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Sample records for american stop smoking

  1. Stop smoking support programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smokeless tobacco - stop smoking programs; Stop smoking techniques; Smoking cessation programs; Smoking cessation techniques ... You can find out about smoking cessation programs from: Your ... Your employer Your local health department The National Cancer ...

  2. Involving older Americans in the war on tobacco. The American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K M

    1994-10-01

    The American Stop Smoking Intervention Study for Cancer Prevention (ASSIST) is a collaborative effort of the National Cancer Institute, the American Cancer Society, state health departments, and other public and private organizations to develop comprehensive tobacco use control programs in 17 states. The two main goals of the project are to reduce adult smoking prevalence to 15% or less and to reduce the rates of smoking initiation among adolescents by 50% by the year 2000. There is strong consensus within the tobacco-control field of what needs to be done to accomplish these goals. The key elements of a comprehensive tobacco control effort include (1) an excise tax policy based on raising the real price of tobacco, (2) a ban on all forms of tobacco advertising and promotion, (3) product regulation to reduce the harmful constituents found in tobacco and enforce the use of strong and prominent package warnings, (4) the enactment of policies that protect nonsmokers from inhaling tobacco smoke, (5) comprehensive efforts to eliminate minors' access to tobacco products, (6) ongoing and adequately funded efforts to educate the public about the harmful effects of tobacco, (7) the availability of cessation assistance to persons interested in discontinuing the use of tobacco, and (8) the ending of all financial assistance to the tobacco-growing industry. Because older Americans represent a growing and political influential segment of our society, the enactment of effective tobacco control policies depends in part on generating support for such measures among older citizens. This article outlines several ways in which organizations such as American Association of Retired Persons and the American Cancer Society can work together to advocate meaningful tobacco control policies (e.g., higher excise taxes, clean indoor air laws, etc.).

  3. Health Education: Smoke Stop Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ray

    The author examines the traditional emphasis of health educators in preventive approaches to smoking behavior and suggests (through a brief literature review) specific techniques that may be useful in aiding those who would stop smoking. (MJB)

  4. Midwives' perceptions of providing stop-smoking advice and pregnant smokers' perceptions of stop-smoking services within the same deprived area of London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herberts, Carolina; Sykes, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    To identify and juxtapose midwives' perceptions of providing stop-smoking advice and pregnant smokers' perceptions of stop-smoking services. A qualitative design was used in an attempt to expose and compare in-depth perceptions of midwives and pregnant smokers. Three focus groups lasting approximately 1 hour and involving 15 midwives were carried out, and 10 pregnant smokers participated in semistructured interviews. The qualitative data were analyzed by using the full version of grounded theory. The perceptions of midwives regarding provision of advice were related to outcome of advice, the relationship with patients, personal experiences, attributes, perception of role, the impact of external factors, and aspects related to pregnant smokers and pregnancy. Pregnant smokers' perceived barriers and facilitators to approaching stop-smoking services were categorized into areas of smoking behavior, advice from health professionals, stop-smoking services, and negative perceptions of pregnant women who smoke. In theory, many of the perceived barriers to providing advice could be overcome by implementing effective mandatory training for midwives. However, real issues, such as lack of time, have a major impact on the provision of advice. Pregnant smokers expect and appreciate receiving stop-smoking advice from midwives. Yet, they tend to have negative expectations of stop-smoking services, although the experiences of those who have attended these services are positive. Raising awareness of stop-smoking support for pregnant women is crucial in empowering women to make informed choices about their health and the health of their children. © 2011 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  5. How to stop smoking: Dealing with a slip up

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000855.htm How to stop smoking: Dealing with a slip up To use the ... Read up on stress management and practice the techniques Join a support group or program to help ...

  6. Self-Management Procedures to Stop Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, William G.; Caldwell-Colbert, A. Toy

    While numerous approaches to inhibit smoking have appeared in the literature, self-management is one technique that allows the client to take a more active part in the treatment. To study the effectiveness of self-management in a single-subject design, an 18 year old female college student who smoked mostly on weekends was told to self-monitor her…

  7. [Coughing and wheezing children: improvement after parents stop smoking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, P L; Duiverman, E J

    1998-04-11

    Three children, boys aged 6, 4 and 4 years presented with recurrent cough and (or) wheeze. Exposure to tobacco smoke at home was considered an aggravating factor. Symptoms in all three cases improved considerably or resolved completely when the patients' (grand)parent(s) stopped smoking. There is little literature on the beneficial effect of parents' giving up smoking on symptoms of childhood asthma. These cases, however, illustrate that advising parents of children with recurrent respiratory symptoms to give up smoking can be a rewarding and successful form of therapy.

  8. How to stop smoking: Dealing with cravings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people use smoking to relieve stress. Try new relaxation techniques to help calm yourself: Take a deep breath in through your nose, hold it for 5 seconds, exhale slowly through your mouth. Try this a few times until you feel yourself relax. Listen to music. Read a book or listen to an audiobook. ...

  9. Smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Footman, Katharine; Roberts, Bayard; Stickley, Andrew; Kizilova, Kseniya; Rotman, David; McKee, Martin

    2013-09-01

    Smoking rates and corresponding levels of premature mortality from smoking-related diseases in the former Soviet Union (fSU) are among the highest in the world. To reduce this health burden, greater focus on smoking cessation is needed, but little is currently known about rates and characteristics of cessation in the fSU. Nationally representative household survey data from a cross-sectional study of 18,000 respondents in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, and Ukraine were analyzed to describe patterns of desire and action taken to stop smoking, quit ratios (former ever-smokers as a percent of ever-smokers, without a specified recall period), and help used to stop smoking. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze characteristics associated with smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking. Quit ratios varied from 10.5% in Azerbaijan to 37.6% in Belarus. About 67.2% of respondents expressed a desire to quit, and 64.9% had taken action and tried to stop. The use of help to quit was extremely low (12.6%). Characteristics associated with cessation included being female, over 60, with higher education, poorer health, lower alcohol dependency, higher knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Characteristics associated with desire to stop smoking among current smokers included younger age, poorer health, greater knowledge of tobacco's health effects, and support for tobacco control. Quit ratios are low in the fSU but there is widespread desire to stop smoking. Stronger tobacco control and cessation support are urgently required to reduce smoking prevalence and associated premature mortality.

  10. Demand for and availability of online support to stop smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Helena Carlini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Estimate the frequency of online searches on the topic of smoking and analyze the quality of online resources available to smokers interested in giving up smoking. METHODS: Search engines were used to revise searches and online resources related to stopping smoking in Brazil in 2010. The number of searches was determined using analytical tools available on Google Ads; the number and type of sites were determined by replicating the search patterns of internet users. The sites were classified according to content (advertising, library of articles and other. The quality of the sites was analyzed using the Smoking Treatment Scale- Content (STS-C and the Smoking Treatment Scale - Rating (STS-R. RESULTS: A total of 642,446 searches was carried out. Around a third of the 113 sites encountered were of the 'library' type, i.e. they only contained articles, followed by sites containing clinical advertising (18.6 and professional education (10.6. Thirteen of the sites offered advice on quitting directed at smokers. The majority of the sites did not contain evidence-based information, were not interactive and did not have the possibility of communicating with users after the first contact. Other limitations we came across were a lack of financial disclosure as well as no guarantee of privacy concerning information obtained and no distinction made between editorial content and advertisements. CONCLUSIONS: There is a disparity between the high demand for online support in giving up smoking and the scarcity of quality online resources for smokers. It is necessary to develop interactive, customized online resources based on evidence and random clinical testing in order to improve the support available to Brazilian smokers.

  11. Smoking in contemporary American cinema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidvari, Karan; Lessnau, Klaus; Kim, Jeannie; Mercante, Donald; Weinacker, Ann; Mason, Carol

    2005-08-01

    The true prevalence of smoking among characters portrayed in the movies is unknown. This study examines this prevalence objectively. The top 10 movies on the weekly box office charts were reviewed. Whether or not the top five characters in these movies smoked, was documented. It was determined prior to the start of the study that 300 male characters and 300 female characters were needed to detect any significant difference. A total of 447 movies, composed of 193 movies rated restricted (R) [children movies rated PG13 for parental guidance suggested for children movies rated PG for parental guidance suggested, were examined until the sample size was reached. Smoking prevalence is the same in contemporary American movies and in the general US population (23.3% vs 24.8%, respectively). However, there was more smoking in these movies among men than among women (25.5% vs 20.5%, respectively; p movies (46.2% vs 18.2%, respectively; p movies (37.3%, 16.2%, and 8.1%, respectively; p movies, and in both subcategories of R-rated studio movies and R-rated independent movies, smoking prevalence is higher than in the US population (37.3%, 30.5%, and 50.6% vs 24.8%, respectively; p movies, R-rated studio movies, and R-rated independent movies. In R-rated movies, antagonists smoke more than protagonists (43.9% vs 35.8%, respectively; p movies, antagonists smoke more than protagonists (42.6% vs 26.6%, respectively; p movies, whites smoke more than nonwhites (51.8% vs 40.5%, respectively; p movies than in R-rated studio movies (50.6% vs 30.5%, respectively; p movies than in R-rated studio movies in subcategories of men (32.0% vs 49.8%, respectively; p movies, and R-rated movies. Smoking prevalence is higher than in the general US population in R-rated movies, and in both its subcategories of R-rated studio movies and R-rated independent movies. There is more smoking in R-rated independent movies than in R-rated studio movies. Smoking in contemporary American cinema is associated

  12. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  13. Psychosocial interventions for supporting women to stop smoking in pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Catherine; O’Mara-Eves, Alison; Oliver, Sandy; Caird, Jenny R; Perlen, Susan M; Eades, Sandra J; Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    1.15, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.53). In studies comparing counselling and usual care (the largest comparison), it was unclear whether interventions prevented smoking relapse among women who had stopped smoking spontaneously in early pregnancy (eight studies; average RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.21). However, a clear effect was seen in smoking abstinence at zero to five months postpartum (10 studies; average RR 1.76, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.95), a borderline effect at six to 11 months (six studies; average RR 1.33, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.77), and a significant effect at 12 to 17 months (two studies, average RR 2.20, 95% CI 1.23 to 3.96), but not in the longer term. In other comparisons, the effect was not significantly different from the null effect for most secondary outcomes, but sample sizes were small. Incentive-based interventions had the largest effect size compared with a less intensive intervention (one study; RR 3.64, 95% CI 1.84 to 7.23) and an alternative intervention (one study; RR 4.05, 95% CI 1.48 to 11.11). Feedback interventions demonstrated a significant effect only when compared with usual care and provided in conjunction with other strategies, such as counselling (two studies; average RR 4.39, 95% CI 1.89 to 10.21), but the effect was unclear when compared with a less intensive intervention (two studies; average RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.45 to 3.12). The effect of health education was unclear when compared with usual care (three studies; average RR 1.51, 95% CI 0.64 to 3.59) or less intensive interventions (two studies; average RR 1.50, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.31). Social support interventions appeared effective when provided by peers (five studies; average RR 1.49, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.19), but the effect was unclear in a single trial of support provided by partners. The effects were mixed where the smoking interventions were provided as part of broader interventions to improve maternal health, rather than targeted smoking cessation interventions. Subgroup analyses on primary outcome for

  14. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nick; Oliver, Jane; Thomson, George

    2014-01-01

    Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops. Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes) in two New Zealand cities. Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%), both young people and adults (44%), just young people (6%) and alone (5%). An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%-90%). Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk. Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  15. Smoking close to others and butt littering at bus stops: pilot observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Wilson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Transportation settings such as bus stops and train station platforms are increasingly the target for new smokefree legislation. Relevant issues include secondhand smoke exposure, nuisance, litter, fire risks and the normalization of smoking. We therefore aimed to pilot study aspects of smoking behavior and butt disposal at bus stops.Methods. Systematic observation of smoking and butt disposal by smokers at bus stops. The selection of 11 sites was a mix of convenience and purposeful (bus stops on main routes in two New Zealand cities.Results. During 27 h of observation, a total of 112 lit cigarettes were observed being smoked. Smoking occurred in the presence of: just adults (46%, both young people and adults (44%, just young people (6% and alone (5%. An average of 6.3 adults and 3.8 young people were present at the bus stops while smoking occurred, at average minimum distances of 1.7 and 2.2 m respectively. In bus stops that included an enclosed shelter, 33% of the cigarettes were smoked inside the shelter with others present. Littering was the major form of cigarette disposal with 84% of cigarettes smoked being littered (95% CI; 77%–90%. Also, 4% of disposals were into vegetation, which may pose a fire risk.Conclusions. This pilot study is limited by its small size and various methodological aspects but it appears to be a first attempt to provide observational evidence around smoking at bus stops. The issues described could be considered by policy makers who are investigating national smokefree laws or by-laws covering transportation settings.

  16. Arab Americans' acculturation and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Scheibmeir, Monica

    2009-04-01

    Limited information is available about Arab Americans' smoking behaviors. The aim of this study was to describe Arab Americans' smoking behaviors and any relationship between tobacco dependence and acculturation. This was a cross-sectional study. Arab American smokers and ex-smokers (N = 96) participated in the study. Nicotine dependence, acculturation, and tobacco use questionnaires were used to measure the major variables. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between acculturation and tobacco dependence and between tobacco exposure and tobacco dependence. Arab Americans who behaved most like their ethnic peers and spent more time with Arab Americans were more dependent on nicotine.

  17. An analysis of the effectiveness of interventions intended to help people stop smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, M; Tang, J L

    1995-10-09

    In a systematic review of the efficacy of interventions intended to help people stop smoking, data have been analyzed from 188 randomized controlled trials. Following personal advice and encouragement to stop smoking given by physicians during a single routine consultation, an estimated 2% (95% confidence limits, 1%, 3%; P hypnosis is unproved (no trials have used biochemical markers). Nicotine replacement therapy is effective in an estimated 13% of smokers who seek help in cessation; the effect is greater in those who are nicotine-dependent. Other pharmacological treatments are not of proven efficacy, and acupuncture is ineffective. Sudden cessation or gradual reduction in smoking are similar in their efficacy on average. Physicians should take time to advise all their patients who smoke to quit. Smokers who are intent on stopping should be given additional support and encouraged to use nicotine replacement therapy.

  18. Effectiveness of an online knowledge training and assessment program for stop smoking practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; West, Robert; Michie, Susan; Kenyon, Jennifer A M; McEwen, Andy

    2012-07-01

    In English National Health Service (NHS) stop smoking services, stop smoking practitioners (SSPs) provide behavioral support and medication to support smokers wanting to quit. This study aimed to evaluate an evidence-based national online knowledge training program for SSPs developed by the NHS Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training (NCSCT). Knowledge required to deliver effective stop smoking interventions was assessed using 25 multiple-choice questions drawn randomly from a common larger pool at baseline and after use of the training program in 778 consecutive users. Change in knowledge and association of this change with time spent on the training were assessed. Baseline and change in knowledge of SSPs with different amounts of experience, prior training, and time dedicated to smoking cessation were compared. Knowledge improved from 64.4% correct to 77.7% (p < .001). Time spent on the training predicted improvement. Pretraining knowledge scores differed with experience, prior training, and time practicing. Training improved even the highest performing SSPs and minimized differences between groups. Knowledge required to deliver effective stop smoking intervention is improved efficiently by using the NCSCT online training program for English smoking cessation practitioners. SSPs with all levels of prior knowledge benefit.

  19. Predictors of 3-month abstinence in smokers attending stop-smoking clinics in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Lei Hum; West, Robert; Bulgiba, Awang; Shahab, Lion

    2011-02-01

    Much is known about the predictors of success in quitting smoking. In particular, nicotine dependence, but not strength of motivation to stop, appears to predict abstinence. However, to date, studies have come almost exclusively from Western countries. More data are needed on the cross-cultural generalizability of these findings. One hundred and ninety-eight smokers attending 5 stop-smoking clinics in Malaysia completed a questionnaire prior to their target quit date and were followed up 3 months after this date. Predictors included sociodemographic variables, smoking patterns, past history of quitting, characteristics of current quit attempt, and smoking motives as well as nicotine dependence (Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence [FTND]) and self-rated strength of motivation of stop. At 3-month follow-up, 35.4% (95% CI: 28.7-42.0) of participants reported being abstinent. A backward elimination multiple logistic regression identified a number of significant predictors of success, including strength of motivation to stop (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 3.05, 95% CI: 1.28-7.25). FTND did not predict success. Motivation and nicotine dependence may play different roles in explaining variation in ability to stop smoking in different cultures.

  20. Strategies to help patients stop smoking: the optometrist's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy RD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ryan David Kennedy,1,2 Ornell Douglas2 1Department of Health, Behavior and Society, Institute for Global Tobacco Control, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Propel Centre for Population Health Impact, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, Canada Abstract: The following review article discusses tobacco's toll on individual and public health, and presents what is currently known about cigarette smoking's risk to ocular health. The article also discusses what eye care professionals – specifically optometrists – can do to help address tobacco use with their patients. Smoking is a leading preventable cause of age-related macular degeneration, and is also causally associated with the development of cataract, thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy, and uveitis. Smoking's causal association with vision loss is now used in some countries' health warning labels that appear on tobacco products and national social marketing materials including the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Despite this uptake in health promotion education, very few eye care professionals regularly engage their patients in discussions about tobacco use. Optometrists can be a helpful addition to a smoking cessation health care network that already involves more than a dozen health care professions including medicine, nursing, pharmacy, dentistry, and dental hygiene. Optometrists can further play an important role in educating younger non-smoking patients about the risk of smoking and vision loss to support tobacco-use prevention. Optometrists report that they feel that addressing tobacco use is "not their job" or argue that this is more appropriately done by a family physician/general practitioner. This review article presents the rationale that all primary care providers have a role and a responsibility to discuss tobacco use with their patients. This review article outlines some techniques and strategies that optometrists can use to

  1. Correlates of Perceived Smoking Prevalence Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian J; Unger, Jennifer B; Huh, Jimi

    2016-10-01

    Perceived smoking prevalence, a strong predictor of actual smoking behavior, may be influenced by the ethnicity and gender of the reference group presented to Korean American emerging adults. Self-identifying Korean and Korean Americans aged 18-25 (N = 475), were invited to complete a 15-20 min online survey about their attitudes towards smoking. Predictors of perceived smoking prevalence were evaluated separately for four reference groups: Caucasian Americans, Korean Americans in general, Korean American men, and Korean American women. Respondents' smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for all reference groups except Caucasian Americans, even among light smokers. Father's smoking status was associated with perceived smoking prevalence for Korean American men, only among females respondents. Findings suggest that ethnicity and gender of both the reference group and respondents influence smoking rate estimates. Tailoring intervention content to the target population's gender and ethnicity may be a way to enhance smoking prevention strategies.

  2. Provision of relapse prevention interventions in UK NHS Stop Smoking Services: a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McEwen Andy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UK NHS Stop Smoking Services provide cost effective smoking cessation interventions but, as yet, there has been no assessment of their provision of relapse prevention interventions. Methods Electronic questionnaire survey of 185 UK Stop Smoking Services Managers. Results Ninety six Stop Smoking Service managers returned completed questionnaires (52% response rate. Of these, 58.3% (n = 56 ran NHS Stop Smoking Services which provided relapse prevention interventions for clients with the most commonly provided interventions being behavioural support: telephone (77%, group (73%, and individual (54%. Just under half (48%, n = 27 offered nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, 21.4% (n = 12 bupropion; 19.6% (n = 11 varenicline. Over 80% of those providing relapse prevention interventions do so for over six months. Nearly two thirds of all respondents thought it was likely that they would either continue to provide or commence provision of relapse prevention interventions in their services. Of the remaining respondents, 66.7% (n = 22 believed that the government focus on four-week quit rates, and 42.9% (14 services believed that inadequate funding for provision of relapse prevention interventions, were major barriers to introducing these interventions into routine care. Conclusions Just over half of UK managers of NHS Stop Smoking Services who responded to the questionnaire reported that, in their services, relapse prevention interventions were currently provided for clients, despite, at that time, there being a weak evidence base for their effectiveness. The most commonly provided relapse prevention interventions were those for which there was least evidence. If these interventions are found to be effective, barriers would need to be removed before they would become part of routine care.

  3. Implied Stopping Rules for American Basket Options from Markovian Projection

    KAUST Repository

    Bayer, Christian

    2017-05-01

    This work addresses the problem of pricing American basket options in a multivariate setting, which includes among others, the Bachelier and the Black-Scholes models. In high dimensions, nonlinear partial differential equation methods for solving the problem become prohibitively costly due to the curse of dimensionality. Instead, this work proposes to use a stopping rule that depends on the dynamics of a low-dimensional Markovian projection of the given basket of assets. It is shown that the ability to approximate the original value function by a lower-dimensional approximation is a feature of the dynamics of the system and is unaffected by the path-dependent nature of the American basket option. Assuming that we know the density of the forward process and using the Laplace approximation, we first efficiently evaluate the diffusion coefficient corresponding to the low-dimensional Markovian projection of the basket. Then, we approximate the optimal early-exercise boundary of the option by solving a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman partial differential equation in the projected, low-dimensional space. The resulting near-optimal early-exercise boundary is used to produce an exercise strategy for the high-dimensional option, thereby providing a lower bound for the price of the American basket option. A corresponding upper bound is also provided. These bounds allow to assess the accuracy of the proposed pricing method. Indeed, our approximate early-exercise strategy provides a straightforward lower bound for the American basket option price. Following a duality argument due to Rogers, we derive a corresponding upper bound solving only the low-dimensional optimal control problem. Numerically, we show the feasibility of the method using baskets with dimensions up to fifty. In these examples, the resulting option price relative errors are only of the order of few percent.

  4. STOP smoking and alcohol drinking before OPeration for bladder cancer (the STOP-OP study), perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Thind, Peter

    2017-01-01

    meetings and at follow-up. Discussion: Herein, we report the design of the STOP-OP study, objectives and accrual up-date. This study will provide new knowledge about how to prevent smoking and alcohol-related postoperative complications at the time of bladder cancer surgery. Till now 77 patients have been...... enrolled. Patient accrual is expected to be finalised before the end of 2017 and data will be published in 2018. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02188446. Registered on 28 May 2014....

  5. Provision of smoking cessation support for pregnant women in England:results from an online survey of NHS Stop Smoking Services for Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Fahy, Samantha J; Cooper, Sue; Coleman, Tim; Naughton, Felix; Bauld, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Background\\ud Smoking during pregnancy is a major public health concern and an NHS priority. In 2010, 26% of UK women smoked immediately before or during their pregnancy and 12% smoked continuously. Smoking cessation support is provided through free at the point of use Stop Smoking Services for Pregnant women (SSSP). However, to date, little is known of how these services provide support across England. The aim of this study was to describe the key elements of support provided through English...

  6. Oklahoma "Tobacco Stops with Me" Media Campaign Effects on Attitudes toward Secondhand Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ashley H; Brown-Johnson, Gati G; Martinez, Sydney A; Paulson, Sjonna; Beebe, Laura A

    2015-12-01

    Public education campaigns in tobacco control play an important role in changing tobacco-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviors. The Oklahoma Tobacco Stops with Me campaign has been effective in changing attitudes overall and across subpopulations towards secondhand smoke risks. Investigate campaign impact on secondhand smoke policy and risk attitudes. Serial cross-sectional data analyzed with univariate and multivariable models. Random-digit dialing surveys conducted in 2007 and 2015 PARTICIPANTS: Oklahomans 18-65 years old Main Outcomes and Measures: (1) Support for smokefree bars; (2) risk assessment of secondhand smoke (very harmful, causes heart disease, causes sudden infant death); and 3) likelihood of protecting yourself from secondhand smoke. With Tobacco Stops with Me exposure, from 2007 to 2015, Oklahomans demonstrated significant increases in: (1) supporting smokefree bars (23.7% to 55%); (2) reporting beliefs that SHS causes heart disease (58.5% to 72.6%), is very harmful (63.8% to 70.6%) and causes sudden infant death (24% to 34%); and 3) reporting they are very likely to ask someone not to smoke nearby (45% to 52%). Controlling for demographics, smokers and males showed reduced attitude change. In uncontrolled comparisons, high-school graduates faired better than non-diploma individuals, who lacked significant attitude changes. Tobacco Stops with Me achieved its mission to more closely align public perception of SHS with well-documented secondhand smoke risks. Efforts to target women were particularly successful. Smokers may be resistant to messaging; closing taglines that reinstate individual choice may help to reduce resistance/reactance (e.g., adding Oklahoma Helpline contact information).

  7. Correlates of household smoking bans among Chinese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Shelley, Donna; Fahs, Marianne C.; Yerneni, Rajeev; Qu, Jiaojie; Burton, Dee

    2006-01-01

    No population-based data are available on the degree to which Chinese Americans have adopted smoke-free household policies and whether these policies are effective in reducing environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. The present study examines the prevalence of smoke-free home rules among Chinese Americans living in New York City, describes predictors of adopting full smoking bans in the home, and explores the association between household smoking restrictions and ETS exposure at home. In-...

  8. StopApp: Using the Behaviour Change Wheel to Develop an App to Increase Uptake and Attendance at NHS Stop Smoking Services

    OpenAIRE

    Emily Anne Fulton; Katherine E. Brown; Kayleigh L. Kwah; Sue Wild

    2016-01-01

    Smokers who attend NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS) are four times more likely to stop smoking; however, uptake has been in decline. We report the development of an intervention designed to increase uptake of SSS, from a more motivated self-selected sample of smokers. In Phase 1 we collected data to explore the barriers and facilitators to people using SSS. In Phase 2, data from extant literature and Phase 1 were subject to behavioural analysis, as outlined by the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW) ...

  9. Quit Smoking >

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quit smoking; Stop smoking; Quit smoking women; Stop smoking women easy way for women to stop smoking; Smoking effects on women; effects of smoking on women; effects of smoking in women; smoking side effects for women; quit smoking cigarettes; smoking cessation; smoking cessation women

  10. Smoking topography in Korean American and white men: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sangkeun; Kim, Sun S; Kini, Nisha; Fang, Hua J; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M

    2015-06-01

    This is the first study of Korean Americans' smoking behavior using a topography device. Korean American men smoke at higher rates than the general U.S. Korean American and White men were compared based on standard tobacco assessment and smoking topography measures. They smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes ad libitum with a portable smoking topography device for 24 h. Compared to White men (N = 26), Korean American men (N = 27) were more likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes (p Whites. Controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked, Koreans smoked with higher average puff flows (p = 0.05), greater peak puff flows (p = 0.02), and shorter interpuff intervals (p Whites. Puff counts, puff volumes, and puff durations did not differ between the two groups. This study offers preliminary insight into unique smoking patterns among Korean American men who are likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes. We found that Korean American men compensated their lower number and low nicotine-yield cigarettes by smoking with greater puff flows and shorter interpuff intervals than White men, which may suggest exposures to similar amounts of nicotine and harmful tobacco toxins by both groups. Clinicians will need to consider in identifying and treating smokers in a mutually aggressive manner, irrespective of cigarette type and number of cigarette smoked per day.

  11. Stop-smoking medications: who uses them, who misuses them, and who is misinformed about them?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Maansi A; Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Giovino, Gary A

    2004-12-01

    This study assessed smokers' beliefs about nicotine and the safety of nicotine medications and examined how these beliefs influence the use of nicotine medications. The data for this paper came from a nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1,046 adults (18 years of age and older) current cigarette smokers conducted between May and September 2001. Respondents were questioned about their use of stop smoking medications, beliefs about nicotine, and the safety/efficacy of nicotine medications. Nearly all adult smokers in our survey had heard of nicotine patches (97%) or gum (94%), with lower levels of awareness reported for the nicotine inhaler (41%), and nasal spray (9%). Thirty-eight percent of smokers had previously used nicotine medications, with the nicotine patch being the most commonly used medication. The data reveal that most smokers are misinformed about the health risks of nicotine and the safety/efficacy of nicotine medications. Approximately half incorrectly reported that the reduction in nicotine in cigarettes has made cigarettes less dangerous to health and only one-third correctly reported that nicotine patches were less likely to cause a heart attack than smoking cigarettes. Smokers who were more knowledgeable about the health risks of nicotine and the safety and efficacy of nicotine medications were more likely to report past use of nicotine medications. Misperceptions about the health risks of nicotine and the safety/efficacy of nicotine medications may discourage some smokers from considering the use of these medications to help them stop smoking.

  12. P.R. and advertising campaign 'Let us stop smoking together'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacena, Michal

    1999-01-01

    CEZ is the main supplier of electricity in the Czech republic. (72% of production from coal, 22% of people agree to continue; 25% of production from nuclear, 55% of people agree to continue, but, it is much more politically sensitive). In 1998 a huge six-year ecological programme ended. The CEZ Communication targets are: to point the succesful finishing of the ecological program and its good results, to iprove the company image, to change the public opinion on pollution issues. Communication problems are: how to make the technical topic interesting and understandable to the general public, and how to avoid a criticism and contra-productivity of the advertising? The solution proposed are: to give the information a social 'added value'- our power plants are going to stop smoking. We know it is not easy, so that we want to motivate and help you - try it yourself together with us. 'Let us stop smoking together!'; to combine the advertising and P.R. activities. Now CEZ can continue with the communication about its activities and plans on the new level. The inspiration for the communication about nuclear power plants: 'NPPs do not smoke at a. Let us think about it together!'

  13. Foucault, surveillance, and carbon monoxide testing within stop-smoking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Aimee; Ashton, Kathryn; Phillips, Rhiannon

    2015-07-01

    Health professionals have adopted proactive testing for early evidence of disease. Researchers have identified that this leads to enumerated understandings and shapes behavior in productive ways. Smoking-cessation advisors regularly test clients for carbon monoxide (CO), but client views of this had not previously been explored. We interviewed 23 clients of a United Kingdom-based stop-smoking service regarding their experiences of CO testing. The majority of participants were successful quitters. We used ATLAS.ti 7 as a data-management tool during structured qualitative analysis. Our findings reveal that clients believed the results of their CO tests. Many became enumerated in their understanding, and thus placed themselves in a hierarchy with other members of their group. Almost all clients found that knowing their CO test score was motivating. We conclude that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of CO testing among clients who do not quit. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. The prevalence of mental health problems among users of NHS stop smoking services: effects of implementing a routine screening procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratschen Elena

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tobacco dependence among people with mental health problems is an issue that deserves attention both from a clinical and from a public health perspective. Research suggests that Stop Smoking Services often fail to ask clients about underlying mental health problems and thus fail to put in place the treatment adaptations and liaison procedures often required to meet the needs of clients with a mental health condition who want to stop smoking. This study assesses the recording of mental health problems in a large NHS stop smoking service in England and examines the effect of implementing a short screening procedure on recording mental health conditions. Methods Treatment records from the Stop Smoking Service covering a period of 13 months were audited. The prevalence of reported mental health problems in the six month period before the implementation of the mental health screening procedure was compared with that of the six month period following implementation. The screening procedure was only implemented in the support services directly provided by the Stop Smoking Service. Comparisons were also made with third-party sections of the service where no such screening procedure was introduced. Results The prevalence of reported mental health problems among a total of n = 4999 clients rose from less than 1% before implementation of the screening procedure to nearly 12% in the period following implementation, with the change being statistically significant. No significant rise was observed over the same period in the sections of the service where no screening procedure was implemented. Conclusions The absence of standard procedures to record mental health problems among service users in many stop smoking services is currently likely to prevent the detection of co morbidity. Implementing a simple screening procedure appears suitable to increase the routine recording of mental health problems in a stop smoking service, which is an

  15. Stop smoking clinics in Malaysia: characteristics of attendees and predictors of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Lei Hum; Shahab, Lion; Bulgiba, Awang; West, Robert

    2011-04-01

    As Stop Smoking Clinics (SSCs) become more common across the globe, it is important to know how far one can make broad generalisations concerning characteristics of smokers who attend these clinics and factors that predict their success. This involves accumulation of data from different countries. The aim of this study was to identify characteristics of smokers and factors leading up to quitting with clinics in Malaysia. Records from 629 smokers who had sought help from five selected SSCs in Malaysia from January 2006 to June 2007 were analysed. The characteristics of smokers attending Malaysian smoking clinics were broadly similar to those in Western countries. Consistent with the findings from other countries, older age and longest duration of previous quit attempts were associated with successful smoking cessation. Greater baseline carbon-monoxide readings (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.93-0.99; p=0.013), but not Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), predicted failure to quit at six-month in multivariate analysis. Success rates varied greatly between clinics even after adjusting for all other predictors. In these rare data from a non-Western culture some predictors of successful smoking cessation appeared to generalise from Western smokers but the universal validity of the FTND in particular needs to be examined further. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. StopApp: Using the Behaviour Change Wheel to Develop an App to Increase Uptake and Attendance at NHS Stop Smoking Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Anne Fulton

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Smokers who attend NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSS are four times more likely to stop smoking; however, uptake has been in decline. We report the development of an intervention designed to increase uptake of SSS, from a more motivated self-selected sample of smokers. In Phase 1 we collected data to explore the barriers and facilitators to people using SSS. In Phase 2, data from extant literature and Phase 1 were subject to behavioural analysis, as outlined by the Behaviour Change Wheel (BCW framework. Relevant Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs were identified in order to address these, informing the content of the StopApp intervention. In Phase 3 we assessed the acceptability of the StopApp. Smokers and ex-smokers identified a number of barriers to attending SSS, including a lack of knowledge about what happens at SSS (Capability; the belief that SSS is not easy to access (Opportunity; that there would be ’scare tactics’ or ‘nagging’; and not knowing anyone who had been and successfully quit (Motivation. The ‘StopApp’ is in development and will link in with the commissioned SSS booking system. Examples of the content and functionality of the app are outlined. The next phase will involve a full trial to test effectiveness.

  17. Views from the Coalface: What Do English Stop Smoking Service Personnel Think about E-Cigarettes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Hiscock

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The UK Stop Smoking Services (SSS are a source of information and advice on e-cigarettes for smokers and thus it is important to understand the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, e-cigarettes held by stop smoking practitioners. The datasets were English SSS quarterly monitoring returns (n = 207,883 and an online survey of English SSS practitioners, managers, and commissioners between 26th November and 15th December 2014 (n = 1801. SSS monitoring data suggested 2% of clients were using e-cigarettes to quit with SSS and that clients using e-cigarettes had similar quit rates to clients using Varenicline. Most SSS personnel are waiting for licenced e-cigarettes to become available before they will recommend them to clients. However, less than a quarter view e-cigarettes as “a good thing”. Managers and commissioners were more positive than practitioners. SSS personnel working for the NHS (hospitals and GP surgeries were less positive about e-cigarettes than those employed elsewhere. E-cigarettes were cited as the most important reason for the recent decline in service footfall. Thus dissemination of information about e-cigarettes needs to be examined and services should address their stance on e-cigarettes with some urgency.

  18. Smoking Topography in Korean American and White Men: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sangkeun; Kim, Sun S; Kini, Nisha; Fang, Hua J; Kalman, David; Ziedonis, Douglas M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction This is the first study of Korean Americans’ smoking behavior using a topography device. Korean American men smoke at higher rates than the general U.S. population. Methods Korean American and White men were compared based on standard tobacco assessment and smoking topography measures. They smoked their preferred brand of cigarettes ad libitum with a portable smoking topography device for 24 hours. Results Compared to White men (N = 26), Korean American men (N = 27) were more likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes (p < 0.001) and have lower Fagerstrom nicotine dependence scores (p = 0.04). Koreans smoked fewer cigarettes with the device (p = 0.01) than Whites. Controlling for the number of cigarettes smoked, Koreans smoked with higher average puff flows (p = 0.05), greater peak puff flows (p = 0.02), and shorter interpuff intervals (p < 0.001) than Whites. Puff counts, puff volumes, and puff durations did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions This study offers preliminary insight into unique smoking patterns among Korean American men who are likely to smoke low nicotine-yield cigarettes. We found that Korean American men compensated their lower number and low nicotine-yield cigarettes by smoking more frequently with greater puff flows than White men, which may suggest exposures to similar amounts of nicotine and harmful tobacco toxins by both groups. Clinicians will need to consider in identifying and treating smokers in a mutually aggressive manner, irrespective of cigarette type and number of cigarette smoked per day. PMID:24068611

  19. Do environmental cues prompt attempts to stop smoking? A prospective natural history study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, John R; Naud, Shelly; Fingar, James R; Callas, Peter W; Solomon, Laura J

    2015-09-01

    We prospectively tested whether environmental cues prompts attempts to stop smoking. We recruited 134 smokers who intended to quit in the next 3 months to complete nightly calls to report cues as well as smoking status, intentions to smoke or not on the next day, and quit attempts over 12 weeks. We provided no treatment. Participants averaged 6.5 cues/week. The most common cues were embarrassment, cost of cigarettes and messages in the media. The number of cues over a 7-day period predicted the incidence of a quit attempt on the eighth day (e.g. from 1.5% when no cues occurred to 3% when 7 cues occurred during the 7 days). This effect was dose-dependent and was due to both between and within-subject predictors. Five cues predicted quit attempts. A cue that made smokers concerned about the cost of cigarettes appeared to be the strongest cue. Cues on the day prior were not more powerful predictors than more distal cues. Intention to not smoke the next day on the evening prior to the eighth day was a partial mediator of the effect of cues on quit attempts. Retrospective recall of cues was poor. Our results suggest the occurrence of cues may be a cause of quit attempts and that programs to increase the frequency of cues may increase quit attempts. Further research should examine whether environmental cues and introspective states (e.g. self-efficacy) interact to prompt quit attempts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of the Stop Smoking Wales NHS Dental Practice Incentive Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, M; Karki, A J; Gould, A

    2016-12-09

    In December 2014, Public Health Wales introduced a proof-of-concept incentive scheme, aiming to encourage National Health Service (NHS) dental practitioners in Wales to provide brief intervention for smoking cessation and increase referrals to Stop Smoking Wales (SSW). The scheme ran for 11 weeks. Practitioners were advised to only refer patients who agreed with the referral. Practices were reimbursed £7 for every referral sent to SSW. Eighty-three dental practices signed up to participate, equating to 18% of NHS sites across Wales. SSW received 308 referrals, of which 297 (96%) were considered new contacts. One hundred and fifty-eight individuals (51%) accepted an assessment. Of these, 48 actually attended (30%). Thirty-two individuals became treated smokers (attending both an assessment and treatment session). Of these, 22 became self-reported quitters; 19 of these were validated through carbon monoxide (CO) monitoring. The cost to receive individuals into SSW via the dental incentive scheme was approximately £98 per self-reported quitter. The scheme greatly increased the number of referrals to SSW from dentists, compared to previous records and so fulfilled its aims. Amendments to the process could improve cost-effectiveness of a similar scheme.

  1. A digital intervention to increase motivation and access to NHS Stop Smoking Services: Applying the Behaviour Change Wheel to develop the ‘Stop-app’.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Fulton

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smokers are four times more likely to stop smoking with the help of an NHS Stop Smoking Service (SSS. However attendance is in decline, possibly due to the increase in popularity of e-cigarettes. SSS’s will support smokers who choose to use e-cigarettes as part of a quit attempt, therefore interventions are needed to encourage continued access and uptake of SSS. Aim: To design an evidence based intervention (Stop-app to increase referrals, 4 week quit rates and reduce ‘did not attend’ (DNA rates within SSS. Methods/Results: In Phase 1 we collected data to explore the barriers and facilitators to people using SSS. Smokers and ex-smokers identified a number of barriers, including a lack of knowledge about what happens at the service; the belief that there would be ’scare tactics’, ‘nagging’, that the service would be unfriendly and clinical; and a lack of perceived efficacy of the service. In Phase 2, data from extant literature and phase 1 were subject to behavioural analysis as outlined by the Behaviour Change Wheel framework. A range of factors were identified as needing to change. These aligned with capability (e.g. a lack of knowledge about the benefits of SSS, opportunity (e.g. beliefs that SSS are not easy to access and to motivation to act (e.g. beliefs that they did not need and would not benefit from SSS. We describe the content development process, illustrating the choice of 19 ‘Behaviour Change Techniques’ included in our digital intervention. In Phase 3 we assessed the acceptability of the proposed intervention by interviewing stop smoking service advisors and non-NHS provider sites (e.g. library services and children’s centres. Findings from interviews are presented and have been used to consider the best path for implementation of the web-app within service provision. Conclusion: The ‘Stop –app’ is in development and will be accessible online, linking with the SSS booking system used by Public

  2. Great American Smokeout Highlights the Importance of Smoking Cessation | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occupational Health Services (OHS) recently took part in the 41st Great American Smokeout, an event that highlights the dangers of smoking and encourages smokers to make a plan to quit. Tobacco smoking is the single most preventable cause of chronic disease and death.

  3. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  4. A characterisation of smokers and factors influencing motivation to stop smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inês Rosendo

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is currently a leading public health priority. Profiling smokers allows for adequate intervention strategies and it is important to assess smokers’ motivation. Aims: To calculate the rate of smokers in 4 files from 3 Health Centres in Coimbra and characterise smokers in terms of demographics, consumption pattern, motivation for smoking cessation and co-morbidities. Investigate the relationship between motivation to stop smoking and age, gender, consumption and age at starting smoking and cardiovascular, respiratory and psychiatric co-morbidities. Methods: Descriptive study with analytical component. Accessible population: 15–65 year old patients from 4 files from 3 Health Centres in Coimbra seen July – August 2007. Data treatment: SPSS 17. Results: 224 randomly interviewed patients, 64.3% women; mean age 44.9 years old. Rate of smokers was 17% (52.63% female. Smokers’ mean age was 39.4 years old. The mean age at starting smoking was 17.2 years old (16.4 in men. Mean cigarette consumption was 17.5/day (13.3 in women. 47.4% was poorly motivated, 52.6% moderate/highly motivated. 50% of the smokers had co-morbidities. There was no association between any of these factors and smoking cessation motivation. Discussion/conclusions: The results are similar to other national studies. There were more younger female smokers than male, but females smoked fewer cigarettes/day. In this study the most frequent co-morbidities were cardiovascular and psychiatric. Only half of the smokers were motivated to stop smoking. Resumo: Introdução: O tabaco é actualmente um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública. Desta forma, o conhecimento do perfil do fumador é essencial para poder adequar estratégias de intervenção, sendo fundamental avaliar a sua motivação. Objectivos: Calcular a prevalência de fumadores de quatro ficheiros de três centros de saúde do distrito de Coimbra e caracteriz

  5. Adolescents' perceptions about smoking prevention strategies: a comparison of the programmes of the American Lung Association and the Tobacco Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBon, M; Klesges, R C

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate components of the teenage smoking prevention programmes of the American Lung Association (ALA) and the Tobacco Institute (TI). Group administration of written questionnaires in school. The components of the ALA's and TI's programmes were presented to students in seven strategy vignettes, covering the following topics: peer pressure/enhanced communication; parents as role models; health consequences of smoking; cost of smoking; smoking as an illegal act; tips for quitting smoking; and responsible decision making. 172 seventh-grade students (mean age = 12.3 years) from six parochial schools in Memphis, Tennessee, United States. Student ratings of the perceived effectiveness of the ALA and TI approaches (in helping to stop teens from smoking) within each strategy vignette, and students' choice between these two approaches as to which was the better smoking prevention technique. Although there were some moderating effects of gender and race, participants overall strongly favoured the ALA programme over that of the TI. Of the seven programme components, the ALA's approach was rated more effective on six (peer pressure, parents as role models, the health consequences of smoking, the cost of smoking, tips for quitting smoking, responsible decision making) and the TI's was rated more effective on one (not smoking because it is illegal). The ALA's programme was perceived to be much more effective than the TI's programme by those whom these programmes are ultimately intended to influence-young people. Future research in this area should pursue longitudinal designs to determine if programme endorsement is predictive of smoking status.

  6. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet, Cognitive Function, and Cognitive Decline in American Older Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, A.M.; Kang, Jae H.; Rest, van de O.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Grodstein, F.

    2017-01-01

    ObjectivesTo examine the association between long-term adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with cognitive function and decline in older American women.DesignProspective cohort study.SettingThe Nurses' Health Study, a cohort of registered nurses residing in 11 US

  7. Relationships Between Smoking Behaviors and Cotinine Levels Among Two American Indian Populations With Distinct Smoking Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Julie-Anne; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Buchwald, Dedra; Howard, Barbara V; Henderson, Patricia Nez; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2018-03-06

    Smoking prevalence, cigarettes per day (CPD), and lung cancer incidence differ between Northern Plains (NP) and Southwest (SW) American Indian populations. We used cotinine as a biomarker of tobacco smoke exposure to biochemically characterize NP and SW smokers and nonsmokers and to investigate factors associated with variation in tobacco exposure. American Indians (N = 636) were recruited from two different tribal populations (NP and SW) as part of a study conducted as part of the Collaborative to Improve Native Cancer Outcomes P50 project. For each participant, a questionnaire assessed smoking status, CPD, second-hand smoke exposure, and traditional ceremonial tobacco use; plasma and/or salivary cotinine was measured. Cotinine levels were (mean ± 95% confidence interval [CI]) 81.6 ± 14.1 and 21.3 ± 7.3 ng/ml among NP smokers and non-mokers, respectively, and 44.8 ± 14.4 and 9.8 ± 5.8 ng/ml among SW smokers and nonsmokers, respectively. Cotinine levels correlated with CPD in both populations (p smoke exposure was associated with higher cotinine among NP non-smokers (P smoke exposure was associated with smoking more CPD in both populations (p = 0.03-0.29). Linear regression modeling mirrored these findings. High prevalence of smoking in the Northern Plains and high cotinine levels among nonsmokers in both regions highlights the tribal populations' risk for tobacco-related disease. There is a high prevalence of smoking in Northern Plains American Indians. Among Northern Plains and Southwest nonsmokers, relatively high cotinine levels, representative of high tobacco exposure, suggest considerable exposure to second-hand smoke. It is critical to highlight the extent of second-hand smoke exposure among the Northern Plains and Southwest American Indians and to enhance efforts to initiate smoke-free policies in tribal communities, which are not subject to state-level polices.

  8. English language proficiency and smoking prevalence among California's Asian Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hao; Shimizu, Robin; Chen, Moon S

    2005-12-15

    The authors documented California's tobacco control initiatives for Asian Americans and the current tobacco use status among Asian subgroups and provide a discussion of the challenges ahead. The California Tobacco Control Program has employed a comprehensive approach to decrease tobacco use in Asian Americans, including ethnic-specific media campaigns, culturally competent interventions, and technical assistance and training networks. Surveillance of tobacco use among Asian Americans and the interpretation of the results have always been a challenge. Data from the 2001 The California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) were analyzed to provide smoking prevalence estimates for all Asian Americans and Asian-American subgroups, including Korean, Filipino, Japanese, South Asian, Chinese, and Vietnamese. Current smoking prevalence was analyzed by gender and by English proficiency level. Cigarette smoking prevalence among Asian males in general was almost three times of that among Asian females. Korean and Vietnamese males had higher cigarette smoking prevalence rates than males in other subgroups. Although Asian females in general had low smoking prevalence rates, significant differences were found among Asian subgroups, from 1.1% (Vietnamese) to 12.7% (Japanese). Asian men who had high English proficiency were less likely to be smokers than men with lower English proficiency. Asian women with high English proficiency were more likely to be smokers than women with lower English proficiency. Smoking prevalence rates among Asian Americans in California differed significantly on the basis of ethnicity, gender, and English proficiency. English proficiency seemed to have the effect of reducing smoking prevalence rates among Asian males but had just the opposite effect among Asian females. Cancer 2005. (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.

  9. The African American Youth Smoking Experience: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Bridgette E.; Gardiner, Phillip S.; Wright, La Tanisha C.; Pechacek, Terry F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Beginning in the late 1970s, a very sharp decline in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed among African American (AA) high school seniors compared with a more modest decline among whites. This historic decline resulted in a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking among AA youth that has persisted for several decades. Methods We synthesized information contained in the research literature and tobacco industry documents to provide an account of past influences on cigarette smoking behavior among AA youth to help understand the reasons for these historically lower rates of cigarette smoking. Results While a number of protective factors including cigarette price increases, religiosity, parental opposition, sports participation, body image, and negative attitudes towards cigarette smoking may have all played a role in maintaining lower rates of cigarette smoking among AA youth as compared to white youth, the efforts of the tobacco industry seem to have prevented the effectiveness of these factors from carrying over into adulthood. Conclusion Continuing public health efforts that prevent cigarette smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth throughout adulthood have the potential to help reduce the negative health consequences of smoking in this population. Implications While AA youth continue to have a lower prevalence of cigarette smoking than white youth, they are still at risk of increasing their smoking behavior due to aggressive targeted marketing by the tobacco industry. Because AAs suffer disproportionately from tobacco-related disease, and have higher incidence and mortality rates from lung cancer, efforts to prevent smoking initiation and maintain lower cigarette smoking rates among AA youth have the potential to significantly lower lung cancer death rates among AA adults. PMID:26980860

  10. Provision of smoking cessation support for pregnant women in England: results from an online survey of NHS Stop Smoking Services for Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Samantha J; Cooper, Sue; Coleman, Tim; Naughton, Felix; Bauld, Linda

    2014-03-04

    Smoking during pregnancy is a major public health concern and an NHS priority. In 2010, 26% of UK women smoked immediately before or during their pregnancy and 12% smoked continuously. Smoking cessation support is provided through free at the point of use Stop Smoking Services for Pregnant women (SSSP). However, to date, little is known of how these services provide support across England. The aim of this study was to describe the key elements of support provided through English SSSP. SSSP managers were invited to participate in this survey by email. Data were then collected via an online questionnaire; one survey was completed for each SSSP. Up to four reminder emails were sent over a two month period. 86% (121 of 141) of services completed the survey. Responding services were, on average, larger than non-responding services in terms of the number of pregnant women setting quit dates and successfully quitting (p therapy (NRT) to pregnant women and 87% of services also offered dual therapy NRT, i.e. combination of a patch and short acting NRT product.. The 2010 NICE guidelines note that services should be flexible and client-centred. Consistent with this, SSSP offer pregnant women a range of support types (median 4) including couple/family, group (open or closed) or one-to-one. These are available in a number of locations (median 5), including in community venues, clinics and women's homes. English Stop Smoking Services offer behavioural support and pharmacotherapy to pregnant women motivated to quit smoking. Interventions provided are generally evidence-based and delivered in a variety of both social and health care settings.

  11. [Volumes of services supplied by Italian Stop-Smoking Services and their characteristics predictive of abstinence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe; Ameglio, Matteo; Martini, Andrea; Bosi, Sandra; Laezza, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    to evaluate differences in terms of smokers' attendance to National Health System (NHS) Stop-Smoking Services with a prevalent individual approach (SSSi), and to those with a prevalent group approach (SSSg). To identify predictive characteristics of success, in terms of quit rates at the end of treatment (QR0) and after 6 months (QR1), according to SSS type (SSSi/SSSg), treatment (individual/ group counseling with/without pharmacologic treatments), 5 SSS scores: type of structure (S), number and hours per week of SSS health professionals (P), SSS involvement in local tobacco control networks (N), and type of smokers' assessment (A); and 3 principal components of SSS characteristics. survey to 19 SSSs, and survey to smokers attending these SSSs, with a six month follow-up. 1,276 smokers attending 19 SSSs (664 at 7 SSSi; 612 at 12 SSSg) in 9 months in the period 2008-2010. smokers' attendance to scheduled sessions; QR0; QR1. even though SSSi treated more smokers per month (12 vs. 8 in SSSg), SSSi scheduled fewer treatment sessions (7 vs. 9 sessions) in a wider treatment period (3 months vs. 2 in SSSg). SSSg recorded lower P and higher A scores. Four out of 5 smokers attending SSSg and 2/5 of smokers attending SSSi completed treatment protocols. Considering all smokers, QR1 in both types of SSS were around 36%. Smokers treated with pharmacotherapy, those more motivated and with high self-efficacy, and those non-living together with smokers were more likely to recorded higher QR1. the most relevant interventions in order to increase the number of smokers treated at SSS and to improve cessation rates among them were: for SSSi, increasing completion to treatment protocol; for SSSg, improving the P scores to increase the number of treated smokers; for all SSS, increasing the use of pharmacotherapy in combination with individual/group counseling to sustain abstinence.

  12. Implicit motivational processes underlying smoking in American and Dutch adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle eLarsen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Research demonstrates that cognitive biases toward drug-related stimuli are correlated with substance use. This study aimed to investigate differences in cognitive biases (including approach bias, attentional bias and memory associations between smoking and non-smoking adolescents in the US and the Netherlands. Within the group of smokers, we examined the relative predictive value of the cognitive biases and impulsivity related constructs (i.e.,including inhibition skills, working memory and risk taking on daily smoking and nicotine dependence.Method: A total of 125 American and Dutch adolescent smokers (n = 67 and non-smokers (n = 58 between 13-18 years old participated. Participants completed the smoking Approach-Avoidance Task (S-AAT, the classical and emotional Stroop task, brief Implicit Associations Task (bIAT, Balloon Analogue Risk Taking (BART, the Self-Ordering Pointing Task (SOPT and a questionnaire assessing level of nicotine dependence and smoking behavior. Results: The analytical sample consisted of 56 Dutch adolescents (27 smokers and 29 non-smokers and 37 American adolescents (19 smokers and 18 non-smokers. No differences in cognitive biases between smokers and non-smokers were found. Generally, Dutch adolescents demonstrated an avoidance bias towards both smoking and neutral stimuli whereas the American adolescents did not demonstrate a bias. Within the group of smokers, regression analyses showed that stronger attentional bias and weaker inhibition skills predicted greater nicotine dependence while weak working memory predicted more daily cigarette use. Conclusion: Attentional bias, inhibition skills and working memory might be important factors explaining smoking in adolescence. Cultural differences in approach-avoidance bias should be considered in future research.

