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Sample records for american stimulant users

  1. Young Adult, Rural, African American Stimulant Users: Antecedents and Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Booth, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Early initiation of substance use appears to be an alarming trend among rural minorities. This study focuses on 18–21 year old African American stimulant users in the Arkansas Mississippi Delta. Most participants had no high school diploma and were unemployed; 74.5% had already been arrested. Substance use was initiated early, and nearly all of the men and three quarters of the women already met criteria for lifetime abuse or dependence. Only 18% reported they had ever received substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that substance use interventions in rural communities will require multi-faceted strategies addressing economic, educational and healthcare disparities. PMID:20098663

  2. Stimulant use among African American and Latino MSM social networking users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Shoptaw, Steve

    2013-01-01

    High stimulant-using and at-risk HIV populations, such as African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM), are increasingly using social networking technologies. However, no known research has explored associations between stimulant use, sexual risk behaviors, and social networking among these populations. Participants were recruited using the Facebook Connect software application, which narrowed the sample to 118 (primarily African American and Latino MSM) active Facebook users. Participants completed demographic, Internet and social media use, and drug use survey items. Participants reported high rates of cocaine and methamphetamine use (both more than 15% within the past 12 months). More than 70% of participants reported using social networking technologies to meet people, and more than 30% used them to find sexual partners. A multivariate logistic regression showed that (1) participants using social networks to find sexual partners were more likely to have used methamphetamines within the past 12 months and (2) those who were more comfortable talking online compared to face-to-face had over 4 times the odds of methamphetamine use and over 6 times the odds of cocaine use within the past 12 months. Minority MSM who used social networks to meet men and find sexual partners had high risk for stimulant use. Understanding drug use among minority social networking users will provide insights to incorporate these technologies into drug prevention interventions. PMID:23480246

  3. Stages of Change, Decisional Balance, and Self-Efficacy in Condom Use Among Rural African-American Stimulant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia B.; Booth, Brenda M.; Feldman, Zachary; Stewart, Katharine E.

    2009-01-01

    This pilot study (a) examined the stages of change (SOC) for condom use with primary and casual partners among rural heterosexual African American stimulant users, (b) identified gender differences in variables associated with SOC, and (c) assessed the association of SOC with decisional balance and self-efficacy. Seventy-two participants completed the study. SOC with a primary partner was much lower than SOC with a casual partner, indicating more consistent condom use with casual partners. Significant gender differences existed in decisional balance for condom use for both primary (p = 0.02) and casual partners (p = 0.03), with women having higher decisional balance scores than men. Women also reported higher self-efficacy scores for condom use with casual partners than men. In regression models, age, decisional balance, and self-efficacy were significantly associated with SOC for condom use with a primary partner; however, only self-efficacy was significantly associated with SOC with casual partners. The findings provide support for the development of interventions that promote the advantages of and increase self-efficacy for condom use. PMID:19887285

  4. Criminality among Rural Stimulant Users in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oser, Carrie; Leukefeld, Carl; Staton-Tindall, Michele; Duvall, Jamieson; Garrity, Thomas; Stoops, William; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert; Sexton, Rocky; Wright, Patricia; Booth, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Despite the increase in media attention on "meth cooking" in rural areas of the United States, little is known about rural stimulant use--particularly, the criminality associated with stimulant use. Data were collected from community stimulant users in rural Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky (N = 709). Findings from three logistic regression models…

  5. Multi-sensory environmental stimulation for users with multiple disabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manresa-Yee, Cristina; Morrison, Ann Judith; Jordi Muntaner, Joan; Francesca Roig-Maimó, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Multi-sensory environments can improve and maximize the well-being of individuals with multiple disabilities, that is, individuals who have more than one significant disability (one of which is a cognitive impairment). In this chapter we present a multi-sensory environmental stimulation system that...... combines different technologies such as computer vision and tactile cues in the form of vibrations. The system offers users control over the environmental stimulation by responding to their body movements. A vision-based interface detects the user’s hand position and activates meaningful and motivational...... outcomes when the hand is positioned over specific regions. Further, we extended the system by including a wearable vibrotactile interface that encourages users to move their arms by using vibrations that exploit the saltation perceptual illusion known for inducing movement....

  6. Health websites: accessibility and usability for American sign language users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Naturale, Joan; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Smith, Scott R; Werfel, Emily; Doolittle, Richard; Jacobs, Stephen; DeCaro, James

    2015-01-01

    To date, there have been efforts toward creating better health information access for Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. However, the usability of websites with access to health information in ASL has not been evaluated. Our article focuses on the usability of four health websites that include ASL videos. We seek to obtain ASL users' perspectives on the navigation of these ASL-accessible websites, finding the health information that they needed, and perceived ease of understanding ASL video content. ASL users (n = 32) were instructed to find specific information on four ASL-accessible websites, and answered questions related to (a) navigation to find the task, (b) website usability, and (c) ease of understanding ASL video content for each of the four websites. Participants also gave feedback on what they would like to see in an ASL health library website, including the benefit of added captioning and/or signer model to medical illustration of health videos. Participants who had lower health literacy had greater difficulty in finding information on ASL-accessible health websites. This article also describes the participants' preferences for an ideal ASL-accessible health website, and concludes with a discussion on the role of accessible websites in promoting health literacy in ASL users. PMID:24901350

  7. Therapist effects, working alliance, and African American women substance users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Telsie A; Ancis, Julie R; Ashby, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    African American (AfA) women with substance use disorders experience low rates of treatment retention compared to other groups of substance abusers. This is problematic since substance abuse treatment is effective only to the extent clients are retained. A weak working alliance is a significant barrier to treatment retention for AfA women. Thus, identifying therapist characteristics that facilitate a strong working alliance among this population stands as a promising step toward reducing disparities in treatment retention for this group. Therapist characteristics were explored as predictors of working alliance with AfA women substance users (N = 102). Two hypotheses were tested: (1) Population Sensitive Therapist Characteristics (PSTCs: multicultural competence, egalitarianism, and empowerment) will explain a significant amount of variance in working alliance beyond that explained by general therapist characteristics (GTCs: empathy, regard, and genuineness) and (2) GTCs will partially mediate the effect of each individual PSTC on working alliance. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that PSTCs explained 12% of the variance in working alliance after controlling for GTCs. Bootstrapping analyses demonstrated that GTCs mediated the effect of each PSTC on working alliance. Findings suggest that therapists can facilitate a stronger working alliance with AfA women substance users through demonstration of PSTCs in addition to GTCs, and that PSTCs are facilitative because they increase the likelihood the therapist is perceived as empathic, having unconditional positive regard, and genuine. Clinical and therapist training implications are discussed. PMID:25111550

  8. Technology assessment of multileaf collimation: a North American users survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) initiated an Assessment of Technology Subcommittee (ATS) to help the radiotherapy community evaluate emerging technologies. The ATS decided to first address multileaf collimation (MLC) by means of a North American users survey. The survey attempted to address issues such as MLC utility, efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and customer satisfaction. Methods and Materials: The survey was designed with 38 questions, with cross-tabulation set up to decipher a particular clinic's perception of MLC. The surveys were coded according to MLC types, which were narrowed to four: Elekta, Siemens, Varian 52-leaf, and Varian 80-leaf. A 40% return rate was desired. Results: A 44% (108 of 250) return was achieved. On an MLC machine, 76.5% of photon patients are being treated with MLC. The main reasons for not using MLC were stair stepping, field size limitation, and physician objection. The most common sites in which MLC is being used are lung, pelvis, and prostate. The least used sites are head and neck and mantle fields. Of the facilities, 31% claimed an increase in number of patients being treated since MLC was installed, and 44% claimed an increase in the number of fields. Though the staffing for block cutting has decreased, therapist staffing has not. However, 91% of the facilities claimed a decreased workload for the therapists, despite the increase in daily treated patients and fields. Of the facilities that justified MLC purchase for more daily patients, 63% are actually treating more patients. Only 26% of the facilities that justified an MLC purchase for intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) are currently using it for that purpose. The satisfaction rating (1 = low to 5 = high) for department groups averaged 4.0. Therapists ranked MLC as 4.6. Conclusions: Our survey shows that most users have successfully introduced MLC into the clinic as a block replacement. Most have found MLC to be cost-effective and

  9. Correlates of HIV Testing among Rural African American Cocaine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia B.; Booth, Brenda M.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Borders, Tyrone F.; Ounpraseuth, Songthip T.; Stewart, Katharine E.

    2014-01-01

    Andersen's Revised Behavioral Model of Health Services Use (RBM) was used as a framework in this correlational cross-sectional study to examine factors associated with HIV testing among a sample of 251 rural African American cocaine users. All participants reported using cocaine and being sexually active within the past 30 days. Independent variables were categorized according to the RBM as predisposing, enabling, need, or health behavior factors. Number of times tested for HIV (never, one time, two to four times, five or more times) was the outcome of interest. In ordered logistic regression analyses, HIV testing was strongly associated with being female, of younger age (predisposing factors); having been tested for sexually transmitted diseases or hepatitis, ever having been incarcerated in jail or prison (enabling factors); and having had one sex partner the past 30 days (health behavior factor). Other sexual risk behaviors, drug use, health status, and perception of risk were not associated with HIV testing. Our findings confirm the importance of routine testing in all healthcare settings rather than risk-based testing. PMID:25346379

  10. A User Cooperation Stimulating Strategy Based on Cooperative Game Theory in Cooperative Relay Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a user cooperation stimulating strategy among rational users. The strategy is based on cooperative game theory and enacted in the context of cooperative relay networks. Using the pricing-based mechanism, the system is modeled initially with two nodes and a Base Station (BS. Within this framework, each node is treated as a rational decision maker. To this end, each node can decide whether to cooperate and how to cooperate. Cooperative game theory assists in providing an optimal system utility and provides fairness among users. Under different cooperative forwarding modes, certain questions are carefully investigated, including “what is each node's best reaction to maximize its utility?” and “what is the optimal reimbursement to encourage cooperation?” Simulation results show that the nodes benefit from the proposed cooperation stimulating strategy in terms of utility and thus justify the fairness between each user.

  11. Stimulant medication use in college students: comparison of appropriate users, misusers, and nonusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Cynthia M; Canu, Will H; Cleveland, Carolyn S; Lefler, Elizabeth K; Mignogna, Melissa J; Fedele, David A; Correia, Christopher J; Leffingwell, Thad R; Clapp, Joshua D

    2013-09-01

    While stimulant medication is commonly prescribed to treat Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in children and adolescents (Merikangas, He, Rapoport, Vitiello, & Olfson, 2013; Zuvekas & Vitiello, 2012) and is considered an empirically supported intervention for those groups (Barkley, Murphy, & Fischer, 2008; Pelham & Fabiano, 2008; Safren et al., 2005) surprisingly little is known about the efficacy of stimulants in the slightly older emerging adult population. A focus has emerged, however, on illicit stimulant use among undergraduates, with studies suggesting such behavior is not uncommon (e.g., Arria et al., 2013). Unfortunately, details are lacking regarding outcomes and personal characteristics associated with different patterns of stimulant misuse. The current study compares the characteristics of four groups of college students, including those with stimulant prescriptions who use them appropriately (i.e., appropriate users), those who misuse their prescription stimulants (i.e., medical misusers), those who obtain and use stimulants without a prescription (i.e., nonmedical misusers), and those who do not use stimulant medications at all (i.e., nonusers). Undergraduates (N = 1,153) from the Southeastern, Midwest, and Rocky Mountain regions completed online measures evaluating patterns of use, associated motives, side effects, ADHD symptomatology, and other substance use. Both types of misusers (i.e., students who abused their prescriptions and those who obtained stimulants illegally) reported concerning patterns of other and combined substance use, as well as higher prevalence of debilitating side effects such as insomnia and restlessness. Research and practical implications are discussed. PMID:24059834

  12. Childhood Conduct Problems and Other Early Risk Factors in Rural Adult Stimulant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.; Edlund, Carrie

    2009-01-01

    Context: Understanding childhood risk factors associated with adult substance use and legal problems is important for treatment and prevention. Purpose: To examine the relationship of early substance use, conduct problems before age 15, and family history of substance abuse on adult outcomes in rural, stimulant users. Methods: Adult cocaine and…

  13. HIV Risk Behaviors among Rural Stimulant Users: Variation by Gender and Race/Ethnicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia B.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Fischer, Ellen P.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    We examined data from a community sample of rural stimulant users (n = 691) in three diverse states to identify gender and racial/ethnic differences in HIV risk behaviors. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were conducted with six risk behaviors as dependent variables: injecting drugs, trading sex to obtain money or drugs, trading money or…

  14. Codeine cough syrup use among African-American crack cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ronald J; Williams, Mark; Ross, Michael W; Atkinson, John; Yacoubian, George S

    2007-03-01

    While studies show evidence of a clear problem with the prevalence of crack cocaine and codeine cough syrup use separately, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In an attempt to ascertain beyond anecdotal evidence, the authors carried out a cross-sectional study among 482 African-American crack users to investigate the differences between those who were concurrently codeine cough syrup users and those who were not codeine cough syrup users in Houston, Texas. Logistic regression indicated that codeine use was significantly associated with lower participant age and lower education; codeine cough syrup users were significantly more likely than nonusers to not have a main sexual partner. In addition, codeine users had significantly higher odds of ever trading sex for money, marijuana use, and fry use. These findings are important in determining the "cultural novelties" relative to crack and codeine use among younger African Americans. PMID:17523589

  15. Prescription opiate misuse among rural stimulant users in a multi-state community-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Jennifer R.; Stoops, William W.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Garrity, Thomas F.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the current analysis was to examine the factors associated with prescription opiate misuse among stimulant users from rural counties in Arkansas, Kentucky, and Ohio (N=714). Methods Multiple logistic regression was utilized to determine the independent correlates of recent (prior 6 months) prescription opiate misuse. Results More than half of participants (53.2%) reported prescription opiate misuse in the previous 6 months. Other drug use (heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine and marijuana) and anxiety (Adjusted Odds Ratio: 2.04, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.60, 2.59) were independently associated with prescription opiate misuse. Chronic pain and other health indicators were not associated with prescription opiate misuse after adjustment for covariates. Conclusions Results indicate that illicit drug involvement and psychiatric symptoms may be driving the high rates of prescription opiate misuse among rural stimulant users. These findings have implications for the provision of treatment in resource-deprived rural areas. PMID:19152201

  16. Auditory steady-state responses in cochlear implant users: Effect of modulation frequency and stimulation artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gransier, Robin; Deprez, Hanne; Hofmann, Michael; Moonen, Marc; van Wieringen, Astrid; Wouters, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that objective measures based on stimulation with low-rate pulse trains fail to predict the threshold levels of cochlear implant (CI) users for high-rate pulse trains, as used in clinical devices. Electrically evoked auditory steady-state responses (EASSRs) can be elicited by modulated high-rate pulse trains, and can potentially be used to objectively determine threshold levels of CI users. The responsiveness of the auditory pathway of profoundly hearing-impaired CI users to modulation frequencies is, however, not known. In the present study we investigated the responsiveness of the auditory pathway of CI users to a monopolar 500 pulses per second (pps) pulse train modulated between 1 and 100 Hz. EASSRs to forty-three modulation frequencies, elicited at the subject's maximum comfort level, were recorded by means of electroencephalography. Stimulation artifacts were removed by a linear interpolation between a pre- and post-stimulus sample (i.e., blanking). The phase delay across modulation frequencies was used to differentiate between the neural response and a possible residual stimulation artifact after blanking. Stimulation artifacts were longer than the inter-pulse interval of the 500pps pulse train for recording electrodes ipsilateral to the CI. As a result the stimulation artifacts could not be removed by artifact removal on the bases of linear interpolation for recording electrodes ipsilateral to the CI. However, artifact-free responses could be obtained in all subjects from recording electrodes contralateral to the CI, when subject specific reference electrodes (Cz or Fpz) were used. EASSRs to modulation frequencies within the 30-50 Hz range resulted in significant responses in all subjects. Only a small number of significant responses could be obtained, during a measurement period of 5 min, that originate from the brain stem (i.e., modulation frequencies in the 80-100 Hz range). This reduced synchronized activity of brain stem

  17. The Health Intervention Project: HIV risk reduction among African American women drug users.

    OpenAIRE

    Sterk, Claire E.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article describes the Health Intervention Project, an intervention for African American women in Atlanta, Georgia, who are crack cocaine users. METHODS:A formative phase involved ethnographic mapping of the physical and social infrastructure of the study communities and in-depth interviews with women crack cocaine users. Key findings that were incorporated into the intervention program included the exchange of sex for money or drugs, the women's experience with trauma and abus...

  18. Speech perception with interaction-compensated simultaneous stimulation and long pulse durations in cochlear implant users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatzer, Reinhold; Koroleva, Inna; Griessner, Andreas; Levin, Sergey; Kusovkov, Vladislav; Yanov, Yuri; Zierhofer, Clemens

    2015-04-01

    Early multi-channel designs in the history of cochlear implant development were based on a vocoder-type processing of frequency channels and presented bands of compressed analog stimulus waveforms simultaneously on multiple tonotopically arranged electrodes. The realization that the direct summation of electrical fields as a result of simultaneous electrode stimulation exacerbates interactions among the stimulation channels and limits cochlear implant outcome led to the breakthrough in the development of cochlear implants, the continuous interleaved (CIS) sampling coding strategy. By interleaving stimulation pulses across electrodes, CIS activates only a single electrode at each point in time, preventing a direct summation of electrical fields and hence the primary component of channel interactions. In this paper we show that a previously presented approach of simultaneous stimulation with channel interaction compensation (CIC) may also ameliorate the deleterious effects of simultaneous channel interaction on speech perception. In an acute study conducted in eleven experienced MED-EL implant users, configurations involving simultaneous stimulation with CIC and doubled pulse phase durations have been investigated. As pairs of electrodes were activated simultaneously and pulse durations were doubled, carrier rates remained the same. Comparison conditions involved both CIS and fine structure (FS) strategies, either with strictly sequential or paired-simultaneous stimulation. Results showed no statistical difference in the perception of sentences in noise and monosyllables for sequential and paired-simultaneous stimulation with doubled phase durations. This suggests that CIC can largely compensate for the effects of simultaneous channel interaction, for both CIS and FS coding strategies. A simultaneous stimulation paradigm has a number of potential advantages over a traditional sequential interleaved design. The flexibility gained when dropping the requirement of

  19. Predictors of Substance Abuse Treatment Entry Among Rural Illicit Stimulant Users in Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert G.; Sexton, Rocky; Wang, Jichuan; Falck, Russel; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Illicit drug use in the rural United States is increasingly common, yet little is known about drug users’ treatment-seeking behaviors. This study identifies predictors of substance abuse treatment entry over 24 months among 710 illicit stimulant users in rural areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Active users of powdered cocaine, crack cocaine, and/or methamphetamine (MA) were recruited using respondent-driven sampling. Participants completed structured interviews at baseline and follow-up questionnaires every 6 months for 24 months. Data were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The paper is informed by the Anderson-Newman Model. Overall, 18.7% of the sample entered treatment. Ohio or Kentucky residence, perceived need for substance abuse treatment, higher ASI legal problem composite scores, prior substance abuse treatment, and tranquilizer use were positively associated with treatment entry. Non-daily crack cocaine users and marijuana users were less likely to enter treatment. The findings can help inform rural substance abuse treatment program development and outreach. PMID:20391264

  20. Sexual sensation seeking, transactional sex, and rural African American cocaine users

    OpenAIRE

    Gullette, Donna; Brenda M. Booth; Wright, Patricia B.; Montgomery, Brooke E. E.; Stewart, Katharine E.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore correlates of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) in a sample of rural African American cocaine users. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 251 participants from two impoverished rural counties in eastern Arkansas. Consistent with previous investigations, SSS scores were associated with being younger, being male, having more sexual partners, and having more unprotected sexual encounters in the previous 30 days. Multiple regression revealed SSS was...

  1. RURAL/URBAN RESIDENCE, ACCESS, AND PERCEIVED NEED FOR TREATMENT AMONG AFRICAN AMERICAN COCAINE USERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    BORDERS, TYRONE F.; BOOTH, BRENDA M.; STEWART, KATHARINE E.; CHENEY, ANN M.; CURRAN, GEOFFREY M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine how rural/urban residence, perceived access, and other factors impede or facilitate perceived need for drug use treatment, a concept closely linked to treatment utilization. Study Design Two hundred rural and 200 urban African American cocaine users who were not receiving treatment were recruited via Respondent-Driven Sampling and completed a structured in-person interview. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to test the associations between perceived need and rural/urban residence, perceived access, and other predisposing (eg, demographics), enabling (eg, insurance), and health factors (eg, psychiatric distress). Principal Findings In bivariate analyses, rural relative to urban cocaine users reported lower perceived treatment need (37% vs 48%), availability, affordability, overall ease of access, and effectiveness, as well as lower perceived acceptability of residential, outpatient, self-help, and hospital-based services. In multivariate analyses, there was a significant interaction between rural/urban residence and the acceptability of religious counseling. At the highest level of acceptability, rural users had lower odds of perceived need (OR=.23); at the lowest level, rural users had higher odds of perceived need (OR=2.74) than urban users. Among rural users, the acceptability of religious counseling was negatively associated with perceived need (OR=.64). Ease of access was negatively associated (OR=.71) whereas local treatment effectiveness (OR=1.47) and the acceptability of hospital-based treatment (OR=1.29) were positively associated with perceived need among all users. Conclusions Our findings suggest rural/urban disparities in perceived need and access to drug use treatment. Among rural and urban cocaine users, improving perceptions of treatment effectiveness and expanding hospital-based services could promote treatment seeking. PMID:25213603

  2. Two-Year Trajectory of Stimulant Use in 18–21 Year Old Rural African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Booth, Brenda M.; Han, Xiaotong

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about stimulant use trajectories of rural African American youth. The purpose of the present study is to explore substance use over 24 months in 98 African Americans, ages 18–21, who used cocaine or methamphetamine 30 days prior to baseline. The majority was male, unemployed, and had not graduated from high school. At baseline, almost half of the participants met criteria for abuse/dependence of cocaine – the primary stimulant used – which decreased to 25% by the final follow-up. Similar decreases were noted in rates of alcohol and marijuana abuse/dependence, although monthly use remained high. Participants reported minimal utilization of mental health or substance abuse services, but demonstrated significant improvements on physical and mental health measures. In summary, cocaine use declined, but other substances were used at high rates, suggesting a significant need for intervention services that address multi-substance use in rural areas. PMID:20391266

  3. Sexual sensation seeking, transactional sex, and rural African American cocaine users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullette, Donna; Booth, Brenda M.; Wright, Patricia B.; Montgomery, Brooke E. E.; Stewart, Katharine E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore correlates of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) in a sample of rural African American cocaine users. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 251 participants from two impoverished rural counties in eastern Arkansas. Consistent with previous investigations, SSS scores were associated with being younger, being male, having more sexual partners, and having more unprotected sexual encounters in the previous 30 days. Multiple regression revealed SSS was correlated with number of oral sex acts, transactional sex (exchanging sex for food, shelter, drugs, money, or other commodities), and Addiction Severity Index (ASI) drug composite. SSS continues to demonstrate a strong association with sexual risk behaviors in diverse populations, including vulnerable groups like this community. Interventions to reduce unsafe sexual behaviors among high-risk groups, including drug users and individuals who engage in transactional sex, should incorporate approaches that include high sensation seekers' needs for novelty and variety. PMID:24070647

  4. Sexual sensation seeking, transactional sex, and rural African American cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullette, Donna; Booth, Brenda M; Wright, Patricia B; Montgomery, Brooke E E; Stewart, Katharine E

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore correlates of sexual sensation seeking (SSS) in a sample of rural African American cocaine users. Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit 251 participants from two impoverished rural counties in eastern Arkansas. Consistent with previous investigations, SSS scores were associated with being younger, being male, having more sexual partners, and having more unprotected sexual encounters in the previous 30 days. Multiple regression revealed that SSS was correlated with a number of oral sex acts, transactional sex (exchanging sex for food, shelter, drugs, money, or other commodities), and Addiction Severity Index drug composite. SSS continues to demonstrate a strong association with sexual risk behaviors in diverse populations, including vulnerable groups like this community. Interventions to reduce unsafe sexual behaviors among high-risk groups, including drug users and individuals who engage in transactional sex, should incorporate approaches that include high sensation seekers' needs for novelty and variety. PMID:24070647

  5. Perceived Need for Substance Abuse Treatment among Illicit Stimulant Drug Users in Rural Areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert G.; Krishnan, Laura L.; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    Non-medical drug use in rural communities in the United States is a significant and growing public health threat. Understanding what motivates drug users in rural areas to seek substance abuse treatment may help in addressing the problem. Perceived need for treatment, a construct indicative of problem recognition and belief in problem solution, has been identified as an important predictor of help-seeking behavior. This cross-sectional study used data collected through face-to-face interviews to examine factors associated with perceived need for drug abuse treatment among not-in-treatment, adult, illicit stimulant drug users (n=710) in rural areas of Ohio, Kentucky, and Arkansas. More than one-quarter of the sample perceived a need for treatment. Results from a stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that white users, users with better physical and mental health status, and occasional users of methamphetamine were significantly less likely to see a need for treatment. Users with higher Addiction Severity Index composite scores for family/social problems or legal problems, and users with prior drug abuse treatment experience were significantly more likely to perceive a need for treatment. These findings have practical implications for efforts addressing substance abuse in rural areas. PMID:17604917

  6. A Web-Based Intervention for Users of Amphetamine-Type Stimulants: 3-Month Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tait, Robert J; McKetin, Rebecca; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Carron-Arthur, Bradley; Bennett, Anthony; Bennett, Kylie; Christensen, Helen; Griffiths, Kathleen M

    2014-01-01

    Background Among illicit drugs, the prevalence of amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use is second only to cannabis. Currently, there are no approved pharmacotherapies for ATS problems, but some face-to-face psychotherapies are effective. Web-based interventions have proven to be effective for some substance use problems, but none has specifically targeted ATS users. Objective The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a Web-based intervention for ATS problems on a free-to-...

