC, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Cervical cancer, a rare outcome of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV infection, disproportionately affects African American women, who are about twice more likely than European American women to die of the disease. Most cervical HPV infections clear in about one year. However, in some women HPV persists, posing a greater risk for cervical dysplasia and cancer. The Carolina Women’s Care Study (CWCS was conducted to explore the biological, genetic, and lifestyle determinants of persistent HPV infection in college-aged European American and African American women. This paper presents the initial results of the CWCS, based upon data obtained at enrollment.Methods: Freshman female students attending the University of South Carolina were enrolled in the CWCS and followed until graduation with biannual visits, including two Papanicolaou tests, cervical mucus collection, and a questionnaire assessing lifestyle factors. We recruited 467 women, 293 of whom completed four or more visits for a total of 2274

  13. Development and use of touch-screen audio computer-assisted self-interviewing in a study of American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Sandra L; Slattery, Martha L; Murtaugh, Maureen A; Edwards, Roger L; Bryner, James; Pearson, Mindy; Rogers, Amy; Edwards, Alison M; Tom-Orme, Lillian

    2007-06-01

    This article describes the development and usability of an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing (ACASI) questionnaire created to collect dietary, physical activity, medical history, and other lifestyle data in a population of American Indians. Study participants were part of a cohort of American Indians living in the southwestern United States. Data were collected between March 2004 and July 2005. Information for evaluating questionnaire usability and acceptability was collected from three different sources: baseline study data, auxiliary background data, and a short questionnaire administered to a subset of study participants. For the subset of participants, 39.6% reported not having used a computer in the past year. The ACASI questionnaires were well accepted: 96.0% of the subset of participants reported finding them enjoyable to use, 97.2% reported that they were easy to use, and 82.6% preferred them for future questionnaires. A lower educational level and infrequent computer use in the past year were predictors of having usability trouble. These results indicate that the ACASI questionnaire is both an acceptable and a preferable mode of data collection in this population. PMID:17379618

  14. Case studies and general patterns of ion budgets in North American forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of ion budgets for North American forests reveals that Ca is the nutrient most often predicted to become depleted due to a combination of leaching and harvesting in managed forests. Studies of soil change, while few in number, generally support predictions from nutrient budget analyses. In the absence of harvesting, however, there are questions as to whether Ca or any other nutrient cation will become limiting before the system ceases experiencing a net loss of the potentially limiting cation. Theory predicts that nutrient cations in shortest supply will be conserved, while less limiting cations will be leached. Steady-state with regard to inputs and outputs base cations will eventually be reached, and if uptake depletes potentially limiting cations, the system will begin to accumulate them from atmospheric deposition. In the latter case, only harvesting will result in net ecosystem losses of base cations. In a case where all base cations are being conserved, Al will be mobilized with possible attendant negative effets upon tree roots and aquatic systems. Al will be mobilized to a greater extent than base cations from acid soils subject to inputs of mineral acid anions. While there is no direct evidence that soil solution Al concentrations have been increased by atmospheric S and N deposition, theory predicts that this will occur and historical evidence in the form of tree ring chemistry suggests that it has occured in some high-elevation forests. It is unclear as yet whether such Al mobilization has played a role in high-elevation forest decline, however. (orig.)

  15. Mexican and Central-American Contributions to the Study of the Civil War: Two Historical Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de HOYOS PUENTE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the historiography about the Spanish Civil War from Mexico and Central America. The result is quite different from the point of view of the interest raised by the Spanish conflict. This is can be explained by the different levels of involvement of the Mexican and Central American authorities in the war. However, the importance of the Republican exile in Mexico and its relative insignificance in Central America is also a contributing factor. The present day interest in the civil war is still based on that involvement and not of the evolution of the conflict.

  16. A longitudinal study of tobacco use among American Indian and Alaska Native tribal college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajewski Byron

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background American Indians (AI have the highest smoking rates of any ethnic group in the US (40.8%, followed most closely by African Americans (24.3% and European Americans (23.6%. AI smokers also have more difficulty quitting smoking compared to other ethnic groups, evidenced by their significantly lower quit ratios, and are among the least successful in maintaining long term abstinence. While health disparities like these have existed for years among AI, the epidemiology of smoking and nicotine dependence has not been optimally described among this underserved population. Our overarching hypothesis is that the susceptibility of AI to cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence and its consequences has both an underlying nicotine metabolism component as well as psychosocial, cultural, and environment causes. We are well-positioned to explore this issue for the first time in this population. Our objective is to establish a cohort of AI tribal college/university students to determine the predictors of smoking initiation (non-use to experimentation, progression (experimentation to established use, and cessation (established use to cessation. Much of what is known about the process of smoking initiation and progression comes from quantitative studies with non-Native populations. Information related to smoking use among AI tribal college/university (TCU students is entirely unknown and critically needs further investigation. This study will be the first of its kind among AI college students who are at the highest risk among all ethnic groups for tobacco dependence. Methods/design First year students at Haskell Indian Nations University in Kansas will be recruited over four consecutive years and will be surveyed annually and repeatedly through year 5 of the study. We will use both longitudinal quantitative surveys and qualitative focus group methods to examine key measures and determinants of initiation and use among this high risk group.

  17. Breaking Away from Progressive History: The Past and Politics in American Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Helo, Ari

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests that, contrary to a widely shared view among American scholars, a progressive view of history is neither essential nor helpful to historical research in American studies—or in any other academic field.

  18. Heroin addiction in African Americans: a hypothesis-driven association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levran, O; Londono, D; O'Hara, K; Randesi, M; Rotrosen, J; Casadonte, P; Linzy, S; Ott, J; Adelson, M; Kreek, M J

    2009-07-01

    Heroin addiction is a chronic complex disease with a substantial genetic contribution. This study was designed to identify gene variants associated with heroin addiction in African Americans. The emphasis was on genes involved in reward modulation, behavioral control, cognitive function, signal transduction and stress response. We have performed a case-control association analysis by screening with 1350 variants of 130 genes. The sample consisted of 202 former severe heroin addicts in methadone treatment and 167 healthy controls with no history of drug abuse. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), haplotype and multi-SNP genotype pattern analyses were performed. Seventeen SNPs showed point-wise significant association with heroin addiction (nominal Pvulnerability. PMID:19500151

  19. Genetic Ancestry-Smoking Interactions and Lung Function in African Americans: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrich, Melinda C.; Kumar, Rajesh; Colangelo, Laura A.; Williams, L. Keoki; Sen, Saunak; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Meibohm, Bernd; Galanter, Joshua; Hu, Donglei; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Liu, Yongmei; Harris, Tamara B.; Ziv, Elad; Zmuda, Joseph; Garcia, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking tobacco reduces lung function. African Americans have both lower lung function and decreased metabolism of tobacco smoke compared to European Americans. African ancestry is also associated with lower pulmonary function in African Americans. We aimed to determine whether African ancestry modifies the association between smoking and lung function and its rate of decline in African Americans. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated a prospective ongoing cohort of 1,281 Afr...

  20. More than 10 million steps in the right direction: results from the first American Heart Association scientific sessions walking challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Robert A; Arena, Ross; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ciarochi, Amy; Croll, Elizabeth; Bloch, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Global Congress theme at the American Heart Association (AHA) Annual Scientific Sessions was Physical Activity (PA). As a key component of the Congress, iHealth working in collaboration with AHA provided a Bluetooth-enabled wireless PA and sleep tracker to up to 2,000 Scientific Sessions attendees. Approximately 1850 Scientific Sessions attendees registered for, received a PA tracker and participated in the Walking Challenge. More than 10 million steps were walked by participants (10,703,504) during the 2.5 days of the Walking Challenge. This translates into almost 6000 miles walked (5976.3 miles) and 656,716 calories burned by participants during the Challenge. The Global Congress of PA held at Scientific Sessions 2013 not only extensively reviewed the science of PA as a powerful/independent and, most importantly, modifiable cardiovascular risk factor, but it also provided evidence from a fun and entertaining challenge that PA as a risk behavior can be assessed and targeted. We just took 10 million steps in the right direction. Join us and make your steps count! PMID:25269063

  1. Preliminary experimental results on studying possibility of variable mass liner (VML) formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The main objective of the present experiment was to study the formation process and initial stage of acceleration of a variable-mass plasma liner (VML). The method is based on magnetic acceleration of a liner with the mass reduced during such acceleration. The experiment was carried out on February 16 at VNIIEF. This report describes the results of measurements obtained in the experiment and preliminary analysis of the results characterizing operation of the test facility main units: helical EMG; 5-module disk EMG 400 mm in diameter (DEMG); ponderomotive unit (PU) with a cylindric condensed liner and a special tooth-cutoff. The first part of the report presents measurement results obtained on the VNIIEF`s diagnostic equipment that are compared with those obtained by American specialists on their diagnostic equipment. Information submitted by American specialists is included in part 2 of this report. The second part of the report presents preliminary computational-theoretic analysis of the main measured results describing operation of DEMG TL system in the experiment; experimental data are compared with theoretical ones obtained before and after the experiment. But more emphasis is placed on the data preliminary analysis indicating that in the experiment a variable mass liner is formed (VML or plasma bubble).

  2. Preliminary experimental results on studying possibility of variable mass liner (VML) formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the present experiment was to study the formation process and initial stage of acceleration of a variable-mass plasma liner (VML). The method is based on magnetic acceleration of a liner with the mass reduced during such acceleration. The experiment was carried out on February 16 at VNIIEF. This report describes the results of measurements obtained in the experiment and preliminary analysis of the results characterizing operation of the test facility main units: helical EMG; 5-module disk EMG 400 mm in diameter (DEMG); ponderomotive unit (PU) with a cylindric condensed liner and a special tooth-cutoff. The first part of the report presents measurement results obtained on the VNIIEF's diagnostic equipment that are compared with those obtained by American specialists on their diagnostic equipment. Information submitted by American specialists is included in part 2 of this report. The second part of the report presents preliminary computational-theoretic analysis of the main measured results describing operation of DEMG TL system in the experiment; experimental data are compared with theoretical ones obtained before and after the experiment. But more emphasis is placed on the data preliminary analysis indicating that in the experiment a variable mass liner is formed (VML or plasma bubble)

  3. Do christian denominations exhibit higher rates of alcohol consumption? A study of Korean American women in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang Sim, D Eastern; Hofstetter, C Richard; Irvin, Veronica L; Ayers, John W; Macera, Caroline A; Ji, Ming; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2013-03-01

    Although Korean American women show high levels of involvement in religious practices and high prevalence of alcohol consumption, no studies have assessed the association between religious denomination and alcohol intake among this group of women. This cross-sectional study examined the associations of religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption among Korean American women in California. Polychotomous regression models were used to provide estimates of the associations between religious denomination and religious commitment to alcohol consumption. Catholic Korean American women (OR 5.61 P Christian women (OR 4.87 P Christian Korean American women. Path analysis suggested that specific denominations had both direct and indirect effects on the outcome of interest, and that religious commitment and drinking models served as moderators for this phenomenon. PMID:21286816

  4. Comparative study of two female African-American Writers in 20 Centu-ry-Alice Walker VS. Toni Morriso

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂生义

    2013-01-01

    Toni Morrison and Alice Walker are among the most outstanding female African-American writers in Contemporary American Literature. Their works have been popular since 1960s to now. Although Walker and Morrison grew up under differ⁃ent family environments, they had the same experience of witnessing African-American women’s movements in last Century;therefore, they reached an agreement on writing thoughts and contents. For instance, they both referred to Racism, Sexism and“Womanism”in many of their works. This dissertation studies about the two authors’difference and sameness descriptions on Af⁃rican-American women’s identities, social status, rights, powers and fates,and to express their self-consciousness and bright prospection after experiencing the most painful encounters through comparative study on two of their short stories—Everyday Use and Recitatif.

  5. Mentoring and Professional Identity Development for African American Female Doctoral Students: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Nettavia Doreen

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact mentoring relationships, between African American women doctoral students and faculty members, has on the students' professional identity development. Of particular interest is an examination of whether matched mentoring relationships between African American women doctoral students and African American female…

  6. Digital History: Using the Internet to Enhance African American Studies in the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…

  7. A Cultural Study of Chinese American Women's Self-Identification and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research aims to investigate the process of how Chinese American women develop their identities while growing up in the United States as daughters of Chinese immigrants. Specifically, the author explores the following questions: How do Chinese American women come to identify themselves as Chinese American, and act this identity in…

  8. Associations between metabolomic compounds and incident heart failure among African Americans: the ARIC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Yu, Bing; Alexander, Danny; Manolio, Teri A; Aguilar, David; Coresh, Josef; Heiss, Gerardo; Boerwinkle, Eric; Nettleton, Jennifer A

    2013-08-15

    Heart failure is more prevalent among African Americans than in the general population. Metabolomic studies among African Americans may efficiently identify novel biomarkers of heart failure. We used untargeted methods to measure 204 stable serum metabolites and evaluated their associations with incident heart failure hospitalization (n = 276) after a median follow-up of 20 years (1987-2008) by using Cox regression in data from 1,744 African Americans aged 45-64 years without heart failure at baseline from the Jackson, Mississippi, field center of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. After adjustment for established risk factors, we found that 16 metabolites (6 named with known structural identities and 10 unnamed with unknown structural identities, the latter denoted by using the format X-12345) were associated with incident heart failure (P < 0.0004 based on a modified Bonferroni procedure). Of the 6 named metabolites, 4 are involved in amino acid metabolism, 1 (prolylhydroxyproline) is a dipeptide, and 1 (erythritol) is a sugar alcohol. After additional adjustment for kidney function, 2 metabolites remained associated with incident heart failure (for metabolite X-11308, hazard ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.86; for metabolite X-11787, hazard ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.37). Further structural analysis revealed X-11308 to be a dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid and X-11787 to be an isoform of either hydroxyleucine or hydroxyisoleucine. Our metabolomic analysis revealed novel biomarkers associated with incident heart failure independent of traditional risk factors. PMID:23788672

  9. Short of transformation: American ADN students' thoughts, feelings, and experiences of studying abroad in a low-income country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foronda, Cynthia L; Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2012-01-01

    ADN students are a large yet distinct subgroup of nursing students who require research and understanding. The purpose of this study was to describe the thoughts, feelings, and experiences of American associate degree nursing (ADN) students who participated in a short study abroad course in a low-income country. A qualitative, narrative method was used. Three categories emerged from the analysis. Participants revealed thoughts of "constant comparisons", feelings of an "emotional journey", and they experienced "learning". Participants did not demonstrate perspective transformation as defined by Mezirow as participants signified no intent for social action. Several potential blocks to perspective transformation were identified: egocentrism/emotional disconnect, perceived powerlessness/being overwhelmed, and a vacation mindset. The findings provide insight into the student experience of studying abroad. Transformative learning is not a guaranteed result. Nurse educators must consider strategies to foster transformation including discussing global systemic oppressors, international relations, coping, connecting, and social action. PMID:22673958

  10. A genome-wide association study of serum uric acid in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Norman P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uric acid is the primary byproduct of purine metabolism. Hyperuricemia is associated with body mass index (BMI, sex, and multiple complex diseases including gout, hypertension (HTN, renal disease, and type 2 diabetes (T2D. Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS in individuals of European ancestry (EA have reported associations between serum uric acid levels (SUAL and specific genomic loci. The purposes of this study were: 1 to replicate major signals reported in EA populations; and 2 to use the weak LD pattern in African ancestry population to better localize (fine-map reported loci and 3 to explore the identification of novel findings cognizant of the moderate sample size. Methods African American (AA participants (n = 1,017 from the Howard University Family Study were included in this study. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix® Genome-wide Human SNP Array 6.0. Imputation was performed using MACH and the HapMap reference panels for CEU and YRI. A total of 2,400,542 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were assessed for association with serum uric acid under the additive genetic model with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, glomerular filtration rate, HTN, T2D, and the top two principal components identified in the assessment of admixture and population stratification. Results Four variants in the gene SLC2A9 achieved genome-wide significance for association with SUAL (p-values ranging from 8.88 × 10-9 to 1.38 × 10-9. Fine-mapping of the SLC2A9 signals identified a 263 kb interval of linkage disequilibrium in the HapMap CEU sample. This interval was reduced to 37 kb in our AA and the HapMap YRI samples. Conclusions The most strongly associated locus for SUAL in EA populations was also the most strongly associated locus in this AA sample. This finding provides evidence for the role of SLC2A9 in uric acid metabolism across human populations. Additionally, our findings demonstrate the utility of following-up EA

  11. Life Course Experiences, Pain and Suffering: A Case Study of an Older Mexican American Woman with Mobility Impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Janiece L.; Harrison, Tracie C.; Hendrickson, Sherry G.

    2013-01-01

    There is a dearth of literature examining how adversity shapes the experiences of pain and/or suffering in a middle aged Mexican American women. The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to understand pain and suffering from a life course perspective as described by a Mexican American woman aging with early onset mobility impairment. This Hispanic woman experienced episodes of abuse and rejection over the life course, which may have significantly influenced her pain and suffering ...