  13. Performance by gender in a stop-smoking program combining hypnosis and aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D L; Karkut, R T

    1994-10-01

    Increased rates of smoking initiation and smoking-related illness among women have narrowed the gender gap in smoking behavior. Past studies of performance by gender in prevention and treatment programs have reported reduced success with women and have suggested a need for stronger interventions having greater effects on both genders' smoking cessation. A field study of 93 male and 93 female CMHC outpatients examined the facilitation of smoking cessation by combining hypnosis and aversion treatments. After the 2-wk. program, 92% or 86 of the men and 90% or 84 of the women reported abstinence, and at 3-mo. follow-up, 86% or 80 of the men and 87% or 81 of the women reported continued abstinence. Although this field study in a clinical setting lacked rigorous measurement and experimental controls, the program suggested greater efficacy of smoking cessation by both sexes for combined hypnosis and aversion techniques.

  14. Motivation of trauma patients to stop smoking after admission to the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss-Gerlach, E; Franck, M; Neuner, B

    2008-01-01

    Every smoker should be offered smoking cessation treatment when they present for clinical care. The Readiness to Change-Smokers (RTC-S) questionnaire and the Heidelberg Smoking History (HSH) are brief questionnaires that divide patients into three stages. The purpose of this study was to prospect...

  15. Helping Teenagers Stop Smoking: Comparative Observations across Youth Settings in Cardiff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Hannah; Maher, Alison; Sage, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This paper presents comparative observations between schools/colleges, youth centres, and specialist youth provision, in relation to delivery of the 2tuff2puff six-week smoking cessation and awareness programme to young people in Cardiff. Design: A six-week smoking cessation programme was delivered to 12-23 year olds in various youth…

  16. Developing the public health role of a front line clinical service: integrating stop smoking advice into routine podiatry services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Jackie; Eden, Gary; Williams, Maria

    2007-06-01

    Although smoking is a major public health problem, many clinicians do not routinely provide evidence-based health improvement advice to smokers to help them to quit. Plan, Do, Study, Act (PDSA) cycle methodology was used to design and implement a service development so that health improvement advice for smokers featured in all podiatry consultations provided by a Primary Care Trust in North East England. IT systems were developed to record the number and proportion of patients for whom smoking status was assessed, and the number and proportion of smokers who were given advice to quit and referred for specialist support. A questionnaire to staff explored their perceptions of the development on their clinics and consultations. During a 6-month period, smoking status was recorded for all 8831 (100%) patients attending podiatry clinics; 83% of smokers were given brief advice to quit; 7% of smokers were given help to access specialist stop smoking support services. Improvements were introduced within existing budgets and did not prolong clinics. It is straightforward and inexpensive to develop clinical services so that public health guidance is routinely implemented. More widespread implementation of similar service developments could lead to national improvements in public health.

  17. Light versus heavy smoking among African American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; Costello, Tracy J; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Li, Yisheng; Mazas, Carlos A; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Cinciripini, Paul M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Wetter, David W

    2009-02-01

    The majority of smoking cessation research has focused on heavy smokers. African Americans (AA) are less likely than the general population to be heavy smokers. Thus, little is known about the smoking and psychosocial characteristics of lighter AA smokers. The present study compared the baseline demographic, smoking, and psychosocial characteristics of light (5-10 cigarettes per day; n=86) and moderate to heavy (>10 cigarettes per day; n=286) AA smokers enrolled in a smoking cessation clinical trial. Results indicated no differences between groups on demographic variables. However, light smokers (LS) were less dependent on smoking, reported more previous quit attempts, and had higher self-efficacy to quit than moderate to heavy smokers (MHS). On a measure of withdrawal, LS reported less pre-quit craving and less difficulty concentrating than MHS. In addition, LS reported lower perceived stress, fewer symptoms of depression, and greater positive affect than AA MHS. These findings highlight important similarities and differences between AA LS and MHS, and have implications for the treatment of AA smokers.

  18. Daily modulation as a smoking gun of dark matter with significant stopping rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouvaris, C.; Shoemaker, I. M.

    2014-01-01

    We point out that for a range of parameters, the flux of DM may be stopped significantly by its interactions with the Earth. This can significantly degrade the sensitivity of direct detection experiments to DM candidates with large interactions with terrestrial nuclei. We find that a significant ...

  19. Exercise to Support Indigenous Pregnant Women to Stop Smoking: Acceptability to Māori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Vaughan; Glover, Marewa; McCowan, Lesley; Walker, Natalie; Ussher, Michael; Heke, Ihirangi; Maddison, Ralph

    2017-11-01

    Objectives Smoking during pregnancy is harmful for the woman and the unborn child, and the harms raise risks for the child going forward. Indigenous women often have higher rates of smoking prevalence than non-indigenous. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to help pregnant smokers to quit. Māori (New Zealand Indigenous) women have high rates of physical activity suggesting that an exercise programme to aid quitting could be an attractive initiative. This study explored attitudes towards an exercise programme to aid smoking cessation for Māori pregnant women. Methods Focus groups with Māori pregnant women, and key stakeholder interviews were conducted. Results Overall, participants were supportive of the idea of a physical activity programme for pregnant Māori smokers to aid smoking cessation. The principal, over-arching finding, consistent across all participants, was the critical need for a Kaupapa Māori approach (designed and run by Māori, for Māori people) for successful programme delivery, whereby Māori cultural values are respected and infused throughout all aspects of the programme. A number of practical and environmental barriers to attendance were raised including: cost, the timing of the programme, accessibility, transport, and childcare considerations. Conclusions A feasibility study is needed to design an intervention following the suggestions presented in this paper with effort given to minimising the negative impact of barriers to attendance.

  20. Comparison of Cigarette and Water-Pipe Smoking By Arab and Non–Arab-American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas N.; Rice, Virginia Hill; Jamil, Hikmet; Hammad, Adnan

    2008-01-01

    Background Water-pipe smoking is a rapidly growing form of tobacco use worldwide. Building on an earlier report of experimentation with cigarette and water-pipe smoking in a U.S. community sample of Arab-American youth aged 14–18 years, this article examines water-pipe smoking in more detail (e.g., smoking history, belief in harmfulness compared to cigarettes, family members in home who smoke water pipes) and compares the water-pipe–smoking behaviors of Arab-American youth with non–Arab-American youth in the same community. Methods A convenience sample of 1872 Arab-American and non–Arab-American high school students from the Midwest completed a 24-item tobacco survey. Data were collected in 2004–2005 and analyzed in 2007–2008. Results Arab-American youth reported lower percentages of ever cigarette smoking (20% vs 39%); current cigarette smoking (7% vs 22%); and regular cigarette smoking (3% vs 15%) than non–Arab-American youth. In contrast, Arab-American youth reported significantly higher percentages of ever water-pipe smoking (38% vs 21%) and current water-pipe smoking (17% vs 11%) than non–Arab-American youth. Seventy-seven percent perceived water-pipe smoking to be as harmful as or more harmful than cigarette smoking. Logistic regression showed that youth were 11.0 times more likely to be currently smoking cigarettes if they currently smoked water pipes. Youth were also 11.0 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers if they currently smoked cigarettes. If one or more family members smoked water pipes in the home, youth were 6.3 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers. The effects of ethnicity were reduced as a result of the explanatory value of family smoking. Conclusions Further research is needed to determine the percentages, patterns, and health risks of water-pipe smoking and its relationship to cigarette smoking among all youth. Additionally, youth tobacco prevention/cessation programs need to focus attention on water

  1. Comparison of cigarette and water-pipe smoking by Arab and non-Arab-American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglicki, Linda S; Templin, Thomas N; Rice, Virginia Hill; Jamil, Hikmet; Hammad, Adnan

    2008-10-01

    Water-pipe smoking is a rapidly growing form of tobacco use worldwide. Building on an earlier report of experimentation with cigarette and water-pipe smoking in a U.S. community sample of Arab-American youth aged 14-18 years, this article examines water-pipe smoking in more detail (e.g., smoking history, belief in harmfulness compared to cigarettes, family members in home who smoke water pipes) and compares the water-pipe-smoking behaviors of Arab-American youth with non-Arab-American youth in the same community. A convenience sample of 1872 Arab-American and non-Arab-American high school students from the Midwest completed a 24-item tobacco survey. Data were collected in 2004-2005 and analyzed in 2007-2008. Arab-American youth reported lower percentages of ever cigarette smoking (20% vs 39%); current cigarette smoking (7% vs 22%); and regular cigarette smoking (3% vs 15%) than non-Arab-American youth. In contrast, Arab-American youth reported significantly higher percentages of ever water-pipe smoking (38% vs 21%) and current water-pipe smoking (17% vs 11%) than non-Arab-American youth. Seventy-seven percent perceived water-pipe smoking to be as harmful as or more harmful than cigarette smoking. Logistic regression showed that youth were 11.0 times more likely to be currently smoking cigarettes if they currently smoked water pipes. Youth were also 11.0 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers if they currently smoked cigarettes. If one or more family members smoked water pipes in the home, youth were 6.3 times more likely to be current water-pipe smokers. The effects of ethnicity were reduced as a result of the explanatory value of family smoking. Further research is needed to determine the percentages, patterns, and health risks of water-pipe smoking and its relationship to cigarette smoking among all youth. Additionally, youth tobacco prevention/cessation programs need to focus attention on water-pipe smoking in order to further dispel the myth that

  2. Effectiveness of a mobile, drop-in stop smoking service in reaching and supporting disadvantaged UK smokers to quit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venn, Andrea; Dickinson, Anne; Murray, Rachael; Jones, Laura; Li, Jinshuo; Parrott, Steve; McNeill, Ann

    2016-01-01

    In countries where there are large disparities in smoking with persistent high rates among disadvantaged groups, there is a need to ensure that stop smoking services (SSS) reach such smokers. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a mobile, drop-in, community-based SSS in reaching more disadvantaged smokers, particularly those from routine and manual (RM) occupation groups, than standard services; secondary aims were to evaluate effectiveness in reaching those who had not previously accessed SSS, triggering unplanned quit behaviour, helping people quit and cost-effectiveness. Following a 4-week pilot period, a mobile drop-in SSS was delivered across various public locations in Nottingham City, UK for 6 months, offering behavioural and pharmacological support via one-to-one consultations with trained cessation advisors. Detailed demographic and smoking behaviour data were collected from all clients accessing the mobile SSS, and Nottingham's standard SSS for comparison. Compared with smokers accessing the standard SSS (n=1856), mobile SSS smokers (n=811) were significantly more likely to be from the RM group (33.3% vs 27.2%, p=0.002), and to be first-time SSS users (67.8% vs 59.3%, pmobile SSS had no prior quit intentions. The cost per smoker setting a quit date for the mobile SSS was only slightly higher than the standard SSS (£224 vs £202). A mobile drop-in SSS is an effective way of reaching more disadvantaged smokers from RM occupations, as well as those who have not previously accessed standard SSS and those without prior quit intentions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Lifestyle Vaccines and Public Health: Exploring Policy Options for a Vaccine to Stop Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Experimental vaccines are being developed for the treatment of ‘unhealthy lifestyles’ and associated chronic illnesses. Policymakers and other stakeholders will have to deal with the ethical issues that this innovation path raises: are there morally justified reasons to integrate these innovative biotechnologies in future health policies? Should public money be invested in further research? Focusing on the case of an experimental nicotine vaccine, this article explores the ethical aspects of ‘lifestyle vaccines’ for public health. Based on findings from a qualitative study into a vaccine for smoking cessation, the article articulates possible value conflicts related to nicotine vaccination as an intervention in tobacco control. The ‘vaccinization’ of lifestyle disease piggybacks on the achievements of classic vaccines. Contrary to expectations of simplicity and success, quitting smoking with a vaccine requires a complex supportive network. Social justice and public trust may become important ethical challenges when deciding whether to use further public funds for research or whether to implement these innovative vaccines in the future. PMID:27551304

  4. Why We Must Continue to Investigate Menthol's Role in the African American Smoking Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Linda A; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Clanton, Mark S; Moolchan, Eric T; Fagan, Pebbles

    2016-04-01

    The disproportionate burden of tobacco use among African Americans is largely unexplained. The unexplained disparities, referred to as the African American smoking paradox, includes several phenomena. Despite their social disadvantage, African American youth have lower smoking prevalence rates, initiate smoking at older ages, and during adulthood, smoking rates are comparable to whites. Smoking frequency and intensity among African American youth and adults are lower compared to whites and American Indian and Alaska Natives, but tobacco-caused morbidity and mortality rates are disproportionately higher. Disease prediction models have not explained disease causal pathways in African Americans. It has been hypothesized that menthol cigarette smoking, which is disproportionately high among African Americans, may help to explain several components of the African American smoking paradox. This article provides an overview of the potential role that menthol plays in the African American smoking paradox. We also discuss the research needed to better understand this unresolved puzzle. We examined prior synthesis reports and reviewed the literature in PubMed on the menthol compound and menthol cigarette smoking in African Americans. The pharmacological and physiological effects of menthol and their interaction with biological and genetic factors may indirectly contribute to the disproportionate burden of cigarette use and diseases among African Americans. Future studies that examine taste sensitivity, the menthol compound, and their effects on smoking and chronic disease would provide valuable information on how to reduce the tobacco burden among African Americans. Our study highlights four counterintuitive observations related to the smoking risk profiles and chronic disease outcomes among African Americans. The extant literature provides strong evidence of their existence and shows that long-standing paradoxes have been largely unaffected by changes in the social

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Two Stages of Cigarette Smoking in African-American and European-American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Grant, Julia D.; Duncan, Alexis E.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Calvert, Wilma J.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; Heath, Andrew C.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to determine whether the higher rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) but lower rates of cigarette smoking in African-American vs. European-American women can be explained in part by a lower magnitude of association between CSA and smoking in African-American women. Methods Data were drawn from a same-sex female twin study of substance use (n=3,521; 14.3% African-American). Cox proportional hazards regression analyses using CSA to predict smoking initiation and progression to regular smoking were conducted separately by race/ethnicity. Co-twin status on the smoking outcome was used to adjust for familial influences on smoking (which may overlap with family-level influences on CSA exposure). Results After adjusting for co-twin status, CSA was associated with smoking initiation in European Americans (hazards ratio (HR)=1.43, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.26–1.62) and with smoking initiation ≤16 in African Americans (HR=1.70, CI: 1.26–2.29). CSA was associated with regular smoking onset ≤15 in European Americans (HR=1.63, CI:1.21–2.18), with no change in HR after adjusting for co-twin status. In the African-American subsample, the HR for CSA was reduced to non-significance after adjusting for co-twin status (from HR=3.30, CI:1.23–8.89 to HR=1.16, CI:0.71–1.92 for regular smoking ≤15). Conclusions CSA is associated with moderate elevation in risk for initiating smoking among African-American and European-American women. By contrast, CSA is associated with elevated risk for (adolescent onset) regular smoking only in European-American women. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between risk conferred by CSA and familial influences on regular smoking in African-American but not European-American women. PMID:27131220

  6. Cigarette smoking among Chinese Americans and the influence of linguistic acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Steven S; Ma, Grace X; Tu, Xin M; Siu, Philip T; Metlay, Joshua P

    2003-12-01

    Less acculturated Chinese Americans experience cultural and language barriers. The present study assessed the relationship between linguistic aspects of acculturation and cigarette smoking among Chinese Americans. A cross-sectional, self-administered survey was administered to a consecutive sample of 541 Chinese American adults (aged 18 years or older) attending four pediatric, medical, or dental practices located in Philadelphia's Chinatown from November 2000 to February 2001. Linguistic acculturation was measured by adapting a reliable and valid acculturation scale developed for Southeast Asians. English and Chinese language proficiency subscales were utilized to analyze the association between language proficiency and current smoking. Whereas 25% of Chinese American men reported current smoking, only 3% of Chinese American women reported current smoking. Chinese American men with lower English proficiency reported significantly higher rates of current smoking compared with Chinese American men with a higher level of English proficiency (33% vs. 18%, p<.01). Less English-proficient Chinese American male smokers were less likely to have received advice from a physician to quit smoking (50% vs. 85%, p=.01). In multivariate analysis, increased English proficiency was associated with decreased odds of current smoking (OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.16-0.89) among Chinese American men after controlling for confounding variables. In conclusion, higher English proficiency was associated with decreased current smoking among Chinese American men. Chinese American men with limited English proficiency should especially be targeted for tobacco control interventions. Further research is needed to assess whether acculturation is associated with smoking among Chinese American women and with use of smoking cessation treatments and services by Chinese American smokers.

  7. Outdoor fine and ultrafine particle measurements at six bus stops with smoking on two California arterial highways--results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Wayne R; Acevedo-Bolton, Viviana; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Jiang, Ruo-Ting; Klepeis, Neil E; Hildemann, Lynn M

    2014-01-01

    As indoor smoking bans have become widely adopted, some U.S. communities are considering restricting smoking outdoors, creating a need for measurements of air pollution near smokers outdoors. Personal exposure experiments were conducted with four to five participants at six sidewalk bus stops located 1.5-3.3 m from the curb of two heavily traveled California arterial highways with 3300-5100 vehicles per hour. At each bus stop, a smoker in the group smoked a cigarette. Gravimetrically calibrated continuous monitors were used to measure fine particle concentrations (aerodynamic diameter bus stop, ultrafine particles (UFP), wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, and traffic counts were also measured. For 13 cigarette experiments, the mean PM2.5 personal exposure of the nonsmoker seated 0.5 m from the smoker during a 5-min cigarette ranged from 15 to 153 microg/m3. Of four persons seated on the bench, the smoker received the highest PM2.5 breathing-zone exposure of 192 microg/m3. There was a strong proximity effect: nonsmokers at distances 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 m from the smoker received mean PM2.5 personal exposures of 59, 40, and 28 microg/m3, respectively, compared with a background level of 1.7 microg/m3. Like the PM2.5 concentrations, UFP concentrations measured 0.5 m from the smoker increased abruptly when a cigarette started and decreased when the cigarette ended, averaging 44,500 particles/cm3 compared with the background level of 7200 particles/cm3. During nonsmoking periods, the UFP background concentrations showed occasional peaks due to traffic, whereas PM2.5 background concentrations were extremely low. The results indicate that a single cigarette smoked outdoors at a bus stop can cause PM2.5 and UFP concentrations near the smoker that are 16-35 and 6.2 times, respectively, higher than the background concentrations due to cars and trucks on an adjacent arterial highway. Rules banning smoking indoors have been widely adopted in the United States and in

  8. Knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards e-cigarettes among e-cigarette users and stop smoking advisors in South East England: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamimi, Nancy

    2018-03-01

    Aim To explore how e-cigarettes are perceived by a group of e-cigarette users and a group of Stop Smoking Advisors (SSAs), what are the risks and benefits they associate with e-cigarettes and how do these understandings shape participants' attitude towards e-cigarettes? Face-to-face and phone interviews were conducted with 15 e-cigarette users and 13 SSAs in South East England between 2014 and 2015. Transcribed data were analysed inductively through thematic analysis. Findings E-cigarettes were used as a therapeutic aid to stop or cut down smoking and as a smoking substitute. A prominent theme is the uncertainty e-cigarettes have generated. This included ambiguity of e-cigarettes' status and efficacy, and ambiguity of e-cigarettes' physical and social risks. Different attitudes towards e-cigarettes were identified. E-cigarettes' benefits and risks should be continuously evaluated, put into perspective and circulated to avoid ambiguity. Stop smoking services need to recognise the benefits that can be gained by using e-cigarettes as a harm reduction tool.

  9. Predictors of Intention to Quit Waterpipe Smoking: A Survey of Arab Americans in Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqa Athamneh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Waterpipe smoking has been described as “the second global tobacco epidemic since the cigarette.” Both Middle Eastern ethnicity and having a friend of Middle Eastern ethnicity have been reported as significant predictors of waterpipe smoking. Addressing waterpipe smoking in this ethnic minority is essential to controlling this growing epidemic in the US. We investigated the predictors of an intention to quit waterpipe smoking by surveying 340 Arab American adults in the Houston area. Primary analyses were conducted using stepwise logistic regression. Only 27% of participants reported having an intention to quit waterpipe smoking. Intention to quit waterpipe smoking was significantly higher with history of cigar use, a prior attempt to quit, and not smoking when seriously ill and significantly lower with increasing age, medium cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among family, high cultural acceptability of using waterpipe among friends, longer duration of smoking sessions, and perceiving waterpipe smoking as less harmful than cigarettes. Educational programs that target Arab Americans in general, and specifically older adults, those who smoke waterpipe for more than 60 minutes, those whose family and friends approve waterpipe smoking, and those with no former attempts to quit, may be necessary to increase the intention to quit waterpipe smoking.

  10. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet, Cognitive Function, and Cognitive Decline in American Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Agnes A M; Kang, Jae H; van de Rest, Ondine; Feskens, Edith J M; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Grodstein, Francine

    2017-05-01

    To examine the association between long-term adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with cognitive function and decline in older American women. Prospective cohort study. The Nurses' Health Study, a cohort of registered nurses residing in 11 US states. A total of 16,144 women from the Nurses' Health Study, aged ≥70 years, who underwent cognitive testing a total of 4 times by telephone from 1995 to 2001 (baseline), with multiple dietary assessments between 1984 and the first cognitive examination. DASH adherence for each individual was based on scoring of intakes of 9 nutrient or food components. Long-term DASH adherence was calculated as the average DASH adherence score from up to 5 repeated measures of diet. Primary outcomes were cognitive function calculated as the average scores of the 4 repeated measures, as well as cognitive change of the Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status score and composite scores of global cognition and verbal memory. Greater adherence to long-term DASH score was associated with better average cognitive function, irrespective of apolipoprotein E ε4 allele status [multivariable-adjusted differences in mean z-scores between extreme DASH quintiles = 0.04 (95% confidence interval, CI 0.01-0.07), P trend = .009 for global cognition; 0.04 (95% CI 0.01-0.07), P trend = .002 for verbal memory and 0.16 (95% CI 0.03-0.29), and P trend = .03 for Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status, P interaction >0.24]. These differences were equivalent to being 1 year younger in age. Adherence to the DASH score was not associated with change in cognitive function over 6 years. Our findings in the largest cohort on dietary patterns and cognitive function to date indicate that long-term adherence to the DASH diet is important to maintain cognitive function at older ages. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. All rights reserved.

  11. Internet-based intervention for smoking cessation (StopAdvisor) in people with low and high socioeconomic status: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie; Michie, Susan; Geraghty, Adam W A; Yardley, Lucy; Gardner, Benjamin; Shahab, Lion; Stapleton, John A; West, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Internet-based interventions for smoking cessation could help millions of people stop smoking at very low unit costs; however, long-term biochemically verified evidence is scarce and such interventions might be less effective for smokers with low socioeconomic status than for those with high status because of lower online literacy to engage with websites. We aimed to assess a new interactive internet-based intervention (StopAdvisor) for smoking cessation that was designed with particular attention directed to people with low socioeconomic status. We did this online randomised controlled trial between Dec 6, 2011, and Oct 11, 2013, in the UK. Participants aged 18 years and older who smoked every day were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive treatment with StopAdvisor or an information-only website. Randomisation was automated with an unseen random number function embedded in the website to establish which treatment was revealed after the online baseline assessment. Recruitment continued until the required sample size had been achieved from both high and low socioeconomic status subpopulations. Participants, and researchers who obtained data and did laboratory analyses, were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was 6 month sustained, biochemically verified abstinence. The main secondary outcome was 6 month, 7 day biochemically verified point prevalence. Analysis was by intention to treat. Homogeneity of intervention effect across the socioeconomic subsamples was first assessed to establish whether overall or separate subsample analyses were appropriate. The study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN99820519. We randomly assigned 4613 participants to the StopAdvisor group (n=2321) or the control group (n=2292); 2142 participants were of low socioeconomic status and 2471 participants were of high status. The overall rate of smoking cessation was similar between participants in the StopAdvisor and control

  12. Tobacco smoking and gastric cancer: meta-analyses of published data versus pooled analyses of individual participant data (StoP Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Ana; Morais, Samantha; Rota, Matteo; Pelucchi, Claudio; Bertuccio, Paola; Bonzi, Rossella; Galeone, Carlotta; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Hu, Jinfu; Johnson, Kenneth C; Yu, Guo-Pei; Palli, Domenico; Ferraroni, Monica; Muscat, Joshua; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ye, Weimin; Song, Huan; Zaridze, David; Maximovitch, Dmitry; Aragonés, Nuria; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Vioque, Jesus; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva M; Pakseresht, Mohammadreza; Pourfarzi, Farhad; Wolk, Alicja; Orsini, Nicola; Bellavia, Andrea; Håkansson, Niclas; Mu, Lina; Pastorino, Roberta; Kurtz, Robert C; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Lagiou, Areti; Lagiou, Pagona; Boffetta, Paolo; Boccia, Stefania; Negri, Eva; La Vecchia, Carlo; Peleteiro, Bárbara; Lunet, Nuno

    2018-05-01

    Tobacco smoking is one of the main risk factors for gastric cancer, but the magnitude of the association estimated by conventional systematic reviews and meta-analyses might be inaccurate, due to heterogeneous reporting of data and publication bias. We aimed to quantify the combined impact of publication-related biases, and heterogeneity in data analysis or presentation, in the summary estimates obtained from conventional meta-analyses. We compared results from individual participant data pooled-analyses, including the studies in the Stomach Cancer Pooling (StoP) Project, with conventional meta-analyses carried out using only data available in previously published reports from the same studies. From the 23 studies in the StoP Project, 20 had published reports with information on smoking and gastric cancer, but only six had specific data for gastric cardia cancer and seven had data on the daily number of cigarettes smoked. Compared to the results obtained with the StoP database, conventional meta-analyses overvalued the relation between ever smoking (summary odds ratios ranging from 7% higher for all studies to 22% higher for the risk of gastric cardia cancer) and yielded less precise summary estimates (SE ≤2.4 times higher). Additionally, funnel plot asymmetry and corresponding hypotheses tests were suggestive of publication bias. Conventional meta-analyses and individual participant data pooled-analyses reached similar conclusions on the direction of the association between smoking and gastric cancer. However, published data tended to overestimate the magnitude of the effects, possibly due to publication biases and limited the analyses by different levels of exposure or cancer subtypes.

  13. Cultural Orientation as a Protective Factor against Tobacco and Marijuana Smoking for African American Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasim, Aashir; Corona, Rosalie; Belgrave, Faye; Utsey, Shawn O.; Fallah, Niloofar

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined cultural orientation as a protective factor against tobacco and marijuana smoking for African American young women (ages 18 to 25). African American college students (N = 145) from a predominantly White university were administered subscales from the African American Acculturation Scale-Revised (AAAS-R); the shortened…

  14. Genetic ancestry-smoking interactions and lung function in African Americans: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda C Aldrich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Smoking tobacco reduces lung function. African Americans have both lower lung function and decreased metabolism of tobacco smoke compared to European Americans. African ancestry is also associated with lower pulmonary function in African Americans. We aimed to determine whether African ancestry modifies the association between smoking and lung function and its rate of decline in African Americans. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We evaluated a prospective ongoing cohort of 1,281 African Americans participating in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC Study initiated in 1997. We also examined an ongoing prospective cohort initiated in 1985 of 1,223 African Americans in the Coronary Artery Disease in Young Adults (CARDIA Study. Pulmonary function and tobacco smoking exposure were measured at baseline and repeatedly over the follow-up period. Individual genetic ancestry proportions were estimated using ancestry informative markers selected to distinguish European and West African ancestry. African Americans with a high proportion of African ancestry had lower baseline forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV₁ per pack-year of smoking (-5.7 ml FEV₁/ smoking pack-year compared with smokers with lower African ancestry (-4.6 ml in FEV₁/ smoking pack-year (interaction P value  = 0.17. Longitudinal analyses revealed a suggestive interaction between smoking, and African ancestry on the rate of FEV(1 decline in Health ABC and independently replicated in CARDIA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: African American individuals with a high proportion of African ancestry are at greater risk for losing lung function while smoking.

  15. Using ecological momentary assessment to identify common smoking situations among Korean American emerging adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian Jules; Ra, Chaelin Karen; Shin, Hee-Sung; Dzubur, Eldin; Huh, Jimi

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides detailed contextual information about smoking habits among young Korean American smokers with the goal of characterizing situations where they are most at risk for smoking. Relevant situational factors included location, social context, concurrent activities, time of day, affective states, and food and beverage consumption. Using ecological momentary assessment (EMA) over 7 days, participants (N=78) were instructed to respond to smoking prompts (n=2,614) and non-smoking prompts (n=2,136) randomly scheduled throughout the day. At each prompt, participants completed a short survey about immediate contextual factors. We used multilevel models to evaluate the association between contextual factors and smoking and further explored the distribution of smoking locations and concurrent activities across each social context and reason for smoking. Compared to non-smoking events, smoking events were associated with being outside, the presence of Korean friends, socializing, consuming alcohol, and experiencing more stress relative to one’s average stress level (all p’s smoking events showed that when participants smoked alone, they were most commonly at home (50%) and most often studying/working (28%). When smoking with Korean friends, participants were most often outside (38%) and socializing (54%). When smoking to reduce craving, participants were most often at home (39%) and studying/working (25%). To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide detailed descriptions of real-time smoking contexts among young Korean American smokers. Information with this level of granularity is needed to develop effective just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) for smoking cessation. PMID:27476588

  16. Race-related stress and smoking among pregnant African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernander, Anita; Moorman, George; Azuoru, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association between the psychosocial construct of race-related stress and smoking among pregnant African-American women. Inferential statistical analyses were performed. Participants were recruited primarily at a medical clinic as well as through word-of-mouth consistent with the snowball sampling technique. Seventy pregnant self-identified African-American women (32 smokers and 38 non-smokers) 18 years or older participated in the study. Participants completed self-report measures of the Index of Race-Related Stress and an investigator-developed demographic and smoking questionnaire. Smoking status of each participant was established through self-report. Significant associations were found between the smoking status of pregnant African-American women and the frequency and perceptions of overall race-related stress (p smoking status. The findings suggest that integrating race-related stress relieving and coping activities into smoking cessation intervention programs for pregnant African-American women may reduce smoking and subsequent smoking-related reproductive health disparities in the population.

  17. Effects of Secondhand Smoke Exposure on the Health and Development of African American Premature Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Jada; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Weaver, Mark A.; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Engelke, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects of secondhand smoke exposure on growth, health-related illness, and child development in rural African American premature infants through 24 months corrected age. Method. 171 premature infants (72 boys, 99 girls) of African American mothers with a mean birthweight of 1114 grams. Mothers reported on household smoking and infant health at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months corrected age. Infant growth was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and developmental assessm...

  18. Implicit motivational processes underlying smoking in american and dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, Helle; Kong, Grace; Becker, Daniela; Cousijn, Janna; Boendermaker, Wouter; Cavallo, Dana; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Wiers, Reinout

    INTRODUCTION: Research demonstrates that cognitive biases toward drug-related stimuli are correlated with substance use. This study aimed to investigate differences in cognitive biases (i.e., approach bias, attentional bias, and memory associations) between smoking and non-smoking adolescents in the

  19. Implicit motivational processes underlying smoking in American and Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, H.; Kong, G.; Becker, D.; Cousijn, J.; Boendermaker, W.; Cavallo, D.; Krishnan-Sarin, S.; Wiers, R.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Research demonstrates that cognitive biases toward drug-related stimuli are correlated with substance use. This study aimed to investigate differences in cognitive biases (i.e., approach bias, attentional bias, and memory associations) between smoking and non-smoking adolescents in the

  20. Effectiveness of a Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Arab-American Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda G. Haddad

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To date, no smoking cessation programs are available for Arab American (ARA men, who are a vulnerable population with high rates of smoking. Thus, the primary aim of this one group pre-test/post-test study was to assess the effectiveness of Sehatack—a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program for ARA men. The study sample was 79 ARA men with a mean age of 43 years who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes (mean = 19.75, SD = 9.1 per day (98.7%. All of the participants reported more interest in smoking cessation post-intervention and many of the participants in the baseline (38.5% and post-intervention phases (47.7% wanted to quit smoking ”very much”. For daily smokers who completed the smoking cessation program, the median number of cigarettes smoked daily was significantly lower than those in the post-intervention phase (Z = −6.915, p < 0.001. Results of this preliminary study indicate that: (a Sehatack may be a promising way for ARA men to quit smoking, and (b culturally relevant smoking cessation counselors can be trained to recruit and retain ARA smokers in an intensive group smoking cessation program. Strengths of this study were community engagement and rapport between three faith organizations and the University of Florida College of Nursing. However, a larger trial is needed to address study limitations and to confirm benefits in this population.

  1. Effectiveness of a Culturally-Tailored Smoking Cessation Intervention for Arab-American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Linda G; Al-Bashaireh, Ahmad M; Ferrell, Anastasiya V; Ghadban, Roula

    2017-04-13

    To date, no smoking cessation programs are available for Arab American (ARA) men, who are a vulnerable population with high rates of smoking. Thus, the primary aim of this one group pre-test/post-test study was to assess the effectiveness of Sehatack -a culturally and linguistically tailored smoking cessation program for ARA men. The study sample was 79 ARA men with a mean age of 43 years who smoked between 5 and 40 cigarettes (mean = 19.75, SD = 9.1) per day (98.7%). All of the participants reported more interest in smoking cessation post-intervention and many of the participants in the baseline (38.5%) and post-intervention phases (47.7%) wanted to quit smoking "very much". For daily smokers who completed the smoking cessation program, the median number of cigarettes smoked daily was significantly lower than those in the post-intervention phase (Z = -6.915, p smoking, and (b) culturally relevant smoking cessation counselors can be trained to recruit and retain ARA smokers in an intensive group smoking cessation program. Strengths of this study were community engagement and rapport between three faith organizations and the University of Florida College of Nursing. However, a larger trial is needed to address study limitations and to confirm benefits in this population.

  2. Smoking increases risk for cognitive decline among community-dwelling older Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Nicole; Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Preacher, Kristopher J; Sheffield, Kristin M; Markides, Kyriakos

    2009-11-01

    Few studies have investigated smoking and cognitive decline (CD) among older Mexican Americans. In this study, the authors explore the relationship between smoking status and cognitive changes over time in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults of Mexican descent. Latent growth curve analyses were used to examine the decreasing growth in the number of correct responses on a test of cognitive functioning with increasing age (7 years with four data collection points). In-home interviews were obtained from participants residing in the Southwest United States. Participants were community-dwelling older Mexican Americans. Cognitive functioning was assessed at each of the four data collection points with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Participants' self-reports of health functioning and smoking status were obtained at baseline. With the inclusion of health variables and other control variables, the effect of smoking status on cognitive functioning was significant such that the decrease in the number of correct responses over time was greater for smokers than for nonsmokers. Smoking increases risk for CD among community-dwelling older Mexican Americans. There are numerous health benefits in quitting smoking, even for older adults who have been smoking for many years. Further efforts to ensure that smoking cessation and prevention programs are targeted toward Hispanics are necessary.

  3. Factors associated with smoking in Asian American adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhongmiao

    2008-05-01

    This review systematically examined the factors associated with smoking in Asian American adults (aged > or =17 years). A total of 21 quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 1997 to 2006 were reviewed and abstracted using the matrix method. Statistically significant factors reported by the studies were summarized. Methodological quality of the studies also was assessed (maximum possible score = 10). Acculturation and education were the most frequently reported factors (n = 10, 47.6%). Acculturation was negatively associated with men's smoking but was positively associated with women's smoking. Education was uniformly found to be negatively related to smoking. Age was reported to have either a positive or a negative relationship with smoking (n = 9, 42.9%). Men were more likely to smoke than women (n = 7, 33.3%). The mean methodological score of the reviewed studies was 4.14 (on a scale of 1-10 points; SD = 1.62; range = 2-8). Health promotion professionals need to consider the summarized factors associated with Asian American adults' smoking behavior when planning smoking prevention programs and when recruiting participants for smoking cessation programs. When addressing acculturation, program planners should design different health education materials and use different strategies for men and women. To identify, understand, and incorporate essential factors into effective interventions, future studies should aim at higher methodological quality by using longitudinal design and increasing the use of theory, the test of data validity and reliability, and the report of effect sizes.

  4. Acculturation and smoking in North Americans of Chinese ancestry: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotay, Carolyn C; Reid, Michelle S; Dawson, Marliese Y; Wang, Shouzheng

    2015-04-30

    Many North American immigrants come from China. Given the critical impact of tobacco use on health, it is important to understand rates and correlates of smoking in this population. This systematic review addressed the question: based on current research, what is the association between acculturation and smoking behaviours in Chinese immigrants to North America? The search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, and Academic Search Complete for papers published from 2005 to 2014. Data were extracted from Canadian and American studies for population characteristics, study design, measures of smoking and acculturation, and findings regarding smoking rates and associations between smoking and acculturation. The literature search identified 147 articles, and 14 met inclusion criteria. Three studies were based on Canadian samples and the remaining 11 were from the United States. Of the 14 papers, 3 reported findings for youth and 11 for adults. Among adults, daily smoking rates were consistently much higher in men than women; for men, rates varied from 9% to 30%. Language use and time in North America were the most common indicators of acculturation. Almost all studies found a relationship between acculturation and smoking, such that more acculturated men smoke less and more acculturated women smoke more. The findings suggest that the association between acculturation and smoking is gender-specific. This correlation is found in youth and adults and in both Canada and the US. Increased acculturation has a protective effect on smoking for Chinese North American men, but a harmful effect for women. Tobacco control interventions need to develop targeted strategies appropriate to these different populations.

  5. Translating evidence-based guidelines into practice: a survey of practices of commissioners and managers of the English stop smoking services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDermott Máirtín S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The English National Health Service’s (NHS Stop Smoking Services (SSSs constitute one of the most highly developed behavioural support programmes in the world. However, there is significant variation in success rates across the approximately 150 services, some of which may be due to variation in practice. This study aimed to assess these differences in practice. Methods Two online surveys were administered. All commissioners (people who purchase services for the NHS and managers (those who run the services of NHS SSSs in England were invited to participate. Items included details of current practices and services provided, what informed the commissioning of SSSs, what targets were included within service specifications and whether the types of treatment model to be delivered were specified. Results Both surveys had a response rate of 35%, with 50 commissioners and 58 managers participating. There were no significant differences between the characteristics of the Primary Care Trusts (PCTs from which commissioners and managers responded to this survey and those PCTs from which there was no response. Managers reported that the treatment model most frequently offered by SSSs was one-to-one (98%. A total of 16% of managers reported that some approved medications were not available as first-line treatments. Just over one third (38% of commissioners reported consulting national guidelines or best evidence to inform local commissioning. Almost one third (30% of commissioners reported that they specified the types of stop smoking interventions to be delivered by the providers. Conclusions A substantial part of commissioning of Stop Smoking Services in England appears to take place without adequate consultation of evidence-based guidelines or specification of the service to be provided. This may account for at least some of the variation in success rates.

  6. Translating evidence-based guidelines into practice: a survey of practices of commissioners and managers of the English stop smoking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Máirtín S; Thomson, Heather; West, Robert; Kenyon, Jennifer A M; McEwen, Andy

    2012-05-23

    The English National Health Service's (NHS) Stop Smoking Services (SSSs) constitute one of the most highly developed behavioural support programmes in the world. However, there is significant variation in success rates across the approximately 150 services, some of which may be due to variation in practice. This study aimed to assess these differences in practice. Two online surveys were administered. All commissioners (people who purchase services for the NHS) and managers (those who run the services) of NHS SSSs in England were invited to participate. Items included details of current practices and services provided, what informed the commissioning of SSSs, what targets were included within service specifications and whether the types of treatment model to be delivered were specified. Both surveys had a response rate of 35%, with 50 commissioners and 58 managers participating. There were no significant differences between the characteristics of the Primary Care Trusts (PCTs) from which commissioners and managers responded to this survey and those PCTs from which there was no response. Managers reported that the treatment model most frequently offered by SSSs was one-to-one (98%). A total of 16% of managers reported that some approved medications were not available as first-line treatments. Just over one third (38%) of commissioners reported consulting national guidelines or best evidence to inform local commissioning. Almost one third (30%) of commissioners reported that they specified the types of stop smoking interventions to be delivered by the providers. A substantial part of commissioning of Stop Smoking Services in England appears to take place without adequate consultation of evidence-based guidelines or specification of the service to be provided. This may account for at least some of the variation in success rates.

  7. Women who smoke and stop during pregnancy: who are they? Quem são as mulheres tabagistas que param de fumar na gestação?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liane G. Reis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to identify factors involved in not stopping smoking in spite of being pregnant. METHODS: standardized interviews were applied to 486 pregnant women in the pre-natal clinics of four health centers in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between April 2003 and February 2004. Every time a smoker was identified, an additional interview, which included the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the Fagerströn scale for nicotine dependence, and the Screening Questionnaire for Adult Mental Disorders, was carried out. RESULTS: the prevalence of smoking, in the initial stages of pregnancy was 21.1%. Most smokers presented a low level of nicotine dependence. Thirty-six percent of them stopped smoking by the first trimester of the present pregnancy without any specific medical intervention. Important differences between those who were able to stop and those who were not were alcohol intake and number of previous attempts at abstinence. Women who stopped smoking drank less during gestation. CONCLUSIONS: stopping smoking during pregnancy seems to be linked to a non-specific drive towards the well-being of the fetus. The number of previous attempts at abstinence was positively related to stopping at the beginning of pregnancy. In spite of the prevalence of the problem, there is still inadequate support for smokers in the prenatal services.OBJETIVOS: identificar fatores envolvidos no comportamento de continuar fumando a despeito de estar grávida. MÉTODO: entrevistas padronizadas foram aplicadas a 486 mulheres grávidas nas clínicas de pré-natal de quatro centros de saúde na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, no período de abril 2003 a fevereiro 2004. Todas as vezes que uma fumante era identificada, uma entrevista adicional foi aplicada, contendo a Escala de Edinburgh para Depressão, a escala de Fagerstron para dependência de nicotina e o Questionário de Avaliação de Doenças Mentais em adultos. RESULTADOS: a prevalência de tabagismo nos

  8. STOP smoking and alcohol drinking before OPeration for bladder cancer (the STOP-OP study), perioperative smoking and alcohol cessation intervention in relation to radical cystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Susanne Vahr; Thomsen, Thordis; Thind, Peter

    2017-01-01

    and alcohol cessation, length of hospital stay, health-related quality of life and return to work or habitual level of activity up to 12 months postoperatively. METHODS/DESIGN: The study is a multi-institutional randomised clinical trial involving 110 patients with a risky alcohol intake and daily smoking who......BACKGROUND: To evaluate the effect of a smoking-, alcohol- or combined-cessation intervention starting shortly before surgery and lasting 6 weeks on overall complications after radical cystectomy. Secondary objectives are to examine the effect on types and grades of complications, smoking cessation...... are scheduled for radical cystectomy. Patients will be randomised to the 6-week Gold Standard Programme (GSP) or treatment as usual (control). The GSP combines patient education and pharmacologic strategies. Smoking and alcohol intake is biochemically validated (blood, urine and breath tests) at the weekly...

  9. Improving Behavioral Support for Smoking Cessation in Pregnancy: What Are the Barriers to Stopping and Which Behavior Change Techniques Can Influence These? Application of Theoretical Domains Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Katarzyna A; Fergie, Libby; Coleman-Haynes, Tom; Cooper, Sue; Lorencatto, Fabiana; Ussher, Michael; Dyas, Jane; Coleman, Tim

    2018-02-17

    Behavioral support interventions are used to help pregnant smokers stop; however, of those tested, few are proven effective. Systematic research developing effective pregnancy-specific behavior change techniques (BCTs) is ongoing. This paper reports contributory work identifying potentially-effective BCTs relative to known important barriers and facilitators (B&Fs) to smoking cessation in pregnancy; to detect priority areas for BCTs development. A Nominal Group Technique with cessation experts ( n = 12) elicited an expert consensus on B&Fs most influencing women's smoking cessation and those most modifiable through behavioral support. Effective cessation interventions in randomized trials from a recent Cochrane review were coded into component BCTs using existing taxonomies. B&Fs were categorized using Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) domains. Matrices, mapping BCT taxonomies against TDF domains, were consulted to investigate the extent to which BCTs in existing interventions target key B&Fs. Experts ranked "smoking a social norm" and "quitting not a priority" as most important barriers and "desire to protect baby" an important facilitator to quitting. From 14 trials, 23 potentially-effective BCTs were identified (e.g., information about consequences). Most B&Fs fell into "Social Influences", "Knowledge", "Emotions" and "Intentions" TDF domains; few potentially-effective BCTs mapped onto every TDF domain. B&Fs identified by experts as important to cessation, are not sufficiently targeted by BCT's currently within interventions for smoking cessation in pregnancy.

  10. Patterns of Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Two Culturally Distinct American Indian Tribes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanekar, Shalini; Wen, Yang; Buchwald, Dedra; Goldberg, Jack; Choi, Won; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit; Henderson, Jeffrey A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. To better understand patterns of initiation among American Indians we examined age-related patterns of smoking initiation during adolescence and young adulthood in 2 American Indian tribes. Methods. We used log-rank comparison and a Cox proportional hazard regression model to analyze data from a population-based study of Southwest and Northern Plains American Indians aged 18 to 95 years who initiated smoking by age 18 years or younger. Results. The cumulative incidence of smoking initiation was much higher among the Northern Plains Indians (47%) than among the Southwest Indians (28%; P < .01). In the Southwest, men were more likely than women to initiate smoking at a younger age (P < .01); there was no such difference in the Northern Plains sample. Northern Plains men and women in more recent birth cohorts initiated smoking at an earlier age than did those born in older birth cohorts. Southwest men and women differed in the pattern of smoking initiation across birth cohorts as evidenced by the significant test for interaction (P = .01). Conclusion. Our findings underscore the need to implement tobacco prevention and control measures within American Indian communities. PMID:19820215

  11. Associations Between Cigarette Print Advertising and Smoking Initiation Among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Dennis R; Blanco, Lyzette; Emery, Sherry L; Fagan, Pebbles; White, Martha M; Reed, Mark B

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine changes in the annual number of cigarette advertisements in magazines with a predominantly African-American audience following the broadcast ban on tobacco, and whether fluctuations in cigarette print advertising targeting African Americans during the late-1970s until the mid-1980s were associated with declines in smoking initiation. We tabulated the annual number of cigarette advertisements from magazines with large African-American readerships (Ebony, Essence, and Jet) from 1960 to 1990. Advertisements were coded depending on whether they featured African-American models. We calculated the incidence rate of regular smoking initiation from 1975 to 1990 for African-American 14-25 years old using data from the 1992-1993, 1995-1996, 1998-1999, and 2001-2002 Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey. We examined whether trends in smoking initiation coincided with trends in cigarette advertising practices among African Americans. The annual aggregated number of printed cigarette advertisements in Ebony, Essence, and Jet magazines increased at least five-fold starting in 1971, following the broadcast ban on cigarette advertising. A decrease in the percentage of ads by Brown & Williamson that showed African-American models was positively correlated (r = 0.30) with declines in the incidence rate of smoking initiation among African Americans from the late-1970s to the mid-1980s. The tobacco industry adapted quickly following the broadcast ban on cigarettes by increasing print advertising in African-American magazines. However, changes in print advertising practices by were associated with declines in smoking initiation among African Americans from the late-1970s to mid-1980s.

  12. Determining counselling communication strategies associated with successful quits in the National Health Service community pharmacy Stop Smoking programme in East London: a focused ethnography using recorded consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Carol; Sohanpal, Ratna; MacNeill, Virginia; Steed, Liz; Edwards, Elizabeth; Antao, Laurence; Griffiths, Chris; Eldridge, Sandra; Taylor, Stephanie; Walton, Robert

    2017-10-27

    To determine communication strategies associated with smoking cessation in the National Health Service community pharmacy Stop Smoking programme. 11 community pharmacies in three inner east London boroughs. 9 stop smoking advisers and 16 pairs of smokers who either quit or did not quit at 4 weeks, matched on gender, ethnicity, age and smoking intensity. 1-3 audio-recorded consultations between an adviser and each pair member over 5-6 weeks were analysed using a mixed-method approach. First a content analysis was based on deductive coding drawn from a theme-oriented discourse analysis approach and the Roter Interaction Analysis System. Core themes were identified through this quantification to explore in detail the qualitative differences and similarities between quitters and non-quitters. Quantitative analysis revealed advisers used a core set of counselling strategies that privileged the 'voice of medicine' and often omitted explicit motivational interviewing. Smokers tended to quit when these core strategies were augmented by supportive talk, clear permission for smokers to seek additional support from the adviser between consultations, encouragement for smokers to use willpower. The thematic analysis highlighted the choices made by advisers as to which strategies to adopt and the impacts on smokers. The first theme 'Negotiating the smoker-adviser relationship' referred to adviser judgements about the likelihood the smoker would quit. The second theme, 'Roles of the adviser and smoker in the quit attempt', focused on advisers' counselling strategies, while the third theme, 'Smoker and adviser misalignment on reasons for smoking, relapsing and quitting', concerned inconsistencies in the implementation of National Centre for Smoking Cessation and Training recommendations. Advisers in community pharmacies should use the advantages of their familiarity with smokers to ensure appropriate delivery of patient-centred counselling strategies and reflect on the impact on

  13. Motivational interviewing interactions and the primary health care challenges presented by smokers with low motivation to stop smoking: a conversation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codern-Bové, Núria; Pujol-Ribera, Enriqueta; Pla, Margarida; González-Bonilla, Javier; Granollers, Silvia; Ballvé, José L; Fanlo, Gemma; Cabezas, Carmen

    2014-11-26

    Research indicates that one third of smokers have low motivation to stop smoking. The purpose of the study was to use Conversational Analysis to enhance understanding of the process in Motivational Interviewing sessions carried out by primary care doctors and nurses to motivate their patients to quit smoking. The present study is a substudy of the Systematic Intervention on Smoking Habits in Primary Health Care Project (Spanish acronym: ISTAPS). Motivational interviewing sessions with a subset of nine participants (two interview sessions were conducted with two of the nine) in the ISTAPS study who were current smokers and scored fewer than 5 points on the Richmond test that measures motivation to quit smoking were videotaped and transcribed. A total of 11 interviews conducted by five primary health care professionals in Barcelona, Spain, were analysed. Qualitative Content Analysis was used to develop an analytical guide for coding transcriptions. Conversation Analysis allowed detailed study of the exchange of words during the interaction. Motivational Interviewing sessions had three phases: assessment, reflection on readiness to change, and summary. The interaction was constructed during an office visit, where interactional dilemmas arise and can be resolved in various ways. Some actions by professionals (use of reiterations, declarations, open-ended questions) helped to construct a framework of shared relationship; others inhibited this relationship (focusing on risks of smoking, clinging to the protocol, and prematurely emphasizing change). Some professionals tended to resolve interactional dilemmas (e.g., resistance) through a confrontational or directive style. Interactions that did not follow Motivational Interviewing principles predominated in seven of the interviews analysed. Conversational analysis showed that the complexity of the intervention increases when a health professional encounters individuals with low motivation for change, and interactional

  14. The Association of Panic Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Major Depression With Smoking in American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Craig N; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Noonan, Carolyn; Bogart, Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Manson, Spero M; Buchwald, Dedra

    2016-03-01

    Rates of cigarette smoking are disproportionately high among American Indian populations, although regional differences exist in smoking prevalence. Previous research has noted that anxiety and depression are associated with higher rates of cigarette use. We asked whether lifetime panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depression were related to lifetime cigarette smoking in two geographically distinct American Indian tribes. Data were collected in 1997-1999 from 1506 Northern Plains and 1268 Southwest tribal members; data were analyzed in 2009. Regression analyses examined the association between lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders and odds of lifetime smoking status after controlling for sociodemographic variables and alcohol use disorders. Institutional and tribal approvals were obtained for all study procedures, and all participants provided informed consent. Odds of smoking were two times higher in Southwest participants with panic disorder and major depression, and 1.7 times higher in those with posttraumatic stress disorder, after controlling for sociodemographic variables. After accounting for alcohol use disorders, only major depression remained significantly associated with smoking. In the Northern Plains, psychiatric disorders were not associated with smoking. Increasing psychiatric comorbidity was significantly linked to increased smoking odds in both tribes, especially in the Southwest. This study is the first to examine the association between psychiatric conditions and lifetime smoking in two large, geographically diverse community samples of American Indians. While the direction of the relationship between nicotine use and psychiatric disorders cannot be determined, understanding unique social, environmental, and cultural differences that contribute to the tobacco-psychiatric disorder relationship may help guide tribe-specific commercial tobacco control strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  15. A multi-city community based smoking research intervention project in the African-American population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darity, William A; Chen, Ted T L; Tuthill, Robert W; Buchanan, David R; Winder, Alvin E; Stanek, Edward; Cernada, George P; Pastides, Harris

    To carry out a community-based research approach to determine the most effective educational interventions to reduce smoking among African-American smokers. The intervention included preparation of the community, planning and developing a model of change, and developing a community-based intervention. The study population consisted of 2,544 randomly selected adult African-American smokers residing in four sites in the northeastern and southeastern parts of the United States. The research design provided a comparison of active intervention sites with passive control sites as well as low income and moderate income areas. Point prevalence of non-smoking at the time of interview; Period prevalence of non-smoking at the time of interview; Period prevalence of quit attempts in the prior six months; Number of smoke-free days in the prior six months; Number of cigarettes smoked daily at the time of interview. Based upon a survey eighteen months after baseline data was collected, all four measures of cigarette smoking behavior showed a strong statistically significant reduction of personal smoking behavior among those receiving active interventions versus the passive group. On the basis of process variable analysis, direct contact with the project staff in the prior six months was significantly higher in the active intervention areas. There was only a small non-significant increase in personal smoking behavior in moderate income groups as opposed to low income groups. An analysis of process variables strongly suggests that, within this African-American Community, "hands on" or "face to face" approaches along with mass media, mailings, and other less personal approaches were more effective in reducing personal smoking behavior than media, mailings, and other impersonal approaches alone addressed to large audiences.