  7. Physical Health, Illicit Drug Use, and Demographic Characteristics in Rural Stimulant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, Thomas F.; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Carlson, Robert G.; Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Booth, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: There is growing concern about illicit rural stimulant use, especially regarding methamphetamine use and its health consequences. Purpose: The present study describes associations between aspects of stimulant use and illness experience in rural areas, with additional focus on the role of demographic characteristics in these associations.…

  8. America's Women of Color: Integrating Cultural Diversity into Non-Sex-Biased Curricula. Filmstrip User's Guide for Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Paul Public Schools, MN.

    This document is one of five filmstrip users' guides that can be used to increase understanding of minority women in the United States by supplying basic information on their histories, current concerns, myths, and misleading stereotypes. The guide was designed to be used with a filmstrip entitled "Asian American Women" and to help teachers of…

  9. Longitudinal Changes in Drug Use Severity and Physical Health-Related Quality of Life among Untreated Stimulant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Booth, Brenda M.; Falck, Russel S.; Leukefeld, Carl; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate whether drug use severity is associated with physical health-related quality of life (HRQL) over time. Data are from a longitudinal, multi-state, natural history community study of users of cocaine and/or methamphetamine who were interviewed at 6-month intervals over 2 years with a 79% follow-up participation rate. Physical HRQL was assessed with the physical component summary (PCS) of the SF-8™ Health Survey and drug, alcohol, and psychiatric severity were all assessed with the Addiction Severity Index (ASI). Random coefficient regression analyses were conducted to test for longitudinal associations between the independent variables and SF-8 PCS scores. Reductions in drug use severity over time were accompanied by only minor improvements in SF-8 PCS scores, underscoring the potential long-term harm of illicit drug use on physical health. Greater psychiatric severity was strongly associated with lower SF-8 PCS scores, suggesting that clinical attention to mental health issues could potentially lead to improvements in perceived physical health as well among stimulant users. PMID:19560873

  10. Beliefs and Attitudes Regarding Drug Treatment: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior in African American Cocaine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brenda M.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Cheney, Ann M.; Borders, Tyrone F.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) can provide insights into perceived need for cocaine treatment among African American cocaine users. Methods A cross-sectional community sample of 400 (50% rural) not-in-treatment African American cocaine users was identified through respondent-driven sampling in one urban and two rural counties in Arkansas. Measures included self-reports of attitudes and beliefs about cocaine treatment, perceived need and perceived effectiveness of treatment, and positive and negative cocaine expectancies. Normative beliefs were measured by perceived stigma and consequences of stigma regarding drug use and drug treatment. Perceived control was measured by readiness for treatment, prior drug treatment, and perceived ability to cut down on cocaine use without treatment. Findings Multiple regression analysis found that older age (standardized regression coefficient β = 0.15, P < 0.001), rural residence (β = −0.09, P = 0.025), effectiveness of treatment (β = 0.39, P < 0.001), negative cocaine expectancies (β = 0.138, P = 0.003), experiences of rejection (β = 0.18, P < 0.001), need for secrecy (β = 0.12, P = 0.002), and readiness for treatment (β = 0.15, P < 0.001), were independently associated with perceived need for cocaine treatment. Conclusions TPB is a relevant model for understanding perceived need for treatment among African American cocaine users. Research has shown perceived need to be a major correlate of treatment participation. Study results should be applicable for designing interventions to encourage treatment participation. PMID:24930051

  11. Mexican American Archives at the Benson Collection: A Guide for Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Maria G., Comp.; Gutierrez-Witt, Laura, Ed.

    This guide, which documents the first phase of a continuing program to strengthen and develop Mexican American materials and research sources at the University of Texas at Austin, lists and describes both textual and non-textual materials in the collections of literary manuscripts, organizational archives, and personal papers. The first section…

  12. American Ginseng Stimulates Insulin Production and Prevents Apoptosis through Regulation of Uncoupling Protein-2 in Cultured β Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Zeqi Luo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American ginseng root displays the ability to achieve glucose homeostasis both experimentally and clinically but the unknown mechanism used by ginseng to achieve its therapeutic effects on diabetes limits its application. Disruption in the insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells is considered the major cause of diabetes. A mitochondrial protein, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2 has been found to play a critical role in insulin synthesis and β cell survival. Our preliminary studies found that the extracts of American ginseng inhibit UCP-2 expression which may contribute to the ability of ginseng protecting β cell death and improving insulin synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that ginseng extracts suppress UCP-2 in the mitochondria of pancreatic β cells, promoting insulin synthesis and anti-apoptosis (a programmed cell-death mechanism. To test the hypothesis, the serum-deprived quiescent β cells were cultured with or without interleukin-1β (IL-1β, (200 pg ml−1, a cytokine to induce β cell apoptosis and water extracts of American ginseng (25 μg per 5 μl administered to wells of 0.5 ml culture for 24 h. We evaluated effects of ginseng on UCP-2 expression, insulin production, anti-/pro-apoptotic factors Bcl-2/caspase-9 expression and cellular ATP levels. We found that ginseng suppresses UCP-2, down-regulates caspase-9 while increasing ATP and insulin production/secretion and up-regulates Bcl-2, reducing apoptosis. These findings suggest that stimulation of insulin production and prevention of β cell loss by American ginseng extracts can occur via the inhibition of mitochondrial UCP-2, resulting in increase in the ATP level and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2, while down-regulation of pro-apoptotic factor caspase-9 occurs, lowering the occurrence of apoptosis, which support the hypothesis.

  13. Low cost of pulmonary ventilation in American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) stimulated with doxapram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovgaard, Nini; Crossley, Dane A; Wang, Tobias

    2016-04-01

    To determine the costs of pulmonary ventilation without imposing severe oxygen limitations or acidosis that normally accompany exposures to hypoxia or hypercapnia, we opted to pharmacologically stimulate ventilation with doxapram (5 and 10 mg kg(-1)) in alligators. Doxapram is used clinically to alleviate ventilatory depression in response to anaesthesia and acts primarily on the peripheral oxygen-sensitive chemoreceptors. Using this approach, we investigated the hypothesis that pulmonary ventilation is relatively modest in comparison to resting metabolic rate in crocodilians and equipped seven juvenile alligators with masks for concurrent determination of ventilation and oxygen uptake. Doxapram elicited a dose-dependent and up to fourfold rise in ventilation, primarily by increasing ventilatory frequency. The accompanying rise in oxygen uptake was very small; ventilation in resting animals constitutes no more than 5% of resting metabolic rate. The conclusion that pulmonary ventilation is energetically cheap is consistent with earlier studies on alligators where ventilation was stimulated by hypoxia or hypercapnia. PMID:26896538

  14. Stimulant Use by Young Adult African Americans in a Rural Community: A Pipeline to Prison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Bell-Tolliver, LaVerne; Tripathi, Shanti P.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    The association between stimulant use and legal outcomes was examined in rural adults 18–21 years (n=98) in the Mississippi River Delta of Arkansas from 2003 through 2008. Participants were interviewed at baseline and every six months for two years using the Substance Abuse Outcomes Module, Addiction Severity Index, Short-Form 8 Health Survey, Brief Symptom Inventory, Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Screen, and an abbreviated Antisocial Personality Disorder measure. More than three-quarters were arrested before baseline; 47 were arrested over the next two years. Early arrest but not substance use was related to subsequent arrest. Limitations and implications for interventions are discussed. PMID:21047150

  15. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with development of subclinical coronary artery disease in HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low Framingham-defined cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai H

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hong Lai,1 Elliot K Fishman,1 Gary Gerstenblith,2 Richard Moore,2 Jeffrey A Brinker,2 Jeanne C Keruly,2 Shaoguang Chen,3 Barbara Detrick,3 Shenghan Lai1–31Department of Radiology, 2Department of Medicine, 3Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Chronic cocaine use may lead to premature atherosclerosis, but the prevalence of and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD in asymptomatic cocaine users have not been reported. The objective of this study was to examine whether vitamin D deficiency is associated with the development of CAD in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low CAD risk.Methods: In this prospective follow-up study, we investigated 169 HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low Framingham risk at baseline. The main outcome measures were incidence of subclinical CAD and development of subclinical CAD.Results: Fifty of the 169 African Americans had evidence of subclinical disease on the initial cardiac computed tomography. A second cardiac computed tomography was performed on the 119 African Americans without disease on the first scan. The total sum of person-years of follow-up was 289.6. Subclinical CAD was detected in 11 of these, yielding an overall incidence of 3.80/100 person-years (95% confidence interval 1.90–6.80. Among the factors investigated, only vitamin D deficiency was independently associated with development of subclinical CAD. The study did not find significant associations between CD4 count, HIV viral load, or antiretroviral treatment use and the incidence of subclinical CAD. This study appears to suggest that there is a threshold level of vitamin D (10 ng/mL above which the effect of vitamin D on subclinical CAD is diminished.Conclusion: The incidence of subclinical CAD in HIV-infected African American cocaine users with low CAD risk is high, especially in those with vitamin D deficiency. Well designed

  16. Perceived Need for Substance Abuse Treatment among Illicit Stimulant Drug Users in Rural Areas of Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Falck, Russel S.; Wang, Jichuan; Carlson, Robert G.; Krishnan, Laura L.; Leukefeld, Carl; Brenda M. Booth

    2007-01-01

    Non-medical drug use in rural communities in the United States is a significant and growing public health threat. Understanding what motivates drug users in rural areas to seek substance abuse treatment may help in addressing the problem. Perceived need for treatment, a construct indicative of problem recognition and belief in problem solution, has been identified as an important predictor of help-seeking behavior. This cross-sectional study used data collected through face-to-face interviews...

  17. Longitudinal Relationship Between Psychological Distress and Multiple Substance Use: Results From a Three-Year Multisite Natural-History Study of Rural Stimulant Users*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Brenda M.; Curran, Geoffrey; Han, Xiaotong; Wright, Patricia; Frith, Sarah; Leukefeld, Carl; Falck, Russel; Carlson, Robert G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Substance use is associated with poor mental health, but little is known regarding how use of multiple substances is associated with mental health, particularly longitudinally, in community studies. This article examines this issue in a large (N = 710), natural-history study of rural stimulant (cocaine and/or methamphetamine) users in three states. Method: Respondent-driven sampling recruited recent (past-30-day) stimulant users in three counties each in Arkansas, Kentucky, and Ohio. Participants were interviewed every 6 months for 3 years. Mental health was measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory, and prior 6 months' substance use was measured for 17 possible substances. Data analysis used generalized estimating equations for longitudinal data with the Global Severity Index of the Brief Symptom Inventory as the dependent variable at each interview and substance use as predictor variables measured by number of substances used in the past 6 months and, separately, the 17 individual substances, adjusting for use of substance-use treatment, demographics, and recruitment site. Results: On average, both Global Severity Index score and use of many substances declined over the course of study. Global Severity Index score was significantly associated with (a) greater number of substances used in the past 6 months (p < .0001) and (b) use of crack cocaine, methamphetamine, and nonprescription use of prescription painkillers and tranquilizers. Conclusions: Multiple and specific substances appear to incrementally increase psychological distress. Users of cocaine and methamphetamine are present in rural areas; these associations with poor psychological health raise concerns regarding availability of local treatment services for individuals with mental-health problems, as well as substance abuse. PMID:20230724

  18. HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of primarily African-American and Latino men who have sex with men social media users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garett, Renee; Smith, Justin; Chiu, Jason; Young, Sean D

    2016-06-01

    The recent increase in social media use allows these technologies to rapidly reach communities with higher HIV prevalence, such as African-American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). However, no studies have looked at HIV/AIDS stigma among social media users from African-American and Latino MSM communities, or the association between stigma and social media use among these groups. This study sought to assess the level of HIV/AIDS stigma among a sample of social media-using African-American and Latino MSM from Los Angeles. A total of 112 (primarily African-American and Latino, n = 98, 88%) MSM Facebook users completed a survey on demographics, online social network use, and HIV/AIDS stigma. A composite stigma score was created by taking the cumulative score from a 15-item stigma questionnaire. Cumulative logistic models were used to assess the association between HIV/AIDS stigma and online social network use. In general, participants reported a low level of HIV/AIDS stigma (mean = 22.2/75, SD = 5.74). HIV/AIDS stigma composite score was significantly associated with increased time spent on online social networks each day (Adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.00, 1.15). Among this diverse sample of MSM online social network users, findings suggest that HIV/AIDS stigma is associated with usage of social media. We discuss the implications of this work for future HIV prevention. PMID:26873022

  19. Exploring Zen Marketing: A Strategic Experiment in Leveraging End User Intellectual Capital to Stimulate Primary Market Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Raymond

    2003-10-01

    Recently the Telecom Industry experienced an economic boom & bust cycle that hampered new service development & deployment. Consequently, there are significant problems in capturing key requirements for new network-based services and in educating CIO-IT leaders so they can promote investment proposals with their enterprise business leadership. This paper outlines a multi-functional initiative that Lucent Technologies established to engage and exchange with key Enterprises & their Telecom Suppliers views of future network technologies. This experiment is unique because it is facilitated by the corporate CIO-IT leadership & is focused on the latest 3G wireless technologies. CIO-IT provides externally facing resources that collaborate directly with Enterprises, and Service Providers while facilitating internal interactions with Bell Labs, Business Units and Sales teams. This program embodies a Zen Marketing approach since it seeks to create flashes of enlightenment with IT & business leaders by exercising all the knowledge, culture & behaviors available to an IT end user. The paper summarizes several organizational challenges & benefits uncovered by a program that is focused on transforming Mobility Provider relationships with their customers and expanding the overall awareness of the latest 3G wireless technologies.

  20. The association between serum thyroid-stimulating hormone in its reference range and bone status in postmenopausal American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Martha Savaria

    2007-04-01

    Evidence suggests that hyperthyroidism adversely affects bone, but the condition is rare and probably contributes little to postmenopausal osteoporosis. Subclinical hyperthyroidism, which can result from treatment with L-thyroxine, is more common, but its relationship to osteoporosis and fracture is uncertain. A recent study of healthy, postmenopausal Koreans with no history of thyroid disease reported associations between both below-normal and low-normal circulating thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels and osteoporosis. These findings raise the hypothesis that variation in thyroid function, or TSH itself, affects bone in normal women. In the present research, we used data collected in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine associations between TSH, as it varies over its reference range, and bone status in healthy, postmenopausal American women. In some analyses, we used osteoporosis and osteopenia defined according to World Health Organization guidelines as the outcome variable. In others, we used bone mineral density (BMD) as a continuum. After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, serum T(4), estrogen replacement therapy, smoking, and physical activity level, the odds ratios (95% CI) relating TSH between 0.39 and 1.8 mIU/L (the median of the reference range) versus TSH between 1.8 and 4.5 to osteoporosis and osteopenia were 3.4 (95% CI, 1.3-9.2) and 2.2 (1.2-3.8), respectively. Furthermore, BMD increased significantly as TSH increased over its reference range in both black and white women. After multivariate adjustment, least-square mean BMD for non-Hispanic white women in the bottom serum TSH quintile category was 0.79 g/cm(2) (95% CI, 0.76-0.82), as compared to 0.83 g/cm(2) (95% CI, 0.8-0.85) for those in the top quintile category. Least-square mean BMD (95% CI) for non-Hispanic black women in the bottom serum TSH quintile category was 0.85 g/cm(2) (95% CI, 0.81-0.89). For non-Hispanic black women in the

  1. Energy efficiency business options for industrial end users in Latin American competitive energy markets: The case of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Energy markets today in Latin America and worldwide are being restructured from monopolies, either state-owned or privately-owned, to be more openly competitive and incorporate more participation from the private sector. Thus, the schemes that were formerly developed to foster end use energy efficiency are no longer applicable because they were based on mandatory regulations made with political decisions, without sufficiently considering economic feasibility. A consensus exists that the only way energy efficiency could survive in this new paradigm is by being market oriented, giving better services, and additional options to users. However; there is very little information on what end users prefer, and which options would most satisfy customers. Using Colombia as a case study, this research determines and categorizes the energy efficiency business options for large energy end users that can freely participate in the competitive energy market. The energy efficiency market is understood as a market of services aiming to increase efficiency in energy use. These services can be grouped into seven business options. A survey, following the descriptive method, was sent to energy end users in order to determine their preferences for specific energy efficiency business options, as well as the decision-making criteria taken into account for such options. This data was categorized in ten industry groups. As a conclusion, energy efficiency providers should adapt not only to the economic activity or processes of each customer, but also to the potential business options. It was also found that not all industries consider performance contracting as their most preferred option, as a matter of fact, some industries show much higher preference for conventional business options. Among end users, the divergence in option preferences contrasted with the convergence in decision-making criteria. The decision-making criteria "cost-benefit ratio" overwhelmed all other criterion. End users

  2. A Qualitative Study of Barriers to the Utilization of HIV Testing Services Among Rural African American Cocaine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patricia B.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Curran, Geoffrey M.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study is about barriers to the utilization of HIV testing as perceived by African Americans who have recently used cocaine and who live in the rural Delta region of Arkansas. Affordability, physical accessibility, and geographic availability were not perceived as barriers to HIV testing in this sample, yet acceptability was still perceived as poor. Acceptability due to social mores and norms was a major barrier. Many said testing was unacceptable because of fear of social costs. Many were confident of being HIV-negative based on risky assumptions about testing and the notification process. Small-town social and sexual networks added to concerns about reputation and risk. System approaches may fail if they focus solely on improving access to HIV services but do not take into consideration deeply internalized experiences of rural African Americans as well as involvement of the community in developing programs and services. PMID:24039279

  3. “We as Drug Addicts Need that Program”: Insight from Rural African American Cocaine Users on Designing a Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Their Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Brooke E. E.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Wright, Patricia B.; McSweeney, Jean; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    This focused ethnographic study examines data collected in 2007 from four gender- and age-specific focus groups (FGs) (N = 31) to inform the development of a sexual risk reduction intervention for African American cocaine users in rural Arkansas. A semi-structured protocol was used to guide audio-recorded FGs. Data were entered into Ethnograph and analyzed using constant comparison and content analysis. Four codes with accompanying factors emerged from the data and revealed recommendations for sexual risk reduction interventions with similar populations. Intervention design implications and challenges, study limitations, and future research are discussed. The study was supported by funds from the National Institute of Nursing Research (P20 NR009006-01) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (1R01DA024575-01 and F31 DA026286-01). PMID:22216991

  4. A Nation at Risk: Increasing College Participation and Persistence Among African American Males to Stimulate U.S. Global Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriel A. Hilton

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Today’s knowledge-based, global commerce requires continuous investment in human capital through postsecondary education for countries to be fiercely competitive. Countries, such as China and India, are experiencing growth in the number of people participating in postsecondary education; the United States has fallen behind. While America needs to focus on increasing college access and degree completion among underrepresented ethnic minorities, particularly in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM, educators and policymakers assert that this is particularly important for African American males. Increasing matriculation and graduation rates for African Americans is not only a matter of equity, but in the context of STEM, it has major implications for the competitiveness of the United States in the global economy. This article identifies strategies that educators and policymakers can employ to promote the participation of African American males in college in general, particularly in STEM.

  5. A Pilot Study of the Interface Design of Cross-Cultural Web Sites through Usability Testing of Multilanguage Web Sites and Determining the Preferences of Taiwanese and American Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, David Tawei; Chang, Chia-Chi

    2014-01-01

    By conducting usability testing on a multilanguage Web site, this study analyzed the cultural differences between Taiwanese and American users in the performance of assigned tasks. To provide feasible insight into cross-cultural Web site design, Microsoft Office Online (MOO) that supports both traditional Chinese and English and contains an almost…

  6. Abnormal function of the posterior cingulate cortex in heroin addicted users during resting-state and drug-cue stimulation task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiang; YANG Wei-chuan; WANG Ya-rong; HUANG Yu-fang; LI Wei; ZHU Jia

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous animal and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that brain function in heroin addicted users is impaired.However,the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) has not received much attention.The purpose of this study was to investigate whether chronic heroin use is associated with craving-related changes in the functional connectivity of the PCC of heroin addicted users.Methods Fourteen male adult chronic heroin users and fifteen age and gender-matched healthy subjects participated in the present study.The participants underwent a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan and a cue-induced craving task fMRI scan.The activated PCC was identified in the cue-induced craving task by means of a group contrast test.Functional connectivity was analyzed based on resting-state fMRI data in order to determine the correlation between brain regions.The relationship between the connectivity of specific regions and heroin dependence was investigated.Results The activation of PCC,bilateral anterior cingulate cortex,caudate,putamen,precuneus,and thalamus was significant in the heroin group compared to the healthy group in the cue-induced craving task.The detectable functional connectivity of the heroin users was stronger between the PCC and bilateral insula,bilateral dorsal striatum,right inferior parietal Iobule (IPL) and right supramarginal gyrus (P<0.001) compared to that of the healthy subjects in the resting-state data analysis.The strength of the functional connectivity,both for the PCC-insula (r=0.60,P <0.05) and for PCC-striatum (r=0.58,P<0.05),was positively correlated with the duration of heroin use.Conclusion The altered functional connectivity patterns in the PCC-insula and PCC-striatum areas may be regarded as biomarkers of brain damage severity in chronic heroin users.