  12. What Goes On Inside Latin American Math and Science Classrooms: A Video Study of Teaching Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Näslund-Hadley

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Beyond common associated factors, such as teacher characteristics and socio-economic background of students, little is known about how student achievement in math and science is related to differences in the teaching approaches used in Latin American classrooms. This paper highlights the main findings of a qualitative study on cross-country differences in teaching practices in three Latin American countries. Of the three countries selected for the study, Paraguay and the Dominican Republic perform at the bottom of the regional comparative test, Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (SERCE, and the Mexican state of Nuevo Leon is one of the top performers. Our findings, based on a large sample of videotape recordings from sixth-grade classrooms in the three countries, indicate that inquiry based instruction appears to be associated with higher levels of learning. Teachers who actively engage students in activities that promote analytical and critical-thinking skills and move beyond a procedural understanding may lead to better performance on the SERCE assessments. However, drill, practice, and memorization predominate in all three countries.

  13. Diabetes-specific genetic effects on obesity traits in American Indian populations: the Strong Heart Family Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Barbara V

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body fat mass distribution and deposition are determined by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Obesity is associated with insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and type 2 diabetes. We previously identified evidence for genotype-by-diabetes interaction on obesity traits in Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS participants. To localize these genetic effects, we conducted genome-wide linkage scans of obesity traits in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes, and in the combined sample while modeling interaction with diabetes using maximum likelihood methods (SOLAR 2.1.4. Methods SHFS recruited American Indians from Arizona, North and South Dakota, and Oklahoma. Anthropometric measures and diabetes status were obtained during a clinic visit. Marker allele frequencies were derived using maximum likelihood methods estimated from all individuals and multipoint identity by descent sharing was estimated using Loki. We used variance component linkage analysis to localize quantitative trait loci (QTLs influencing obesity traits. We tested for evidence of additive and QTL-specific genotype-by-diabetes interactions using the regions identified in the diabetes-stratified analyses. Results Among 245 diabetic and 704 non-diabetic American Indian individuals, we detected significant additive gene-by-diabetes interaction for weight and BMI (P P Conclusion These results suggest distinct genetic effects on body mass in individuals with diabetes compared to those without diabetes, and a possible role for one or more genes on chromosome 1 in the pathogenesis of obesity.

  14. Results of an Academic, Health Care Worksite Weight Loss Contest for Southeastern Americans: Scale Back Alabama 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breaux-Shropshire, Tonya L; Whitt, Lauren; Oster, Robert A; Lewis, Dwight; Shropshire, Toneyell S; Calhoun, David A

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have assessed the effectiveness of competitive incentivized worksite weight loss programs. Scale Back Alabama (SBA) is a free, state-supported program designed to promote weight loss among overweight and obese citizens. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the design and preliminary findings of SBA as a worksite intervention among employees at a collegiate institution and university hospital. In teams of 4 employees, SBA participants volunteered to engage in a 10-week competitive weight loss contest; both teams and individuals who lost significant weight were eligible for randomly drawn cash incentives. Trained staff objectively measured participants' weight before and at the conclusion of the contest. Preliminary analyses suggest that SBA as a worksite program can promote weight loss among employees, but future analyses are warranted to understand the context of these findings and determine if current results are confounded by unmeasured factors. PMID:26081473

  15. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the world's largest organization dedicated to comprehensive cosmetic dentistry. Join Now Real Patient. Real Result. Dentistry by ... 9540 Contact Us © 2015 American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) © 2015 American ...

  16. Close relationships between Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans. PMID:11294169

  17. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in African Americans provides insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Maggie C Y; Shriner, Daniel; Chen, Brian H;

    2014-01-01

    of 1.19, explaining 17.5% of the phenotypic variance of T2D on the liability scale in African Americans. Overall, this study identified two novel susceptibility loci for T2D in African Americans. A substantial number of previously reported loci are transferable to African Americans after accounting...

  18. Emerging Technologies for Ecohydrological Studies during the North American Monsoon in a Chihuahuan Desert Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, R. C.; Vivoni, E. R.; Mendez-Barroso, L. A.; Rango, A.; Laliberte, A.; Saripalli, S.

    2010-12-01

    Monsoonal systems are due to seasonal shifts in atmospheric circulation that may result in a large fraction of the annual precipitation falling within a few months. The North American Monsoon System (NAMS) contributes approximately 55% of the annual rainfall in the New Mexico Chihuahuan Desert during the summer period. Relatively frequent storm events during the NAMS result in increased soil moisture that drive greater soil microbial activity and increased ecosystem primary productivity. During severe storms, runoff production can lead to flood events that recharge the subsurface through channel losses. In this study, we present preliminary results from a network of soil, channel, and atmospheric monitoring equipment in a small watershed (~0.05 km2) located in the Jornada Experimental Range (JER) near Las Cruces, New Mexico. Using the instrument network, we characterize the temporal and spatial variability of rainfall (5 rain gauges), soil moisture and temperature (16 profile locations), and channel runoff (4 flumes) within the watershed during the summer of 2010. In addition, we utilize CO2, H2O, and energy flux measurements by an eddy covariance tower to quantify the seasonal changes in land-atmosphere exchanges. These coordinated, spatially-distributed observations are complemented by the novel use of two Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) platforms for watershed characterization. Using a small airplane (the MLB BAT 3), we obtained a set of very high-resolution images (~7 cm) and created an orthomosaic to characterize vegetation cover and species prior to the NAMS and after full canopy development. Several instrument packages (optical, stereo and LIDAR) on board a SR30 UAV Electric helicopter also provide detailed information on the watershed, including a high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM). The conjunctive use of these datasets will allow for unprecedented analysis of how the onset and progression of the NAMS affects water, energy and carbon fluxes in a

  19. Risk of lung cancer and residential radon: pooled results of two studies in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To verify the prognosis that miners' exposure to radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer. Methods: The authors collected data from two case-control studies of residential radon representing two large radon studies conducted in China. The studies included 1050 lung cancer cases and 1996 controls. Results: Based on a linear model, the excess odds ratio (EOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) at 100 Bq/m3 was 0.133 (0.01, 0.36). For subjects living in the current home for 30 years or more, the EOR was 0.315 (0.07, 0.91). EOR estimates were similar to those in the extrapolations from miner data and consistent with residential radon studies in North American and Europe. Conclusion: Long-term radon exposure at concentrations found in many houses increases lung cancer risk

  20. Challenging the Stereotypes of Mexican American Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saracho, Olivia N.; Spodek, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    This critical review presents studies of Mexican American fathers in the United Sates to provide researchers with an understanding of contemporary fatherhood. It describes the myths that cause methodological and conceptual problems in interpreting the results of studies on Mexican American fathers. Several common challenges and limitations in…

  1. African American perspectives: A qualitative study of an informal science enrichment program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Jamila Rashida

    The purposes of this study were to determine what program characteristics African American parents consider when they enroll their children into an informal science education enrichment program, the parents' evaluation of a program called Jordan Academy in which they enrolled their children, and the alignment of the parents' perspectives with Black Cultural Ethos (BCE). BCE refers to nine dimensions posited by Wade Boykin, a psychologist, as comprising African American culture. Participants were parents of students that attended Jordan Academy, an informal science enrichment program designed for third through sixth grade students from underserved populations. Qualitative methodologies were utilized to perform a thorough assessment of parents' perspectives. Data sources included classroom observations, student surveys, academy curriculum, photos and video-taped class sessions. Data included teachers and parents' responses to semi-structured, audio recorded interviews and students' written responses to open-ended items on the program's evaluation instrument. The data were analyzed for themes and the findings compared to Black Cultural Ethos. Findings revealed that the participants believed that informal science education offered their children opportunities not realized in the formal school setting - a means of impacting their children holistically. The parents expressed the academic, cultural, and personal development of their children in their characterizations of the ideal informal science education experience and in their evaluations of Jordan Academy. Overall, the parents' views emphasized the BCE values of harmony, affect, verve, movement, orality and communalism. The study has important implications for practices within and research on informal science education.

  2. An electrophoretic study on phospholipase A2 isoenzymes in the venoms of Central American crotaline snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiente, C; Moreno, E; Sittenfeld, A; Lomonte, B; Gutiérrez, J M

    1992-08-01

    The number and isoelectric points of phospholipase A2 isoenzymes were studied in the venoms of 12 Central American crotaline snakes of the genera Bothrops, Crotalus, Lachesis and Agkistrodon. The study was carried out by using a methodology based on electrophoretic separation of venoms, transfer to nitrocellulose and detection of activity of the bands by an indirect hemolytic assay in agarose-erythrocyte-egg yolk gels. All venoms tested had indirect hemolytic activity, although they varied in the number and isoelectric point of their phospholipases A2. Most venoms had predominantly acidic isoenzymes, with the exception of A. bilineatus which had mainly basic isoenzymes and B. schlegelii which had both acidic and basic isoenzymes. Analysis of interindividual variability in B. asper venom demonstrated that two phospholipase A2 isoenzymes are present in some venoms but absent in others. Polyvalent antivenom was effective in neutralizing phospholipase A2 activity of the 12 venoms tested, when venoms and antivenom were incubated in the fluid phase. This work demonstrates a conspicuous interspecific variability in the number and isoelectric points of phospholipases A2 present in Central American crotaline snake venoms. PMID:1523675

  3. Nativity and Serum Concentrations of Antioxidants in Mexican American Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Eldeirawi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is limited research on the effect of immigration on biological markers of nutrition among children of Mexican origin in the United States. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III (1988–1994, on a national and representative sample of 1559 Mexican American children, 4–16 years of age, and assess the associations of country of birth with serum concentrations of carotenoids, vitamin A, and vitamin E. In multiple regression analyses, Mexico-born Mexican American children had significantly higher serum concentrations of α-carotene, β-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lutein/zeaxanthin, vitamin A, and vitamin E than their counterparts who were born in the United States after adjustment for age, sex, poverty income ratio, level of education of family reference person, body mass index, total serum cholesterol, serum cotinine, total energy intake, and vitamin/mineral consumption. Our findings confirm evidence for a negative effect of immigration/acculturation on dietary quality in this population. These findings also suggest that immigrant Mexican families should be encouraged to maintain their consumption of fruits and vegetables. Prospective studies are needed to further assess the effects of immigration/acculturation on diet and other health outcomes in children of Mexican origin and immigrants.

  4. Novel genetic risk factors for asthma in African American children: Precision Medicine and the SAGE II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marquitta J; Risse-Adams, O; Goddard, P; Contreras, M G; Adams, J; Hu, D; Eng, C; Oh, S S; Davis, A; Meade, K; Brigino-Buenaventura, E; LeNoir, M A; Bibbins-Domingo, K; Pino-Yanes, M; Burchard, E G

    2016-07-01

    Asthma, an inflammatory disorder of the airways, is the most common chronic disease of children worldwide. There are significant racial/ethnic disparities in asthma prevalence, morbidity, and mortality among US children. This trend is mirrored in obesity, which may share genetic and environmental risk factors with asthma. The majority of asthma biomedical research has been performed in populations of European decent. We sought to identify genetic risk factors for asthma in African American children. We also assessed the generalizability of genetic variants associated with asthma in European and Asian populations to African American children. Our study population consisted of 1227 (812 asthma cases, 415 controls) African American children with genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between SNP genotype and asthma status. We identified a novel variant in the PTCHD3 gene that is significantly associated with asthma (rs660498, p = 2.2 × 10(-7)) independent of obesity status. Approximately 5 % of previously reported asthma genetic associations identified in European populations replicated in African Americans. Our identification of novel variants associated with asthma in African American children, coupled with our inability to replicate the majority of findings reported in European Americans, underscores the necessity for including diverse populations in biomedical studies of asthma. PMID:27142222

  5. Recruiting Chinese American adolescents to HIV/AIDS-related research: a lesson learned from a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Hui; Salman, Ali; Wang, Fan

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to report identified barriers and challenges experienced in the recruiting process of Chinese American adolescents to a cross-sectional HIV/AIDS-related study. Snowball sampling method was used to recruit Chinese American adolescents from Chinese American communities in a U.S. Midwestern state. Barriers and challenges to recruitment were reviewed and analyzed from Chinese cultural perspectives in the hope of aiding researchers and health care providers understand and facilitate future recruitment of Chinese Americans for HIV/AIDS prevention studies. Barriers to recruitment were found related to the taboo topic of sexual issues in Chinese culture, unawareness and denial of HIV/AIDS risks, authoritarian parenting style in Chinese culture, and the required active consents. Facilitating factors of recruiting Chinese American adolescents to future HIV/AIDS prevention research or intervention programs are discussed. Information provided in this article may increase nurses' awareness of various barriers that they might encounter when they conduct research or address HIV/AIDS-related topics of Chinese American adolescents. PMID:20974090

  6. Obesity Prevention in Young Schoolchildren: Results of a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manger, William M.; Manger, Lynn S.; Minno, Alexander M.; Killmeyer, Mike; Holzman, Robert S.; Schullinger, John N.; Roccella, Edward J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Overweight and obesity occur in 17% of children in the United States. Complications of excess weight in Americans cause 216,000 to 300,000 deaths yearly and cost $147 billion. Methods: A convenience sample of 14 intervention and 15 control schools in the Catholic Diocese of Pittsburgh was used. A program to improve lifestyle (Values…

  7. Immigration and Mental Disorders among Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Takeuchi, David T.; Zane, Nolan; Hong, Seunghye; Chae, David H.; Gong, Fang; Gee, Gilbert C.; Walton, Emily; Sue, Stanley; Alegria, Margarita

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined lifetime and 12-month rates of any depressive, anxiety, and substance abuse disorders in a national sample of Asian Americans. We focused on factors related to nativity and immigration as possible correlates of mental disorders. Methods. Data were derived from the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first national epidemiological survey of Asian Americans in the United States. Results. The relationships between immigration-related factors and mental disorders...

  8. RELATIONSHIP OF SUCCESS IN UNIVERSITY STUDY AND ADMISSION EXAM RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Poláčková, Julie

    2013-01-01

    The admission examinations represent a first important moment in academic education. If the admission proceedings really are expected to satisfy the intention to select those most capable and fittest candidates for study, proper attention has to be paid to them. Besides checking and confirming satisfactory levels of the results of secondary school studies they also should predict with sufficient reliability the academic success of study in the given branch. The paper brings research results c...

  9. Neighborhood safety and adipose tissue distribution in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Quyen Pham

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Patterns of fat distribution are heavily influenced by psychological stress, sex, and among women, by menopause status. Emerging evidence suggests the lack of perceived neighborhood safety due to crime may contribute to psychological stress and obesity among exposed residents. Our objective is to determine if perceived neighborhood safety is associated with abdominal adiposity among African-American men and women, and among pre- and postmenopausal women in the Jackson Heart Study. DESIGN AND METHODS: We examined associations between perceived neighborhood safety, fat distribution, and other individual-level covariates among Jackson Heart Study participants (N = 2,881. Abdominal adiposity was measured via computed tomography scans measuring the volumes of visceral, subcutaneous and total adipose tissue. We also measured body mass index (BMI, and waist circumference. Multivariable regression models estimated associations between perceived neighborhood safety, adiposity, and covariates by sex and menopause status. RESULTS: Adjusting for all covariates, women who strongly disagreed their neighborhood was safe from crime had a higher BMI compared to women who felt safe [Std B 0.083 95% CI (0.010, 0.156]. Premenopausal women who felt most unsafe had higher BMI, waist circumference, and volumes of visceral and total adipose tissue than those who felt safe [Std B 0.160 (0.021, 0.299, Std B 0.142 (0.003, 0.280, Std B 0.150 (0.014, 0.285, Std B 0.154 (0.019, 0.290, respectively]. We did not identify associations between neighborhood safety and adiposity among men and postmenopausal women. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that abdominal adipose tissue distribution patterns are associated with perceived neighborhood safety in some groups, and that patterns may differ by sex and menopause status, with most associations observed among pre-menopausal women. Further research is needed to elucidate whether there are causal mechanisms underlying sex

  10. Talent Management Programmes at British, American and Canadian Universities: Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boichenko Maryna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the peculiarities of talent management programmes implementation at the top British, American and Canadian universities. The essence of the main concepts of research - talent and talent management - has been revealed. Talent management is referred to as the systematic attraction, identification, development, engagement, retention and deployment of those individuals who are of particular value to an organization, either in view of their “high potential” for the future or because they are fulfilling business/ operation-critical roles. The factors that drive the development of talent management at the universities have been defined. The benefits that can be obtained as a result of talent management programmes implementation in higher education institutions have been pointed out. The differences in talent management programmes implementation at the universities of Great Britain, the USA and Canada have been found out. These differences depend mainly on the human resources policy of the institution represented in its strategic plan. It has been concluded that most top British and American higher education institutions run talent development programmes, but the target categories and forms of their implementation greatly differ. Canadian universities in the human resources policy focus on professional development of staff and faculty, but do not have special talent management programmes. Progressive conceptual ideas of foreign experience that can be used in practice of Ukrainian universities have been considered.