  16. Effects of Secondhand Smoke Exposure on the Health and Development of African American Premature Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jada; Holditch-Davis, Diane; Weaver, Mark A.; Miles, Margaret Shandor; Engelke, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To explore the effects of secondhand smoke exposure on growth, health-related illness, and child development in rural African American premature infants through 24 months corrected age. Method. 171 premature infants (72 boys, 99 girls) of African American mothers with a mean birthweight of 1114 grams. Mothers reported on household smoking and infant health at 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months corrected age. Infant growth was measured at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and developmental assessments were conducted at 12 and 24 months. Results. Thirty percent of infants were exposed to secondhand smoke within their first 2 years of life. Secondhand smoke exposure was associated with poorer growth of head circumference and the development of otitis media at 2 months corrected age. Height, weight, wheezing, and child development were not related to secondhand smoke exposure. Conclusion. Exposure to secondhand smoke may negatively impact health of rural African American premature infants. Interventions targeted at reducing exposure could potentially improve infant outcomes. PMID:22295181

  17. Smoking and pregnancy outcome among African-American and white women in central North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savitz, D A; Dole, N; Terry, J W; Zhou, H; Thorp, J M

    2001-11-01

    Despite extensive research on tobacco smoking during pregnancy, few studies address risks among African-American and white women, groups that differ in brand preference and smoking habits. The Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study is a prospective cohort study that included 2,418 women with detailed information on smoking during pregnancy, including brand, number of cigarettes per day, and changes during pregnancy. We analyzed risk of preterm birth (age deliveries in relation to tobacco use. Pregnant African-American smokers differed markedly from whites in brand preference (95% vs 26% smoked menthol cigarettes) and number of cigarettes per day (1% of African-Americans and 12% of whites smoked 20+ cigarettes per day). Smoking was not related to risk of preterm birth overall, but cotinine measured at the time of delivery was (adjusted odds ratio = 2.2, 95% confidence interval = 1.1-4.5). A clear association and dose-response gradient was present for risk of fetal growth restriction (risk ratio for 20+ cigarettes/day = 2.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.4-4.0). Associations of tobacco use with preterm premature rupture of amniotic membrane resulting in preterm birth were notably stronger than the associations with other types of preterm birth.

  18. Smoking, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit in Asian American versus Caucasian college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Sarah; Kurz, Andrew S

    2012-10-01

    Few smoking cessation programs are designed for college students, a unique population that may categorically differ from adolescents and adults, and thus may have different motivations to quit than the general adult population. Understanding college student motives may lead to better cessation interventions tailored to this population. Motivation to quit may differ, however, between racial groups. The current study is a secondary analysis examining primary motives in college student smokers, and differences between Asian American and Caucasian students in smoking frequency, nicotine dependence, and motives to quit. Participants (N = 97) listed personal motives to quit cigarette smoking, which were then coded into categories: health, personal relationships (e.g., friends, family, romantic partners), self-view (e.g., "addicted" or "not in control"), image in society, impact on others or the environment (e.g., second-hand smoke, pollution), and drain on personal resources (e.g., money, time). Mean number of motives were highest in the category of health, followed by personal relationships, drain on resources, self-view, image, and impact. Asian American students listed significantly fewer motives in the categories of health, self-view and image, and significantly more in the category of personal relationships than Caucasian students. Nicotine dependence was significantly higher for Asian American students. However, frequency of smoking did not differ between groups. Results may inform customization of smoking cessation programs for college students and address relevant culturally specific factors of different racial groups.

  19. Smoking cessation among African American and white smokers in the Veterans Affairs health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Diana J; van Ryn, Michelle; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Clothier, Barbara; Taylor, Brent C; Sherman, Scott; Joseph, Anne M; Fu, Steven S

    2014-09-01

    We examined whether a proactive care smoking cessation intervention designed to overcome barriers to treatment would be especially effective at increasing cessation among African Americans receiving care in the Veterans Health Administration. We analyzed data from a randomized controlled trial, the Veterans Victory over Tobacco study, involving a population-based electronic registry of current smokers (702 African Americans, 1569 whites) and assessed 6-month prolonged smoking abstinence at 1 year via a follow-up survey of all current smokers. We also examined candidate risk adjustors for the race effect on smoking abstinence. The interaction between patient race and intervention condition (proactive care vs. usual care) was not significant. Overall, African Americans had higher quit rates than Whites (13% vs. 9%; P Whites. These findings may be a result of the large number of veterans receiving smoking cessation services and the lack of racial differences in receipt of these services as well as racial differences in smoking history, self-efficacy, and motivation to quit that favor African Americans.

  20. Cigarette Smoking among US- and Foreign-Born European and Arab American Non-Hispanic White Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindratt, Tiffany B; Dallo, Florence J; Roddy, Juliette

    2018-03-09

    Using 15 years (2000-2014) of restricted cross-sectional National Health Interview Survey data (n = 276,914), we estimated and compared the age-adjusted and sex-specific prevalence of cigarette smoking between US- and foreign-born Europeans and Arab Americans and examined associations between ethnicity and current smoking. Arab Americans were categorized as non-Hispanic Whites born in 15 countries located in the Middle East. Current smoking, average cigarettes per day, and quit attempts were compared. Collectively, we found that current smoking was highest among males compared to females. Prevalence was highest among Arab American males (26%) compared to other US-born (24%) and foreign-born European males (21%). US-born males smoked more cigarettes per day (20.2) yet more Arab American males (61%) tried to quit in the last year compared to European (41%) and US-born (42%) counterparts. Arab American females were least likely to smoke compared to other groups. In crude analyses, Arab American males had greater odds (OR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.74) of smoking compared to US-born White males. After adjusting for demographics, socioeconomic status, health insurance, comorbidity, and acculturation effects, Arab American males had lower odds (OR = 0.64; 95% CI = 0.46, 0.88) of current smoking compared to US-born males. Arab American females had lower odds (OR = 0.28; 95% CI = 0.15, 0.53) of current smoking compared to US-born White females. This is the first national study to examine smoking among Arab Americans. Our study was limited to cigarette smoking behaviors as opposed to other forms of tobacco consumption. More studies are needed to explore smoking among US- and foreign-born Europeans and Arab Americans.

  1. African American leadership groups: smoking with the enemy

    OpenAIRE

    Yerger, V; Malone, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: Among all racial and ethnic groups in the USA, African Americans bear the greatest burden from tobacco related disease. The tobacco industry has been highly influential in the African American community for decades, providing funding and other resources to community leaders and emphasising publicly its support for civil rights causes and groups, while ignoring the negative health effects of its products on those it claims to support. However, the industry's private business reason...

  2. Smoking Cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Quitting Smoking Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... You are never too old to quit . Stopping smoking is associated with the following health benefits: 1, ...

  3. Smoking and COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000696.htm Smoking and COPD To use the sharing features on ... than if you were to stop smoking. Quit Smoking Quitting smoking is the best thing you can ...

  4. Translating the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet for use in underresourced, urban African American communities, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Hunter, Jaimie C; Foy, Capri G; Quandt, Sara A; Vitolins, Mara Z; Leng, Iris; Hornbuckle, Lyndsey M; Sanya, Kara A; Bertoni, Alain G

    2013-01-01

    Randomized trials have demonstrated the effectiveness of the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) program for lowering blood pressure; however, program participation has been limited in some populations. The objective of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of using a culturally modified version of DASH among African Americans in an underresourced community. This randomized controlled pilot study recruited African Americans in 2 North Carolina neighborhoods who had high blood pressure and used fewer than 3 antihypertension medications. We offered 2 individual and 9 group DASH sessions to intervention participants and 1 individual session and printed DASH educational materials to control participants. We collected data at baseline (March 2010) and 12 weeks (June 2010). Of 152 potential participants, 25 were randomly assigned to either the intervention (n = 14) or the control (n = 11) group; 22 were women, and 21 were educated beyond high school. At baseline, mean blood pressure was 130/78 mm Hg; 19 participants used antihypertension medications, and mean body mass index was 35.9 kg/m(2). Intervention participants attended 7 of 9 group sessions on average. After 12 weeks, we observed significant increases in fruit and vegetable consumption and increases in participants' confidence in their ability to reduce salt and fat consumption and eat healthier snacks in intervention compared with control participants. We found no significant decreases in blood pressure. Implementation of a culturally modified, community-based DASH intervention was feasible in our small sample of African Americans, which included people being treated for high blood pressure. Future studies should evaluate the long-term effect of this program in a larger sample.

  5. Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of the people who don't quit smoking will die of smoking-related problems. Quitting smoking is important for your health. Soon after you ... they succeed. There are many ways to quit smoking. Some people stop "cold turkey." Others benefit from ...

  6. Smoking cessation medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Smoking cessation medicines can: Help with the craving for tobacco. Help you with withdrawal symptoms. Keep you ...

  7. Study protocol for a non-inferiority trial of cytisine versus nicotine replacement therapy in people motivated to stop smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker Natalie

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smokers need effective support to maximise the chances of successful quit attempts. Current smoking cessation medications, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT, bupropion, nortriptyline or varenicline, have been shown to be effective in clinical trials but are underused by smokers attempting to quit due to adverse effects, contraindications, low acceptability and/or high cost. Cytisine is a low-cost, plant-based alkaloid that has been sold as a smoking cessation aid in Eastern Europe for 50 years. A systematic review of trial evidence suggests that cytisine has a positive impact on both short- and long-term abstinence rates compared to placebo. However, the quality of the evidence is poor and insufficient for licensing purposes in many Western countries. A large, well-conducted placebo-controlled trial (n = 740 of cytisine for smoking cessation has recently been published and confirms the findings of earlier studies, with 12-month continuous abstinence rates of 8.4% in the cytisine group compared to 2.4% in the placebo group (Relative risk = 3.4, 95% confidence intervals 1.7-7.1. No research has yet been undertaken to determine the effectiveness of cytisine relative to that of NRT. Methods/design A single-blind, randomised controlled, non-inferiority trial has been designed to determine whether cytisine is at least as effective as NRT in assisting smokers to remain abstinent for at least one month. Participants (n = 1,310 will be recruited through the national telephone-based Quitline service in New Zealand and randomised to receive a standard 25-day course of cytisine tablets (Tabex® or usual care (eight weeks of NRT patch and/or gum or lozenge. Participants in both study arms will also receive a behavioural support programme comprising an average of three follow-up telephone calls delivered over an eight-week period by Quitline. The primary outcome is continuous abstinence from smoking at one month, defined as not

  8. Comparison of Smoking History Patterns Among African American and White Cohorts in the United States Born 1890 to 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holford, Theodore R; Levy, David T; Meza, Rafael

    2016-04-01

    Characterizing smoking history patterns summarizes life course exposure for birth cohorts, essential for evaluating the impact of tobacco control on health. Limited attention has been given to patterns among African Americans. Life course smoking histories of African Americans and whites were estimated beginning with the 1890 birth cohort. Estimates of smoking initiation and cessation probabilities, and intensity can be used as a baseline for studying smoking intervention strategies that target smoking exposure. US National Health Interview Surveys conducted from 1965 to 2012 yielded cross-sectional information on current smoking behavior among African Americans and whites. Additional detail for smokers including age at initiation, age at cessation and smoking intensity were available in some surveys and these were used to construct smoking histories for participants up to the date that they were interviewed. Age-period-cohort models with constrained natural splines provided estimates of current, former and never-smoker prevalence in cohorts beginning in 1890. This approach yielded yearly estimates of initiation, cessation and smoking intensity by age for each birth cohort. Smoking initiation probabilities tend to be lower among African Americans compared to whites, and cessation probabilities also were generally lower. Higher initiation leads to higher smoking prevalence among whites in younger ages, but lower cessation leads to higher prevalence at older ages in blacks, when adverse health effects of smoking become most apparent. These estimates provide a summary that can be used to better understand the effects of changes in smoking behavior following publication of the Surgeon General's Report in 1964. A novel method of estimating smoking histories was applied to data from the National Health Interview Surveys, which provided an extensive summary of the smoking history in this population following publication of the Surgeon General's Report in 1964. The results

  9. Predictors of narghile (water-pipe) smoking in a sample of American Arab Yemeni adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Omar G; Rice, Virginia

    2008-01-01

    To explore the predictors of water-pipe smoking among American Arab Yemeni adolescents, a descriptive correlational design was used, and regression models representing the proposed relationships in the study were tested from a convenience sample of 297 adolescents who attended a teen health clinic and two high schools. The participants completed five measures. Fourteen hypotheses were tested. Experimentation with tobacco was found to be significant in predicting narghile smoking. Tobacco use prevention and cessation interventions for this population can be focused on targeting the family and peer units, from which their identity is likely derived.

  10. Cigarette smoking and the association with serous ovarian cancer in African American women: African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Abbott, Sarah; Qin, Bo; Peres, Lauren Cole; Moorman, Patricia G; Wallace, Kristin; Bandera, Elisa V; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cartmell, Kathleen; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Paddock, Lisa E; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Alberg, Anthony J; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2017-07-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for mucinous ovarian cancer (OvCa) in Caucasians. Whether a similar association exists in African Americans (AA) is unknown. We conducted a population-based case-control study of incident OvCa in AA women across 11 geographic locations in the US. A structured telephone interview asked about smoking, demographic, health, and lifestyle factors. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) were estimated from 613 cases and 752 controls using unconditional logistic regression in multivariable adjusted models. Associations were greater in magnitude for serous OvCa than for all OvCa combined. Compared to never smokers, increased risk for serous OvCa was observed for lifetime ever smokers (1.46, 1.11-1.92), former smokers who quit within 0-2 years of diagnosis (5.48, 3.04-9.86), and for total pack-years smoked among lifetime ever smokers (0-5 pack-years: 1.79, 1.23-2.59; >5-20 pack-years: 1.52, 1.05-2.18; >20 pack-years: 0.98, 0.61-1.56); however, we observed no dose-response relationship with increasing duration or consumption and no significant associations among current smokers. Smoking was not significantly associated with mucinous OvCa. Associations for all OvCa combined were consistently elevated among former smokers. The proportion of ever smokers who quit within 0-2 years was greater among cases (23%) than controls (7%). Cigarette smoking may be associated with serous OvCa among AA, which differs from associations reported among Caucasians. Exposure misclassification or reverse causality may partially explain the absence of increased risk among current smokers and lack of dose-response associations. Better characterization of smoking patterns is needed in this understudied population.

  11. Cultural identification and smoking among American Indian adults in an urban setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstman, Sarah; Harris, Kari Jo; Golbeck, Amanda; Swaney, Gyda

    2009-06-01

    Among American Indians (AIs), an important relationship has been theorized between cultural identification and substance abuse, including smoking. We investigated the relationship between cultural identification and smoking among AI adults. Using the Orthogonal Cultural Identification Scale (OCIS), we examined the relationship between AI and White cultural identification and cigarette use in a sample of AI recruited at an urban Indian center (n=217). We found that high AIs identification predicted smoker status and high White identification predicted non-smoker status when controlling for age and reservation residence. Orthogonal cultural identification status (categorized as high White/high AI, high White/low AI, low White/high AI, or low White/low AI) did not predict smoker status when controlling for age and reservation residence. OCIS item analysis revealed that positive responses to the individual OCIS items 'My family lives by the American Indian way of life,' 'I live by the American Indian way of life,' and 'I am a success in the American Indian way of life' predicted smoker status when controlling for age and reservation residence. Our data suggest that, among some groups of urban AIs, recreational smoking is associated with AI cultural identification.

  12. Culturally tailored smoking cessation for arab american male smokers in community settings: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Linda; Corcoran, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco use is a serious public health problem among Arab Americans with limited English proficiency. The main goal of this study was to develop a culturally-tailored and linguistically-sensitive Arabic-language smoking cessation program. A secondary goal was to evaluate the feasibility of recruiting Arab Americans through a faith-based community organization which serves as a neighborhood social center for the city of Richmond's Arab Americans. Eight first-generation Arab American men aged 20 years and above completed the three-month program. There was general agreement of the following: (1) each stage of the five-stage cessation program could be improved; (2) several glaring errors could be easily corrected; and (3) minor variation among the various countries-of-origin of participants could lead to a few changes in the program with respect to the use of some colloquial terms. The results suggest that it is possible to reach smokers from Arab American communities with a tailored Arabic language smoking cessation program. The findings of this report will be used as the basis for a large-scale intervention study of a culturally and linguistically sensitive cessation program for Arab American ethnic groups.

  13. Intention to quit water pipe smoking among Arab Americans: Application of the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athamneh, Liqa; Essien, E James; Sansgiry, Sujit S; Abughosh, Susan

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of theory of planned behavior (TPB) constructs on the intention to quit water pipe smoking by using an observational, survey-based, cross-sectional study design with a convenient sample of Arab American adults in Houston, Texas. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine predictors of intention to quit water pipe smoking in the next year. A total of 340 participants completed the survey. Behavioral evaluation, normative beliefs, and motivation to comply were significant predictors of an intention to quit water pipe smoking adjusting for age, gender, income, marital status, and education. Interventions and strategies that include these constructs will assist water pipe smokers in quitting.

  14. Utility and relationships of biomarkers of smoking in African-American light smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Man Ki; Faseru, Babalola; Choi, Won S; Nollen, Nicole L; Mayo, Matthew S; Thomas, Janet L; Okuyemi, Kolawole S; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Benowitz, Neal L; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2009-12-01

    Although expired carbon monoxide (CO) and plasma cotinine (COT) have been validated as biomarkers of self-reported cigarettes per day (CPD) in heavy smoking Caucasians, their utility in light smokers is unknown. Further, variability in CYP2A6, the enzyme that mediates formation of COT from nicotine and its metabolism to trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC), may limit the usefulness of COT. We assessed whether CO and COT are correlated with CPD in African-American light smokers (smoking mentholated cigarettes, or rate of CYP2A6 activity, by genotype and phenotype measures (3HC/COT), influence these relationships. At baseline, many participants (42%) exhaled CO of smoking, whereas few (3.1%) had COT below the cutoff of smoking status in this population. CPD was weakly correlated with CO and COT (r = 0.32-0.39, P smoking mentholated cigarettes, or age, although it appeared stronger in females (r = 0.38 versus 0.21, P relationships are not substantially improved when variables previously reported to influence these biomarkers are considered.

  15. Tobacco industry attempts to frame smoking as a 'disability' under the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Eijk, Yvette; Glantz, Stanton A

    2017-01-01

    Using the Truth Tobacco Industry Documents Library and Congressional records, we examined the tobacco industry's involvement with the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). During legislative drafting of the ADA (1989-1990), the Tobacco Institute, the tobacco industry's lobbying and public relations arm at the time, worked with industry lawyers and civil rights groups to include smoking in the ADA's definition of "disability." Focus was on smoking as a perceived rather than actual disability so that tobacco companies could maintain that smoking is not addictive. Language that would have explicitly excluded smoking from ADA coverage was weakened or omitted. Tobacco Institute lawyers did not think the argument that smokers are "disabled" would convince the courts, so in the two years after the ADA was signed into law, the Tobacco Institute paid a lawyer to conduct media tours, seminars, and write articles to convince employers that hiring only non-smokers would violate the ADA. The ultimate goal of these activities was to deter employers from promoting a healthy, tobacco-free workforce and, more broadly, to promote the social acceptability of smoking. Employers and policy makers need to be aware that tobacco use is not protected by the ADA and should not be misled by tobacco industry efforts to insinuate otherwise.

  16. Individual- and area-level unemployment influence smoking cessation among African Americans participating in a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Cao, Yumei; Ji, Lingyun; Costello, Tracy J; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Businelle, Michael S; Li, Yisheng; Castro, Yessenia; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2012-05-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse health consequences of smoking, and also report substantially lower socioeconomic status than Whites and other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Although socioeconomic disadvantage is known to have a negative influence on smoking cessation rates and overall health, little is known about the influence of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation specifically among African Americans. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to characterize the impact of several individual- and area-level indicators of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation among African Americans. Data were collected as part of a smoking cessation intervention study for African American smokers (N = 379) recruited from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, who participated in the study between 2005 and 2007. The separate and combined influences of individual-level (insurance status, unemployment, education, and income) and area-level (neighborhood unemployment, education, income, and poverty) indicators of socioeconomic status on continuous smoking abstinence were examined across time intervals using continuation ratio logit modeling. Individual-level analyses indicated that unemployment was significantly associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while higher income was associated with greater odds of abstinence. However, only unemployment remained a significant predictor of abstinence when unemployment and income were included in the model together. Area-level analyses indicated that greater neighborhood unemployment and poverty were associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while greater neighborhood education was associated with higher odds of abstinence. However, only neighborhood unemployment remained significantly associated with abstinence status when individual-level income and unemployment were included in the model. Overall, findings suggest that individual- and area-level unemployment have a negative

  17. The Religious and Spiritual Dimensions of Cutting Down and Stopping Cocaine Use: A Qualitative Exploration Among African Americans in the South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Ann M.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Booth, Brenda M.; Sullivan, Steve; Stewart, Katharine; Borders, Tyrone F.

    2014-01-01

    This study qualitatively examines the religious and spiritual dimensions of cutting down and stopping cocaine use among African Americans in rural and urban areas of Arkansas. The analyses compare and contrast the narrative data of 28 current cocaine users living in communities where the Black church plays a fundamental role in the social and cultural lives of many African Americans, highlighting the ways that participants used religious symbols, idiomatic expression, and Biblical scriptures to interpret and make sense of their substance-use experiences. Participants drew on diverse religious and spiritual beliefs and practices, including participation in organized religion, reliance on a personal relationship with God, and God’s will to cut down and stop cocaine use. Our findings suggest that culturally sensitive interventions addressing the influence of religion and spirituality in substance use are needed to reduce cocaine use and promote recovery in this at-risk, minority population. PMID:25364038

  18. Effect of smoking on spirometry of African American and White subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Olivia F; Bhagat, Rajesh; Ajelabi, Akinyinka A; Petrini, Marcy F

    2008-12-01

    Smoking is the single most important risk factor for COPD, yet there is still disagreement about the differences in the effect of smoking between white and African-American people. We hypothesized that the results of spirometry between smokers of the two races are equivalent if reference equations and lower limits of normal appropriate for each race are used. We retrospectively analyzed all spirometry results in smokers over a 1-year period from the G.V. (Sonny) Montgomery VA Medical Center and excluded those that did not meet American Thoracic Society standards, or those from patients with additional medical problems. The remaining patients were classified by race and then matched for age and smoking history; 108 patients in each group were included, which met the power analysis goal of 98. The two groups were similar in age (57.5 years vs 57.0 years), smoking history (46.1 pack-years vs 46.0 pack-years), and body mass index (27.0 kg/m(2) vs 28.3 kg/m(2)) for African Americans and whites, respectively. Data were analyzed using the unpaired t test, and p values were adjusted for multiple comparisons using the Bonferroni factor. There were statistically significant differences between African American and white smokers in FVC (3.67 +/- 0.07 L vs 4.26 +/- 0.08 L, p = 0.001) and FEV(1) (2.33 +/- 0.07 L vs 2.72 +/- 0.08 L, p = 0.002), as expected from the normal populations; however, there were no differences in FVC as percentage of predicted (89.1 +/- 1.3% vs 86.7 +/- 1.5%, p = 0.71) and FEV(1) as percentage of predicted (71.9 +/- 2.1% vs 72.2 +/- 1.8%, p = 1.00) when the reference equations appropriate for race were used (third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). There were also no differences between the number of subject with abnormal FEV(1)/FVC results (56 African Americans vs 58 whites, p = 1.00) when the appropriate lower limits of normal were used. There are no differences in spirometry findings between African Americans and whites when

  19. Smoking (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a word, is addiction. Once You Start, It's Hard to Stop Smoking is a hard habit to ... less active than nonsmokers because smoking affects lung power. Smoking can also cause fertility problems and can ...

  20. Exposure to smoking in internationally distributed American movies and youth smoking in Germany: a cross-cultural cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Sargent, James D

    2008-01-01

    Studies of US adolescents have linked exposure to movie smoking with smoking behavior. It is unclear whether European adolescents are also responsive to movie tobacco imagery. A longitudinal study was conducted to assess exposure to movie smoking in 2711 German never-smokers (aged 10 to 16 years). Movie smoking exposure was estimated by asking adolescents if they had seen movies from a list of 50 movie titles, randomly selected for each adolescent from 398 internationally distributed movies released between 1994 and 2004 that became box-office hits in Germany. These films were reviewed for smoking content. Adolescents were resurveyed 12 to 13 months later to determine smoking status, and results were compared with a similarly designed survey of 2603 white US adolescents. We hypothesized replication of the main effect of the exposure on trying smoking, and an interaction, with a significantly larger response among adolescents whose parents did not smoke. The 398 internationally distributed movies represented 80% of the German box-office hits within this time frame, with the majority (388) produced and/or distributed internationally by US companies. Smoking was present in 74% of the movies. Overall, 503 (19%) of the students tried smoking during the follow-up period. The incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to movie smoking. The form of the dose-response was similar to the US sample, with the strongest response to movies seen in the lower 2 quartiles of exposure. After controlling for baseline covariates, exposure to movie smoking remained a significant predictor of trying smoking in German adolescents, and the effect was significantly stronger in adolescents whose parents did not smoke. Smoking in internationally distributed US movies predicts trying smoking among German adolescents, closely replicating findings from a longitudinal study of white US adolescents. Smoking in these movies could have important worldwide public health

  1. A randomized controlled trial of a videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention for Korean American women: preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sun S Kim,1 Somporn Sitthisongkram,1 Kunsook Bernstein,2 Hua Fang,3 Won S Choi,4 Douglas Ziedonis5 1Department of Nursing, College of Nursing and Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA, 2Hunter-Bellevue School of Nursing, Hunter College, City University of New York, New York, NY, 3Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, 4Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS, 5Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA Introduction: Korean women are reluctant to pursue in-person smoking cessation treatment due to stigma attached to women smokers and prefer treatment such as telephone and online smoking cessation programs that they can access secretively at home. However, there is some evidence that face-to-face interaction is the most helpful intervention component for them to quit smoking.Methods: This study is a pilot clinical trial that examined the acceptability and feasibility of a videoconferencing smoking cessation intervention for Korean American women and compared its preliminary efficacy with a telephone-based intervention. Women of Korean ethnicity were recruited nationwide in the United States and randomly assigned at a ratio of 1:1 to either a video arm or a telephone arm. Both arms received eight 30-minute weekly individualized counseling sessions of a deep cultural smoking cessation intervention and nicotine patches for 8 weeks. Participants were followed over 3 months from the quit day. Results: The videoconferencing intervention was acceptable and feasible for Korean women aged <50 years, whereas it was not for older women. Self-reported abstinence was high at 67% and 48% for the video and telephone arm at 1 month post-quit, respectively. The rates declined to 33% for the video arm and 28% for the telephone arm at 3 months post-quit when salivary

  2. Acute myocardial infarction: association with time since stopping smoking in Italy. GISSI-EFRIM Investigators. Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Sopravvivenza nell'Infarto. Epidemiologia dei Fattori di Rischio dell'Infarto Miocardico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, E; La Vecchia, C; D'Avanzo, B; Nobili, A; La Malfa, R G

    1994-04-01

    The study aimed to investigate the relationship between years since stopping smoking and the risk of acute myocardial infarction. This was a hospital based, multicentre, case-control study conducted in Italy between September 1988 and June 1989 within the framework of the GISSI-2 clinical trial. Over 80 coronary care units in various Italian regions participated. A total of 916 incident cases of acute myocardial infarction, below age 75 years, and with no history of ischaemic heart disease, and 1106 control subjects admitted to the same hospitals for acute, non-neoplastic, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular conditions that were not known or suspected to be related to cigarette smoking took part in the study. Measures were relative risk (RR) estimates of acute myocardial infarction according to the time since stopping smoking and adjusted for identified potential confounding factors. Compared with never smokers, the multivariate RRs were 1.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.8,3.2) for subjects who had given up smoking for one year; 1.4 (95% CI 0.9,2.1) for those who had stopped for two to five years; 1.2 (95% CI 0.7,2.1) for six to 10 years; and 1.1 (95% CI 0.8,1.8) for those who had not smoked for over 10 years. The estimated RR for current smokers was 2.9 (95% CI 2.2,3.9). The risks of quitters were higher for heavier smokers and those below age 50 years, while no difference emerged in relation to the duration of smoking, sex, and other risk factors for myocardial infarction. These results indicate that there is already a substantial drop in the risk of acute myocardial infarction one year after stopping. The risk in ex-smokers, however, seemed higher (although not significantly) than that of those who had never smoked, even more than 10 years after quitting. This could support the existence of at least two mechanisms linking cigarette smoking with acute myocardial infarction--one involving thrombogenesis or spasms that occurs over the short term, and another

  3. Barriers and Motivators to Reducing Secondhand Smoke Exposure in African American Families of Head Start Children: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehn, Jessica L.; Riekert, Kristin A.; Borrelli, Belinda; Rand, Cynthia S.; Eakin, Michelle N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify barriers and motivators for reducing secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) for families of African-American, low-income, urban children. Method: Audiotaped intervention sessions of 52 African-American caregivers of Head Start children who reported being a smoker and/or had at least one smoker in the home were randomly sampled…

  4. Hookah and Cigarette Smoking among African American College Students: Implications for Campus Risk Reduction and Health Promotion Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brittni D.; Cunningham-Williams, Renee M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify individual and institutional risks and protections for hookah and cigarette smoking among African American (AA) college students. Participants: AA college students (N = 1,402; mean age = 20, range = 18-24 years; 75% female) who completed the Fall 2012 American College Health Association--National College Health Assessment…

  5. A pilot study of StopAdvisor: a theory-based interactive internet-based smoking cessation intervention aimed across the social spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie; Michie, Susan; Geraghty, Adam W A; Miller, Sascha; Yardley, Lucy; Gardner, Benjamin; Shahab, Lion; Stapleton, John A; West, Robert

    2012-12-01

    This article reports a pilot study of a new smoking cessation website ('StopAdvisor'), which has been developed on the basis of PRIME theory, evidence, web-design expertise and user-testing. The aims were to i) evaluate whether cessation, website usage and satisfaction were sufficiently high to warrant a randomised controlled trial (RCT) and ii) assess whether outcomes were affected by socio-economic status. This was an uncontrolled pilot study. Two hundred and four adult daily smokers willing to make a serious quit attempt were included. All participants received support from 'StopAdvisor', which recommends a structured quit plan and a variety of evidence-based behaviour change techniques for smoking cessation. A series of tunnelled sessions and a variety of interactive menus provide tailored support for up to a month before quitting through until one-month post-quit (http://www.lifeguideonline.org/player/play/stopadvisordemonstration). The primary outcome was self-report of at least 1month of continuous abstinence collected at 2months post-enrolment and verified by saliva cotinine or anabasine. Usage was indexed by log-ins and page views. Satisfaction was assessed by dichotomous ratings of helpfulness, personal relevance, likelihood of recommendation and future use, which were collected using an online questionnaire at 2months post-enrolment. Outcomes according to socio-economic status were assessed. At 8weeks post-enrolment, 19.6% (40/204) of participants were abstinent according to the primary outcome criteria (95% C.I.=14.1% to 25.1%). Participants viewed a mean of 133.5 pages (median=71.5) during 6.4 log-ins (median=3). A majority of respondents rated the website positively on each of the four satisfaction `ratings (range=66.7% to 75.3%). There was no evidence of an effect of socio-economic status on abstinence (OR=1.01, C.I.=0.50-2.07), usage (page-views, t(202)=0.11, p=.91; log-ins, t(202)=0.21, p=.83), or satisfaction (helpfulness, OR=1.09, C.I.=0

  6. Unfair treatment, racial/ethnic discrimination, ethnic identification, and smoking among Asian Americans in the National Latino and Asian American Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Takeuchi, David T; Barbeau, Elizabeth M; Bennett, Gary G; Lindsey, Jane; Krieger, Nancy

    2008-03-01

    We examined the relations of self-report of general unfair treatment and self-report of race/ethnicity-specific discrimination with current smoking among Asian Americans. We investigated whether ethnic identification moderated either association. Weighted logistic regressions were performed among 1977 Asian Americans recruited to the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002-2003). In weighted multivariate logistic regression models including both general unfair treatment and racial/ethnic discrimination, odds of current smoking were higher among Asian Americans who reported high levels of unfair treatment (odds ratio [OR]=2.80; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.13, 6.95) and high levels of racial/ethnic discrimination (OR=2.40; 95% CI=0.94, 6.12) compared with those who reported no unfair treatment and discrimination, respectively. High levels of ethnic identification moderated racial/ethnic discrimination (F(3) =3.25; P =.03). High levels of ethnic identification were associated with lower probability of current smoking among participants reporting high levels of racial/ethnic discrimination. Our findings suggest that experiences of unfair treatment and racial/ethnic discrimination are risk factors for smoking among Asian Americans. Efforts to promote ethnic identification may be effective in mitigating the influence of racial/ethnic discrimination on smoking in this population.

  7. Demand for and availability of online support to stop smoking Soporte en línea para parar de fumar Suporte online para parar de fumar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Helena Carlini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Estimate the frequency of online searches on the topic of smoking and analyze the quality of online resources available to smokers interested in giving up smoking. METHODS: Search engines were used to revise searches and online resources related to stopping smoking in Brazil in 2010. The number of searches was determined using analytical tools available on Google Ads; the number and type of sites were determined by replicating the search patterns of internet users. The sites were classified according to content (advertising, library of articles and other. The quality of the sites was analyzed using the Smoking Treatment Scale- Content (STS-C and the Smoking Treatment Scale - Rating (STS-R. RESULTS: A total of 642,446 searches was carried out. Around a third of the 113 sites encountered were of the 'library' type, i.e. they only contained articles, followed by sites containing clinical advertising (18.6 and professional education (10.6. Thirteen of the sites offered advice on quitting directed at smokers. The majority of the sites did not contain evidence-based information, were not interactive and did not have the possibility of communicating with users after the first contact. Other limitations we came across were a lack of financial disclosure as well as no guarantee of privacy concerning information obtained and no distinction made between editorial content and advertisements. CONCLUSIONS: There is a disparity between the high demand for online support in giving up smoking and the scarcity of quality online resources for smokers. It is necessary to develop interactive, customized online resources based on evidence and random clinical testing in order to improve the support available to Brazilian smokers.OBJETIVO: Estimar la frecuencia de búsquedas en línea sobre tabaquismo y analizar la calidad de los recursos en línea de apoyo para fumadores interesados en parar de fumar. MÉTODOS: Revisión de búsquedas y recursos en l

  8. Using operational HMS smoke observations to gain insights on North American smoke transport and implications for air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Steven J.

    Wildfires represent a major challenge for air quality managers, as they are large sources of particulate matter (PM) and ozone (O3) precursors, and they are highly dynamic and transient events. Smoke can be transported thousands of kilometers to deteriorate air quality over large regions. Under a warming climate, fire severity and frequency are likely to increase, exacerbating an existing problem. Using the National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service (NESDIS) Hazard Mapping System (HMS) smoke data for the U.S. and Canada for the period 2007 to 2014, I examine a subset of fires that are confirmed to have produced sufficient smoke to warrant the initiation of a National Weather Service smoke forecast. The locations of these fires combined with Hybrid Single Particle Lagragian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) forward trajectories, satellite detected smoke plume data, and detailed land-cover data are used to develop a climatology of the land-cover, location, and seasonality of the smoke that impacts the atmospheric column above 10 U.S. regions. I examine the relative contribution of local versus long-range transport to the presence of smoke in different regions as well as the prevalence of smoke generated by agricultural burning versus wildfires. This work also investigates the influence of smoke on O3 abundances over the contiguous U.S. Using co-located observations of particulate matter and the NESDIS HMS smoke data, I identify summertime days between 2005 and 2014 that Environmental Protection Agency Air Quality System O3 monitors are influenced by smoke. I compare O3 mixing ratio distributions for smoke-free and smoke-impacted days for each monitor, while accounting for temperature. This analysis shows that (i) the mean O3 abundance measured on smoke-impacted days is higher than on smoke-free days at 20% of monitoring locations, and (ii) the magnitude of the difference between smoke-impacted and smoke-free mixing ratios varies by location

  9. Teen Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... al. Parental smoking, closeness to parents, and youth smoking. American Journal of Health Behavior. 2007;31:261. Guide to ... cigarette use with initiation of combustible tobacco product smoking in early adolescence. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2015;314:700. ...

  10. Increases in light and intermittent smoking among Asian Americans and non-Hispanic Whites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, Lyzette; Nydegger, Liesl A; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Tong, Elisa K; White, Martha M; Trinidad, Dennis R

    2014-06-01

    Asian Americans are the fastest growing immigrant group in the United States and are more likely to be light and intermittent smokers (LITS) compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). LITS experience adverse health effects related to smoking. Previous research has aggregated Asian American ethnic groups, masking important differences between groups. We sought to compare LITS rates among Asian American subgroups before and after the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement (MSA) with NHWs in California utilizing data from the California Tobacco Surveys (CTS). We combined 1990, 1992, and 1996 CTS (pre-MSA) and the 1999, 2002, 2005, and 2008 CTS (post-MSA) to examine changes in LITS (Filipino, Japanese, and Korean ethnic groups were compared with NHWs. Pre-MSA logistic regression models adjusted for age, gender, education level, language spoken at home, and use of other tobacco products found that Chinese (odds ratio [OR] = 3.38, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.19, 5.21), Filipinos (OR = 3.55, 95% CI = 2.73, 4.63), Japanese (OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.22, 3.27), and Koreans (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 2.06, 5.03) were significantly more likely to be LITS compared with NHWs. Post-MSA, all Asian American subgroups experienced an increase in LITS (11.7%-37.8%); however, only Chinese (OR = 2.19, 95% CI = 1.16, 4.13) and Filipinos (OR = 3.33, 95% CI = 2.26, 4.91) remained significantly more likely to be LITS compared with NHWs. Our results highlight the need for tobacco control efforts that address the growing group of LITS among Asian Americans and NHWs.

  11. A Qualitative Study Among Mexican Americans to Understand Factors Influencing the Adoption and Enforcement of Home Smoking Bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, Lara S; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Hovell, Melbourne F; Escoffrey, Cam; Fernandez, Maria E; Jones, Jennifer A; Cavazos, Jazmine; Gutierrez Monroy, Jo Ann A; Kegler, Michelle C

    2017-11-07

    One-third of Mexican-American children, in addition to nonsmoker adults, are exposed to secondhand smoke at home, yet few interventions target Mexican-American households. An effective, brief English language program, tested with United Way 2-1-1 callers in Atlanta, increased home smoking bans (confirmed by air monitors). Two randomized controlled trials in North Carolina and Texas replicated those results. We explored factors determining adoption and enforcement of smoking bans in Mexican-American households to inform program linguistic and cultural adaptation to broaden program reach and relevance. Bilingual interviewers recruited convenience samples of Mexican-American smokers and nonsmokers living with at least one smoker in Houston and San Diego households and asked open-ended questions regarding conditions for implementing home and vehicle smoking bans and conditions for varying acceptance of bans. Investigators independently reviewed English transcripts and completed a descriptive analysis using ATLAS.ti. Participants (n = 43) were predominantly female (n = 31), current smokers (n = 26), interviewed in Spanish (n = 26), had annual household incomes less than $30000 (n = 24), and allowed smoking inside the home (n = 24). Themes related to difficulty creating and enforcing bans included courtesy, respect for guests and heads of household who smoke, and gender imbalances in decision making. Participants viewed protecting children's health as a reason for the ban but not protecting adult nonsmokers' health. A dual-language, culturally adapted intervention targeting multigenerational Mexican-American households should address household differences regarding language and consider influences of cultural values on family dynamics and interactions with guests that may weaken bans. Qualitative interviews suggested cultural and family considerations to address in adapting a brief evidence-based smoke-free homes intervention for Mexican Americans, including traditional

  12. What helps and hinders midwives in engaging with pregnant women about stopping smoking? A cross-sectional survey of perceived implementation difficulties among midwives in the North East of England

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    Beenstock Jane

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Around 5,000 miscarriages and 300 perinatal deaths per year result from maternal smoking in the United Kingdom. In the northeast of England, 22% of women smoke at delivery compared to 14% nationally. Midwives have designated responsibilities to help pregnant women stop smoking. We aimed to assess perceived implementation difficulties regarding midwives’ roles in smoking cessation in pregnancy. Methods A self-completed, anonymous survey was sent to all midwives in northeast England (n = 1,358 that explores the theoretical explanations for implementation difficulties of four behaviours recommended in the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE guidance: (a asking a pregnant woman about her smoking behaviour, (b referring to the stop-smoking service, (c giving advice about smoking behaviour, and (d using a carbon monoxide monitor. Questions covering Michie et al.’s theoretical domain framework (TDF, describing 11 domains of hypothesised behavioural determinants (i.e., ‘knowledge’, ‘skills’, ‘social/professional role/identity’, ‘beliefs about capabilities’, ‘beliefs about consequences’, ‘motivation and goals’, ‘memory’, ‘attention and decision processes’, ‘environmental context and resources’, ‘social influences’, ‘emotion’, and ‘self-regulation/action planning’, were used to describe perceived implementation difficulties, predict self-reported implementation behaviours, and explore relationships with demographic and professional variables. Results The overall response rate was 43% (n = 589. The number of questionnaires analysed was 364, following removal of the delivery-unit midwives, who are not directly involved in providing smoking-cessation services. Participants reported few implementation difficulties, high levels of motivation for all four behaviours and identified smoking-cessation work with their role. Midwives were less certain about the

  13. Changes in and Factors Affecting Second-hand Smoke Exposure in Nonsmoking Korean Americans in California: A Panel Study

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    Hyeongsu Kim, MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: We showed that SHS exposure increased among Korean American nonsmokers in California, and the most important variables explaining the change in SHS exposure involved smoking among others with whom the subject is associated. These findings could be used as objective evidence for developing public health policies to reduce SHS exposure.

  14. "These People Are Never Going to Stop Labeling Me": Educational Experiences of African American Male Students Labeled with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Joy

    2017-01-01

    This investigation employs Disability Critical Race Studies as a theoretical framework to determine the interdependence of racism and ableism in school settings. African American male students with learning disabilities are queried about their interpretations of special education placement and labeling while attempting to secure educational…

  15. Development of a Just-in-Time Adaptive Intervention for Smoking Cessation Among Korean American Emerging Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrada, Christian Jules; Dzubur, Eldin; Blackman, Kacie C A; Mays, Vickie; Shoptaw, Steven; Huh, Jimi

    2017-10-01

    Cigarette smoking is a preventable risk factor that contributes to unnecessary lung cancer burden among Korean Americans and there is limited research on effective smoking cessation strategies for this population. Smartphone-based smoking cessation apps that leverage just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) hold promise for smokers attempting to quit. However, little is known about how to develop and tailor a smoking cessation JITAI for Korean American emerging adult (KAEA) smokers. This paper documents the development process of MyQuit USC according to design guidelines for JITAI. Our development process builds on findings from a prior ecological momentary assessment study by using qualitative research methods. Semi-structured interviews and a focus group were conducted to inform which intervention options to offer and the decision rules that dictate their delivery. Qualitative findings highlighted that (1) smoking episodes are highly context-driven and that (2) KAEA smokers believe they need personalized cessation strategies tailored to different contexts. Thus, MyQuit USC operates via decision rules that guide the delivery of personalized implementation intentions, which are contingent on dynamic factors, to be delivered "just in time" at user-scheduled, high-risk smoking situations. Through an iterative design process, informed by quantitative and qualitative formative research, we developed a smoking cessation JITAI tailored specifically for KAEA smokers. Further testing is under way to optimize future versions of the app with the most effective intervention strategies and decision rules. MyQuit USC has the potential to provide cessation support in real-world settings, when KAEAs need them the most.

  16. MTHFR methylation moderates the impact of smoking on DNA methylation at AHRR for African American young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man Kit; Ong, Mei Ling; Brody, Gene H; Dogan, Meeshanthini V; Philibert, Robert A

    2017-09-01

    Smoking has been shown to have a large, reliable, and rapid effect on demethylation of AHRR, particularly at cg05575921, suggesting that methylation may be used as an index of cigarette consumption. Because the availability of methyl donors may also influence the degree of demethylation in response to smoking, factors that affect the activity of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), a key regulator of methyl group availability, may be of interest. In the current investigation, we examined the extent to which individual differences in methylation of MTHFR moderated the association between smoking and demethylation at cg05575921 as well as at other loci on AHRR associated with a main effect of smoking. Using a discovery sample (AIM, N = 293), and a confirmatory sample (SHAPE, N = 368) of young adult African Americans, degree of methylation of loci in the first exon of MTHFR was associated with amplification of the association between smoking and AHRR demethylation at cg05575921. However, genetic variation at a commonly studied MTHFR variant, C677T, did not influence cg05575921 methylation. The significant interaction between MTHFR methylation and the smoking-induced response at cg05575921 suggests a role for individual differences in methyl cycle regulation in understanding the effects of cigarette consumption on genome wide DNA methylation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Educational Attainment and Smoking Status in a National Sample of American Adults; Evidence for the Blacks' Diminished Return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin; Mistry, Ritesh

    2018-04-16

    Although higher socioeconomic status (SES) indicators such as educational attainment are linked with health behaviors, the Blacks’ Diminished Return theory posits that the protective effects of SES are systemically smaller for Blacks than Whites. To explore the Black/White differences in the association between education and smoking. This cross-sectional study used the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2017 ( n = 3217). HINTS is a national survey of American adults. The current analysis included 2277 adults who were either Whites ( n = 1868; 82%) or Blacks ( n = 409; 18%). The independent variable was educational attainment, and the dependent variables were ever and current (past 30-day) smoking. Demographic factors (age and gender) were covariates. Race was the focal moderator. In the pooled sample, higher educational attainment was associated with lower odds of ever and current smoking. Race interacted with the effects of higher educational attainment on current smoking, suggesting a stronger protective effect of higher education against current smoking for Whites than Blacks. Race did not interact with the effect of educational attainment on odds of ever smoking. In line with previous research in the United States, education is more strongly associated with health and health behaviors in Whites than Blacks. Smaller protective effects of education on health behaviors may be due to the existing racism across institutions such as the education system and labor market.

  18. Tobacco outlet density and attitudes towards smoking among urban adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennis, Jeremy; Mason, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates whether residential exposure to tobacco outlets (i.e., convenience stores and other stores selling tobacco) is associated with attitudes towards smoking among a sample of urban, primarily African American, adolescent smokers. Cross-sectional survey data for 197 adolescents were integrated with spatial data on tobacco outlets via subject home addresses. Ordinal regression was employed to test hypotheses that closer proximity to, and higher concentrations of, tobacco outlets are associated with higher measures of intention to continue to smoke in the future, weaker self-efficacy related to stopping smoking, and more accepting social norms related to smoking, while controlling for characteristics of age, gender, family and peer smoking contexts, and level of nicotine dependence. Moderation by age and gender was also investigated. Higher residential tobacco outlet density is significantly associated with a greater intention to smoke in the next 3 months, a lower readiness to stop smoking, and a greater likelihood of accepting a cigarette from a friend. Residential proximity to a tobacco outlet is significantly associated with a greater intention to smoke 5 years on. Evidence of a relationship between exposure to tobacco outlets and social norms related to smoking was not found, nor was there evidence for moderation of these relationships by age or gender. These results suggest that among urban adolescents who currently smoke, higher residential exposure to tobacco outlets is associated with greater predisposition towards future smoking and lower self-evaluation of the ability to stop smoking.

  19. Eficacia del Plan de Cinco Días para Dejar de Fumar en una ciudad de Argentina Effectiveness of the "Five-Day Plan to Stop Smoking" in a city in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Elizabeth Alfaro

    2007-05-01

    contra la recidiva del tabaquismo en los asistentes a los P5D. Los factores condicionantes más frecuentes de la recidiva fueron la presencia de síntomas del síndrome de abstinencia (40,3% y las situaciones estresantes (28,2%. CONCLUSIONES: El P5D es una herramienta eficaz de prevención secundaria del tabaquismo y en la población estudiada, su eficacia estuvo asociada con el sexo y el nivel de dependencia a la nicotina.OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of the "Five-Day Plan to Stop Smoking" at the end of the intervention and after one year in a sample of participants in the city of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina. METHODS: The quasi-experimental, longitudinal, prospective cohort, comparative study was based on the evaluation of the effectiveness of the "Five-Day Plan to Stop Smoking" in Rosario, Argentina, with eight groups of participants. Each session of the five-night course included presentations on medical aspects of smoking, an emphasis on group support in quitting, and relaxation techniques. The eight groups included a total of 739 people (50.5% of them women and 49.5% men. Using a sample of 281 participants who were chosen at random, effectiveness was evaluated immediately after the end of each course and again after one year. Effectiveness was assessed in relation to the age the subjects began smoking, the average daily consumption of cigarettes, the number of years participants had smoked, their educational level, the number of previous attempts to quit smoking, and the level of nicotine dependence as measured by the Fagerström scale. Association among qualitative variables was determined using relative risk (RR, with 95% confidence intervals. Differences in the means of quantitative variables were determined using the t test for independent samples. The chi-square test was used to establish differences among the categorical variables studied. RESULTS: Of the 281 participants (138 men and 143 women in the sample, 201 (71.5% (104 men and 97 women quit

  20. Joint Effects of Smoking and Sedentary Lifestyle on Lung Function in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, Brenda Campbell; Sarpong, Daniel; Addison, Clifton; White, Monique; Hickson, DeMarc; White, Wendy; Burchfiel, Cecil

    2014-01-01

    This study examined: (a) differences in lung function between current and non current smokers who had sedentary lifestyles and non sedentary lifestyles and (b) the mediating effect of sedentary lifestyle on the association between smoking and lung function in African Americans. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as the lowest quartile of the total physical activity score. The results of linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that non smokers with non sedentary lifestyles had the highes...

  1. Intergenerational differences in smoking among West Indian, Haitian, Latin American, and African blacks in the United States

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    Tod G. Hamilton

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due in large part to increased migration from Africa and the Caribbean, black immigrants and their descendants are drastically changing the contours of health disparities among blacks in the United States. While prior studies have examined health variation among black immigrants by region of birth, few have explored the degree of variation in health behaviors, particularly smoking patterns, among first- and second- generation black immigrants by ancestral heritage. Using data from the 1995–2011 waves of the Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS, we examine variation in current smoking status among first-, second-, and third/higher- generation black immigrants. Specifically, we investigate these differences among all black immigrants and then provide separate analyses for individuals with ancestry from the English-speaking Caribbean (West Indies, Haiti, Latin America, and Africa—the primary sending regions of black immigrants to the United States. We also explore differences in smoking behavior by gender. The results show that, relative to third/higher generation blacks, first-generation black immigrants are less likely to report being current smokers. Within the first-generation, immigrants who migrated after age 13 have a lower probability of smoking relative to those who migrated at or under age 13. Disparities in smoking prevalence among the first-generation by age at migration are largest among black immigrants from Latin America. The results also suggest that second-generation immigrants with two foreign-born parents are generally less likely to smoke than the third/higher generation. We find no statistically significant difference in smoking between second-generation immigrants with mixed nativity parents and the third or higher generation. Among individuals with West Indian, Haitian, Latin American, and African ancestry, the probability of being a current smoker increases with each successive generation

  2. A Pilot Trial Examining African American and White Responses to Algorithm-Guided Smoking Cessation Medication Selection in Persons Living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valera, Pamela; McClernon, F Joseph; Burkholder, Greer; Mugavero, Michael J; Willig, James; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Cropsey, Karen L

    2017-07-01

    Algorithm-based treatments (AT) may be an effective clinical tool to aid HIV clinicians in prescribing pharmacotherapy to increase smoking cessation among people living with HIV (PLWH). Initial results from AT indicated significant increases in abstinence self-efficacy and medication utilization and declines in cigarettes smoked per day across time. Given historical racial disparities, it is unclear if both African Americans and White smokers would benefit equally from this type of intervention. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine racial differences in response to AT guided smoking cessation for African American and White smokers living with HIV. One hundred PLWH smokers (n = 100) were randomized to receive either AT guided smoking cessation or Treatment as Usual (TAU) which consisted of instructing participants to talk to a provider about smoking cessation assistance when ready to make a quit attempt. Participants were African American (75%) and White (25%) and majority men (71%) who had never been married (56%). African Americans smoked fewer cigarettes and were more likely to smoke mentholated cigarettes compared to White smokers at baseline. African Americans increased their use of other tobacco products (cigars/cigarillos) over time relative to White smokers. A significant interaction between race and quit goal was observed, with White smokers who reported complete abstinence as their goal having higher quit rates, while African Americans who reported a goal other than complete abstinence demonstrating higher quit rates. The increased use of cigars/cigarillos during quit attempts as well as having a goal other than complete abstinence should be considered when applying algorithm based interventions for PLWH African American smokers.