  7. Is Pornography Really about "Making Hate to Women"? Pornography Users Hold More Gender Egalitarian Attitudes Than Nonusers in a Representative American Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Taylor; Baer, Jodie L; Watts, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    According to radical feminist theory, pornography serves to further the subordination of women by training its users, males and females alike, to view women as little more than sex objects over whom men should have complete control. Composite variables from the General Social Survey were used to test the hypothesis that pornography users would hold attitudes that were more supportive of gender nonegalitarianism than nonusers of pornography. Results did not support hypotheses derived from radical feminist theory. Pornography users held more egalitarian attitudes--toward women in positions of power, toward women working outside the home, and toward abortion--than nonusers of pornography. Further, pornography users and pornography nonusers did not differ significantly in their attitudes toward the traditional family and in their self-identification as feminist. The results of this study suggest that pornography use may not be associated with gender nonegalitarian attitudes in a manner that is consistent with radical feminist theory. PMID:26305435

  8. Understanding users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav Viggo

    2014-01-01

    Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been te...... segmentation project using computer-generated clusters. Compared to traditional marketing texts, this article also tries to identify user segments or images or metaphors by the library profession itself.......Segmentation of users can help libraries in the process of understanding user similarities and differences. Segmentation can also form the basis for selecting segments of target users and for developing tailored services for specific target segments. Several approaches and techniques have been...... tested in library contexts and the aim of this article is to identify the main approaches and to discuss their perspectives, including their strenghts and weaknesses in, especially, public library contexts. The purpose is also to prsent and discuss the results of a recent - 2014 - Danish library user...

  9. User design

    CERN Document Server

    Carr-Chellman, Alison A

    2012-01-01

    User Design offers a fresh perspective on how front-line learners (users) can participate in the design of learning environments. The author challenges the universal assumption that front-line users must be relegated to the role of offering input, and that the actual design activity of learning systems must still be conducted only by experts. The book presents a new set of methods and strategies that show how the tools of professional designers can be effectively shared with broad groups of users and other participants in the process of creating their own learning. Drawing

  10. Engaging with users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Bang, Anne Louise

    to change the education of future designers. This is an emerging field at a number of design schools across the world, among these Design School Kolding in Denmark. In this paper we discuss ways in which we as design educators can teach fashion and textile students ways to engage with users during...... the creative process. To a large degree it is not common to engage direct with users in fashion and textile design. However, we see an increasing interest in this subject among the design students and also in recent research within fashion and textiles. We therefore argue that there is a need for...... direct contact with the biggest sense organ – our skin. Thus, the aim of our research is to develop new dialogue tools for teaching fashion and textile students in order to stimulate new ways of thinking and engaging with users. By developing and employing participatory design methods in the field of...

  11. User 2020

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Porras, Jari; Heikkinen, Kari; Kinnula, Marianne;

    2014-01-01

    evolutionary process. The basis of this Outlook lies in studies of user generations. Although it’s controversial to do so, users have been divided into generations based on their ability and willingness to use ICT solutions. Whether the users are digital ‘tourists’, ‘immigrants’ or ‘natives’ is mainly...... determined by the era in which they were born. This is due to the fact that digital natives, born in an already “fully” digitalized world with a plethora of ICT services, have a much closer relationship to these solutions than generations before them. This has also shaped the users perspectives and had an...... effect on their future needs. Human needs have been studied much longer than user generations per se. Psychologist Maslow presented a characterization of human needs as early as 1943. This basic characterization was later studied with an evolving environment in mind. Although the basic needs have...

  12. 15. ESRF users meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotis C, Kafatos; Ulrich, K.U.; Weib, S.; Rossberg, A.; Scheinost, A.C.; Foerstendorf, H.; Zanker, H.; Meyerheim, H.L.; Sander, D.; Popescu, R.; Kirschner, J.; Robach, O.; Ferrer, S.; Lyman, P.F.; Shneerson, V.L.; Fung, R.; Harder, R.J.; Parihar, S.S.; Johnson-Steigelman, H.T.; Lu, E.D.; Saldin, D.K.; Eastwood, D.S.; Atkinson, D.; Tanner, B.K.; Hase, T.P.A.; Van Kampen, M.; Hjorvarsson, B.; Brown, S.; Thompson, P.; Konovalov, O.; Saint-Martin, E.; Daillant, J.; Luzet, D.; Szlachetko, J.; Barrett, R.; Berset, M.; Dousse, J.C.; Fennane, K.; Hoszowska, J.; Kubala-Kukus, A.; Pajek, M.; Szlachetko, M.; Monaco, A.; Chumakov, A.; Crichton, W.; Van Buerck, I.; Wortmann, G.; Meyer, A.; Ponkratz, U.; Ruffer, R.; Sakurai, Y.; Hiraoka, N.; Itou, M.; Buslaps, T.; Honkimki, V.; Maeno, Y.; Collart, E.; Shukla, A.; Rueff, J.P.; Leininger, Ph.; Ishii, H.; Cai, Y.; Cheong, S.W.; Martins, R.M.S.; Schell, N.; Beckers, M.; Silva, R.; Braz Fernandes, F.M.; Acapito, F.; Seta, M. de; Capelini, G.; Giorgi, M.; Schorr, G.; Geandier, G.; Alves Marques, M.; Barros Marquesa, M.I. de; Cabaco, M.I.; Gaspara, A.M.; Marques, M.P.M.; Amado, A.M.; Amorim da Costa, A.M.; Bruneseaux, F.; Weisbecker, P.; Brandao, M.J.; Aeby-Gautier, E.; Simmonds, H.; Lei, C.; Das, A.; Trolley, D.; Thomas, H.E.; Macdonald, J.E.; Wiegart, L.; Tolan, M.; Struth, B.; Petukhov, A.V.; Thijssen, J.H.J.; Hart, D.C.; Imhof, A.; Van Blaaderen, A.; Dolbnya, I.P.; Snigirev, A.; Mossaid, A.; Snigireva, I.; Reconditi, M.; Brunello, E

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers the posters presented on the one day and a half long plenary meeting workshop. This meeting workshop is a privileged forum where ESRF users can exchange their views on the latest scientific and technical development involving synchrotron radiation. One poster deals with the investigation of colloid composition and uranium bond structure to see whether the migration of contaminants from abandoned mines could be stimulated or attenuated by colloids. Another poster is dedicated to the investigation of the uranium speciation in covered mine tailings by a combination of micro-spectroscopic and wet chemical approaches. 2 posters deal with the contribution of synchrotron radiation to radiotherapy.

  13. 15. ESRF users meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the posters presented on the one day and a half long plenary meeting workshop. This meeting workshop is a privileged forum where ESRF users can exchange their views on the latest scientific and technical development involving synchrotron radiation. One poster deals with the investigation of colloid composition and uranium bond structure to see whether the migration of contaminants from abandoned mines could be stimulated or attenuated by colloids. Another poster is dedicated to the investigation of the uranium speciation in covered mine tailings by a combination of micro-spectroscopic and wet chemical approaches. 2 posters deal with the contribution of synchrotron radiation to radiotherapy

  14. American Society of Nephrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... co/8cdJ2oSFjH – @ASNKidney on Twitter ASN News Feed Society Events Interact With ASN rss Facebook Twitter YouTube ... Podcast ASN Communities Share ASN User Login © American Society of Nephrology top Text Size + - Translate Sitemap Terms ...

  15. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  16. User-Centered Design in Practice: The Brown University Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordac, Sarah; Rainwater, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study in user-centered design that explores the needs and preferences of undergraduate users. An analysis of LibQual+ and other user surveys, interviews with public service staff, and a formal American with Disabilities Act accessibility review served as the basis for planning a redesign of the Brown University…

  17. Justine user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.R.

    1995-10-01

    Justine is the graphical user interface to the Los Alamos Radiation Modeling Interactive Environment (LARAMIE). It provides LARAMIE customers with a powerful, robust, easy-to-use, WYSIWYG interface that facilitates geometry construction and problem specification. It is assumed that the reader is familiar with LARAMIE, and the transport codes available, i.e., MCNPTM and DANTSYSTM. No attempt is made in this manual to describe these codes in detail. Information about LARAMIE, DANTSYS, and MCNP are available elsewhere. It i also assumed that the reader is familiar with the Unix operating system and with Motif widgets and their look and feel. However, a brief description of Motif and how one interacts with it can be found in Appendix A.

  18. Identifying users profiles from mobile calls habits

    OpenAIRE

    Furletti, Barbara; Gabrielli, Lorenzo; Rinzivillo, Salvatore; Renso, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    The huge quantity of positioning data registered by our mobile phones stimulates several research questions, mainly originating from the combination of this huge quantity of data with the extreme heterogeneity of the tracked user and the low granularity of the data. We propose a methodology to partition the users tracked by GSM phone calls into profiles like resident, commuters, in transit and tourists. The methodology analyses the phone calls with a combination of top-down and bottom up tech...

  19. User Innovation Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, Anne Marie; Bertelsen, Pernille

    User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude.......User Innovation Management (UIM) is a method for fo-opereation with users in innovation projects. The UIM method emphasizes the practice of a participatorty attitude....

  20. NREL North American Solar Radiation Atlas (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, R; Gray-Hann, P.

    2001-04-01

    This presentation is about NREL's North American Solar Radiation Atlas, which currently includes 48 states (Alaska and Hawaii to be added in the future). It discusses the goals of the Atlas which are to: deliver basic solar performance estimates to general users, deliver a wide variety of additional information to more advanced users, be easy to use, full featured, and extensible.

  1. Accelerator facilities users' guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981 the ''Green Book'' of SIN was distributed, a User Handbook serving the needs of people already working at SIN as well as informing new users about our installations. An update of the Green Book is necessary because many beams have disappeared, been modified or added, and the installation has been upgraded in intensity and versatility quite considerably. The spectrum of users has shifted away from nuclear and particle physics; applications in medicine, solid state physics and materials science have gained in importance. This Users' Guide is intended to inform our users about the changes, and to interest potential new users in coming to PSI. (author) figs., tabs

  2. User evaluation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogstrup, Hanne Kathrine

    The BIKVA-model (brugerinddragelse i kvalitetsvurdering) or in english UPQA (User Participation in Quality Assessment) are presented......The BIKVA-model (brugerinddragelse i kvalitetsvurdering) or in english UPQA (User Participation in Quality Assessment) are presented...

  3. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some research suggests that taking a specific American ginseng extract called CVT-E002 (Cold-FX, Afexa Life Sciences, ... AD-fX, Afexa Life Sciences, Canada) containing American ginseng extract in combination with ginkgo leaf extract might help ...

  4. User Frustrations as Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Weiss

    2012-01-01

    User frustrations are an excellent source of new product ideas. Starting with this observation, this article describes an approach that entrepreneurs can use to discover business opportunities. Opportunity discovery starts with a problem that the user has, but may not be able to articulate. User-centered design techniques can help elicit those latent needs. The entrepreneur should then try to understand how users are solving their problem today, before proposing a solution that draws on the u...

  5. Transparent User Authentication

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    This groundbreaking text examines the problem of user authentication from a completely new viewpoint. Rather than describing the requirements, technologies and implementation issues of designing point-of-entry authentication, the book introduces and investigates the technological requirements of implementing transparent user authentication -- where authentication credentials are captured during a user's normal interaction with a system. This approach would transform user authentication from a binary point-of-entry decision to a continuous identity confidence measure. Topics and features: discu

  6. NPAS Users Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This NPAS Users Guide is primarily intended as a source of information about policies, procedures, and facilities appropriate for users in the program of Nuclear Physics at SLAC (NPAS). General policies and practices are described, the preparation of proposals is discussed, and the services for users is outlined. SLAC experimental facilities are described, and contacts are listed

  7. Getting grid users together

    CERN Multimedia

    Appleton, Owen

    2007-01-01

    "While Grid conferences are becoming ever more popular, many of them remain primarily IT events, with few if any users attending. Not so the second EGEE User Forum, an event specifically designed to bring together the diverse user community that makes use of the EGEE grid infrastructure." (1 page)

  8. Brain Abnormalities in HIV and Stimulant Users: Interventions and Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Linda; Shoptaw, Steven; Normand, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    The session, “HIV and other Infectious Diseases,” was chaired by Dr. Jacques Normand, Director of the AIDS Research Program of the U.S. National Institute on Drug Abuse. The two presenters (and their presentation topics) were: Dr. Linda Chang (“Neural Correlates of Cognitive Deficits and Training Effects on Brain Function in HIV-infected Individuals”) and Dr. Steven Shoptaw (“HIV Prevention in Substance Users”).

  9. User-centered design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simplification philosophy, as an example, that both of EPRI-URD and EUR emphasize is treated mostly for the cost reduction of the nuclear power plants, but not for the simplification of the structure of user's tasks, which is one of the principles of user-centered design. A user-centered design is a philosophy based on the needs and interests of the user, with an emphasis on making products usable and understandable. However, the nuclear power plants offered these days by which the predominant reactor vendors are hardly user-centered but still designer-centered or technology-centered in viewpoint of fulfilling user requirements. The main goal of user-centered design is that user requirements are elicited correctly, reflected properly into the system requirements, and verified thoroughly by the tests. Starting from the user requirements throughout to the final test, each requirement should be traceable. That's why requirement traceability is a key to the user-centered design, and main theme of a requirement management program, which is suggested to be added into EPRI-URD and EUR in the section of Design Process. (author)

  10. Measuring user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Lalmas, Mounia; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2014-01-01

    User engagement refers to the quality of the user experience that emphasizes the positive aspects of interacting with an online application and, in particular, the desire to use that application longer and repeatedly. User engagement is a key concept in the design of online applications (whether for desktop, tablet or mobile), motivated by the observation that successful applications are not just used, but are engaged with. Users invest time, attention, and emotion in their use of technology, and seek to satisfy pragmatic and hedonic needs. Measurement is critical for evaluating whether online

  11. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards

  12. Braille line using electrical stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puertas, A; Pures, P; Echenique, A M; Ensinck, J P Graffigna y G [Gabinete de TecnologIa Medica. Universidad N. de San Juan (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    Conceived within the field of Rehabilitation Technologies for visually impaired persons, the present work aims at enabling the blind user to read written material by means of a tactile display. Once he is familiarized to operate this system, the user will be able to achieve greater performance in study, academic and job activities, thus achieving a rapid and easier social inclusion. The devise accepts any kind of text that is computer-loadable (documents, books, Internet information, and the like) which, through digital means, can be read as Braille text on the pad. This tactile display is composed of an electrodes platform that simulate, through stimulation the writing/reading Braille characters. In order to perceive said characters in similar way to the tactile feeling from paper material, the skin receptor of fingers are stimulated electrically so as to simulate the same pressure and depressions as those of the paper-based counterpart information. Once designed and developed, the display was tested with blind subjects, with relatively satisfactory results. As a continuing project, this prototype is currently being improved as regards.

  13. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  14. User Requirements for Wireless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    huge problems with the final product. The elicitation of user requirements as such changes according to age groups;, to gender,; to cultural settings,; and into time; and experience in the use of the system/software. User requirements, therefore, cannot be used between projects, IT systems, and...

  15. Additional user needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rorschach, H.E.; Hayter, J.B.

    1986-08-15

    This paper summarizes the conclusions of a discussion group on users' needs held at the Workshop on an Advanced Steady-State Neutron Facility. The discussion was devoted to reactor characteristics, special facilities and siting considerations suggested by user needs.

  16. End-User Design

    OpenAIRE

    Repenning, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Are UML diagrams a good tool to teach middle school students how to make video games? Probably not, but what kinds end-user design aids such as mental models, scaffolding structures, examples or other kinds of objects to think we can we give to end-users in order to gradually introduce them to good programming practice?

  17. Lead User Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Larsen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    User innovation and especially the integration of lead users is a key topic in the innovation management literature of recent years. This paper contributes by providing a rare perspective into what easily could be seen as innovation failure, shown from two perspectives. We show how a lack of shared...... imagination hampers participation and kills innovation between interdependent stakeholders at the threshold between invention and innovation in practice. We present a first case in the fun-sport industry where an external lead user and diverse firm representatives in different functions fail to create......, deliver and capture the value of an innovatively new device together. From the perspective of the lead user, we show antecedents and effects of social interaction between organizational actors and the lead user on the development of social capital, especially trust and shared imagination. The second case...

  18. The PANTHER User Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coram, Jamie L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Morrow, James D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Perkins, David Nikolaus [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This document describes the PANTHER R&D Application, a proof-of-concept user interface application developed under the PANTHER Grand Challenge LDRD. The purpose of the application is to explore interaction models for graph analytics, drive algorithmic improvements from an end-user point of view, and support demonstration of PANTHER technologies to potential customers. The R&D Application implements a graph-centric interaction model that exposes analysts to the algorithms contained within the GeoGraphy graph analytics library. Users define geospatial-temporal semantic graph queries by constructing search templates based on nodes, edges, and the constraints among them. Users then analyze the results of the queries using both geo-spatial and temporal visualizations. Development of this application has made user experience an explicit driver for project and algorithmic level decisions that will affect how analysts one day make use of PANTHER technologies.

  19. User Frustrations as Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Weiss

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available User frustrations are an excellent source of new product ideas. Starting with this observation, this article describes an approach that entrepreneurs can use to discover business opportunities. Opportunity discovery starts with a problem that the user has, but may not be able to articulate. User-centered design techniques can help elicit those latent needs. The entrepreneur should then try to understand how users are solving their problem today, before proposing a solution that draws on the unique skills and technical capabilities available to the entrepreneur. Finally, an in-depth understanding of the user allows the entrepreneur to hone in on the points of difference and resonance that are the foundation of a strong customer value proposition.

  20. Software for user evaluation of user interface designs

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Software applications dependent on frequent user interaction need user interfaces with a high degree of usability. However, creating high usability user interfaces is a challenging task for software developers. The results may be highly dependent on individual developers‟ knowledge about usability. User-Centered Design suggests another approach, possibly giving more predictable results: to involve users in the development and evaluation of the user interfaces. To enable such user involvement,...

  1. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  2. Portable music player users: Cultural differences and potential dangers

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Levey; Brian J Fligor; Cecelia Cutler; Immaculee Harushimana

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have examined the use of portable music players portable listening devices (PLDs) from various ethnic groups. Some findings suggest that there may be differences among ethnic groups that lead to louder or longer listening when using PLD devices. For example, some studies found that Hispanic PLD users listen at higher volume levels while other studies found that African American PLD users listen at higher volume levels. No investigator has explained the reasons for differences amo...

  3. User`s guide to MIDAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tisue, S.A.; Williams, N.B.; Huber, C.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Decision and Information Sciences Div.; Chun, K.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Environmental Assessment Div.

    1995-12-01

    Welcome to the MIDAS User`s Guide. This document describes the goals of the Munitions Items Disposition Action System (MIDAS) program and documents the MIDAS software. The main text first describes the equipment and software you need to run MIDAS and tells how to install and start it. It lists the contents of the database and explains how it is organized. Finally, it tells how to perform various functions, such as locating, entering, viewing, deleting, changing, transferring, and printing both textual and graphical data. Images of the actual computer screens accompany these explanations and guidelines. Appendix A contains a glossary of names for the various abbreviations, codes, and chemicals; Appendix B is a list of modem names; Appendix C provides a database dictionary and rules for entering data; and Appendix D describes procedures for troubleshooting problems associated with connecting to the MIDAS server and using MIDAS.

  4. Feldspar, Infrared Stimulated Luminescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jain, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars.......This entry primarily concerns the characteristics and the origins of infrared-stimulated luminescence in feldspars....

  5. Transcranial Electric Field Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Arfaee, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Nervous stimulation with electric methods not only has a long history in the treatment of many conditions but also in the last two decades has been used increasingly as a powerful functional brain mapping tool alongside other imaging techniques. This technology has been used to record the stimulation-evoked activity of the stimulated location. This research describes work surrounding a novel technique for brain and nervous stimulation using the electric field as the medium; particularly tra...

  6. User profiles of internet addicts in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinić Darko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was a part of a broader empirical study of Internet users with excessive and dysfunctional Internet use symptoms. The aim of this particular article was to describe user profiles of Internet addicts in Serbia. The study recruited 100 subjects in total, 50 in both the clinical and control group. The clinical group included the Internet users who asked for professional help due to the symptoms of the excessive Internet use and fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for Internet behavior disorder proposed by the American Psychology Association. The results have shown that population with Internet addiction symptoms equally included both males and females, mostly adolescent and younger population, teenagers and university students, persons with higher income and users from economically more developed areas of Serbia. The user profile of this group is characterized by frequent logging on with intervals of several hours online at one time, mainly in the evening or at night, and also intensive negative reactions to any form of Internet access deprivation. By means of factor analysis, three dimensions of pathological use have been established: mixed type with particular need for up-to-date information, social interaction addiction and need for fun-seeking, namely pursuing hobbies online (cyberpornography, online games, music, art and so on.

  7. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  8. Designing for user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, Cheryl

    2013-01-01

    Designing for User Engagement on the Web: 10 Basic Principles is concerned with making user experience engaging. The cascade of social web applications we are now familiar with - blogs, consumer reviews, wikis, and social networking - are all engaging experiences. But engagement is an increasingly common goal in business and productivity environments as well. This book provides a foundation for all those seeking to design engaging user experiences rich in communication and interaction. Combining a handbook on basic principles with case studies, it provides readers with a ric

  9. Game user experience evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Bernhaupt, Regina

    2015-01-01

    Evaluating interactive systems for their user experience (UX) is a standard approach in industry and research today. This book explores the areas of game design and development and Human Computer Interaction (HCI) as ways to understand the various contributing aspects of the overall gaming experience. Fully updated, extended and revised this book is based upon the original publication Evaluating User Experience in Games, and provides updated methods and approaches ranging from user- orientated methods to game specific approaches. New and emerging methods and areas explored include physiologi

  10. Safety for Users

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a safety flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. The flyer is available at: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  11. Safety for Users

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a Safety Flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the Flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. Link: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  12. Distributed User Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Gallud, Jose A; Penichet, Victor M R

    2011-01-01

    The recent advances in display technologies and mobile devices is having an important effect on the way users interact with all kinds of devices (computers, mobile devices, laptops, tablets, and so on). These are opening up new possibilities for interaction, including the distribution of the UI (User Interface) amongst different devices, and implies that the UI can be split and composed, moved, copied or cloned among devices running the same or different operating systems. These new ways of manipulating the UI are considered under the emerging topic of Distributed User Interfaces (DUIs). DUIs

  13. "Touch me": workshop on tactile user experience evaluation methods

    OpenAIRE

    Tscheligi, Manfred; Isbister, Katherine; Höök, Kristina; Obrist, Marianna; Busch, Marc; Hochleitner, Christina

    2014-01-01

    In this workshop we plan to explore the possibilities and challenges of physical objects and materials for evaluating the User Experience (UX) of interactive systems. These objects should face shortfalls of current UX evaluation methods and allow for a qualitative (or even quantitative), playful and holistic evaluation of UX -- without interfering with the users' personal experiences during interaction. This provides a tactile enhancement to a solely visual stimulation as used in classical ev...