  11. Gender differences in the association of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity with adiponectin in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidulescu Aurelian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, paradoxically reduced in obesity and with lower levels in African Americans (AA, modulates several cardiometabolic risk factors. Because abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT, known to be reduced in AA, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT compartments may confer differential metabolic risk profiles, we investigated the associations of VAT and SAT with serum adiponectin, separately by gender, with the hypothesis that VAT is more strongly inversely associated with adiponectin than SAT. Methods Participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an ongoing cohort of AA (n = 2,799; 64% women; mean age, 55 ± 11 years underwent computer tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes, and had stored serum specimens analyzed for adiponectin levels. These levels were examined by gender in relation to increments of VAT and SAT. Results Compared to women, men had significantly lower mean levels of adiponectin (3.9 ± 3.0 μg/mL vs. 6.0 ± 4.4 μg/mL; p 3 vs. 2,668 ± 968 cm3; p 3 vs. 801 ± 363 cm3; p  Conclusion In African Americans, abdominal visceral adipose tissue had an inverse association with serum adiponectin concentrations only among women. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue appeared as a protective fat depot in men.

  12. Is Spanish Pragmatic Instruction Necessary in the L2 Classroom If Latin American Speakers of Spanish Take on American English Pragmatic Norms Once Prolonged Exposure in the United States Occurs? A Study on Refusal Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachelor, Jeremy W.; Hernandez, Lydia; Shively, Rachel L.

    2012-01-01

    As educators of foreign and second languages debate the most efficient methods of implementing pragmatic instruction in the L2 classroom, is it possible that Spanish pragmatic instruction is not necessary if American Spanish pragmatic norms are no different than American English norms? The present investigation studies the pragmatic norms in…

  13. Predictors of participant adherence and retention in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Deborah; Charleston, Jeanne; Dowie, Donna; Gabriel, Avril; Hall, Yvette Baxter; Hiremath, Leena; Lightfoot, Tammy; Sika, Mohammed; Smith, Winifred C; Wang, Xuelei

    2008-01-01

    The African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension (AASK) was conducted over a 7-year period at 21 clinical centers across the United States to investigate whether one of two levels of blood pressure control and/or one of three classes of antihypertensive medications was more effective at slowing the rate of renal disease in African Americans with renal insufficiency presumed secondary to hypertension. Analysis at the end of the study revealed an overall participant retention rate of 90% (still alive and not on dialysis); defined as having had at least one 125I-iothalamate GFR, the primary data collection element, measured in the final year of the study. Adherence, defined as not missing 3 consecutive protocol visits (6 months) during the study, was 77%. Adherence to protocol visits showed that participants assigned to a low blood pressure goal (mean arterial pressure [MAP] of 92 mm/Hg or lower) had a 30% (95% CI, 9%-45%) lower risk of nonadherence as compared to those assigned to the usual goal [MAP of 102-107] (p = 0.006). No statistically significant difference was observed between randomized drug assignments. Higher baseline systolic (p = 0.0001) and diastolic (p = 0.007) blood pressures were associated with a higher risk of nonadherence. Declining to provide an annual income is associated with a higher risk of nonadherence compared to those with incomes of $15,000 or higher (p = 0.04). In discussing the identifying factors that may predict nonadherence and the strategies that assisted in improving adherence and retention, this article offers insights for researchers in achieving high levels of participation in long-term clinical studies. PMID:18472682

  14. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  15. Participant evaluation results for two indoor air quality studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After two surveys for indoor air pollutants (radon and other chemicals) the homeowners were surveyed for their reactions. The results of these participant evaluation surveys, assuming that the participants that responded to the survey were representative, indicate that homeowners will accept a significant level of monitoring activity as part of an indoor air quality field study. Those participants completing surveys overwhelmingly enjoyed being in the studies and would do it again. We believe that the emphasis placed on positive homeowner interactions and efforts made to inform participants throughout our studies were positive factors in this result. There was no substantial differences noted in the responses between the 70-house study, which included a homeowner compensation payment of $100, and the 300-house study, which did not include a compensation payment. These results provide encouragement to conduct future complex, multipollutant indoor air quality studies when they are scientifically sound and cost effective

  16. ¿«Ideology, education or propaganda»? Promotion and difusion of American Studies in Salamanca, 1939-59

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco J. RODRÍGUEZ JIMÉNEZ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, it is well-known that the teaching and the promotion of the own language and culture overseas has a geo-strategic value. Nevertheless, this issue has been scarcely studied from a historiographical point of view. One of the deepest gap in that sense is that of the maneuvers that the American cultural diplomacy implemented in order to promote American literature, the art, the political science or the history —not to forget the English teaching— abroad in the context of the cultural cold war against Moscow. This paper tries to reveal the key factors of the different American plans executed in order to create a space for American Humanities and Social Sciences —American Studies— in the classrooms of the University of Salamanca. Likewise, we will see how these soft power strategies could have affected —or to be affected— in the political and militar aspectcs of the Spanish-North American relations from 1939 to 1959.

  17. Teachers' Implicit Theories of Learning to Read: A Cross-Cultural Study in Ibero-American Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E.; Rodríguez, Cristina; Suárez, Natalia; O'Shanahan, Isabel; Villadiego, Yalov; Uribe, Claudia; Villalobos, Jose Angel; Rodas, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the nature and structure of implicit theories of Spanish-speaking in-service teachers on learning to read. The study sample consisted of 591 in-service teachers from various Ibero-American countries (Spain, Mexico, Guatemala, Colombia, and Ecuador). The study analyzed attributional structure or teacher…

  18. A Study of First-Generation African American and Latino Undergraduates Developing Sociopolitical Consciousness in Introductory Sociology Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Montoya, Milagros

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the development of first-generation African American and Latino college students' sociopolitical consciousness in the context of their learning of sociology as a component of their liberal education studies. Given the paucity of research on how college students develop sociopolitical consciousness, this study addresses: (1) the…

  19. Evaluation of the metabochip genotyping array in African Americans and implications for fine mapping of GWAS-identified loci: the PAGE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Buyske

    Full Text Available The Metabochip is a custom genotyping array designed for replication and fine mapping of metabolic, cardiovascular, and anthropometric trait loci and includes low frequency variation content identified from the 1000 Genomes Project. It has 196,725 SNPs concentrated in 257 genomic regions. We evaluated the Metabochip in 5,863 African Americans; 89% of all SNPs passed rigorous quality control with a call rate of 99.9%. Two examples illustrate the value of fine mapping with the Metabochip in African-ancestry populations. At CELSR2/PSRC1/SORT1, we found the strongest associated SNP for LDL-C to be rs12740374 (p = 3.5 × 10(-11, a SNP indistinguishable from multiple SNPs in European ancestry samples due to high correlation. Its distinct signal supports functional studies elsewhere suggesting a causal role in LDL-C. At CETP we found rs17231520, with risk allele frequency 0.07 in African Americans, to be associated with HDL-C (p = 7.2 × 10(-36. This variant is very rare in Europeans and not tagged in common GWAS arrays, but was identified as associated with HDL-C in African Americans in a single-gene study. Our results, one narrowing the risk interval and the other revealing an associated variant not found in Europeans, demonstrate the advantages of high-density genotyping of common and rare variation for fine mapping of trait loci in African American samples.

  20. Transformational Leadership of Afghans and Americans: A Study of Culture, Age and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Belal A. Kaifi; Bahaudin G Mujtaba

    2010-01-01

    Afghans and Americans have been exposed to different leadership styles which may have influenced their orientation on leading others. Age, gender, and/or culture are possible factors for such differences in leadership orientations. This research surveyed the responses of 502 Americans and 300 Afghans to better understand their orientation toward transformational leadership. The Afghan respondents had significantly higher scores for transformational leadership orientation. Female American resp...

  1. Evaluation of a Structural Model of Objectification Theory and Eating Disorder Symptomatology among European American and African American Undergraduate Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated a structural equation model of objectification theory among European American (n = 408) and African American women (n = 233). Modeling results indicated a particularly strong association between thin-ideal internalization/body monitoring and eating disorder symptoms, with weaker relationships among body dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms. The measurement model was not equivalent for European Americans and African Americans; however, ...

  2. Is Asian American Parenting Controlling and Harsh? Empirical Testing of Relationships between Korean American and Western Parenting Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Yoonsun; Kim, You Seung; Kim, Su Yeong; Park, Irene Kim

    2013-01-01

    Asian American parenting is often portrayed as highly controlling and even harsh. This study empirically tested the associations between a set of recently developed Korean ga-jung-kyo-yuk measures and several commonly used Western parenting measures to accurately describe Asian American family processes, specifically those of Korean Americans. The results show a much nuanced and detailed picture of Korean American parenting as a blend of Western authoritative and authoritarian styles with pos...

  3. In vitro study of UHMWPE/MWCNT – Preliminary results

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, J.; J. Potes; Capela e Silva, F.; Pereira, A.; S. Kanagaraj; Oliveira, M.; Simões, J.

    2008-01-01

    Reinforcement of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by adding multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) allows improvement of mechanical characteristics for biomedical applications. However, there is controversy when it comes to carbon nanotubes toxicity. Our objective was the in vitro study of UHMWPE/MWCNT. The results show good biocompatibility of the nanocomposite, comparable to results obtained by other authors.

  4. End-of-Life Preference Discussions between Elderly Japanese American Men and Their Families: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Lauren; Bell, Christina; Fong, Kaon; Masaki, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Challenging cases in geriatrics often involve lack of communication regarding end-of-life preferences and cultural issues. There have been no previous population-based studies on acculturation and end-of-life preference discussions among older Japanese-Americans. Methods: The Honolulu-Asia Aging Study is a continuation of the Honolulu Heart Program, a longitudinal cohort study in Japanese-American men in Hawai‘i that began in 1965. In the 2009–10 exam, participants identified a proxy informant who answered questions about their knowledge of the men's end-of-life preferences. We studied the relationship between end-of-life preference discussions and completion of a written advance directive and actual preferences for end-of-life care, as well as associations between discussions and demographic and cultural factors. The Cultural Assimilation Scale (CAS) consisted of 8 questions assessing degree of Japanese identity and lifestyle. Results: Among 350 participants aged 89–108 years, proxy informants were wives (29.4%), daughters (29.4%), sons (22.0%), other relatives (8.0%) and others (mostly paid caregivers, 11.1%). On proxy interview, 70.7% reported end-of-life preference discussions and 29.3% did not. Those who had end-of-life preference discussions were more likely to have completed a written advance directive compared to those without discussions (93.6% vs 61.5%, P religion (vs Buddhist/Shinto, OR = 1.85, 95% CI = 1.00−3.41, P Religion was the only acculturation factor associated with end-of-life preference discussions. Participants with daughters as proxy informants had higher odds of end-of-life preference discussions.

  5. Sampling 'hard-to-reach' populations in health research: yield from a study targeting Americans living in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noseworthy Tom W

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some populations targeted in survey research can be hard to reach, either because of lack of contact information, or non-existent databases to inform sampling. Here, we present a methodological "case-report" of the yield of a multi-step survey study assessing views on health care among American emigres to Canada, a hard-to-reach population. Methods To sample this hard-to-reach population, we held a live media conference, supplemented by a nation-wide media release announcing the study. We prepared an 'op-ed' piece describing the study and how to participate. We paid for advertisements in 6 newspapers. We sent the survey information to targeted organizations. And lastly, we asked those who completed the web survey to send the information to others. We use descriptive statistics to document the method's yield. Results The combined media strategies led to 4 television news interviews, 10 newspaper stories, 1 editorial and 2 radio interviews. 458 unique individuals accessed the on-line survey, among whom 310 eligible subjects provided responses to the key study questions. Fifty-six percent reported that they became aware of the survey via media outlets, 26% by word of mouth, and 9% through both the media and word of mouth. Conclusion Our multi-step communication method yielded a sufficient sample of Americans living in Canada. This combination of paid and unpaid media exposure can be considered by others as a unique methodological approach to identifying and sampling hard-to-reach populations.

  6. Distributions and Determinants of Mercury Concentrations in Toenails among American Young Adults: the CARDIA Trace Element Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xun, Pengcheng; Liu, Kiang; Morris, J. Steve; Jordan, Joanne M.; He, Ka

    2012-01-01

    Background Since data on mercury (Hg) levels in Caucasians and African Americans (AAs) of both genders are lacking, this study aims to present toenail Hg distributions and explore the potential determinants using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Trace Element Study. Methods Data from 4344 Americans, aged 20–32 in 1987, recruited from Oakland, Chicago, Minneapolis and Birmingham were used to measure toenail Hg levels by instrumental neutron-activation method. The Hg distribution was described with selected percentiles and geometric means. Multivariable linear regression (MLR) was used to examine potential determinants of Hg levels within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results The geometric mean of toenail Hg was 0.212 (95% CI: 0.207–0.218) μg/g. Hg levels varied geographically with Oakland the highest [0.381 (0.367–0.395) μg/g] and Minneapolis the lowest [0.140 (0.134–0.147) μg/g]. MLR analyses showed that male gender and AA ethnicity were negatively associated with toenail Hg levels; and that age, living in Oakland city, education level, alcohol consumption and total fish intake were positively associated with toenail Hg concentrations within each ethnicity-gender subgroup. Current smokers were found to have higher Hg only in AA men. Conclusions This study suggested age, gender, ethnicity, study center, alcohol, education level and fish consumption consistently predict toenail Hg levels. As fish consumption was the key determinant, avoiding certain types of fish that have relatively high Hg levels may be crucial in reducing Hg intake. PMID:22926255

  7. NAS battery demonstration at American Electric Power:a study for the DOE energy storage program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newmiller, Jeff (Endecon Engineering, San Ramon, CA); Norris, Benjamin L. (Norris Energy Consulting Company, Martinez, CA); Peek, Georgianne Huff

    2006-03-01

    The first U.S. demonstration of the NGK sodium/sulfur battery technology was launched in August 2002 when a prototype system was installed at a commercial office building in Gahanna, Ohio. American Electric Power served as the host utility that provided the office space and technical support throughout the project. The system was used to both reduce demand peaks (peak-shaving operation) and to mitigate grid power disturbances (power quality operation) at the demonstration site. This report documents the results of the demonstration, provides an economic analysis of a commercial sodium/sulfur battery energy storage system at a typical site, and describes a side-by-side demonstration of the capabilities of the sodium/sulfur battery system, a lead-acid battery system, and a flywheel-based energy storage system in a power quality application.

  8. A qualitative study of adaptation experiences of 1.5-generation Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bryan S K; Brenner, Bradley R; Liang, Christopher T H; Asay, Penelope A

    2003-05-01

    Adaptation experiences of 1.5-generation Asian American college students (N = 10) were examined using the consensual qualitative research method. Results indicated 4 domains of adaptation experiences: preimmigration experiences, acculturation and enculturation experiences, intercultural relationships, and support systems. Participants reported that English proficiency played a significant role in their initial adjustment. Currently, most of the participants reported feeling identified with both the U.S. and Asian cultures. Some participants reported having experienced racism in the past. Many participants noted that they currently have no difficulty establishing friendships with culturally different persons. Participants reported currently feeling most close to friends of a similar background and that they usually seek support from friends, family, and religious organizations, but not from a psychologist or counselor. PMID:12760327

  9. On embodiment: a case study of congenital limb deficiency in American culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, G

    1986-09-01

    The relationship of mind and body is an issue of importance for Western medicine and psychiatry. An area to which this problem particularly applies is that of physical disability. In evaluating treatment of persons with physical disabilities, the concept of "adjustment" in social psychology may not deal sufficiently with ambiguities arising in varied cultural settings. The related concept of "stigma" in sociology is also limited, covering the cosmetic aspect of the mind-body relationship only. This paper applies the more abstract and inclusive concept of "embodiment" from the phenomenological movement in philosophy to the life history of a 35-year-old American woman born with quadrilateral limb deficiencies. The resulting description of her functioning and self-image over time calls into question the cultural assumptions of rehabilitation medicine and highlights the more general cultural demands upon persons with severe physical disabilities in the United States since the 1950s. PMID:3757538

  10. The second national hospital costing study: background, results and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, B; Murray, J; Hindle, D

    1998-01-01

    The costing of hospital outputs, and especially of acute admitted patients categorised by DRG, has been the focus of considerable attention in the last decade. Many individual hospitals now routinely estimate the costs of their main products, several State and Territory health authorities undertake periodic multi-site studies, and there have been a few one-off national studies. This paper summarises the methods and results of the most recent national study, which measured costs at a sample of public and private hospitals around Australia for the 1996-97 financial year. We briefly describe the main results and note some implications. PMID:10185689

  11. Associations between dietary habits and body mass index with gut microbiota composition and fecal water genotoxicity: an observational study in African American and Caucasian American volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rashmi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans (AA suffer from an increased incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC. Environmental exposures including dietary habits likely contribute to a high burden of CRC, however, data on the dietary habits of AA is sparse. Diet might change the composition and the activities of the intestinal microbiota, in turn affecting fecal genotoxicity/mutagenicity that is thought to be associated with carcinogenesis. Methods We assessed dietary habits by food frequency questionnaire and by food records in 52 AA and 46 CA residents of the Eastern Shore of MD. Fecal microbiota composition was determined using 16S rRNA based methods and fecal genotoxicity measured using the Comet assay. Results AA reported an increased intake of heterocyclic amines and a decreased dietary intake of vitamins including vitamin D (p Conclusion Dietary habits of African Americans, including increased HCA intake and decreased vitamin D intake might at least partially contribute to CRC through modifications of gut microbiota composition that result in changes of the intestinal milieu.