  3. Lung Cancer: Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer, Kelly M

    2018-01-01

    Smoking cessation for patients who smoke should be a top priority for physicians. Nicotine dependence should be considered a chronic disease, with the expectation that relapse is normal. The US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that physicians screen all adults for tobacco use, advise them to stop using tobacco, and provide behavioral interventions and Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy for cessation to adults who use tobacco. It also recommends use of the 5 As (ie, Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, Arrange) in discussing tobacco use with patients. All smokers should be offered behavioral and pharmacotherapy assistance in quitting. Pregnant women who smoke should be offered behavioral methods first. However, if these methods are unlikely to be effective, pharmacotherapy can be offered after a discussion about risks and benefits. The behavioral method with the most evidence of efficacy is group therapy. Nicotine replacement therapy (eg, gums, lozenges, transdermal patches, inhalers, nasal sprays), bupropion SR, and varenicline are approved by the Food and Drug Administration for management of nicotine withdrawal during smoking cessation. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  4. Disadvantaged Former Miners' Perspectives on Smoking Cessation: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Simon; Baird, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore disadvantaged former miners' perspectives in north Derbyshire, United Kingdom (UK) on smoking and smoking cessation. Methods: In-depth, audiotaped interviews with 16 disadvantaged former miners who smoked or had stopped smoking within six months. Results: Perceptions of being able to stop smoking with minimal difficulty and…

  5. Quit-Smoking Products: Boost Your Chance of Quitting for Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drug Administration (FDA) can help you stop for good. Using smoking-cessation products can greatly increase your ... more likely that you'll stop smoking for good. Although you can buy some quit-smoking products ...

  6. Secondhand Smoke Concentrations in Hospitality Venues in the Pacific Basin: Findings from American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Ko, Jean Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among nonsmokers. Although the number of laws prohibiting smoking in indoor public places continues to increase, millions of nonsmokers in the United States (US) and its territories remain exposed to SHS. This study assessed indoor air pollution from SHS in hospitality venues in three US Pacific Basin territories. Methods Air monitors were used to assess PM2.5, an environmental marker for SHS, in 19 smoke-permitted and 18 smoke-free bars and restaurants in American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam. Observational logs were used to record smoking and other sources of air pollution. Differences in average PM2.5 concentrations were determined using bivariate statistics. Results The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was always permitted [arithmetic mean (AM)=299.98 μg/m3; geometric mean (GM)=200.39 μg/m3] was significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues [AM=8.33 μg/m3; GM=6.14 μg/m3]. In venues where smoking was allowed only during certain times, the average level outside these times [AM=42.10 μg/m3; GM=41.87 μg/m3] was also significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues. Conclusions Employees and patrons of smoke-permitted bars and restaurants are exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution from SHS, even during periods when active smoking is not occurring. Prohibiting smoking in all public indoor areas, irrespective of the venue type or time of day, is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure in these environments. PMID:22393958

  7. Secondhand smoke concentrations in hospitality venues in the Pacific Basin: findings from American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and Guam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Brian A; Dube, Shanta R; Ko, Jean Y

    2011-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) from burning tobacco products causes disease and premature death among nonsmokers. Although the number of laws prohibiting smoking in indoor public places continues to increase, millions of nonsmokers in the United States (US) and its territories remain exposed to SHS. This study assessed indoor air pollution from SHS in hospitality venues in three US Pacific Basin territories. Air monitors were used to assess PM2.5, an environmental marker for SHS, in 19 smoke-permitted and 18 smoke- free bars and restaurants in American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), and Guam. Observational logs were used to record smoking and other sources of air pollution. Differences in average PM2.5 concentrations were determined using bivariate statistics. The average PM2.5 level in venues where smoking was always permitted [arithmetic mean (AM)=299.98 μg/m3; geometric mean (GM)=200.39 μg/ m3] was significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues [AM=8.33 μg/m3; GM=6.14 μg/m3]. In venues where smoking was allowed only during certain times, the average level outside these times [AM=42.10 μg/m3; GM=41.87 μg/m3] was also significantly higher (p<0.001) than smoke-free venues. Employees and patrons of smoke-permitted bars and restaurants are exposed to dangerous levels of air pollution from SHS, even during periods when active smoking is not occurring. Prohibiting smoking in all public indoor areas, irrespective of the venue type or time of day, is the only way to fully protect nonsmokers from SHS exposure in these environments.

  8. Eliminating second-hand smoke from Mexican-American households: outcomes from Project Clean Air-Safe Air (CASA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Alexander V; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Marani, Salma K; Bondy, Melissa L; Gatus, Leticia A; Spitz, Margaret R; Wilkinson, Anna V; Hammond, S Katharine; Koehly, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) is a major public health problem and a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The objective of this randomized trial was to estimate the impact of a culturally-sensitive intervention to reduce SHS exposure in Mexican-American households. A total of 91 households (with a child under 18 years of age and two adults, one of whom was a smoker) were recruited from a population-based cohort of Mexican-American households and randomized to receive the experimental intervention (EI; n=47) or standard care (SC; n=44). Of these, 74 households (83%) provided baseline, 6-month, and 12-month survey and nicotine monitor data (EI, n=39; SC, n=35). The EI materials, designed to increase the participants' likelihood of adopting a smoke-free indoor home air policy, included one culturally-appropriate bilingual comic book for children and two fotonovelas for adults. Ambient nicotine levels significantly decreased over the 12 study months (F=13.6, DF=147; peffects of SHS increased from baseline to 6 and 12 months in the EI condition but not in the SC condition (F=6.0, DF=238; p<0.01), and smokers and quitters in the EI group reported an increased perception of health vulnerability compared to those in the SC group. Our low-cost intervention impacted SHS-related knowledge and exposure among Mexican Americans. This culturally-appropriate intervention has the potential to decrease SHS-related health problems in the target population substantially. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Modeling the South American regional smoke plume: aerosol optical depth variability and surface shortwave flux perturbation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Rosário

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Intra-seasonal variability of smoke aerosol optical depth (AOD and downwelling solar irradiance at the surface during the 2002 biomass burning season in South America was modeled using the Coupled Chemistry-Aerosol-Tracers Transport model with the Brazilian developments on the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (CCATT-BRAMS. Measurements of total and fine mode fraction (FMF AOD from the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and solar irradiance at the surface from the Solar Radiation Network (SolRad-NET were used to evaluate model results. In general, the major features associated with AOD evolution over the southern part of the Amazon basin and cerrado ecosystem are captured by the model. The main discrepancies were found for high aerosol loading events. In the northeastern portion of the Amazon basin the model systematically underestimated total AOD, as expected, since smoke contribution is not dominant as it is in the southern portion and emissions other than smoke were not considered in the simulation. Better agreement was obtained comparing the model results with observed FMF AOD, which pointed out the relevance of coarse mode aerosol emission in that region. Likewise, major discrepancies over cerrado during high AOD events were found to be associated with coarse mode aerosol omission in our model. The issue of high aerosol loading events in the southern part of the Amazon was related to difficulties in predicting the smoke AOD field, which was discussed in the context of emissions shortcomings. The Cuiabá cerrado site was the only one where the highest quality AERONET data were unavailable for both total and FMF AOD. Thus, lower quality data were used. Root-mean-square error (RMSE between the model and observed FMF AOD decreased from 0.34 to 0.19 when extreme AOD events (FMF AOD550 nm ≥ 1.0 and Cuiabá were excluded from the analysis. Downward surface solar irradiance comparisons also followed similar trends when extreme AOD were excluded

  10. Joint effects of smoking and sedentary lifestyle on lung function in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W; Sarpong, Daniel F; Addison, Clifton; White, Monique S; Hickson, Demarc A; White, Wendy; Burchfiel, Cecil

    2014-01-28

    This study examined: (a) differences in lung function between current and non current smokers who had sedentary lifestyles and non sedentary lifestyles and (b) the mediating effect of sedentary lifestyle on the association between smoking and lung function in African Americans. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as the lowest quartile of the total physical activity score. The results of linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that non smokers with non sedentary lifestyles had the highest level of lung function, and smokers with sedentary lifestyles had the lowest level. The female non-smokers with sedentary lifestyles had a significantly higher FEV1% predicted and FVC% predicted than smokers with non sedentary lifestyles (93.3% vs. 88.6%; p = 0.0102 and 92.1% vs. 86.9%; p = 0.0055 respectively). FEV1/FVC ratio for men was higher in non smokers with sedentary lifestyles than in smokers with non sedentary lifestyles (80.9 vs. 78.1; p = 0.0048). Though smoking is inversely associated with lung function, it seems to have a more deleterious effect than sedentary lifestyle on lung function. Physically active smokers had higher lung function than their non physically active counterparts.

  11. Joint Effects of Smoking and Sedentary Lifestyle on Lung Function in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda W. Campbell Jenkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined: (a differences in lung function between current and non current smokers who had sedentary lifestyles and non sedentary lifestyles and (b the mediating effect of sedentary lifestyle on the association between smoking and lung function in African Americans. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as the lowest quartile of the total physical activity score. The results of linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that non smokers with non sedentary lifestyles had the highest level of lung function, and smokers with sedentary lifestyles had the lowest level. The female non-smokers with sedentary lifestyles had a significantly higher FEV1% predicted and FVC% predicted than smokers with non sedentary lifestyles (93.3% vs. 88.6%; p = 0.0102 and 92.1% vs. 86.9%; p = 0.0055 respectively. FEV1/FVC ratio for men was higher in non smokers with sedentary lifestyles than in smokers with non sedentary lifestyles (80.9 vs. 78.1; p = 0.0048. Though smoking is inversely associated with lung function, it seems to have a more deleterious effect than sedentary lifestyle on lung function. Physically active smokers had higher lung function than their non physically active counterparts.

  12. Smoking in young adulthood among African Americans: Interconnected effects of supportive parenting in early adolescence, proinflammatory epitype, and young adult stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R H; Lei, Man Kit; Brody, Gene H; Miller, Gregory E; Chen, Edith; Mandara, Jelani; Philibert, Robert A

    2017-08-01

    We examined two potentially interacting, connected pathways by which parental supportiveness during early adolescence (ages 1-13) may come to be associated with later African American young adult smoking. The first pathway is between parental supportiveness and young adult stress (age 19), with stress, in turn, predicting increased smoking at age 20. The second pathway is between supportive parenting and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) gene methylation (i.e., TNFm), a proinflammatory epitype, with low levels indicating greater inflammatory potential and forecasting increased risk for smoking in response to young adult stress. In a sample of 382 African American youth residing in rural Georgia, followed from early adolescence (age 10-11) to young adulthood (age 20), supportive parenting indirectly predicted smoking via associations with young adult stress, IE = -0.071, 95% confidence interval [-0.132, -0.010]. In addition, supportive parenting was associated with TNFm measured at age 20 (r = .177, p = .001). Further, lower TNFm was associated with a significantly steeper slope (b = 0.583, p = .003) of increased smoking in response to young adult stress compared to those with higher TNFm (b = 0.155, p = .291), indicating an indirect, amplifying role for supportive parenting via TNFm. The results suggest that supportive parenting in early adolescence may play a role in understanding the emergence of smoking in young adulthood.

  13. Stressful life events, ethnic identity, historical trauma, and participation in cultural activities: Associations with smoking behaviors among American Indian adolescents in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Claradina; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Schwartz, Seth J; Unger, Jennifer B

    2015-11-01

    American Indian (AI) adolescents have the highest prevalence of commercial tobacco use of any ethnic group in the United States. This study examines ethnic identity (EI), participation in cultural activities, and stressful life events (SLEs) as correlates of smoking and examines historical trauma (HT) as a mediator of these associations. California AI youth (N = 969, ages 13-19, recruited from 49 tribal youth organizations and cultural activities in urban and reservation areas in California) completed a tobacco survey. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model examining HT as a potential mediator of the associations of EI, participation in cultural activities, and SLEs with cigarette smoking. Model fit was adequate. EI, participation in cultural activities, and SLEs predicted HT. HT mediated the associations of participation in cultural activities and SLEs with past-month smoking. Stronger EI predicted greater past-month smoking and this effect was mediated by greater HT. The direct effects from HT to both smoking outcomes were positive and the direct effect from EI to past-month smoking was negative. HT is a risk factor for cigarette smoking both directly and in mediating the links of EI, cultural activities, and SLEs. More efforts are needed to help AI youth to process these thoughts and empower themselves to contribute to their own lives and those of their families and communities without resorting to unhealthy addictive behaviors such as commercial tobacco use. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. "Smoking": Use of Cigarettes, Cigars and Blunts among Southeast Asian American Youth and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. P.; Battle, R. S.; Lipton, R.; Soller, B.

    2010-01-01

    Increased use of cigars has been noted among youth, as well as use of blunts (hollowed-out cigars filled with marijuana). Three types of relationships have been previously hypothesized between use of tobacco and marijuana in substance use progression. We aimed to assess these relationships for Southeast Asian American youth and adults in an urban…

  15. Closing the stop gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czakon, Michal; Mitov, Alexander; Papucci, Michele; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; Ruderman, Joshua T.; California Univ., Berkeley, CA; New York Univ., NY; Weiler, Andreas; CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva

    2014-07-01

    Light stops are a hallmark of the most natural realizations of weak-scale supersymmetry. While stops have been extensively searched for, there remain open gaps around and below the top mass, due to similarities of stop and top signals with current statistics. We propose a new fast-track avenue to improve light stop searches for R-parity conserving supersymmetry, by comparing top cross section measurements to the theoretical prediction. Stop masses below ∝180 GeV can now be ruled out for a light neutralino. The possibility of a stop signal contaminating the top mass measurement is also briefly addressed.

  16. A History of Ashes: An 80 Year Comparative Portrait of Smoking Initiation in American Indians and Non-Hispanic Whites—the Strong Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Goldberg

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of starting smoking by age 18 are significant. Early smoking initiation is associated with higher tobacco dependence, increased difficulty in smoking cessation and more negative health outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine how closely smoking initiation in a well-defined population of American Indians (AI resembles a group of Non-Hispanic white (NHW populations born over an 80 year period. We obtained data on age of smoking initiation among 7,073 AIs who were members of 13 tribes in Arizona, Oklahoma and North and South Dakota from the 1988 Strong Heart Study (SHS and the 2001 Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS and 19,747 NHW participants in the 2003 National Health Interview Survey. The participants were born as early as 1904 and as late as 1985. We classified participants according to birth cohort by decade, sex, and for AIs, according to location. We estimated the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 in each sex and birth cohort group in both AIs and NHWs and used Cox regression to estimate hazard ratios for the association of birth cohort, sex and region with the age at smoking initiation. We found that the cumulative incidence of smoking initiation by age 18 was higher in males than females in all SHS regions and in NHWs (p < 0.001. Our results show regional variation of age of initiation significant in the SHS (p < 0.001. Our data showed that not all AIs (in this sample showed similar trends toward increased earlier smoking. For instance, Oklahoma SHS male participants born in the 1980s initiated smoking before age 18 less often than those born before 1920 by a ratio of 0.7. The results showed significant variation in age of initiation across sex, birth cohort, and location. Our preliminary analyses suggest that AI smoking trends are not uniform across region or gender but are likely shaped by local context. If tobacco prevention and control programs depend in part on addressing the origin of AI

  17. Correlated ion stopping in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwicknagel, G.; Deutsch, C.

    1997-01-01

    The basic features of correlated ion stopping in plasmas are demonstrated by employing two opposite extremes of cluster structures, a statistical model with a spatial ion distribution of Gaussian shape and the highly regular configuration of N-ion chains and cubic boxes. In the case of the ion chains the resonant character of correlated stopping due to the interference of the excited wake fields is discussed in detail. The general behavior of correlation effects is summarized and its dependence on the ratio of cluster size and interion spacing to the screening length in the plasma, as well as the ratio of the cluster velocity to the mean electron velocity in the target, is stressed out. The validity and applicability of the dielectric response formalism used for describing correlated stopping is critically reviewed. A scheme is presented to extend the linear formalism to weak nonlinear situations that occur, in particular, for small highly charged clusters at moderate or low velocities. For the Gaussian cluster a fit formula is given, which allows a fast and accurate calculation of the enhancement of stopping due to correlation effects and applies for all degrees of degeneracy of the electrons and arbitrary cluster velocities. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  18. The Relation of Neighborhood Income to the Age-Related Patterns of Preterm Birth Among White and African-American Women: The Effect of Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbs, Shayna; Rankin, Kristin M; David, Richard J; Collins, James W

    2016-07-01

    Objectives We investigated the contributions of cigarette smoking to the age-related patterns of preterm (White women within the context of lifelong neighborhood income. Methods Stratified and multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on an Illinois transgenerational dataset of non-Hispanic White and African-American infants (1989-1991) and their mothers (1956-1976) with appended US census income information. Among non-smoking African-American women (n = 20,107) with a lifelong residence in lower income neighborhoods, PTB rates decreased from 18.5 % for teens to 15.0 % for 30-35 year-olds, p smokers (n = 5936) with a lifelong residence in lower income neighborhoods, p smokers (n = 756), PTB rates increased from 11.1 % for teens to 24.9 % for 30-35 year-olds, p White women, even cigarette smokers with a lifelong residence in lower income neighborhoods, exhibited weathering with regard to PTB. Conclusions A weathering pattern of rising PTB rates with advancing age occurs only among African-American women cigarette smokers with an early-life or lifelong residence in lower income neighborhoods, underscoring the public health policy importance of targeted smoking cessation programs in eliminating the racial disparity in the age-related patterns of PTB rates.

  19. Is educational differentiation associated with smoking and smoking inequalities in adolescence? A multilevel analysis across 27 European and North American countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rathmann, Katharina; Moor, Irene; Kunst, Anton E.; Dragano, Nico; Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J.; Hurrelmann, Klaus; Kannas, Lasse; Baška, Tibor; Richter, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether educational differentiation (i.e. early and long tracking to different school types) relate to socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent smoking. Data were collected from the WHO-Collaborative 'Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC)' study 2005/2006,

  20. Differences in Quit Attempts and Cigarette Smoking Abstinence Between Whites and African Americans in the United States: Literature Review and Results From the International Tobacco Control US Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulak, Jessica A; Cornelius, Monica E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Giovino, Gary A

    2016-04-01

    While cigarette smoking prevalence is declining among US adults, quit rates may differ between white and African American smokers. Here, we summarize the literature on smoking cessation behaviors in whites and African Americans across four study designs and report the findings of new analyses of International Tobacco Control (ITC) US Survey cohort data. We reviewed 32 publications containing 39 relevant analyses that compared quit attempts and abstinence between US whites and African Americans. Two additional longitudinal analyses were conducted on 821 white and 76 African American cigarette smokers from Waves 7 and 8 of the ITC US Survey (mean follow-up = 19 months). Of 17 total analyses of quit attempts, nine (including the ITC US Survey) observed that African American smokers were more likely than whites to attempt to quit during a given year; seven found no differences. Whites were more likely than African Americans to be abstinent in five of six retrospective cohort analyses and in two of five considered community- and population-based cohort studies. Four of these 11 analyses, including one from the ITC US Survey, found no differences. Of 11 population- or community-based analyses, all seven that found significant differences indicated that whites were more likely to quit than African Americans. These findings, combined with the similar results from population-based birth cohort analyses, support the conclusion that white smokers are more likely to quit than African American smokers. Efforts to encourage and support quitting among all tobacco users remain a priority. This article provides a review of the literature on smoking cessation among African American and white smokers, and adds new analyses that compare quit attempts and abstinence between US African Americans and whites. Results demonstrate a clear distinction between the findings of cross-sectional and retrospective cohort studies with those of cohort studies. Reasons for these differences merit

  1. Smoking pattern during pregnancy in Hong Kong Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace W S; Tam, Wing Hung; Sahota, Daljit S; Nelson, Edmund A S

    2008-06-01

    While the prevalence of young female smokers is rising among the Hong Kong Chinese population, data on their smoking pattern during pregnancy are limited. To investigate the smoking habit of Hong Kong Chinese women and their partners during pregnancy. Postal questionnaires were sent to 479 couples to explore their smoking patterns during pregnancy at one to two years after the index delivery. Questionnaires were completed by 247 subjects. Among 117 women who were ever-smokers, 26% had stopped smoking before the index pregnancy, while 60% stopped and 14% reduced smoking during the pregnancy. Most women stopped smoking in the first trimester (93%) and prior to the first antenatal visit (79%). Those who used to smoke fewer cigarettes before pregnancy were more likely to stop smoking during pregnancy but women with a history of recreational drug use were more likely to continue smoking during pregnancy. The post-partum smoking relapse rate was 59% in women who had stopped smoking before or during their pregnancy. Only 2.6% of the partners who were ever-smokers stopped smoking before the pregnancy while smoking habits remained unchanged in 52%. Approximately one-fifth of an unselected sample of Hong Kong mothers had a history of smoking prior to pregnancy. Pregnancy is an opportune time to implement smoking intervention programs for female smokers and their partners with an emphasis on the maintenance of post-partum smoking abstinence.

  2. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  3. Agutaynen Glottal Stop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quakenbush, J. Stephen

    A study investigated the phonemic and morphophonemic patterning of the glottal stop in Agutaynen, a Meso-Philippine language, and some comparison with two northern Philippine languages. Agutaynen glottal stop has as its sole origin a neutralization of contrast rule, the operation of which can be noted in three different linguistic environments.…

  4. Stop the Cravings!

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need to know how a healthy diet improves health and fights disease—rely on qualified professionals in the field. More on This Topic Stop the Cravings! Eat Right! Feeling guilty after giving in to that chocolate craving? You can stop the cycle without giving ...

  5. Cigar Smoking and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JT, et al. Health risks associated with cigar smoking. Journal of the American Medical Association 2000; 284(6): ... of the U.S. Department of Agriculture System. American Journal of Preventive Medicine ... Institute (1998). Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 9: Cigars: Health Effects ...

  6. Religious identity and smoking behavior among adolescents: evidence from entering students at the American University of Beirut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi Soweid, Rema Adel; Khawaja, Marwan; Salem, Mylene Tewtel

    2004-01-01

    This survey investigation examines the association between religious identity and smoking behavior in a sample of older adolescents entering the university in Beirut, Lebanon. A culturally appropriate item of religiosity was developed for data collection. Results suggest that religious identity is inversely associated with regular smoking among male and female adolescents, after adjusting for sociodemographic, behavioral, personal, and environmental risk factors. The pattern of associations between weak religious identity, other risk factors, and smoking suggests that risk mechanisms may be gender-differentiated. Overall, findings suggest functional religiosity in late adolescence may assist in promoting the health and decreasing the morbidity of both men and women. Implications for future research are discussed.

  7. Cardiovascular Consequences of Childhood Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure: Prevailing Evidence, Burden, and Racial and Socioeconomic Disparities: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuveer, Geetha; White, David A; Hayman, Laura L; Woo, Jessica G; Villafane, Juan; Celermajer, David; Ward, Kenneth D; de Ferranti, Sarah D; Zachariah, Justin

    2016-10-18

    Although public health programs have led to a substantial decrease in the prevalence of tobacco smoking, the adverse health effects of tobacco smoke exposure are by no means a thing of the past. In the United States, 4 of 10 school-aged children and 1 of 3 adolescents are involuntarily exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS), with children of minority ethnic backgrounds and those living in low-socioeconomic-status households being disproportionately affected (68% and 43%, respectively). Children are particularly vulnerable, with little control over home and social environment, and lack the understanding, agency, and ability to avoid SHS exposure on their own volition; they also have physiological or behavioral characteristics that render them especially susceptible to effects of SHS. Side-stream smoke (the smoke emanating from the burning end of the cigarette), a major component of SHS, contains a higher concentration of some toxins than mainstream smoke (inhaled by the smoker directly), making SHS potentially as dangerous as or even more dangerous than direct smoking. Compelling animal and human evidence shows that SHS exposure during childhood is detrimental to arterial function and structure, resulting in premature atherosclerosis and its cardiovascular consequences. Childhood SHS exposure is also related to impaired cardiac autonomic function and changes in heart rate variability. In addition, childhood SHS exposure is associated with clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. Individualized interventions to reduce childhood exposure to SHS are shown to be at least modestly effective, as are broader-based policy initiatives such as community smoking bans and increased taxation. The purpose of this statement is to summarize the available evidence on the cardiovascular health consequences of childhood SHS exposure; this will support ongoing efforts to further reduce and eliminate SHS exposure in this

  8. FRICTION BUFFER STOP DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Guziur

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Friction buffer stops are the favoured construction of buffer stop, mainly due to its high resistance and variety of layout. Last but not least is its manner of deceleration induced upon impact and during the braking what makes it smart solution in railway transport safety. The general approach of designing buffer stops is via usage of the kinetic energy and its conversion into work. Paper describes input parameters such as train velocity or buffer stop vicinity which is expressed by the safety coefficient implanted within the calculation. Furthermore, the paper shows the principle of calculation the friction buffer stop work, or to be more precise, the work of its braking jaws and optionally the work of additional braking jaws located behind the buffer stop. Last section of the paper is focused on the examples of designing friction buffer stops, points out the main complications and shows the charts of relation amongst braking distance, kinetic energy and braking force and the charts of relation between deceleration rate and braking distance.

  9. Luminescent beam stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, Diane; Morton, Simon A.

    2017-10-25

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to beam stops. In one aspect, a device comprises a luminescent material, a beam stop plate, and an optical fiber. The luminescent material is a parallelepiped having a first side and a second side that are squares and having a third side that is a rectangle or a square. The first side and the second side are perpendicular to the third side. The beam stop plate is attached to the first side of the luminescent material. The optical fiber has a first end and a second end, with the first end of the optical fiber attached to the third side of the luminescent material.

  10. Determination of parent and hydroxy PAHs in personal PM{sub 2.5} and urine samples collected during Native American fish smoking activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motorykin, Oleksii [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Schrlau, Jill; Jia, Yuling [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart [Department of Science and Engineering, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR 97801 (United States); Harding, Anna [School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Stone, David [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kile, Molly [School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Sudakin, Daniel [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Massey Simonich, Staci L., E-mail: staci.simonich@orst.edu [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Method validated using NIST Standard Reference Materials. • Method used to analyze urine of Native Americans during smoking of salmon. • Increased PAH and metabolite concentrations in urine.

  11. "Stop Diabetes Now!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes "Stop Diabetes Now!" Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents ... Tips for Seniors at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes Lifestyle changes that lead to weight loss—such ...

  12. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... meningitis won't infect, cripple, or kill children. Vaccine Safety In light of recent questions about vaccine ...

  13. Vaccines Stop Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Diseases and Vaccinations Vaccines Stop Illness Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table ... if we take away the protection given by vaccination, more and more people will be infected and ...

  14. Depression - stopping your medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000570.htm Depression - stopping your medicines To use the sharing features ... prescription medicines you may take to help with depression, anxiety, or pain. Like any medicine, there are ...

  15. Effect of smoking on reproductive hormones and semen parameters of infertile Saudi Arabians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa A Al-Turki

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: This study shows that the effect of smoking is dramatic reduction in the hormonal levels and semen parameters. It is recommended that smoking men undergoing fertility treatment should stop smoking to increase their chances of having offspring.

  16. Association between menthol-flavoured cigarette smoking and flavoured little cigar and cigarillo use among African-American, Hispanic, and white young and middle-aged adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, K; Fryer, C; Pagano, I; Jones, D; Fagan, P

    2016-11-01

    Flavour additives in cigarettes and little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs), which influence smokers' risk perceptions, may reinforce dual flavoured tobacco use. We examined the association among mentholated cigarette use, risk perceptions for flavour additives in LCCs and flavoured LCC smoking behaviour. Data from a national probability sample of 964 young and middle-aged adult current cigarette smokers were analysed. Multinomial logistic regression models examined the relationship among mentholated cigarette smoking, risk perceptions and current flavoured LCC use for the analytic sample and gender and race/ethnicity. Daily menthol cigarette smokers, compared to occasional, non-menthol smokers, had increased odds of flavoured LCC smoking (OR=1.75, 95% CI 1.02 to 2.98). This relationship was found for males, blacks/African-Americans and Hispanics/Latinos (psmokers, specifically those from vulnerable populations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Optimization models for prioritizing bus stop facility investments for riders with disabilities : March 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 prescribes the minimum requirements for bus stop accessibility by riders with disabilities. Due to limited budgets, transit agencies can only select a limited number of bus stop locations for ADA impr...

  18. Purchasing patterns and smoking behaviors after a large tobacco tax increase: a study of Chinese Americans living in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Hung, Dorothy; Fahs, Marianne C; Shelley, Donna

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco taxes are one of the most effective policy interventions to reduce tobacco use. Tax avoidance, however, lessens the public health benefits of higher-priced cigarettes. Few studies examine responses to cigarette tax policies, particularly among high-risk minority populations. This study examined the prevalence and correlates of tax avoidance and changes in smoking behaviors among Chinese American smokers in New York City after a large tax increase. We conducted a cross-sectional study with data for 614 male smokers from in-person and telephone interviews using a comprehensive household-based survey of 2,537 adults aged 18-74 years. Interviews were conducted in multiple Chinese dialects. A total of 54.7% of respondents reported engaging in at least one low- or no-tax strategy after the New York City and New York State tax increases. The more common strategies for tax avoidance were purchasing cigarettes from a private supplier/importer and purchasing duty free/overseas. Higher consumption, younger age, and number of years in the U.S. were consistently associated with engaging in tax avoidance. Younger and heavier continuing smokers were less likely to make a change in smoking behavior in response to the tax increase. Despite high levels of tax avoidance and varying prices, nearly half of continuing smokers made a positive change in smoking behavior after the tax increase. Expanded legislation and enforcement must be directed toward minimizing the availability of legal and illegal low- or no-tax cigarette outlets. Public education and cessation assistance customized for the Chinese American community is key to maximizing the effectiveness of tobacco tax policies in this population.

  19. Quit Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quit Smoking Print This Topic En español Quit Smoking Browse Sections The Basics Overview Secondhand Smoke How ... to be active with your family and friends. Smoking hurts almost every part of the body. Smoking ...

  20. Young Adult Smoking Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Methods Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18–25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Results Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR= 4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Conclusions Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking. PMID:19269128

  1. Sneaky light stop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Eifert

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Due to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of smoking among secondary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Parents' and teachers' smoking habits influenced initiation of smoking by young children while peer pressure, advertising and type of school influenced older children to smoking. About 67% of the eversmokers stopped the habit giving various reasons. There was a strong relationship between age of smoking initiation and ...

  3. One-stop shopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, C

    1996-11-25

    The long-term-care industry's new mantras are "continuum of care" and "one-stop shopping." Companies are trying to please consumers who are clamoring for more senior-living options and managed-care organizations that want administratively simple contracting arrangements.

  4. Stopping the unstoppable

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    How do you stop two very high energy proton beams circulating in opposite directions around a 27-kilometre ring? The answer is the beam dumps. Two tunnels, pointing in opposite directions, are being constructed at point 6 of the LHC. These will allow the beams to be directed into two large beam dumps housed at the ends of the tunnels.

  5. Metabolic effects of smoking cessation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Kindred K.; Zopey, Mohan; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2016-01-01

    Smoking continues to be the leading cause of preventable death in the USA, despite the vast and widely publicized knowledge about the negative health effects of tobacco smoking. Data show that smoking cessation is often accompanied by weight gain and an improvement in insulin sensitivity over time. However, paradoxically, post-cessation-related obesity might contribute to insulin resistance. Furthermore, post-cessation weight gain is reportedly the number one reason why smokers, especially women, fail to initiate smoking cessation or relapse after initiating smoking cessation. In this Review, we discuss the metabolic effects of stopping smoking and highlight future considerations for smoking cessation programs and therapies to be designed with an emphasis on reducing post-cessation weight gain. PMID:26939981

  6. Investigation of RADTRAN Stop Model input parameters for truck stops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griego, N.R.; Smith, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1996-01-01

    RADTRAN is a computer code for estimating the risks and consequences as transport of radioactive materials (RAM). RADTRAN was developed and is maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy (DOE). For incident-free transportation, the dose to persons exposed while the shipment is stopped is frequently a major percentage of the overall dose. This dose is referred to as Stop Dose and is calculated by the Stop Model. Because stop dose is a significant portion of the overall dose associated with RAM transport, the values used as input for the Stop Model are important. Therefore, an investigation of typical values for RADTRAN Stop Parameters for truck stops was performed. The resulting data from these investigations were analyzed to provide mean values, standard deviations, and histograms. Hence, the mean values can be used when an analyst does not have a basis for selecting other input values for the Stop Model. In addition, the histograms and their characteristics can be used to guide statistical sampling techniques to measure sensitivity of the RADTRAN calculated Stop Dose to the uncertainties in the stop model input parameters. This paper discusses the details and presents the results of the investigation of stop model input parameters at truck stops

  7. Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Button Past Emails Tourette Syndrome: Help Stop Bullying Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... you can increase acceptance by helping to stop bullying of children with TS. Bullying doesn’t just ...

  8. Smoking and Passive Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell V. Luepker, MD, MS

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the literature on associations between cardiovascular diseases and tobacco use, including recent trends in smoking behaviors and clinical approaches for cessation of smoking. Methods: A literature review of recent scientific findings for smoking and cardiovascular diseases and recommendations for obtaining cessation. Results: Tobacco smoking is causally related to cardiovascular disease, with nearly a half million deaths annually attributed to cigarette smoking in the United States. The human, economic, medical, and indirect costs are enormous. Secondhand smoke as inhaled from the environment also plays an important role in the genesis of cardiovascular diseases. A recent trend in the use of e-cigarettes is noted particularly among youth. For children, prevention is the best strategy. For adult smokers, behavioral treatments, self-help approaches, and pharmacologic therapies are readily available. Clinicians can have a significant impact on patients’ smoking habits. Adding to individual strategies, regulatory community and public health approaches provide the potential for eliminating the use of tobacco. Conclusion: Tobacco smoke causes cardiovascular morbidity and death. Clinicians can play a role in preventing smoking and promoting cessation.

  9. Effects of Patient-Provider Race Concordance and Smoking Status on Lung Cancer Risk Perception Accuracy among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Susan; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Allen, Vincent C.; Senay, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background Communication of lung cancer risk information between providers and African-American patients occurs in a context marked by race-based health disparities. Purpose A controlled experiment assessed whether perceived physician race influenced African-American patients’ (n=127) risk perception accuracy following the provision of objective lung cancer risk information. Methods Participants interacted with a virtual reality-based, simulated physician who provided personalized cancer risk information. Results Participants who interacted with a racially discordant virtual doctor were less accurate in their risk perceptions at post-test than those who interacted with a concordant virtual doctor, F(1,94)=4.02, p=.048. This effect was amplified among current smokers. Effects were not mediated by trust in the provider, engagement with the health care system, or attention during the encounter. Conclusions The current study demonstrates that African-American patients’ perceptions of a doctor’s race are sufficient to independently impact their processing of lung cancer risk information. PMID:23389688

  10. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...... diseases, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.01 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.76, 1.35); for respiratory diseases, HR = 1.20 (95% CI: 0.70, 2.07); for tobacco-related cancers, HR = 0.91 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.31); and for all-cause mortality, HR = 1.02 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.17). In subjects who stopped smoking, most estimates...

  11. GMSB with Light Stops

    CERN Document Server

    Delgado, Antonio; Quiros, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (GMSB) is an elegant mechanism to transmit supersymmetry breaking from the hidden to the MSSM observable sector, which solves the supersymmetric flavor problem. However the smallness of the generated stop mixing requires superheavy stops to reproduce the experimental value of the Higgs mass. Two possible ways out are: i) To extend GMSB by direct superpotential messenger-MSSM Yukawa couplings to generate sizeable mixing, thus reintroducing the flavor problem; ii) To extend the MSSM Higgs sector with singlets and/or triplets providing extra tree-level corrections to the Higgs mass. Singlets will not get any soft mass from GMSB and triplets will contribute to the $\\rho$ parameter which could be an issue. In this paper we explore the second way by introducing extra supersymmetric triplets with hypercharges $Y=(0,\\pm 1)$, with a tree-level custodial $SU(2)_L\\otimes SU(2)_R$ global symmetry in the Higgs sector protecting the $\\rho$ parameter: a supersymmetric generalization of ...

  12. Book Review: Stop, Write!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Thulesius

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This book on writing grounded theory is intended for the empirical GT researcher who wants to pursue his/her research until publication. It is the first book devoted entirely to such a crucial issue as writing grounded theory. Thus, Stop, Write: Writing Grounded Theory, is a practical book that fills a gap in GT methodology. In the first chapter of the book, Dr. Glaser says, “Stop unending conceptualization, unending data coverage, and unending listening to others who would egg you on with additional data, ideas and/or requirements or simply wait too long”. The book teaches the reader how to actually write a grounded theory by “simply” writing up the sorted memos. This requires efficient sorting that is dealt with in chapter two on Sorting Memos, which includes precious repetition from Theoretical Sensitivity (1978. How writing can be done effectively is outlined in chapter three The Working Paper. Then follows chapter four on how to rework the first draft with the different tasks of editing for language and professionalism. Thereafter Dr. Glaser discusses Writing Problems in chapter five where he gives useful guidance on how to overcome writing blocks and problems with supervisors and dissertation committees. The book also deals with publishing and with collaboration as experienced between Barney Glaser and the cofounder of grounded theory, Anselm Strauss.

  13. Reducing tobacco smoking and smoke exposure to prevent preterm birth and its complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagijo, Mary-Ann; Sheikh, Aziz; Duijts, Liesbeth; Been, Jasper V

    2017-03-01

    Tobacco smoking and smoke exposure during pregnancy are associated with a range of adverse health outcomes, including preterm birth. Also, children born preterm have a higher risk of complications including bronchopulmonary dysplasia and asthma when their mothers smoked during pregnancy. Smoking cessation in early pregnancy can help reduce the adverse impact on offspring health. Counselling interventions are effective in promoting smoking cessation and reducing the incidence of preterm birth. Peer support and incentive-based approaches are likely to be of additional benefit, whereas the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions, including nicotine replacement therapy, has not definitely been established. Smoke-free legislation can help reduce smoke exposure as well as maternal smoking rates at a population level, and is associated with a reduction in preterm birth. Helping future mothers to stop smoking and protect their children from second hand smoke exposure must be a key priority for health care workers and policy makers alike. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Depression and Cognitive Impairment Are Associated with Low Education and Literacy Status and Smoking but Not Caffeine Consumption in Urban African Americans and White Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczmarski, Andrew V; Cotugna, Nancy; Mason, Marc A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2015-03-01

    Background: Recent research has linked caffeine consumption with a lower risk for depression and cognitive decline. However, no studies have examined the relationship in an African American compared to a white, socioeconomically diverse representative urban sample. Methods: Data from a cross-sectional study were used to determine the associations of caffeine use with depressive symptomatology and cognition in a sample of 1,724 participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span (HANDLS) study. The United States Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method was used by trained interviewers to collect two, in-person 24-hour dietary recalls. Depressive symptoms and global cognition were assessed using two well-validated measures: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depressive Scale (CES-D) and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), respectively. Usual caffeine intake was based on both recalls. Data were analyzed with t - and chi-square tests, correlation analysis, and ordinal logistic regression. Results: African Americans consumed significantly less caffeine than did whites (89.0±3.2 and 244.0±8.7 mg respectively). Caffeine consumption was not associated with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. Age, less than 5th grade literacy, and less than high school education were significantly associated with both depressive symptoms and cognitive function. Smokers had a 43% greater risk for depression but only a 3% higher risk for cognitive impairment. Conclusion: The low level of dietary caffeine intake in combination with smoking among HANDLS study participants may have influenced the lack of association with depressive symptomatology or global cognition. For this sample, low literacy and education appear more highly associated with depressive symptoms and cognitive function than caffeine intake.

  15. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. Methods We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. Results To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Conclusions Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services. PMID:26345719

  16. Psychosocial, behavioural, and health determinants of successful smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors that determine whether or not smokers become long-term quitters, and to study whether determinants of successful cessation differ with levels of motivation to stop. DESIGN: In a cohort of men and women, aged 30-60 years at first examination in 1982/1984, smoking...... OUTCOME MEASURE: Smoking status (abstinent for one year or more) at follow up. RESULTS: At follow up 15% of the baseline smokers had been abstinent for one year or more. In multivariate analysis, successful smoking cessation was associated with older age, high social status, low prior tobacco consumption......, baseline motivation to stop smoking, and having a non-smoking spouse/cohabitant. The same result was obtained when the analyses were repeated separately for smokers with and without motivation to stop. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers motivated to stop are more likely to quit and remain abstinent than smokers...

  17. Has Human Evolution Stopped?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan R. Templeton

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available It has been argued that human evolution has stopped because humans now adapt to their environment via cultural evolution and not biological evolution. However, all organisms adapt to their environment, and humans are no exception. Culture defines much of the human environment, so cultural evolution has actually led to adaptive evolution in humans. Examples are given to illustrate the rapid pace of adaptive evolution in response to cultural innovations. These adaptive responses have important implications for infectious diseases, Mendelian genetic diseases, and systemic diseases in current human populations. Moreover, evolution proceeds by mechanisms other than natural selection. The recent growth in human population size has greatly increased the reservoir of mutational variants in the human gene pool, thereby enhancing the potential for human evolution. The increase in human population size coupled with our increased capacity to move across the globe has induced a rapid and ongoing evolutionary shift in how genetic variation is distributed within and among local human populations. In particular, genetic differences between human populations are rapidly diminishing and individual heterozygosity is increasing, with beneficial health effects. Finally, even when cultural evolution eliminates selection on a trait, the trait can still evolve due to natural selection on other traits. Our traits are not isolated, independent units, but rather are integrated into a functional whole, so selection on one trait can cause evolution to occur on another trait, sometimes with mildly maladaptive consequences.

  18. UDI STOP Femminicidio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Crivelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available L'UDI, Unione Donne in Italia, ha collaborato con l'Osservatorio dei Processi Comunicativi a un numero monografico della rivista scientifica M@gm@ dal titolo "Violenza maschile e femminicidio". Il numero monografico vuole mettere a disposizione le analisi, l’esperienza e la storia nostra e delle nostre interlocutrici, come contributo al nostro comune lavoro di sensibilizzazione, contrasto alla violenza maschile sulle donne – femminicidio. “UDI STOP femminicidio” è da anni la nostra campagna contro la violenza di genere, la collaborazione con l’Osservatorio dei Processi Comunicativi è parte integrante di questo sforzo. Il primo e dichiarato dei nostri progetti politici è il contrasto alla cultura e al potere ideologico che consente il femminicidio, la subordinazione culturale e sociale, la percezione della donna come oggetto di dominio, la riduzione in schiavitù di tante donne, comprese molte donne prostitute... Sappiamo di non voler tradire una “responsabilità di genere” che deve necessariamente concretizzarsi in tanti “gesti responsabili”, nella lunga pazienza quotidiana che consente la sedimentazione di un cambiamento radicale nelle coscienze. Vogliamo continuare ad essere l’associazione che coniuga insieme la soggettività personale e l'assunzione diretta di responsabilità, della progettualità a lungo termine che non trova “contraddittorio” misurarsi con la solidarietà concreta e quotidiana con le altre donne, nel tentativo di far nascere le nuove maniere di pensare.

  19. Effectiveness of a web-based self-help smoking cessation intervention: protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, J.; Willemsen, M.C.; Conijn, B.; van Emst, A.J.; Brunsting, S.; Riper, H.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for many chronic and fatal illnesses. Stopping smoking directly reduces those risks. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a web-based interactive self-help programme for smoking cessation, known as the StopSite, by

  20. Nitrogen Research Programme STOP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erisman, J.W.; Van der Eerden, L.

    2000-01-01

    Nitrogen pollution is one of the main threats to the environment now in the Netherlands as well as other parts of Europe. In order to address the main gaps on the issues of nitrogen pollution related to the local scale, the Ministries of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment (VROM) and of Agriculture, Nature Management and Fisheries (LNV) have initiated a research programme, the Dutch Nitrogen Research Programme (STOP), which aims to provide a scientific basis to develop and implement policy on a local scale for the realisation and conservation of the EHS ('Dutch Mainframe of Natural Landscapes'). The results of the programme show that the description of emissions from manure in the field is difficult to describe and show large uncertainties. On the contrary, emissions from housings could be modelled well, if local actual data were available. The OPS model to describe the dispersion and deposition was evaluated with the measurements and the limitations were quantified. It appears that the model works well on the long term, whereas on the short term (hours) and short distance (tenths of meters) there is large uncertainty, especially in complex terrain. Critical loads for nitrogen for ecosystems were evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of management options was quantified. A method to determine critical loads as a function of soil conditions, such as acidification and water availability was derived. This resulted in a combination of the soil model SMART and the so-called 'nature planner' (Natuurplanner). It was concluded that the combination of SMART, the nature planner and OPS provide a good tool to develop and support policy on the local scale. 4 refs

  1. Physician advice for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Lindsay F; Buitrago, Diana; Preciado, Nataly; Sanchez, Guillermo; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie; Lancaster, Tim

    2013-05-31

    Healthcare professionals frequently advise people to improve their health by stopping smoking. Such advice may be brief, or part of more intensive interventions. The aims of this review were to assess the effectiveness of advice from physicians in promoting smoking cessation; to compare minimal interventions by physicians with more intensive interventions; to assess the effectiveness of various aids to advice in promoting smoking cessation, and to determine the effect of anti-smoking advice on disease-specific and all-cause mortality. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register in January 2013 for trials of interventions involving physicians. We also searched Latin American databases through BVS (Virtual Library in Health) in February 2013. Randomised trials of smoking cessation advice from a medical practitioner in which abstinence was assessed at least six months after advice was first provided. We extracted data in duplicate on the setting in which advice was given, type of advice given (minimal or intensive), and whether aids to advice were used, the outcome measures, method of randomisation and completeness of follow-up.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow-up. We also considered the effect of advice on mortality where long-term follow-up data were available. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. People lost to follow-up were counted as smokers. Effects were expressed as relative risks. Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model. We identified 42 trials, conducted between 1972 and 2012, including over 31,000 smokers. In some trials, participants were at risk of specified diseases (chest disease, diabetes, ischaemic heart disease), but most were from unselected populations. The most common setting for delivery of advice was primary care. Other settings included hospital

  2. Where is smoking research published?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, A.; Hughes, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify journals that have a focus on human nicotine/smoking research and to investigate the coverage of smoking in "high-impact" journals. DESIGN: The MEDLINE computer database was searched for English-language articles on human studies published in 1988-1992 using "nicotine", "smoking", "smoking cessation", "tobacco", or "tobacco use disorder" as focus descriptors. This search was supplemented with a similar search of the PSYCLIT computer database. Fifty-eight journals containing at least 20 nicotine/smoking articles over the five years were analysed for impact factor (IF; citations per article). RESULTS: Among the journals with the highest percentage of nicotine- or smoking-focused articles (that is, 9-39% of their articles were on nicotine/smoking), Addiction, American Journal of Public Health, Cancer Causes and Control, Health Psychology, and Preventive Medicine had the greatest IF (range = 1.3-2.6). Among the journals highest in impact factor (IF > 3), only American Journal of Epidemiology, American Review of Respiratory Disease, Journal of the National Cancer Institute, and Journal of the American Medical Association published more than 10 nicotine/smoking articles per year (3-5% of all articles). Of these, only Journal of the American Medical Association published a large number of nicotine/smoking articles (32 per year). CONCLUSIONS: Although smoking causes 20% of all mortality in developed countries, the topic is not adequately covered in high-impact journals. Most smoking research is published in low-impact journals. 




 PMID:8795857

  3. LHC Availability 2017: Technical Stop 1 to Technical Stop 2

    CERN Document Server

    Todd, Benjamin; Apollonio, Andrea; Walsh, David John; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2017-01-01

    This document summarises the LHC machine availability for the period of Technical Stop 1 (TS1) to Technical Stop 2 (TS2) in 2017. This period was dedicated to proton physics with a bunch spacing of 25ns. This note has been produced and ratified by the Availability Working Group which has complied fault information for the period in question using the Accelerator Fault Tracker.

  4. Electromagnetic Devices for Stopping Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Valouch

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An effective way to stop a vehicle is to disrupt the operation of electronic systems using high power electromagnetic pulses, which can be generated using electromagnetic weapons. This article describes the design idea of a stationary generator of electromagnetic pulses that would be useful for stopping vehicles at the entrances to the object, at checkpoints, and in front of sensitive infrastructure. An important aspect of the proposal is the comparison of contemporary devices and systems used for stopping vehicles and analysis of the requirements of technical standards for electromagnetic immunity of vehicles.

  5. A whistle-stop tour of statistics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Everitt, Brian

    2012-01-01

    "Preface according to my Penguin English dictionary, whistle-stop, used before a noun means 'consisting of brief stops in several places' and this whistle-stop tour of statistics does just that, with...

  6. Electromagnetic Devices for Stopping Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Valouch

    2016-01-01

    An effective way to stop a vehicle is to disrupt the operation of electronic systems using high power electromagnetic pulses, which can be generated using electromagnetic weapons. This article describes the design idea of a stationary generator of electromagnetic pulses that would be useful for stopping vehicles at the entrances to the object, at checkpoints, and in front of sensitive infrastructure. An important aspect of the proposal is the comparison of contemporary devices and systems use...

  7. Sweet Spots and Door Stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael; Tsui, Stella; Leung, Chi Fan

    2011-01-01

    A sweet spot is referred to in sport as the perfect place to strike a ball with a racquet or bat. It is the point of contact between bat and ball where maximum results can be produced with minimal effort from the hand of the player. Similar physics can be applied to the less inspiring examples of door stops; the perfect position of a door stop is…

  8. Nuclear stopping power of antiprotons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlund, Kai; Sundholm, Dage; Pyykkö, Pekka; Zambrano, Daniel Martinez; Djurabekova, Flyura

    2017-10-01

    The slowing down of energetic ions in materials is determined by the nuclear and electronic stopping powers. Both of these have been studied extensively for ordinary-matter ions. For antiprotons, however, there are numerous studies of the electronic stopping power, but none of the nuclear stopping power. Here, we use quantum-chemical methods to calculate interparticle potentials between antiprotons and different atoms, and derive from these the nuclear stopping power of antiprotons in solids. The results show that the antiproton nuclear stopping powers are much stronger than those of protons, and can also be stronger than the electronic stopping power at the lowest energies. The interparticle potentials are also implemented in a molecular dynamics ion range calculation code, which allows us to simulate antiproton transmission through degrader foil materials. Foil transmission simulations carried out at experimentally relevant conditions show that the choice of antiproton-atom interaction model has a large effect on the predicted yield of antiprotons slowed down to low (a few keV) energies.

  9. Probing Light Stops with Stoponium

    CERN Document Server

    Batell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We derive new limits on light stops from diboson resonance searches in the $\\gamma\\gamma$, $Z \\gamma$, $ZZ$, $WW$ and $hh$ channels from the first run of the LHC. If the two-body decays of the light stop are mildly suppressed or kinematically forbidden, stoponium bound states will form in $pp$ collisions and subsequently decay via the pair annihilation of the constituent stops to diboson final states, yielding striking resonance signatures. Remarkably, we find that stoponium searches are highly complementary to direct collider searches and indirect probes of light stops such as Higgs coupling measurements. Using an empirical quarkonia potential model and including the first two $S$-wave stoponium states, we find that in the decoupling limit $m_{\\widetilde t_1} \\lesssim 130$ GeV is excluded for any value of the stop mixing angle and heavy stop mass by the combination of the latest resonance searches and the indirect constraints. The $\\gamma \\gamma$ searches are the most complementary to the indirect constraint...

  10. [Factors affecting re-smoking in male workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Hoon; Ha, Hee-Sook; Kam, Sin; Lim, Ji-Seun; Kang, Yune-Sik; Lee, Duk-Hee; Chun, Byung-Yeol

    2005-05-01

    This study was performed to examine the factors affecting re-smoking in male workers. A self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted during April 2003 to examine the smoking state of 1,154 employees of a company that launched a smoking cessation campaign in 1998. Five hundred and eighty seven persons, who had stopped smoking for at least one week, were selected as the final study subjects. This study collected data on smoking cessation success or failure for 6 months, and looked at the factors having an effect on resmoking within this period. This study employed the Health Belief Model as its theoretical basis. The re-smoking rate of the 587 study subjects who had stopped smoking for at least one week was 44.8% within the 6 month period. In a simple analysis, the resmoking rates were higher in workers with a low age, on day and night shifts, blue collar, of a low rank, where this was their second attempt at smoking cessation and for those with a shorter job duration (pHeath Belief Model, re-smoking was significantly related with the perceived susceptibility factor, economic advantages of smoking cessation among the perceived benefits factor, the degree of cessation trial's barrier of the perceived barriers factor, smoking symptom experience, recognition of the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke and the existence of chronic disease due to smoking (psmoking, the significant variables were age, perceived susceptibility for disease, economic advantages due to smoking cessation, the perceived barrier for smoking cessation, recognition on the degree of harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke, the existence of chronic disease due to smoking and the number of attempts at smoking cessation (psmoking ban policy within the work place, health education that improves the knowledge of the adverse health effects of smoking and the harmfulness of environmental tobacco smoke will be required, as well as counter plans to reduce the barriers for smoking

  11. a comparative study on cigarette smoking control strategies used in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    further reductions in tobacco smuggling; Further improvements to National Health Services, Stop. Smoking Services and increased availability of. Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) to help smokers quit; Reducing tobacco promotion including further restrictions on tobacco advertising; Regulating tobacco - for example,.