  14. GEOS. User Tutorials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Pengchen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Settgast, Randolph R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Johnson, Scott M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Walsh, Stuart D.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Morris, Joseph P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ryerson, Frederick J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-12-17

    GEOS is a massively parallel, multi-physics simulation application utilizing high performance computing (HPC) to address subsurface reservoir stimulation activities with the goal of optimizing current operations and evaluating innovative stimulation methods. GEOS enables coupling of di erent solvers associated with the various physical processes occurring during reservoir stimulation in unique and sophisticated ways, adapted to various geologic settings, materials and stimulation methods. Developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) as a part of a Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Strategic Initiative (SI) project, GEOS represents the culmination of a multi-year ongoing code development and improvement e ort that has leveraged existing code capabilities and sta expertise to design new computational geosciences software.

  15. American Headache Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Us American Migraine Foundation Login THE AMERICAN Headache Society is a professional society of health care providers dedicated to the study ... MIGRAINE MOMENT” FILM CONTEST WINNERS The American Headache Society and American Migraine Foundation, the AHS’s charitable division, ...

  16. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  17. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  18. Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena P. Ilieva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychostimulants like Adderall and Ritalin are widely used for cognitive enhancement by people without ADHD, although the empirical literature has shown little conclusive evidence for effectiveness in this population. This paper explores one potential explanation of this discrepancy: the possibility that the benefit from enhancement stimulants is at least in part motivational, rather than purely cognitive. We review relevant laboratory, survey and interview research and present the results of a new survey of enhancement users with the goal of comparing perceived cognitive and motivational effects. These users perceived stimulant effects on motivationally-related factors, especially energy and motivation, and reported motivational effects to be at least as pronounced as cognitive effects, including effects on "attention."

  19. Bevalac user's handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a users manual on the Bevalac accelerator facility. This paper discuses: general information; the Bevalac and its operation; major facilities and experimental areas; and experimental equipment

  20. International user studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lene; Madsen, Sabine; Jensen, Iben;

    countries/regions they operate in. Instead, they focus on a few strategic markets. International user studies tend to be large-scale studies that involve the effort of many both internal and external/local human resources. The studies typically cover 2-4 countries/regions and many end users in each country......, so far, no best practice for incorporating both national cultural differences and cross-cultural similarities into persona descriptions, segmentations, etc. has been found. Based on the empirical findings, we outline a maturity model. The empirical maturity model consists of two separate dimensions...... end users across nationalities and (2) that it often is more important to focus on and take differences in market conditions into account than national culture per se. Companies are in the process of finding out how best to present the insights about international end users to their employees. However...

  1. SEVERO code - user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This user's manual contains all the necessary information concerning the use of SEVERO code. This computer code is related to the statistics of extremes = extreme winds, extreme precipitation and flooding hazard risk analysis. (A.C.A.S.)

  2. User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms; Myers, Brad A

    2008-01-01

    User Interfaces have been around as long as computers have existed, even well before the field of Human-Computer Interaction was established. Over the years, some papers on the history of Human-Computer Interaction and User Interfaces have appeared, primarily focusing on the graphical interface era...... and early visionaries such as Bush, Engelbart and Kay. With the User Interface being a decisive factor in the proliferation of computers in society and since it has become a cultural phenomenon, it is time to paint a more comprehensive picture of its history. This SIG will investigate the possibilities...... of  launching a concerted effort towards creating a History of User Interfaces. ...

  3. User interface design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simon Engedal; Jakobsen, Arne; Rasmussen, Bjarne D.

    1999-01-01

    user interface of EESCoolTools these issues led to a series of simulation tools each with a specific purpose and a carefully selected set of input and output variables. To allow a more wide range of questions to be answered by the same model, the user can change between different sets of input and...... have a lot of flexibility in choosing input variables and in assigning values of parameters....

  4. VOLTTRON: User Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutes, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Akyol, Bora A.; Tenney, Nathan D.; Haack, Jereme N.; Monson, Kyle E.; Carpenter, Brandon J.

    2014-04-24

    This document is a user guide for the deployment of the Transactional Network platform and agent/application development within the VOLTTRON. The intent of this user guide is to provide a description of the functionality of the Transactional Network Platform. This document describes how to deploy the platform, including installation, use, guidance, and limitations. It also describes how additional features can be added to enhance its current functionality.

  5. Metadata: A user`s view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretherton, F.P. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Singley, P.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-12-31

    An analysis is presented of the uses of metadata from four aspects of database operations: (1) search, query, retrieval, (2) ingest, quality control, processing, (3) application to application transfer; (4) storage, archive. Typical degrees of database functionality ranging from simple file retrieval to interdisciplinary global query with metadatabase-user dialog and involving many distributed autonomous databases, are ranked in approximate order of increasing sophistication of the required knowledge representation. An architecture is outlined for implementing such functionality in many different disciplinary domains utilizing a variety of off the shelf database management subsystems and processor software, each specialized to a different abstract data model.

  6. Pitch discrimination of patterned electric stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, H B; Ishihara, Y C; Zeng, F G

    2005-01-01

    One reason for the poor pitch performance in current cochlear-implant users may be the highly synchronized neural firing in electric hearing that lacks stochastic properties of neural firing in normal acoustic hearing. This study used three different electric stimulation patterns, jittered, probabilistic, and auditory-model-generated pulses, to mimic some aspects of the normal neural firing pattern in acoustic hearing. Pitch discrimination was measured at standard frequencies of 100, 250, 500...

  7. 76 FR 35919 - Notice of Buy American Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-20

    ... project is currently under construction. The purpose of the Recovery Act is to stimulate economic recovery...) possible US manufacturer. Technical review of the product quoted found that it had never been used in a... Notice of Buy American Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 AGENCY:...

  8. 77 FR 11161 - Notice of Buy American Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... project is currently under construction. The purpose of the Recovery Act is to stimulate economic recovery... had marine applications. A detailed review of the forty (40) remaining companies was conducted and... Notice of Buy American Waiver Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 AGENCY:...

  9. Developing Treatments for Stimulant Abuse: A Brief Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, C

    2016-06-01

    The abuse of stimulants such as cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine is a huge problem in many parts of the world. Abuse of these drugs does not ruin just the user's life, but also adversely affects those around them. Despite many years of research, there are no approved medications for stimulant dependence, and treatment is focused on psychotherapy and abstinence. Over the last 10 to 20 years, there have been some major changes in approach to medication development for stimulant dependence. These include assessing ligands for non-dopaminergic sites, atypical dopamine transporter ligands, blocking long-term potentiation and / or memory reconsolidation, vaccines against the stimulant, and molecular approaches including pharmacogenomics and gene silencing. Also included in this overview are non-drug treatments such as deep brain stimulation and psychosurgery. This overview highlights recent preclinical and clinical studies of treatment development for stimulant dependence. PMID:27377486

  10. Deep Brain Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Perlmutter, Joel. S.; Mink, Jonathan W.

    2006-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has provided remarkable benefits for people with a variety of neurologic conditions. Stimulation of the ventral intermediate nucleus of the thalamus can dramatically relieve tremor associated with essential tremor or Parkinson disease (PD). Similarly, stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus or the internal segment of the globus pallidus can substantially reduce bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, and gait difficulties in people with PD. Multiple groups are attempting t...

  11. Insights Gained From 4 Years of EOSDIS User Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, J.; Boquist, C. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Earth Observation System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) is a large, complex data system currently supporting over 18 operational NASA satellite missions including the flagship EOS missions: Terra, Aqua, and Aura. A critical underpinning for management of EOSDIS is developing a thorough knowledge of the EOSDIS user community and how they use the EOSDIS products in their research. It is important to know whether the system is meeting the users' needs and expectations. Thus, in 2004 NASA commissioned a comprehensive survey to determine user satisfaction using the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI) approach. NASA has continued to survey users yearly since. Users continue to rate EOSDIS systems and services highly as the EOSDIS ACSI score has outperformed both the averages for U.S. companies and for Federal Agencies. In addition, users' comments have provided valuable insight into the effect of data center processes on users' experiences. Although their satisfaction has remained high, their preferences have changed with the rapid advances in web-based services. We now have four years of data on user satisfaction from these surveys. The results of each survey highlight areas that, if improved, could lead to increased user satisfaction, including overall product quality, product documentation, and product selection and ordering processes. This paper will present the survey results and how they compare from year to year.

  12. Stimulant Use Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Taryn M; Haning, William F

    2016-07-01

    Compared with other illicit substances, stimulants are not commonly used by adolescents; however, they represent a serious concern regarding substance use among youths. This article uses methamphetamine as a model for stimulant use in adolescents; cocaine and prescription stimulants are also mentioned. Methamphetamine use among adolescents and young adults is a serious health concern with potentially long-term physical, cognitive, and psychiatric consequences. Brain development and the effects of misusing stimulants align such that usage in adolescents can more dangerous than during adulthood. It seems helpful to keep in mind the differences between adolescents and young adults when implementing interventions. PMID:27338967

  13. GRSAC Users Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, S.J.; Nypaver, D.J.

    1999-02-01

    An interactive workstation-based simulation code (GRSAC) for studying postulated severe accidents in gas-cooled reactors has been developed to accommodate user-generated input with ''smart front-end'' checking. Code features includes on- and off-line plotting, on-line help and documentation, and an automated sensitivity study option. The code and its predecessors have been validated using comparisons with a variety of experimental data and similar codes. GRSAC model features include a three-dimensional representation of the core thermal hydraulics, and optional ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) capabilities. The user manual includes a detailed description of the code features, and includes four case studies which guide the user through four different examples of the major uses of GRSAC: an accident case; an initial conditions setup and run; a sensitivity study; and the setup of a new reactor model.

  14. GRSAC Users Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An interactive workstation-based simulation code (GRSAC) for studying postulated severe accidents in gas-cooled reactors has been developed to accommodate user-generated input with ''smart front-end'' checking. Code features includes on- and off-line plotting, on-line help and documentation, and an automated sensitivity study option. The code and its predecessors have been validated using comparisons with a variety of experimental data and similar codes. GRSAC model features include a three-dimensional representation of the core thermal hydraulics, and optional ATWS (anticipated transients without scram) capabilities. The user manual includes a detailed description of the code features, and includes four case studies which guide the user through four different examples of the major uses of GRSAC: an accident case; an initial conditions setup and run; a sensitivity study; and the setup of a new reactor model

  15. Evaluating User Participation and User Influence in an Enterprise System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Martin D.

    2010-01-01

    Does user influence have an impact on the data quality of an information systems development project? What decision making should users have? How can users effectively be engaged in the process? What is success? User participation is considered to be a critical success factor for Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) projects, yet there is little…

  16. Stimulator with arbitrary waveform for auditory evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, H R; Romao, M; Placido, D; Provenzano, F; Tierra-Criollo, C J [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica (DEE), Nucleo de Estudos e Pesquisa em Engenharia Biomedica NEPEB, Av. Ant. Carlos, 6627, sala 2206, Pampulha, Belo Horizonte, MG, 31.270-901 (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The technological improvement helps many medical areas. The audiometric exams involving the auditory evoked potentials can make better diagnoses of auditory disorders. This paper proposes the development of a stimulator based on Digital Signal Processor. This stimulator is the first step of an auditory evoked potential system based on the ADSP-BF533 EZ KIT LITE (Analog Devices Company - USA). The stimulator can generate arbitrary waveform like Sine Waves, Modulated Amplitude, Pulses, Bursts and Pips. The waveforms are generated through a graphical interface programmed in C++ in which the user can define the parameters of the waveform. Furthermore, the user can set the exam parameters as number of stimuli, time with stimulation (Time ON) and time without stimulus (Time OFF). In future works will be implemented another parts of the system that includes the acquirement of electroencephalogram and signal processing to estimate and analyze the evoked potential.

  17. HANARO user support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to support external user for the promotion of HANARO common utilization effectively. To do this, external manpower was recruited and trained. Also, in order to find out and cultivate HANARO user, practice-oriented education was done. The total number of project selected as the promotion of HANARO common utilization was 31 in this year. These composed of four fields such as neutron beam utilization, materials/nuclear materials irradiation test, neutron activation analysis and radioisotope production. In each field, the numbers of project were 17, 7, 4 and 3 respectively. At first, from a selected project of view, supporting ratio by external manpower was reached to the 58%, that is, 18 out of 31 project was supported. In each field, it was 82% for neutron beam utilization and 100% for neutron activation analysis. Also, from the utilization time point of view, supporting ratio of external manpower was reached to 30% for neutron beam utilization and 59% for neutron activation analysis. Otherwise, supporting ratio by manpower in KAERI was reached to 97%, that is, 30 out of 31 project was supported. Also, from the utilization time point of view, total supporting ratio was reached to 15%. In each field, it was 20% for neutron beam utilization, 18% for materials/nuclear materials irradiation test, 20% for neutron activation analysis and 6% for radioisotope production. In order to contribute finding and cultivating of HANARO potential user and increase utilization ratio of HANARO experimental facility, practice-oriented HANARO user education has been done. At first, 32 participants from industries, universities, institutes were educated and practiced on HRPD/SANS instrument in the field of neutron beam utilization. Otherwise, in order to support external user effectively, external manpower were trained. Also, more effective support for external user could be possible through the grasping difficulty and problem on the performance of project

  18. The Workplace Game: exploring end users' new behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruyne, E.; De Jong, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the Workplace Game and its development. Changing the workplace layout alone appears to be insufficient to change office user behaviour. Through prototyping the game was designed as a tool to stimulate discussion and provide new and concrete insights into the behavioural conseque

  19. CRACUK user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CRACUK computer code is a revised version of the US consequence modelling code CRAC2, adapted to suit UK applications. Modifications to various models within the code have led to certain changes in the input data requirements for CRACUK in comparison with CRAC2. This guide, written in the form of an Appendix to the CRAC2 User Guide, includes descriptions of the input data layout as it has been altered for use in CRACUK. Used in conjunction with the CRAC2 User Guide, this publication should allow easy use of the CRACUK code. (author)

  20. School library user studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Verlič

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the results of a questionnaire answered by Slovene primary and secondary school librarians is presented in the article. The purpose of the study was to determine if library user studies were being performed in our school libraries. It was confirmed that more studies had been conducted by school librarians with a completed higher level of education, by librarians with adequate (library and information sciences education and also by the librarians participating in life-long learning in their professional field than by other librarians. An important factor influencing increased user studies was also librarians’ membership in the Slovene librarian professional organization.

  1. User friendly packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    User-friendly Packaging” aims to create a platform for developing more user-friendly packaging. One intended outcome of the project is a guideline that industry can use in development efforts. The project also points the way for more extended collaboration between companies and design researchers. How...... can design research help industry in packaging innovation?......Most consumers have experienced occasional problems with opening packaging. Tomato sauce from the tinned mackerel splattered all over the kitchen counter, the unrelenting pickle jar lid, and the package of sliced ham that cannot be opened without a knife or a pair of scissors. The research project...

  2. EPRINT ARCHIVE USER SURVEY

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    University of Southampton invites the CERN community to participate in a survey Professor Stevan Harnad is conducting on current users and non-users of Eprint Archives. http://www.eprints.org/survey/ The findings will be used to suggest potential enhancements of the services as well as to get a deeper understanding of the very rapid developments in the on-line dissemination and use of scientific and scholarly research. (The survey is anonymous. Revealing your identity is optional and it will be kept confidential.)

  3. TRANS-USERS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This report addresses user-orientated strategies for industrialising the construction industry. In the first part, the objectives of the study are described along with the theoretical framework and the research design of the study. The second part of this report contains five case studies conducted...... to redesign production and business processes to accommodate for users' requirements (Maisons MACCHI), and the client as driver of innovation on the construction and renovation of the low budget hotel brand Formule 1 of ACCOR Hotels. In the third part, the discussion and conclusion addresses three...

  4. UIL -User Interface Language

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, J; CERN. Geneva

    1990-01-01

    Some widget examples, widget categories, the push button widget, menus, the FORM widget, using UIL for an application program, the MOTIF Resource Manager (MRM), execution thread of an application using UIL and MRM, opening hierarchies, binding UIL names to application addresses, fetching widget hierarchies and managing them, changing widget resources using UIL and MRM, fetching literal values from the UID file. Introduction to the User Interface Language, defining a user interface, advantages of using UIL, accessing UID files from the application, UIL Syntax, the UIL module structure, defining a widget instance hierarchy, declaration of literals colors, icons, fonts

  5. User Centered Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egbert, Maria; Matthews, Ben

    The interdisciplinary approach of User Centered Design is presented here with a focus on innovation in the design and use of hearing technologies as well as on the potential of innovation in interaction. This approach is geared towards developing new products, systems, technologies and practices...... based on an understanding of why so few persons with hearing loss use the highly advanced hearing technologies. In integrating Conversation Analysis (“CA”), audiology and User Centered Design, three disciplines which are collaborating together for the first time, we are addressing the following...

  6. RADTRAN 5 user guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanipe, Frances L.; Neuhauser, Karen Sieglinde

    2003-07-01

    This User Guide for the RADTRAN 5 computer code for transportation risk analysis describes basic risk concepts and provides the user with step-by-step directions for creating input files by means of either the RADDOG input file generator software or a text editor. It also contains information on how to interpret RADTRAN 5 output, how to obtain and use several types of important input data, and how to select appropriate analysis methods. Appendices include a glossary of terms, a listing of error messages, data-plotting information, images of RADDOG screens, and a table of all data in the internal radionuclide library.

  7. Personal lifelong user model clouds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolog, Peter; Kay, Judy; Kummerfeld, Bob

    This paper explores an architecture for very long term user modelling, based upon personal user model clouds. These ensure that the individual's applications can access their model whenever it is needed. At the same time, the user can control the use of their user model. So, they can ensure it is...

  8. TO STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    SPL Division

    2001-01-01

    Stores users are informed that the Stores (Central, Emergency window, Raw materials, Chemical products and Prévessin Self service stores) will be closed on Friday, 7 December owing to migration of the Stores computers to Windows 2000. Thank you for your understanding.

  9. IP Simulator User Guide

    OpenAIRE

    Nataf, Emmanuel

    2008-01-01

    This simulator allows to construct IPv4 network topologies with routers and end hosts. The focus of the simulator is on routing table configuration. The simulator could also run user network programs written with a java.net UDP like API.

  10. User Centric Policy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Gorrell P.

    2013-01-01

    Internet use, in general, and online social networking sites, in particular, are experiencing tremendous growth with hundreds of millions of active users. As a result, there is a tremendous amount of privacy information and content online. Protecting this information is a challenge. Access control policy composition is complex, laborious and…

  11. SALOME. User's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A user's guide for a least squares fit analysis program is presented, which has been developed for VUV and visible plasma spectroscopy on the Extrap-T1 experiment. The program can be used for line and multiplet identification, multiplet intensity and line width measurements. Atomic data are used extensively to aid the interpretation of the spectra. 7 figs

  12. OASIS User Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Bojtar, L

    2009-01-01

    The OASIS system has been operational for years now. After a long development the project has reached a state where the number of features it provides exceeds largely what most of its users knows about. The author felt it was time to write a user manual explaining all the functionality of the viewer application. This document is a user manual, concentrating on the functionality of the viewer from the user’s point of view. There are already documents available on the project’s web site about the technical aspects at http://project-oasis.web.cern.ch/project-oasis/presentations.htm . There was an attempt to produce a tutorial on the viewer, but it didn’t get much further than the table of contents, that however is well thought. The structure of this user manual follows the same principle, the basic and most often used features are grouped together. Advanced or less often used features are described in a separate chapter. There is a second organizational principle, features belong to different levels: chann...

  13. AELIB user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an updatable manual for users of AELIB, the AECL Library of FORTRAN-callable routines for the CRNL CDC 6600/CYBER 170 system. It provides general advice on the use of this library and detailed information on the selection and usage of particular library routines

  14. SEDAP - user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEDAP (System for Experimental Data Processing) provides the scientist with a powerful tool to process various digital data which are sampled during an experiment. SEDAP is a software package based upon FORTRAN 77. The SEDAP-Manual contains all informations that are necessary for the application of SEDAP. It gives a complete description of all user accessible system functions, examples and error messages. (orig.)

  15. User Communities i Innovationsprocessen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Jacob; Sejer Jakobsen, Henning; Jordansen, Inger

    to workshops uden fysisk tilstedeværelse af deltagerne med internettet som kommunikationskanal (online user communities via Skype & blogs). Empirien stammer fra BDI projektet Handivision1, hvor målgruppen og brugergruppen primært har været personer med fysiske funktionsnedsættelser. Vores analyse...

  16. 16. ESRF users meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document gathers the posters that were presented during the poster session of this workshop. These posters highlight the results obtained by ESRF'users in different fields such as surface structure, Compton scattering studies, localized vibrational modes in thermoelectric materials, Ni-Ti thin films, residual stresses in superconducting wires, and changes in crystal and magnetic structure of NdFeO3

  17. Users Office - Removal

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    As of 8 December 2010 and until the end of February 2011, the Users Office will move from Bldg. 60. New Location : Bldg. 510-R-033 Opening Hours: Monday, Tuesday, Thursday, Friday : 08.30 – 12.30 Monday to Friday: 14.00 – 16.00 Closed Wednesday mornings.

  18. Time, Attitude, and User Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Lene

    2008-01-01

    , equivocation, resistance and rejection depending on three things: (1) the dynamic between user and consultants, (2) the dynamic between different user groups, and (3) the understanding of technical, organizational and socio-technical options. When relating the empirical findings to existing theory on user...... participation, it is argued that the changes could be explained as a slide from influential user participation toward pseudo participation and back to influential participation, and that user participation in the context of ERP implementations raises new issues regarding user participation. Thus further...... research regarding new approaches and/or new techniques and tools for user participation in the context of ERP implementations is needed. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  19. The Relationship between Cultural Diversity and User Needs in Virtual Reference Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachaf, Pnina; Snyder, Mary

    2007-01-01

    While the racial diversity of academic library users continues to grow, research on the effects of this diversity remains scarce. This study looks at similarities and differences between non-traditional Caucasian and African American library users through content analysis of ninety-four virtual reference transactions.

  20. The Relationship Between Cultural Diversity and User Needs in Virtual Reference Services

    OpenAIRE

    Shachaf, Pnina; Snyder, Mary

    2007-01-01

    While the racial diversity of academic library users continues to grow, research on the effects of this diversity remains scarce. This study looks at similarities and differences between non-traditional Caucasian and African American library users through content analysis of 94 virtual reference transactions.

  1. Stigma towards Marijuana Users and Heroin Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    Despite high levels of stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors toward individuals with substance use problems, there is surprisingly limited research on understanding the contributors to such high levels. College students with no history of marijuana or heroin use (N=250) completed self-report measures to examine the level of substance use stigma towards individuals using two illicit substances (marijuana and heroin) and the contribution of three perceiver characteristics (sex, previous contact with substance users, and five beliefs about substance use) to three dimensions of stigma (social distance, negative emotions, and forcing treatment). Greater levels of internalized stigma were noted towards individuals who use heroin (versus marijuana). For marijuana use, those who had less previous contact and higher endorsement of certain beliefs (rarity, severity, and less controllability) were associated with greater stigmatizing attitudes. For heroin use, the associations were weak or non-existent. The findings strengthen the argument that substance use stigma needs to be examined and perhaps addressed substance by substance, rather than as a group. Further, contact interventions may be a particularly effective strategy for altering substance use stigma. PMID:26148124

  2. SHARP User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Y. Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Shemon, E. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Thomas, J. W. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mahadevan, Vijay S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rahaman, Ronald O. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Solberg, Jerome [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-03-31

    SHARP is an advanced modeling and simulation toolkit for the analysis of nuclear reactors. It is comprised of several components including physical modeling tools, tools to integrate the physics codes for multi-physics analyses, and a set of tools to couple the codes within the MOAB framework. Physics modules currently include the neutronics code PROTEUS, the thermal-hydraulics code Nek5000, and the structural mechanics code Diablo. This manual focuses on performing multi-physics calculations with the SHARP ToolKit. Manuals for the three individual physics modules are available with the SHARP distribution to help the user to either carry out the primary multi-physics calculation with basic knowledge or perform further advanced development with in-depth knowledge of these codes. This manual provides step-by-step instructions on employing SHARP, including how to download and install the code, how to build the drivers for a test case, how to perform a calculation and how to visualize the results. Since SHARP has some specific library and environment dependencies, it is highly recommended that the user read this manual prior to installing SHARP. Verification tests cases are included to check proper installation of each module. It is suggested that the new user should first follow the step-by-step instructions provided for a test problem in this manual to understand the basic procedure of using SHARP before using SHARP for his/her own analysis. Both reference output and scripts are provided along with the test cases in order to verify correct installation and execution of the SHARP package. At the end of this manual, detailed instructions are provided on how to create a new test case so that user can perform novel multi-physics calculations with SHARP. Frequently asked questions are listed at the end of this manual to help the user to troubleshoot issues.