  12. Impact of Diet on Mortality From Stroke: Results From the U.S. Multiethnic Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sangita; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Green, Deborah M; Vik, Shelly; Tome, Anne; Kolonel, Laurence N

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Stroke is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States and stroke mortality rates vary by ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between food group consumption and risk of death from stroke among 5 ethnic groups in the United States. Methods The Multiethnic Cohort includes >215,000 participants, the majority of whom are African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, Latino, and Caucasian men and women recruited by mail survey in Hawaii and Los Angeles in 1993–1996. Deaths from stroke were identified by linkage to the state death files and the U.S. National Death Index. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Associations were examined using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by ethnicity and gender. Results A total of 860 deaths from stroke were identified among the cohort participants. Vegetable intake was associated with a significant reduction in risk for fatal stroke among African American women (relative risk [RR] = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.36–0.99). Among Japanese American women only, high fruit intake was significantly associated with a risk reduction for stroke mortality (RR = 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22–0.85), whereas meat intake increased risk (RR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.31–4.26). Among men, a significant reduction in stroke mortality was observed among Native Hawaiians (RR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.07–0.95). After pooling the data for the ethnic groups, the findings support an elevated risk for high meat intake among women overall (RR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.12–2.16); no significant effects of dietary intake on risk for fatal stroke were observed among men. Conclusions Although some variations were observed for the associations between diet and stroke mortality among ethnic groups, the findings suggest that these differences are not substantial and may be due to dietary intake of specific food subgroups. Additional investigations including dietary

  13. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  14. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 μg/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 μg/g) and the median was 0.837 μg/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 μg/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 μg/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: → Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 μg/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 μg/g). → Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. → Males, African Americans and less educated participants have low Se levels. → Smoking

  15. Distribution of toenail selenium levels in young adult Caucasians and African Americans in the United States: The CARDIA Trace Element Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xun, Pengcheng; Bujnowski, Deborah [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Liu, Kiang [Department of Preventive Medicine, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Steve Morris, J. [Research Reactor Center, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO (United States); Guo, Zhongqin [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Ningxia Medical University, Ningxia (China); Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); He, Ka, E-mail: kahe@unc.edu [Department of Nutrition, Gillings School of Global Public Health and School of Medicine, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2221 McGavran-Greenberg, Campus Box: 7461, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Gillings School of Global Public Health, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Background: Data on selenium (Se) levels in American young adults, especially in African Americans, are lacking. Objective: This study presented toenail Se distributions in American young adults of both genders, including both Caucasians and African Americans; and explored potential predictors of toenail Se levels. Data and methods: Data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study among 4252 American young adults, aged 20-32 in 1987 was used to examine toenail Se levels by instrumental neutron-activation analysis. The distribution of Se levels was described and multivariable linear regression was used to examine potential modifiers of toenail Se concentration within ethnicity-gender subgroups. Results: The geometric mean of toenail Se in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g) and the median was 0.837 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.833-0.844 {mu}g/g). Median levels from lowest to highest quintile were 0.691, 0.774, 0.838, 0.913 and 1.037 {mu}g/g. Se levels varied geographically, and were generally in accordance with its concentrations in local soil. Males, African Americans, current smokers, heavy drinkers and less educated participants were more likely to have low Se levels. Conclusion: This study suggests that toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. In addition to gender, ethnicity and education level, smoking status and alcohol consumption are two important indicators of Se status since they are modifiable lifestyle factors. Findings from this study might aid public health professionals in identifying people at relatively high or low Se levels, so that chronic disease prevention efforts can be directed toward these subgroups. - Research highlights: {yields} Average of toenail Se levels in this cohort was 0.844 {mu}g/g (95% CI, 0.840-0.849 {mu}g/g). {yields} Toenail Se levels vary geographically depending on soil Se concentrations. {yields} Males, African Americans and less educated participants have

  16. A Person-centered Approach to Studying the Linkages among Parent–Child Differences in Cultural Orientation, Supportive Parenting, and Adolescent Depressive Symptoms in Chinese American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, Scott R.; Kim, Su Yeong

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether supportive parenting mediates relations between parent– child differences in cultural orientation (generational dissonance) and depressive symptoms with a sample of 451 first and second generation Chinese American parents and adolescents (12–15 years old at time 1). Using a person-centered approach, meaningful typologies of cultural orientation were derived for fathers, mothers, and adolescents. Overall, results provided support, though qualified, for ...

  17. Meeting the information needs of lower income cancer survivors: results of a randomized control trial evaluating the american cancer society's "I can cope".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michelle Y; Evans, Mary B; Kratt, Polly; Pollack, Lori A; Smith, Judith Lee; Oster, Robert; Dignan, Mark; Prayor-Patterson, Heather; Watson, Christopher; Houston, Peter; Andrews, Shiquina; Liwo, Amandiy; Tseng, Tung Sung; Hullett, Sandral; Oliver, Joann; Pisu, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The American Cancer Society is a leader in the development of cancer survivorship resources. One resource of the American Cancer Society is the I Can Cope program, an educational program for cancer survivors and their families. Evaluations of this program indicate that cancer patients highly rate its objectives. Yet, there are gaps in the understanding of the full impact of the program on diverse cancer survivors. In this study, the authors used a randomized trial to evaluate the program. Participants included 140 low-income survivors (79% Black; 38% breast cancer) from community hospitals who were randomized to 4 sessions of I Can Cope (learning about cancer; understanding cancer treatments; relieving cancer pain; and keeping well in mind and body) or 4 sessions of a wellness intervention (humor, meditation, relaxation, and music therapy). The authors' primary outcome was "met information needs." After controlling for covariates, their analysis indicated that I Can Cope was no more effective than the wellness intervention in addressing survivor information needs relative to the learning objectives. Participants provided high overall ratings for both interventions. Self-efficacy for obtaining advice about cancer, age, education, and income were associated with information needs. Educational programs tailored to levels of self-efficacy and patient demographics may be needed. PMID:24433231

  18. A comparative study of American, Australian, British, and Canadian museum visitors' understanding of the nature of evolutionary theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham-Silver, Linda M.

    2005-11-01

    The study was designed to identify the beliefs held by visitors to natural history museums with respect to evolution and its mechanism. Visitors' levels of rejection and acceptance of evolutionary theory, their associated explanatory frameworks, and understanding of the nature of biological evolution were examined to determine whether differences existed between populations of museum visitors in the United States, Australia, Canada, and Great Britain. Data were collected at three natural history museums located outside of the United States and compared with existing data from previous studies conducted using the same methodology in American natural history museums. One hundred sixty-one museum visitors were interviewed in person in the non-U.S. sites; their interviews were tape recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed (using primarily chi-square) to identify similarities, patterns, and relationships among the data sets. Museum visitors outside of the United States demonstrated much lower levels of rejection of evolutionary theory when compared with data collected in the U.S. museums (an overall 2% rate of rejection was observed in the non-U.S. sample, while a 9.5% rejection rate was observed in the American sample). Surprising results included the finding that non-U.S. individuals held similar levels of naive conceptions with regard to the nature of evolutionary theory and the sequence of geologic time when compared with their American counterparts. Less than half of all museum visitors interviewed outside of the United States were able to describe natural selection, the mechanism by which evolution is thought to operate. Study participants showed consistent and deeply held tendencies to apply teleological or Lamarkian explanations to describe the mechanism for evolutionary change. Significant correlations between participants' age, their level of education, and their rejection or acceptance of evolution were not found among the data derived from these non

  19. Variables Associated With Academic Achievement of African-American Males in Four-Year Undergraduate Educational Institutions: a Synthesis of Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Monk, Thelma Y.

    1998-01-01

    This project was a synthesis of studies of the academic achievement of African-American males in undergraduate, four-year institutions in the United States. The purpose of this synthesis was twofold. The first purpose was to collect studies on the academic achievement of African-American males. The second purpose was to identify variables associated with achievement of African-American males. In this review of 13 studies, 48 variables associated with ...

  20. GeoJourney: A Field-Based, Interdisciplinary Approach to Teaching Geology, Native American Cultures, and Environmental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Joe; Elkins, Nichole M. L.; Hemmings, Sarah N. J.

    2008-01-01

    GeoJourney is an interdisciplinary field trip in geology, Native American studies, and environmental studies designed for introductory-level undergraduates. The program travels 23,345 kilometers by van to national parks, industrial sites, museums, and Indian reservations in 24 of the United States. During the day, students carry out hands-on…

  1. Mathematics: Self-Efficacy, Identity, and Achievement among African American Males from the High School Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Calvin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship existed between mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity to mathematics achievement among African American males from High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS:09). Subsequently, the extent to which mathematics self-efficacy and mathematics identity accounted for low and…

  2. A Parent Education Program for Parents of Chinese American Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs): A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of a parent education program on decreasing parenting stress and increasing parental confidence and quality of life in parents of Chinese American children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). A pre-, posttest group design was used in this study. A total of nine families of Chinese American…

  3. Mentoring Functions within the American Council on Education (ACE) Fellows Leadership Development Program: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotrian-Ryan, Sheri A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine and better comprehend the concept of mentoring within the American Council on Education (ACE) Fellows Program. This study addressed the functions of mentoring and how they applied to those participating in the ACE Fellows Program--from the Fellows' (or protégés') perspectives. A sequential…

  4. Marriage and Health in the Transition to Adulthood: Evidence for African Americans in the Add Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Lee, Hedwig; DeLeone, Felicia Yang

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the relationships among early marriage (before age 26 years), cohabitation, and health for African Americans and Whites during the transition to adulthood using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study examines three categories of health outcomes relevant to young adulthood: physical…

  5. The Utilization of Local History in Teaching American Religious History: A Gilded Age and Progressive Era North Dakota Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Christopher Neal

    2013-01-01

    Teachers of college-level courses on American religious history generally leave out the importance of local and regional histories when telling the story of religion in America. The study of local history provides a fertile ground for understanding broad national trends in a local context. This dissertation focuses upon a little-studied religious…

  6. A Hermeneutical Study of Older Korean Graduate Students' Experiences in American Higher Education: From Confucianism to Western Educational Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seonjin; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2005-01-01

    In this hermeneutical study, the authors focus on understanding the experiences of older Korean students who have come to the United States to pursue academic degrees at American universities. The purpose of this study is to describe the critical events related to their adjustment processes as well as to address some of the specific concerns of…

  7. The Prevalence and Characteristics of Intimate Partner Violence in a Community Study of Chinese American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei

    2006-01-01

    A community probability-sampled survey was done of 181 Chinese American women to investigate the prevalence and nature of intimate partner violence (IPV) in Chinese Americans. Of participants, 42% knew a Chinese woman who had experienced IPV. Also, 14% had experienced IPV themselves in their lifetime (8% severe and 6% minor), 3% in the previous…

  8. Cancer Risks and Native Americans: The "Healthy Living in Two World's" Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, H.; Jackson, K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This project collected data on cancer risk factors among urban Native American youth in the northeast to inform development of a prevention initiative. Design: Face to face interviews were conducted. Setting: Interviews were conducted in homes, at a social service agency, and in a private space at a Native American cultural event in…

  9. From Cradleboard to Motherboard: Buffy Sainte-Marie's Interactive Multimedia Curriculum Transforms Native American Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Claire

    2000-01-01

    Describes "Science: Through Native American Eyes," an interactive multimedia CD-ROM for middle school that is part of the Cradleboard Teaching Project developed by musician and teacher Buffy Sainte-Marie. The Cradleboard joins Native American tradition and high-tech innovation to explore the core curriculum of the National Content Standards. (SLD)

  10. English and American Residential Secondary Schools: A Comparative Study of the Reproduction of Social Elites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr.; Persell, Caroline H.

    1985-01-01

    Elite secondary boarding schools educate and socialize students from socially elite backgrounds in ways that reflect the different characters of English and American society. Observations and interviews in 5 English and 12 American elite schools focused on leadership styles; discipline; curriculum; teaching style; and the structure of…

  11. Identity Development and Self-Esteem of First-Generation American College Students: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandria, Kathryn P.; Nelson, Eileen S.

    2005-01-01

    Based on Chickering's model, differences in self-esteem and identity development among first generation American (FGA) college students and non first-generation American (NFGA) students were examined. FGAs were the first generation born in the U.S. to one or both parents born and raised in another country. All participants responded to the Erwin…

  12. Tribally Controlled Colleges: Making Good Medicine. American Indian Studies, Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Wayne J.

    This book traces the development of tribally controlled colleges (TCC), placing them in a historical context within Native American higher education and within the junior and community college movement. It examines the first 10 years of the movement, focusing in particular on six TCC's and the American Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC),…

  13. Why do Asian-American women have lower rates of breast conserving surgery: results of a survey regarding physician perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Laura J

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US Asian women with early-stage breast cancer are more likely to receive a modified radical mastectomy (MRM than White women, contrary to clinical recommendations regarding breast conserving treatment (BCT. Methods We surveyed physicians regarding treatment decision-making for early-stage breast cancer, particularly as it applies to Asian patients. Physicians were identified through the population-based Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry. Eighty (of 147 physicians completed a questionnaire on sociodemographics, professional training, clinical practices, and perspectives on the treatment decision-making processes. Results The most important factors identified by physicians in the BCT/MRM decision were clinical in nature, including presence of multifocal disease (86% identified this as being an important factor for selecting MRM, tumor size (71% for MRM, 78% for BCT, cosmetic result (74% for BCT, and breast size (50% for MRM, 55% for BCT. The most important reasons cited for the Asian treatment patterns were patient attitudes toward not needing to preserve the breast (53%, smaller breast sizes (25%, and fear and cultural beliefs (12%. Conclusion These survey results suggest that physicians perceive major roles of both clinical and cultural factors in the BCT/MRM decision, but cultural factors may be more relevant in explaining surgical treatment patterns among Asians.

  14. Wind Tunnel Force Balance Calibration Study - Interim Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, Ray D.

    2012-01-01

    Wind tunnel force balance calibration is preformed utilizing a variety of different methods and does not have a direct traceable standard such as standards used for most calibration practices (weights, and voltmeters). These different calibration methods and practices include, but are not limited to, the loading schedule, the load application hardware, manual and automatic systems, re-leveling and non-re-leveling. A study of the balance calibration techniques used by NASA was undertaken to develop metrics for reviewing and comparing results using sample calibrations. The study also includes balances of different designs, single and multi-piece. The calibration systems include, the manual, and the automatic that are provided by NASA and its vendors. The results to date will be presented along with the techniques for comparing the results. In addition, future planned calibrations and investigations based on the results will be provided.

  15. Cervical Cancer Screening: Attitudes and Behaviors of Young Asian American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Grace J.; Nhung Le, Mai; Vong, Stephen; Lagman, Regina; Lam, Amy G.

    2011-01-01

    Compared to other racial/ethnic groups, Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women experience high incidence rates of cervical cancer but low rates of cervical cancer screenings. This study examines the behaviors and attitudes towards screening in young Korean, Filipino, and Vietnamese American women (n=304) in the San Francisco Bay Area. Results indicated Vietnamese American (OR=2.51) and Filipino American (OR=2.31) women had greater odds of ever having a Pap test than Korean American w...

  16. Results of six years of cytogenetic studies in amniotic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enelis Reyes Reyes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: research into different genetic diseases is one of the preventive programs of paramount importance at public health level. The early detection of chromosomopathies and the establishment of an appropriate strategy reduce the morbidity-morality rate and improve the patients’ quality of life.Objective: to describe the behavior of the results of the cytogenetic studies in the amniotic fluid of pregnant women from Las Tunas province during six years: from 2008 to 2014.Methods: a retrospective and descriptive study was carried out to assess the results of cytogenetic studies in amniotic liquid during six years: from 2008 to 2014. The statistical records were checked and the results, the indication criteria, the behavior of the age groups in women advanced in age and the diagnosed chromosomopathies were assessed.Results: the samples with results that exceeded the non-conclusive and positive women prevailed; 2, 3 positive cases of chromosomopathies were diagnosed out of 100 studied women at risk; pregnant women of advanced gestational years prevailed as indication criterion, being the 37 to 40 years old age group the predominant one; in the positive cases, numeric chromosomopathies of the type trisomy 21 or Down’s syndrome prevailed, with a frequency of 1, 2 out of 100 pregnant women at risk.Conclusions: the program of the cytogenetic diagnosis in the amniotic fluid has been an effective tool to detect congenital prenatal defects by chromosomopathies, very useful in the process of genetic advice.