  12. Medicinal smokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali; Faridi, Pouya; Shams-Ardakani, Mohammadreza; Ghasemi, Younes

    2006-11-24

    All through time, humans have used smoke of medicinal plants to cure illness. To the best of our knowledge, the ethnopharmacological aspects of natural products' smoke for therapy and health care have not been studied. Mono- and multi-ingredient herbal and non-herbal remedies administered as smoke from 50 countries across the 5 continents are reviewed. Most of the 265 plant species of mono-ingredient remedies studied belong to Asteraceae (10.6%), followed by Solanaceae (10.2%), Fabaceae (9.8%) and Apiaceae (5.3%). The most frequent medical indications for medicinal smoke are pulmonary (23.5%), neurological (21.8%) and dermatological (8.1%). Other uses of smoke are not exactly medical but beneficial to health, and include smoke as a preservative or a repellent and the social use of smoke. The three main methods for administering smoke are inhalation, which accounts for 71.5% of the indications; smoke directed at a specific organ or body part, which accounts for 24.5%; ambient smoke (passive smoking), which makes up the remaining 4.0%. Whereas inhalation is typically used in the treatment of pulmonary and neurological disorders and directed smoke in localized situations, such as dermatological and genito-urinary disorders, ambient smoke is not directed at the body at all but used as an air purifier. The advantages of smoke-based remedies are rapid delivery to the brain, more efficient absorption by the body and lower costs of production. This review highlights the fact that not enough is known about medicinal smoke and that a lot of natural products have potential for use as medicine in the smoke form. Furthermore, this review argues in favor of medicinal smoke extended use in modern medicine as a form of drug delivery and as a promising source of new active natural ingredients.

  13. Guías de atención médica para dejar de fumar. Una propuesta para Latinoamérica Proposal of Latin-American guidelines for smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl H Sansores

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Aunque la prevalencia del tabaquismo es diferente en cada país de América, los daños a la salud se presentan en la misma proporción. Por ello, es indispensable contar con guías de tratamiento que idealmente sean de utilidad para todos los países. Material y métodos. Para hacer recomendaciones puntuales de utilidad a la región se realizó una búsqueda en PubMed de los últimos cinco años, con los títulos "Smoking cessation guidelines" y "Smoking cessation treatment meta-analysis" para conocer el contenido de las diferentes guías y de los títulos "Nicotine replacement therapy", "Nicotine chewing gum", "Nicotine patches" "Nicotine inhaler", "Bupropion therapy", "Varenicline therapy" e "Individual and grupal behavioural counselling for smoking cessation" para determinar la eficacia de cada intervención. Resultados y conclusión. Nuestra recomendación basada en la disponibilidad de medicamentos y de recursos humanos es que el consejo médico y la terapia conductual grupal deben ser acciones primarias acompañadas, o no, de medicamentos de primera línea.Objective. Although prevalence of tobacco smoking is different in the Latin American regions, the consequences on health are similar. Material and Methods. Therefore, guidelines on treatment are needed and ideally speaking must be useful in the different countries. In order to make quick recommendations useful in the region we made a search in PubMed from the last 5 years with the titles "Smoking cessation guidelines" and "Smoking cessation treatment meta-analysis" to know the content of different guidelines and with the titles of "Nicotine replacement therapy", "Nicotine chewing gum", "Nicotine patches", "Nicotine inhaler", "Bupropion therapy", "Varenicline therapy" and "Individual and grupal behavioural counselling for smoking cessation" to determine the efficacy of each intervention. Results and conclusion. Our recommendation based on the availability of pharmacotherapy and

  14. Hypnotherapy for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jo; Dong, Christine Y; McRobbie, Hayden; Walker, Natalie; Mehta, Monaz; Stead, Lindsay F

    2010-10-06

    Hypnotherapy is widely promoted as a method for aiding smoking cessation. It is proposed to act on underlying impulses to weaken the desire to smoke or strengthen the will to stop. To evaluate the efficacy of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED, SCI, SSCI using the terms smoking cessation and hypnotherapy or hypnosis. Date of most recent searches July 2010. There were no language restrictions. We considered randomized controlled trials of hypnotherapy which reported smoking cessation rates at least six months after the beginning of treatment. Three authors independently extracted data on participant characteristics, the type and duration of the hypnotherapy, the nature of the control group, smoking status, method of randomization, and completeness of follow up. They also independently assessed the quality of the included studies.The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months follow up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence in each trial, and biochemically validated rates where available. Those lost to follow up were considered to be smoking. We summarised effects as risk ratios (RR). Where possible, we performed meta-analysis using a fixed-effect model. We also noted any adverse events reported. Eleven studies compared hypnotherapy with 18 different control interventions. There was significant heterogeneity between the results of the individual studies, with conflicting results for the effectiveness of hypnotherapy compared to no treatment, or to advice, or psychological treatment. We did not attempt to calculate pooled risk ratios for the overall effect of hypnotherapy. There was no evidence of a greater effect of hypnotherapy when compared to rapid smoking or psychological treatment. Direct comparisons of hypnotherapy with cessation treatments considered to be effective had confidence intervals that were too

  15. Rates of cardiovascular disease following smoking cessation in patients with HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petoumenos, K; Worm, S; Reiss, P

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events after stopping smoking in patients with HIV infection.......The aim of the study was to estimate the rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events after stopping smoking in patients with HIV infection....

  16. Smoking Media Literacy in Vietnamese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M.; Huong, Nguyen T.; Chi, Hoang K.; Tien, Truong Q.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Smoking media literacy (SML) has been found to be independently associated with reduced current smoking and reduced susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of American adolescents, but not in other populations of adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess SML in Vietnamese adolescents and to determine the…

  17. Second stop and sbottom searches with a stealth stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Hsin-Chia; Li, Lingfeng; Qin, Qin [Department of Physics, University of California,Davis, California 95616 (United States)

    2016-11-29

    The top squarks (stops) may be the most wanted particles after the Higgs boson discovery. The searches for the lightest stop have put strong constraints on its mass. However, there is still a search gap in the low mass region if the spectrum of the stop and the lightest neutralino is compressed. In that case, it may be easier to look for the second stop since naturalness requires both stops to be close to the weak scale. The current experimental searches for the second stop are based on the simplified model approach with the decay modes t̃{sub 2}→t̃{sub 1}Z and t̃{sub 2}→t̃{sub 1}h. However, in a realistic supersymmetric spectrum there is always a sbottom lighter than the second stop, hence the decay patterns are usually more complicated than the simplified model assumptions. In particular, there are often large branching ratios of the decays t̃{sub 2}→b̃{sub 1}W and b̃{sub 1}→t̃{sub 1}W as long as they are open. The decay chains can be even more complex if there are intermediate states of additional charginos and neutralinos in the decays. By studying several MSSM benchmark models at the 14 TeV LHC, we point out the importance of the multi-W final states in the second stop and the sbottom searches, such as the same-sign dilepton and multilepton signals, aside from the traditional search modes. The observed same-sign dilepton excesses at LHC Run 1 and Run 2 may be explained by some of our benchmark models. We also suggest that the vector boson tagging and a new kinematic variable may help to suppress the backgrounds and increase the signal significance for some search channels. Due to the complex decay patterns and lack of the dominant decay channels, the best reaches likely require a combination of various search channels at the LHC for the second stop and the lightest sbottom.

  18. Smoking media literacy in Vietnamese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Randy M; Huong, Nguyen T; Chi, Hoang K; Tien, Truong Q

    2011-01-01

    Smoking media literacy (SML) has been found to be independently associated with reduced current smoking and reduced susceptibility to future smoking in a sample of American adolescents, but not in other populations of adolescents. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess SML in Vietnamese adolescents and to determine the association with smoking behavior and susceptibility to future smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 2000 high school students completed the SML scale, which is based on an integrated theoretical framework of media literacy, and items assessing cigarette use. Ordinal logistic regression was used to determine the association of SML with smoking and susceptibility to future smoking. Ordinal logistic regression was also to determine whether smoking in the past 30 days was associated with the 8 domains/core concepts of media literacy which comprise the SML. Smoking media literacy was lower among the Vietnamese adolescents than what has been previously reported in American adolescents. Ordinal logistic regression analysis results showed that in the total sample SML was associated with reduced smoking, but there was no association with susceptibility to future smoking. Further analysis showed that results differed according to school and grade level. There did not appear to be association of smoking with the specific domains/concepts that comprise the SML. The association of SML with reduced smoking suggests the need for further research involving SML, including the testing of media literacy training interventions, in Vietnamese adolescents and also other populations of adolescents. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  19. Cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2010-04-01

    Although most agree that the association between tobacco marketing and youth smoking is causal, few studies have assessed the specificity of this association. This study aims to examine the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and teen smoking. A cross-sectional survey of 3415 German schoolchildren aged 10-17 years was conducted using masked images of six cigarette brands and eight other commercial products in 2008. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency (recognition) and brand names (cued recall). Sample quartile (Q) exposure to advertisement exposure was calculated in 2009. Outcome variables were ever tried and current (monthly) smoking, and susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. The prevalence of ever smoking was 31.1% and that of current smoking was 7.4%, and 35.3% of never smokers were susceptible to smoking. Ad recognition rates ranged from 15% for a regionally advertised cigarette brand to 99% for a sweet. Lucky Strike and Marlboro were the most highly recognized cigarette brands (with ad recognition rates of 55% and 34%, respectively). After controlling for a range of established influences on smoking behaviors, the adjusted ORs for having tried smoking were 1.97 (95% CI=1.40, 2.77) for Q4 exposure to cigarette ads compared with adolescents in Q1, 2.90 (95% CI=1.48, 5.66) for current smoking, and 1.79 (95% CI=1.32, 2.43) for susceptibility to smoking among never smokers. Exposure to ads for commercial products other than cigarettes was significantly associated with smoking in crude but not multivariate models. This study underlines the specificity of the relationship between tobacco marketing and youth smoking, with exposure to cigarette ads, but not other ads, being associated with smoking behavior and intentions to smoke. This finding suggests a content-related effect of tobacco advertisements. 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Maternal active smoking and newborn body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper, M P; Jiménez-Muro, A; Nerín, I; Marqueta, A; Ventura, P; Rodríguez, G

    2012-03-01

    Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with a reduction in birth size but very few studies have collated changes in neonatal anthropometry. Our aims were both to assess body composition differences by anthropometry between new-borns from smoking mothers and those from non-smoking mothers, and to show whether these differences affect proportional body mass distribution. Caucasian mothers and their full term singleton new-borns (N=1216) were selected during 2009. A structured questionnaire was completed regarding obstetric and demographic data, as well as tobacco consumption. Women were categorized, according to their smoking habits, into a non-smoking group (never smoked or stopped smoking prior to pregnancy) and a smoking group (smoked throughout pregnancy). 22.1% of mothers smoked during pregnancy (median: 6 cigarettes/day, range: l-40). Smoking mothers were significantly younger than non-smoking mothers but there were no differences regarding other aspects which could affect infant weight. Infants from non-smoking mothers were heavier, longer, and body circumferences were all larger than those from smoking mothers (pfat distribution did not show statistical differences between the two groups. After gestational age, to smoke during gestation is the second main determinant of birth weight. Smoking during pregnancy involves a generalized reduction of most axiological parameters as a result of proportionate fetal growth impairment. In those infants born from mothers who smoked during gestation, neonatal lean body mass appears to be more affected than body fat, and distribution of subcutaneous fat is not different. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Optimal Stopping Problems Driven by Lévy Processes and Pasting Principles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Surya, B.A.

    2007-01-01

    Solving optimal stopping problems driven by Lévy processes has been a challenging task and has found many applications in modern theory of mathematical finance. For example situations in which optimal stopping typically arise include the problem of finding the arbitrage-free price of the American

  2. Smoking Cessation and Electronic Cigarette Use among Head and Neck Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQueen, Nicholas; Partington, Erin J; Harrington, Kathleen F; Rosenthal, Eben L; Carroll, William R; Schmalbach, Cecelia E

    2016-01-01

    (1) Investigate electronic cigarette (e-cig) use among head and neck (HN) cancer patients; (2) define quit methods, success, motivations, and barriers to smoking cessation; and (3) determine the impact of e-cig use in smoking cessation. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary care center. An in-office survey was administered to HN cancer patients ≥ 19 years of age with past/present tobacco use. Patient demographics were collected. Quit methods, success, and motivations/barriers were surveyed. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test was used to correlate alcohol use and cessation. Independent variables associated with cessation were studied with Fisher's exact test and Student's t test. Subgroup analysis was performed for e-cig users. Of 110 eligible patients, 106 (96%) enrolled (83% male, 82% Caucasian), of whom 69 (65%) successfully quit. Age of first tobacco use did not differ between the smoking and cessation groups (P = .14), nor did hazardous drinking (30% smoking vs 14% cessation; P = .072). "Cold turkey" (ie, stopping abruptly without smoking cessation aids) was the most common method attempted (n = 88, 83%) and most successful (n = 65, 94%). There was no statistical difference in age, sex, race, drinking, or socioeconomic status between e-cig users and nonusers. Nonusers achieved higher quit rates as compared with e-cig users (72% vs 39%; P = .0057). E-cig use did not decrease the number of cigarettes smoked (463 cigarettes/month) versus that of nonusers (341 cigarettes/month; P = .2). Seventy percent of e-cig users wore a nicotine patch. HN cancer patients desire smoking cessation. E-cig did not decrease tobacco use, and patients who utilize e-cigs are less likely to achieve smoking cessation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  3. Depression, smoking and smoking cessation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, Nicole; Zwar, Nicholas; Richmond, Robyn

    2013-10-01

    A high proportion of smokers suffer from mental health problems including depression. Despite many of them wanting to stop smoking, low mood adversely affects their ability to quit. To explore the experiences of smokers with self-reported depression, the relationship of smoking with mental health problems and the experiences of smokers while trying to quit. The study also explored what help within the primary care setting could assist in quitting. Participants were recruited from a large general-practice-based smoking cessation trial. Participants who had indicated they were suffering from depression on a self-reported baseline survey were invited to participate. Semi-structured interviews were conducted over the telephone and digitally recorded. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using a phenomenological qualitative approach. Sixteen interviews were conducted (11 females, 5 males). Mood disturbances were frequently reported as triggers for smoking and low mood was seen as a barrier to quitting. Perceived benefits of smoking when depressed were limited and for many, it was a learned response. A sense of hopelessness, lack of control over one's life and a lack of meaningful activities all emerged as important factors contributing to continued smoking. Participants felt that their quit attempts would be aided by better mood management, increased self-confidence and motivation and additional professional support. Smoking and depression were found to be strongly interconnected. Depressed smokers interested in quitting may benefit from increased psychological help to enhance self-confidence, motivation and mood management, as well as a supportive general practice environment.

  4. Stopped nucleons in configuration space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bialas, Andrzej [Jagellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland); Bzdak, Adam [AGH - Univ. of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Koch, Volker [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-09

    In this note, using the colour string model, we study the configuration space distribution of stopped nucleons in heavy-ion collisions. We find that the stopped nucleons from the target and the projectile end up separated from each other by the distance increasing with the collision energy. In consequence, for the center of mass energies larger than 6 or 10 GeV (depending on the details of the model) it appears that the system created is not in thermal and chemical equilibrium, and the net baryon density reached is likely not much higher than that already present in the colliding nuclei.

  5. [A study on male high school students' smoking patterns].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K Y

    1997-01-01

    This study aims to investigate smoking patterns in high school student and to give student smoker effective information. The sample of 250 male high school students out of two different schools in Tae-Jŏn was questioned from July 10th to 15th, 1995. In analyzing these date, the statistics shows the realities by means of number of students. The results are summarized into 17 items as follows. Regarding the level of smoking, 140 students out of 250 admit that they have ever smoked, 52.1% of smoking students say that the motivation of beginning smoking is mainly curiosity. The survey shows that 22.9% of smoking students feel very good when smoking. It also shows that 30.0% of smoking students began smoking in the first grade of high school. With regard to the volume of smoking per day, 41.4% of smoking students smoke variably, 42.1% drink when smoking, 15.0% spend more than W 70,000 a month. About the question who knows the fact of their smoking, 51.5% answer that their friends know the fact of their smoking. In regard to the reslationship between smoking and school performance, 18.2% of non smoking students make poor grades as compared with 40% of smoking students, 9.3% of smoking students say that they are satisfied with the school life, but 35.7% of them are not satisfied. Regarding the attitude to smoking teachers, 35% of smoking students state that they are affected by them. 69.3% of smoking students say that they will stop smoking, while the remaining 30.7% say that they will keep smoking. The reason of 63.9% to stop smoking is that smoking is bad for the health. The reason of 46.5% to keep smoking is the acquired habit of smoking. 97.2% know the fact that the major element of cigarettes is nicotine and it is very harmful to the health. 40.8% recognize the harmful effect of smoking by TV and radio programs. 97.2% know that smoking could cause lung cancer. From the above results. I propose as follows We should make specific plan to keep smoking by simple

  6. Smoking prevalence, attitudes, and perceived smoking prevention and control responsibilities and practices among nurses in Amman, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Madanat, Hala; Kelley, Alan T

    2010-12-01

    This study assesses smoking prevalence, attitudes, and perceived patient counselling responsibilities among practicing nurses in Amman, Jordan. It also identifies whether their smoking status or training in counselling patients about smoking is associated with their smoking-related attitudes and counselling practices. Data were collected through a cross-sectional survey of 266 (n = 266) nurses at four public and private hospitals in Amman. Smoking prevalence was 42% for male nurses and 13% for female nurses. Nurses strongly favoured enforcement of anti-smoking policy, but did not strongly agree that nurses should be involved in counselling patients about smoking. Approximately 41% of nurses indicated that they had received training on counselling patients about smoking. Nurse training with respect to counselling patients about smoking was positively associated with the nurses' belief that their counselling could help patients stop or never start smoking. In addition, nurses with counselling training about smoking felt significantly better prepared to assist patients to quit smoking. Nurses who smoked were significantly less likely to believe their counselling of patients about smoking could be effective. Finally, smoking status was not significantly associated with how well prepared the nurses felt to assist patients to quit smoking. These findings identify a need for more extensive and better-tailored training programmes for nurses on patient counselling about smoking. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Dispositional Mindfulness Predicts Enhanced Smoking Cessation and Smoking Lapse Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Whitney L.; Spears, Claire Adams; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Castro, Yessenia; Li, Yisheng; Guo, Beibei; Reitzel, Lorraine R.; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A.; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Wetter, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although mindfulness has been hypothesized to promote health behaviors, no research has examined how dispositional mindfulness might influence the process of smoking cessation. Purpose The current study investigated dispositional mindfulness, smoking abstinence, and recovery from a lapse among African American smokers. Methods Participants were 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment (treatments did not include any components related to mindfulness). Dispositional mindfulness and other psychosocial measures were obtained pre-quit; smoking abstinence was assessed 3 days, 31 days, and 26 weeks post-quit. Results Individuals higher in dispositional mindfulness were more likely to quit smoking both initially and over time. Moreover, among individuals who had lapsed at day 3, those higher in mindfulness were more likely to recover abstinence by the later time points. The mindfulness-early abstinence association was mediated by lower negative affect, lower expectancies to regulate affect via smoking, and higher perceived social support. Conclusions Results suggest that mindfulness might enhance smoking cessation among African American smokers by operating on mechanisms posited by prominent models of addiction. PMID:26743533

  8. Dispositional Mindfulness Predicts Enhanced Smoking Cessation and Smoking Lapse Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, Whitney L; Spears, Claire Adams; Correa-Fernández, Virmarie; Castro, Yessenia; Li, Yisheng; Guo, Beibei; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Wetter, David W

    2016-06-01

    Although mindfulness has been hypothesized to promote health behaviors, no research has examined how dispositional mindfulness might influence the process of smoking cessation. The current study investigated dispositional mindfulness, smoking abstinence, and recovery from a lapse among African American smokers. Participants were 399 African Americans seeking smoking cessation treatment (treatments did not include any components related to mindfulness). Dispositional mindfulness and other psychosocial measures were obtained pre-quit; smoking abstinence was assessed 3, 31 days, and 26 weeks post-quit. Individuals higher in dispositional mindfulness were more likely to quit smoking both initially and over time. Moreover, among individuals who had lapsed at day 3, those higher in mindfulness were more likely to recover abstinence by the later time points. The mindfulness-early abstinence association was mediated by lower negative affect, lower expectancies to regulate affect via smoking, and higher perceived social support. Results suggest that mindfulness might enhance smoking cessation among African American smokers by operating on mechanisms posited by prominent models of addiction.

  9. Stopping Power for Degenerate Electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-16

    This is a first attempt at calculating the BPS stopping power with electron degeneracy corrections. Section I establishes some notation and basic facts. Section II outlines the basics of the calculation, and in Section III contains some brief notes on how to proceed with the details of the calculation. The remaining work for the calculation starts with Section III.

  10. Stop searches in flavourful supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Crivellin, Andreas; Tunstall, Lewis C.

    2016-01-01

    Natural realisations of supersymmetry require light stops ${\\tilde t}_1$, making them a prime target of LHC searches for physics beyond the Standard Model. Depending on the kinematic region, the main search channels are ${\\tilde t_1}\\to t \\tilde \\chi^0_1$, ${\\tilde t_1}\\to W b \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ and ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$. We first examine the interplay of these decay modes with ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ in a model-independent fashion, revealing the existence of large regions in parameter space which are excluded for any ${\\tilde t_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ branching ratio. This effect is then illustrated for scenarios with stop-scharm mixing in the right-handed sector, where it has previously been observed that the stop mass limits can be significantly weakened for large mixing. Our analysis shows that once the LHC bounds from ${\\tilde c_1}\\to c \\tilde \\chi^0_1$ searches are taken into account, non-zero stop-scharm mixing leads only to a modest increase in the allowed regions of parameter...

  11. In Defence of Thought Stopping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Gary Maria

    2009-01-01

    Thought stopping (TS) has a long and established history as an effective mental control technique among the cognitive behavioural therapies (CBT). Recent claims have arisen, particularly from acceptance and mindfulness-based authors, that thought suppression--and therefore TS--is counterproductive. These claims take the syllogistic form: TS is a…

  12. Hypnosis and Smoking: A Five-Session Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Helen H.

    An active five-session, individualized treatment approach to the stopping of smoking is described. This approach emphasized the following: (a) the feedback, in and out of hypnosis, of the client's own reasons for quitting, (b) the visualization of both positive and negative smoking experiences meaningful to the client, (c) maintaining contact with…

  13. Cigarette Smoking and Habits (2): Some Studies on Perception and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and ex-smokers and no significant interaction between gender and being a smoker/ex-smoker. Students know that smoking is very bad and dangerous to their health. They do know that stopping smoking will improve their health, but once they are hooked on it, it is very hard to quit. Journal of Science and Technology Vol.

  14. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  15. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.; Howes, J.H.; Smout, D.W.S.

    1979-01-01

    A smoke detector is described which provides a smoke sensing detector and an indicating device and in which a radioactive substance is used in conjunction with two ionisation chambers. The system includes an outer electrode, a collector electrode and an inner electrode which is made of or supports the radioactive substance which, in this case, is 241 Am. The invention takes advantage of the fact that smoke particles can be allowed to enter freely the inner ionisation chamber. (U.K.)

  16. Prevalence of smoking in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M; Umenai, T; Radford, C

    1998-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of cigarette smoking in Cambodia and identify prevailing knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP). Information on tobacco smoking and KAP was collected using the 30-cluster survey design wherein 10-15 males (age over 15 years) were interviewed from each of 30 randomly-selected population clusters in Phnom Penh (herein referred to as 'urban') and Siem Reap (herein referred to as 'rural') for a total of 601 interviews. Findings show that 65% of urban respondents and 86% of rural respondents smoke. Rural men start smoking at an earlier age, but the average urban smoker spends more. 17% of an urban smoker's personal cash income is spent on tobacco, whereas his rural counterpart spends 8%. This discrepancy is partly due to extensive tobacco brandname promotion in urban areas which has resulted in the average price of a pack of cigarettes being four times higher than that of rural. Other findings show an inverse correlation between incidence of smoking and levels of education/income. Concerning smoking cessation, 66% of urban smokers and 86% of rural smokers interviewed indicated they would attend a program in their area to stop smoking if such a program were available. The high prevalence of smoking in Cambodia, and the health impact it has and will increasingly have on its people is significant. The high cash expenditure for tobacco, especially in urban, is an important factor contributing to Cambodia's impoverished economy. Education, regulatory policies, and smoking cessation are important measures to be considered for effective tobacco control planning and implementation.

  17. What Factors Are Important in Smoking Cessation Amongst Deprived Communities?: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Hazel J.; Memon, Anjum; Lawson, Kate; Jacobs, Barbara; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    Objective: There is limited evidence regarding effective smoking cessation interventions in deprived communities. This study explored what factors are considered most important in smoking cessation, from the perspective of a group of NHS Stop Smoking Service users from a deprived community. Design: A qualitative study. Setting: A deprived…

  18. Maternal smoking and impaired endothelium-dependent nitric oxide-mediated relaxation of uterine small arteries in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Malene R; Uldbjerg, Niels; Stender, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the endothelium-dependent relaxation of uterine small arteries from pregnant nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers who stopped smoking early in pregnancy.......This study aimed to investigate the endothelium-dependent relaxation of uterine small arteries from pregnant nonsmokers, smokers, and ex-smokers who stopped smoking early in pregnancy....

  19. Variations in smoking after admission to psychiatric inpatient units and impact of a partial smoking ban on smoking and on smoking-related perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keizer, Ineke; Descloux, Virginie; Eytan, Ariel

    2009-03-01

    Smoke-related problems are particularly frequent in psychiatry, with additional concerns about iatrogenic effects on smoking in inpatient settings. To study the impact of a partial smoking ban on psychiatric patients and staff members. Using a pre- and post-intervention design, comparison of smoke-related characteristics and perceptions permitted changes after the introduction of smoking restrictions in 2002 to be studied. Ninety-one inpatients and 110 staff members participated in 2001 before intervention, and 134 inpatients and 85 staff members participated in 2005. After reinforcement of smoking restrictions, no significant changes in smoking prevalence or severity were observed, but there was a change in attitude for patients, more of whom were considering stopping. Daily cigarette consumption after admission changed significantly between 2001 and 2005. A marked decrease after three days in hospital as compared to the week before entry was observed in 2005 (p = 0.005), whereas in 2001 the trend was towards increase (p = 0.06). Furthermore, although the perception of quantity of smoke decreased (p = 0.0005) for both patients and staff, discomfort related to smoke remained unchanged. The introduction of a partial smoking ban had favourable effects on patients' cigarette consumption and attitudes, but more efforts need to be pursued.

  20. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 (43.2%) nonsmokers who lived below the poverty level were exposed to secondhand smoke. Occupation 10 Differences in secondhand smoke exposure related to people’s jobs decreased over the past 20 years, but large differences still exist. Some groups continue to have high levels of ...

  1. Racial resentment and smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Frank L

    2015-02-01

    Racial resentment (also known as symbolic racism) is among the most widely tested measures of contemporary prejudice in political science and social psychological research over the past thirty years. Proponents argue that racial resentment reflects anti-black emotion obtained through pre-adult socialization. In light of affect-based models of substance use, this paper examined the association between racial resentment and smoking in a national sample of non-Hispanic white, black, and Hispanic respondents. Data come from the 2012 American National Election Study, which contained two measures of smoking. The results of ordinal logistic regression models indicate a positive association between racial resentment and smoking among non-Hispanic whites (N = 2133) that is not present among blacks (N = 693) or Hispanics (N = 660). Models controlled for age, education, income, gender, political ideology, region, and mode of interview. Furthermore, analyses indicated that a measure of race-related affect, admiration and sympathy towards blacks, partially mediated the association between racial resentment and smoking. For non-Hispanic whites, racial resentment appears to constitute a risk factor for smoking. Future studies should further specify the conditions linking substance use to the race-related affective component of racial resentment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Light Stops at Exceptional Points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldzak, Tamar; Mailybaev, Alexei A.; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2018-01-01

    Almost twenty years ago, light was slowed down to less than 10-7 of its vacuum speed in a cloud of ultracold atoms of sodium. Upon a sudden turn-off of the coupling laser, a slow light pulse can be imprinted on cold atoms such that it can be read out and converted into a photon again. In this process, the light is stopped by absorbing it and storing its shape within the atomic ensemble. Alternatively, the light can be stopped at the band edge in photonic-crystal waveguides, where the group speed vanishes. Here, we extend the phenomenon of stopped light to the new field of parity-time (P T ) symmetric systems. We show that zero group speed in P T symmetric optical waveguides can be achieved if the system is prepared at an exceptional point, where two optical modes coalesce. This effect can be tuned for optical pulses in a wide range of frequencies and bandwidths, as we demonstrate in a system of coupled waveguides with gain and loss.

  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  4. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your fingers and from your nails to your face and mouth. To help you stop biting your ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some ...

  5. Stopping of Ships Equipped with Azipods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Nowicki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of different possibilities of stopping a large ship equipped with azipods. The model tests were carried out to compare the effectiveness of stopping the ship using the different methods. The ship model used in stopping tests reproduces a large LNG carrier of capacity ~150 000 m3

  6. Shekgalagari stops and theories of phonological representation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper is to present some aspects of stop consonants, e.g. voice onset time (VOT) and F0 perturbation, and also to present phonological theories of stop representation in order to examine matters of Shekgalagari stop production and phonological representation. Of the phonological representation theories ...

  7. Smoking during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Pregnancy > Is it safe? > Smoking during pregnancy Smoking during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please ... smoking, tell your health care provider. Why is smoking during pregnancy harmful? Smoking during pregnancy is bad ...

  8. Are smokers adequately informed about the health risks of smoking and medicinal nicotine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, K Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Giovino, Gary A; Hastrup, Janice L; Bauer, Joseph E; Bansal, Maansi A

    2004-12-01

    The present study assessed smokers' beliefs about the health risks of smoking and the benefits of smoking filtered and low-tar cigarettes, and their awareness of and interest in trying so-called reduced-risk tobacco products. Results were based on a nationally representative random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1,046 adult (aged 18 years or older) current cigarette smokers. Data were gathered on demographic characteristics, tobacco use behaviors, awareness and use of nicotine medications, beliefs about the health risks of smoking, content of smoke and design features of cigarettes, and the safety and efficacy of nicotine medications. In addition, respondents were asked about their interest in and perceived ability to stop smoking and about their desire for more information about the health risks of smoking. Smokers were least knowledgeable about low-tar and filter cigarettes (65% of responses were incorrect or "don't know") and most knowledgeable about the health risks of smoking (39% of responses were incorrect or "don't know"). The smokers' characteristics most commonly associated with misinformation when all six indices were combined into a summary index were as follows: those aged 45 years or older, smokers of ultralight cigarettes, smokers who believe they will stop smoking before they experience a serious health problem caused by smoking, smokers who have never used a stop-smoking medication, and smokers with a lower education level. Those who believed they would stop smoking in the next year were more knowledgeable about smoking. Some 77% of respondents reported a desire for additional information from tobacco companies on the health dangers of smoking. The present findings demonstrate that smokers are misinformed about many aspects of the cigarettes they smoke and stop-smoking medications and that they want more information about ways to reduce their health risks.

  9. Young adult smoking behavior: a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Pamela M; Neilands, Torsten B; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    Young adults have the highest smoking rate of any age group in the U.S., and new strategies to decrease young adult smoking are needed. The objective of the current study was to identify psychographic and demographic factors associated with current smoking and quitting behaviors among young adults. Attitudes, social groups, and self-descriptors, including supporting action against the tobacco industry, advertising receptivity, depression, alcohol use, and other factors associated with smoking were tested for associations with smoking behaviors in a 2005 cross-sectional survey of 1528 young adults (aged 18-25 years) from a web-enabled panel. Analyses were conducted in 2007. Being older was associated with current smoking, whereas having some higher education and being African American or Hispanic were negatively associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was negatively associated with smoking (AOR=0.34 [95% CI=0.22, 0.52]). Perceived usefulness of smoking, exposure to smokers, increased perceived smoking prevalence, receptivity to tobacco advertising, binge drinking, and exposure to tobacco advertising in bars and clubs were associated with smoking. Supporting action against the tobacco industry was associated with intentions to quit smoking (AOR=4.43 [95% CI=2.18, 8.60]). Young adults are vulnerable to tobacco-industry advertising. Media campaigns that denormalize the tobacco industry and appeal to young adults appear to be a powerful intervention to decrease young adult smoking.

  10. Reparametrizations with given stop data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    that the proof of Proposition 3.7 in [1] iswrong. Fortunately, the statment of that Proposition and the results depending on it stay correct. It is the purpose of this note to provide correct proofs.  [1] U. Fahrenberg and M. Raussen, Reparametrizations of continuous paths, J. Homotopy Relat. Struct. 2 (2007......In [1], we performed a systematic investigation of reparametrizations of continuous paths in a Hausdorff space that relies crucially on a proper understanding of stop data of a (weakly increasing) reparametrization of the unit interval. I am indebted to Marco Grandis (Genova) for pointing out tome...

  11. Reparametrizations with given stop data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raussen, Martin

    2009-01-01

    that the proof of Proposition 3.7 in [1] is wrong. Fortunately, the statement of that proposition and the results depending on it stay correct. It is the purpose of this note to provide correct proofs. [1] U. Fahrenberg and M. Raussen. Reparametrizations of continuous paths. J. Homotopy Relat. Struc. 2 (2007......In [1] we performed a systematic investigation of reparametrizations of continuous paths in a Hausdorff space that relies crucially on a proper understanding of stop data of a (weakly increasing) reprametrizations of the unit interval. I am grateful to Marco Grandis (Genova) for pointing out to me...

  12. African Americans and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Council: nationalMSsociety.org/African- AmericansandMS African Americans & Multiple Sclerosis GENER AL INFORMATION MS STOPS PEOPLE FROM MOVING. ... Judy, diagnosed in 1982 What is MS? Multiple sclerosis (MS), an unpredictable, often disabling disease of the ...

  13. Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... clothing, when smokers come back inside, they should wash their hands and change their clothing, especially before holding or hugging children. Never smoke in a car with other people. Even exhaling out the window ...

  14. [Effects of tobacco habit, second-hand smoking and smoking cessation during pregnancy on newborn's health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Blanca; Isern, Rosanna; Hernández-Martínez, Carmen; Canals, Josefa; Aranda, Núria; Arija, Victoria

    2014-07-22

    Tobacco during pregnancy affects the health of the newborn. The aim was to assess the effect of maternal exposure to active and passive tobacco and of smoking cessation on the risk of preterm deliveries and birth weight, taking into account other risk factors. Longitudinal study conducted in 282 healthy pregnant women. General, obstetrical and hematological data were collected as it was the smoking habit during pregnancy. Pregnant women were classified as "exposed to smoke" (active smoker and passive smoker) and "unexposed to smoke" (non-smokers and women who quitted smoking during pregnancy). A percentage of 59.2 were non-smokers, 18.4% active smokers, 8.5% second-hand smokers and 13.8% had stopped smoking. Unexposed pregnant women who stopped smoking had the same risk of premature deliveries and children with similar birth weight as non-smoker women. Active and second-hand smokers were at higher risk of preterm deliveries than non-smokers (odds ratio [OR] 6.5, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-30.8 and OR 6.2, 95% CI 1.0-38.9, respectively); however, higher levels of hemoglobin in the 1st and 3rd trimester exerted a protective effect (OR 0.9, 95% CI 0.8-0.9). Active and second-hand smokers had babies weighing less than non-smokers (around 129 and 178g less, respectively). Active or passive exposure to smoke during pregnancy and lower hemoglobin levels are associated with an increased risk of premature deliveries and lower birth weight. Stopping smoking during pregnancy prevents these detrimental effects. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Laser-acupuncture reduces cigarette smoking: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskiy, V N; Belousova, I A; Frolov, G V

    1983-01-01

    The stop-smoking campaign constitutes a component of the cardiovascular and oncology disease-prevention programme. In the study, laser-acupuncture was used in heavy smoking elderly patients with peripheral vascular diseases, as well as in those with lung cancer, to relieve the nicotine abstinence symptoms at the preoperational management stage. To produce a stable negative response to nicotine there was additionally applied steel needle (Seirlin-Kasei & Co., F.R.G.) insertion at cavity of concha, tragus and antitragus areas. In each of 85 patients there were noted positive trends, vegetative and somatic manifestations of abstinence were eliminated, desire to smoke was reduced. Most of them (71%) stopped smoking completely. The results have proven the high therapeutic value of laser-acupuncture in treating for chronic smoking.

  16. Psychosocial, behavioural, and health determinants of successful smoking cessation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Prescott, E

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the factors that determine whether or not smokers become long-term quitters, and to study whether determinants of successful cessation differ with levels of motivation to stop. DESIGN: In a cohort of men and women, aged 30-60 years at first examination in 1982/1984, smoking...... OUTCOME MEASURE: Smoking status (abstinent for one year or more) at follow up. RESULTS: At follow up 15% of the baseline smokers had been abstinent for one year or more. In multivariate analysis, successful smoking cessation was associated with older age, high social status, low prior tobacco consumption...... with no such motivation. Age, social status, spouse/cohabitant's smoking behaviour, and the daily consumption of tobacco predict success in smoking cessation, irrespective of smokers' former motivation to stop....

  17. Smoking and women: tragedy of the majority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, J E

    1987-11-19

    fertility, increases the rate of spontaneous abortion of chromosomally normal fetuses, and increases the incidence of abruptio placentae, placenta previa, bleeding during pregnancy, and premature rupture of the membranes. A growing body of evidence also suggests that smoking during pregnancy has longterm effects on children. Those organizations at work to promote the rights of women might consider devoting some attention to help women stop smoking.

  18. Experiences of COPD patients with existing smoking cessation programs and their preferences for improvement - a qualitative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Aumann, I.; Tedja, L.; von der Schulenburg, J. M. Graf

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). For current smokers who are diagnosed with COPD, their first treatment option is to stop smoking. Motivation is necessary for long-term smoking cessation; therefore, when designing smoking cessation programs, the patients' needs and preferences should be considered. We focused on COPD patients' experiences with existing smoking cessation programs and evaluated their preferences for the improvement of ...

  19. The role of public policies in reducing smoking: the Minnesota SimSmoke tobacco policy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, David T; Boyle, Raymond G; Abrams, David B

    2012-11-01

    Following the landmark lawsuit and settlement with the tobacco industry, Minnesota pursued the implementation of stricter tobacco control policies, including tax increases, mass media campaigns, smokefree air laws, and cessation treatment policies. Modeling is used to examine policy effects on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. To estimate the effect of tobacco control policies in Minnesota on smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths using the SimSmoke simulation model. Minnesota data starting in 1993 are applied to SimSmoke, a simulation model used to examine the effect of tobacco control policies over time on smoking initiation and cessation. Upon validating the model against smoking prevalence, SimSmoke is used to distinguish the effect of policies implemented since 1993 on smoking prevalence. Using standard attribution methods, SimSmoke also estimates deaths averted as a result of the policies. SimSmoke predicts smoking prevalence accurately between 1993 and 2011. Since 1993, a relative reduction in smoking rates of 29% by 2011 and of 41% by 2041 can be attributed to tobacco control policies, mainly tax increases, smokefree air laws, media campaigns, and cessation treatment programs. Moreover, 48,000 smoking-attributable deaths will be averted by 2041. Minnesota SimSmoke demonstrates that tobacco control policies, especially taxes, have substantially reduced smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. Taxes, smokefree air laws, mass media, cessation treatment policies, and youth-access enforcement contributed to the decline in prevalence and deaths averted, with the strongest component being taxes. With stronger policies, for example, increasing cigarette taxes to $4.00 per pack, Minnesota's smoking rate could be reduced by another 13%, and 7200 deaths could be averted by 2041. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of varenicline for 4 weeks before quitting smoking: decrease in ad lib smoking and increase in smoking cessation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Peter; McRobbie, Hayden J; Myers, Katie E; Stapleton, John; Dhanji, Al-Rehan

    2011-04-25

    The use of varenicline tartrate alleviates postquit withdrawal discomfort, but it also seems to reduce the "reward" associated with smoking. The current treatment schedule, which commences 1 week before quitting, relies primarily on the first mechanism. We set out to determine whether increasing the prequit medication period renders cigarettes less satisfying and facilitates quitting. One hundred one smokers attending a stop-smoking clinic in London, United Kingdom, were randomly allocated to receive varenicline for 4 weeks before the target quit date (TQD) or to receive placebo for 3 weeks before the TQD, followed by varenicline for 1 week before the TQD. In both groups, standard varenicline treatment was given for 3 months after the TQD. Measures included smoking satisfaction and smoke intake before quitting, urges to smoke and withdrawal discomfort after quitting, and sustained abstinence from the TQD to 3 months. Varenicline preloading reduced prequit enjoyment of smoking (P = .004) and smoke intake (P lib smoking and enhance 12-week quit rates. Current treatment schedules may lead to suboptimal treatment results. Trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to corroborate these findings. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00789074.

  1. GameStop-kanta-asiakkuus

    OpenAIRE

    Arefi, Shahriar; Lehikoinen, Jami

    2012-01-01

    Tämän opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli kartoittaa ja kehittää GameStop Finland yhtiön uutta Euroopassa vuoden 2011 lopussa lanseerattua kanta-asiakaskorttia nimeltään PowerTrade. Työssä kerrotaan hieman taustaa GameStopista yhtiönä, kuinka se on saavuttanut pelialan isoimman jälleenmyyjän nimikkeen ja kuinka GameStopin PowerTrade-kortti eroaa Yhdysvaltojen GameStopin kanta-asiakkuuskortista PowerUp:sta. Työssä myös verrataan korttia Suomen isoimpien kauppojen bonuskortteihin. Työssä kerrot...

  2. Smoke detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2017-10-17

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  3. Smoke detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmack, Robert J. Bruce; Wolf, Dennis A.; Frank, Steven Shane

    2015-10-27

    Various apparatus and methods for smoke detection are disclosed. In one embodiment, a method of training a classifier for a smoke detector comprises inputting sensor data from a plurality of tests into a processor. The sensor data is processed to generate derived signal data corresponding to the test data for respective tests. The derived signal data is assigned into categories comprising at least one fire group and at least one non-fire group. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) training is performed by the processor. The derived signal data and the assigned categories for the derived signal data are inputs to the LDA training. The output of the LDA training is stored in a computer readable medium, such as in a smoke detector that uses LDA to determine, based on the training, whether present conditions indicate the existence of a fire.

  4. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, J.

    1979-01-01

    An ionization smoke detector consisting of two electrodes defining an ionization chamber permitting entry of smoke, a radioactive source to ionize gas in the chamber and a potential difference applied across the first and second electrodes to cause an ion current to flow is described. The current is affected by entry of smoke. An auxiliary electrode is positioned in the ionization chamber between the first and second electrodes, and it is arranged to maintain or create a potential difference between the first electrode and the auxiliary electrode. The auxiliary electrode may be used for testing or for adjustment of sensitivity. A collector electrode divides the chamber into two regions with the auxiliary electrode in the outer sensing region. (U.K.)

  5. [The practice guideline 'Smoking cessation' from the Dutch College of General Practitioners; a response from the perspective of general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, C. van

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the practice guideline from the Dutch College of General Practitioners on smoking cessation. General practitioners (GP) should strive after smoking cessation when patients consult and ask for support to stop smoking. Moreover, the practitioner should also show such initiative

  6. Light stop squarks and b-tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Ferretti, Gabriele; Petersson, Christoffer; Torre, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    A significant part of the parameter space for light stop squarks still remains unconstrained by collider searches. For both R-Parity Conserving (RPC) and R-Parity Violating (RPV) scenarios there are regions in which the stop mass is around or below the top quark mass that are particularly challenging experimentally. Here we review the status of light stop searches, both in RPC and RPV scenarios. We also propose strategies, generally based on exploiting b-tagging, to cover the unconstrained regions.

  7. Smoke Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury from the noxious products of fire combustion accounts for as much as 80 percent of fire-related deaths in the United States. Many of these deaths are preventable. Smoke Mask, Inc. (SMI), of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, is working to decrease these casualties with its line of life safety devices. The SMI personal escape hood and the Guardian Filtration System provide respiratory protection that enables people to escape from hazardous and unsafe conditions. The breathing filter technology utilized in the products is specifically designed to supply breathable air for 20 minutes. In emergencies, 20 minutes can mean the difference between life and death.

  8. Factors Associated with Growth in Daily Smoking among Indigenous Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Les B.; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J.; McQuillan, Julia; Crawford, Devan M.

    2012-01-01

    North American Indigenous adolescents smoke earlier, smoke more, and are more likely to become regular smokers as adults than youth from any other ethnic group, yet we know very little about their early smoking trajectories. We use multilevel growth modeling across five waves of data from Indigenous adolescents (aged 10-13 years at Wave 1) to…

  9. [Smoking, vaping and cardiovascular risk : an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalkou, Sofia; Clair, Carole

    2017-06-07

    It is well known that tobacco smoking increases cardiovascular (CV) mortality and morbidity, however, smoking cessation is often neglected compared to other CV risk factors. Behavioral counseling as well as smoking cessation treatments are efficient and do not increase the risk of CV events when used for a defined duration. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) contain potentially cardiotoxic substances but in lower concentrations than in cigarettes. The CV effect of ENDS is to date difficult to assess and depends on the type of device used and its mode of consumption. For smokers with a known CV disease who have quit smoking using ENDS, it is recommended that they stop using them as soon as they have stabilized.

  10. Stopping the Silent Killer: Hepatitis B Among Asian Americans

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-18

    This podcast discusses an underappreciated health threat to many Asians and Pacific Islanders in the United States: chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus. Dr. John Ward, director of CDC's Division of Viral Hepatitis, and Dr. Sam So, founder of the Asian Liver Center at Stanford University, address the importance of testing, vaccination, and care to prevent serious health consequences from this "silent" disease.  Created: 4/18/2008 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP), Division of Viral Hepatitis (DVH) and Office of Dispute Resolution and Equal Employment Opportunity, Office of the Director (OD).   Date Released: 5/1/2008.

  11. Secondhand Smoke Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ventilation and separate non-smoking sections can eliminate secondhand smoke exposure. True False 8. A healthy non-smoker must ... limit where a person can smoke and reduce secondhand smoke exposure: a) Hurt only small businesses a) Hurt only ...

  12. Tobacco smoking: Health impact, prevalence, correlates and interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Despite reductions in prevalence in recent years, tobacco smoking remains one of the main preventable causes of ill-health and premature death worldwide. This paper reviews the extent and nature of harms caused by smoking, the benefits of stopping, patterns of smoking, psychological, pharmacological and social factors that contribute to uptake and maintenance of smoking, the effectiveness of population and individual level interventions aimed at combatting tobacco smoking, and the effectiveness of methods used to reduce the harm caused by continued use of tobacco or nicotine in some form. Smoking behaviour is maintained primarily by the positive and negative reinforcing properties of nicotine delivered rapidly in a way that is affordable and palatable, with the negative health consequences mostly being sufficiently uncertain and distant in time not to create sufficient immediate concern to deter the behaviour. Raising immediate concerns about smoking by tax increases, social marketing and brief advice from health professionals can increase the rate at which smokers try to stop. Providing behavioural and pharmacological support can improve the rate at which those quit attempts succeed. Implementing national programmes containing these components are effective in reducing tobacco smoking prevalence and reducing smoking-related death and disease.

  13. Weight concerns, mood, and postpartum smoking relapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Michele D; Marcus, Marsha D; Kalarchian, Melissa A; Houck, Patricia R; Cheng, Yu

    2010-10-01

    The majority of women who quit smoking as a result of pregnancy will resume smoking during the first 6 months postpartum. Evidence suggests that changes in depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and concerns about weight may relate to postpartum smoking relapse. This study was designed to prospectively evaluate the relationship of mood and weight concerns to postpartum smoking among women who quit smoking during pregnancy. Pregnant women who had quit smoking (N=183) were recruited between February 2003 and November 2006. Women completed assessments of mood (depressive symptoms, perceived stress, positive and negative affect) and weight concerns during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks postpartum. Self-reported smoking status was verified by expired-air carbon monoxide and salivary cotinine at each assessment. Cox regression analyses in which mood and weight concerns were treated as time-dependent covariates were conducted in 2007 and 2009. By 24 weeks postpartum, 65% of women had resumed smoking. Smoking-related weight concerns increased risk of relapse, and positive affect and self-efficacy for weight management without smoking decreased risk of relapse postpartum. Moreover, after controlling for variables previously related to postpartum relapse, weight concerns remained significantly related to smoking relapse. Smoking-related weight concerns and positive affect increase the likelihood that a woman will resume smoking postpartum. Moreover, weight concerns appear to be salient even in the context of other factors shown to affect postpartum smoking. This study suggests that interventions may need to address women's weight concerns and mood to help sustain smoking abstinence after childbirth. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Smoking cessation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It may be worthwhile targeting this population group when developing smoking cessation strategies. Nicotine dependence. Tobacco products contain nicotine, which is the drug that produces dependence in smokers.6. Nicotine affects the dopaminergic system in the brain, causing a sense of well- being, and also increases ...

  15. Smoke detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, E.

    1976-01-01

    A smoke detector is described consisting of a ventilated ionisation chamber having a number of electrodes and containing a radioactive source in the form of a foil supported on the surface of the electrodes. This electrode consists of a plastic material treated with graphite to render it electrically conductive. (U.K.)

  16. Smoking During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and after they are born. 1,3 Health Effects of Smoking and Secondhand Smoke on Pregnancies Women who smoke have more difficulty ... that can harm unborn babies. 1,2 Health Effects of Smoking and Secondhand Smoke on Babies Mothers who smoke are more likely ...

  17. Smoking cessation and characteristics of success and failure among female high-school smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Ae; Lee, Chung Yul; Lim, Eun Sun; Kim, Gwang Suk

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a smoking cessation program on female high-school students and to analyze the characteristics of students who quit smoking compared to those of students who failed to quit. This study used a mixed research design, including a pre- and post-experimental design for measuring the effects of the smoking cessation intervention and a qualitative design using a focus group interview to analyze the characteristics of individuals who successfully quit in comparison to those who failed to stop smoking. Data were collected before and after the intervention through a self-report questionnaire, a biochemical index, and a focus group interview. After the intervention, positive changes in stage in the transtheoretical model for smoking-cessation behavior increased significantly (P<0.001), and the number of cigarettes smoked daily (P=0.001), dependency on nicotine, expiratory CO levels, and positive frequency of urine nicotine levels decreased significantly (P<0.001). Based on data from the focus group interview, students who stopped smoking showed different intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental characteristics compared to students who failed to stop smoking. The results suggest that the smoking-cessation program could be more effective if it were to involve teachers and family members. In addition, a smoking-prohibited community environment could assist in the control of adolescents' smoking behavior. © 2012 The Authors. Japan Journal of Nursing Science © 2012 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  18. Stopping atoms with diode lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, R.N.; Wieman, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    The use of light pressure to cool and stop neutral atoms has been an area of considerable interest recently. Cooled neutral atoms are needed for a variety of interesting experiments involving neutral atom traps and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. Laser cooling of sodium has previously been demonstrated using elegant but quite elaborate apparatus. These techniques employed stabilized dye lasers and a variety of additional sophisticated hardware. The authors have demonstrated that a frequency chirp technique can be implemented using inexpensive diode lasers and simple electronics. In this technique the atoms in an atomic beam scatter resonant photons from a counterpropagating laser beam. The momentum transfer from the photons slows the atoms. The primary difficulty is that as the atoms slow their Doppler shift changes, and so they are no longer in resonance with the incident photons. In the frequency chirp technique this is solved by rapidly changing the laser frequency so that the atoms remain in resonance. To achieve the necessary frequency sweep with a dye laser one must use an extremely sophisticated high-speed electrooptic modulator. With a diode laser, however, the frequency can be smoothly and rapidly varied over many gigahertz simply by changing the injection current

  19. Addressing production stops in the food industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Herbert, Luke Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the challenges in the food industry which causes the production lines to stop, illustrated by a case study of an SME size company in the baked goods sector in Denmark. The paper proposes key elements this sector needs to be aware of to effectively address production stops......, and gives examples of the unique challenges faced by the SME food industry....