  3. Usability Testing of User Manuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Margrethe H.

    2013-01-01

    Many guidelines and several standards exist for the development of good user manuals. But even though technical writers comply with all guidelines, problems will typically arise when users apply the manual in practice. Therefore, it is useful to have real users test the manual before...... it is published. This article discusses user tests in the form of think-aloud tests, with examples from the research project ”User Manuals for older adults"....

  4. User experience in project management

    OpenAIRE

    Mavsar, Primož

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes one of the most recommended ways of integration user experience and its designers in the process of project management. The first part describes the domain of the user experience, what user experience is, which are the current and upcoming trends, describes the fields of user experience, along with recommendations and advices on its planning. The first part ends with an indication of the most used methods in designing the user experience. The second part describes bes...

  5. Living Lab Research Landscape: From User Centred Design and User Experience towards User Cocreation

    OpenAIRE

    PALLOT, Marc; Trousse, Brigitte; Senach, Bernard; Scapin, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    New paradigms, such as Open Innovation (Chesbrough, 2003) and Web 2.0 (O'Reilly, 2004) as well as Living Labs operating as a User Centred Open Innovation Ecosystem (Pallot, 2009), promote a more proactive role of users in the R&D process. However, a number of existing methods for involving users are abundantly described in the literature, such as Lead User (Von Hippel, 2005), User Driven Innovation (Von Hippel, 1986), User Centred Design (Von Hippel, 2005) and User Created Content (O'Reilly, ...

  6. Observing the user experience a practitioner's guide to user research

    CERN Document Server

    Kuniavsky, Mike; Goodman, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    The gap between who designers and developers imagine their users are, and who those users really are can be the biggest problem with product development. Observing the User Experience will help you bridge that gap to understand what your users want and need from your product, and whether they'll be able to use what you've created. Filled with real-world experience and a wealth of practical information, this book presents a complete toolbox of techniques to help designers and developers see through the eyes of their users. It provides in-depth coverage of 13 user experience research techniques

  7. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  8. Family Socioeconomic Status and Consistent Environmental Stimulation in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Leventhal, Tama; Wirth, R. J.; Pierce, Kim M.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The transition into school occurs at the intersection of multiple environmental settings. This study applied growth curve modeling to a sample of 1,364 American children, followed from birth through age 6, who had been categorized by their exposure to cognitive stimulation at home and in preschool child care and 1st-grade classrooms. Of special…

  9. TEBASCO user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TEBASCO is a Tandem mirror Equilibrium and BAllooning Stability COde. TEBASCO allows you to compute tandem-mirror MHD equilibria and to analyze both the flute-averaged and ballooning-mode stability of these equilibria. This stability analysis is directed toward the computation of marginal stability boundaries. Users of TEBASCO require a binary output file from the EFFI code which describes the vacuum magnetic field. In making this EFFI file the user will have defined a system of units for lengths (e.g., meters) and magnetic field (e.g., Tesla). In TEBASCO, all magnetic field strengths are normalized to the vacuum center-cell midplane value, and times are defined in units of the time for an Alfven wave in this field to transit one EFFI unit of length

  10. Outside users payload model

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The outside users payload model which is a continuation of documents and replaces and supersedes the July 1984 edition is presented. The time period covered by this model is 1985 through 2000. The following sections are included: (1) definition of the scope of the model; (2) discussion of the methodology used; (3) overview of total demand; (4) summary of the estimated market segmentation by launch vehicle; (5) summary of the estimated market segmentation by user type; (6) details of the STS market forecast; (7) summary of transponder trends; (8) model overview by mission category; and (9) detailed mission models. All known non-NASA, non-DOD reimbursable payloads forecast to be flown by non-Soviet-block countries are included in this model with the exception of Spacelab payloads and small self contained payloads. Certain DOD-sponsored or cosponsored payloads are included if they are reimbursable launches.

  11. COLETTE users' guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guide describes the computer program COLETTE. It has been purposely designed to reduce the small-angle data collected on the ISIS small-angle neutron camera LOQ in an interactive and user-friendly manner. This not only gives the LOQ user an opportunity to inspect data rapidly and comprehensively during the course of an experiment but also provides the instrument scientists with a flexible diagnostic tool with which they can monitor the performance of the instrument. After the experiment is completed, COLETTE may be used to provide the final I(Q) versus Q following subtraction of a sample background run and normalisation to a scattering standard. By limiting the range of azimuthal angles included in the analysis the program may take sections through an anisotropic scattering pattern from an ordered system. A completely two dimensional I(Qx,Qy) map may also be generated. (author)

  12. Stimulated Resonant Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Clerici, M; Rubino, E; Moss, D; Couairon, A; Légaré, F; Morandotti, R; Faccio, D

    2014-01-01

    Resonant radiation (RR) is emitted by solitons propagating in a waveguide or by filamenting pulses in bulk media. Recent studies have highlighted the possibility to stimulate RR also in weaker pulses that co-propogate with a pump pulse. We numerically and experimentally demonstrate that RR radiation can be stimulated employing a THz seed co-propagating in diamond with an intense 800 nm pulse. This way we predict and observe the stimulated emission of RR at 425 nm, thus bridging a spectral gap of more than six octaves and allowing the detection of THz pulses by means of a silicon-based device.

  13. Salinas - User's Notes; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinas provides a massively parallel implementation of structural dynamics finite element analysis, required for high fidelity, validated models used in modal, vibration, static and shock analysis of weapons systems. This document provides a users guide to the input for Salinas. Details of input specifications for the different solution types, output options, element types and parameters are included. The appendices contain detailed examples, and instructions for running the software on parallel platforms

  14. Internet: Infrastructure, users, regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail Doroshevich; Marina Sokolova

    2014-01-01

    By the end of 2014, Belarus totaled over 5 million Internet users, which constitutes 70% of the population aged 15 to 74. The Internet has become not only an integral part of everyday life, but also a platform for activities of state-controlled and private companies and organizations. Infrastructural development (like broadband Internet) remains a key element of the strategy of an informationoriented society. The download speed in Belarus is lower than in the neighboring countries and the cos...

  15. Single user systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the talk is devoted to establishing concepts and trends in interactive computing technology and is intended to provide a framework. I then discuss personal computing architectures of today and planned architectures of the 1990s. I present current personal computer environments for the programmer and for the user. Scenarios for future computing environments are developed. Finally, I open a discussion on the social implications of personal computers. (orig./HSI)

  16. 16. ESRF users meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coraux, J.; Renevier, H.; Favre-Nicolin, V.; Daudin, B.; Proietti, M.G.; Renaud, G.; Fowler, B.; Mercer, D.L.; Omar, A.H.; Thompson, P.; Markovic, N.M.; Stamenkovic, V.; Lucas, C.A.; Andrejczuk, A.; Kwiatkowska, J.; Dobrzynski, L.; Zukowski, E.; Bellin, Ch.; Loupias, G.; Shukla, A.; Buslaps, Th.; Stankov, S.; Sladecek, M.; Slezak, T.; Korecki, J.; Spiridis, N.; Sepiol, B.; Vogl, G.; Chumakov, A.; Ruffer, R.; Hermann, R.P.; Grandjean, F.; Schweika, W.; Long, G.J.; Leupold, O.; Belrhall, H.; Caserotto, H.; Dauvergne, F.; Geoffroy, L.; Guljarro, M.; Launer, L.; Levault, B.; Walsh, M.; Beckers, M.; Schell, N.; Martins, R.M.S.; Mucklich, A.; Moller, W.; Silva, R.J.C.; Mahesh, K.K.; Braz Fernandes, F.M.; Tejas, Parikh; Neil, Fellows; Durodola, J.; Slawinski, W.; Przenioslo, R.; Sosnowska, I.; Suard, E

    2006-07-01

    This document gathers the posters that were presented during the poster session of this workshop. These posters highlight the results obtained by ESRF'users in different fields such as surface structure, Compton scattering studies, localized vibrational modes in thermoelectric materials, Ni-Ti thin films, residual stresses in superconducting wires, and changes in crystal and magnetic structure of NdFeO{sub 3}.

  17. Internet user behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Radbâță, A.

    2011-01-01

    Internet is a useful tool for everybody in a technologically advanced world. As Internet appears and develops, it creates a totally new network environment. The development of commerce on the Internet based on virtual communities has become one of the most successful business models in the world. After analyzing the concept of internet, the e-commerce market and its marketing mix and the benefits and limitations of the Internet, we have presented a few studies on Internet user behaviour. Furt...

  18. EDDYNET: A user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This user's guide provides a description of the EDDYNET code, which is used to model transient eddy currents in conducting shells. Subroutines and functions are described, and the input variables and file format are explained. Examples are given of input and output files from the program. A description is given of special features of the program, including temperature diffusion, field and flux from circular rings, and current-angular deflection coupling. 13 refs., 6 figs

  19. Alliances in User-driven Innovation Projects : A study of the interaction between industry and academia

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this thesis to investigate what characterises the interaction between firms and research institutions forming alliances in User-driven Innovation Projects. User-driven research aimed at promoting innovation is considered an area of priority for the Norwegian Government. One of the main instruments for distributing financial support stimulating increased R&D in business and industry is the User-driven Innovation Project, administered by the Research Council of Norway. Projects i...

  20. Historiography, American Theatre, and the First Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Linda Walsh

    American theatre history should include a study of Native American performances, since these performances are rich with "American" symbolic materials such as imagery, symbols, and heraldic visions of animals and landscapes. Indian cultures understood the importance of performance for both the visionary and the community at large. Even the pow-wow…

  1. Growth hormone stimulation test

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) stimulation test measures the ability of the body to produce GH. ... killing medicine (antiseptic). The first sample is drawn early in the morning. Medicine is given through the ...

  2. Geothermal Well Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D. A.; Morris, C. W.; Sinclair, A. R.; Hanold, R. J.; Vetter, O. J.

    1981-03-01

    The stimulation of geothermal wells presents some new and challenging problems. Formation temperatures in the 300-600 F range can be expected. The behavior of stimulation fluids, frac proppants, and equipment at these temperatures in a hostile brine environment must be carefully evaluated before performance expectations can be determined. In order to avoid possible damage to the producing horizon of the formation, high temperature chemical compatibility between the in situ materials and the stimulation materials must be verified. Perhaps most significant of all, in geothermal wells the required techniques must be capable of bringing about the production of very large amounts of fluid. This necessity for high flow rates represents a significant departure from conventional petroleum well stimulation and demands the creation of very high near-wellbore permeability and/or fractures with very high flow conductivity.

  3. User interface description languages for next generation user interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Shaer, Orit; Jacob, Robert; Green, Mark; LUYTEN, Kris

    2008-01-01

    In recent years HCI researchers have developed a broad range of new interfaces that diverge from the "window, icon, menu, pointing device" (WIMP) paradigm, employing a variety of novel interaction techniques and devices. Developers of these next generation user interfaces face challenges that are currently not addressed by state of the art user interface software tools. As part of the user interface software community’s effort to address these challenges, the concept of a User Interface Descr...

  4. User interface inspection methods a user-centered design method

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Chauncey

    2014-01-01

    User Interface Inspection Methods succinctly covers five inspection methods: heuristic evaluation, perspective-based user interface inspection, cognitive walkthrough, pluralistic walkthrough, and formal usability inspections. Heuristic evaluation is perhaps the best-known inspection method, requiring a group of evaluators to review a product against a set of general principles. The perspective-based user interface inspection is based on the principle that different perspectives will find different problems in a user interface. In the related persona-based inspection, colleagues assume the

  5. Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students in a North American University are Choosing to use Chat Reference Services for all Kinds of Reasons. A review of: Ward, David. “Why Users Choose Chat: A Survey of Behavior and Motivations.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 10.1 (2005): 29-46.

    OpenAIRE

    Gill Needham

    2006-01-01

    Objective – To investigate reasons why undergraduate and postgraduate students choose to use chat reference services and their satisfaction with the experience. Design – User survey. Setting – Large academic library in the United States. Subjects – A total of 341 library users took part in the survey. Of these, 79 were graduate students, 215 undergraduates, 21 staff, 5 alumni and 21 members of the public. Method – A user survey form was posted on the library website for a period o...

  6. GENERIC DRUG USER FEE: AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshit S. Patel*, Abhishek R. Patel and Narendra A. Patel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of generic drug manufacturing, supply and testing, and a growing workload that has far outpaced USFDA’s resources has created new challenges. USFDA & Industry propose generic drug user fee to address the need for globalization of the inspection process, and to speed the timely review of generic product applications. The Generic Drug User Fee (GDUF proposal is agreed by generic industry & USFDA and is focused on three key aims: safety, access, and transparency. Under the program, USFDA will receive nearly $1.5 billion over five years in supplemental funding through generic industry user fees in order to help the agency expedite access to generic drugs, enhance drug quality and safety and ensure inspection parity of both foreign and domestic manufacturing sites. GDUF also will help accelerate the market entry of additional manufacturers of drugs currently in short supply and improve quality, consistency, and availability within the supply chain, further helping to mitigate drug shortages. The GDUF new legislation is a milestone for the generic giants and a major win for American health care consumers.

  7. Stimulated Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of stimulated Thomson scattering is investigated both quantum mechanically and classically. In the interaction of a collisionless plasma with two electromagnetic waves, both with frequencies well above the plasma frequency, energy is transferred from the high-frequency wave to the low-frequency wave via stimulated Thomson scattering. This process is mediated by the nonlinear interaction of the plasma electrons with a beat wave at the difference frequency between the two waves; this beat frequency must be well above the plasma frequency. The gain coefficient for stimulated Thomson scattering is calculated both quantum mechanically and classically, and identical results are obtained. The classical calculation also yields the first nonlinear term in the index of refraction due to stimulated Thomson scattering, as well as the details of the saturation of the gain and the index of refraction. The authors present explicit formulas for the gain coefficient and the index of refraction, in the unsaturated limit, for both very cold and very hot plasmas. The calculations indicate that it should be possible to detect stimulated Thomson scattering experimentally by means of polarization enhancement. In an appendix, the theory of stimulated Thomson scattering is used to treat the free-electron amplifier

  8. Playful Interactions Stimulating Physical Activity in Public Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Janienke; Bekker, Tilde; Vanden Abeele, Vero; Johansen, Stine Liv; van Kujik, Mark; Schouten, Ben

    that stimulate physical activity for various user groups and in various use contexts, and present some general findings on the basis of these cases. New technologies such as mobile networks and social media provide new opportunities for creating location-independent solutions that support groups of...

  9. User producer interaction in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nahuis, R.; Moors, E.H.M.; Smits, R.E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    User producer interaction (UPI) increases chances for successful innovations. It is not always clear, however, what type of interaction is necessary in a particular context. This article identifies seven different types of UPI: constructing linkages, broadening, characterizing users, upstream involv

  10. Illicit stimulant use in humans is associated with a long-term increase in tremor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley C Flavel

    Full Text Available Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is a significant health problem. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime estimates that 14-57 million people use stimulants each year. Chronic use of illicit stimulants can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans but the long-term functional consequences are not well understood. Stimulant users self-report problems with tremor whilst abstinent. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of stimulant use on human tremor during rest and movement. We hypothesized that individuals with a history of stimulant use would exhibit abnormally large tremor during rest and movement. Tremor was assessed in abstinent ecstasy users (n = 9; 22 ± 3 yrs and abstinent users of amphetamine-like drugs (n = 7; 33 ± 9 yrs and in two control groups: non-drug users (n = 23; 27 ± 8 yrs and cannabis users (n = 12; 24 ± 7 yrs. Tremor was measured with an accelerometer attached to the index finger at rest (30 s and during flexion and extension of the index finger (30 s. Acceleration traces were analyzed with fast-Fourier transform. During movement, tremor amplitude was significantly greater in ecstasy users than in non-drug users (frequency range 3.9-13.3 Hz; P<0.05, but was unaffected in cannabis users or users of amphetamine-like drugs. The peak frequency of tremor did not significantly differ between groups nor did resting tremor. In conclusion, abstinent ecstasy users exhibit an abnormally large tremor during movement. Further work is required to determine if the abnormality translates to increased risk of movement disorders in this population.

  11. User Ethnography as Theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torguet, Rosa; Friis, Preben; Buur, Jacob

    This paper discusses the potential of using theatre with professional actors to convey the outcome of ethnographic user studies to industry or academia. Framed in the ongoing discussion within design ethnography of how representations can support the communication of ethnographic findings more...... effectively. The use of theatre within innovation processes can help facilitate the provoking role that an ethnography often plays when presented to organizations. Live performances were used as part of a participatory innovation project in the field of indoor climate with industry partners and academic...

  12. User and technical documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    The program LP1 calculates outbound and return trajectories between low earth orbit (LEO) and libration point no. 1 (L1). Libration points (LP) are defined as locations in space that orbit the Earth such that they are always stationary with respect to the Earth-Moon line. L1 is located behind the Moon such that the pull of the Earth and Moon together just cancel the centrifugal acceleration associated with the libration point's orbit. The input required from the user to define the flight is described. The contents of the six reports produced as outputs are presented. Also included are the instructions needed to execute the program.

  13. Cliffs User Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Tolkova, Elena

    2014-01-01

    Cliffs is an open-source relative of MOST (Method Of Splitting Tsunamis) numerical model, implemented as described in (Tolkova, 2014, Pure and Appl. Geophys., 171(9), 2289-2314). Cliffs features: Shallow-Water approximation with an option to manipulate numerical dispersion; Use of Cartesian or spherical (lon/lat) coordinates; 1D and 2D configurations; Structured co-located grid with (optionally) varying spacing; Runup on land; Initial conditions or boundary forcing; Grid nesting with one-way coupling; Parallelized with OpenMP; NetCDF format of input/output data. This user manual accompanies Cliffs code distribution.

  14. Information for Stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    The DISTRELEC catalogue (IT) is now available in EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and the catalogues of existing suppliers. Using an EDH materials request form, users can now order DISTRELEC equipment from amongst the following product groups: peripherals, multimedia, PC components, data media, communication and data cables and adapters. Non-authorised materials will be clearly indicated. As a reminder, the system automatically manages the distribution of standard Stores equipment and punch out equipment ordered on the same request form. In both cases, delivery will take a maximum of 48 hours. The approval of the EDH document will follow the usual EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  15. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From next week, the SFS UNIMARKET (tooling) catalogue will be accessible using the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and those of existing suppliers. Users will now be able to place orders from the SFS catalogue using the Material Request form on EDH. Note: The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment and those for SFS equipment, placed using the same Material Request form, to the CERN Stores and SFS respectively. In both cases, the maximum delivery time will be 48 hours. Requests for equipment will be routed for approval in accordance with standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  16. INFORMATION FOR STORES USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    From next week, the SFS UNIMARKET (tooling) catalogue will be accessible using the Material Request form on EDH in addition to the CERN Stores catalogue and those of existing suppliers. Users will now be able to place orders from the SFS catalogue using the Material Request form on EDH. Note: The system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment and those for SFS equipment, placed using the same Material Request form, to the CERN Stores and SFS respectively. In both cases, the maximum delivery time will be 48 hours. Requests for equipment will be routed for approval in accordance with standard EDH routing procedures. Logistics Group FI Department

  17. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Halfacree, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Make the most out of the world’s first truly compact computer It's the size of a credit card, it can be charged like a smartphone, it runs on open-source Linux, and it holds the promise of bringing programming and playing to millions at low cost. And now you can learn how to use this amazing computer from its co-creator, Eben Upton, in Raspberry Pi User Guide. Cowritten with Gareth Halfacree, this guide gets you up and running on Raspberry Pi, whether you're an educator, hacker, hobbyist, or kid. Learn how to connect your Pi to other hardware, install software, write basic programs, an

  18. User interface concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redhed, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    Three possible goals for the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation Facility (NASF) are: (1) a computational fluid dynamics (as opposed to aerodynamics) algorithm development tool; (2) a specialized research laboratory facility for nearly intractable aerodynamics problems that industry encounters; and (3) a facility for industry to use in its normal aerodynamics design work that requires high computing rates. The central system issue for industry use of such a computer is the quality of the user interface as implemented in some kind of a front end to the vector processor.

  19. Raspberry Pi user guide

    CERN Document Server

    Upton, Eben

    2013-01-01

    The essential guide to getting started with the Raspberry Pi ® The Raspberry Pi has been a success beyond the dream of its creators. Their goal, to encourage a new generation of computer programmers who understand how computers work, is well under way. Raspberry Pi User Guide 2e is the newest edition of the runaway bestseller written by the Pi's co-creator, Eben Upton, and tech writer Gareth Halfacree. It contains everything you need to know to get the Pi up and running, including how to: Connect a keyboard, mouse, monitor and other peripheralsInstall software and configure your Raspberry

  20. CDS User survey

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Document Service

    2011-01-01

      The CERN Document Server is launching a user survey in order to collect information relative to its search engine, submission interfaces, collaborative features and content organisation. With the view of re-shaping its collections and interfaces and to better integrate with the new INSPIRE platform that serves all HEP literature, CERN Document Server team invites you to take part in the survey. Your input is essential to provide us with useful information before setting up the new service and improve your interactions with CDS. Thanks for participating !  

  1. Incident users of antipsychotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, Lone; Kruse, Marie

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: In Denmark, as well as in many other countries, consumption of antipsychotics is on the rise, partly due to increasing off-label use. The aim of this study was to analyze and quantify the extent of off-label use and polypharmacy in incident users of antipsychotic medication, and to examine...... polypharmacy (HR 1.38; 95 % CI 1.32-1.45), whereas antipsychotic discontinuation was associated with decreased hospitalization risk in most off-label conditions. CONCLUSIONS: The brief duration of most antipsychotic prescriptions suggests that antipsychotics are prescribed more liberally than recommended. As a...

  2. ASSERT-4 user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ASSERT-4 is an advanced subchannel code being developed primarily to model single- and two-phase flow and heat transfer in horizontal rod bundles. This manual is intended to facilitate the application of this code to the analysis of flow in reactor fuel channels. It contains a brief description of the thermalhydraulic model and ASSERT-4 solution scheme, and other information required by users. This other information includes a detailed discussion of input data requirements, a sample problem and solution, and information describing how to access and run ASSERT-4 on the Chalk River computers

  3. XTV users guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XTV is an X-Windows based Graphical User Interface for viewing results of Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) calculations. It provides static and animated color mapped visualizations of both thermal-hydraulic and heat conduction components in a TRAC model of a nuclear power plant, as well as both on-screen and hard copy two-dimensional plot capabilities. XTV is the successor to TRAP, the former TRAC postprocessor using the proprietary DISSPLA graphics library. This manual describes Version 2.0, which requires TRAC version 5.4.20 or later for full visualization capabilities

  4. Users, Bystanders and Agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krummheuer, Antonia Lina

    2015-01-01

    Human-agent interaction (HAI), especially in the field of embodied conversational agents (ECA), is mainly construed as dyadic communication between a human user and a virtual agent. This is despite the fact that many application scenarios for future ECAs involve the presence of others. This paper...... the construction of the agent’s identity, and (3) how HAI, as a mediated interaction, is framed by an asymmetric participation framework. The paper concludes by suggesting various participation roles, which may inform development of ECAs....