  17. A National Study of American Indian and Alaska Native Substance Abuse Treatment: Provider and Program Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckmann, Traci; Moore, Laurie A; Croy, Calvin D; Novins, Douglas K; Aarons, Gregory

    2016-09-01

    American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIANs) experience major disparities in accessing quality care for mental health and substance use disorders. There are long-standing concerns about access to and quality of care for AIANs in rural and urban areas including the influence of staff and organizational factors, and attitudes toward evidence-based treatment for addiction. We conducted the first national survey of programs serving AIAN communities and examined workforce and programmatic differences between clinics located in urban/suburban (n=50) and rural (n=142) communities. We explored the correlates of openness toward using evidence-based treatments (EBTs). Programs located in rural areas were significantly less likely to have nurses, traditional healing consultants, or ceremonial providers on staff, to consult outside evaluators, to use strategic planning to improve program quality, to offer pharmacotherapies, pipe ceremonies, and cultural activities among their services, and to participate in research or program evaluation studies. They were significantly more likely to employ elders among their traditional healers, offer AA-open group recovery services, and collect data on treatment outcomes. Greater openness toward EBTs was related to a larger clinical staff, having addiction providers, being led by directors who perceived a gap in access to EBTs, and working with key stakeholders to improve access to services. Programs that provided early intervention services (American Society of Addiction Medicine level 0.5) reported less openness. This research provides baseline workforce and program level data that can be used to better understand changes in access and quality for AIAN over time. PMID:27431046

  18. Teacher Competencies in Health Education: Results of a Delphi Study

    OpenAIRE

    Moynihan, Sharon; Paakkari, Leena; Välimaa, Raili; Jourdan, Didier; Mannix-McNamara, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this research study was to identify the core competencies for health education teachers in supporting the development of health literacy among their students. Method/Results A three round Delphi method was employed. Experts in health education were asked to identify core competencies for school health educators. Twenty six participants from the academic field were invited to participate in the study. Twenty participants completed the first round of the D...

  19. Risk of lung cancer and residental radon in China: pooled results of two studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of radon-exposed underground miners predict that residential radon is the second leading cause of lung cancer mortality; however, case-control studies of residential radon have not provided unambiguous evidence of an association. Owing to small expected risks from residential radon and uncertainties in dosimetry, large studies or pooling of multiple studies are needed to fully evaluate effects. We pooled data from 2 case-control studies of residential radon representing 2 large radon studies conducted in China. The studies included 1,050 lung cancer cases and 1,996 controls. In the pooled data, odds ratios (OR) increased significantly with greater radon concentration. Based on a linear model, the OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI) at 100 Becquerel/cubic-meter (Bq/m3) was 1.13 (1.01, 1.36). For subjects resident in the current home for 30 years or more, the OR at 100 Bq/m3 was 1.32 (1.07, 1.91). Results across studies were consistent with homogeneity. Estimates of ORs were similar to extrapolations from miner data and consistent with published residential radon studies in North American and Europe, suggesting long-term radon exposure at concentrations found in many homes increases lung cancer risk. (orig.)

  20. ATOM PROBE STUDY OF TITANIUM BASE ALLOYS : PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    Menand, A.; Chambreland, S.; Martin, C

    1986-01-01

    Two different titanium base alloys, Ti46 Al54 and Ti88.8 Cu2.3, Al8.9, have been studied by atom probe microanalysis. A precipitate of Ti2 Al was analysed in the binary alloys. Micro-analysis of Ti Cu Al alloy revealed the presence of Copper enriched zones. The study has also exhibited a penetration of Hydrogen in the samples, probably due to preparation technique. The results demonstrate the feasibility of studies on titanium base alloys by mean of atom probe.

  1. A Study of Intonation in the Soccer Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, G.

    1980-01-01

    Reports a study which illustrates that a listener can anticipate the score of the opposing team in sports match results from the variation in the announcer's intonation. Investigates how reliable this prediction is and what linguistic features it involves. Relates these findings to general problems in intonation contour interpretation. (PMJ)

  2. 40 CFR 160.185 - Reporting of study results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... GOOD LABORATORY PRACTICE STANDARDS Records and Reports § 160.185 Reporting of study results. (a) A... or direction of the testing facility or sponsor, conducted an analysis or evaluation of data or... number of animals used, sex, body weight range, source of supply, species, strain and substrain, age,...

  3. Transferring manual ultrasonic inspection procedures - results of a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a manual ultrasonic pilot study for NDE specialists at RBMK nuclear reactor sites are presented. Probabilities of detection and false calls, using two different grading criteria, are estimated. Analyses of performance parameters lead to conclusions regarding attributes for improved test discrimination capabilities. (orig.)

  4. Some aspects of practical application of studies results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to aspects of practical application of studies results. Thus, the application of petroleum fractions of Kichik-Bel deposit for impregnation of asphalt-concrete cover for recovery of initial properties of asphalt-concrete cover is considered. The modification of lacquer coatings by corrosion inhibitors is considered as well.

  5. Result of Research Study for Treatments Against Gingivitis

    OpenAIRE

    Nana K. Natsvlishvili; Maradi A. Burduli

    2014-01-01

    The results of microbiological investigation of catarrhal gingivitis on the background of treatment with Unimag are presented in the research. Studies have revealed that treatment with Unimag of the patients with catarrhal and gingivitis rapidly normalizes quantity of microbes in the oral cavity, substituting the gram-negative pathogenic flora for the gram-positive microorganisms in the oral cavity.

  6. Transferring manual ultrasonic inspection procedures - results of a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.; Taylor, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kadenko, I. [Ukraine Nondestructive Training and Certification Facility (Ukraine)

    2002-07-01

    Results of a manual ultrasonic pilot study for NDE specialists at RBMK nuclear reactor sites are presented. Probabilities of detection and false calls, using two different grading criteria, are estimated. Analyses of performance parameters lead to conclusions regarding attributes for improved test discrimination capabilities. (orig.)

  7. Finnsjoen study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnsjoen study site was selected in 1977 to provide input to the KBS-1 and KBS-2 performance assessments. The site was later used as a test site for testing new instruments and new site characterization methods, as well as a research site for studying mainly groundwater flow and groundwater transport. All together, the Finnsjoen studies have involved 11 cored boreholes, down to max 700 m depth, and extensive borehole geophysical, geochemical and geohydraulic measurements, as well as rock stress measurements and tracer tests. This report presents the scope of the Finnsjoen studies together with main results. Conceptual uncertainties in assumptions and models are discussed with emphasis on the models used for the performance assessment SKB91. Of special interest for the Finnsjoen study site is the strong influence caused by a subhorizontal fracture zone on groundwater flow, transport and chemistry

  8. Walking behaviours from the 1965–2003 American Heritage Time Use Study (AHTUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merom Dafna

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The American Heritage Time Use Study (AHTUS represents a harmonised historical data file of time use by adults, amalgamating surveys collected in 1965–66, 1975–76, 1985, 1992–94, and 2003. The objectives of time-use studies have ranged from evaluating household and other unpaid production of goods and services, to monitoring of media use, to comparing lifestyles of more and less privileged social groups, or to tracking broad shifts in social behaviour. The purpose of this paper is to describe the process and utility of identifying and compiling data from the AHTUS to describe a range of walking behaviours collected using time-use survey methods over almost 40 years in the USA. Methods This is a secondary data analysis of an existing amalgamated data set. Noting source survey-specific limitations in comparability of design, we determined age-standardized participation (and associated durations in any walking, walking for exercise, walking for transport, walking the dog, sports/exercise (excluding walking, and all physical activity for those survey years for which sufficient relevant data details were available. Results Data processing revealed inconsistencies in instrument administration, coding various types of walking and in prompting other sport/exercise across surveys. Thus for the entire period, application of inferential statistics to determine trend for a range of walking behaviours could not be done with confidence. Focusing on the two most comparable survey years, 1985 and 2003, it appears that walking for exercise in America has increased in popularity on any given day (from 2.9 to 5.4% of adults and accumulated duration amongst those who walk for exercise (from 30 to 45 mins/day. Dog walking has decreased in popularity over the same time period (from 9.4 to 2.6%. Associated duration amongst dog walkers was stable at 30 mins/day. Conclusion The noted and sometimes substantial differences in methods between the

  9. New species of Diabrotica Chevrolat (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae and a key to Diabrotica and related genera: results of a synopsis of North and Central American Diabrotica species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Derunkov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The following 18 new species of Diabrotica are described and illustrated as a result of the synopsis of North and Central American species: D. barclayi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. caveyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. costaricensis sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. dmitryogloblini sp. nov., Mexico; D. duckworthorum sp. nov., Honduras; D. hartjei sp. nov., Panama; D. josephbalyi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. lawrencei sp. nov., Mexico; D. mantillerii sp. nov., Panama; D. martinjacobyi sp. nov., Honduras; D. mitteri sp. nov., Panama; D. perkinsi sp. nov., Guatemala; D. redfordae sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. reysmithi sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. salvadorensis sp. nov., El Salvador; D. sel sp. nov., Panama; D. spangleri sp. nov., Costa Rica; D. waltersi sp. nov., Panama. In addition, a key to separate Diabrotica from related genera is presented.

  10. Comparison beetwen open and laparoscopic radical cistectomy in a latin american reference center: perioperative and oncological results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Tobias-Machado

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTObjectives:To evaluate the differences of peri-operatory and oncological outcomes between Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy and Open Radical Cystectomy in our center.Materials and Methods:Overall, 50 patients were included in this non randomized match-pair analysis: 25 patients who had undergone Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy for invasive bladder cancer (Group-1 and 25 patients with similar characteristics who had undergone Open Radical Cystectomy (Group-2. The patients were operated from January 2005 to December 2012 in a single Institution.Results:Mean operative time for groups 1 and 2 were 350 and 280 minutes (p=0.03 respectively. Mean blood loss was 330 mL for group 1 and 580 mL for group 2 (p=0.04. Intraoperative transfusion rate was 0% and 36% for groups 1 and 2 respectively (p=0.005. Perioperative complication rate was similar between groups. Mean time to oral intake was 2 days for group 1 and 3 days for group 2 (p=0.08. Median hospital stay was 7 days for group 1 and 13 for group 2 (p=0.04. There were no differences in positive surgical margins and overall survival, between groups.Conclusions:In a reference center with pelvic laparoscopic expertise, Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy may be considered a safe procedure with similar complication rate of Open Radical Cystectomy. Laparoscopic Radical Cystectomy is more time consuming, with reduced bleeding and transfusion rate. Hospital stay seems to be shorter. Oncologically no difference was observed in our mid-term follow-up.

  11. "This Is How We Roll!": How "Successful" White Social Studies Teachers Build Solidarity with African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Michael Lee, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Despite a decade of concentration on closing the pervasive achievement gap in America, White students and Black students still attend schools with unequal results. Many strategies aimed at closing the gap exist, including increasing the number of African American teachers, but the majority of urban teachers are White, which will remain the case…

  12. A Research Study on the Projected Impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) on Texas Public Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, Albert; And Others

    This report estimates the number of recent immigrant students that would enroll in Texas public schools as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), and recommends educational strategies to address the unique needs of recent immigrants. Research approaches included a review of existing research on immigration trends and…

  13. The Employment Effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement: Recommendations and Background Studies. Special Report No. 33.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Commission for Employment Policy (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This publication presents results of a year-long research program initiated by the National Commission for Employment Policy to research and discuss the employment effects of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). It contains the letter to the President in which the Commission endorses NAFTA because of its positive employment-creating…

  14. Analysis of North American Newspaper Coverage of Bionics Using the Disability Studies Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonum Panesar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bionics are a set of technology products that are constantly evolving. Bionics are proposed as body add-ons or replacement for many body parts (ears, eyes, knees, neural prostheses, joints, muscles, kidney, liver, cartilage lungs, discs, pancreas, dental pulp, skin, hippocampus, legs and hands, and functions such as speech. Two main applications of bionic products are discussed; one being for the restoration of body abilities to a species-typical norm and the other being the addition of abilities to the body that are not species-typical. Disabled people are one main group perceived to be in need of therapeutic interventions that use various bionic products. So far, therapeutic interventions are about restoration to the species-typical norm. However, therapeutic bionic products increasingly give the wearer beyond normal body abilities (therapeutic enhancements. Many so-called non-disabled people want the same enhanced body-abilities especially through non-invasive bionic products (e.g., non-invasive brain machine interfaces, exoskeletons. The media has the ability to shape public perceptions with numerous consequences. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative and qualitative data on how bionic technologies and its users are portrayed in North American newspapers. Data was obtained from 1977 to 2013 from the Canadian Newsstand complete database which covers over 300 English language Canadian newspapers and two Canadian newspapers, one with national focus (The Globe and Mail and one with local focus (Calgary Herald, and from 1980–2013 from one American newspaper with national reach (The New York Times. The study found (a an almost always positive portrayal of bionics; (b coverage of bionics mostly within a medical framework; (c a predominantly stereotypical and negative portrayal of individuals with disabilities; and (d a hierarchy of worthiness between different assistive devices such as a reporting bias favoring artificial legs

  15. Incidence and risk factors of aplastic anemia in Latin American countries: the LATIN case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Maluf, Eliane; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Júnior, Álvaro Avezum; Eluf-Neto, José; Falcão, Roberto Passetto; Lorand-Metze, Irene G.; Goldenberg, Daniel; Santana, Cézar Leite; de Oliveira Werneck Rodrigues, Daniela; da Motta Passos, Leny Nascimento; Rosenfeld, Luis Gastão Mange; Pitta, Marimilia; Loggetto, Sandra; Feitosa Ribeiro, Andreza A.

    2009-01-01

    Associations between aplastic anemia and numerous drugs, pesticides and chemicals have been reported. This study conducted in Latin American countries shows a low incidence of aplastic anemia in this region of the world. Frequent exposure to benzene-based products increases this risk, while any association with specific drugs is uncertain.

  16. A Case Study of the Academic Achievement of African American Males in Single-Sex Classrooms in Rural South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannell, Lynette Martin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences of Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) scores between fourth-grade African American male students who were enrolled in single-sex classrooms and their counterparts who were enrolled in coeducational classrooms. The research provided descriptive data concerning one Title I school in rural…

  17. Exposure to Community Violence and Protective and Risky Contexts among Low Income Urban African American Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…

  18. Use of Large-Scale Data Sets to Study Educational Pathways of American Indian and Alaska Native Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faircloth, Susan C.; Alcantar, Cynthia M.; Stage, Frances K.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter discusses issues and challenges encountered in using large-scale data sets to study educational experiences and subsequent outcomes for American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) students. In this chapter, we argue that the linguistic and cultural diversity of Native peoples, coupled with the legal and political ways in which education…

  19. Missing the (Student Achievement) Forest for All the (Political) Trees: Empiricism and the Mexican American Studies Controversy in Tucson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Nolan L.; Milem, Jeffrey F.; Jaquette, Ozan; Marx, Ronald W.

    2014-01-01

    The Arizona legislature passed HB 2281, which eliminated Tucson Unified School District's (TUSD's) Mexican American Studies (MAS) program, arguing the curriculum was too political. This program has been at the center of contentious debates, but a central question has not been thoroughly examined: Do the classes raise student achievement?…

  20. Personal Persistence, Identity Development, and Suicide: A Study of Native and Non-Native North American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Michael J.; Lalonde, Christopher E.; Sokol, Bryan W.; Hallett, Darcy

    2003-01-01

    Five studies examined personal continuity among Native and non-Native North American adolescents. Demonstrated that reasoning about personal persistence proceeds in an orderly and increasingly sophisticated manner over identity development. Failures to warrant self-continuity were strongly associated with increased suicide risk. Efforts to…

  1. A Move-Analytic Contrastive Study on the Introductions of American and Philippine Master's Theses in Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintao, Rachelle B.; Erfe, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    This study purports to foster the understanding of profession-based academic writing in two different cultural conventions by examining the rhetorical moves employed by American and Philippine thesis introductions in Architecture using Swales' 2004 Revised CARS move-analytic model as framework. Twenty (20) Master's thesis introductions in…

  2. The Use of the Racial/Cultural Identity Development Model to Understand a Vietnamese American: A Research Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    West-Olatunji, Cirecie A.; Frazier, Kimberly N.; Guy, Tanisha L.; Smith, Angie J.; Clay, Latasha; Breaux, Walter, III

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the sociohistorical experiences of Vietnamese Americans that contextualize the therapeutic relationship. Using a case study approach, researchers illustrate the use of the Racial/Cultural Identity Development model (D. W. Sue & D. Sue, 2003) in the analysis of an interview with a young, adult, Vietnamese immigrant.