  20. Stop the Violence: Overcoming Self-Destruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Nelson, Ed.

    The story of the Stop the Violence movement among rap music artists and music industry colleagues is told, along with the story of a video that was produced as part of this initiative. The Stop the Violence project grew out of the reaction to violence among concert goers at a 1987 rap concert on Long Island (New York). Rap musicians have joined…

  1. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  2. A light sneutrino rescues the light stop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chala, M. [Departament de Física Tèorica, Universitat de València and IFIC, Universitat de València-CSIC,Dr. Moliner 50, E-46100 Burjassot (València) (Spain); Delgado, A. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nardini, G. [Albert Einstein Center (AEC), Institute for Theoretical Physics (ITP), University of Bern,Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern (Switzerland); Quirós, M. [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST),Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats - ICREA, Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2017-04-18

    Stop searches in supersymmetric frameworks with R-parity conservation usually assume the lightest neutralino to be the lightest supersymmetric particle. In this paper we consider an alternative scenario in which the left-handed tau sneutrino is lighter than neutralinos and stable at collider scales, but possibly unstable at cosmological scales. Moreover the (mostly right-handed) stop t̃ is lighter than all electroweakinos, and heavier than the scalars of the third generation lepton doublet, whose charged component, τ̃, is heavier than the neutral one, ν̃. The remaining supersymmetric particles are decoupled from the stop phenomenology. In most of the parameter space, the relevant stop decays are only into tτ̃τ, tν̃ν and bν̃τ via off-shell electroweakinos. We constrain the branching ratios of these decays by recasting the most sensitive stop searches. Due to the “double invisible” kinematics of the t̃→tν̃ν process, and the low efficiency in tagging the tτ̃τ decay products, light stops are generically allowed. In the minimal supersymmetric standard model with ∼ 100 GeV sneutrinos, stops with masses as small as ∼ 350 GeV turn out to be allowed at 95% CL.

  3. Application of the radtran 5 stop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, R.L.; Weiner, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    A number of environmental impact analyzes with the RADTRAN computer code have shown that dose to persons at stops is one of the largest components of incident-free dose during overland carriage of spent fuel and other radioactive materials. The input data used in these analyses were taken from a 1983 study that reports actual observations of spent fuel shipments by truck. Early RADTRAN stop models, however, were insufficiently flexible to take advantage of the detailed information in the study. A more recent study of gasoline service stations that specialize in servicing large trucks, which are the most likely stop locations for shipments of Type B packages in the United States, has provided additional, detailed data on refueling/meal stops. The RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis allows exposures at stops to be more fully modelled than have previous releases of the code and is able to take advantage of detailed data. It is the intent of this paper first to compare results from RADTRAN 4 and RADTRAN 5 for the old, low-resolution form of input data, and then to demonstrate what effect the new data and input format have on stop-dose estimates for an individual stop and for a hypothetical shipment route. Finally, these estimated public doses will be contrasted with doses calculated for a special population group-inspectors. (authors)

  4. Application of the RADTRAN 5 stop model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuhauser, K.S.; Kanipe, R.L.; Weiner, R.F.

    1997-01-01

    A number of environmental impact analyses with the RADTRAN computer code have shown that dose to persons at stops is one of the largest components of incident-free dose during overland carriage of spent fuel and other radioactive materials (e.g., USDOE, 1994). The input data used in these analyses were taken from a 1983 study that reports actual observations of spent fuel shipments by truck. Early RADTRAN stop models, however, were insufficiently flexible to take advantage of the detailed information in the study. A more recent study of gasoline service stations that specialize in servicing large trucks, which are the most likely stop locations for shipments of Type B packages in the United States, has provided additional, detailed data on refueling/meal stops. The RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis allows exposures at stops to be more fully modeled than have previous releases of the code and is able to take advantage of detailed data. It is the intent of this paper first to compare results from RADTRAN and RADTRAN 5 for the old, low-resolution form of input data, and then to demonstrate what effect the new data and input format have on stop-dose estimates for an individual stop and for a hypothetical shipment route. Finally, these estimated public doses will be contrasted with doses calculated for a special population group -- inspectors

  5. [Smoking among school children from the Wielkopolska region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiukow, Anna; Pioterek, Alina; Mojs, Ewa

    2007-01-01

    Smoking defines as a gate open for development other addictions in a group of adolescents. The aim of the study was the estimation the phenomena of smoking among children and adolescents as well as the knowledge concerning the negative effects of it in Big Poland area in every type of school. In the study participated 1533 pupils from every kind of schools. The questionnaire own concept was used in the study. It estimated the frequency of smoking and knowledge concerning the effects of smoking in respondents. The results underwent the statistical analysis. The results show that 88.78% children and adolescents state that they do not have any problems with smoking. 37% non-smoking pupils state they started smoking in the past. The most important reason for smoking was the influence of social environment - at school or in a place of living. The age structure shows the pupils start to smoke between 13-15 yrs of age. 56.4%. The knowledge about negative effects of smoking is on media level, in most case true. Pupils try to stop smoking often but the trials are not as effective as they expect. The result show there is the necessity of making some efforts toward more effective educational activities and preparation some specialist support in addiction treatment.

  6. Are pregnant women receiving support for smoking dependence when attending routine antenatal appointments?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cully, G

    2010-09-01

    Early and consistent intervention with pregnant smokers can reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with smoking during pregnancy. A survey of 470 pregnant women was conducted to establish the care they received in relation to smoking whilst attending routine public antenatal appointments. The overall prevalence of smoking was 23.5%. Age, level of education and nationality were associated with smoking status with younger, less educated Irish women being most likely to smoke. Women attending for their first visit were much more likely to be asked about their smoking status 71 (85.5) versus 68 (17.8) and advised to quit if they were smokers 11 (73.3) versus 11 (15.7). None of the women were offered specific assistance to help them stop smoking or had a follow-up appointment arranged specifically to do with smoking. 167 women (35.6) were exposed to passive smoking in their own homes.

  7. The barriers to smoking cessation in Swiss methadone and buprenorphine-maintained patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stohler Rudolf

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking rates in methadone-maintained patients are almost three times higher than in the general population and remain elevated and stable. Due to the various negative health effects of smoking, nicotine dependence contributes to the high mortality in this patient group. The purpose of the current study was to investigate Swiss methadone and buprenorphine-maintained patients' willingness to stop smoking and to clarify further smoking cessation procedures. Methods Substance abuse history, nicotine dependence, and readiness to stop smoking were assessed in a sample of 103 opiate-dependent patients in the metropolitan area of Zurich, Switzerland. Patients were asked to document their smoking patterns and readiness to quit. Results Only a small number of patients were willing to quit smoking cigarettes (10.7% and, even though bupropione or nicotine replacement therapy was included in the fixed daily treatment care, only one patient received nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. A diagnosis of depression in patients' clinical records was associated with readiness to stop smoking. No significant associations were found between readiness to quit smoking and age, methadone treatment characteristics, and presence of co-dependencies. Conclusion The current prescription level of best medicine for nicotine dependence in Swiss methadone and buprenorphine-maintained patients is far from adequate. Possible explanations and treatment-relevant implications are discussed.

  8. Electronic stopping in oxides beyond Bragg additivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmund, P.; Schinner, A.

    2018-01-01

    We present stopping cross sections calculated by our PASS code for several ions in metal oxides and SiO2 over a wide energy range. Input takes into account changes in the valence structure by assigning two additional electrons to the 2p shell of oxygen and removing the appropriate number of electrons from the outer shells of the metal atom. Results are compared with tabulated experimental values and with two versions of Bragg's additivity rule. Calculated stopping cross sections are applied in testing a recently-proposed scaling rule, which relates the stopping cross section to the number of oxygen atoms per molecule.

  9. A Motivational Intervention To Reduce Cigarette Smoking among College Students: Overview and Exploratory Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Keith C.; Fahnlander, Beth

    2003-01-01

    College counselors can play an important role in implementing brief strategies that will motivate students to stop smoking cigarettes. Provides an overview of motivational interviewing, a specific protocol that can be applied to college student smoking. Also presents preliminary evidence of the success of this approach in promoting abstinence from…

  10. Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachulis, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

  11. The contribution of parental smoking history and socio-demographic factors to the smoking behavior of Israeli women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal-Engelchin, Dorit; Friedmann, Enav; Cwikel, Julie G

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the interplay between sociodemographic factors and parental smoking history in shaping the smoking behavior of Israeli women (N = 302). The study was conducted in the Negev region, which is characterized by a high proportion of immigrants and high percentage of low socioeconomic and educational groups. The specific objectives of this study were to examine: (1) The prevalence and characteristics of women smokers, ex-smokers and never-smokers; and (2) the contribution of education and parent smoking history to women's current smoking. Low levels of education, being Israeli born or veteran immigrants of European-American origin significantly increased the risk of smoking, whereas an orthodox lifestyle and new immigrant status significantly reduced the likelihood of smoking. Occasional smokers reported significantly higher primary care utilization than never smokers. A significant relationship between smoking and pain, gynecological symptoms and depression was found. Results indicate that childhood exposure to maternal smoking was a significant risk factor for smoking, whereas paternal past smoking negatively affects smoking in women. Also, results show that parental educational level affects women's smoking behavior indirectly by influencing their own educational attainment, which in turn is negatively associated with the likelihood of smoking. Mothers with higher education were more likely to smoke, an effect that was reversed for their daughters. Our results demonstrate how demographic, parental and lifestyle factors affect women's smoking in a multi-ethnic society and highlight the need to examine both generational and intergenerational effects.

  12. AHA Scientific Statement Population Approaches to Improve Diet, Physical Activity, and Smoking Habits A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Afshin, Ashkan; Benowitz, Neal L.; Bittner, Vera; Daniels, Stephen R.; Franch, Harold A.; Jacobs, David R.; Kraus, William E.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; Krummel, Debra A.; Popkin, Barry M.; Whitsel, Laurie P.; Zakai, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor lifestyle, including suboptimal diet, physical inactivity, and tobacco use are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Although even modest population shifts in risk substantially alter health outcomes, the optimal population-level approaches to improve lifestyle are not well established. Methods and Results For this American Heart Association Scientific Statement, the writing group systematically reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for effective population approaches to improve dietary habits, increase physical activity, and reduce tobacco use. Strategies were considered in 6 broad domains: (1) media and education campaigns; (2) labeling and consumer information; (3) taxation, subsidies, and other economic incentives; (4) school and workplace approaches; (5) local environmental changes; and (6) direct restrictions and mandates. The writing group also reviewed the potential contributions of healthcare systems and surveillance systems to behavior change efforts. Several specific population interventions that achieved a Class I or IIa recommendation with grade A or B evidence were identified, providing a set of specific evidence-based strategies that deserve close attention and prioritization for wider implementation. Effective interventions included specific approaches in all 6 domains evaluated for improving diet, increasing activity, and reducing tobacco use. The writing group also identified several specific interventions in each of these domains for which current evidence was less robust, as well as other inconsistencies and evidence gaps, informing the need for further rigorous and interdisciplinary approaches to evaluate population programs and policies. Conclusions This systematic review identified and graded the evidence for a range of population-based strategies to promote lifestyle change. The findings provide a framework for policy makers, advocacy groups, researchers, clinicians, communities, and other

  13. "Starting Stories" among Older Northern Plains American Indian Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Christopher E.

    2009-01-01

    American Indian adults have the highest smoking rate of any racial group in the nation. By the turn of the 21st century, smoking rates for the general adult population were reported to be 24%. Among adolescents in the United States, 34.8% of high school students reported they currently smoked in 1999. In comparison, American Indian adults report…

  14. Cognitive dissonance and undergraduate nursing students' knowledge of, and attitudes about, smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Eileen; McCann, Terence V; Rowe, Kathy; Lazenbatt, Anne

    2004-06-01

    Smoking is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Although nurses have an important role in health promotion, and are well placed to see the harmful effects of tobacco smoking, studies suggest that they smoke at much the same rate as the general population. The aim of this paper is to report a study examining undergraduate nursing students' knowledge about the impact of smoking on health, and their attitudes towards smokers and smoking. The study took place in 2001, using a non-probability sample of 366 undergraduate nursing students from an Australian university. Participants completed the Smoking and Health Promotion instrument. Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance provided an explanatory framework for the findings. Most respondents who were still smoking began the habit while in high school. Students had greater generic than specialized knowledge about the effects of smoking on health, and there was no significant difference between second and third year students' knowledge. Those who still smoked had less favourable attitudes towards smoking-related health promotion than those who had never smoked or stopped smoking. Non-smokers were more supportive of non-smokers' rights than those who continued to smoke, while those who had stopped smoking were undecided. There was minimal association between levels of knowledge and attitudes about being sensitive to smoking-related health risks. The findings have implications for both high school education and undergraduate nursing education, and for the recruitment of students to undergraduate nursing programmes. More attention needs to be given in undergraduate nursing programmes to smoking and smoking-related illnesses, and to nurses' role in smoking health promotion.

  15. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Diet and New and Recurrent Root Caries Events in Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Elizabeth K; Heaton, Brenda; Sohn, Woosung; Rich, Sharron E; Spiro, Avron; Garcia, Raul I

    2015-09-01

    To examine the effect of overall dietary quality on number of teeth with new or recurrent root caries events during follow-up (root caries increment). Prospective study with dental examinations approximately every 3 years over 20 years. Veterans Affairs Dental Longitudinal Study in greater Boston, Massachusetts, area. Men aged 47 to 90 (N = 533). A single calibrated examiner assessed root caries and restorations, calculus, probing pocket depth, and attachment loss on each tooth at each examination. The adjusted root caries increment (root-ADJCI) was computed from new and recurrent root caries events on teeth with recession of 2 mm or more. Dietary information was obtained from food frequency questionnaires. An adherence score was computed by comparing consumption frequency of 10 food groups (fruits, vegetables, total dairy, low-fat dairy, meat, total grains, high-fiber grains, legumes, fats, sweets) from the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet guidelines. Mean root-ADJCIs were compared according to DASH adherence score quartile using generalized linear negative binomial regression models, controlling for age, number of teeth at risk of root caries, time at risk of root caries, calculus, presence of removable denture, history of dental prophylaxis, body mass index, and smoking status. Men with DASH adherence scores in the highest quartile had a 30% lower mean root-ADJCI (1.86 teeth) than those in the lowest quartile (2.68 teeth) (P = .03). Root-ADJCI was lower with greater adherence to recommendations for vegetables and total grains and greater with greater sugar-sweetened carbonated beverage consumption. Root caries incidence rate did not vary significantly between quartiles. A higher-quality diet may reduce root caries risk in older men. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through adulthood, and the side ... re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop biting your nails: Some ...

  17. Port Authority of Allegheny County Transit Stops

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — All transit stops within the Port Authority of Allegheny County's service area for the November 20, 2016 - March (TBD) 2017 schedule period.

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan to stop. Just knowing when you’ ... a doctor. If you bite your nails and develop a skin or nail infection, consult a board- ...

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Spending money to keep your nails looking attractive may make you less likely to bite them. Alternatively, ... Just knowing when you’re inclined to bite may help solve the problem. Try to gradually stop ...

  20. Next Stop Adulthood: Tips for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Email Print Share Next Stop Adulthood: Tips For Parents Page Content Article Body Becoming a young adult is exciting, difficult, and scary for both parents and teens. It is a time of increasing ...

  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated image library Board ... gradually stop biting your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try ...

  2. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Alternative payment models Fee schedule State policy State policy and ... recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting one set of nails, such as your thumb nails, ...

  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c How to stop biting your nails Nail biting typically ... to bite your nails, you can figure out how to avoid these situations and develop a plan ...

  4. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Mohs AUC MyDermPath+ Psoriasis Patient education resources Practice Management Center Coding and reimbursement Coding MACRA Fee schedule ... your nails: Some doctors recommend taking a gradual approach to break the habit. Try to stop biting ...

  5. Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Imagine stopping the progression of Alzheimer's Past Issues / Fall 2006 Table of Contents For ... I have friends and loved ones suffering from Alzheimer's. But I can imagine… and hope for… a ...

  6. Panel discussion on stopping of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baurichter, A.; Sigmund, P.; Soerensen, A.H.

    2002-01-01

    This is a condensed transscript of 90 minutes' discussion session marking the end of the International Symposium on Stopping of Heavy Ions (STOP01) held in Odense, Denmark, 5-8 August 2001. The time was divided up about equally between introductory and concluding remarks by the panel, and a general discussion involving most of the participants. The session was moderated by A.H. Soerensen. We have kept the contributions in the chronological order

  7. Smoking cessation and stress among teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkin, Gregory P; Fryer, Craig S; Mahadeo, Madhuvanti

    2007-07-01

    The authors describe the experience of quitting smoking, focusing on the obstacles youth struggle with, based on individual interviews and focus groups with 54 teenagers in New York City. A major obstacle was the belief that people should stop smoking forever. The youth had to cope with temptation, frequent and often intense urges or cravings for cigarettes, and lack of social support from their family and friends. The young participants not only had to cope with general life stresses without being able to use cigarettes to reduce tensions but also had to contend with new stressful situations, such as friends who put them down for not smoking. In addition, the teens had to give up things that were important to them, such as friendships, during their quit attempts. The study describes how quitting can be a much more stressful experience for youth than research typically acknowledges. The authors discuss public health implications.

  8. Clinical trials in a remote Aboriginal setting: lessons from the BOABS smoking cessation study

    OpenAIRE

    Marley, Julia V; Kitaura, Tracey; Atkinson, David; Metcalf, Sue; Maguire, Graeme P; Gray, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Background There is limited evidence regarding the best approaches to helping Indigenous Australians to stop smoking. The composite analysis of the only two smoking cessation randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating this suggests that one-on-one extra support delivered by and provided to Indigenous Australians in a primary health care setting appears to be more effective than usual care in encouraging smoking cessation. This paper describes the lessons learnt from one of these studie...

  9. Is there a need for a hospital based smoking cessation programme in Malaysia?

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Noorzurani; H, Mohammad Hussain

    2008-01-01

    Smoking cessation programmes have been available for almost 2 decades in Malaysia. However the programmes have mainly focussed on outpatient primary care settings. More attention is needed to address and treat smokers presenting to hospitals with acute and chronic medical illness as hospitals provide good settings to implement smoking cessation intervention. For instance, a tobacco related medical illness may boosts a smoker's motivation to stop, especially when the smoker perceives smoking a...

  10. Smoking Stinks! (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Smoking Stinks! KidsHealth / For Kids / Smoking Stinks! What's in ... out more about cigarettes and tobacco. What Are Smoking and Smokeless Tobacco? Tobacco (say: tuh-BA-ko) ...

  11. Smoking and surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surgery - quitting smoking; Surgery - quitting tobacco; Wound healing - smoking ... Tar, nicotine, and other chemicals from smoking can increase your risk of many health problems. These include heart and blood vessel problems, such as: Blood clots and aneurysms in ...

  12. Smoking and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cigarettes has many health risks for everyone. However, the younger you are when you start smoking, the more problems it can cause. People who start smoking before the age of 21 have the hardest ...

  13. Parental Smoking Exposure and Adolescent Smoking Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilman, Stephen E.; Rende, Richard; Luta, George; Tercyak, Kenneth P.; Niaura, Raymond S.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In a multigenerational study of smoking risk, the objective was to investigate the intergenerational transmission of smoking by examining if exposure to parental smoking and nicotine dependence predicts prospective smoking trajectories among adolescent offspring. METHODS: Adolescents (n = 406) ages 12 to 17 and a parent completed baseline interviews (2001–2004), and adolescents completed up to 2 follow-up interviews 1 and 5 years later. Baseline interviews gathered detailed information on parental smoking history, including timing and duration, current smoking, and nicotine dependence. Adolescent smoking and nicotine dependence were assessed at each time point. Latent Class Growth Analysis identified prospective smoking trajectory classes from adolescence into young adulthood. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between parental smoking and adolescent smoking trajectories. RESULTS: Four adolescent smoking trajectory classes were identified: early regular smokers (6%), early experimenters (23%), late experimenters (41%), and nonsmokers (30%). Adolescents with parents who were nicotine-dependent smokers at baseline were more likely to be early regular smokers (odds ratio 1.18, 95% confidence interval 1.05–1.33) and early experimenters (odds ratio 1.04, 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.25) with each additional year of previous exposure to parental smoking. Parents’ current non-nicotine–dependent and former smoking were not associated with adolescent smoking trajectories. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to parental nicotine dependence is a critical factor influencing intergenerational transmission of smoking. Adolescents with nicotine-dependent parents are susceptible to more intense smoking patterns and this risk increases with longer duration of exposure. Research is needed to optimize interventions to help nicotine-dependent parents quit smoking early in their children’s lifetime to reduce these risks. PMID:24819567

  14. Are Smoking Cessation Treatments Associated with Suicidality Risk? An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kim Penberthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk of suicidality during smoking cessation treatment is an important, but often overlooked, aspect of nicotine addiction research and treatment. We explore the relationship between smoking cessation interventions and suicidality and explore common treatments, their associated risks, and effectiveness in promoting smoking reduction and abstinence. Although active smokers have been reported to have twofold to threefold increased risk of suicidality when compared to nonsmokers, 1 4 research regarding the safest way to stop smoking does not always provide clear guidelines for practitioners wishing to advise their patients regarding smoking cessation strategies. In this article, we review pharmacological and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT options that are available for people seeking to quit smoking, focusing on the relationship between the ability of these therapies to reduce smoking behavior and promote abstinence and suicidality risks as assessed by reported suicidality on validated measures, reports of suicidal ideation, behaviors, actual attempts, or completed suicides. Pharmacotherapies such as varenicline, bupropion, and nicotine replacement, and CBTs, including contextual CBT interventions, have been found to help reduce smoking rates and promote and maintain abstinence. Suicidality risks, while present when trying to quit smoking, do not appear to demonstrate a consistent or significant rise associated with use of any particular smoking cessation pharmacotherapy or CBT/contextual CBT intervention reviewed.

  15. Factors Related to Smoking Habits of Male Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naing Nyi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A cross-sectional study was conducted to identify the factors related to smoking habits of adolescents among secondary school boys in Kelantan state, Malaysia. A total of 451 upper secondary male students from day, boarding and vocational schools were investigated using a structured questionnaire. Cluster sampling was applied to achieve the required sample size. The significant findings included: 1 the highest prevalence of smoking was found among schoolboys from the vocational school; 2 mean duration of smoking was 2.5 years; 3 there were significant associations between smoking status and parents' smoking history, academic performance, perception of the health hazards of smoking, and type of school attended. Peer influence was the major reason students gave for taking up the habit. Religion was most often indicated by non-smokers as their reason for not smoking. Approximately 3/5 of the smokers had considered quitting and 45% of them had tried at least once to stop smoking. Mass media was indicated as the best information source for the students to acquire knowledge about negative aspects of the smoking habit. The authors believe an epidemic of tobacco use is imminent if drastic action is not taken, and recommend that anti-smoking campaigns with an emphasis on the religious aspect should start as early as in primary school. Intervention programs to encourage behavior modification of adolescents are also recommended.

  16. Stopping, goal-conflict, trait anxiety and frontal rhythmic power in the stop-signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neo, Phoebe S-H; Thurlow, Jane K; McNaughton, Neil

    2011-12-01

    The medial right frontal cortex is implicated in fast stopping of an initiated motor action in the stop-signal task (SST). To assess whether this region is also involved in the slower behavioural inhibition induced by goal conflict, we tested for effects of goal conflict (when stop and go tendencies are balanced) on low-frequency rhythms in the SST. Stop trials were divided, according to the delays at which the stop signal occurred, into short-, intermediate-, and long-delay trials. Consistent with goal-conflict processing, intermediate-delay trials were associated with greater 7-8 Hz EEG power than short- or long-delay trials at medial right frontal sites (Fz, F4, and F8). At F8, 7-8 Hz power was linked to high trait anxiety and neuroticism. A separate 4-7 Hz power increase was also seen in stop, relative to go, trials, but this was independent of delay, was maximal at the central midline site Cz, and predicted faster stopping. Together with previous data on the SST, these results suggest that the right frontal region could be involved in multiple inhibition mechanisms. We propose a hierarchical model of the control of stopping that integrates the literature on the neural control of fast motor stopping with that on slower, motive-directed behavioural inhibition.

  17. The life experiences of Thai women and smoking: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiangtham, Weena; Kalampakorn, Surintorn; Intharanate, Thitima; Sornsin, Wanpen

    2013-12-01

    Exploring and understanding the live experiences of women smokers as well as the conditions and the family/social context of Thai society. A phenomenological approach was used and conducted from July 2011 to April 2012. The informants were 25 Thai women smokers in Bangkok and peripheral areas. Data were collected from focus group discussions and indepth interviews and was analyzed using Diekelmann and Love thematic analysis. The informants ranged in age from 14 to 66 years. The highest education level was a Vocational Certificate and the lowest level was a primary education (Grade 4). The youngest began smoking at 12 years. The average duration of smoking behavior was 22.3 years; the longest of smoking duration was 52 years. They smoked 2.4 packs of cigarettes per day on average, 6 packs per day at the maximum. Within a family setting, the highest number of people smoking and living in the same household was 13 persons. Five themes were identified as follows: 1) the starting point of smoking:-the family environment triggers smoking; 2) the meaning of smoking:-smoking means 'cigarettes are like friends ', 3) femininity and smoking.:-smoking is an individual right and is not illegal; 4) smoking and health:-smoking-health linkage is not an immediate issue as the informants did not suffer from any serious illness; and 5) view on/intention to stop smoking:-the permanent cessation of smoking was not possible due to the current environment in which their friends or family members still smoked, and because some also chose to reduce their stress by smoking. Family environment and peer group influenced the informants smoking behavior Children see their grandmother mother or elder sister smoke, so smoking is perceived as normal behavior among women as well. Most of them had chosen cigarette smoking as a way to relieve themselves from stressful environments.

  18. Processing of global and selective stop signals: application of Donders' subtraction method to stop-signal task performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Laar, Maria C; van den Wildenberg, Wery P M; van Boxtel, Geert J M; van der Molen, Maurits W

    2010-01-01

    This paper applied Donders' subtraction method to examine the processing of global and selective stop signals in the stop-signal paradigm. Participants performed on three different versions of the stop task: a global task and two selective tasks. A global task required participants to inhibit their response to a go signal whenever a stop signal was presented (Stop-a task). A selective stop task required participants to inhibit to one stop signal but not to the other (Stop-c task). Another selective stop task required them to inhibit when the response indicated by go and stop signals was the same but not when they were different (Stop-b task). Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was shortest for Stop-a and longest for Stop-b, with intermediate values for the Stop-c task. Additional control experiments that manipulated stop probability confirmed the robustness of global and selective stopping latencies even when the stop-signal probability varied. The current findings contribute to the conclusion that Donders' subtraction method provides a useful tool for estimating the durations of subprocesses that together comprise SSRT.

  19. Promoting smoking cessation in Bangladeshi and Pakistani male adults: design of a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial of trained community smoking cessation workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Paramjit

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of smoking is higher among Pakistani and Bangladeshi males than among the general population. Smokers who receive behavioural support and medication quadruple their chances of stopping smoking, but evidence suggests that these populations do not use National Health Service run stop smoking clinics as frequently as would be expected given their high prevalence of smoking. This study aims to tackle some of the main barriers to use of stop smoking services and adherence to treatment programmes by redesigning service delivery to be more acceptable to these adult male populations. The study compares the effectiveness of trained Pakistani and Bangladeshi smoking cessation workers operating in an outreach capacity ('clinic + outreach' with standard care ('clinic only' to improve access to and success of National Health Service smoking cessation services. Methods/design This is a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial based in Birmingham, UK. Super output areas of Birmingham will be identified in which more than 10% of the population are of Pakistani and/or Bangladeshi origin. From these areas, 'natural geographical communities' will be identified. Sixteen aggregated agglomerations of super output areas will be identified, separating areas from each other using buffer regions in order to reduce potential contamination. These natural communities will be randomised to 'clinic + outreach' (intervention or 'clinic only' (control arms. The use of stop smoking services and the numbers of people quitting smoking (defined as prolonged self-reported abstinence at four weeks, three months and six months will be assessed in each area. In addition, we will assess the impact of the intervention on adherence to smoking cessation treatments and patient satisfaction. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN 82127540.

  20. Stopping is not an option: the evolution of unstoppable motion elements (primitives).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnik, Ronen; Chaim, Eliyahu; Flash, Tamar

    2015-08-01

    Stopping performance is known to depend on low-level motion features, such as movement velocity. It is not known, however, whether it is also subject to high-level motion constraints. Here, we report results of 15 subjects instructed to connect four target points depicted on a digitizing tablet and stop "as rapidly as possible" upon hearing a "stop" cue (tone). Four subjects connected target points with straight paths, whereas 11 subjects generated movements corresponding to coarticulation between adjacent movement components. For the noncoarticulating and coarticulating subjects, stopping performance was not correlated or only weakly correlated with motion velocity, respectively. The generation of a straight, point-to-point movement or a smooth, curved trajectory was not disturbed by the occurrence of a stop cue. Overall, the results indicate that stopping performance is subject to high-level motion constraints, such as the completion of a geometrical plan, and that globally planned movements, once started, must run to completion, providing evidence for the definition of a motion primitive as an unstoppable motion element. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. First-Run Smoking Presentations in U.S. Movies 1999-2003

    OpenAIRE

    Polansky, Jonathan R.; Glantz, Stanton A. PhD

    2004-01-01

    Smoking among American adults fell by half between 1950 and 2002, yet smoking on U.S. movie screens reached historic heights in 2002, topping levels observed a half century earlier. Tobacco’s comeback in movies has serious public health implications, because smoking on screen stimulates adolescents to start smoking,2,3 accounting for an estimated 52% of adolescent smoking initiation. Equally important, researchers have observed a dose-response relationship between teens’ exposure to ...

  2. Drug and alcohol abuse inpatients' attitudes about smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, L M; Seidner, A L; Burling, T A; Thomas, R G; Brenner, G F

    1994-01-01

    Attitudes about quitting cigarette smoking were assessed at admission to a substance abuse treatment program for homeless veterans. The majority were interested in quitting smoking, believed that inpatient drug/alcohol treatment was the best time to quit, and that quitting would not threaten their sobriety. Using cluster analysis, four subgroups of inpatients with different levels of interest, confidence, and motivation regarding quitting smoking were identified. Our inpatients' positive attitudes about quitting smoking stand in contrast with previously reported attitudes of many health professionals, and suggest that inpatient treatment could be an opportune time to provide stop-smoking interventions. Findings also suggest that different treatment approaches may be needed for subgroups of inpatients with varying attitudes about quitting.

  3. High-Risk Smoking Behaviors and Barriers to Smoking Cessation Among Homeless Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joseph S; Nguyen, Austin Huy; Malesker, Mark A; Morrow, Lee E

    2016-05-01

    Although tobacco practices and the effects of tobacco use among the general American population are well described, minimal data exist regarding tobacco use and barriers to smoking cessation among homeless individuals. Anonymous, voluntary surveys based on a previously implemented instrument were completed by 100 smoking individuals residing at a homeless shelter. These surveys assessed high-risk smoking behaviors and respondents' perceived barriers to long-term smoking cessation. Ninety percent of study participants reported engaging in at least one of the high-risk tobacco practices. Nicotine replacement therapy was perceived by respondents to be the most desired form of smoking cessation aid. Excessive stress with use of tobacco smoking to alleviate stress and anxiety was the most significant self-perceived barrier to smoking cessation. High-risk tobacco practices are remarkably common among smoking homeless individuals. Despite literature consistently showing that non-nicotine tobacco cessation pharmacotherapies (varenicline, buproprion) have higher smoking cessation rates, nicotine replacement monotherapy was perceived as more valuable by survey respondents. Although lack of financial resources was expected to be the biggest barrier to successful cessation, social stressors and the use of smoking to cope with homelessness were perceived as a greater obstacle in this cohort. Given the paucity of data on the long-term effects of the high-risk tobacco behaviors reported by these homeless smokers, this study highlights the need for further investigations regarding tobacco use and tobacco cessation in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  4. A qualitative study of smoking behavior among the floating population in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Wei; Cui, Zhi-Ting; Ding, Ning; Zhang, Cheng-Gang; Usagawa, Tricia; Berry, Helen Louise; Yu, Jin-Ming; Li, Shen-Sheng

    2014-11-04

    China has become the world's largest producer and consumer of tobacco and lung cancer is China's leading cause of cancer deaths. The large majority of Chinese smokers are men. Tobacco consumption is of particular concern among China's internal floating (or migrant) population, which has become a permanent feature of Chinese society, because this population is very large (over 100 million persons) and it has a high prevalence of smoking. Considering additionally that like the general population of China, the smoking prevalence rate of women from this group is quite low, we therefore aimed to explore smoking-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviours among male smokers in the floating population to help inform the development of effective smoking cessation interventions in this important target group in China. We interviewed 39 floating population male smokers in six focus groups and performed a qualitative content analysis of the interviews. Most participants knew that smoking is risky to health but they knew little about why. Habit and social participation were key drivers of smoking. Smoking was regarded as a core component of their identity by the urban residents. Some participants had tried to stop smoking but none reported having ever been educated about smoking. Smoking cessation interventions for China's male floating population would need to incorporate comprehensive education and information about why smoking is dangerous and the benefits of stopping.

  5. The influence of smoking cessation on hemodynamics and arterial compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Shmuel; Isakov, Irina; Golzman, Boris; Kogan, Jacob; Turkot, Svetlana; Peled, Ronit; Yosefy, Chaim

    2006-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is associated with consistent changes in small arteries and arterioles. Recently, arterial compliance was determined in smokers; however, the effect of smoking cessation on arterial compliance has not yet been investigated. The objective of the study was to assess how smoking cessation, achieved with use of behavioral and pharmacologic therapy, influences vascular compliance and arterial stiffness in smokers. In an open-label study, 60 habitual smokers were treated for 2 months with buproprion 300 mg per day and personal and group conversations in order to facilitate smoking cessation. Hemodynamic variables, including vascular compliance and augmentation index (AI), were measured twice, at the beginning of the study and after 6 months. Of the 60 smokers, 35 stopped smoking and 25 failed at the end of the 2-month treatment period. Of the 35 who were initially successful, 12 went back to smoking, and thus only 23 remained nonsmokers at the end of 6 months. Smoking cessation was accompanied by significantly lower arterial pressure and heart rate but by weight gain. Among the 23 subjects who stopped smoking for 6 months capacitive compliance (C(1)) did not change but oscillatory compliance (C(2)) rose significantly (from 5.1 +/-2.3 to 6.3 +/-3.0 p<0.01), and AI decreased significantly (from 63.1 +/-22 to 50.6 +/-17 p<0.05), whereas in smokers who still smoked after this period, both C(1) and C(2) and augmentation index did not change significantly from their basal values. The authors conclude that smoking cessation improves arterial stiffness as assessed by the augmentation index, owing mainly to increasing the small artery compliance, which is known to be an early index of endothelial damage.

  6. The extent of the stop coannihilation strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, John [King' s College London, Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Olive, Keith A. [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); University of Minnesota, William I. Fine Theoretical Physics Institute, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Zheng, Jiaming [University of Minnesota, School of Physics and Astronomy, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Many supersymmetric models such as the constrained minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (CMSSM) feature a strip in parameter space where the lightest neutralino χ is identified as the lightest supersymmetric particle, the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle (NLSP), and the relic χ cold darkmatter density is brought into the range allowed by astrophysics and cosmology by coannihilation with the lighter stop squark t{sub 1} NLSP. We calculate the stop coannihilation strip in the CMSSM, incorporating Sommerfeld enhancement effects, and we explore the relevant phenomenological constraints and phenomenological signatures. In particular, we show that the t{sub 1} may weigh several TeV, and its lifetime may be in the nanosecond range, features that are more general than the specific CMSSM scenarios that we study in this paper. (orig.)

  7. StopWatcher: A Mobile Application to Improve Stop Sign Awareness for Driving Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Tucker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stop signs are the primary form of traffic control in the United States. However, they have a tendency to be much less effective than other forms of traffic control like traffic lights. This is due to their smaller size, lack of lighting, and the fact that they may become visually obscured from the road. In this paper, we offer a solution to this problem in the form of a mobile application implemented in the Android platform: StopWatcher. It is designed to alert a driver when they are approaching a stop sign using a voice notification system (VNS. A field test was performed in a snowy environment. The test results demonstrate that the application can detect all of the stop signs correctly, even when some of them were obstructed by the snow, which in turn greatly improves the user awareness of stop signs.

  8. To start and quit smoking cigarettes: an evaluation of students in a Nigerian city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atoyebi, O A; Ibirongbe, D O; Babatunde, O A; Atoyebi, O E

    2013-06-01

    Several factors have been shown to influence cigarette smoking and are important in creating measures for tobacco control. The aim of this study is to identify the factors responsible for making decisions to start or stop cigarette smoking among students. This was a cross-sectional study which sampled 280 youths in tertiary institutions using multi-stage sampling technique. The data was collected using self-administered questionnaire that had been pretested and validated. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 16. Frequency tables and cross-tabulations were generated with a 95% confidence interval and predetermined p-value at less than 0.05. All the current smokers (100%) were males, most (73.2%) were within 21 to 25 years of age and 87.8% of them had a relative or friend who smoked. Some (29%) of the students who currently smoked were willing to quit smoking while 73.2% of them had ever attempted to quit smoking. Students who smoked to relieve stress were willing to stop smoking (100.0%), while 40% of those who smoked for pleasure/relaxation were willing to stop smoking. Students who had received lectures on smoking were significantly willing to quit (100.0%) compared with those who had not received such lectures (0.0%) (p = 0.000). Understanding the role of the factors associated with smoking initiating and cessation is very crucial in planning appropriate intervention for the control of cigarette smoking among the youths and there is need for more youth oriented health education directed towards a proper attitude to tobacco control.

  9. Variational Inequalities in Hilbert Spaces with Measures and Optimal Stopping Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbu, Viorel; Marinelli, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    We study the existence theory for parabolic variational inequalities in weighted L 2 spaces with respect to excessive measures associated with a transition semigroup. We characterize the value function of optimal stopping problems for finite and infinite dimensional diffusions as a generalized solution of such a variational inequality. The weighted L 2 setting allows us to cover some singular cases, such as optimal stopping for stochastic equations with degenerate diffusion coefficient. As an application of the theory, we consider the pricing of American-style contingent claims. Among others, we treat the cases of assets with stochastic volatility and with path-dependent payoffs

  10. Stopping Rules for Linear Stochastic Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Takayuki; Itani, Takamitsu; Fujisaki, Yasumasa

    Stopping rules are developed for stochastic approximation which is an iterative method for solving an unknown equation based on its consecutive residuals corrupted by additive random noise. It is assumed that the equation is linear and the noise is independent and identically distributed random vectors with zero mean and a bounded covariance. Then, the number of iterations for achieving a given probabilistic accuracy of the resultant solution is derived, which gives a rigorous stopping rule for the stochastic approximation. This number is polynomial of the problem size.

  11. Security Requirements for One Stop Government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Georg E.

    The highest ranking e-government solutions are based on one-window, one-click or one stop government concepts. For Europe, the EU services directive sets new requirements for e-government, that have to be met till December 2009. Simple, easy to understand and complete information is one requirement. The other requirements are, that the services covered by this directive shall be available electronically and at a distance (which means mostly “by Internet”). Acceptable solutions are digitally signed mails and, as an alternative or supplement, transaction oriented online services. To implement this, a one stop government with document safe is best practice.

  12. Smoking and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking and Pregnancy Smoking can cause problems for a woman trying to become pregnant or who is already pregnant, and for her baby ... too early • Pregnancy occurs outside of the womb Smoking causes these health effects. Smoking could cause these ...

  13. All about Quitting Smoking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toolkit No. 7 All About Quitting Smoking Are you ready to quit smoking? You can find a way to do it. Once you’ve quit, you’ll feel healthier ... ve quit. What are the benefits of quitting smoking? You’ve probably already heard that smoking is ...

  14. Canadian and English students' beliefs about waterpipe smoking: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskin, Jeremy; Aveyard, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background Waterpipe smoking is becoming popular among western students. The aim was to understand the appeal to students of this form of smoking when other forms of smoking are becoming less common. Methods Waterpipe smokers were identified by snowball sampling and interviewed following a semi-structured schedule in waterpipe cafes and in their homes. Constant comparative analysis was used to derive themes for the analysis. Results Waterpipe smokers saw smoking as an alternative to more expensive nights out in bars. The appeal was related to the communal activity and the novelty of the experience. Respondents had not thought deeply about the health risks and reasoned that if no warnings about waterpipe smoking were apparent (unlike cigarette smoking) then it was probably safe. These observations were reinforced by observations about the mildness of the smoke, the fruit flavours, and beliefs about the filtering of the water. Waterpipe smokers felt no pressure to stop smoking and therefore had not tried to do so, but felt it might be something they did not continue after university. Waterpipe smoking was not linked in students' minds to other forms of smoking except in one individual who was using waterpipe smoking to help quit cigarettes. Conclusion In the absence of public health information, students have fallen back on superficial experiences to form views that waterpipe smoking is less harmful than other forms of smoking and it is currently much more acceptable in student society than other forms of smoking. PMID:19134220

  15. [Pregnancy and smoking: the occupational physician's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugniez, A; Duquesne, D; Fontaine, B

    2005-04-01

    It has become urgent to initiate preventive measures to avoid occupation exposure of pregnant women to smoking. Tobacco smoke is a recognized cause of respiratory cancer and a large number of workers are exposed to substances classified as cancerogenic agents. The occupational physician can provide information on risks, measure biological markers (CO in ambient air, serum markers such as CO in expired air, carboxyhemoglobin or cotinine), counsel the employer concerning elimination of the secondary smoke current or the management of toxic materials, and propose modifications of the ventilation system. The current legislation (Evin law) should be included in the house rules. In the event a non-smoking pregnant woman is exposed to passive smoking, the work post should be adapted or changed. Smoking women should be encouraged to stop smoking and provided with the necessary support to achieve cessation. The woman's individual maternity book let should include information on the risk of smoking and encourage contact with the primary care physician, the gynecologist, or the anti-smoking care center. The occupational physician should search for addictive or occupational co-exposures.

  16. The use of bupropion SR in cigarette smoking cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Wilkes

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Scott WilkesDepartment of Primary and Community Care, School of Health, Natural and Social Sciences, University of Sunderland, Sunderland, United KingdomAbstract: Cigarette smoking remains the largest preventable cause of premature death in developed countries. Until recently nicotine replacement therapy (NRT has been the only recognised form of treatment for smoking cessation. Bupropion, the first non-nicotine based drug for smoking cessation was licensed in the United States of America (US in 1997 and in the United Kingdom (UK in 2000 for smoking cessation in people aged 18 years and over. Bupropion exerts its effect primarily through the inhibition of dopamine reuptake into neuronal synaptic vesicles. It is also a weak noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor and has no effect on the serotonin system. Bupropion has proven efficacy for smoking cessation in a number of clinical trials, helping approximately one in five smokers to stop smoking. Up to a half of patients taking bupropion experience side effects, mainly insomnia and a dry mouth, which are closely linked to the nicotine withdrawal syndrome. Bupropion is rarely associated with seizures however care must be taken when co-prescribing with drugs that can lower seizure threshold. Also, bupropion is a potent enzyme inhibitor and can raise plasma levels of some drugs including antidepressants, antiarrhythmics and antipsychotics. Bupropion has been shown to be a safe and cost effective smoking cessation agent. Despite this, NRT remains the dominant pharmacotherapy to aid smoking cessation.Keywords: bupropion, smoking cessation, nicotine addiction

  17. Smoking in film and impact on adolescent smoking: with special reference to European adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, J D

    2006-02-01

    This review examines the evidence supporting an association between seeing smoking depictions in movies and adolescent smoking. The portrayal of tobacco use is common in movies and often modeled by movie stars who, from a social influences standpoint, should be powerful behavior change agents. The results of studies assessing audience responses to tobacco portrayal in movies are remarkably consistent in showing a moderate to strong association between seeing movie smoking and more positive attitudes toward smoking and adolescent smoking initiation. The population-based data include cross sectional samples from different regions of the United States, all supporting a movie smoking-teen smoking link. The 2 published longitudinal studies show an independent link between exposure to movie smoking at baseline and initiation in the future, with estimates of the effect size being remarkably consistent with their cross-sectional counterparts. Experimental research adds support by showing that scene depictions of smoking enhance positive views of smokers and increase intent to smoke in the future. Taken as a whole, this rich research base provides very strong support for the notion that movie smoking plays a role in smoking initiation among adolescents that warrants action at the individual and societal level. A major gap in our understanding is the impact of Hollywood movies on adolescents outside the United States. There is a real need for studies to be conducted in European and other populations to better understand the global reach of smoking in American film, since over half of box office revenues come from outside the United States.

  18. Putting a Stop to Smoky Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    It can be easy to lose sight of the benefits of quitting when a strong craving for a cigarette hits. You might start to lose your focus on staying smokefree. There is no good reason to smoke. You know this.

  19. Physiology of safety deep stops and their importance during diving

    OpenAIRE

    Moravcová, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Title: Physiology ofdeep safety stops and their importance during diving Objective: Explanation of physiology of deep safety stops and their importance during diving. Presentation of the physiologically optima! method of accomplishing the deep stops. Methods: Summary of the available information concerning the physiology of deep safety stops and also the physic and physiology of diving connected with the subject. Follow-up clearing the importance ofthese stops for divers. Results: Inclusion o...

  20. Smoke-Free Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-07

    34Environmental Smoke in the Workplace," June 1991 (d) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Report, "Respiratory Health Effects of Passive Smoking : Lung Cancer and...8217 (FTý, . kIrcferred to a, secondhand or passive smoke . Exhaled and/or sidestream smoke emitted from smokers and the burning of cigarettes, cigars, and...this - Urutti~. -- 2 / Each DoD Component thall:- 1. Control worker exposure to ETS by eliminatina smoking in the workplace. 2. Provide effective

  1. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi; Nobunaga, Miho; Andersen, Elisabeth Wreford; Byskov, Anne Grete; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2011-06-30

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive life span compared with daughters whose fathers did not smoke. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  3. Are Stopped Strings Preferred in Sad Music?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Huron

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available String instruments may be played either with open strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a hard wooden nut or with stopped strings (where the string vibrates between the bridge and a performer's finger pressed against the fingerboard. Compared with open strings, stopped strings permit the use of vibrato and exhibit a darker timbre. Inspired by research on the timbre of sad speech, we test whether there is a tendency to use stopped strings in nominally sad music. Specifically, we compare the proportion of potentially open-to-stopped strings in a sample of slow, minor-mode movements with matched major-mode movements. By way of illustration, a preliminary analysis of Samuel Barber's famous Adagio from his Opus 11 string quartet shows that the selected key (B-flat minor provides the optimum key for minimizing open string tones. However, examination of a broader controlled sample of quartet movements by Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven failed to exhibit the conjectured relationship. Instead, major-mode movements were found to avoid possible open strings more than slow minor-mode movements.

  4. Bystanders Are the Key to Stopping Bullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Sharon; Notar, Charles E.

    2013-01-01

    Bullying is the dominance over another. Bullying occurs when there is an audience. Peer bystanders provide an audience 85% of instances of bullying. If you remove the audience bullying should stop. The article is a review of literature (2002-2013) on the role of bystanders; importance of bystanders; why bystanders behave as they do; resources to…

  5. Stop! Look! Listen! for Effective Band Rehearsals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Alfred S.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how band conductors can develop student skills in three areas: (1) when the conductor stops the band; (2) teaching the students to pay attention and watch the conductor; and (3) improving the student listening skills. Includes information on instructing students to play chorales. (CMK)

  6. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for (var c = 0; c How to stop biting your nails Nail biting typically begins in childhood and can continue through ... effects can be more than cosmetic. Repeated nail biting can make the skin around your nails feel ...

  7. Barriers to Smoking Cessation among Medical Students 2012–2013 Academic Year in the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reni Yuditha Kathrine

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking is one of leading various diseases and even death globally. It is often difficult for smokers to stop smoking, even those who work as a medical professional because there are some barriers around them. The objective of this study was to get an overview of the barriers to smoking cessation among smoker students of Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out to 62 medical students 2012–2013 academic year in the Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Padjadjaran. Before the respondents were selected, a survey using questionnaire was conducted to all medical students from the same academic year to determine their smoking status. A set of questions was developed, consisted of 4 components: physical or social, psychological or emotional, accessibility, and social contextual/life circumstances barriers to smoking cessation. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in the tables and figures. Results: The most frequent barriers were from physical or social barriers (friends who smoke, 85%, psychological or emotional barriers (fear of losing enjoyment, 71%, barrier to access (lack of information about the way of smoking cessation, 42% and social contextual/life circumstances barriers (having other priorities other than to stop smoking, 71%. Conclusions: There are some barriers in medical students smokers make them difficult to stop smoking although they have more knowledge about health and the impact of smoking on health than other people.

  8. Ab initio electronic stopping power in materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukri, Abdullah-Atef

    2015-01-01

    The average energy loss of an ion per unit path length when it is moving through the matter is named the stopping power. The knowledge of the stopping power is essential for a variety of contemporary applications which depend on the transport of ions in matter, especially ion beam analysis techniques and ion implantation. Most noticeably, the use of proton or heavier ion beams in radiotherapy requires the knowledge of the stopping power. Whereas experimental data are readily available for elemental solids, the data are much more scarce for compounds. The linear response dielectric formalism has been widely used in the past to study the electronic stopping power. In particular, the famous pioneering calculations due to Lindhard evaluate the electronic stopping power of a free electron gas. In this thesis, we develop a fully ab initio scheme based on linear response time-dependent density functional theory to predict the impact parameter averaged quantity named the random electronic stopping power (RESP) of materials without any empirical fitting. The purpose is to be capable of predicting the outcome of experiments without any knowledge of target material besides its crystallographic structure. Our developments have been done within the open source ab initio code named ABINIT, where two approximations are now available: the Random-Phase Approximation (RPA) and the Adiabatic Local Density Approximation (ALDA). Furthermore, a new method named 'extrapolation scheme' have been introduced to overcome the stringent convergence issues we have encountered. These convergence issues have prevented the previous studies in literature from offering a direct comparison to experiment. First of all, we demonstrate the importance of describing the realistic ab initio electronic structure by comparing with the historical Lindhard stopping power evaluation. Whereas the Lindhard stopping power provides a first order description that captures the general features of the

  9. Smoking in Malaysia: promotion and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon Kee Teoh

    1984-01-01

    packets to include a health warning. New antismoking measures were taken, culminating in a 19-point federal government directive prohibiting government employees from smoking in government offices, and at meeting. Targets for the future include: banning all cigarette advertisements, or at least plugging loopholes on cigarette advertising; stopping all cigarette sponsorship of sports events; publishing tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide levels; expanding nonsmoking areas in public places; and making greater efforts in health education.

  10. Ambivalence and Fluidity in the Teenage Smoking and Quitting Experience: Lessons from a Qualitative Study at an English Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buswell, Marina; Duncan, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a school-based stop smoking pilot project and to understand the teenage experience of smoking and quitting within that context. Design: Flexible design methods. Setting: A Kent (United Kingdom [UK]) secondary school. Methods: Semi-structured interviews analyzed following a grounded theory approach. Results: The main themes…

  11. Long-term treatment with inhaled budesonide in persons with mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who continue smoking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pauwels, RA; Lofdahl, CG; Laitinen, LA; Schouten, JP; Postma, DS; Pride, NB; Ohlsson, SV

    1999-01-01

    Background and Methods Although patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should stop smoking, some do not. In a double-blind, pla cebo-controlled study, we evaluated the effect of the inhaled glucocorticoid budesonide in subjects with mild COPD who continued smoking. After a

  12. Smoking Cessation and Weight Loss After Chronic Deep Brain Stimulation of the Nucleus Accumbens: Therapeutic and Research Implications: Case Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantione, Mariska; van den Brink, Wim; Schuurman, P. Richard; Denys, Damiaan

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Smoking and overeating are compulsory habits that are difficult to stop. Several studies have shown involvement of the nucleus accumbens in these and other addictive behaviors. In this case report, we describe a patient who quit smoking and lost weight without any effort, and we review

  13. General practitioners' views on and referral to NHS smoking cessation services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, A; West, R; Owen, L; Raw, M

    2005-04-01

    Increasing the rate of smoking cessation remains a major public health goal. To help achieve this in the UK, National Health Service (NHS) smoking cessation services have been established to provide treatment for smokers wanting help with stopping. Referrals from general practitioners (GPs) are crucial to the success of these clinics. This study aimed to assess English GPs' self-reported interactions with, and attitudes towards, their local smoking cessation services. Postal survey assessing the attitudes of GPs in England towards, and formal interactions with, NHS smoking cessation services. A questionnaire was posted to a random sample of 544 GPs in England (response rate 63%). GPs' self-reported interactions with smoking cessation services and their attitudes towards these clinics were assessed. GPs were also asked what factors determined whether they prescribed nicotine-replacement therapy (NRT) and Buproprion (Zyban), and what was the extent and nature of their smoking cessation interventions with their patients. Most GPs (94%) reported that they were aware of the specialist smoking cessation service in their area. Seventy percent of GPs supported the continuation of current funding for specialist smoking cessation services. Seventy percent reported that they referred patients to these services, and 55% had staff within their practices trained as community smoking cessation advisors. Most GPs (79%) reported 'clinical need' as a determinant of whether they prescribed NRT/Zyban, and a few GPs cited 'budgetary constraints' as a factor (15%). Ninety-eight percent of GPs reported that they record smoking status when new patients join their practice, and they advise smokers to stop 'at least every now and then'. GPs support the existence and continuation of specialist smoking cessation services, and most reported that they refer patients to them. Virtually every GP reported that they record smoking status when new patients join their practice, and they advise

  14. The impact of a minimal smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women and their partners on perinatal smoking behaviour in primary health care: A real-life controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenssen Jon A

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a demand for strategies to promote smoking cessation in high-risk populations like smoking pregnant women and their partners. The objectives of this study were to investigate parental smoking behaviour during pregnancy after introduction of a prenatal, structured, multi-disciplinary smoking cessation programme in primary care, and to compare smoking behaviour among pregnant women in the city of Trondheim with Bergen and Norway. Methods Sequential birth cohorts were established to evaluate the intervention programme from September 2000 to December 2004 in primary care as a part of the Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim study (PACT. The primary outcome variables were self reported smoking behaviour at inclusion and six weeks postnatal. Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (MBR were used to describe smoking cessation during pregnancy in Trondheim, Bergen and Norway 1999–2004. Results Maternal smoking prevalence at inclusion during pregnancy were 5% (CI 95% 4–6 in the intervention cohort compared to 7% (CI 95% 6–9, p = 0.03, in the control cohort. Of the pre-pregnancy maternal smokers 25% (CI 95% 20–31 and 32% (CI 95% 26–38, p = 0.17, were still smoking at inclusion in the intervention and control cohorts, respectively. Six weeks postnatal 72% (CI 95% 59–83 and 68% (CI 95% 57–77, p = 0.34 of the maternal smokers at inclusion still smoked. No significant difference in paternal smoking between the cohorts was found after the intervention period. Data from the MBR showed a significantly higher proportion of women who stopped smoking during pregnancy in Trondheim than in Bergen in 2003 and 2004, p = 0.03 and Conclusion No impact on parental smoking behaviour between the cohorts was observed after the smoking intervention programme. Of the women who stopped smoking during pregnancy most of them stopped smoking before the intervention. However, we observed a significantly higher quitting

  15. Adolescent Smoking Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Debra H.; Erickson, Darin J.; Widome, Rachel; Perry, Cheryl L.; Forster, Jean L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To identify distinct smoking trajectories during adolescence and assess how smoking-related factors relate to trajectory membership. Methods The sample includes 3637 youth from across the state of Minnesota. Measures include tobacco use, smoking behaviors of parents and friends, youth smoking-related attitudes and beliefs, and home smoking policies. A cohort-sequential design was used to identify smoking trajectories, including five cohorts of youth (ages 12–16) followed for 3 years. Results Six distinct trajectories of tobacco use were found: nonsmokers (54%), triers (17%), occasional users (10%), early established (7%), late established (8%), and decliners (4%). Several factors were associated with increased likelihood of being in a smoking trajectory group (vs. the nonsmoking group): parental smoking, friend smoking, greater perceptions of the number of adults and teenagers who smoke, and higher functional meaning of tobacco use. In contrast, higher perceived difficulty smoking in public places, negative perceptions of the tobacco industry, and home smoking policies were associated with less likelihood of being in one of the smoking trajectories (vs. the nonsmoking trajectory). Conclusions Adolescents exhibit diverse patterns of smoking during adolescence and tobacco-related influences were strong predictors of trajectory membership. PMID:18809130

  16. Smoke-Free Policies at Home, Church, and Work: Smoking Levels and Recent Quit Attempts Among a Southeastern Rural Population, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Carla J.; Swan, Deanne W.; Kegler, Michelle C.; Fredrick, George; Daniel, Sandra

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to examine the cumulative effect of smoke-free policies and social support for smoking cessation in the home, at church, and at work on smoking levels and quit attempts in the context of a community-based study of rural African Americans and whites in the Southeast. Methods We conducted a baseline survey to assess sociodemographics, smoking behavior, level of social support for smoking cessation, and smoke-free policies at home, church, and work. W...