  5. User-Driven CHAOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Lund, Haakon; Skov, Mette

    2016-01-01

    optimally sup-port the researchers a user-centred approach was taken to develop the platform and related metadata scheme. Based on the requirements a three level metadata scheme was developed: (1) core archival metadata, (2) LARM metadata, and (3) project-specific metadata. The paper analyses how...... researchers apply the metadata scheme in their research work. The study consists of two studies, a) a qualitative study of subjects and vo-cabulary of the applied metadata and annotations, and 5 semi-structured interviews about goals for tagging. The findings clearly show that the primary role of LARM.fm is...

  6. Portable music player users: Cultural differences and potential dangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Levey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined the use of portable music players portable listening devices (PLDs from various ethnic groups. Some findings suggest that there may be differences among ethnic groups that lead to louder or longer listening when using PLD devices. For example, some studies found that Hispanic PLD users listen at higher volume levels while other studies found that African American PLD users listen at higher volume levels. No investigator has explained the reasons for differences among ethnic groups in listening intensity. This paper will address the possible reasons for these differences and offer guidelines for the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss.

  7. What drives Users' Website Registration?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Li (Ting); P.A. Pavlou (Paul)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractUser registration is an important prerequisite for the success of many websites by enabling users to gain access to domain information and personalized content. It is not always desirable for users, however, because they need to disclose personal information. This paper examines what dri

  8. BLOCKAGE 2.5 user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, D.V.; Brideau, J.; Shaffer, C.; Souto, F. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernahl, W. [Software Edge, Inc., Riverwoods, IL (United States)

    1996-12-01

    The BLOCKAGE 2.5 code described in this User`s Manual was developed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as a tool to evaluate licensee compliance with NRC Bulletin 96-03, ``Potential Plugging of Emergency Core Cooling Suction Strainers by Debris in Boiling Water Reactors.`` As such, BLOCKAGE 2.5 provides a generalized framework into which a user can input plant-specific and insulation-specific data for performing analyses in accordance with Regulatory Guide 1.82, Rev. 2. This user`s manual describes the capabilities of BLOCKAGE 2.5 along with a description of the graphics user`s interface provided for data entry. Each input/output dialog is described in detail along with special considerations related to developing and executing BLOCKAGE. Also, several sample problems are provided such that user can easily modify them to suit a particular plant of interest. The models used in BLOCKAGE 2.5 and their validation are presented in the accompanying NUREG/CR-6371. The BLOCKAGE models were designed to be parametric in nature, allowing the user flexibility to examine the impact of several modeling assumptions and to conduct sensitivity analyses. As a result, BLOCKAGE 2.5 results are known to be very sensitive to the user provided input. It is therefore strongly recommended that users become thoroughly familiar with BLOCKAGE models and their limitations as described in NUREG/CR-6224.

  9. Challenges and Opportunities for Enhancing User Privacy and User Empowerment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhotre, Prashant Shantaram; Olesen, Henning; Khajuria, Samant

    2015-01-01

    is becoming the fundamental layer in Internet user’s life. Hence, user empowerment and awareness are essential to realize the value of privacy. In this paper; we discuss the personal data flow from a user to data brokers via service providers. We are focused on user awareness, user control over personal...... information and current business models as privacy issues. The important identified issues include that users are missing privacy awareness tools and unavailability to visualize of personal information flow. We also present some recent advances in these areas to address concern privacy issues like User......Big data techniques allow service providers to collect data on a massive scale. User data has turned into an important asset to service providers. The current business model of service providers gathers too much information for knowledge extraction. In the era of Google and Facebook, privacy...

  10. HANARO User Support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to support external users to promote shared-use of HANARO effectively. To this end, external manpower was recruited and trained. Also, in order to broaden HANARO user-base, practice-oriented training was given. The total number of projects selected as a part of this program was 33 this year. These composed of four broad fields: neutron beam utilization, materials and nuclear fuel irradiation test, neutron activation analysis and radioisotope production. In each field, the number of projects was 19, 6, 4 and 4 respectively. In addition, considering the time spent on support, total supporting ratio has reached to an average of about 30% over four fields. It was 28% for neutron beam utilization, 70% for materials/nuclear materials irradiation test and 8% for neutron activation analysis 'HANARO (utilization and research) information management system' has been developed in an effort to create a single database. By having it available on the net, it will serve as HANARO's important 'Information Platform' along with HANARO web site. It was used as an open web-site for HANARO 2005 international symposium

  11. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD's Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  12. Electronic Commerce user manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-10

    This User Manual supports the Electronic Commerce Standard System. The Electronic Commerce Standard System is being developed for the Department of Defense of the Technology Information Systems Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, operated by the University of California for the Department of Energy. The Electronic Commerce Standard System, or EC as it is known, provides the capability for organizations to conduct business electronically instead of through paper transactions. Electronic Commerce and Computer Aided Acquisition and Logistics Support, are two major projects under the DoD`s Corporate Information Management program, whose objective is to make DoD business transactions faster and less costly by using computer networks instead of paper forms and postage. EC runs on computers that use the UNIX operating system and provides a standard set of applications and tools that are bound together by a common command and menu system. These applications and tools may vary according to the requirements of the customer or location and may be customized to meet the specific needs of an organization. Local applications can be integrated into the menu system under the Special Databases & Applications option on the EC main menu. These local applications will be documented in the appendices of this manual. This integration capability provides users with a common environment of standard and customized applications.

  13. Photovoltaics information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marie, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-10-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on photovoltaics (PV) are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The report is 1 of 10 discussing study results. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. It covers these technological areas: photovoltaics, passive solar heating and cooling, active solar heating and cooling, biomass energy, solar thermal electric power, solar industrial and agricultural process heat, wind energy, ocean energy, and advanced energy storage. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven PV groups respondents are analyzed in this report: DOE-Funded Researchers, Non-DOE-Funded Researchers, Researchers Working for Manufacturers, Representatives of Other Manufacturers, Representatives of Utilities, Electric Power Engineers, and Educators.

  14. Characteristics and determinants of music appreciation in adult CI users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Birgit; Vinck, Bart; De Vel, Eddy; Maes, Leen; D'Haenens, Wendy; Keppler, Hannah; Dhooge, Ingeborg

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the associations between self-reported listening habits and perception of music and speech perception outcomes in quiet and noise for both unilateral cochlear implant (CI) users and bimodal (CI in one ear, hearing aid in contra-lateral ear) users. Information concerning music appreciation was gathered by means of a newly developed questionnaire. Moreover, audiological data (pure-tone audiometry, speech tests in noise and quiet) were gathered and the relationship between speech perception and music appreciation is studied. Bimodal users enjoy listening to music more in comparison with unilateral CI users. Also, music training within rehabilitation is still uncommon, while CI recipients believe that music training might be helpful to maximize their potential with current CI technology. Music training should not be exclusively reserved for the good speech performers. Therefore, a music training program (MTP) that consists of different difficulty levels should be developed. Hopefully, early implementation of MTP in rehabilitation programs can enable adult CI users to enjoy and appreciate music and to maximize their potential with commercially available technology. Furthermore, because bimodal users consider the bimodal stimulation to be the most enjoyable way to listen to music, CI users with residual hearing in the contra-lateral ear should be encouraged to continue wearing their hearing aid in that ear. PMID:21847672

  15. User Types in Online Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion IVAN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Online applications are presented in the context of information society. Online applications characteristics are analyzed. Quality characteristics are presented in relation to online applications users. Types of users for AVIO application are presented. Use cases for AVIO application are identified. The limitations of AVIO application are defined. Types of users in online applications are identified. The threedimensional matrix of access to the online application resources is built. The user type-oriented database is structured. Access management of the fields related to the database tables is analyzed. The classification of online applications users is done.

  16. Modulation of the Endocannabinoid System: Vulnerability Factor and New Treatment Target for Stimulant Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    DidierJutras-Aswad; StéphanieOlière; AntoineJolette-Riopel; StephanePotvin

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is one of the most widely used illicit substance among users of stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. Interestingly, recent accumulating evidence points toward the involvement of the endocannabinoid system (ECBS) in the neurobiological processes related to stimulant addiction. This article presents an up-to-date review with deep-insights into the pivotal role of the ECBS in the neurobiology of stimulant addiction and the effects of its modulation on addictive behaviors. The aim...

  17. Asian American-Pacific American Relations: The Asian American Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Sucheng

    This paper examines the migration and settlement history of Asians into the United States and the interaction of the major Asian immigrants with each other and with American society. An important thesis is that, because the differences between Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders are much greater than the similarities between them, they should no…

  18. Rivet user manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Andy; Butterworth, Jonathan; Grellscheid, David; Hoeth, Hendrik; Lönnblad, Leif; Monk, James; Schulz, Holger; Siegert, Frank

    2013-12-01

    This is the manual and user guide for the Rivet system for the validation and tuning of Monte Carlo event generators. As well as the core Rivet library, this manual describes the usage of the rivet program and the AGILe generator interface library. The depth and level of description is chosen for users of the system, starting with the basics of using validation code written by others, and then covering sufficient details to write new Rivet analyses and calculational components. Catalogue identifier: AEPS_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEPS_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571126 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4717522 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++, Python. Computer: PC running Linux, Mac. Operating system: Linux, Mac OS. RAM: 20 MB Classification: 11.9, 11.2. External routines: HepMC (https://savannah.cern.ch/projects/hepmc/), GSL (http://www.gnu.org/software/gsl/manual/gsl-ref.html), FastJet (http://fastjet.fr/), Python (http://www.python.org/), Swig (http://www.swig.org/), Boost (http://www.boostsoftware.com/), YAML (http://www.yaml.org/spec/1.2/spec.html) Nature of problem: Experimental measurements from high-energy particle colliders should be defined and stored in a general framework such that it is simple to compare theory predictions to them. Rivet is such a framework, and contains at the same time a large collection of existing measurements. Solution method: Rivet is based on HepMC events, a standardised output format provided by many theory simulation tools. Events are processed by Rivet to generate histograms for the requested list of analyses, incorporating all experimental phase space cuts and histogram definitions. Restrictions: Cannot calculate

  19. Limited Uptake of Hepatitis C Treatment among Injection Drug Users

    OpenAIRE

    Mehta, Shruti H.; Genberg, Becky L.; Astemborski, Jacquie; Kavasery, Ravi; Kirk, Gregory D.; Vlahov, David; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Thomas, David L

    2008-01-01

    We characterized HCV treatment knowledge, experience and barriers in a cohort of community-based injection drug users (IDUs) in Baltimore, MD. In 2005, a questionnaire on HCV treatment knowledge, experience and barriers was administered to HCV-infected IDUs. Self-reported treatment was confirmed from medical records. Of 597 participants, 71% were male, 95% African-American, 31% HIV co-infected and 94% were infected with HCV genotype 1; 70% were aware that treatment was available, but only 22%...

  20. Information for stores users

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The Bossard catalogue is now accessible alongside the CERN Stores catalogue from the Material Request form on EDH. Users will thus be able to order Bossard equipment using the EDH Materials Request form. As a reminder, the system automatically forwards orders for standard Stores equipment to the CERN Stores and those for Bossard equipment to Bossard. In both cases the delivery time will be a maximum of 48 hours. Requests for materials will be routed for approval in accordance with the standard EDH routing procedures. Some items will remain available from the emergency desk in the event of urgent requests. These items will be visible in the Stores catalogue even if they cannot be purchased via the EDH material request form. Logistics Group FI Department

  1. "Playing" with our users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    the ability to use its hardware/software. Usually we might not even visit again, not even to present the results and thank them. It got me thinking about my own research and about the projects I have been involved with, over the past few years. Expensive smartphones, pads and gadgets that we choose...... trying to be proactive and design software for the state of the art hardware. Super playful and engaging software, fun DIY electronics and imersive experience. They all go away when research is over. Most of the times, we do have to take the expensive devices back with us since they were already too few...... should keep our users in the loop. Next time I’ll need to try keep the games going, after we exit the stage to design new ones....

  2. Information for gas users

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The contractor for the supply and distribution of pressurised gases has drawn our attention to the large number of gas bottles and banks being stored on the site for increasingly long periods. Users are reminded that the rental charges for gas bottles and banks are based on a progressive rate depending on their period of use. To assist CERN in its efforts to optimise its operations in this field, you are kindly requested: - to return empty or unused containers to the official gas distribution points as soon as possible - to try to limit reserve stocks, bearing in mind that standardised gases can be delivered within 36 hours. This will result in a higher turnover rate and in increased safety and will improve the availability of the gases. For all further enquiries, please contact "Gas store" by e-mail. Thank you for your co-operation. Logistics Group SPL Division

  3. INFORMATION FOR GAS USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Logistics Group

    2001-01-01

    The contractor for the supply and distribution of pressurised gases has drawn our attention to the large number of gas bottles and banks being stored on the site for increasingly long periods. Users are reminded that the rental charges for gas bottles and banks are based on a progressive rate depending on their period of use. To assist CERN in its efforts to optimise its operations in this field, you are kindly requested : to return empty or unused containers to the official gas distribution points as soon as possible, to try to limit reserve stocks, bearing in mind that standardised gases can be delivered within 36 hours. This will result in a higher turnover rate and in increased safety and will improve the availability of the gases. For all further enquiries, please contact Gas.Store@cern.ch by e-mail or call 72265. Thank you for your co-operation.

  4. Communication to Linux users

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    We would like to inform you that the aging “phone” Linux command will stop working: On lxplus on 30 November 2009, On lxbatch on 4 January 2010, and is replaced by the new “phonebook” command, currently available on SLC4 and SLC5 Linux. As the new “phonebook” command has different syntax and output formats from the “phone” command, please update and test all scripts currently using “phone” before the above dates. You can refer to the article published on the IT Service Status Board, under the Service Changes section. Please send any comments to it-dep-phonebook-feedback@cern.ch Best regards, IT-UDS User Support Section

  5. User Experience Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Marianne; Jantzen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The present study develops a set of 10 dimensions based on a systematic understanding of the concept of experience as a holistic psychological. Seven of these are derived from a psychological conception of what experiencing and experiences are. Three supplementary dimensions spring from the...... observation that experiences apparently have become especially valuable phenomena in Western societies. The 10 dimensions are tried out in a field study at the Center for Art and Media (ZKM) in Germany with the purpose to study their applicability in the evaluation of interactive sound archives. 29 walk......-alongs were carried out with 58 museums visitors. Our analysis showed that it was possible to identify the 10 experience dimensions in the study material. Some dimensions were expressed more frequently than others. The distribution of expressed dimensions and the content of the user comments provided a clear...

  6. Calendf-2002: user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALENDF-2002 represents a Fortran-95 update of the 1994 code distribution with emphasize on programming quality and standard, physics and usage improvements. Devised to process multigroup cross-sections it relies on GAUSS quadratures mathematical principle and strength. The followings processes can be handled by the code: moment probability tables and effective cross-sections calculation; regroups pointwise cross sections, probability tables and effective cross-sections; probability table condensation; probability table mix for several isotopes; probability table interpolation; effective cross section based probability table calculations; probability table calculations from effective cross-sections; cross-section comparison, complete energies pointwise cross-section processing and thickness dependant averaged transmission sample calculation. The CALENDF user manual. after having listed all principal code functions, describes sequentially each of them and gives comments on their associated output streams. Installation procedures, test cases and running time platforms comparisons are given in the appendix. (authors)

  7. CALENDF-2010: user manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CALENDF-2010 represents a Fortran-95 update of the 1994, 2001 then 2005 code distribution with emphasise on programming quality and standards, physics and usage improvements. Devised to process multigroup cross-sections it relies on Gauss quadrature mathematical principle and strength. The followings processes can be handled by the code: moment probability table and effective cross-section calculation; pointwise cross section, probability table and effective cross-section regrouping; probability table condensation; probability table mix for several isotopes; probability table interpolation; effective cross section based probability table calculations; probability table calculations from effective cross-sections; cross-section comparison, complete energy pointwise cross-section processing and thickness dependent averaged transmission sample calculation. The CALENDF user manual, after having listed all principal code functions, describes sequentially each of them and gives comments on their associated output streams. Installation procedures, test cases and running time platform comparisons are given in the appendix. (authors)

  8. EURALERT-89 user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EURALERT-89 is a dose assessment program system including countermeasures which has been developed in the framework of the C.E.C. research programme 'Radiological aspects of nuclear accident scenarios'. For this purpose the ECOSYS model for calculating the transfer of radionuclides through the environment, the contamination of foodstuffs and potential doses has been adapted to real-time use in the different European countries. In this user's guide the file names are given in the form SUBD/FNAM; this means that the data file with name FNAM is in the subdirectory SUBD. Remember that writing the path of a file depends on the computer used. With EURALERT-89 it is relatively simple to get an estimate of the most important informations (deposition, maximum specific activities in foodstuffs, most important dose values) for all locations which are included in the input file. This goal can be achieved with only a few commands. (orig./HP)

  9. ISOLDE users' guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ISOLDE Users' Guide gives the necessary information on planning and performing experiments at the on-line isotope separation facility ISOLDE which uses the 600 MeV synchro-cyclotron at CERN as a dedicated injector. The report is divided into three parts. A short description of the ISOLDE facility, the procedure for making proposals, and some practical information are given in Part 1. Part 2 contains the summaries of the proposals together with a compilation of publications of ISOLDE work since about 1980 which allow the reader to obtain a survey of the current research programme. Part 3 comprises a compilation of measurements of the production yields of the radioactive isotopes of the 66 elements which are available as on-line beams at ISOLDE. (orig.)

  10. PST user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Parametric Source Term (PST) software allows estimation of radioactivity release fractions for Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessments (PSAs). PST was developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) Program. PST contains a framework of equations that model activity transport between volumes in the release pathway from the core, through the vessel, through the containment, and to the environment. PST quickly obtains exact solutions to differential equations for activity transport in each volume for each time interval. PST provides a superior method for source term estimation because it: ensures conservation of activity transported across various volumes in the release pathway; provides limited consideration of the time-dependent behavior of input parameter uncertainty distributions; allows input to be quantified using state-of-the-art severe accident analysis code results; increases modeling flexibility because linkage between volumes is specified by user input; and allows other types of Light Water Reactor (LWR) plant designs to be evaluated with minimal modifications. PST is a microcomputer-based system that allows the analyst more flexibility than a mainframe system. PST has been developed to run with both MS DOS and MS Windows 95/NT operating systems. PST has the capability to load ASP Source Term Vector (STV) information, import pre-specified default input for the 6 Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs) initially analyzed in the NRC ASP program, allow input value modifications for release fraction sensitivity studies, export user-specified default input for the LWR being modeled, report results of radioactivity release calculations at each time interval, and generate formatted results that can interface with other risk assessment codes. This report describes the PST model and provides guidelines for using PST

  11. Copeptin under glucagon stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Krzysztof C; Lewiński, Andrzej; Skowrońska-Jóźwiak, Elżbieta; Stasiak, Magdalena; Horzelski, Wojciech; Brabant, Georg

    2016-05-01

    Stimulation of growth hormone (GH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion by glucagon is a standard procedure to assess pituitary dysfunction but the pathomechanism of glucagon action remains unclear. As arginine vasopressin (AVP) may act on the release of both, GH and ACTH, we tested here the role of AVP in GST by measuring a stable precursor fragment, copeptin, which is stoichiometrically secreted with AVP in a 1:1 ratio. ACTH, cortisol, GH, and copeptin were measured at 0, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 min during GST in 79 subjects: healthy controls (Group 1, n = 32), subjects with pituitary disease, but with adequate cortisol and GH responses during GST (Group 2, n = 29), and those with overt hypopituitarism (Group 3, n = 18). Copeptin concentrations significantly increased over baseline 150 and 180 min following glucagon stimulation in controls and patients with intact pituitary function but not in hypopituitarism. Copeptin concentrations were stimulated over time and the maximal increment correlated with ACTH, while correlations between copeptin and GH were weaker. Interestingly, copeptin as well as GH secretion was significantly attenuated when comparing subjects within the highest to those in the lowest BMI quartile (p < 0.05). Copeptin is significantly released following glucagon stimulation. As this release is BMI-dependent, the time-dependent relation between copeptin and GH may be obscured, whereas the close relation to ACTH suggests that AVP/copeptin release might be linked to the activation of the adrenal axis. PMID:26578365

  12. The Workplace Game: exploring end users' new behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    De Bruyne, E; De JONG, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the Workplace Game and its development. Changing the workplace layout alone appears to be insufficient to change office user behaviour. Through prototyping the game was designed as a tool to stimulate discussion and provide new and concrete insights into the behavioural consequences of innovative offices. As a communication tool, the game enables office workers to exchange ideas about their office environment and makes the implicit thoughts and norms about the office use,...

  13. Are You Ready for the American Community Survey?

    OpenAIRE

    Eathington, Liesl

    2010-01-01

    With its first release of 5-year data sets for small geographic areas in December of 2010, the U.S. Census Bureau reaches an important milestone in the development of its American Community Survey (ACS). Adapting to changes introduced by the ACS framework will require some adjustment by the research community, policy-makers, the media, and other data users who have grown accustomed to using decennial census data. This report provides a brief overview of the American Community Survey (ACS). A ...

  14. Danish User-Centered Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo

    2007-01-01

    Danish User-centered Innovation Lab (DUCI lab) is a collaboration between faculty at Copenhagen Business School, Aarhus School of Business and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, based at Copenhagen Business School. DUCI lab is a unique effort to understand the issues involved in user innovation...... processes, with particular emphasis on managing user driven innovation. The project takes advantage of CBS location in Denmark. Denmark has been at the forefront in creating policies that favor user driven innovation. CBS's location at the heart of one of the world's most vibrant user driven regions...... provides valuable information for scholars, managers and policy makers. The DUCI lab team consists of a number of academics, six major Danish companies and representatives from Danish Government. The efforts of the DUCI team focuses on the identification of best practice user innovation inside leading edge...

  15. TMAP7 User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2008-12-01

    The TMAP Code was written at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory by Brad Merrill and James Jones in the late 1980s as a tool for safety analysis of systems involving tritium. Since then it was upgraded to TMAP4 and has been used in numerous applications including experiments supporting fusion safety, predictions for advanced systems such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), and estimates involving tritium production technologies. Its further upgrade to TMAP2000 and now to TMAP7 was accomplished in response to several needs. TMAP and TMAP4 had the capacity to deal with only a single trap for diffusing gaseous species in solid structures. TMAP7 includes up to three separate traps and up to 10 diffusing species. The original code had difficulty dealing with heteronuclear molecule formation such as HD and DT under solution-law dependent diffusion boundary conditions. That difficulty has been overcome. TMAP7 automatically generates heteronuclear molecular partial pressures when solubilities and partial pressures of the homonuclear molecular species are provided for law-dependent diffusion boundary conditions. A further sophistication is the addition of non-diffusing surface species. Atoms such as oxygen or nitrogen or formation and decay or combination of hydroxyl radicals on metal surfaces are sometimes important in reactions with diffusing hydrogen isotopes but do not themselves diffuse appreciably in the material. TMAP7 will accommodate up to 30 such surface species, allowing the user to specify relationships between those surface concentrations and partial pressures of gaseous species above the surfaces or to form them dynamically by combining diffusion species or other surface species. Additionally, TMAP7 allows the user to include a surface binding energy and an adsorption barrier energy. The code includes asymmetrical diffusion between the surface sites and regular diffusion sites in the bulk. All of the

  16. Adapting to changing user expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Poland, Jean

    2004-01-01

    Results of user surveys indicate that science and technology library user needs differ from those of humanists and social scientists and are changing rapidly. Science and technology libraries are taking the lead in adapting the public services model accordingly. Science and technology library users are most interested in easy-to-use access tools and library Web sites that enable them to find information on their own as well as easy access to materials from home and office. Their expectations ...