  3. Toward the Successful Implementation of the North American Free-Trade Agreement: The Integration of Language and Business Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffield, Barney T., III

    This paper examines the need for the integration of language and business studies to enhance successful implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement. For college and university graduates to deal effectively with French-Canadian and Mexican business people and consumers, they must be exposed to their languages and their cultures. This…

  4. From Activism to Academics: The Evolution of American Indian Studies at San Francisco State, 1968-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Torre, Joely

    2001-01-01

    The founding of the American Indian Studies program at San Francisco State University took place against a backdrop of the Indian occupation of Alcatraz Island and the demands of Indian students for more relevant coursework. Today the program connects students to the urban Indian community through service learning projects and is committed to…

  5. Health Information-Seeking Practices of African American Young Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, India D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Spencer, S. Melinda; Annang, Lucy; Lindley, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    The current study used a qualitative, phenomenological approach to investigate the health information-seeking practices of African American young men who have sex with men (AAYMSM). Forty-two self-identified AAYMSM, aged 18 to 21, residing in a Southeastern U.S. city participated in a qualitative focus group or face-to-face interview to examine…

  6. MAAP thermal-hydraulic qualification sensitivity study results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several sensitivity studies have been performed with both the boiling water reactor (BWR) and pressurized water reactor (PWR) modular accident analysis program (MAAP) codes to test the important phenomena previously identified. These phenomena were listed as critical flow, level tracking, flashing, condensation, boiling and critical heat flux. This paper will summarize the study and provide insights into the findings from the study. For PWRs, Catawba was chosen as the reference plant. For BWRs, Peach Bottom was chosen as the reference plant. A series of studies were performed which encompass all of the phenomena of interest. The paper summarizes the relationship of the studies to the important phenomena. The first study varied the break area specifically to examine uncertainties in the critical flow model. In the process however, this affected a sensitivity to level tracking and flashing in the PWR case where the system depressurizes to saturation, and to level tracking and boiling in the BWR case where the system stays near the SRV setpoint pressure. Similarly, the primary phenomena investigated for each of the sensitivity studies is listed with the resulting secondary effects which are important to the variation considered

  7. Evidence-Based Practice Knowledge, Use, and Factors that Influence Decisions: Results from an Evidence-Based Practice Survey of Providers in American Indian/Alaska Native Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Angela; Walrath-Greene, Christine; Fisher, Sylvia; Crossbear, Shannon; Walker, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    Data from the Evidence-based Treatment Survey were used to compare providers serving families in American Indian and Alaska Native communities to their counterparts in non-American Indian/Alaska Native communities on provider characteristics and factors that influence their decision to use evidence-based practices (N = 467). The findings suggest…

  8. Teacher competencies in health education: results of a Delphi study

    OpenAIRE

    Sharon Moynihan; Leena Paakkari; Raili Välimaa; Didier Jourdan; Patricia Mannix-McNamara

    2015-01-01

    peer-reviewed THE LINK TO THE DATA SET FOR THIS ARTICLE IS: URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10344/4736 Objective The aim of this research study was to identify the core competencies for health education teachers in supporting the development of health literacy among their students. Method/Results A three round Delphi method was employed. Experts in health education were asked to identify core competencies for school health educators. Twenty six participants from the academic f...

  9. Whither Aquaculture R&D? Results from a Delphi Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stricker, Susanne; Guettler, Stefan; Mueller, Rolf A.E.; Schulz, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    In the summer of the year 2008 a worldwide online Delphi study on the future of R&D in aquaculture was conducted. The Delphi method is widely used to survey experts on the anticipated developments within a specific domain. We employ this method to ascertain the likely future directions of aquaculture research in developed, high-income countries. For the convenience of our respondents we conducted the survey on the web. Results of the survey show that aquaculture experts agree that aquaculture...

  10. Political Risk in Credit Evaluation: Empirical Studies and Survey Results

    OpenAIRE

    Sandström, Annika

    2008-01-01

    Financing trade between economic agents located in different countries is affected by many types of risks, resulting from incomplete information about the debtor, the problems of enforcing international contracts, or the prevalence of political and financial crises. Trade is important for economic development and the availability of trade finance is essential, especially for developing countries. Relatively few studies treat the topic of political risk, particularly in the context of internat...

  11. Pharmacogenomics Bias - Systematic distortion of study results by genetic heterogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zietemann, Vera

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Decision analyses of drug treatments in chronic diseases require modeling the progression of disease and treatment response beyond the time horizon of clinical or epidemiological studies. In many such models, progression and drug effect have been applied uniformly to all patients; heterogeneity in progression, including pharmacogenomic effects, has been ignored. Objective: We sought to systematically evaluate the existence, direction and relative magnitude of a pharmacogenomics bias (PGX-Bias resulting from failure to adjust for genetic heterogeneity in both treatment response (HT and heterogeneity in progression of disease (HP in decision-analytic studies based on clinical study data. Methods: We performed a systematic literature search in electronic databases for studies regarding the effect of genetic heterogeneity on the validity of study results. Included studies have been summarized in evidence tables. In the case of lacking evidence from published studies we sought to perform our own simulation considering both HT and HP. We constructed two simple Markov models with three basic health states (early-stage disease, late-stage disease, dead, one adjusting and the other not adjusting for genetic heterogeneity. Adjustment was done by creating different disease states for presence (G+ and absence (G- of a dichotomous genetic factor. We compared the life expectancy gains attributable to treatment resulting from both models and defined pharmacogenomics bias as percent deviation of treatment-related life expectancy gains in the unadjusted model from those in the adjusted model. We calculated the bias as a function of underlying model parameters to create generic results. We then applied our model to lipid-lowering therapy with pravastatin in patients with coronary atherosclerosis, incorporating the influence of two TaqIB polymorphism variants (B1 and B2 on progression and drug efficacy as reported in the DNA substudy of the REGRESS

  12. Disparities in lipid management for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease: A national cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carter-Edwards Lori

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with coronary artery disease are at high risk for adverse health outcomes. This risk can be diminished by aggressive lipid management, but adherence to lipid management guidelines is far from ideal and substantial racial disparities in care have been reported. Lipid treatment and goal attainment information is not readily available for large patient populations seen in the fee-for-service setting. As a result, national programs to improve lipid management in this setting may focus on lipid testing as an indicator of lipid management. We describe the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipdemia for African Americans and Caucasians with coronary artery disease to evaluate whether public health programs focusing on lipid testing can eliminate racial disparities in lipid management. Methods Physicians and medical practices with high numbers of prescriptions for coronary artery disease medications were invited to participate in the Quality Assurance Program. Medical records were reviewed from a random sample of patients with coronary artery disease seen from 1995 through 1998. Data related to the detection, treatment, and control of dyslipidemia were abstracted from the medical record and evaluated in cross-sectional stratified and logistic regression analyses using generalized estimation equations. Results Data from the medical records of 1,046 African Americans and 22,077 Caucasians seen in outpatient medical practices in 23 states were analyzed. African-American patients were younger, more likely to be women and to have diabetes, heart failure, and hypertension. The low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C testing rate for Caucasian men was over 1.4 times higher than that for African-American women and about 1.3 times higher than that for African-American men. Almost 60% of tested Caucasian men and less than half of tested African Americans were prescribed lipid-lowering drugs. Tested and treated Caucasian men

  13. Drug addiction and stress-response genetic variability: association study in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levran, Orna; Randesi, Matthew; Li, Yi; Rotrosen, John; Ott, Jurg; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2014-07-01

    Stress is a significant risk factor in the development of drug addictions and in addiction relapse susceptibility. This hypothesis-driven study was designed to determine if specific SNPs in genes related to stress response are associated with heroin and/or cocaine addiction in African Americans. The analysis included 27 genes (124 SNPs) and was performed independently for each addiction. The sample consisted of former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance treatment (n = 314), cocaine addicts (n = 281), and controls (n = 208). Fourteen SNPs showed nominally significant association with heroin addiction (p gene (GALR1) and the functional FKBP5 intronic SNP rs1360780. Thirteen SNPs showed association with cocaine addiction, including the synonymous SNPs rs237902, in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), and rs5374 in GALR1. No signal remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Four additional SNPs (GALR1 rs2717162, AVP rs2282018, CRHBP rs1875999, and NR3C2 rs1040288) were associated with both addictions and may indicate common liability. The study provides preliminary evidence for novel association of variants in several stress-related genes with heroin and/or cocaine addictions and may enhance the understanding of the interaction between stress and addictions. PMID:24766650

  14. Visual Display of Scientific Studies, Methods, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltus, R. W.; Fedi, M.

    2015-12-01

    The need for efficient and effective communication of scientific ideas becomes more urgent each year.A growing number of societal and economic issues are tied to matters of science - e.g., climate change, natural resource availability, and public health. Societal and political debate should be grounded in a general understanding of scientific work in relevant fields. It is difficult for many participants in these debates to access science directly because the formal method for scientific documentation and dissemination is the journal paper, generally written for a highly technical and specialized audience. Journal papers are very effective and important for documentation of scientific results and are essential to the requirements of science to produce citable and repeatable results. However, journal papers are not effective at providing a quick and intuitive summary useful for public debate. Just as quantitative data are generally best viewed in graphic form, we propose that scientific studies also can benefit from visual summary and display. We explore the use of existing methods for diagramming logical connections and dependencies, such as Venn diagrams, mind maps, flow charts, etc., for rapidly and intuitively communicating the methods and results of scientific studies. We also discuss a method, specifically tailored to summarizing scientific papers that we introduced last year at AGU. Our method diagrams the relative importance and connections between data, methods/models, results/ideas, and implications/importance using a single-page format with connected elements in these four categories. Within each category (e.g., data) the spatial location of individual elements (e.g., seismic, topographic, gravity) indicates relative novelty (e.g., are these new data?) and importance (e.g., how critical are these data to the results of the paper?). The goal is to find ways to rapidly and intuitively share both the results and the process of science, both for communication

  15. Authoritarian parenting and youth depression: Results from a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Keith A; Vidourek, Rebecca A; Merianos, Ashley L

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a prevalent illness affecting youth across the nation. The study purpose was to examine depression and authoritarian parenting among youth from 12 to 17 years of age. A secondary data analysis of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health was performed in the present study. All participants in the present study were youth (N = 17,399) nationwide. The results revealed that 80.6% of youth participants reported having five or more depressive symptoms. Parenting styles based on depression significantly differed among males, females, 12-13-year-olds, 14-15-year-olds, and 16-17-year-olds. Specifically, those who reported experiencing authoritarian parenting practices were more likely to report depressive symptoms compared to their counterparts who experienced authoritative parenting practices. Emphasizing the role of the parents and teaching positive parenting practices and authoritative parenting styles may increase success of prevention programs. PMID:26939843

  16. Religious Participation is Associated with Increases in Religious Social Support in a National Longitudinal Study of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p < .001) and with increased religious social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p < .001), emotional support provided (p < .001), negative interaction (p < .001), and anticipated support (p < .001). Religious beliefs did not predict change in any type of support, and neither beliefs nor behaviors predicted change in general social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives. PMID:26493343

  17. A Comparative Study of Chinese and American Cultural Context and the Influence on Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Tian

    2010-01-01

    Cultural context plays a very important role in intercultural communication between Chinese and Americans. It is different in many ways including: Chinese culture and American culture belong to different cultural types, one high-context culture the other low-context; they are different also in terms of their basic values, language systems and nonverbal communication systems. Only when people from different cultural systems know about the cultural context of the target culture can they have an...

  18. Manganese superoxide dismutase Ala-9Val polymorphism and risk of breast cancer in a population-based case–control study of African Americans and whites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A polymorphism in the manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene, Ala-9Val, has been examined in association with breast cancer risk in several epidemiologic studies. Results suggest that the Ala allele increases the risk of breast cancer and modifies the effects of environmental exposures that produce oxidative damage to DNA. We examined the role of the MnSOD Ala-9Val polymorphism in a population-based case–control study of invasive and in situ breast cancer in North Carolina. Genotypes were evaluated for 2025 cases (760 African Americans and 1265 whites) and for 1812 controls (677 African Americans and 1135 whites). The odds ratio for MnSOD Ala/Ala versus any MnSOD Val genotypes was not elevated in African Americans (odds ratio = 0.9, 95% confidence interval = 0.7–1.2) or in whites (odds ratio = 1.0, 95% confidence interval = 0.8–1.2). Greater than additive joint effects were observed for the Ala/Ala genotype and smoking, radiation to the chest, and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation. Antagonism was observed between the Ala/Ala genotype and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The MnSOD genotype may contribute to an increased risk of breast cancer in the presence of specific environmental exposures. These results provide further evidence for the importance of reactive oxygen species and of oxidative DNA damage in the etiology of breast cancer

  19. A Qualitative Study on African American and Caribbean Black Males' Experience in a College of Aeronautical Science

    OpenAIRE

    Hall-Greene, Deborah L.

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the experiences of a small group of Black males in a college of aeronautical science, a major traditionally dominated by White males. The study also considered the differences in how African American males and Caribbean black males perceived and acted upon the same experiences. Through a social learning theoretical approach, the study examined the relevant factors, processes, and experiences involved in these Black malesâ choice of aeronautical science as...

  20. A study of the procedures and their perceived effectiveness in the recruitment of African American teachers in city school divisions in Virginia

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Betty E.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the procedures and their perceived effectiveness in the recruitment of African American teachers in city school divisions in Virginia. The research questions investigated were: (1) What are the procedures used by human resource directors in city school divisions in Virginia to recruit African American teachers? (2) To what extent are these procedures helping to increase the number and percentage of African American teachers in city s...

  1. Klipperaas study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period from 1977 - 1986 SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.) performed surface and borehole investigations of 14 study sites for the purpose of assessing their suitability for a repository of spent nuclear fuel. The next phase in the SKB site selection rpogramme will be to perform detailed characterisation, including characterization from shafts and/or tunnels, of two or three sites. The detailed investigations will continue over several years to provide all the data needed for a licensing application to build a repository. Such an application is foreseen to be given to the authorities around the year 2003. It is presently not clear if any of the study sites will be selected as a site for detailed characterization. Other sites with geological and/or socio-economical characteristics judged more favorable may very well be the ones selected. However, as a part of the background documentation needed for the site selection studies to come, summary reports will be prepared for most study sites. These reports will include scope of activities, main results, uncertainties and need of complementary investigations. This report concern the Klipperaas study site. The main topics are the scope of activities, geologic model, geohydrological model, groundwater chemistry, assessment of solute transport, and rock mechanics

  2. Gideaa study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period from 1977-1986 SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co) performed surface and borehole investigations of 14 study sites for the purpose of assessing their suitability for a repository of spent nuclear fuel. The next phase in the SKB site selection programme will be to perform detailed characterization, including characterization from shafts and/or tunnels, of two or three sites. The detailed investigations will continue over several years to provide all the data needed for a licensing application to build a repository. Such an application is foreseen to be given to the authorities around the year 2003. It is presently not clear if anyone of the study sites will be selected as a site for detailed characterization. Other site with geological and/or socio-economical characteristics judged more favourable may very well be the ones selected. However, as a part of the background documentation needed for the site selection studies to come, summary reports will be prepared for most study sites. These reports will include scope of activities, main results, uncertainties and need of complementary investigations. This report concerns the Gideaa study site. (au)

  3. Fjaellveden study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period from 1977-1986 SKB (Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management CO) performed surface and borehole investigations of 14 study sites for the purpose of assessing their suitability for a repository of spent nuclear fuel. The next phase in the SKB site selection programme will be to perform detailed characterization, including characterization from shafts and/or tunnels, of two or three sites. The detailed investigations will continue over several years to provide all the data needed for a licensing application to build repository. Such an application is foreseen to be given to the authorities around the year 2003. It is presently not clear if anyone of the study sites will be selected as a site for detailed characterization. Other sites with geological and/or socio-economical characteristics judged more favourable may very well be the ones selected. However, as a part of the background documentation needed for the site selection studies to come, summary reports will be prepared for most study sites. These reports will include scope of activities, main results, uncertainties and need for complementary investigations. This report concerns the Fjaellveden study site. (au)

  4. The Likoma Network Study: Context, data collection and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Helleringer

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The extent and structure of sexual networks have important consequences for the spread of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV. However, very few datasets currently exist that allow a detailed investigation of sexual networks in sub-Saharan African settings where HIV epidemics have become generalized. In this paper, we describe the context and methods of the Likoma Network Study (LNS, one of the few studies that have collected extensive information on sexual networks in sub-Saharan Africa. We start by reviewing theoretical arguments and empirical studies emphasizing the importance of network structures in the epidemiology of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI. The island setting of this study is described, and we argue that the choice of an island as a research site limited potential biases that may make the collection of sexual network data difficult. We then document our empirical strategy for the collection of sexual network data and the subsequent identification of sexual network partners. A description of the protocol for the collection of biomarker data (HIV infection is provided. Finally, we present initial results relating to the socioeconomic context of the island, the size and composition of sexual networks, the quality of the sexual network data, the determinants of successful contact tracing during the LNS, and the prevalence of HIV in the study population.

  5. Kamlunge study site. Scope of activities and main results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period from 1977-1986 SKB (Swedish nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co.) performed surface and borehole investigations of 14 study sites for the purpose of assessing their suitability for a repository of spent nuclear fuel. The next phase in the SKB site selection programme will be to perform detailed characterization, including characterization from shafts and/or tunnels, of two or three sites. The detailed investigations will continue over several years to provide all the data needed for a licensing application to build a repository. Such an application is foreseen to be given to the authorities around the year 2003. It is presently not clear if anyone of the study sites will be selected as a site for detailed characterization. Other sites with geological and/or socio-economical characteristics judged more favourable may very well be selected. However, as a part of the background documentation needed for the site selection studies to come, summary reports will be prepared for most study sites. These reports will include scope of activities, main results, uncertainties and need of complementary investigations. This report concerns the Kamlunge study site. (79 refs.) (au)

  6. A 20-Year Comparison of Football-Related Injuries in American and Canadian Youth Aged 6 to 17 Years: A Replication Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keays, Glenn; Friedman, Debbie; Gagnon, Isabelle

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Little is known about Canadian youth football injuries. The objectives of this study were (a) to contrast the injuries in Canadian and American football players aged 6 to 17 years and (b) compare the injuries sustained during organized football with those in nonorganized football. Methods Using a retrospective cohort design based on data from the Canadian Hospitals Injury Reporting and Prevention Program and the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System a comparison of injuries was made. Results Trends in injuries were comparable. Proportions and odds of injuries were similar, except for a few exceptions. In Canada, more girls were injured and fractures were more prevalent. Compared with nonorganized football, organized football players were older, involved more males, and suffered more traumatic brain injuries and injuries to their lower extremities. Conclusion Canadian and American youth football injuries were similar. The type of football, be it organized or nonorganized, has an impact on injuries. PMID:26316542

  7. A Case Study: How Do Social and Academic Experiences of African American Nontraditional Female Students on HBCU Campuses Influence Their Motivation to Graduate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Golden, Cheryl D.