  17. Predictors of smoking cessation in smokers with chronic periodontitis: a 24-month study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inoue, Gislene; Rosa, Ecinele F.; Fueta Gomes, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    .16-12.30), baseline CO levels less than 10ppm (OR = 5.81, 95%CI 1.76-19.23), not living or working with another smoker (OR = 7.38, 95%CI 1.76-30.98) and a lower mean Fagerström test score (OR = 5.63, 95%CI 1.55-20.43). We concluded that smoking cessation was associated with demographic, smoking history and cigarette......The purpose of this 24-month study was to identify predictors of smoking cessation in a cohort of smokers with chronic periodontitis, attending a multidisciplinary smoking cessation program. Of the 286 subjects screened, 116 were included and received non-surgical periodontal treatment and smoking...... cessation therapy, which consisted of lectures, cognitive behavioral therapy, and pharmacotherapy, according to their individual needs. During initial periodontal treatment, dentists actively motivated the study subjects to stop smoking, using motivational interviewing techniques. Further smoking cessation...

  18. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ... prohibited without prior written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy ...

  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights reserved. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior ... notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights reserved. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior ...

  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2018 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights reserved. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission. ... 2017 American Academy of Dermatology. All rights reserved. Reproduction or republication strictly prohibited without prior written permission.

  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Difference Award Native American Health Service Resident Rotation PICMED Grant Professionalism Award Resident-Fellow QI Project ... Volunteers Overseas International Native American Health Services Resident Rotation Shade Structure Program SPOTme® Skin Cancer Screening Program ...

  2. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Dermatology. All ... written permission. AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology. All ...

  3. Workplace interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Kate; Lancaster, Tim

    2014-02-26

    The workplace has potential as a setting through which large groups of people can be reached to encourage smoking cessation. 1. To categorize workplace interventions for smoking cessation tested in controlled studies and to determine the extent to which they help workers to stop smoking.2. To collect and evaluate data on costs and cost effectiveness associated with workplace interventions. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register (July 2013), MEDLINE (1966 - July 2013), EMBASE (1985 - June 2013), and PsycINFO (to June 2013), amongst others. We searched abstracts from international conferences on tobacco and the bibliographies of identified studies and reviews for additional references. We selected interventions conducted in the workplace to promote smoking cessation. We included only randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials allocating individuals, workplaces, or companies to intervention or control conditions. One author extracted information relating to the characteristics and content of all kinds of interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the studies, and a second author checked them. For this update we have conducted meta-analyses of the main interventions, using the generic inverse variance method to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. We include 57 studies (61 comparisons) in this updated review. We found 31 studies of workplace interventions aimed at individual workers, covering group therapy, individual counselling, self-help materials, nicotine replacement therapy, and social support, and 30 studies testing interventions applied to the workplace as a whole, i.e. environmental cues, incentives, and comprehensive programmes. The trials were generally of moderate to high quality, with results that were consistent with those found in other settings. Group therapy programmes (odds ratio (OR) for cessation 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05 to 2.80; eight trials, 1309 participants), individual

  4. [Smoking and periodontal disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shizukuishi, Satoshi

    2007-02-01

    Over the past 20 years, numerous investigations have demonstrated epidemiologically and biologically that smoking is one of the most significant risk factors with respect to the development and progression of periodontal disease. In terms of the mechanism via which smoking influences periodontitis progression, various factors contribute to the deleterious periodontal effects of smoking, including alteration of both microbial and host response factors. Furthermore, since it is well known that smoking is also a risk factor of osteoporosis, the combination of smoking with osteoporosis further enhances the risk of periodontal disease. Recent investigations reported that passive smoking exposure may be a risk factor of periodontal disease and may stimulate inflammatory responses of periodontal tissue.

  5. Measurements of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, F.P.; Geusebroek, M.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van Egmond, B.F.

    2005-02-01

    For Euromate measurements are performed at 21 December 2004, in order to characterize their new smoking chamber 'rookabri S+G2'. At location gas analysis and particle measurements are performed. A number of off-line sampled organic smoke trace compounds were analysed at our laboratory. Sampling and measurements were performed at different smoke levels with 0, 2, 4 and 6 smoking volunteers. The smoke-abri is a specially designed space for smokers in which the environment is cleared from tobacco smoke and odor [nl

  6. Achieving smoking abstinence is associated with decreased cocaine use in cocaine-dependent patients receiving smoking-cessation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winhusen, Theresa M; Kropp, Frankie; Theobald, Jeff; Lewis, Daniel F

    2014-01-01

    Past research suggests that a significant relationship exists between cigarette smoking and illicit-stimulant abuse. The present study evaluated the association between achieving smoking abstinence in response to smoking-cessation treatment (SCT) and illicit-stimulant abstinence in cocaine- and/or methamphetamine-dependent participants. Secondary analysis of a randomized, 10-week trial conducted at 12 substance use disorder (SUD) treatment programs. Two hundred and sixty seven adults, meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for cocaine and/or methamphetamine-dependence and interested in quitting smoking were randomized to SUD treatment as usual plus SCT consisting of weekly individual smoking cessation counseling, extended-release (XL) bupropion (300 mg/day), nicotine inhaler, and contingency management for smoking abstinence. Illicit-stimulant-abstinence was measured by self-report and urine drug screens. Smoking abstinence was assessed via self-report and carbon monoxide levels. A significant effect was found for the cocaine-dependent subsample (N=147) in which participants who stopped smoking were abstinent for illicit stimulants an average of 78.2% of the post-smoking-quit weeks (weeks 4-10) relative to 63.6% in participants who continued smoking (X(2)(1)=8.55, p<.01, d=0.36). No significant effects were found for the sample as a whole (N=249) or for the methamphetamine-dependent subsample (N=102). The present results suggest that cocaine-dependent patients achieving smoking abstinence in response to SCT might evidence not only improved smoking outcomes but improved cocaine-use outcomes as well. Future research to replicate this finding appears warranted. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Screening for secondhand smoke in schoolchildren in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ino, Toshihiro; Kurosawa, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    There is no systematic screening for secondhand smoke exposure in children. In 2002, we began a secondhand smoke screening (SSS) program for grade 4 elementary schoolchildren with the cooperation of public administration. The SSS program consisted of urinary cotinine measurement in children and a questionnaire survey of their parents. More than 1200 schoolchildren were enrolled in this program annually. The level of urinary cotinine in 30% of the children was >5 ng/mL, whereas in half of them it was undetectable. The major risk factor affecting cotinine level was mother's smoking. Average cotinine was significantly high in children who had a history of "short stature", "decayed tooth and/or periodontal disease," and "frequent stridor". In addition, the highest level of cotinine was detected in children whose father and/or mother smoked in the living room and the lowest level of cotinine was detected in children whose father and/or mother smoked on the veranda or outside the door. These levels, however, were two-fivefold higher than in children whose parents did not smoke. On follow-up questionnaire survey 4 years after initial SSS, significant elevated motivation for smoking cessation was noted. The SSS program is a very simple mass screen that can be done using only a urine test and is very effective for motivating parents to stop smoking with regard to cost benefit. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  8. Change in smoking prevalence among pregnant women 1982-93.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, P J; Potter, J; Dulberg, C; Niday, P; Nimrod, C; Tawagi, G

    1995-01-01

    Maternal smoking is the most prevalent risk factor for low birthweight in Canada. This study compared the prevalence of maternal smoking before and during pregnancy from 1983 to 1992. Population-based surveys of 3,296 women during six months in 1983 and 7,940 women during 12 months in 1992 were conducted in Ottawa-Carleton using a self-administered questionnaire completed in the hospital postpartum period. The proportion of women smoking after the first trimester of pregnancy decreased from 28.5% in 1983 to 18.7% in 1992. This difference was due mainly to a reduction in the proportion of women who smoked before pregnancy (37.4% to 26.4%). Another factor was that more women stopped smoking early in pregnancy (23.9% to 29.2%). Gradients in levels of smoking by age, education, marital status and poverty level still exist; however, this is true for the general population. Programs to decrease smoking in pregnancy should continue to focus on reducing smoking among women in general and among those in the preconception and early stages of pregnancy in particular.

  9. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial using best-selling smoking-cessation book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, James P; Oh, Anita; Luginbuhl, Adam; Curry, Joseph; Keane, William; Cognetti, David

    2017-07-01

    Our prospective, randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the self-help book, The Easy Way to Stop Smoking, by Allen Carr, in promoting smoking cessation in patients with head and neck cancer. We assessed active smokers for their willingness to read a smoking cessation book. Participants were randomized to either receive the book from our department or recommended to purchase the book. All patients received smoking cessation counseling at recruitment. Phone surveys were conducted at short- and long-term intervals to determine if the patients had purchased and/or read the book and whether they were still smoking. One hundred twelve patients were recruited, 52 of whom completed follow-up surveys. Those who received the book for free were more likely to read the book (p = 0.05). Reading the book did not correlate with successful smoking cessation (p = 0.81). Some 26% of the 27 patients who received the book quit smoking compared with 32% of the 25 patients who were recommended the book (p = 0.76). Patients who indicated motivation to quit smoking were more likely to succeed. In our study, smoking cessation did not appear to be influenced by reading The Easy Way to Stop Smoking. Despite 80.8% of the cohort indicating at least a readiness to quit smoking at recruitment, only 28.8% of patients managed to achieve successful smoking cessation at long-term follow-up. Patient motivation remains an important factor in achieving long-term smoking abstinence. Quitting smoking remains a daunting challenge for patients, with multiple interventions likely needed to achieve cessation.

  10. Compliance with smoke-free policies in korean bars and restaurants in california: a descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Veronica L; Hofstetter, C Richard; Nichols, Jeanne F; Chambers, Christina D; Usita, Paula M; Norman, Gregory J; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F

    2015-01-01

    Compliance with California's smoke-free restaurant and bar policies may be more a function of social contingencies and less a function of legal contingencies. The aims of this study were: 1) to report indications of compliance with smoke-free legislation in Korean bars and restaurants in California; 2) to examine the demographic, smoking status, and acculturation factors of who smoked indoors; and 3) to report social cues in opposition to smoking among a sample of Koreans in California. Data were collected by telephone surveys administered by bilingual interviewers between 2007-2009, and included California adults of Korean descent who visited a Korean bar or restaurant in a typical month (N=2,173, 55% female). 1% of restaurant-going participants smoked inside while 7% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean restaurant. Some 23% of bar-going participants smoked inside and 65% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean bar. Presence of ashtrays was related to indoor smoking in bars and restaurants. Among participants who observed smoking, a higher percentage observed someone ask a smoker to stop (17.6%) or gesture to a smoker (27.0%) inside Korean restaurants (N=169) than inside Korean bars (n=141, 17.0% observed verbal cue and 22.7% observed gesture). Participants who smoked inside were significantly younger and more acculturated than participants who did not. Less acculturated participants were significantly more to likely to be told to stop smoking. Ten years after implementation of ordinances, smoking appears to be common in Korean bars in California.

  11. Compliance with smoke-free policies in Korean bars and restaurants: A descriptive analysis in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Veronica L.; Hofstetter, C. Richard; Nichols, Jeanne F.; Chambers, Christina D.; Usita, Paula M.; Norman, Gregory J.; Kang, Sunny; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Compliance with California's smoke-free restaurant and bar policies may be more a function of social contingencies and less a function of legal contingencies. The aims of this study are: 1) to report indications of compliance with smoke-free legislation in Korean bars and restaurants in California; 2) to examine the demographic, smoking status, and acculturation factors of who smoked indoors; and 3) to report social cues in opposition to smoking among a sample of Koreans in California. Method Data were collected by telephone surveys administered by bilingual interviewers between 2007– 2009, and included California adults of Korean descent who visited a Korean bar or restaurant in a typical month (N=2,173, 55% female). Results 1% of restaurant-going participants smoked inside while 7% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean restaurant. 23% of bar-going participants smoked inside and 65% observed someone else smoke inside a Korean bar. Presence of ashtrays was related to indoor smoking in bars and restaurants. Among participants who observed smoking, a higher percentage observed someone ask a smoker to stop (17.6%) or gesture to a smoker (27.0%) inside Korean restaurants (N=169) than inside Korean bars (n=141, 17.0% observed verbal cue and 22.7% observed gesture). Participants who smoked inside were significantly younger and more acculturated than participants who did not. Less acculturated participants were significantly more to likely to be told to stop smoking. Conclusions Ten years after implementation of ordinances, smoking was common in Korean bars in California. PMID:25735336

  12. Exposure to teachers smoking and adolescent smoking behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L H; Osler, M; Roberts, C

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking.......To determine whether adolescent smoking behaviour is associated with their perceived exposure to teachers or other pupils smoking at school, after adjustment for exposure to smoking at home, in school, and best friends smoking....

  13. Nuclear stopping power at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Date, S.; Gyulassy, M.; Sumiyoshi, H.

    1985-03-01

    Recent p + A → p + X data are analyzed within the context of the multi-chain and additive quark models. We deduce the average energy loss of a baryon as a function of distance traversed in nuclear matter. Consistency of the multi-chain model is checked by comparing the predictions for p + A → π +- + X with data. We discuss the space-time development of baryon stopping and show how longitudinal growth limits the energy deposition per unit length. Predictions are made for the proton spectra to be measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN and BNL. Finally, we conclude that the stopping domain for central collisions of heavy ions extends up to center of mass kinetic energies KEsub(em) asymptotically equals 3 +- 1 AGev. (author)

  14. Nursing interventions for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Virginia Hill; Heath, Laura; Livingstone-Banks, Jonathan; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-12-15

    Healthcare professionals, including nurses, frequently advise people to improve their health by stopping smoking. Such advice may be brief, or part of more intensive interventions. To determine the effectiveness of nursing-delivered smoking cessation interventions in adults. To establish whether nursing-delivered smoking cessation interventions are more effective than no intervention; are more effective if the intervention is more intensive; differ in effectiveness with health state and setting of the participants; are more effective if they include follow-ups; are more effective if they include aids that demonstrate the pathophysiological effect of smoking. We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register and CINAHL in January 2017. Randomized trials of smoking cessation interventions delivered by nurses or health visitors with follow-up of at least six months. Two review authors extracted data independently. The main outcome measure was abstinence from smoking after at least six months of follow-up. We used the most rigorous definition of abstinence for each trial, and biochemically-validated rates if available. Where statistically and clinically appropriate, we pooled studies using a Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect model and reported the outcome as a risk ratio (RR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Fifty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria, nine of which are new for this update. Pooling 44 studies (over 20,000 participants) comparing a nursing intervention to a control or to usual care, we found the intervention increased the likelihood of quitting (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.38); however, statistical heterogeneity was moderate (I 2 = 50%) and not explained by subgroup analysis. Because of this, we judged the quality of evidence to be moderate. Despite most studies being at unclear risk of bias in at least one domain, we did not downgrade the quality of evidence further, as restricting the main analysis to only those studies at low risk

  15. The TRIUMF stopped π-μ channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Qazzaz, N.M.M.; Beer, G.A.; Mason, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The TRIUMF π-μ channel (M9) is described and the measured optical paramters are compared with design values. Measured beam characteristics of pions and muons for several different momenta are reported for protons incident on Be and Cu production targets. A beam of cloud muons at the channel momentum, from π decays near the production target, has been obtained having a high stopping density and small spot size. (auth)

  16. Finite Optimal Stopping Problems: The Seller's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, Mehdi; Smith, J. Cole

    2011-01-01

    We consider a version of an optimal stopping problem, in which a customer is presented with a finite set of items, one by one. The customer is aware of the number of items in the finite set and the minimum and maximum possible value of each item, and must purchase exactly one item. When an item is presented to the customer, she or he observes its…

  17. Electron mass stopping power in H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fursa, Dmitry V.; Zammit, Mark C.; Threlfall, Robert L.; Savage, Jeremy S.; Bray, Igor

    2017-08-01

    Calculations of electron mass stopping power (SP) of electrons in H2 have been performed using the convergent close-coupling method for incident electron energies up to 2000 eV. Convergence of the calculated SP has been established by increasing the size of the close-coupling expansion from 9 to 491 states. Good agreement was found with the SP measurements of Munoz et al. [Chem. Phys. Lett. 433, 253 (2007), 10.1016/j.cplett.2006.10.114].

  18. [Smoking cessation among HIV smokers: Experience of a French hospital-based smoking cessation service].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulika, S; Le Faou, A-L

    2017-04-01

    There is a particular need among HIV-infected patients to stop smoking because of the risk of smoking-related complications and the high prevalence of cigarette smoking among them. Only a few studies have focused on this population in real-world settings. Investigate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation support for HIV-infected patients at the Georges Pompidou University hospital (HEGP) smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period. A retrospective study of smoking cessation medical records was performed for 39 smokers who had visited for the first time the HEGP smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period and declared to be infected by the HIV on their smoking cessation self-questionnaire. The study has described smokers' characteristics and follow-up to measure the abstinence rate, validated by the patient declaration, the registration of the number of days without cigarettes between each visit and a measure of expired carbon monoxide ≤ 5ppm at each visit. We examined smokers lost to follow-up and they have been considered as smokers. Maintained abstinence rates at 3 month-follow-up and at 9 months/one year were registered. The 39 HIV-infected smokers registered in the study were mainly male (30/39), were heavy smokers with a consumption mean of nearly 23 cigarettes per day. One third presented high nicotine dependence with a Fagerström test ≥ 7. A depression history was reported among one third of them. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were declared by 20% and 33% respectively among them. Thirteen percent of them received opioid replacement therapies, 41% were cannabis users (one out of four were daily users) and 10 % declared alcohol abuse. 85% of patients received nicotine replacement therapy (patch and/or oral forms) and 15% varenicline ® , along with behavioral support techniques. At 3 month-follow-up, smoking cessation was validated for 20.5% of patients and at 9 months/1 year, smoking cessation rate decreased at 13%. When

  19. Smoking during pregnancy: childbirth and health study in primary care in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlingsdottir, Asthildur; Sigurdsson, Emil L; Jonsson, Jon Steinar; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Sigurdsson, Johann A

    2014-03-01

    To study the prevalence and possible predictors for smoking during pregnancy in Iceland. A cross-sectional study. Twenty-six primary health care centres in Iceland 2009-2010. SUBJECTS. Women attending antenatal care in the 11th-16th week of pregnancy were invited to participate by convenient consecutive manner, stratified according to residency. A total of 1111 women provided data in this first phase of the cohort study. Smoking habits before and during early pregnancy were assessed with a postal questionnaire, which also included questions about socio-demographic background, physical and emotional well-being, and use of medications. The prevalence of smoking prior to pregnancy was 20% (223/1111). During early pregnancy, it was 5% (53/1111). In comparison with women who stopped smoking during early pregnancy, those who continued to smoke had on average a significantly lower level of education, had smoked more cigarettes per day before pregnancy, and were more likely to use nicotine replacement therapy in addition to smoking during pregnancy. A higher number of cigarettes consumed per day before pregnancy and a lower level of education were the strongest predictors for continued smoking during pregnancy. The majority of Icelandic women who smoke stop when they become pregnant, and the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Iceland is still about 5%. Our results indicate stronger nicotine dependence in women who do not stop smoking during pregnancy. Awareness of this can help general practitioners (GPs) and others providing antenatal care to approach these women with more insight and empathy, which might theoretically help them to quit.

  20. Teenagers and Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PTA Today, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The Coalition on Smoking OR Health was established to coordinate education programs to discourage young people from smoking. Projects that could be undertaken by parent associations are suggested. (MT)

  1. Smoking and asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000504.htm Smoking and asthma To use the sharing features on ... your allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Smoking is a trigger for many people who have ...

  2. Allegheny County Smoking Rates

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Smoking rates for each Census Tract in Allegheny County were produced for the study “Developing small-area predictions for smoking and obesity prevalence in the...

  3. [Smoking and stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Yoichiro

    2011-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for the brain infarction (lacunar and atherothrombotic brain infarction) and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Not only active smoking but also passive smoking and smokeless tobacco products pose a risk. The risk after smoking cessation for 5-10 years is equal to that faced by a non-smoker. Many patients continue smoking even after an attack of stroke; therefore, support measures to enforce nonsmoking are required in this high-risk population. We offer nonsmoking support using the 5A approach, and assess the nonsmoking stage (precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance). We also administer medical therapy for smoking cessation when the patients find it difficult to quit smoking on their own accord. Nicotine dependency needs a follow-up like that required for other risk factors in the primary and secondary prevention of the stroke because smoking is a chronic disease that tends to recur.

  4. Smoking and Periodontal Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Torkzaban; Khalili; Ziaei

    2013-01-01

    Context The aim of this review was to examine evidences for the association between smoking and periodontal disease, to discuss possible biological mechanisms whereby smoking may adversely affect the periodontium, and to consider the effect of smoking on periodontal treatment. Evidence Acquisition A web-based search in PubMed and Google Scholar was performed to identify publications regarding the effects of smoking on various aspe...

  5. Economics of smoking cessation

    OpenAIRE

    Parrott, S.; Godfrey, C.

    2004-01-01

    Smoking imposes a huge economic burden on society— currently up to 15% of total healthcare costs in developed countries. Smoking cessation can save years of life, at a very low cost compared with alternative interventions. This chapter reviews some of the economic aspects of smoking cessation.

  6. Wildfire Smoke Emissions webinar

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar presented by Wayne Cascio will highlight updates to the Wildfire Smoke Guide, as well as the Smoke Sense app, which is a mobile application that gets air quality information to people impacted by wildfire smoke, and helps those affected learn

  7. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Razi Iqbal; Muhammad Usman Ghani

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT), the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming ...

  8. Smoking and psychiatric disorders: a comorbidity survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopes F.L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown a positive correlation between smoking and psychiatric disorders. To investigate the prevalence of cigarette smoking, 277 psychiatric outpatients with anxiety or depressive disorders (DSM-IV answered a self-evaluation questionnaire about smoking behavior and were compared with a group of 68 control subjects. The diagnoses (N = 262 were: 30.2% (N = 79 major depressive disorder, 23.3% (N = 61 panic disorder, 15.6% (N = 41 social anxiety disorder, 7.3% (N = 19 other anxiety disorders, and 23.7% (N = 62 comorbidity disorders. Among them, 26.3% (N = 69 were smokers, 23.7% (N = 62 were former smokers and 50.0% (N = 131 were nonsmokers. The prevalence of nicotine dependence among the smokers was 59.0% (DSM-IV. The frequency of cigarette smoking did not show any significant difference among the five classes of diagnosis. The social anxiety disorder patients were the heaviest smokers (75.0%, with more unsuccessful attempts to stop smoking (89.0%. The frequency of former smokers was significantly higher among older subjects and nonsmokers were significantly younger (chi² = 9.13, d.f. = 2, P = 0.01. Our data present some clinical implications suggesting that in our psychiatric outpatient sample with anxiety disorder, major depression and comorbidity (anxiety disorder and major depression, the frequency of cigarette smoking did not differ from the frequency found in the control group or in general population studies. Some specific features of our population (outpatients, anxiety and depressive disorders might be responsible for these results.

  9. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: Effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Kleinjan, M.; Bricker, J.B.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect

  10. Moments of random sums and Robbins' problem of optimal stopping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gnedin, A.V.; Iksanov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Robbins' problem of optimal stopping is that of minimising the expected rank of an observation chosen by some nonanticipating stopping rule. We settle a conjecture regarding the value of the stopped variable under the rule that yields the minimal expected rank, by embedding the problem in a much

  11. Start-Stop Test Procedures on the PEMFC Stack Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitzel, Jens; Nygaard, Frederik; Veltzé, Sune

    The test is addressed to investigate the influence on stack durability of a long stop followed by a restart of a stack. Long stop should be defined as a stop in which the anodic compartment is fully filled by air due to stack leakages. In systems, leakage level of the stack is low and time to fil...

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among 16 to 18 years old boys and girls in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Ghobain Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the prevalence and characteristics of cigarette smoking among secondary school students (16- to 18-year-old boys and girls in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. Methods: We applied a standard two-stage, cross-sectional study design. Secondary schools for both boys and girls in Riyadh city were randomly selected using a cluster sampling method. We used the global youth tobacco survey (GYTS tool to achieve our objectives. Results: Among 1272 students (606 boys and 666 girls, the prevalence of those ever smoked cigarettes was 42.8% (55.6% of boys and 31.4% of girls. The prevalence of current smoking was 19.5% (31.2% of boys and 8.9% of girls. Despite the fact that the majority of students think smoking is harmful, most do not wish to stop smoking, and they had not tried to stop in the past year. Cigarette smoking is significantly associated with the male gender, having friends who smoke, and having parents who smoke, but is not significantly associated with the type of school attended. Conclusion: Smoking prevalence among secondary schools students in Saudi Arabia is high and alarming. There is a need to implement an education program about the risks of smoking and to include parents and friends as healthy models to prevent students from beginning to smoke.

  13. Biobjective Optimization and Evaluation for Transit Signal Priority Strategies at Bus Stop-to-Stop Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new optimization framework for the transit signal priority strategies in terms of green extension, red truncation, and phase insertion at the stop-to-stop segment of bus lines. The optimization objective is to minimize both passenger delay and the deviation from bus schedule simultaneously. The objective functions are defined with respect to the segment between bus stops, which can include the adjacent signalized intersections and downstream bus stops. The transit priority signal timing is optimized by using a biobjective optimization framework considering both the total delay at a segment and the delay deviation from the arrival schedules at bus stops. The proposed framework is evaluated using a VISSIM model calibrated with field traffic volume and traffic signal data of Caochangmen Boulevard in Nanjing, China. The optimized TSP-based phasing plans result in the reduced delay and improved reliability, compared with the non-TSP scenario under the different traffic flow conditions in the morning peak hour. The evaluation results indicate the promising performance of the proposed optimization framework in reducing the passenger delay and improving the bus schedule adherence for the urban transit system.

  14. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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  15. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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  19. Difficulties of smoking cessation in diabetic inpatients benefiting from a systematic consultation to help them to give up smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scemama, O; Hamo-Tchatchouang, E; Le Faou, A L; Altman, J J

    2006-11-01

    To assess the value of systematic smoking cessation consultations for diabetic smokers admitted to hospital. All diabetic smokers admitted to the Diabetes Department of Georges Pompidou European Hospital between February 2003 and February 2004 were systematically offered a consultation with a physician specialised in tobacco cessation. Follow-up visits at three, six and nine months were planned. Of the 306 diabetic patients admitted, 38 (12.4%) were smokers. There were more men than women in the group of smokers and the diabetic smokers were younger than the non-smokers. The smokers had fewer micro-angiopathic complications than the non-smokers, but there was no difference in the frequency of macro-angiopathic complications. The level of nicotine physical dependence was moderate or high for 60% of the smokers. Although all the smokers agreed to the consultation, less than half agreed to drug-based treatments to help them to give up smoking and only 15% returned for the six-month visit. Only one patient had stopped smoking at the six-month visit. This study demonstrates the difficulties in systematic interventions to help diabetic patients to stop smoking. Diabetic smokers probably constitute a specific population for which the barriers to giving up smoking should be explored.

  20. Predictors of Arab American Adolescent Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Virginia Hill; Weglicki, Linda S.; Templin, Thomas; Hammad, Adnan; Jamil, Hikmet; Kulwicki, Anahid

    2006-01-01

    This study examined personal, psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental predictors in tobacco use for 1,671 Arab American adolescents. Cigarette smoking in the past 30 days was 6.9%. This increased from 1% at age 14 to 14% at age 18. Twenty-nine percent of the youths reported having ever smoked cigarettes. Experimentation with narghile was…

  1. Cigarette smoking initiation during college predicts future alcohol involvement: A matched-samples study

    OpenAIRE

    Myers, MG; Doran, NM; Edland, SD; Amanda Schweizer, C; Wall, TL

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about the relationship between cigarette smoking initiation and subsequent alcohol involvement. To address this question, the present study compared alcohol use between students who initiated smoking during college and a matched sample of never-smoking students. We hypothesized greater increases in alcohol involvement among smoking initiators, mediated by exposure to cigarette use situations. Method: Included in the present study were 104 Chinese American and Korean...

  2. Health education pamphlets about smoking-their benefit to smokers and non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meillier, Lucette Kirsten; Osler, M; Sabroe, Svend

    1999-01-01

    in 1994. Of these 71% also participated in a telephone interview enquiring about the use of health education material, smoking status and socio-demographic variables, 39% of readers of household-delivered anti-smoking pamphlets reported having gained information from them and 22% reported having made...... health education materials from other places. Non-smokers received (3 49%) and read pamphlets about smoking as frequently as did smokers who did not intend to quit. In conclusion, written health education material was well received by readers, but, when distributed in a more open setting it needs...... to be targeted towards smokers who are considering stopping smoking. In general practice, smokers not thinking of stopping were open to health education, and pamphlets used in this setting should also target this group. Non-smokers contribute indirectly to smokers quitting by providing support to smokers...

  3. Experiences of COPD patients with existing smoking cessation programs and their preferences for improvement - a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aumann, I; Tedja, L; von der Schulenburg, J M Graf

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). For current smokers who are diagnosed with COPD, their first treatment option is to stop smoking. Motivation is necessary for long-term smoking cessation; therefore, when designing smoking cessation programs, the patients' needs and preferences should be considered. We focused on COPD patients' experiences with existing smoking cessation programs and evaluated their preferences for the improvement of these programs. We conducted 18 guideline-based interviews with COPD patients between April and June 2014 in Germany. Each patient with COPD, who was a current or past smoker and had made at least one attempt to quit smoking in the past 5 years, was included in the study. We audiotaped, verbatim transcribed, and evaluated the interviews, using content analysis. The patients had broad and different experiences with pharmaceutical, behavioral, and alternative approaches that supported or negatively influenced the smoking cessation process. Pharmaceuticals were viewed as an expensive alternative with many side effects although they helped to stop cravings for a few moments. Furthermore, the bad structure and impersonal content of the seminars for smoking cessation negatively influenced group cohesion, and therefore degrading the patients' motivation to stop smoking. Alternative methods, such as acupuncture and hypnosis were mostly ineffective in smoking cessation, but in some cases, served as motivational strategies. Negative experiences with smoking cessation were explained by the patients' lack of motivation or resolution. Other negative experiences, such as the structure of seminars for smoking cessation and the high price of pharmaceuticals should be addressed through policy changes to increase the patients' motivation to quit smoking.

  4. Processing of global and selective stop signals: application of Donders’ subtraction method to stop-signal task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Laar, M.C.; van den Wildenberg, W.P.M.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.; van der Molen, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper applied Donders’ subtraction method to examine the processing of global and selective stop signals in the stop-signal paradigm. Participants performed on three different versions of the stop task: a global task and two selective tasks. A global task required participants to inhibit their

  5. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  6. Minimization of bus stop number on a bus station

    OpenAIRE

    Stanislav PALÚCH

    2013-01-01

    A bus station contains several bus stops. Only one bus can occupy a singlebus stop at a time. Buses of many trips arrive to the bus station during the day (or duringanother considered period) and every bus occupies a bus stop for a certain time interval.The set of available bus stops is limited. This paper studies a problem how to assign a busstop to every bus trip in order to minimize the number of assigned bus stops and in orderto comply several additional conditions. Several approaches to ...

  7. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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  8. Early Stop Criterion from the Bootstrap Ensemble

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Larsen, Jan; Fog, Torben L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of generalization error estimation in neural networks. A new early stop criterion based on a Bootstrap estimate of the generalization error is suggested. The estimate does not require the network to be trained to the minimum of the cost function, as required...... by other methods based on asymptotic theory. Moreover, in contrast to methods based on cross-validation which require data left out for testing, and thus biasing the estimate, the Bootstrap technique does not have this disadvantage. The potential of the suggested technique is demonstrated on various time...

  9. Jojoba could stop the desert creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-25

    The Sahara desert is estimated to be expanding at a rate of 5km a year. The Sudanese government is experimenting with jojoba in six different regions as the bush has the potential to stop this ''desert creep''. The plant, a native to Mexico, is long known for its resistance to drought and for the versatile liquid wax that can be extracted from its seeds. It is estimated that one hectare of mature plants could produce 3000 kg of oil, currently selling at $50 per litre, and so earn valuable foreign currency.

  10. [Abbreviations in daily language: stop it].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbes, A C; Girbes, A R J

    2017-01-01

    Abbreviations are used more and more in physician common parlance and it seems they are on the way to becoming a new jargon. However, identical abbreviations may have different meanings, especially in different medical specialties. Moreover, many physicians do not know the meaning of specific abbreviations or are attributing the wrong meaning to the abbreviation. This will lead to misunderstanding and therefore danger to the patient. The authors are calling for a stop on the use of spoken abbreviations and for minimising the use of abbreviations in clinical notes and medical prescriptions.

  11. End-Stop Exemplar Based Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren I.

    2003-01-01

    An approach to exemplar based recognition of visual shapes is presented. The shape information is described by attributed interest points (keys) detected by an end-stop operator. The attributes describe the statistics of lines and edges local to the interest point, the position of neighboring int...... interest points, and (in the training phase) a list of recognition names. Recognition is made by a simple voting procedure. Preliminary experiments indicate that the recognition is robust to noise, small deformations, background clutter and partial occlusion....

  12. The tobacco industry's role in the 16 Cities Study of secondhand tobacco smoke: do the data support the stated conclusions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Richard L; Hammond, S Katharine; Glantz, Stanton A

    2006-12-01

    Since 1996, the tobacco industry has used the 16 Cities Study conclusions that workplace secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures are lower than home exposures to argue that workplace and other smoking restrictions are unnecessary. Our goal was to determine the origins and objectives of the 16 Cities Study through analysis of internal tobacco industry documents and regulatory agency and court records, and to evaluate the validity of the study's conclusions. The tobacco industry's purpose in conducting the 16 Cities Study was to develop data showing that workplace SHS exposures were negligible, using these data to stop smoking restrictions by the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The extensive involvement of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Company and the tobacco industry's Center for Indoor Air Research in controlling the study was not fully disclosed. The study's definition of "smoking workplace" included workplaces where smoking was restricted to designated areas or where no smoking was observed. This definition substantially reduced the study's reported average SHS concentrations in "smoking workplaces" because SHS levels in unrestricted smoking workplaces are much greater than in workplaces with designated smoking areas or where no smoking occurred. Stratifying the data by home smoking status and comparing exposures by workplace smoking status, however, indicates that smoke-free workplaces would halve the total SHS exposure of those living with smokers and virtually eliminate SHS exposure for most others. Data in the 16 Cities Study reveal that smoke-free workplaces would dramatically reduce total SHS exposure, providing significant worker and public health benefits.

  13. Are pharmacists reducing COPD'S impact through smoking cessation and assessing inhaled steroid use?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Arpana; Harrison, Annie; Torun, Perihan

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) COPD 2004 guidelines recommend: * COPD patients who smoke should be encouraged to stop at every opportunity; * Inhaled corticosteroid should be used only among patients with moderate to severe COPD; * Pharmacists should identify...... smokers and provide smoking cessation advice. The community pharmacy contract requires pharmacists to review patients' medications, creating an opportunity for reviewing the prescribing of inhaled corticosteroids in COPD. The survey explored the degree to which community pharmacists in North West England...

  14. Frame by frame stop motion non-traditional approaches to stop motion animation

    CERN Document Server

    Gasek, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In a world that is dominated by computer images, alternative stop motion techniques like pixilation, time-lapse photography and down-shooting techniques combined with new technologies offer a new, tangible and exciting approach to animation. With over 25 years professional experience, industry veteran, Tom Gasek presents a comprehensive guide to stop motion animation without the focus on puppetry or model animation. With tips, tricks and hands-on exercises, Frame by Frame will help both experienced and novice filmmakers get the most effective results from this underutilized branch of animation

  15. Behavioral Interventions Associated with Smoking Cessation in the Treatment of Tobacco Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Roberts

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke is the leading cause of preventable premature death worldwide. While the majority of smokers would like to stop, the habitual and addictive nature of smoking makes cessation difficult. Clinical guidelines suggest that smoking cessation interventions should include both behavioural support and pharmacotherapy (e.g. nicotine replacement therapy. This commentary paper focuses on the important role of behavioural interventions in encouraging and supporting smoking cessation attempts. Recent developments in the field are discussed, including ‘cut-down to quit’, the behaviour change techniques taxonomy (BCTT and very brief advice (VBA on smoking. The paper concludes with a discussion of the important role that health professionals can and should play in the delivery of smoking cessation interventions.

  16. [Socioeconomic differences and smoking: clear connections with implications for tobacco policy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunst, A E

    2017-01-01

    - Smoking is more common among people with a lower educational level, professional qualifications and income. This is a major contributor to inequalities in health and mortality.- Inequalities in smoking appear to have their origin in early adolescence. Later in life these inequalities increase due to differences in smoking cessation between higher and lower socioeconomic status groups.- The inequalities in smoking cessation have already been explained in great detail. The close association between smoking and a lower level of education during adolescence is much less clear.- Evaluation of tobacco control measures has shown differences in effectiveness between groups of higher and lower socioeconomic status.- There are possibilities to allow measures to control tobacco to be more effective in groups of a lower socioeconomic status. Higher taxes on tobacco products should be accompanied by better access to professional help to stop smoking.- For the early recognition of unforeseen reactions, structural control measures should be monitored.

  17. Simulating Dynamic Network Models and Adolescent Smoking: The Impact of Varying Peer Influence and Peer Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakon, Cynthia M; Hipp, John R; Wang, Cheng; Butts, Carter T; Jose, Rupa

    2015-12-01

    We used a stochastic actor-based approach to examine the effect of peer influence and peer selection--the propensity to choose friends who are similar--on smoking among adolescents. Data were collected from 1994 to 1996 from 2 schools involved in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health, with respectively 2178 and 976 students, and different levels of smoking. Our experimental manipulations of the peer influence and selection parameters in a simulation strategy indicated that stronger peer influence decreased school-level smoking. In contrast to the assumption that a smoker may induce a nonsmoker to begin smoking, adherence to antismoking norms may result in an adolescent nonsmoker inducing a smoker to stop smoking and reduce school-level smoking.

  18. [Smoking cessation in Galician [Spain] smokers during pregnancy and breast feeding, 1954-2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Santiago-Pérez, María Isolina; Alonso, Begoña

    2006-01-01

    To determine how many women living in Galicia (Spain) quit smoking during pregnancy and in the first 6 months of breast feeding. A second objective was to identify possible temporal changes in smoking cessation. Data retrospectively provided by smokers and ex-smokers living in Galicia were analyzed. A total of 31.9% (26.9-37.0) of Galician smokers did not quit smoking during pregnancy or in the 6 first months of breast feeding. No statistically significant differences were found in the percentage of women who stopped smoking in relation to the period when they became pregnant. A tendency towards lower cessation rates was found. A high percentage of pregnant women do not quit smoking during pregnancy or in the first 6 months of breast feeding. These data indicate that health policies on smoking during pregnancy and breast feeding should be improved.

  19. Promoting smoke-free environments in Latin America: a comparison of methods to assess secondhand smoke exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Tang, Erika; Travers, Mark J; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) contains toxicants and carcinogens that are known to cause premature death and disease. Objectively measuring SHS exposure can support and evaluate smoke-free legislation. In Latin America, the most commonly used methods to measure SHS exposure are airborne nicotine and respirable suspended particles (PM₂.₅). Here we present results from studies conducted in public places and homes across Latin American countries. Airborne nicotine was detected in most locations between 2002-2006, before the implementation of 100% smoke-free legislation in Uruguay, Panama, Guatemala and other large cities within Latin America. Between 2006 and 2008, PM₂.₅ levels were found to be five times higher in places where smoking was present at the time of sampling compared to those without smoking. Measuring SHS exposure across Latin America has increased our understanding of the magnitude of exposure in this region and results have been used to effectively promote smoke-free legislation.

  20. Smoking reduction, smoking cessation, and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, Nina S; Holst, Claus; Prescott, Eva

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the association between changes in smoking habits and mortality by pooling data from three large cohort studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The study included a total of 19,732 persons who had been examined between 1967 and 1988, with reexaminations at 5- to 10-year...... intervals and a mean follow-up of 15.5 years. Date of death and cause of death were obtained by record linkage with nationwide registers. By means of Cox proportional hazards models, heavy smokers (>or=15 cigarettes/day) who reduced their daily tobacco intake by at least 50% without quitting between...... the first two examinations and participants who quit smoking were compared with persons who continued to smoke heavily. After exclusion of deaths occurring in the first 2 years of follow-up, the authors found the following adjusted hazard ratios for subjects who reduced their smoking: for cardiovascular...

  1. Prevalence and factors associated with smoking among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutia-Pereira, Marilyn; Oliano, Vinicius J; Aranda, Carolina S; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu

    Despite anti-smoking prevention programs, many adolescents start smoking at school age. The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with smoking in adolescents living in Uruguaiana, RS, Brazil. A prospective study was conducted in adolescents (12-19 years), enrolled in municipal schools, who answered a self-administered questionnaire on smoking. 798 adolescents were enrolled in the study, with equal distribution between genders. The tobacco experimentation frequency (ever tried a cigarette, even one or two puffs) was 29.3%; 14.5% started smoking before 12 years of age and 13.0% reported smoking at least one cigarette/day last month. Having a smoking friend (OR: 5.67, 95% CI: 2.06-7.09), having cigarettes offered by friends (OR: 4.21, 95% CI: 2.46-5.76) and having easy access to cigarettes (OR: 3.82, 95% CI: 1.22-5.41) was identified as factors associated with smoking. Having parental guidance on smoking (OR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.45-0.77), having no contact with cigarettes at home in the last week (OR: 0.51, 95% CI: 0.11-0.79) and knowing about the dangers of electronic cigarettes (OR: 0.88, 95% CI: 0.21-0.92) were identified as protection factors. The prevalence of smoking among adolescents in Uruguaiana is high. The implementation of measures to reduce/stop tobacco use and its new forms of consumption, such as electronic cigarettes and hookah, are urgent and imperative in schools. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Cannabis Smoking and Cardiovascular Health: It's Complicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, M R

    2017-08-01

    Many states have legalized cannabis use for treatment of certain medical conditions or have legalized cannabis for recreational use. Consequently, cannabis use prevalence has escalated, giving rise to concerns about potential health effects. Cannabis smoking remains the most prevalent route of administration and is associated with inhalation of chemical toxicants. The aim of this article is to summarize the effects of cannabis smoking on the vasculature and occurrence of cardiovascular (CV) events such as myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  3. With a Little Help from My Friends? Asymmetrical Social Influence on Adolescent Smoking Initiation and Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Steven A; Schaefer, David R

    2014-06-01

    This study investigates whether peer influence on smoking among adolescents is asymmetrical. We hypothesize that several features of smoking lead peers to have a stronger effect on smoking initiation than cessation. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health we estimate a dynamic network model that includes separate effects for increases versus decreases in smoking, while also controlling for endogenous network change. We find that the impact of peer influence is stronger for the initiation of smoking than smoking cessation. Adolescents rarely initiate smoking without peer influence but will cease smoking while their friends continue smoking. We discuss the implications of these results for theories of peer influence and health policy. © American Sociological Association 2014.

  4. Effects of Cigarettes Smoking on Pulmonary Function among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariri Azian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary function testing is a physiological test that measures how an individual inhales or exhales volumes of air as a function of time. Smoking is greatly associated with reduction of pulmonary function. This research is aimed to estimate the values of peak expiratory flow (PEF, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1, forced vital capacity (FVC and ratio between FEV1/FVC among smoking and non-smoking students in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia. Smoking is often related to obstructive disorder with low value of FVC, FEV1 and FEV1/FVC. These pulmonary functions were analyzed based on several variables such as; the number of cigarette smoked per day, duration of smoking, age, and body mass index (BMI values. 70 healthy volunteers consist of smoking and non- smoking students was selected through several sessions. Students were interviewed to answer questionnaire on demographic, lifestyles and their smoking habit. The pulmonary function tests were conducted according to American Thoracic Society (ATS standards. The results of the pulmonary functions were analyzed by using SPSS software to compare the pulmonary functions between the smoker and the non-smoker students. The results of the studies showed that the number of cigarettes smoked by respondent and the BMI values were the significant predictors of the decrease in FEV1/FVC values among university students

  5. At Risk of Prejudice: The Arab American Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seikaly, Zeina Azzam

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the stereotypes associated with Arab Americans. States that these stereotypes must be abandoned to stop prejudice against their community. Provides background information on Arab Americans. Discusses the role that educators and counselors have in helping Arab American students deal with prejudice against them. Includes resources on…

  6. Smoking cessation and the course of Crohn's disease: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosnes, J; Beaugerie, L; Carbonnel, F; Gendre, J P

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the benefit of smoking cessation in individuals with Crohn's disease, we performed an intervention study in a large cohort of smokers with the disease. Repeated counseling to stop smoking, with easy access to a smoking cessation program, was given to 474 consecutive smokers with Crohn's disease. Patients who stopped smoking for more than 1 year (quitters) were included in a prospective follow-up study, which compared disease course and therapeutic needs with 2 control groups, continuing smokers and nonsmokers, paired for age, gender, disease location, and activity. There were 59 quitters (12%). Predictors of quitting were the physician, previous intestinal surgery, high socioeconomic status, and in women, oral contraceptive use. During a median follow-up of 29 months (1-54 months), the risk of flare-up in quitters did not differ from that in nonsmokers and was less than in continuing smokers (P Crohn's disease who stop smoking for more than 1 year have a more benign disease course than if they had never smoked.

  7. Can anti-smoking television advertising affect smoking behaviour? Controlled trial of the Health Education Authority for England's anti-smoking TV campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, D.; Stapleton, J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the effectiveness of the Health Education Authority for England's anti-smoking television advertising campaign in motivating smokers to give up and preventing relapse in those who had already given up.
DESIGN—A prospective, controlled trial was conducted in four TV regions in central and northern England. One region received no intervention (controls), two regions received TV anti-smoking advertising (TV media), and one region received TV anti-smoking advertising plus locally organised anti-tobacco campaigning (TV media + LTCN). The TV advertisements were screened in two phases over 18 months; during the first phase the intensity of the advertising was varied between TV regions. 5468 men and women (2997 smokers, 2471 ex-smokers) were selected by two stage random sampling and interviewed before the intervention, of whom 3610 were re-interviewed six months later, after the first phase of the campaign. Only those interviewed at six months were followed to the main end point at 18 months when 2381 subjects were re-interviewed.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Self reports of cigarette smoking at the 18 month follow up were compared between the three levels of intervention. Odds ratios for intervention effects were adjusted for pre-intervention predictors of outcome and pooled for smokers and ex-smokers using meta-analytic methods.
RESULTS—After 18 months, 9.8% of successfully re-interviewed smokers had stopped and 4.3% of ex-smokers had relapsed. The pooled adjusted odds ratio for not smoking in the TV media only condition compared to controls was 1.53 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.02 to 2.29, p = 0.04), and for TV media + LTCN versus controls, 1.67 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.8, p = 0.05). There was no evidence of an extra effect of the local tobacco control network when combined with TV media (odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.78, p = 0.55). The was also no evidence of any intervention effects after the first phase of the

  8. Parental smoking, exposure to secondhand smoke at home, and smoking initiation among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Ho, Sai Yin; Lam, Tai Hing

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the associations of parental smoking and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home with smoking initiation among young children in Hong Kong. A prospective school-based survey of Hong Kong primary 2-4 students was conducted at baseline in 2006 and followed up in 2008. Self-administered anonymous questionnaires were used to collect information about smoking, SHS exposure at home, parental smoking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional and prospective associations of SHS exposure at home and parental smoking with student smoking were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Cross-sectional association between parental smoking and ever smoking was significant with adjustment of sociodemographic characteristics but became insignificant after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Home SHS exposure mediated the association between parental smoking and students smoking (p = .03). Prospectively, parental smoking was not associated with smoking initiation after adjusting for home SHS exposure. Each day increase in home SHS exposure significantly predicted 16% excess risk of smoking initiation after adjusting for parental smoking. The prospective effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was significantly mediated by baseline home SHS exposure (p effect of parental smoking on smoking initiation was mediated through SHS exposure at home. To prevent children from smoking as well as the harm of SHS exposure, parents and other family members should quit smoking or at least reduce smoking at home.

  9. Effects of tobacco control policies on smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable deaths in Mexico: the SimSmoke model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Myriam Reynales-Shigematsu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine how policies adopted in Mexico in response to the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control affected smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths. METHODS: The SimSmoke simulation model of tobacco control policy is applied to Mexico. This discrete time, first-order Markov model uses data on population size, smoking rates and tobacco control policy for Mexico. It assesses, individually and jointly, the effects of seven types of policies: cigarette taxes, smoke-free air laws, mass media campaigns, advertising bans, warning labels, cessation treatment, and youth tobacco access policies. RESULTS: The Mexico SimSmoke model estimates that smoking rates have been reduced by about 30% as a result of policies implemented since 2002, and that the number of smoking-attributable deaths will have been reduced by about 826 000 by 2053. Increases in cigarette prices are responsible for over 60% of the reductions, but health warnings, smoke-free air laws, marketing restrictions and cessation treatments also play important roles. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico has shown steady progress towards reducing smoking prevalence in a short period of time, as have other Latin American countries, such as Brazil, Panama and Uruguay. Tobacco control policies play an important role in continued efforts to reduce tobacco use and associated deaths in Mexico.

  10. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbühler, K.C.; Peters, P.M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and whether this

  11. Effects of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lochbuehler, K.; Peters, M.; Scholte, R.H.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of smoking cues in movies on immediate smoking behavior. We tested whether smokers who are confronted with smoking characters in a movie smoke more cigarettes while watching than those confronted with non-smoking characters and

  12. Gestural overlap of stop-consonant sequences: Evidence from analysis and synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sherry; Stevens, Kenneth N.

    2003-04-01

    This study uses an analysis-by-synthesis approach to discover possible principles governing the coordination of oral and laryngeal articulators in the production of English stop-consonant sequences. Individual recordings were made of two male and two female native American-English speakers reading phrases which include voiced and voiceless stop consonants in word-initial (V#CV) and word-final (VC#V) positions, as well as in VC#CV stop-stop consonant sequences. Articulatory timing estimates were made based on analyzing acoustic data including formant movements, closure durations, release bursts, and spectrum shape at low frequencies. Based on the gestural estimates, the same consonant sequences were generated using HLsyn, a quasiarticulatory synthesizer. The synthetic utterances were acoustically and perceptually compared to the actual utterances in order to verify and refine the articulatory timing estimates from which possible principles could be derived. Preliminary results agree with earlier findings of more overlapping of oral gestures in sequences with front-to-back order of place of articulation than those with back-to-front order [Chitoran, Goldstein, and Byrd, Lab. Phonology 7, 419-448 (2002)]. Furthermore, overlapping of laryngeal gestures is suggested by the smaller acoustical loss at the glottis in vowels after voiced-voiceless sequences than voiceless-voiceless sequences.