  17. DIRAC: Secure web user interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traditionally the interaction between users and the Grid is done with command line tools. However, these tools are difficult to use by non-expert users providing minimal help and generating outputs not always easy to understand especially in case of errors. Graphical User Interfaces are typically limited to providing access to the monitoring or accounting information and concentrate on some particular aspects failing to cover the full spectrum of grid control tasks. To make the Grid more user friendly more complete graphical interfaces are needed. Within the DIRAC project we have attempted to construct a Web based User Interface that provides means not only for monitoring the system behavior but also allows to steer the main user activities on the grid. Using DIRAC's web interface a user can easily track jobs and data. It provides access to job information and allows performing actions on jobs such as killing or deleting. Data managers can define and monitor file transfer activity as well as check requests set by jobs. Production managers can define and follow large data productions and react if necessary by stopping or starting them. The Web Portal is build following all the grid security standards and using modern Web 2.0 technologies which allow to achieve the user experience similar to the desktop applications. Details of the DIRAC Web Portal architecture and User Interface will be presented and discussed.

  18. LCS Users Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Lower Hybrid Simulation Code (LSC) is a computational model of lower hybrid current drive in the presence of an electric field. Details of geometry, plasma profiles, and circuit equations are treated. Two-dimensional velocity space effects are approximated in a one-dimensional Fokker-Planck treatment. The LSC was originally written to be a module for lower hybrid current drive called by the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC), which is a numerical model of an axisymmetric tokamak plasma and the associated control systems. The TSC simulates the time evolution of a free boundary plasma by solving the MHD equations on a rectangular computational grid. The MHD equations are coupled to the external circuits (representing poloidal field coils) through the boundary conditions. The code includes provisions for modeling the control system, external heating, and fusion heating. The LSC module can also be called by the TRANSP code. TRANSP represents the plasma with an axisymmetric, fixed-boundary model and focuses on calculation of plasma transport to determine transport coefficients from data on power inputs and parameters reached. This manual covers the basic material needed to use the LSC. If run in conjunction with TSC, the ''TSC Users Manual'' should be consulted. If run in conjunction with TRANSP, on-line documentation will be helpful. A theoretical background of the governing equations and numerical methods is given. Information on obtaining, compiling, and running the code is also provided

  19. AMBER User's Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMBER is a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code which models the evolution of a representative slice of a relativistic electron beam in a linear accelerator. The beam is modeled as a steady flow and therefore no electromagnetic waves: all the fields (external and self-fields) are electrostatic and magnetostatic fields (for a complete description, see chapter 5). The possible elements describing the accelerator lattice are solenoids, accelerating gaps, pipes and apertures. Several kinds of beam distribution can be loaded: KV, gaussian, semi-gaussian, etc. Alternatively, the user can reconstruct (or load) a distribution from the output of another codefile, for example, an interface generating the beam distribution from output produced from EGUN or LSP codes is available as an option. This documentation first describes in detail the input files needed to run AMBER and the procedure to start the executable. The possible data files and graphical output are explained in the two following chapters. The last chapter describes the physics model and numerical techniques used. An example of input files and the result obtained with these inputs are also given in the Appendix

  20. Portraying User Interface History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anker Helms

    The user interface is coming of age. Papers adressing UI history have appeared in fair amounts in the last 25 years. Most of them address particular aspects such as an in­novative interface paradigm or the contribution of a visionary or a research lab. Contrasting this, papers addres­sing UI...... history. Next the paper analyses a selected sample of papers on UI history at large. The analysis shows that the current state-of-art is featured by three aspects: Firstly internalism, in that the papers adress the tech­nologies in their own right with little con­text­ualization, secondly whiggism in that...... they largely address prevailing UI techno­logies, and thirdly history from above in that they focus on the great deeds of the visionaries. The paper then compares this state-of-art in UI history to the much more mature fields history of computing and history of technology. Based hereon, some...

  1. Users page feedback

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    In October last year the Communication Group proposed an interim redesign of the users’ web pages in order to improve the visibility of key news items, events and announcements to the CERN community. The proposed update to the users' page (right), and the current version (left, behind) This proposed redesign was seen as a small step on the way to much wider reforms of the CERN web landscape proposed in the group’s web communication plan.   The results are available here. Some of the key points: - the balance between news / events / announcements and access to links on the users’ pages was not right - many people asked to see a reversal of the order so that links appeared first, news/events/announcements last; - many people felt that we should keep the primary function of the users’ pages as an index to other CERN websites; - many people found the sections of the front page to be poorly delineated; - people do not like scrolling; - there were performance...

  2. Biodigester User Survey Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandararot, K.; Dannet, L.

    2007-06-15

    In May 2005, SNV and the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) agreed to a joint development of a National Biodigester Programme (NBP) in Cambodia as a way to create an indigenous, sustainable energy source in the country and to utilize the potential of biogas in the country. The overall objective of the first phase of the National Biodigester Programme is 'The dissemination of domestic biodigesters as an indigenous, sustainable energy source through the development of a commercial, market oriented, biodigester sector in selected provinces of Cambodia'. The program aims to support the construction of 17,500 biodigesters in at least 6 provinces over the period of 2006 to 2009. To gain insights and feedbacks on the impacts of their activities to date, NBP commissioned the Cambodia Institute of Development Study (CIDS) to carry out a Biodigester User Survey in January 2007. The purpose of the survey is to evaluate the effects of domestic biodigester installations, as supported by the program, on 100 households in 3 provinces in Cambodia- Kampong Cham, Kandal and Svay Rieng.

  3. Echo™ User Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, Dustin Yewell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-06

    Echo™ is a MATLAB-based software package designed for robust and scalable analysis of complex data workflows. An alternative to tedious, error-prone conventional processes, Echo is based on three transformative principles for data analysis: self-describing data, name-based indexing, and dynamic resource allocation. The software takes an object-oriented approach to data analysis, intimately connecting measurement data with associated metadata. Echo operations in an analysis workflow automatically track and merge metadata and computation parameters to provide a complete history of the process used to generate final results, while automated figure and report generation tools eliminate the potential to mislabel those results. History reporting and visualization methods provide straightforward auditability of analysis processes. Furthermore, name-based indexing on metadata greatly improves code readability for analyst collaboration and reduces opportunities for errors to occur. Echo efficiently manages large data sets using a framework that seamlessly allocates resources such that only the necessary computations to produce a given result are executed. Echo provides a versatile and extensible framework, allowing advanced users to add their own tools and data classes tailored to their own specific needs. Applying these transformative principles and powerful features, Echo greatly improves analyst efficiency and quality of results in many application areas.

  4. ETAP user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The event tree analysis technique has been used in Probabilistic Safety Assessment for LWRs to delineate various accident scenarios leading to core melt or containment failure and to evaluate their frequencies. This technique often requires manual preparation of event trees with iterative process and time-consuming work in data handling. For the purpose of reducing manual efforts in event tree analysis, we developed a new software package named ETAP (Event Tree Analysis Supporting Program) for event tree analysis. ETAP is an interactive PC-based program which has the ability to construct, update, document, and quantify event trees. Because of its fast running capability to quantify event trees, use of the EATP program can make it easy to perform the sensitivity studies on a variety of system/containment performance issues. This report provides a user's manual for ETAP, which describes the structure, installation, and use of EATP. This software runs on NEC/PC-9800 or compatible PCs that have a 640 KB memory and MS-DOS 2.11 or higher. (author)

  5. American Society of Echocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow of the American Society of Echocardiography Member Referral Program FAQs Initiatives Advocacy ...

  6. American Urogynecologic Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Site » PFD Registry » Contact Us American Urogynecologic Society 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 670 Silver Spring, MD ... Us | Privacy Policy | HONcode Accredited © 2016 American Urogynecologic Society. All rights reserved.

  7. North American Spine Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Coverage Recommendations SpineLine Renew Membership NORTH AMERICAN SPINE SOCIETY BURR RIDGE, IL 7075 Veterans Blvd. Burr Ridge, ... NASS Contact Us © Copyright 2016 North American Spine Society | Terms Of Use | Privacy Statement

  8. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Doctor | Donate main search Search American Epilepsy Society CLINICAL RESOURCES FAQs GUIDELINES IOM EPILEPSY MEDICAL MARIJUANA ... RENEW VOLUNTEER FAES: FELLOW OF THE AMERICAN EPILEPSY SOCIETY MAILING LIST PURCHASE FOR PATIENTS EPILEPSY BENEFIT INTERNATIONAL ...

  9. American Society of Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Trials in Transplantation September 13, 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and its Transplantation & Immunology Research Network ... Learn More Donate Donate Donate to the American Society of Transplantation Advertisement member spotlight View all Joanna ...

  10. American Cancer Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved Find Local ACS How the American Cancer Society Fights Childhood Cancer Advances in treatment have improved ... long lasting consequences. Learn how the American Cancer Society is working to save more lives from cancer ...

  11. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  12. American Vitiligo Research Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing. Please Visit Our Donations Page American Vitiligo Research Foundation "We Walk By Faith, Not By Sight" PO ... by Using GoodSearch Copyright 2005 - 2014 American Vitiligo Research Foundation Inc. Disclaimer: Information provided on this website is ...

  13. Obesity and Hispanic Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Hispanic/Latino > Obesity Obesity and Hispanic Americans Among Mexican American women, 77 ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  14. Obesity and Asian Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Data > Minority Population Profiles > Asian American > Obesity Obesity and Asian Americans Non-Hispanic whites are 60% ... youthonline . [Accessed 05/25/2016] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  15. Culture and Personality Among European American and Asian American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Eap, Sopagna; DeGarmo, David S.; Kawakami, Ayaka; Hara, Shelley N.; Hall, Gordon C.N.; Teten, Andra L.

    2008-01-01

    Personality differences between Asian American (N = 320) and European American men (N = 242) and also among Asian American ethnic groups (Korean, Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, and mixed Asian) are examined on the Big Five personality dimension. Personality structures for Asian Americans and European Americans closely replicate established norms. However, congruence is greater for European American and highly acculturated Asian American men than for low acculturated Asian American men. Similar ...

  16. Illicit stimulant use in humans is associated with a long-term increase in tremor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavel, Stanley C; Koch, Jenna D; White, Jason M; Todd, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is a significant health problem. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime estimates that 14-57 million people use stimulants each year. Chronic use of illicit stimulants can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans but the long-term functional consequences are not well understood. Stimulant users self-report problems with tremor whilst abstinent. Thus, the aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of stimulant use on human tremor during rest and movement. We hypothesized that individuals with a history of stimulant use would exhibit abnormally large tremor during rest and movement. Tremor was assessed in abstinent ecstasy users (n = 9; 22 ± 3 yrs) and abstinent users of amphetamine-like drugs (n = 7; 33 ± 9 yrs) and in two control groups: non-drug users (n = 23; 27 ± 8 yrs) and cannabis users (n = 12; 24 ± 7 yrs). Tremor was measured with an accelerometer attached to the index finger at rest (30 s) and during flexion and extension of the index finger (30 s). Acceleration traces were analyzed with fast-Fourier transform. During movement, tremor amplitude was significantly greater in ecstasy users than in non-drug users (frequency range 3.9-13.3 Hz; Pecstasy users exhibit an abnormally large tremor during movement. Further work is required to determine if the abnormality translates to increased risk of movement disorders in this population. PMID:23272201

  17. Diabetes in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, M.

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...

  18. Study of some physiological parameters among mobile phone users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty male mobile users in additional to twenty males as control group similar in age and socio economically matched were chosen for this study. Blood pressure, complete blood picture, five parameters of semen quality and four sex hormones (LH, FSH, prolactin and testosterone)were measured. Elevated significant differences for blood pressure (P<0.01) for the exposed group and some changes in mean values of haematologic parameters, although all values were within the normal range. Minor semen quality and hormonal levels changes between the two groups, including a higher mean follicle-stimulating hormone level; for mobile users (8.10 vs 6.00 mIU/mL), and a slightly higher mean luteinizing hormone level (11.73 vs 10.16 mLU/mL) were noted in the user group

  19. Stimulated Black Hole Evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Spaans, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Black holes are extreme expressions of gravity. Their existence is predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity and is supported by observations. Black holes obey quantum mechanics and evaporate spontaneously. Here it is shown that a mass rate $R_f\\sim 3\\times 10^{-8} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ $M_0$ yr$^{-1}$ onto the horizon of a black hole with mass $M$ (in units of solar mass $M_0$) stimulates a black hole into rapid evaporation. Specifically, $\\sim 3 M_0$ black holes can emit a large fraction of their mass, and explode, in $M/R_f \\sim 3\\times 10^7 (M/M_0)^{3/2}$ yr. These stimulated black holes radiate a spectral line power $P \\sim 2\\times 10^{39} (M_0/M)^{1/2}$ erg s$^{-1}$, at a wavelength $\\lambda \\sim 3\\times 10^5 (M/M_0)$ cm. This prediction can be observationally verified.

  20. Raft River well stimulation experiments: geothermal reservoir well stimulation program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The Geothermal Reservoir Well Stimulation Program (GRWSP) performed two field experiments at the Raft River KGRA in 1979. Wells RRGP-4 and RRGP-5 were selected for the hydraulic fracture stimulation treatments. The well selection process, fracture treatment design, field execution, stimulation results, and pre- and post-job evaluations are presented.

  1. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  2. American Indian Recipes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnoe, Katherine J.; Skjervold, Christian, Ed.

    Presenting some 60 to 70 Native American recipes, this document includes a brief introduction and a suggested reading list (15 citations related to American Indian foods). The introduction identifies five regional Native American cuisines as follows: in the Southwest, peppers and beans were made into chili, soups, guacamole, and barbecue sauces by…

  3. Focusing and targeting of magnetic brain stimulation using multiple coils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohonen, J; Ilmoniemi, R J

    1998-05-01

    Neurones can be excited by an externally applied time-varying electromagnetic field. Focused magnetic brain stimulation is attained using multiple small coils instead of one large coil, the resultant induced electric field being a superposition of the fields from each coil. In multichannel magnetic brain stimulation, partial cancellation of fields from individual coils provides a significant improvement in the focusing of the stimulating field, and independent coil channels allow targeting of the stimuli on a given spot without moving the coils. The problem of shaping the stimulating field in multichannel stimulation is analysed, and a method is derived that yields the driving currents required to induce a field with a user-defined shape. The formulation makes use of lead fields and minimum-norm estimation from magneto-encephalography. Using these methods, some properties of multichannel coil arrays are examined. Computer-assisted multichannel stimulation of the cortex will enable several new studies, including quick determination of the cortical regions, the stimulation of which disrupts cortical processing required by a task. PMID:9747568

  4. Electrical Stimulation of Coleopteran Muscle for Initiating Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Hao Yu; Li, Yao; Cao, Feng; Sato, Hirotaka

    2016-01-01

    Some researchers have long been interested in reconstructing natural insects into steerable robots or vehicles. However, until recently, these so-called cyborg insects, biobots, or living machines existed only in science fiction. Owing to recent advances in nano/micro manufacturing, data processing, and anatomical and physiological biology, we can now stimulate living insects to induce user-desired motor actions and behaviors. To improve the practicality and applicability of airborne cyborg insects, a reliable and controllable flight initiation protocol is required. This study demonstrates an electrical stimulation protocol that initiates flight in a beetle (Mecynorrhina torquata, Coleoptera). A reliable stimulation protocol was determined by analyzing a pair of dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLMs), flight muscles that oscillate the wings. DLM stimulation has achieved with a high success rate (> 90%), rapid response time (< 1.0 s), and small variation (< 0.33 s; indicating little habituation). Notably, the stimulation of DLMs caused no crucial damage to the free flight ability. In contrast, stimulation of optic lobes, which was earlier demonstrated as a successful flight initiation protocol, destabilized the beetle in flight. Thus, DLM stimulation is a promising secure protocol for inducing flight in cyborg insects or biobots. PMID:27050093

  5. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  6. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  7. Dorsal column stimulator applications

    OpenAIRE

    Yampolsky, Claudio; Hem, Santiago; Bendersky, Damián

    2012-01-01

    Background: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been used to treat neuropathic pain since 1967. Following that, technological progress, among other advances, helped SCS become an effective tool to reduce pain. Methods: This article is a non-systematic review of the mechanism of action, indications, results, programming parameters, complications, and cost-effectiveness of SCS. Results: In spite of the existence of several studies that try to prove the mechanism of action of SCS, it still remains...

  8. Motivation and Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Macešková, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the analysis and evaluation of the work environment ( job satisfaction ) in connection with motivation and stimulation in the selected company. The intention of the thesis is to analyze the company, to point out the importance of optimal motivation in connection with an appropriate working environment to identify potential weaknesses and propose solutions for efficient use of the human potential. In the theoretical level, based on studied professional literature,...

  9. SVX4 User's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SVX4 is a custom 128-channel analog to digital converter chip used by D. and CDF in Run IIb to read out their respective silicon strip detectors. Each channel consists of an integrator (Front-End device, or FE) and a digitize/readout section (Back-End device, or BE). The input to each channel is sampled and temporarily stored in its own storage capacitor. Upon receiving a trigger signal, the relevant pipeline cell is reserved. Subsequent signals cause reserved cells to be digitized by a 128 parallel channel Wilkinson type 8-bit ADC, and then readout in byte-serial mode with optional zero suppression (sparsification). Salient features include (1) operation in either D. mode or CDF mode (CDF mode features ''dead timeless operation'' or continued acquisition during digitization and readout) with an additional mixed mode of operation, (2) adjustable, loadable control parameters, including the integrator bandwidth and ADC polarity (only one input charge polarity will be used for Run IIb, but this feature remains for diagnostic purposes), (3) sparsified readout with nearest neighbor logic, (4) built-in charge injection with the ability for external voltage overriding for testing and calibration, and (5) a channel mask that is used for either charge injection or for masking of channels with excessive DC current input during chip operation. This document is meant to familiarize the user with the functionality of the SVX4 and goes on to include specifications, pin outs, timings and electrical information. Additional information on the SVX4 can be found in Ref [1

  10. Self-Stimulated Undulator Klystron

    OpenAIRE

    Bessonov, E. G.; Osipov, A. L.; Mikhailichenko, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    The Self Stimulated Undulator Klystron (SSUK) and its possible applications in the Particle Accelerator Physics, incoherent Self-Stimulated Undulator Radiation Sources (SSUR) and Free-Electron Lasers (FEL) are discussed.

  11. Electrical stimulation of primary neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes using pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martherus, Ruben S R M; Zeijlemaker, Volkert A; Ayoubi, Torik A Y

    2010-01-01

    The study of gene regulation in cardiac myocytes requires a reliable in vitro model. However, monolayer cultures used for this purpose are typically not exposed to electrical stimulation, though this has been shown to strongly affect cardiomyocyte gene expression. Based on pacemakers for clinical use, we developed an easy-to-use portable system that allows the user to perform electro-stimulation of cardiomyocyte cultures in standard tissue incubators without the need for bulky equipment. In addition, we present a refined protocol for culturing high-purity cardiomyocyte cultures with excellent contractile properties for a wide variety of applications. PMID:20078430

  12. Mental models and user training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Zupanič

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the functions of the reference service is user training which means teaching users how to use the library and it's information sorces (nowadays mainly computerized systems. While the scientific understanding of teaching/learning process is shifting, changes also affect the methods of user training in libraries.Human-computer interaction (HCI is an interdisciplinary and a very active research area which studies how humans use computers - their mental and behavioral characteristics. The application of psychological theories to HCI are especially great on three areas: psychological (mental, conceptual models, individual differences, and error behavior.The mental models theory is powerful tool for understanding the ways in which users interact with an information system. Claims, based on this theory can affect the methods (conceptualization of user training and the overall design of information systems.

  13. The Users Office turns 20

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    20 years ago, in the summer of 1989, an office was created to assist the thousands of users who come to CERN each year, working over the broad range of projects and collaborations. Chris Onions (right), head of the Users’ Office, with Bryan Pattison (left), the Office’s founder.Before the inception of the Users Office, it was common for users to spend at least an entire day moving from office to office in search of necessary documentation and information in order to make their stay official. "Though the Office has undergone various changes throughout its lifetime, it has persisted in being a welcoming bridge to facilitate the installation of visitors coming from all over the world", says Chris Onions, head of the Users Office. This September, the Office will celebrate its 20-year anniversary with a drink offered to representatives of the User community, the CERN management and staff members from the services with whom the Office is involved. &...

  14. Towards personalized adaptive user interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach towards standardization of the general rules for synthesis and design of man machine interfaces that include dynamic adaptive behavior is presented. The link between the personality type (Myers-Briggs or Kersey Temperament sorter) and the personal preferences of the users (Kansei) for the purpose of building Graphical User Interface (GU]) was investigated. The rules for a personalized el-notional GUI based on the subjective preferences of the users were defined. The results were tested on a modified TETRIS game that displayed background characters capable of emotional response. When the system responded to a user in a manner that is customized to his or her preferences, the reaction time was smaller and the information transfer was faster. Usability testing methods were used and it was shown that development of pleasant cartoon face GUI based on the users inborn personality tendencies was feasible. (Author)

  15. CaWave user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CaWave User's Guide explains how to use the CaWave functions which were specifically written in PV-WAVE command language and C language for EPICS users. CaWave consists of a special set of external channel access functions which provides the PV-WAVE users with easy and flexible access of channel information across the IOC networks. It also provides a complete set of process variable event monitoring functions. This document also gives examples how a PV-WAVE user can interface to channel access devices. It is assumed that the user is already familiar with using PV-WAVE. Few simple example modules of using PV-WAVE command language with CaWave functions are also given in this document

  16. CaWingz user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document assumes that you have read and understood the Wingz user's manuals. CaWingz is an external Wingz program which, when combined with a set of script files, provides easy-to-use EPICS channel access interface functions for Wingz users. The external function run allows Wingz user to invoke any Unix processor within caWingz. Few additional functions for accessing static database field and monitoring of value change event is available for EPICS users after release 3.11. The functions, script files, and usage are briefly described in this document. The script files supplied here serve as examples only. Users are responsible for generating their own spreadsheet and script files. CaWingz communicates with IOC through channel access function calls

  17. User Involvement And Entrepreneurial Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Heiskanen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Involving users in the innovation process is a subject of much research, experimentation, and debate. Less attention has been given to the limits to user involvement that ensue from specific organizational characteristics. This article explores barriers to the utilization of users’ input in two small companies developing interactive digital applications. We contrast our findings to earlier research involving large companies to identify features of entrepreneurial sensemaking and action that influence the utilization of users’ input. We find that the small companies follow a distinct action rationality, leading to rapid implementation of some user inputs, and defensiveness toward others. Both sets of data also reveal common features that are often overlooked in the literature. We reconceptualize user involvement as a form of interaction between users and innovating companies that is facilitated and constrained by micro-sociological processes, on the one hand, and the nature of the competitive environment, on the other.