    2013-01-01

    Through a qualitative collective case study research design, the study captured the social and academic experiences of 13 African American nontraditional undergraduate female students enrolled in a historically Black college campus (HBCU) located in the southern United States. Experiences of 13 African American nontraditional undergraduate female…

  8. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1Maryam Kazemi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan. Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  9. Ramadan fasting: Evidence or expert opinion? Results of preliminary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Kazemi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over a billion Muslims fast worldwide during the month of Ramadan.  Through this religious practice, not only will one have spiritual growth, but can improve his/her diet, which is of pivotal importance in this month. Conversely, the available evidence regarding the health benefits of Ramadan fasting is scarce and highly contentious. Although Islam exempts patients from fasting, many of them fast conceivably and their clinical condition is prone to deteriorate. This is due to the persistent gap between current expert knowledge and conclusive, strong evidence regarding the pathophysiologic and metabolic alterations by fasting, and the consensus that healthcare professionals should reach, in order to manage various patient groups during this month. In this review, we summarize the results of our initial studies regarding the effects of Ramadan fasting on some clinical conditions including alterations of body composition. We also go through the important clinical results of patients who have had previous history of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, asthma and renal colic. Our studies have presented some evidence in favor of Ramadan fasting and encourage those with mentioned diseases to consult their physicians and follow medical and scientific recommendations. We attempt to present some relevant evidence clarify future scopes in this area of study, and provide suggestions for future investigations.

  10. The National Children's Study: a 21-year prospective study of 100,000 American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrigan, Philip J; Trasande, Leonardo; Thorpe, Lorna E; Gwynn, Charon; Lioy, Paul J; D'Alton, Mary E; Lipkind, Heather S; Swanson, James; Wadhwa, Pathik D; Clark, Edward B; Rauh, Virginia A; Perera, Frederica P; Susser, Ezra

    2006-11-01

    Prospective, multiyear epidemiologic studies have proven to be highly effective in discovering preventable risk factors for chronic disease. Investigations such as the Framingham Heart Study have produced blueprints for disease prevention and saved millions of lives and billions of dollars. To discover preventable environmental risk factors for disease in children, the US Congress directed the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, through the Children's Health Act of 2000, to conduct the National Children's Study. The National Children's Study is hypothesis-driven and will seek information on environmental risks and individual susceptibility factors for asthma, birth defects, dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, autism, schizophrenia, and obesity, as well as for adverse birth outcomes. It will be conducted in a nationally representative, prospective cohort of 100,000 US-born children. Children will be followed from conception to 21 years of age. Environmental exposures (chemical, physical, biological, and psychosocial) will be assessed repeatedly during pregnancy and throughout childhood in children's homes, schools, and communities. Chemical assays will be performed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and banks of biological and environmental samples will be established for future analyses. Genetic material will be collected on each mother and child and banked to permit study of gene-environment interactions. Recruitment is scheduled to begin in 2007 at 7 Vanguard Sites and will extend to 105 sites across the United States. The National Children's Study will generate multiple satellite studies that explore methodologic issues, etiologic questions, and potential interventions. It will provide training for the next generation of researchers and practitioners in environmental pediatrics and will link to planned and ongoing prospective birth cohort studies in other nations. Data from the National Children's Study will

  11. Conducting a Feasibility Study in Women's Health Screening Among Women in a Pacific Northwest American Indian Tribe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, C June; Hillaire, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Breast and cervical cancers continue to contribute to high cancer mortality rates in American Indian/Alaska Native women; culturally appropriate interventions are needed to influence screening behaviors and to reduce delays in obtaining care. In a pilot feasibility study designed to influence Pacific Northwest American Indian/Alaska Native women's health screening knowledge and behaviors (breast and cervical), we employed a community-based participatory research approach. Data from interviews with study participants, those involved in implementation of the study and observations were included in the analysis. Study questions focused on training of staff, recruitment of participants, and implementation of the protocol and data management. The complexities of translational, transcultural research and the importance of reporting pilot feasibility studies to the advancement of transcultural research are highlighted in the findings of this research effort. PMID:24848352

  12. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS OF THE NEPHELINE PHASE III STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.

    2009-11-09

    This study is the third phase in a series of experiments designed to reduce conservatism in the model that predicts the formation of nepheline, a crystalline phase that can reduce the durability of high level waste glass. A Phase I study developed a series of glass compositions that were very durable while their nepheline discriminator values were well below the current nepheline discriminator limit of 0.62, where nepheline is predicted to crystallize upon slow cooling. A Phase II study selected glass compositions to identify any linear effects of composition on nepheline crystallization and that were restricted to regions that fell within the validation ranges of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) models. However, it was not possible to identify any linear effects of composition on chemical durability performance for this set of study glasses. The results of the Phase II study alone were not sufficient to recommend modification of the current nepheline discriminator. It was recommended that the next series of experiments continue to focus not only on compositional regions where the PCCS models are considered applicable (i.e., the model validation ranges), but also be restricted to compositional regions where the only constraint limiting processing is the current nepheline discriminator. Two methods were used in selecting glasses for this Phase III nepheline study. The first was based on the relationship of the current nepheline discriminator model to the other DWPF PCCS models, and the second was based on theory of crystallization in mineral and glass melts. A series of 29 test glass compositions was selected for this study using a combination of the two approaches. The glasses were fabricated and characterized in the laboratory. After reviewing the data, the study glasses generally met the target compositions with little issue. Product Consistency Test results correlated well with the crystallization analyses in

  13. SST and North American Tropical Cyclone Landfall: A Statistical Modeling Study

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    We employ a statistical model of North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) tracks to investigate the relationship between sea-surface temperature (SST) and North American TC landfall rates. The track model is conditioned on summer SST in the tropical North Atlantic being in either the 19 hottest or the 19 coldest years in the period 1950-2005. For each conditioning many synthetic TCs are generated and landfall rates computed. Compared to direct analysis of historical landfall, the track model reduces the sampling error by projecting information from the entire basin onto the coast. There are 46% more TCs in hot years than cold in the model, which is highly significant compared to random sampling and corroborates well documented trends in North Atlantic TC number in recent decades. In the absence of other effects, this difference results in a significant increase in model landfall rates in hot years, uniform along the coast. Hot-cold differences in the geographic distribution of genesis and in TC propagation do not...

  14. Ordering accuracy. A College of American Pathologists Q-Probes study of 577 institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenstein, P N; Howanitz, P J

    1995-02-01

    Five hundred seventy-seven institutions examined how accurately physicians' test orders on inpatients were transmitted to the laboratory. Written orders could be found on laboratory requisitions or the medical record for 97.5% of 224,431 completed tests (median institution = 99.3%). Participants indicated that entry of extra tests into a hospital computer was the most common reason for completing unordered tests. In a multivariate analysis, factors associated with completing unordered tests were the lack of a policy requiring nursing staff to recheck computer orders against the medical record, average census of 301-450 patients, College of American Pathologists accreditation, and the use of preprinted "checkoff" order forms. Overall, 97.1% of 225,457 test orders were completed by the laboratories (median institution = 98.1%). Factors associated with not completing ordered tests were the lack of a policy requiring staff to check computer orders, teaching hospital status, and urban hospital location. Several interventions commonly thought to improve communication of orders were not found to affect performance. These results indicate that many institutions have a problem accurately transmitting test orders to their clinical laboratories. PMID:7848057

  15. Quality versus intelligibility: studying human preferences for American Sign Language video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramello, Frank M.; Hemami, Sheila S.

    2011-03-01

    Real-time videoconferencing using cellular devices provides natural communication to the Deaf community. For this application, compressed American Sign Language (ASL) video must be evaluated in terms of the intelligibility of the conversation and not in terms of the overall aesthetic quality of the video. This work presents a paired comparison experiment to determine the subjective preferences of ASL users in terms of the trade-off between intelligibility and quality when varying the proportion of the bitrate allocated explicitly to the regions of the video containing the signer. A rate-distortion optimization technique, which jointly optimizes a quality criteria and an intelligibility criteria according to a user-specified parameter, generates test video pairs for the subjective experiment. Experimental results suggest that at sufficiently high bitrates, all users prefer videos in which the non-signer regions in the video are encoded with some nominal rate. As the total encoding bitrate decreases, users generally prefer video in which a greater proportion of the rate is allocated to the signer. The specific operating points preferred in the quality-intelligibility trade-off vary with the demographics of the users.

  16. Building a Mien-American house: A case study in school-community relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Lorie A.

    2000-10-01

    Researchers and policymakers agree that schools and parents must work together if they are to provide the sustenance, services, and support which children need to be successful in our increasingly complex society. (Clark, 1983; Comer, 1980, 1996; Clinton, 1995; Epstein, 1995, 1996). Unfortunately, the social and academic success of language minority students is often adversely affected by the alienation of parents from school culture and by the "deficit" view which teachers hold of language minority parents' academic and parenting skills (Boggs, 1985; Delgado-Gaitan, 1990; Heath, 1983; Lareau, 1987, 1989; Philips, 1983). This case study describes the attempts of one school site to build academic and social bridges between immigrant families from a Southeast Asian Hill Tribe, the Iu Mien, and a mainstream elementary school. This effort is facilitated by a constructivist approach to curriculum in which parents, teachers, and children create an intercultural space---a school community garden---as a context in which academic dialogue can occur. Various strategies which enable inter-cultural learning are described, including the use of students as ethnographers, of parents as expert teachers, and of teachers as cultural brokers. The study also considers the cultural conflicts and understandings which occurred when American teachers and Mien parents built a Mien field-house together: a structure which became symbolic of their blended lives. Through both a descriptive narration and interviews with various participants, the study analyzes (a) community-based curriculum development, led by practitioner reformers, as a way to enable language minority students to be academically successful within their own life worlds, as well as (b) the political and bureaucratic forces which make community-based reforms difficult to sustain. This study employs qualitative research strategies within an action-research context in which the author plays the dual role of practitioner reformer

  17. Does Pedometer Goal Setting Improve Physical Activity among Native Elders? Results from a Randomized Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Craig N.; Russo, Joan E.; Charles, Steve; Goldberg, Jack; Forquera, Ralph; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Buchwald, Dedra

    2011-01-01

    We examined if step-count goal setting resulted in increases in physical activity and walking compared to only monitoring step counts with pedometers among American Indian/Alaska Native elders. Outcomes included step counts, self-reported physical activity and well-being, and performance on the 6-minute walk test. Although no significant…

  18. Optimization Algorithms in School Scheduling Programs: Study, Analysis and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina PUPEIKIENE

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available To create good and optimal school schedule is very important and practical task. Currently in Lithuania schools are using two programs for making the school schedule at the moment. But none of these programs is very effective. Optimization Department of Lithuanian Institute of Mathematics and Informatics (IMI has created ``School schedule optimization program''. It has three optimization algorithms for making best school schedule. A user can choose not only few optimization options and get few optimal schedules, but some subjective and objectives parameters. The making of initial data file is advanced in this program. XML format is used for creating initial data file and getting all optimal results files. The purpose of this study is to analyze used optimization algorithms used in ``School schedule optimization program'' and to compare results with two most popular commercial school scheduling programs in Lithuania.

  19. A study on the result of test site on BMD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measurement of Korea peoples Radial-terminal region were frequently measure of the left hand of Radial-terminal region due to the most Koreans are right-handed and it occasionally showed incorrect results. Therefore, in this study, we accessed a correlation with error of measurement and reduced the measurement error invalid. We reviewed 50 adults patients, from March 2012 for a certain period of time, visited the orthopedic center for the neutral position of forearm of plain radiography and measured the left side of the distal radial-terminal region containing the terminal region of the right distal radius. Then we have compared and analysed both T-score. As a result, the lower value of left wrist were 45 out of 75 which is approximately 60% of left wrist group while the lower value of right wrist were 30 out of 75 which is approximately 40% of right wrist group

  20. Studying the $Wtb$ vertex structure using recent LHC results

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardo, César; Fiolhais, Miguel C N; Gonçalves, Hugo; Guerra, André G C; Oliveira, Miguel; Onofre, A

    2014-01-01

    The $Wtb$ vertex structure and the search for new anomalous couplings is studied using top quark measurements obtained at the LHC, for a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV. By combining the latest and most precise results on the single top quark production cross section and the measurements of the $W$-boson helicity fractions ($F_0$ and $F_L$), it is possible to set new limits, at 95% CL (confidence level), on the real and imaginary components of the new couplings. The combination of the LHC observables clearly improves the limits obtained when using the individual results alone. The updated measurements of the $W$-boson helicity fractions and the $s+t$-channels electroweak single top quark production, at the Tevatron, improve the LHC limits, when a world combination of all observables (LHC+Tevatron) is performed.

  1. Contributions for repositioning a regional strategy for Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C): results of a pan-American survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meresman, Sergio; Rice, Marilyn; Vizzotti, Carlos; Frassia, Romina; Vizzotti, Pablo; Akerman, Marco

    2010-09-01

    This article presents the results of the 1st Regional Survey of Healthy Municipalities, Cities and Communities (HM&C) carried out in 2008 by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) and ISALUD University of Argentina. It discusses the responses obtained from 12 countries in the Americas Region. Key informants in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay were selected and encouraged to answer the survey, while informants from Canada and Honduras answered voluntarily and were included in this analysis. The discussion of the results of the Survey provides insight into the current status of HM&C in the Region and suggests key topics for repositioning the Regional strategy relative to: (1) the conceptual identity and tools for HM&C; (2) challenging areas in the implementation process (scale, legal framework, and development of capacities); (3) related strategies and participatory processes such as the ways citizen empowerment in governance is supported; (4) the need to monitor and assess the impact of the HM&C strategy on the health and quality of life of the populations involved; and (5) the need for developing a strategic research and training agenda. The analysis and discussion of these results aims to provide useful input for repositioning the strategy in the Region and contributing to the emergence of a second generation of concepts and tools capable of meeting the developing priorities and needs currently faced by the HM&C strategy. PMID:20532989

  2. A Comprehensive Analysis of Common and Rare Variants to Identify Adiposity Loci in Hispanic Americans: The IRAS Family Study (IRASFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chuan; Wang, Nan; Guo, Xiuqing; Ziegler, Julie T.; Taylor, Kent D.; Xiang, Anny H.; Hai, Yang; Kridel, Steven J.; Nadler, Jerry L.; Kandeel, Fouad; Raffel, Leslie J.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Norris, Jill M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Bowden, Donald W.; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Palmer, Nicholette D.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is growing epidemic affecting 35% of adults in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci associated with obesity. However, the majority of studies have been completed in Caucasians focusing on total body measures of adiposity. Here we report the results from genome-wide and exome chip association studies focusing on total body measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF) and measures of fat deposition including waist circumference (WAIST), waist-hip ratio (WHR), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in Hispanic Americans (nmax = 1263) from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS). Five SNPs from two novel loci attained genome-wide significance (P<5.00x10-8) in IRASFS. A missense SNP in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1) was associated with WAIST (rs34218846, MAF = 6.8%, PDOM = 1.62x10-8). This protein is postulated to play an important role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis as demonstrated in cell and knock-out animal models. Four correlated intronic SNPs in the Zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1 gene (ZGRF1; SNP rs1471880, MAF = 48.1%, PDOM = 1.00x10-8) were strongly associated with WHR. The exact biological function of ZGRF1 and the connection with adiposity remains unclear. SNPs with p-values less than 5.00x10-6 from IRASFS were selected for replication. Meta-analysis was computed across seven independent Hispanic-American cohorts (nmax = 4156) and the strongest signal was rs1471880 (PDOM = 8.38x10-6) in ZGRF1 with WAIST. In conclusion, a genome-wide and exome chip association study was conducted that identified two novel loci (IDH1 and ZGRF1) associated with adiposity. While replication efforts were inconclusive, when taken together with the known biology, IDH1 and ZGRF1 warrant further evaluation. PMID:26599207

  3. A Comprehensive Analysis of Common and Rare Variants to Identify Adiposity Loci in Hispanic Americans: The IRAS Family Study (IRASFS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Gao

    Full Text Available Obesity is growing epidemic affecting 35% of adults in the United States. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified numerous loci associated with obesity. However, the majority of studies have been completed in Caucasians focusing on total body measures of adiposity. Here we report the results from genome-wide and exome chip association studies focusing on total body measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI, percent body fat (PBF and measures of fat deposition including waist circumference (WAIST, waist-hip ratio (WHR, subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT, and visceral adipose tissue (VAT in Hispanic Americans (nmax = 1263 from the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study (IRASFS. Five SNPs from two novel loci attained genome-wide significance (P<5.00x10-8 in IRASFS. A missense SNP in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 gene (IDH1 was associated with WAIST (rs34218846, MAF = 6.8%, PDOM = 1.62x10-8. This protein is postulated to play an important role in fat and cholesterol biosynthesis as demonstrated in cell and knock-out animal models. Four correlated intronic SNPs in the Zinc finger, GRF-type containing 1 gene (ZGRF1; SNP rs1471880, MAF = 48.1%, PDOM = 1.00x10-8 were strongly associated with WHR. The exact biological function of ZGRF1 and the connection with adiposity remains unclear. SNPs with p-values less than 5.00x10-6 from IRASFS were selected for replication. Meta-analysis was computed across seven independent Hispanic-American cohorts (nmax = 4156 and the strongest signal was rs1471880 (PDOM = 8.38x10-6 in ZGRF1 with WAIST. In conclusion, a genome-wide and exome chip association study was conducted that identified two novel loci (IDH1 and ZGRF1 associated with adiposity. While replication efforts were inconclusive, when taken together with the known biology, IDH1 and ZGRF1 warrant further evaluation.