  13. Effect of smoking reduction and cessation on cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliasson, B; Hjalmarson, A; Kruse, E; Landfeldt, B; Westin A

    2001-08-01

    This open study examined the effect of smoking reduction and smoking cessation on established cardiovascular risk factors. Fifty-eight healthy adult smokers (smoking >or=15 cigarettes/day for at least 3 years) were provided with nicotine nasal spray (to be used ad libitum) and asked to stop smoking. The primary goal during the first 8 weeks, however, was to reduce their daily smoking by at least 50%. Subjects were then followed for another 8 weeks; at this point, 33 participants had successfully stopped smoking. Cardiovascular risk factors including fibrinogen, hemoglobin, hematocrit, triglycerides, and cholesterol were measured at baseline and at 9 and 17 weeks. After 8 weeks of smoking reduction, the mean number of cigarettes smoked per day had decreased from 21.5 +/- 0.6 (baseline) to 10.8 +/- 0.6 (p < 0.001). This was accompanied by significant improvements in fibrinogen (from 2.9 +/- 0.1 g/l at baseline to 2.6 +/- 0.1 g/l, p = 0.011), white blood cells (from 7.0 +/- 0.4 to 6.2 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/l, p = 0.005) and the high-density/low-density lipoprotein (HDL/LDL) ratio (0.33 +/- 0.03 to 0.37 +/- 0.03, p < 0.005). Following 8 weeks of abstinence from smoking, the mean white blood cell count was further reduced (to 6.1 +/- 0.3 x 10(9)/l, p = 0.026 vs. baseline) and there were also significant improvements in HDL (from 1.16 +/- 0.06 mmol/l at baseline to 1.32 +/- 0.06, p < 0.001) and LDL (from 3.78 +/- 0.16 mmol/l at baseline to 3.52 +/- 0.17, p = 0.015). In conclusion, 8 weeks of smoking reduction resulted in clinically significant improvements in established cardiovascular risk factors. These improvements were even greater after an additional period of abstinence from smoking.

  14. A Tale of Smoking Cessation Promotion: The Utilization of a Children's Book to Increase Screening and Counseling in the Pediatric Clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Katharine E H; Kisely, Steve; Urrego, Fernando

    2017-10-01

    The rate at which pediatricians promote smoking cessation in clinical settings is low. The literature demonstrates that interventions paired with tangible health promotion materials may significantly increase screening rates to the pediatric office. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of a children's book in the pediatric clinic could result in an increase in the rate in which pediatricians screened for secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) and counseled caregivers to stop smoking. This randomized controlled study was performed at 7 pediatric clinics. Seven pediatric clinic sites were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group. Pediatricians in the intervention group were given children's books about SHSe to distribute to their patients while the control group did not receive any materials. At baseline, there was no difference between the control group and intervention group in rates at which pediatricians screened for SHSe ( P = .8728) and counseled caregivers to stop smoking ( P = .29). After the intervention, screening for SHSe and counseling caregivers to stop smoking were statistically significantly greater in the intervention group, when compared to controls ( P book in the pediatric setting can increase the rate at which pediatricians screen for SHSe and counsel caregivers to stop smoking. Future research should examine the effect of the storybook on various parameters of smoking cessation and future smoking behaviors.

  15. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sulzberger Award and Lectureship Master Dermatologist Award Members Making a Difference Award Native American Health Service Resident ... Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study notes Image library 3-D animated image library Board ...

  16. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Store customer service Publications Dermatology World JAAD JAAD Case Reports Aspire All Publications Connect With Us Contact Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2018 American Academy ...

  17. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... Program Health Volunteers Overseas International resources Native American Health Services Resident Rotation Shade Structure Program SPOTme® Skin Cancer Screening Program Volunteer Recognition Program Leadership Institute Programs Mentoring Leadership Learning Center Residents and ...

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  19. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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  20. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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  1. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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  2. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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  3. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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  4. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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    Full Text Available ... resources Native American Health Services Resident Rotation Shade Structure Program SPOTme® Skin Cancer Screening Program Volunteer Recognition ... Basement Membrane Zone lecture Full lecture Part 1: Structure Part 2: Origin Part 3: Function Textbook Study ...

  5. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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  6. How to Stop Biting Your Nails

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  7. Intelligent Bus Stops in the Flexible Bus Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razi Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to discuss Intelligent Bus Stops in a special Demand Responsive Transit (DRT, the Flexible Bus System. These Intelligent Bus Stops are more efficient and information rich than Traditional Bus Stops. The real time synchronization of the Flexible Bus System makes it unique as compared to Traditional Bus Systems. The Main concern is to make Bus Stops intelligent and information rich. Buses are informed about the no. of passengers waiting at the upcoming Bus Stops. If there are no passengers to ride or get off on upcoming Bus Stop, the Bus can skip that Bus Stop and head towards the next Bus Stop where passenger is waiting, which will decrease the ride time of the passengers on the Bus and also the wait time of the passengers waiting on the upcoming Bus Stops. Providing more information at Bus Stops about the Destination (Time to Destination, Distance to Destination etc. and Buses (Bus Location, Arrival Time of Bus etc. makes it easier for the passengers to decide whether to ride a particular Bus or not.

  8. Health literacy and smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Panahi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although both population-based and clinical interventions have been successful in lowering rates of smoking in the USA over time, the prevalence of smoking remains considerably higher than the Healthy People 2020 objective of 12% [1]. The latest national study conducted in Iran showed that 25% of the population aged 18- 65 years were smokers and age, education, gender, occupation, and marital status variables had a significant relationship with smoking [2].

  9. Cigarette Smoking in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Meysamie, A; Ghaletaki, R; Zhand, N; Abbasi, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Cigarette smoking is the largest preventable cause of death worldwide. No systematic review is available on the situation of the smoking in Iran, so we decided to provide an overview of the studies in the field of smoking in Iranian populations. Methods: Published Persian-language papers of all types until 2009 indexed in the IranMedex (http://www.iranmedex.com) and Magiran (http://www.magiran.com). Reports of World Health Organization were also searched and optionally employed. T...

  10. Smoking cessation interventions from health care providers before and after the national smoke-free law in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    Smoking cessation advice from health care providers (HCP) is well-known to be associated with increased quitting. This study sought to understand the extent to which smokers in France who visited a HCP around the time of the implementation of the national ban on smoking received encouragement to quit from a HCP and what kinds of intervention were provided. HCP may have a unique opportunity during the implementation phase of smoke-free laws to address their patients' smoking behaviours to increase the likelihood of success at a time when smokers' readiness and interest in quitting may be higher. Telephone interviews were conducted among adult smokers (n = 1067) before and after the two-phase (2007 and 2008) national ban on indoor smoking as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. In the survey, smokers were asked whether they had visited a HCP in the past 6 months and, if so, whether they had received cessation encouragement, and/or other interventions to support quitting such as prescriptions for stop-smoking medication. Most smokers (61%) reported visiting a HCP in the 6 months prior to the first phase of the national smoke-free ban, and 58% after the time of the hospitality ban. Of these, most reported they did not receive any assistance from a HCP before (54%) or after (64%) the smoke-free law. Among those who reported an intervention, the most common were only encouragement to quit (58% in Wave 1 and 49% in Wave 2), or receiving both encouragement and a pamphlet (31% in both Wave 1 and 2). The combination of prescriptions for stop-smoking medicine and encouragement to quit increased from 8% in 2007 to 22% in 2008. The smokers who received an intervention were more likely (OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2-2.9) to report that they were thinking about quitting. This study demonstrates that HCP in France are well positioned to provide smoking cessation encouragement and other interventions to a majority of smokers and thus the importance of taking

  11. Cigarette smoking among female students in five medical and nonmedical colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulghani HM

    2013-08-01

    study concludes that the prevalence of smoking varies in different subject streams and that family and friends have a great influence on individuals starting or stopping smoking. Extensive health education programs are needed to educate young women on the health hazards of smoking and help stop them from smoking. Keywords: smoking prevalence, quitting smoking, female students, cigarettes per day

  12. Smoke production in fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvaranta, L.; Kokkala, M. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Physics, Building Services and Fire Technology

    1995-12-31

    Characterization of smoke, factors influencing smoke production and experimental methods for measuring smoke production are discussed in this literature review. Recent test-based correlation models are also discussed. Despite the large number of laboratories using different fire testing methods, published smoke data have been scarce. Most technical literature on smoke production from building materials is about experimental results in small scale tests. Compilations from cone calorimeter tests have been published for a few materials, e.g. upholstered furniture materials and some building products. Mass optical density data and compilations of gravimetric soot data are available for various materials as well as a number of smoke obscuration values. For a given material often a wide range of values of smoke output can be found in the literature and care should be exercised in applying the appropriate value in each case. In laboratory experiments, the production of smoke and its optical properties are often measured simultaneously with other fire properties as heat release and flame spread. The measurements are usually dynamic in full scale, i.e. they are performed in a flow-through system. In small scale they may be either dynamic, as in the cone calorimeter, or static, i.e. the smoke is accumulated in a closed box. Small-scale tests are necessary as practical tools. Full-scale tests are generally considered to be more reliable and are needed to validitate the small-scale tests

  13. Prevalence of smoking among secondary school male students in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fida, Hashim R; Abdelmoneim, Ismail

    2013-10-25

    This study was conducted to examine the prevalence of smoking and the smoking habits among male secondary school students in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and to assess their knowledge and attitudes towards smoking. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jeddah, using a two-stage cluster sample that randomly selected four schools from 85 public secondary schools for males. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire containing questions on personal background, smoking behavior, knowledge, and behavior and attitudes towards smoking. A total of 695 students responded to the questionnaires with an 87.4% response rate. The age range of this student sample was 16-22 years. Two hundred fifty-eight (37%) of the study group were current smokers. The most common reasons given for smoking were personal choice (50.8%) and the peer pressure from smoker friends (32.8%). Many students researched the smoking hazards (68.1%), but only 47.6% knew about the bad effects of passive smoking. Two thirds of the smoking students wanted to quit smoking (63.2%), especially if suitable help was available, and 75.1% tried to quit. A third of the smoking students (36.8%) found it difficult to stop smoking in no-smoking areas. A well-planned integrated antismoking campaign is urgently required, especially among students and teachers. Our study revealed that smoking prevalence was high, which will lead to future high smoking-related health problems if proper preventive measures are not taken accordingly.

  14. Final data of an Italian multicentric survey about counseling for smoking cessation in patients with diagnosis of a respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capelletto, Enrica; Rapetti, Simonetta Grazia; Demichelis, Sara; Galetta, Domenico; Catino, Annamaria; Ricci, Donata; Moretti, Anna Maria; Bria, Emilio; Pilotto, Sara; Bruno, Arianna; Valmadre, Giuseppe; Bandelli, Gian Piero; Trisolini, Rocco; Gianetta, Martina; Pacchiana, Maria Vittoria; Vallone, Stefania; Novello, Silvia

    2017-05-02

    Smoking is the major risk factor for cancer and several respiratory diseases. Quitting smoking at any point of life may increase the effectiveness of treatments and improve prognosis of patients with any pulmonary disease, including lung cancer. However, few institutions in Europe offer to patients adequate counseling for smoking cessation. Aim of this study was to investigate the level of counseling for smoking cessation offered by healthcare professionals to patients and their appreciation towards the intervention itself. Between January 2013 and February 2016, 490 patients, diagnosed with a respiratory diseases, were prospectively evaluated with an anonymous survey developed by WALCE (Women Against Lung Cancer in Europe). The majority of patients enrolled (76%) declared to have stopped smoking after the diagnosis of a respiratory disease, 17% to smoke less, 7% to continue smoking. Patients who reported to have never received any counseling for smoking cessation were 38%. Almost 73% of the other patients reported a positive judgment about the quality of healthcare's intervention. Despite these favorable considerations, 83% of patients have disclosed they simply quit smoking overnight without help, 5% have used electronic cigarettes, 5% nicotine replacement treatments, 4% dedicated books, 3% have attended a referral clinic. Considering all the smoking-related side effects, greater efforts should be made in order to better support patients in smoking cessation. Smoking should be considered as a real physical disorder and similar surveys should be encouraged with the aim to fight the 'stigma' of smoking that still exists among patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Remune trial will stop; new trials planned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1999-05-21

    A clinical trial using remune, the anti-HIV vaccine developed by the late Dr. Jonas Salk, has been ended. The study is a clinical-endpoint trial which looks for statistically significant differences in AIDS sickness or death between patients who add remune to their treatment regimens versus those who use a placebo. Agouron Pharmaceuticals and the Immune Response Corporation who were conducting the trial announced their decision to stop it after an analysis by the Data Safety Monitoring Board. No differences in clinical endpoints were found and it was projected that continuing the trial would likely not find any. The companies are now planning two new Phase III trials using viral load testing rather than clinical endpoints as study criteria.

  16. The Novel Microwave Stop-Band Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Chernobrovkin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The stop-band filter with the new band-rejection element is proposed. The element is a coaxial waveguide with the slot in the centre conductor. In the frame of this research, the numerical and experimental investigations of the amplitude-frequency characteristics of the filter are carried out. It is noted that according to the slot parameters the two typical resonances (half-wave and quarter-wave can be excited. The rejection band of the single element is defined by the width, depth, and dielectric filling of the slot. Fifth-order Chebyshev filter utilizing the aforementioned element is also synthesized, manufactured, and tested. The measured and simulated results are in good agreement. The experimental filter prototype exhibits the rejection band 0.86 GHz at the level −40 dB.

  17. Stop outbreak of SARS with infrared cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yigang M.

    2004-04-01

    SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, commonly known as Atypical Pneumonia in mainland China) caused 8422 people affected and resulting in 918 deaths worldwide in half year. This disease can be transmitted by respiratory droplets or by contact with a patient's respiratory secretions. This means it can be spread out very rapidly through the public transportations by the travelers with the syndrome. The challenge was to stop the SARS carriers traveling around by trains, airplanes, coaches and etc. It is impractical with traditional oral thermometers or spot infrared thermometers to screen the tens of travelers with elevated body temperature from thousands of normal travelers in hours. The thermal imager with temperature measurement function is a logical choice for this special application although there are some limitations and drawbacks. This paper discusses the real SARS applications of industrial infrared cameras in China from April to July 2003.

  18. Statistics of heavy-ion stopping

    CERN Document Server

    Glazov, L G; Schinner, A

    2002-01-01

    Energy-loss straggling of swift heavy ions penetrating through matter has been analysed on the basis of binary stopping theory as well as the modified Bohr model allowing for projectile screening. A program has been written which evaluates the generalized Bothe-Landau formula governing the energy-loss spectrum for penetration through a thin layer, allowing for charge exchange involving an arbitrary number of charge states. This program was generated on the basis of calculational schemes developed originally for swift light ions. Projectile screening and multiple-shell structure of target atoms are allowed for. Explicit energy-loss spectra are given for oxygen in carbon for charge states 6-8 and foil thickness 2, 10 and 50 mu g/cm sup 2. It is also demonstrated that frozen-charge straggling depends only weakly on charge state.

  19. An investigation of the smoking behaviours of parents before, during and after the birth of their children in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although many studies have investigated the negative effects of parental smoking on children and Taiwan has started campaigns to promote smoke-free homes, little is known about the smoking behaviours of Taiwanese parents during the childbearing period. To help fill the gap, this study investigated Taiwanese parents' smoking behaviours before, during and after the birth of their children, particularly focusing on smoking cessation during pregnancy and relapse after childbirth. Methods We used data from the Survey of Health Status of Women and Children, conducted by Taiwan's National Health Research Institutes in 2000. After excluding survey respondents with missing information about their smoking behaviours, our sample consisted of 3,109 women who were married at the time of interview and had at least one childbearing experience between March 1, 1995 and February 28, 1999. Data on parental smoking behaviour in the six months before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and in the first year after childbirth were extracted from the survey and analysed by descriptive statistics as well as logistic regression. Results Four percent of the mothers and sixty percent of the fathers smoked before the conception of their first child. The educational attainment and occupation of the parents were associated with their smoking status before the first pregnancy in the family. Over 80% of smoking mothers did not quit during pregnancy, and almost all of the smoking fathers continued tobacco use while their partners were pregnant. Over two thirds of the women who stopped smoking during their pregnancies relapsed soon after childbirth. Very few smoking men stopped tobacco use while their partners were pregnant, and over a half of those who quit started to smoke again soon after their children were born. Conclusion Among Taiwanese women who had childbearing experiences in the late 1990s, few smoked. Of those who smoked, few quit during pregnancy. Most

  20. Neural Architecture of Selective Stopping Strategies: Distinct Brain Activity Patterns Are Associated with Attentional Capture But Not with Outright Stopping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian, Alexandra; Rössler, Kora; Wibral, Michael; Mobascher, Arian; Lieb, Klaus; Jung, Patrick; Tüscher, Oliver

    2017-10-04

    In stimulus-selective stop-signal tasks, the salient stop signal needs attentional processing before genuine response inhibition is completed. Differential prefrontal involvement in attentional capture and response inhibition has been linked to the right inferior frontal junction (IFJ) and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), respectively. Recently, it has been suggested that stimulus-selective stopping may be accomplished by the following different strategies: individuals may selectively inhibit their response only upon detecting a stop signal (independent discriminate then stop strategy) or unselectively whenever detecting a stop or attentional capture signal (stop then discriminate strategy). Alternatively, the discrimination process of the critical signal (stop vs attentional capture signal) may interact with the go process (dependent discriminate then stop strategy). Those different strategies might differentially involve attention- and stopping-related processes that might be implemented by divergent neural networks. This should lead to divergent activation patterns and, if disregarded, interfere with analyses in neuroimaging studies. To clarify this crucial issue, we studied 87 human participants of both sexes during a stimulus-selective stop-signal task and performed strategy-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging analyses. We found that, regardless of the strategy applied, outright stopping displayed indistinguishable brain activation patterns. However, during attentional capture different strategies resulted in divergent neural activation patterns with variable activation of right IFJ and bilateral VLPFC. In conclusion, the neural network involved in outright stopping is ubiquitous and independent of strategy, while different strategies impact on attention-related processes and underlying neural network usage. Strategic differences should therefore be taken into account particularly when studying attention-related processes in stimulus

  1. Stop Codon Reassignment in the Wild

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, Natalia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Schwientek, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Tripp, H. James [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Rinke, Christian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Pati, Amrita [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Huntemann, Marcel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Visel, Axel [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Woyke, Tanja [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Kyrpides, Nikos [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.; Rubin, Edward [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Walnut Creek, CA (United States). Dept. of Energy Joint Genome Inst.

    2014-03-21

    Since the discovery of the genetic code and protein translation mechanisms (1), a limited number of variations of the standard assignment between unique base triplets (codons) and their encoded amino acids and translational stop signals have been found in bacteria and phages (2-3). Given the apparent ubiquity of the canonical genetic code, the design of genomically recoded organisms with non-canonical codes has been suggested as a means to prevent horizontal gene transfer between laboratory and environmental organisms (4). It is also predicted that genomically recoded organisms are immune to infection by viruses, under the assumption that phages and their hosts must share a common genetic code (5). This paradigm is supported by the observation of increased resistance of genomically recoded bacteria to phages with a canonical code (4). Despite these assumptions and accompanying lines of evidence, it remains unclear whether differential and non-canonical codon usage represents an absolute barrier to phage infection and genetic exchange between organisms. Our knowledge of the diversity of genetic codes and their use by viruses and their hosts is primarily derived from the analysis of cultivated organisms. Advances in single-cell sequencing and metagenome assembly technologies have enabled the reconstruction of genomes of uncultivated bacterial and archaeal lineages (6). These initial findings suggest that large scale systematic studies of uncultivated microorganisms and viruses may reveal the extent and modes of divergence from the canonical genetic code operating in nature. To explore alternative genetic codes, we carried out a systematic analysis of stop codon reassignments from the canonical TAG amber, TGA opal, and TAA ochre codons in assembled metagenomes from environmental and host-associated samples, single-cell genomes of uncultivated bacteria and archaea, and a collection of phage sequences

  2. Addicted women: when your patient can't stop drinking, smoking, shopping, eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmin, C N

    1998-01-01

    While they do not necessarily present the same health risk, such other problems as compulsive shopping and eating have similarly serious implications for both physical and emotional health. All of these behaviors share a common theme reflecting difficulty with impulse control. In some cases, identifying patients with impulse control problems is straightforward; the pack of cigarettes or nicotine stains are easily visible, or the patient's weight can be measured in the office. Other problems, such as alcohol abuse or compulsive shopping, are less observable. To further compound the difficulty with identification is the fact that physicians may not ask routinely about the existence of such problems. Whether a practitioner inquires about the existence of these or other impulse control problems may be related to the difficulty one faces when the problem is finally identified. Addictive behaviors and impulse control disorders are notoriously difficult to treat. High relapse rates and the frustration of both patient and health care provider when efforts to change fail are a testimonial to the tenacity of these behaviors. Recent research highlighting how to meet patients at their level of readiness to change a risk-related behavior offers a perspective on what clinicians can do to assist their patients in approaching and ultimately changing these behaviors. The stages of change model will be described as a method for conceptualizing how behavior change can be facilitated in patients with these various problems. In addition, issues relevant to making a referral will be discussed.

  3. Actor-based analysis of peer influence in A Stop Smoking In Schools Trial (ASSIST)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steglich, Christian; Sinclair, Philip; Holliday, Jo; Moore, Laurence; Sinclair, W

    As shown by the success of network intervention studies that exploit the occurrence of peer influence in their target group, the reliable assessment of peer influence processes can be important for informing public health policy and practice. A recently developed tool for assessing peer influence in

  4. Evaluating smartphone-based stop smoking interventions – opportunities and challenges.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Herbec

    2017-05-01

    AH is funded by British Heart Foundation PhD Studentship at University College London. The costs of conducting BupaQuit trial have been funded by Bupa. NRT2Quit trial was funded through Global Research Awards for Nicotine Dependence (GRAND Program by Pfizer.

  5. 20 CFR 662.430 - Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system established prior to the enactment of WIA be designated... DESCRIPTION OF THE ONE-STOP SYSTEM UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT One-Stop Operators § 662.430 Under what conditions may One-Stop operators designated to operate in a One-Stop delivery system...

  6. Profiling minorities: police stop and search practices in Toronto, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunliang Meng

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores police stop and search practices in Toronto using the 2003-2012 data from Toronto Police Service. The findings demonstrate that for black youth, the number of stops and the stops/arrests ratios increased significantly by 42.7% and 44.9% respectively between 2003 and 2012, while for white youth, both indices decreased steadily during the same period. Moreover, they show that police stops of black youth occur most excessively in neighbourhoods where more white people reside and/or have higher crime rates. This article argues for the importance of a contextualized examination of police stops within the spatial context of neighbourhoods and calls for open and free access to police stop data, regular internal review by police, and community policing in Toronto.

  7. Report on the first VLHC photon stop cryogenic design experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Geynisman, M; Bossert, R; Darve, C; Ewald, K D; Klebaner, A; Limon, P; Martínez, A

    2004-01-01

    As part of Fermilab's study of a Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC), a water-cooled photon stop was proposed as a device to intercept the synchrotron radiation emitted by the high-energy proton beams in the high-field superconducting magnets with minimal plug-cooling power. Photon stops are radiation absorbers operating at room temperature that protrude into the beam tube at the end of each bending magnet to scrape the synchrotron light emitted by the beam one magnet up- stream. Among the technological challenges regarding photon stops is their cryo-design. The photon stop is water-cooled and operates in a cryogenic environment. A careful cryo-design is therefore essential to enable operation at minimum heat transfer between the room temperature sections and the cryogenic parts. A photon stop cryo- design was developed and a prototype was built. This paper presents the results of the cryogenic experiments conducted on the first VLHC photon-stop prototype.

  8. [Occasional smoking in Norway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaavik, Elisabeth; Scheffels, Janne; Lund, Marianne

    2014-01-28

    In recent decades, daily smoking has become less common, while occasional smoking has stayed at the same level. The purpose of the study is to describe occasional smokers on the basis of their smoking behaviour and socio-demographic characteristics. Data from Statistics Norway's quarterly surveys of tobacco use in 2010 and 2011 were used. Information on smoking habits, smoking-related behaviour and the respondents' attitudes to their own smoking was collected in telephone interviews. Of the 8,700 men and women aged 16-74 (response rate 57%) who were included, altogether 1,583 were daily smokers and 907 occasional smokers. The occasional smokers were younger, more frequently lived in large cities and had a higher level of education and income than the daily smokers. Twenty-nine of 174 (17%) occasional smokers used snus on a daily basis, compared to 10 of 394 (3%) of the daily smokers. The occasional smokers had great confidence in their ability to quit: 95% responded that they would be smoke-free in five years, compared to 55% of the daily smokers (n = 2,158). Fifty-five (35%) of the occasional smokers lit up several times weekly (16 cigarettes per week on average), while the remaining (65%) smoked only once per week as a maximum (five cigarettes per week on average). Those who smoked several times each week had attitudes to their own smoking and usage pattern for tobacco that were similar to those of the daily smokers. Nearly half of the occasional smokers defined themselves as non-smokers. Norwegian occasional smokers are a heterogeneous group in terms of their smoking pattern and frequency, and many define themselves as non-smokers.

  9. Current Tobacco Smoking and Desire to Quit Smoking Among Students Aged 13-15 Years - Global Youth Tobacco Survey, 61 Countries, 2012-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazola, René A; Ahluwalia, Indu B; Pun, Eugene; Garcia de Quevedo, Isabel; Babb, Stephen; Armour, Brian S

    2017-05-26

    Tobacco use is the world's leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality, resulting in nearly 6 million deaths each year (1). Smoked tobacco products, such as cigarettes and cigars, are the most common form of tobacco consumed worldwide (2), and most tobacco smokers begin smoking during adolescence (3). The health benefits of quitting are greater for persons who stop smoking at earlier ages; however, quitting smoking at any age has health benefits (4). CDC used the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) data from 61 countries across the six World Health Organization (WHO) regions from 2012 to 2015 to examine the prevalence of current tobacco smoking and desire to quit smoking among students aged 13-15 years. Across all 61 countries, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence among students aged 13-15 years was 10.7% (range = 1.7%, Sri Lanka to 35.0%, Timor-Leste). By sex, the median current tobacco smoking prevalence was 14.6% among males (range = 2.9%, Tajikistan to 61.4%, Timor-Leste) and 7.5% among females (range = 1.6%, Tajikistan to 29.0%, Bulgaria). In the majority of countries assessed, the proportion of current tobacco smokers who desired to quit smoking exceeded 50%. These findings could be used by country level tobacco control programs to inform strategies to prevent and reduce youth tobacco use (1,4).

  10. Smoke Signals: Adolescent Smoking and School Continuation

    OpenAIRE

    Philip J. Cook; Rebecca Hutchinson

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory analysis using NLSY97 data of the relationship between the likelihood of school continuation and the choices of whether to smoke or drink. We demonstrate that in the United States as of the late 1990s, smoking in 11th grade was a uniquely powerful predictor of whether the student finished high school, and if so whether the student matriculated in a four-year college. For economists the likely explanation for this empirical link would be based on interpersona...

  11. Prevalence and associated factors of smoking among secondary school students in Harare Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusakaniko Simbarashe

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing epidemic of tobacco use among adolescents in the developing world. However, there is no up to date information on smoking among adolescents. Although in the developing world concerted efforts are being made to control tobacco use, Zimbabwe does not have any documented tobacco control programmes. We estimated the prevalence of smoking among school going secondary school students in Harare, Zimbabwe. Methods A 3-stage stratified random sampling was employed to select six participating schools and students. A descriptive analysis was conducted to describe the demographic characteristics of the participants. The prevalence of smoking was estimated and the comparison of prevalence was performed according to its associated factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for smoking. Results 650 students with a mean age 16 years and 47% of them female participated. Prevalence of ever-smoked was 28.8% (95% CI 25.3 to 32.3. Prevalence of ever-smoked among males (37.8% was significantly (p Conclusions The study provides recent estimates of prevalence of smoking, and indicates that there is still a high prevalence of smoking among urban secondary school students. Exposure to friends who smoke, risky behaviour like substance abuse, premarital sex and physical fights are significantly associated with smoking. Interventions to stop or reduce the habit should be implemented now and future studies should monitor and evaluate the impact of the interventions.

  12. The carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anna Jo Bodurtha; Tennison, Imogen; Roberts, Ian; Cairns, John; Free, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    To estimate the carbon footprint of behavioural support services for smoking cessation: text message support, telephone counselling, group counselling and individual counselling. Carbon footprint analysis. Publicly available data on National Health Service Stop Smoking Services and per unit carbon emissions; published effectiveness data from the txt2stop trial and systematic reviews of smoking cessation services. Carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per 1000 smokers, per lifetime quitter, and per quality-adjusted life year gained, and cost-effectiveness, including social cost of carbon, of smoking cessation services. Emissions per 1000 participants were 8143 kg CO2e for text message support, 8619 kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 16 114 kg CO2e for group counselling and 16 372 kg CO2e for individual counselling. Emissions per intervention lifetime quitter were 636 (95% CI 455 to 958) kg CO2e for text message support, 1051 (95% CI 560 to 2873) kg CO2e for telephone counselling, 1143 (95% CI 695 to 2270) kg CO2e for group counselling and 2823 (95% CI 1688 to 6549) kg CO2e for individual counselling. Text message, telephone and group counselling remained cost-effective when cost-effectiveness analysis was revised to include the environmental and economic cost of damage from carbon emissions. All smoking cessation services had low emissions compared to the health gains produced. Text message support had the lowest emissions of the services evaluated. Smoking cessation services have small carbon footprints and were cost-effective after accounting for the societal costs of greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Smoked Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigarettes in this U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance document How tobacco smoke causes disease in this Centers for Disease ... affects cigarette smoke from this Surgeon General report FDA's work to ensure tobacco products are labeled properly The definitions of common ...

  14. Wildfire Smoke Health Watch

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-07-23

    Smoke from wildfires can be dangerous to your health. In this podcast, you will learn the health threats of wildfire smoke and steps you can take to minimize these effects.  Created: 7/23/2012 by Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (PHPR).   Date Released: 7/23/2012.

  15. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Smoking and Eye Disease Leer en Español: El cigarrillo ... By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Apr. 27, 2017 Smoking contributes to a number of major health problems, ...

  16. Social Capital and Smoking Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Lorenzo Rocco; Beatrice d'Hombres

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we explore one mechanism that may underlie the negative relationship between social capital and smoking: whether social capital strengthens the effect of anti-smoking regulations. We use data on smoking behaviors collected immediately before and after the implementation of smoking bans in public places in Germany in order to determine whether the impact of these bans on smoking prevalence and intensity is greater among individuals richer in social capital. We find that smoking ...

  17. Value Function Approximation or Stopping Time Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stentoft, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In their 2001 paper, Longstaff and Schwartz suggested a method for American option pricing using simulation and regression, and since then this method has rapidly gained importance. However, the idea of using regression and simulation for American option pricing was used at least as early as 1996......, by Carriere. In this paper, we provide a thorough comparison of these two methods and relate them to the work of Tsitsiklis and Van Roy. Although the methods are often considered to be similar, this analysis allows us to point out an important but often overlooked difference between them.We further show that...

  18. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably......Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  19. Smoking and skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, S F; Sørensen, L T

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a serious and preventable health hazard that can cause or exacerbate a number of diseases and shorten life expectancy, but the role of smoking as an etiologic factor in the development of skin disease is largely unknown. Although epidemiological evidence is sparse, findings...... suggest that tobacco smoking is a contributing factor in systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, palmoplantar pustulosis, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, hidradenitis suppurativa, and genital warts. In contrast, smoking may confer some protective effects and mitigate other skin diseases, notably...... pemphigus vulgaris, pyoderma gangrenosum, aphthous ulcers, and Behçet's disease. Various degenerative dermatologic conditions are also impacted by smoking, such as skin wrinkling and dysregulated wound healing, which can result in post-surgical complications and delayed or even arrested healing of chronic...

  20. Can anti-smoking television advertising affect smoking behaviour? controlled trial of the Health Education Authority for England's anti-smoking TV campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, D; Stapleton, J

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the Health Education Authority for England's anti-smoking television advertising campaign in motivating smokers to give up and preventing relapse in those who had already given up. A prospective, controlled trial was conducted in four TV regions in central and northern England. One region received no intervention (controls), two regions received TV anti-smoking advertising (TV media), and one region received TV anti-smoking advertising plus locally organised anti-tobacco campaigning (TV media + LTCN). The TV advertisements were screened in two phases over 18 months; during the first phase the intensity of the advertising was varied between TV regions. 5468 men and women (2997 smokers, 2471 ex-smokers) were selected by two stage random sampling and interviewed before the intervention, of whom 3610 were re-interviewed six months later, after the first phase of the campaign. Only those interviewed at six months were followed to the main end point at 18 months when 2381 subjects were re-interviewed. Self reports of cigarette smoking at the 18 month follow up were compared between the three levels of intervention. Odds ratios for intervention effects were adjusted for pre-intervention predictors of outcome and pooled for smokers and ex-smokers using meta-analytic methods. After 18 months, 9. 8% of successfully re-interviewed smokers had stopped and 4.3% of ex-smokers had relapsed. The pooled adjusted odds ratio for not smoking in the TV media only condition compared to controls was 1.53 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.02 to 2.29, p = 0.04), and for TV media + LTCN versus controls, 1.67 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.8, p = 0.05). There was no evidence of an extra effect of the local tobacco control network when combined with TV media (odds ratio 1.15, 95% CI 0.74 to 1.78, p = 0.55). The was also no evidence of any intervention effects after the first phase of the TV media campaign, including no effect of varying the intensity of the advertising

  1. Predictors of early versus late smoking abstinence within a 24-month disease management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Lisa Sanderson; Wick, Jo A; Nazir, Niaman; Cupertino, A Paula; Mussulman, Laura M; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Ellerbeck, Edward F

    2011-03-01

    Standard smoking cessation treatment studies have been limited to 6- to 12-month follow-up, and examination of predictors of abstinence has been restricted to this timeframe. The KanQuit study enrolled 750 rural smokers across all stages of readiness to stop smoking and provided pharmacotherapy management and/or disease management, including motivational interviewing (MI) counseling every 6 months over 2 years. This paper examines differences in predictors of abstinence following initial (6-month) and extended (24-month) intervention. Baseline variables were analyzed as potential predictors of self-reported smoking abstinence at Month 6 and at Month 24. Chi-square tests, 2-sample t tests, and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify predictors of abstinence among 592 participants who completed assessment at baseline and Months 6 and 24. Controlling for treatment group, the final regression models showed that male gender and lower baseline cigarettes per day predicted abstinence at both 6 and 24 months. While remaining significant, the relative advantage of being male decreased over time. Global motivation to stop smoking, controlled motivation, and self-efficacy predicted abstinence at 6 months but did not predict abstinence at Month 24. In contrast, stage of change was strongly predictive of 24-month smoking status. While the importance of some predictors of successful smoking cessation appeared to diminish over time, initial lack of interest in cessation and number of cigarettes per day strongly predicted continued smoking following a 2-year program.

  2. Changes in hemorheological and biochemical parameters following short-term and long-term smoking cessation induced by nicotine replacement therapy (NRT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustein, K O; Krause, J; Haustein, H; Rasmussen, T; Cort, N

    2004-02-01

    Cigarette smoking causes cardiovascular (CV) disease, but the relative roles of nicotine and other components of tobacco smoke remain unclear. We investigated the effect of stopping smoking by using nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) on hemorheology parameters, on the cotinine and thiocyanate plasma concentrations and the exhaled carbon monoxide (CO). Open, parallel-group trial (intervention group and control smokers). 197 males, aged 25-45 years, smoking > 20 cigarettes per day (cpd). 164 subjects were instructed to stop smoking and received NRT for 12 weeks and 33 acted as controls. After 12 weeks, NRT was discontinued and all subjects were followed-up at 26 weeks. Beginning with week 4, the treated subjects were divided into abstainers (self-reported, verified by exhaled CO hematocrit, white blood cells, cotinine and thiocyanate plasma concentrations and exhaled CO, all assessed at 4, 8, 12 and 26 weeks. After 6 months, plasma fibrinogen (228.2 vs. 275.4 mg/dl at baseline, p hematocrit and white blood cell count decreased to a greater extent in abstainers than in reducers and relapsers. Not only abstainers but also reducers did benefit of the temporarily stop smoking. Smoking cessation improved CV parameters despite the measured cotinine and thiocyanate plasma levels, and use of nicotine medications did not negate these improvements. A smoking cessation for a short time and smoking of reduced cpd also improved these parameters temporarily.

  3. HIV & smoking in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, S Ramesh; Swaminathan, Soumya; Flanigan, Timothy; Mayer, K H; Niaura, Raymond

    2009-07-01

    There are approximately 2.5 million people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in India - the young being particularly vulnerable. The prevalence of smoking has increased in India especially among rural, lower socio-economic and illiterate men. Studies have shown that HIV-infected smokers may be at additional risk for several infectious and non-infectious complications, including malignancies and cardiovascular events. Smoking alters immunological mechanisms and suppresses host defenses in the alveolar environment. HIV-infected smokers have also been found to have a poorer response to antiretroviral therapy and a higher risk of death. HIV-infected individuals who smoke could be at a greater risk for developing TB and subsequently suffer higher morbidity and mortality than those who do not smoke. Currently available smoking cessation interventions like physician's advice, nicotine replacement therapy and pharmacological agents like bupropion and varenicline have had varying degrees of success. Smoking cessation intervention in the HIV-infected population might be more complex because of associated psychosocial problems like drug addiction, alcoholism, depression, etc. More research including clinical trials testing the efficacy of smoking cessation interventions in HIV infected persons is required in India. In addition to public health measures like banning smoking in public places and raising tobacco tax, comprehensive guidelines for health workers can help address this problem. Counselling on smoking cessation should be one of the main components of primary care, especially in the management of HIV-infected persons. This review highlights the importance of smoking cessation among HIV-infected persons in India.

  4. Driving While Non-White: Exploring Traffic Stops and Post-Stop Activities in North Carolina, 2005-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron D. Lippard

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Research has established that Blacks face disproportionate amounts of traffic stops, searches, and arrests by police compared to Whites. However, few studies have ventured past the Black-White dichotomy and considered how Hispanics or other minorities may face the same disparities, especially in places where the Hispanic population has dramatically increased in recent years. Using traffic stop and post-stop data compiled by the North Carolina Department of Justice from 2005 to 2009, this study explored whether Hispanics, Blacks, as well as other racial minorities experienced a higher likelihood of traffic stops, citations, searches, and arrests compared to Whites within sample of city, county, and state law enforcement agencies. We found that generally all racial and ethnic minority groups face higher rates of traffic stops than Whites by almost every law enforcement agency sampled. We also found that rates of post-stop activities including searches, citations, and arrests are higher for all racial and ethnic minority groups examined compared to Whites, especially for Hispanics. Hispanic and non-White disparities in traffic stops also cannot be explained away when controlling for population size, type of law enforcement agency, or the reason stated for the traffic stop (e.g., DWI, speeding, or investigation. More important, however, is that the rate of searches for racial and ethnic minorities did not necessarily match the rates of citations and arrests minorities receive, suggesting that some stops could be racially or ethnically motivated.

  5. Using PICO Methodology to Answer Questions About Smoking in COPD Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez Ruiz, Carlos A; Buljubasich, Daniel; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Acuña Izcaray, Agustín; de Granda Orive, José Ignacio; Chatkin, José Miguel; Zabert, Gustavo; Guerreros Benavides, Alfredo; Paez Espinel, Nelson; Noé, Valeri; Sánchez-Angarita, Efraín; Núñez-Sánchez, Ingrid; Sansores, Raúl H; Casas, Alejandro; Palomar Lever, Andrés; Alfageme Michavila, Inmaculada

    2017-11-01

    The ALAT and SEPAR Treatment and Control of Smoking Groups have collaborated in the preparation of this document which attempts to answer, by way of PICO methodology, different questions on health interventions for helping COPD patients to stop smoking. The main recommendations are: (i)moderate-quality evidence and strong recommendation for performing spirometry in COPD patients and in smokers with a high risk of developing the disease, as a motivational tool (particularly for showing evidence of lung age), a diagnostic tool, and for active case-finding; (ii)high-quality evidence and strong recommendation for using intensive dedicated behavioral counselling and drug treatment for helping COPD patients to stop smoking; (iii)high-quality evidence and strong recommendation for initiating interventions for helping COPD patients to stop smoking during hospitalization with improvement when the intervention is prolonged after discharge, and (iv)high-quality evidence and strong recommendation for funding treatment of smoking in COPD patients, in view of the impact on health and health economics. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9-12 year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuck, K.; Otten, R.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Kleinjan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Environmental smoking has numerous adverse effects on child health, and children are frequently exposed to environmental smoking. In the present study, we investigated the role of environmental smoking (parental smoking, sibling smoking, peer smoking) in smoking-related cognitions (pros of smoking,

  7. Promoting smoking cessation among parents: effects on smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Kathrin; Otten, Roy; Kleinjan, Marloes; Bricker, Jonathan B; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2015-01-01

    Parental smoking is associated with an increased risk of smoking among youth. Epidemiological research has shown that parental smoking cessation can attenuate this risk. This study examined whether telephone counselling for parents and subsequent parental smoking cessation affect smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation among children of smoking parents. Data of a two-arm randomized controlled trial were used in which 512 smoking parents were recruited into cessation support through their children's primary schools. After the baseline assessment, smoking parents were randomly assigned to tailored telephone counselling or a standard self-help brochure. Parental cessation was measured as 6-month prolonged abstinence at the 12-month follow-up. Children's smoking-related cognitions and smoking initiation were examined at 3-month, 12-month, and 30-month follow-up. No statistical evidence was found that children of parents who received telephone counselling tailored to smoking parents or children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence differ in smoking-related cognitions (i.e., smoking outcome expectancies, perceived safety of smoking, self-efficacy to refrain from smoking, susceptibility to smoking) or smoking initiation rate on any follow-up assessment. This study is the first to examine the effects of an evidence-based smoking cessation treatment for parents and treatment-induced parental smoking cessation on cognitive and behavioural outcomes among children. Although descriptive statistics showed lower smoking initiation rates among children of parents who achieved prolonged abstinence, there was no statistical evidence that telephone counselling tailored to parents or treatment-induced parental smoking cessation affects precursors of smoking or smoking initiation among youth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. [Knowledge, attitudes and behaviors of hospital staff members towards smoking and anti-smoking regulations: results of a survey in F.-Hached University Teaching Hospital of Sousse (Tunisia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, S Mezghani Ben; Rhif, H; Elguesmi, O; Abderrahmen, A Ben; Hayouni, A; Mrizak, N; Benzarti, M

    2011-12-01

    Promoting a smoke-free hospital is a priority component for tobacco control strategies. The aim of our investigation was to study the attitudes and behaviors of the hospital staff of the F.-Hached UH of Sousse towards smoking, and to assess their knowledge about the harms of passive smoking and about tobacco regulations in the hospital. We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire. In January-February 2008, the questionnaire was submitted to hospital staff members selected at random from the care units at F.-Hached UH of Sousse, Tunisia. The response rate was 92.8% (452 participants). The average age of the population was 39.7±19 years; all professional categories were represented. The prevalence of active smoking among the staff interviewed was 19% (89.5% males). About 75% of the smokers stated they smoked on the work site and 8% in the presence of patients. The majority of the smokers wished to stop smoking. Discomfort from exposure to tobacco smoke was reported by 83.4% of respondents. The large majority of staff respondents (95%) knew that tobacco smoke is dangerous and 80% were aware of the existence of a law that prohibits smoking in the hospital. The prevalence of smoking remains high among male hospital workers. In our hospital, the majority of the care staff favored promotion of a tobacco-free hospital. The success of this project will depend on education, implicating the entire hospital staff in the anti-smoking battle. Smoking staff members should be supported in their attempts to stop smoking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Tobacco Use and Environmental Smoke Exposure among Taiwanese Pregnant Smokers and Recent Quitters: Risk Perception, Attitude, and Avoidance Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Chang Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we conducted an empirical survey of the avoidance behaviors and risk perceptions of active and passive smoking pregnant smokers and recent quitters. We employed an online questionnaire survey by recruiting 166 voluntary participants from an online parenting community in Taiwan. The results of the empirical survey revealed that three-fourths of smokers quit smoking during pregnancy and one-fourth continued smoking. All pregnant women who continued smoking had partners or lived with relatives who smoked. Current smokers and quitters differed significantly in their risk perceptions and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy. Most pregnant smokers and quitters adopted passive smoking avoidance behaviors at home and in public. Nevertheless, one-fifth of pregnant women chose not to avoid passive smoking. We concluded that most women stop smoking during pregnancy; however, most women continue to be exposed to passive-smoking environments. Perceived fetal health risks and attitudes toward smoking during pregnancy are critical predictors of the anti-smoking behaviors of pregnant women.

  10. Smoking status in Danish lung cancer patients compared to the general population, 2005 - 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Niels-Christian Gerner; Christensen, Anders; Laursen, Christian B.

    2016-01-01

    The Danish Health Authority (DHA) publishes the smoking status for the general Danish population every year. Smoking status is not recorded by the Danish Lung Cancer Registry (DLCR) - only tobacco consumption (pack years). To study the smoking status of lung cancer patients at the time of diagnosis...... for the patient group. Age and gender specific smoking status for the general Danish population in the same period (published at the DHA home page: www.sst.dk) was used. We defined subjects who had stopped smoking for one year or more as ex-smokers, while subjects abstinent for less than one year were defined......, but the fraction is declining as for the general population. The fraction of never-smokers was low for both male and female patients and did not change during the study period....

  11. THE ROLE OF PREVENTIVE MEDICINE AND MARKETING IN PROMOTING OF ANTI-SMOKING CAMPAIGNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Costina LUCA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, according to official statistics (ec.europa.eu the percentage of smokers is about 29% of the population, and smoking still remains the main reason underlying the deaths and illnesses that could have been prevented. In the past 12 months, 31% of EU smokers have tried to quit smoking. In this gloomy context, the European Commission already has a tradition in preventing and stopping smoking, in addition to the broader tobacco control: in recent years have been organized numerous campaigns that aim to inform the European public about the problems caused by consumption tobacco, increasing awareness of the dangers of smoking, thus contributing to the long-term objective proposed by the Commission as "Europe free from tobacco smoke."

  12. Risk of hospital admission for COPD following smoking cessation and reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godtfredsen, N S; Vestbo, J; Osler, M

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effects of changes in smoking habits on the subsequent risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between smoking cessation and reduction and admission to hospital for COPD in a general...... by at least 50% between the two initial examinations without quitting and smokers who stopped smoking during this time were compared with continuous heavy smokers using a Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: During the follow up period 1,260 subjects (741 men and 519 women) were admitted to hospital...... for COPD. After multivariate adjustment, quitting smoking was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of hospital admission. The relative hazard (HR) was 0.57 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.33 to 0.99). Those who reduced smoking did not show a significantly lower risk of hospitalisation than...

  13. Attitudes towards smoking and tobacco control among pre-clinical medical students in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, G H; Hairi, N N; Hairi, F

    2012-08-01

    Physicians should play a leading role in combatting smoking; information on attitudes of future physicians towards tobacco control measures in a middle-income developing country is limited. Of 310 future physicians surveyed in a medical school in Malaysia, 50% disagreed that it was a doctor's duty to advise smokers to stop smoking; 76.8% agreed that physicians should not smoke before advising others not to smoke; and 75% agreed to the ideas of restricting the sale of cigarettes to minors, making all public places smoke-free and banning advertising of tobacco-related merchandise. Future physicians had positive attitudes towards tobacco regulations but had not grasped their responsibilities in tobacco control measures.

  14. Addiction, cigarette smoking, and voluntary control of action: Do cigarette smokers lose their free will?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Roy F

    2017-06-01

    Opinions differ widely as to whether addicts lose the ability to control their behavior and employ free will. This article reviews empirical findings regarding multiple questions relevant to the issue of free will among addicted smokers: Is smoking voluntary behavior? Can people quit smoking? Why don't people quit smoking? Why do smokers relapse when they try to quit? Do addicted smokers suffer from irresistible cravings? Are there some people who cannot quit? Are there conditions that make resistance impossible? Why would they smoke knowing it can kill them? The evidence reviewed here seems most consistent with the view that smokers retain control over their actions but cannot easily stop having frequent desires to smoke.

  15. Addiction, cigarette smoking, and voluntary control of action: Do cigarette smokers lose their free will?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy F. Baumeister

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Opinions differ widely as to whether addicts lose the ability to control their behavior and employ free will. This article reviews empirical findings regarding multiple questions relevant to the issue of free will among addicted smokers: Is smoking voluntary behavior? Can people quit smoking? Why don't people quit smoking? Why do smokers relapse when they try to quit? Do addicted smokers suffer from irresistible cravings? Are there some people who cannot quit? Are there conditions that make resistance impossible? Why would they smoke knowing it can kill them? The evidence reviewed here seems most consistent with the view that smokers retain control over their actions but cannot easily stop having frequent desires to smoke.

  16. Towards the end of the technical stop

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    After several weeks of hard work, the short technical stop of the LHC accelerator is coming to an end. Following a very intense campaign to repair and retest many thousand high voltage connectors, the upgraded magnet protection system is being commissioned. During this period, the current in the main dipole and quadrupole magnets is carefully increased up to 6kA, required to collide protons at 7TeV centre-of-mass energy. This has been achieved for most of the sectors.   The parameters of the upgraded magnet protection system are accurately calibrated. This operation is needed in order for the magnet protection system to be triggered only when a real problem occurs. The system is now able to detect a transition from superconducting to normal conducting state of the superconducting cable joints between magnets, a necessary condition to operate the magnet system above 2kA. Highly accurate measurements of the joint resistances have been performed by stepping up the current to 5kA. The magnets and the...

  17. Stopping power ratios less than unity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbeck, J.; Lucas, M. W.; Kemmler, J.; Groeneveld, K.-O.

    1990-03-01

    We present calculations of the stopping power ratio R for H2+ molecular ions incident on graphite. These calculations include contributions from both free valence electrons and bound core electrons. It is known from experiment [W. Brandt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 33 (1974) 1325; 35 (1975) 130] that R is greater than unity for ν > 1 (a.u.), although it can fall below unity at lower velocities [J.C. Eckhardt et al., J. Phys. C11 (1978) L851]. We predict, however, that in appropriately chosen conditions R can be less than unity for ν ⋍ 2, even though we have assumed the constituent protons to remain bare throughout the thin solid target so that this is not a charge state effect. We have used both pure and screened Coulomb potentials to describe the repulsion process of the two protons. We also compare our computations with the data of Steuer et al. [ IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. NS-30 (1983) 1069] for H2+ on graphite, ν = 4. Unfortunately, their interesting results for N2+ and O2+ are obtained at velocities which are too low for our th be appropriate.

  18. Racial Differences in Cigarette Smoking Among Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golinelli, Daniela; Tucker, Joan S; Shadel, William G

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have reported pronounced racial/ethnic differences in smoking behavior among homeless youth. Better understanding the factors underlying racial/ethnic differences in daily smoking among homeless youth may help inform programs to reduce smoking in this population. Data come from a probability sample of homeless youth in Los Angeles County collected between 2008 and 2009. The sample includes 116 African American, 99 Hispanic, and 119 White youth with ages ranging from 13 to 24 years. Chi-square tests were used to test the differences in daily smoking among African American, Hispanic, and White youth. Propensity score and doubly robust methods were used to produce a less biased estimate of the association between daily smoking and race/ethnicity after having removed the effect of potential confounders. The daily smoking rate for White youth was 70.1%, more than 31 percentage points than the rates for either African American or Hispanic youth. Propensity score analysis revealed that the majority of the racial/ethnic differences in smoking rates could be explained by differences in homelessness severity, although background characteristics and comorbidity were relevant as well. As programs are developed to reduce smoking among homeless youth, results suggest that additional outreach may be needed to engage White youth in services. Also, smoking prevention programs may benefit from incorporating a social network-based approach that assists youth in fostering relationships with lower-risk peers, as well as addressing other forms of substance use. Incorporating these elements may help reduce the large racial/ethnic disparities in daily smoking among homeless youth. This report extends the small existing literature on racial/ethnic differences in smoking among homeless youth in two important respects. First, it confirms differences in daily smoking, an important indicator of dependence, across racial/ethnic groups. Second, it seeks to understand the extent

  19. Stop valve with automatic control and locking for nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.K.

    1980-01-01

    This invention generally concerns an automatic control and locking stop valve. Specifically it relates to the use of such a valve in a nuclear reactor of the type containing absorber elements supported by a fluid and intended for stopping the reactor in complete safety [fr

  20. Stop and start control: a distinction within self-control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.J.; van Hooft, E.A.J.; Bakker, A.B.

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical distinction within self-control, between stop control and start control, was investigated in two studies. Study 1 consisted of a pilot study in which expert ratings of existing self-control items were used to distinguish between stop and start control items and a confirmatory factor