  4. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Miwa; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate

    2015-11-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  5. CONTINUOUS IMPROVEMENT PRACTICE IN LARGE ENTERPRISES: STUDY RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Stadnicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous improvement is indispensable for ensuring the company's development and its survival on the constantly changing global market. Continuous improvement is particularly important in the quality and production management systems. A company should deliver a product compliant with a client's requirements in a specified time and at an appropriate price. That is why, continuous improvement refers to different areas of an organization's functioning and it is an integral part of Lean Manufacturing. This article presents the results of the study conducted in production enterprises on a limited area. The aim of the study was the assessment of the implementation of continuous improvement in Lean Manufacturing, and, in particular, employees' involvement in the problem identification and in reporting improvements as well as the way of motivating employees to involve themselves. The authors also tried to identify the factors influencing the elements of a continuous improvement system.

  6. The interpretation of results of protein turnover studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interpretation of the protein turnover studies is made on the basis of modern knowledge of protein synthesis. A theory has been developed which gives a simple interpretation of protein turnover data. As, apparently, no disturbances leading to an endogenous hyper catabolism or hypo catabolism exist, altered protein turnover results with labelled albumin can only be interpreted as follows. Increased loss of protein takes place in the renal system or the intestinal tract. A decreased pool of building blocks are caused by gastro-intestinal diseases or hunger. Finally disturbances in the liver are caused by an acquired liver disease. 2 tabs

  7. Formulation verification study results for 241-AN-106 waste grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tests were conducted to determine whether the reference formulation and variations around the formulation are adequate for solidifying 241-AN-106 (106-AN) waste into a grout waste form. The reference formulation consists of 21 wt% type I/II Portland cement, 68 wt% fly ash, and 11 wt% attapulgite clay. The mix ratio is 8.4 lb/gal. Variations in dry blend component ratios, mix ratio, and waste concentration were assessed by using a statistically designed experimental matrix consisting of 44 grout compositions. Based on the results of the statistically designed variability study, the 106-AN grout formulations tested met all the formulation criteria except for the heat of hydration

  8. Cardiovascular disease in latin american patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a cross-sectional study and a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Sarmiento-Monroy, Juan Camilo; Caro-Moreno, Julián; Molano-González, Nicolás; Mantilla, Rubén D; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana; Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of and associated risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Latin American (LA) patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods. First, a cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 310 Colombian patients with SLE in whom CVD was assessed. Associated factors were examined by multivariate regression analyses. Second, a systematic review of the literature on CVD in SLE in LA was performed. Results. There were 133 (36.5%) Colombian SLE patients with CVD. Dyslipidemia, smoking, coffee consumption, and pleural effusion were positively associated with CVD. An independent effect of coffee consumption and cigarette on CVD was found regardless of gender and duration of disease. In the systematic review, 60 articles fulfilling the eligibility criteria were included. A wide range of CVD prevalence was found (4%-79.5%). Several studies reported ancestry, genetic factors, and polyautoimmunity as novel risk factors for such a condition. Conclusions. A high rate of CVD is observed in LA patients with SLE. Awareness of the observed risk factors should encourage preventive population strategies for CVD in patients with SLE aimed at facilitating the suppression of cigarette smoking and coffee consumption as well as at the tight control of dyslipidemia and other modifiable risk factors. PMID:24294522

  9. Results of a quality control on non-interventional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hundt, Ferdinand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-interventional studies (NIS have for decades been an established part of post-authorisation medicinal research. As early as the mid-nineties, there were at least rudimentary demands for controllable data quality. Beginning with the recommendations of the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM on the execution of non interventional (observational studies of 1998 and finally with the guidelines and recommendations for ensuring Good Epidemiological Practice (GEP, with the VFA (Verband der forschenden Arzneimittelhersteller [German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies] – Recommendations for the Improvement of Quality and Transparency of NIS and the joint recommendations of BfArM and PEI (Paul-Ehrlich-Institut on the execution of NIS, pharmaceutical companies are required to monitor and/or verify quality in the course of a project. According to a survey of pharmaceutical companies 2010, about one third of the companies surveyed to date carry out such quality controls on site, at participating study centres.This report deals with the results of such quality control measures in 4 completed projects. The control rates defined in the respective cohort study plans, the measures carried out on site and any consequent measures, such as adjustment of forms, reduction of consultation time and necessary organisational changes are described. A high level of agreement between the data collected and the original patient documents is found, comparable to that in clinical trials.

  10. Results of a quality control on non-interventional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörz, Karl; Hundt, Ferdinand

    2011-01-01

    Non-interventional studies (NIS) have for decades been an established part of post-authorisation medicinal research. As early as the mid-nineties, there were at least rudimentary demands for controllable data quality. Beginning with the recommendations of the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) on the execution of non interventional (observational) studies of 1998 and finally with the guidelines and recommendations for ensuring Good Epidemiological Practice (GEP), with the VFA (Verband der forschenden Arzneimittelhersteller [German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies]) - Recommendations for the Improvement of Quality and Transparency of NIS and the joint recommendations of BfArM and PEI (Paul-Ehrlich-Institut) on the execution of NIS, pharmaceutical companies are required to monitor and/or verify quality in the course of a project. According to a survey of pharmaceutical companies 2010, about one third of the companies surveyed to date carry out such quality controls on site, at participating study centres. This report deals with the results of such quality control measures in 4 completed projects. The control rates defined in the respective cohort study plans, the measures carried out on site and any consequent measures, such as adjustment of forms, reduction of consultation time and necessary organisational changes are described. A high level of agreement between the data collected and the original patient documents is found, comparable to that in clinical trials. PMID:21863135

  11. Advanced information processing system: Fault injection study and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Laura F.; Masotto, Thomas K.; Lala, Jaynarayan H.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the AIPS program is to achieve a validated fault tolerant distributed computer system. The goals of the AIPS fault injection study were: (1) to present the fault injection study components addressing the AIPS validation objective; (2) to obtain feedback for fault removal from the design implementation; (3) to obtain statistical data regarding fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration responses; and (4) to obtain data regarding the effects of faults on system performance. The parameters are described that must be varied to create a comprehensive set of fault injection tests, the subset of test cases selected, the test case measurements, and the test case execution. Both pin level hardware faults using a hardware fault injector and software injected memory mutations were used to test the system. An overview is provided of the hardware fault injector and the associated software used to carry out the experiments. Detailed specifications are given of fault and test results for the I/O Network and the AIPS Fault Tolerant Processor, respectively. The results are summarized and conclusions are given.

  12. Results of ozone measurements in Northern Germany: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Manfred

    1994-01-01

    At most of the German ozone recording stations which have records over a sufficiently long period, the results of the summer months of 1989 showed the highest values since the beginning of the measurements. One of the reasons for this phenomenon was the high duration of sunshine in that summer; for example, in Potsdam near Berlin in May 1989 the sunshine duration was the highest in May since the beginning of the records in 1893. For that reason we selected this summer for a case study. The basis for the study was mainly the ozone measuring stations of the network of Lower Saxony and the Federal Office of Environment (Umweltbundesamt). The results of these summer measurements point to intense sources of ozone, probably in form of gaseous precursors, in the Middle German industrial areas near Leipzig and Halle and in Northwestern Czechoslovakia, with coal-mining, chemical and petrochemical industries, coking plants and others. The maps of average ozone concentrations, number or days with high ozone maxima, ozone-windroses of the stations, etc., suggest that these areas could be a main source of precursors and of photochemical ozone production in summer smog episodes in Central Europe. Stations on the North Sea coast, at which early ozone measurements were made by our institute in 1973/74 are compared with similarly located stations of the Lower Saxon network in 1989 and the results show a reversal of the ozone-windroses. In 1973/74, the highest ozone concentrations were correlated with wind directions from the sea while in 1989 these concentrations were correlated with directions from the continent. In the recent years, photochemical ozone production on the continent is probably predominant, while in former years the higher ozone content of the maritime subpolar air masses has been explained by stratospheric-tropospheric exchange.

  13. Glitch game testers: The design and study of a learning environment for computational production with young African American males

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, Elizabeth Betsy

    The implementation of a learning environment for young African American males, called the Glitch Game Testers, was launched in 2009. The development of this program was based on formative work that looked at the contrasting use of digital games between young African American males and individuals who chose to become computer science majors. Through analysis of cultural values and digital game play practices, the program was designed to intertwine authentic game development practices and computer science learning. The resulting program employed 25 African American male high school students to test pre-release digital games full-time in the summer and part-time in the school year, with an hour of each day dedicated to learning introductory computer science. Outcomes for persisting in computer science education are remarkable; of the 16 participants who had graduated from high school as of 2012, 12 have gone on to school in computing-related majors. These outcomes, and the participants' enthusiasm for engaging in computing, are in sharp contrast to the crisis in African American male education and learning motivation. The research presented in this dissertation discusses the formative research that shaped the design of Glitch, the evaluation of the implementation of Glitch, and a theoretical investigation of the way in which participants navigated conflicting motivations in learning environments.

  14. Adaptive Challenges Rising from the Life Context of African-American Caregiving Grandmothers with Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Carthron; Bailey, Donald E.; Ruth Anderson

    2015-01-01

    To understand the challenges arising from the context within which diabetic African-American caregiving grandmothers self-manage their diabetes we used the Adaptive Leadership Framework. Additionally, challenges to retaining this population in a longitudinal study were examined. In this exploratory, longitudinal, qualitative pilot study, data were collected at five time-points over 18 months. We coded the data using content analysis and conducted the within-case and cross-case analyses using ...

  15. By any means necessary : an interpretive phenomenological analysis study of post 9/11 American abusive violence in Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukayama, John K.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the phenomenon of abusive violence (AV) in the context of the American Post-9/11 Counter-terrorism and Counter-insurgency campaigns. Previous research into atrocities by states and their agents has largely come from examinations of totalitarian regimes with well-developed torture and assassination institutions. The mechanisms influencing willingness to do harm have been examined in experimental studies of obedience to authority and the influences of deindividuation, dehu...

  16. Economic utility resulting from CERN contracts (second study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study attempts to quantify the economic benefit to high technology manufacturing industries involved in CERN contracts, in relation to their sales to CERN. It covers the period 1973-87 and complements an earlier study made in 1973-75 (see CERN Report 75-5). Interviews were carried out in 160 European firms, who supplied estimates of increased sales and cost savings due to CERN contracts. This economic utility totals 3107 million Swiss francs (up to the year 1987), compared to sales to CERN amounting to 748 million Swiss francs in 1982 prices. It is estimated that, by 1987, CERN's high technology purchases made in 1973-82 will have generated Economic high technology purchases made in 1973-82 will have generated Economic Utility amounting to about 60% of the overall cost of the Organization during the same period. In 1982, about 75% of the increased turnover due to CERN resulted from sales to markets outside high energy particle physics, for example, railways, shipbuilding, refrigeration, power generation and distribution, and health care. The quantification model used is discussed in detail and some specific cases are presented as examples. The industrial managers interviewed during both studies have confirmed that the forecasts made ten years ago were, on average, accurate. (orig.)

  17. Economic utility resulting from CERN contracts (second study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study attempts to quantify the economic benefit to high technology manufacturing industries involved in CERN contracts, in relation to their sales to CERN. It covers the period 1973-87 and complements an earlier study made in 1973-75 (see CERN Report 75-5). Interviews were carried out in 160 European firms, who supplied estimates of increased sales and cost savings due to CERN contracts. This 'economy utility' totals 3107 million Swiss francs (up to the year 1987), compared to sales to CERN amounting to 748 million Swiss francs in 1982 prices. It is estimated that, by 1987, CERN's high technology purchases made in 1973-82 will have generated Economic Utility amounting to about 60% of the overall cost of the Organization during the same period. In 1982, about 75% of the increased turnover due to CERN resulted from sales to markets outside high energy particle physics, for example, railways, shipbuilding, refrigeration, power generation and distribution, and health care. The quantification model used is discussed in detail and some specific cases are presented as examples. The industrial managers interviewed during both studies have confirmed that the forecasts made ten years ago were, on average, accurate. (orig.)

  18. Economic utility resulting from CERN contracts (second study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study attempts to quantify the economic benefit to high technology manufacturing industries involved in CERN contracts, in relation to their sales to CERN. It covers the period 1973-87 and complements an earlier study made in 1973-75 (see CERN Report 75-5). Interviews were carried out in 160 European firms, who supplied estimates of increased sales and cost savings due to CERN contracts. This ''economic utility'' totals 3107 million Swiss francs (up to the year 1987), compared to sales to CERN amounting to 748 million Swiss francs in 1982 prices. It is estimated that, by 1987, CERN's high technology purchases made in 1973-82 will have generated Economic Utility amounting to about 60% of the overall cost of the Organization during the same period. In 1982, about 75% of the increased turnover due to CERN resulted from sales to markets outside high energy particle physics, for example, railways, shipbuilding, refrigeration, power generation and distribution, and health care. The quantification model used is discussed in detail and some specific cases are presented as examples. The industrial managers interviewed during both studies have confirmed that the forecasts made ten years ago were, on average, accurate. (orig.)

  19. Study protocol for Women of Color and Asthma Control: A randomized controlled trial of an asthma-management intervention for African American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janevic Mary R

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among adults in the United States, asthma prevalence is disproportionately high among African American women; this group also experiences the highest levels of asthma-linked mortality and asthma-related health care utilization. Factors linked to biological sex (e.g., hormonal fluctuations, gender roles (e.g., exposure to certain triggers and race (e.g., inadequate access to care all contribute to the excess asthma burden in this group, and also shape the context within which African American women manage their condition. No prior interventions for improving asthma self-management have specifically targeted this vulnerable group of asthma patients. The current study aims to evaluate the efficacy of a culturally- and gender-relevant asthma-management intervention among African American women. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be used to compare a five-session asthma-management intervention with usual care. This intervention is delivered over the telephone by a trained health educator. Intervention content is informed by the principles of self-regulation for disease management, and all program activities and materials are designed to be responsive to the specific needs of African American women. We will recruit 420 female participants who self-identify as African American, and who have seen a clinician for persistent asthma in the last year. Half of these will receive the intervention. The primary outcomes, upon which the target sample size is based, are number of asthma-related emergency department visits and overnight hospitalizations in the last 12 months. We will also assess the effect of the intervention on asthma symptoms and asthma-related quality of life. Data will be collected via telephone survey and medical record review at baseline, and 12 and 24 months from baseline. Discussion We seek to decrease asthma-related health care utilization and improve asthma-related quality of life in African American

  20. AMERICAN ELECTRIC POWER'S CONESVILLE POWER PLANT UNIT NO.5 CO2 CAPTURE RETROFIT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl R. Bozzuto; Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Mark Palkes; John L. Marion

    2001-06-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with American Electric Power (AEP), ABB Lummus Global Inc. (ABB), the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration technologies applied to an existing US coal-fired electric generation power plant. The motivation for this study was to provide input to potential US electric utility actions concerning GHG emissions reduction. If the US decides to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, action would need to be taken to address existing power plants. Although fuel switching from coal to natural gas may be one scenario, it will not necessarily be a sufficient measure and some form of CO{sub 2} capture for use or disposal may also be required. The output of this CO{sub 2} capture study will enhance the public's understanding of control options and influence decisions and actions by government, regulators, and power plant owners in considering the costs of reducing greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} emissions. The total work breakdown structure is encompassed within three major reports, namely: (1) Literature Survey, (2) AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study, and (3) Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation. The report on the literature survey results was issued earlier by Bozzuto, et al. (2000). Reports entitled ''AEP's Conesville Unit No.5 Retrofit Study'' and ''Bench-Scale Testing and CFD Evaluation'' are provided as companion volumes, denoted Volumes I and II, respectively, of the final report. The work performed, results obtained, and conclusions and recommendations derived therefrom are summarized.