  18. Nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Yongchen eWang; Liang eGuo

    2016-01-01

    Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a h...

  19. Nanomaterial-Enabled Neural Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yongchen; Guo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a h...

  20. Family Socioeconomic Status and Consistent Environmental Stimulation in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Crosnoe, Robert; Leventhal, Tama; Wirth, R. J.; Pierce, Kim M.; Pianta, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The transition into school occurs at the intersection of multiple environmental settings. This study applied growth curve modeling to a sample of 1,364 American children, followed from birth through age six, who had been categorized by their exposure to cognitive stimulation at home and in preschool child care and first grade classrooms. Of special interest was the unique and combined contribution to early learning of these three settings. Net of socioeconomic selection into different setting...

  1. Audit result and its users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalimova Nataliya S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article identifies essence of the “audit result” and “users of audit result” notions and characteristics of the key audit results user. It shows that in order to give a wide characteristic of users it is expedient to unite all objects, which could be used (audit report, fact of refusal to conduct audit and information that is submitted to managers in the process of audit with the term “audit result” and classify it depending on the terms of submission by final and intermediate result. The article offers to define audit results user as a person, persons or category of persons for whom the auditor prepares the audit report and, in cases, envisaged by international standards of the audit and domestic legislative and regulatory acts, provides other additional information concerning audit issues. In order to identify the key audit results user the article distributes all audit tasks into two groups depending on possibilities of identification of users. The article proves that the key user should be identified especially in cases of a mandatory audit and this process should go in interconnection with the mechanism of allocation of a key user of financial reports. It offers to consider external users with direct financial interests, who cannot request economic subjects directly to provide information and who should rely on general financial reports and audit report when receiving significant portion of information they need, as the key user. The article makes proposals on specification of the categorical mechanism in the sphere of audit, which are the basis for audit quality assessment, identification of possibilities and conditions of appearance of the necessary and sufficient trust to the auditor opinion.

  2. Physiological aspects of paired stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Durrer, D.

    1965-01-01

    In this paper some physiological and clinical aspects of paired stimulation are discussed. I) The augmenting effect of paired stimulation on rnyocardial contractility is due to potentiation (increase in speed of restitution) and fusion of two contractions. 2) While using paired stimulation the oxyg

  3. Final Report on User Interface Studies, Cognitive and User Modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Carl, Michael; García-Martínez, Mercedes; Hill, Robin; Keller, Frank; Mesa-Lao, Bartolomé; Schaeffer, Moritz

    2014-01-01

    D1.3 marks the final CASMACAT report on user interface studies, cognitive and user modelling covering the completion of tasks T1.5 (Cognitive Modelling) and T1.6 (User Modelling) as part of Work Package 1. Within tasks T1.1 to T1.4, a series of experiments have established a solid understanding of human behaviour in computer-aided translation, focusing on the use of visualization options, different translation modalities, individual differences in translation production, transl...

  4. Service Selection for Happy Users: Making User Intuitive Quality Abstractions

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasopoulos, Dionysis; Zarras, Apostolos; Vassiliadis, Panos

    2012-01-01

    The state of the art service search engines allow the users to pick the services they need, based on the quality properties, off ered by these services. To this end, the users should interact with the search engines based on the quality models that are imposed by the engines. This is a signi cant restriction towards making the service-oriented paradigm attractive to the general public. In this paper, we propose an approach that allows a user to specify his perception of quality in terms of a ...

  5. Designing for User Engagment Aesthetic and Attractive User Interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Sutcliffe, Alistair

    2009-01-01

    This book explores the design process for user experience and engagement, which expands the traditional concept of usability and utility in design to include aesthetics, fun and excitement. User experience has evolved as a new area of Human Computer Interaction research, motivated by non-work oriented applications such as games, education and emerging interactive Web 2.0. The chapter starts by examining the phenomena of user engagement and experience and setting them in the perspective of cognitive psychology, in particular motivation, emotion and mood. The perspective of aesthetics is expande

  6. Mapa-an object oriented code with a graphical user interface for accelerator design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We developed a code for accelerator modeling which will allow users to create and analyze accelerators through a graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI can read an accelerator from files or create it by adding, removing and changing elements. It also creates 4D orbits and lifetime plots. The code includes a set of accelerator elements classes, C++ utility and GUI libraries. Due to the GUI, the code is easy to use and expand. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Mapa-an object oriented code with a graphical user interface for accelerator design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shasharina, S.G.; Cary, J.R. [Tech-X Corporation 4588 Pussy Willow Court, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    1997-02-01

    We developed a code for accelerator modeling which will allow users to create and analyze accelerators through a graphical user interface (GUI). The GUI can read an accelerator from files or create it by adding, removing and changing elements. It also creates 4D orbits and lifetime plots. The code includes a set of accelerator elements classes, C++ utility and GUI libraries. Due to the GUI, the code is easy to use and expand. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Getting a decent (but sparse) signal to the brain for users of cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Blake S

    2015-04-01

    The challenge in getting a decent signal to the brain for users of cochlear implants (CIs) is described. A breakthrough occurred in 1989 that later enabled most users to understand conversational speech with their restored hearing alone. Subsequent developments included stimulation in addition to that provided with a unilateral CI, either with electrical stimulation on both sides or with acoustic stimulation in combination with a unilateral CI, the latter for persons with residual hearing at low frequencies in either or both ears. Both types of adjunctive stimulation produced further improvements in performance for substantial fractions of patients. Today, the CI and related hearing prostheses are the standard of care for profoundly deaf persons and ever-increasing indications are now allowing persons with less severe losses to benefit from these marvelous technologies. The steps in achieving the present levels of performance are traced, and some possibilities for further improvements are mentioned. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . PMID:25500178

  9. Native American Indian Adolescents: Response to a Culturally Tailored, School-Based Substance Abuse Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patchell, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Native American Indian adolescent substance abuse has been a longstanding health concern. There are few culturally tailored interventions for mild to moderate substance users. The purpose of this study was to measure the response of Native American Indian adolescents from the Plains tribal groups to a school-based culturally tailored substance…

  10. The Multimedia Dictionary of American Sign Language: Learning Lessons About Language, Technology, and Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sherman

    2003-01-01

    Reports on the the Multimedia Dictionary of American Sign language, which was was conceived in he late 1980s as a melding of the pioneering work in American Sign language lexicography that had been carried out decades earlier and the newly emerging computer technologies that were integrating use of graphical user-interface designs, rapidly…

  11. Spinal Cord Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Kaare

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a surgical treatment for chronic neuropathic pain that is refractory to other treatment. Originally described by Shealy et al. in 1967(1), it is used to treat a range of conditions such as complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS I)(2), angina pectoris(3), radicular...... pain after failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS)(4), pain due to peripheral nerve injury, stump pain(5), peripheral vascular disease(6) and diabetic neuropathy(7,8); whereas phantom pain(9), postherpetic neuralgia(10), chronic visceral pain(11), and pain after partial spinal cord injury(12) remain more...... controversial. SCS is not effective in relieving central neuropathic pain states....

  12. Development Block or Stimulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katznelson, Ron D.; Howells, John

    provide an alternative technical means to those stipulated in Edison's claim 2. Prior work in the economics literature has not addressed the the relation of downstream invention to prior art patent claims. We also show that when the number of patents is plotted against time, there is a surge of patenting...... subsequent to the courts upholding the validity of Edison's claim 2. We argue that Edison's patent had the effect of stimulating downstream invention. This analysis is contrary to several recent papers that have been published in the student-reviewed US law literature that assume Edison's patent was used by...

  13. Binaural Unmasking of Multi-channel Stimuli in Bilateral Cochlear Implant Users

    OpenAIRE

    Van Deun, Lieselot; Van Wieringen, Astrid; Francart, Tom; Büchner, Andreas; Lenarz, Thomas; Wouters, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Previous work suggests that bilateral cochlear implant users are sensitive to interaural cues if experimental speech processors are used to preserve accurate interaural information in the electrical stimulation pattern. Binaural unmasking occurs in adults and children when an interaural delay is applied to the envelope of a high-rate pulse train. Nevertheless, for speech perception, binaural unmasking benefits have not been demonstrated consistently, even with coordinated stimulation at both ...

  14. Music Information Seeking Behaviour Poses Unique Challenges for the Design of Information Retrieval Systems. A Review of: Lee, J. H. (2010. Analysis of user needs and information features in natural language queries seeking music information. Journal of the American Society for information Science and Technology, 61, 1025-1045.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cari Merkley

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To better understand music information seeking behaviour in a real life situation and to create a taxonomy relating to this behaviour to facilitate better comparison of music information retrieval studies in the future.Design – Content analysis of natural language queries.Setting – Google Answers, a fee based online service.Subjects – 1,705 queries and their related answers and comments posted in the music category of the Google Answers website before April 27, 2005.Methods – A total of 2,208 queries were retrieved from the music category on the Google Answers service. Google Answers was a fee based service in which users posted questions and indicated what they were willing to pay to have them answered. The queries selected for this study were posted prior to April 27, 2005, over a year before the service was discontinued completely. Of the 2208 queries taken from the site, only 1,705 were classified as relevant to the question of music information seeking by the researcher. The off-topic queries were not included in the study. Each of the 1,705 queries was coded according to the needs expressed by the user and the information provided to assist researchers in answering the question. The initial coding framework used by the researcher was informed by previous studies of music information retrieval to facilitate comparison, but was expanded and revised to reflect the evidence itself. Only the questions themselves were subjected to this iterative coding process. The answers provided by the Google Answer researchers and online comments posted by other users were examined by the author, but not coded for inclusion in the study.User needs in the questions were coded for their form and topic. Each question was assigned at least one form and one topic. Form refers to the type of question being asked and consisted of the following 10 categories: identification, location, verification, recommendation, evaluation, ready reference

  15. User-Centered Agile Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Beyer, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    With the introduction and popularization of Agile methods of software development, existing relationships and working agreements between user experience groups and developers are being disrupted. Agile methods introduce new concepts: the Product Owner, the Customer (but not the user), short iterations, User Stories. Where do UX professionals fit in this new world? Agile methods also bring a new mindset -- no big design, no specifications, minimal planning -- which conflict with the needs of UX design. This lecture discusses the key elements of Agile for the UX community and describes strategie

  16. User interface design and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Debbie; Woodroffe, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Whether you are a professional new to the user-centered design field, or an experienced designer who needs to learn the fundamentals of user interface design and evaluation, this book can lead the way.What will you get from this book? Based on a course from the Open University, UK which has been taught to over a thousand professionals and students, this book presents an overview of the field. It illustrates the benefits of a user-centered approach to the design of software, computer systems, and web sites, and provides a clear and practical discussion of requirements gathering; develop

  17. Library user metaphors and services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Carl Gustav

    How do library professionals talk about and refer to library users, and how is this significant? In recent decades, the library profession has conceived of users in at least five different ways, viewing them alternatively as citizens, clients, customers, guests, or partners. This book argues that...... these user metaphors crucially inform librarians' interactions with the public, and, by extension, determine the quality and content of the services received. The ultimate aim of the book is to provide library professionals with insights and tools for avoiding common pitfalls associated with false or...

  18. Practical speech user interface design

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, James R

    2010-01-01

    Although speech is the most natural form of communication between humans, most people find using speech to communicate with machines anything but natural. Drawing from psychology, human-computer interaction, linguistics, and communication theory, Practical Speech User Interface Design provides a comprehensive yet concise survey of practical speech user interface (SUI) design. It offers practice-based and research-based guidance on how to design effective, efficient, and pleasant speech applications that people can really use. Focusing on the design of speech user interfaces for IVR application

  19. Audit result and its users

    OpenAIRE

    Shalimova Nataliya S.

    2014-01-01

    The article identifies essence of the “audit result” and “users of audit result” notions and characteristics of the key audit results user. It shows that in order to give a wide characteristic of users it is expedient to unite all objects, which could be used (audit report, fact of refusal to conduct audit and information that is submitted to managers in the process of audit) with the term “audit result” and classify it depending on the terms of submission by final and intermediate result. Th...

  20. Search-User Interface Design

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Max

    2011-01-01

    Search User Interfaces (SUIs) represent the gateway between people who have a task to complete, and the repositories of information and data stored around the world. Not surprisingly, therefore, there are many communities who have a vested interest in the way SUIs are designed. There are people who study how humans search for information, and people who study how humans use computers. There are people who study good user interface design, and people who design aesthetically pleasing user interfaces. There are also people who curate and manage valuable information resources, and people who desi

  1. Preface (to Playful User Interfaces)

    OpenAIRE

    Nijholt, Anton

    2014-01-01

    This book is about user interfaces to applications that can be considered as ‘playful’. The interfaces to such applications should be ‘playful’ as well. The application should be fun, and interacting with such an application should, of course, be fun as well. Maybe more. Why not expect that the interface is persuasive, engaging, challenging and aims at helping to provide the user with fun, trying to keep the user motivated, not frustrated or bored, or, in terms of ‘flow theory’, in a state wh...

  2. User Experimentation with Terminological Ontologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pram Nielsen, Louise

    This paper outlines work-in-progress research suggesting that domain-specific knowledge in terminological resources can be transferred efficiently to end-users across different levels of expertise and by means of different information modes including articles (written mode) and concept diagrams...... (graph mode). An experimental approach is applied in an eye-tracking laboratory, where a natural user situation is replicated for Danish professional potential end-users of a ter-minology and knowledge bank in a chosen pilot domain (taxation)....

  3. Family health program user: knowledge and satisfaction about user embracement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Lacerda Borges de Sá

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the knowledge and satisfaction of users of a Basic Health Unit about the strategy of embracement. Methods: Descriptive study with qualitative approach, carried out in a Basic Health Unit, Fortaleza, Brazil, where practical activities of the Education Program of Work for Health of the University of Fortaleza were performed. Fifty eight service users were involved, following inclusion criteria: being present during the data collection, age over 18, regardless of sex, and voluntary participation. Data collection occurred in December 2009, through semi-structured interview. The data associated with the identification of users were processed in Microsoft Office Excel 2007, being organizedstatistically in table. Data related to qualitative aspects were analyzed according to the technique of content analysis. Results: 56 (97% were women, with ages ranging between 21 and 40 years, 34 (59% were married and 53 (91% are literate. On family income, 55 (95%received less than two minimum salaries per month. In order to facilitate understanding the speech of users, these were evaluated from the perspective of two categories: knowledge about embracement and satisfaction with embracement. Conclusion: Users have a limited view of the significance and magnitude of the embracement to provide the care. Although satisfied with the service, respondents report as negative aspects: the shortage of professionals, the professional relationship with user impaired due to constant delays of the professional, and the dehumanization of care.

  4. Illicit stimulant use is associated with abnormal substantia nigra morphology in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Gabrielle; Noyes, Carolyn; Flavel, Stanley C; Della Vedova, Chris B; Spyropoulos, Peter; Chatterton, Barry; Berg, Daniela; White, Jason M

    2013-01-01

    Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is an increasing health problem. Chronic use can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans but the long-term consequences are not well understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of stimulant use on the morphology of the human substantia nigra. We hypothesised that history of illicit stimulant use is associated with an abnormally bright and enlarged substantia nigra (termed 'hyperechogenicity') when viewed with transcranial sonography. Substantia nigra morphology was assessed in abstinent stimulant users (n = 36; 31±9 yrs) and in two groups of control subjects: non-drug users (n = 29; 24±5 yrs) and cannabis users (n = 12; 25±7 yrs). Substantia nigra morphology was viewed with transcranial sonography and the area of echogenicity at the anatomical site of the substantia nigra was measured at its greatest extent. The area of substantia nigra echogenicity was significantly larger in the stimulant group (0.273±0.078 cm(2)) than in the control (0.201±0.054 cm(2); P<0.001) and cannabis (0.202±0.045 cm(2); P<0.007) groups. 53% of stimulant users exhibited echogenicity that exceeded the 90(th) percentile for the control group. The results of the current study suggest that individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use exhibit abnormal substantia nigra morphology. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is a strong risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease later in life and further research is required to determine if the observed abnormality in stimulant users is associated with a functional deficit of the nigro-striatal system. PMID:23418568

  5. Illicit stimulant use is associated with abnormal substantia nigra morphology in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle Todd

    Full Text Available Use of illicit stimulants such as methamphetamine, cocaine, and ecstasy is an increasing health problem. Chronic use can cause neurotoxicity in animals and humans but the long-term consequences are not well understood. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term effect of stimulant use on the morphology of the human substantia nigra. We hypothesised that history of illicit stimulant use is associated with an abnormally bright and enlarged substantia nigra (termed 'hyperechogenicity' when viewed with transcranial sonography. Substantia nigra morphology was assessed in abstinent stimulant users (n = 36; 31±9 yrs and in two groups of control subjects: non-drug users (n = 29; 24±5 yrs and cannabis users (n = 12; 25±7 yrs. Substantia nigra morphology was viewed with transcranial sonography and the area of echogenicity at the anatomical site of the substantia nigra was measured at its greatest extent. The area of substantia nigra echogenicity was significantly larger in the stimulant group (0.273±0.078 cm(2 than in the control (0.201±0.054 cm(2; P<0.001 and cannabis (0.202±0.045 cm(2; P<0.007 groups. 53% of stimulant users exhibited echogenicity that exceeded the 90(th percentile for the control group. The results of the current study suggest that individuals with a history of illicit stimulant use exhibit abnormal substantia nigra morphology. Substantia nigra hyperechogenicity is a strong risk factor for developing Parkinson's disease later in life and further research is required to determine if the observed abnormality in stimulant users is associated with a functional deficit of the nigro-striatal system.

  6. Characteristics of Rural Crack and Powder Cocaine Users: Gender and Other Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Sandra K.; Falck, Russel S.; Carlson, Robert G.; Leukefeld, Carl; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the relationship of gender with cocaine use in rural areas. This study describes these relationships among stimulant users residing in rural areas of Arkansas, Kentucky and Ohio. Objectives Understanding characteristics of crack and powder cocaine users in rural areas may help inform prevention, education and treatment efforts to address rural stimulant use. Methods Participants were 690 stimulant users, including 274 (38.6%) females, residing in 9 rural counties. Cocaine use was measured by self-report of cocaine use, frequency of use, age of first use, and cocaine abuse/dependence. Powder cocaine use was reported by 49% of this sample of stimulant users and 59% reported using crack cocaine. Findings Differing use patterns emerged for female and male cocaine users in this rural sample; females began using alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine at later ages than males but there were no gender differences in current powder cocaine use. Females reported more frequent use of crack cocaine and more cocaine abuse/dependence than males, and in regression analyses, female crack cocaine users had 1.8 times greater odds of reporting frequent crack use than male crack users. Conclusions and Scientific Significance These findings suggest differing profiles and patterns of cocaine use for male and female users in rural areas, supporting previous findings in urban areas of gender-based vulnerability to negative consequences of cocaine use. Further research on cocain use in rural areas can provide insights into gender differences that can inform development and refinement of effective interventions in rural communities. PMID:21851207

  7. Undergraduate and Postgraduate Students in a North American University are Choosing to use Chat Reference Services for all Kinds of Reasons. A review of: Ward, David. “Why Users Choose Chat: A Survey of Behavior and Motivations.” Internet Reference Services Quarterly 10.1 (2005: 29-46.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Needham

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate reasons why undergraduate and postgraduate students choose to use chat reference services and their satisfaction with the experience. Design – User survey. Setting – Large academic library in the United States. Subjects – A total of 341 library users took part in the survey. Of these, 79 were graduate students, 215 undergraduates, 21 staff, 5 alumni and 21 members of the public. Method – A user survey form was posted on the library website for a period of one month (March 2003. Users of the chat reference service received an automatic closing message asking them to complete the survey. Responses were fed into a database to be analysed by the research staff. Additional data was also gathered about the behaviour of all users of the chat service during that period – both responders and non‐responders. Main results – The most popular reason for choosing to use a chat service was the desire for a speedy response, followed by ‘distance from the library’. Responders chose to use chat to ask a range of different kinds of questions. Nearly half (45% were looking for a specific resource and 23% were seeking help at the beginning of their research. There were notable differences between undergraduate and graduate students. Twice as many undergraduates as graduates used the service to help them get started on their research. Graduates were three times as likely as undergraduates to be using the service to address technical problems they were having with the website. Overall satisfaction with the service was extremely high, with 77.5% rating it 5 out of 5 and 94.5% giving it 4 or 5 out of 5. Conclusion – Chat reference services are popular with users primarily because they are quick and convenient. However, users expect that these services will be able to deal with all types of questions, including help with research. This challenges an assumption by library staff that the medium is only suitable for short

  8. The design of an embedded spinal cord stimulator

    OpenAIRE

    YALÇINKAYA, Fikret; ERBAŞ, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation is a physical therapy methodology utilizing electrical impulses, pulses, or a combination of various standard electrical waveforms to block pain. However, standard forms are not functioning effectively for each illness due to the unique conditions of the patient. Therefore, patient-specific waveforms (or user-defined waveforms) integrated with nondestructive, complete, or partially noninvasive and effective medical instruments to help relieve pain are required. In the ...

  9. Profiting from innovative user communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Lars Bo

    Modding - the modification of existing products by consumers - is increasingly exploited by manufacturers to enhance product development and sales. In the computer games industry modding has evolved into a development model in which users act as unpaid `complementors' to manufacturers' product pl...... manufacturer can incorporate and commercialize the best complements found in the user communities. Keywords: innovation, modding, user communities, software platform, business model. JEL code(s): L21; L23; O31; O32...... platforms. This article explains how manufacturers can profit from their abilities to organize and facilitate a process of innovation by user communities and capture the value of the innovations produced in such communities. When managed strategically, two distinct, but not mutually exclusive business...

  10. OpenEIS. Users Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woohyun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lutes, Robert G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Katipamula, Srinivas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haack, Jereme N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carpenter, Brandon J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Akyol, Bora A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Monson, Kyle E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Allwardt, Craig H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kang, Timothy [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sharma, Poorva [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-28

    This document is a users guide for OpenEIS, a software code designed to provide standard methods for authoring, sharing, testing, using and improving algorithms for operational building energy efficiency.

  11. User Expressions Translated Into Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Bergvall-Kåreborn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Grounding the development of mobile and ubiquitous services on actual needs and behaviors of users, rather than on designers' intuition, is a well-established tradition. However, gathering data about users in different contexts usually results in large amounts of data that have to be analyzed and translated into requirements. This crucial activity and its outcome are often shaped by the preconceptions of the developers or researchers. Despite this subjectivity, the translation process is seldom transparent. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to contribute to the field by presenting a process for translating user expressions into needs and later into requirements using Reiss' taxonomy of human needs. By adopting this process of translation, we were able to identify two hierarchical levels of needs: needs of a service and needs in a service. These two levels provide a transparent bridge between user expressions and system requirements.

  12. Frustration: A common user experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The use of computer applications can be a frustrating experience. This study replicates previous studies of the amount of time users – involuntarily – spend trying to diagnose and recover from problems they encounter while using computer applications such as web browsers, email, and text processing....... In the present study, 21 users self-reported their frustrating experiences during an average of 1.72 hours of computer use. As in the previous studies the amount of time lost due to frustrating experiences was disturbing. The users spent 16% of their time trying to fix encountered problems and...... another 11% of their time redoing lost work. Thus, the frustrating experiences accounted for a total of 27% of the time, This main finding is exacerbated by several supplementary findings. For example, the users were unable to fix 26% of the experienced problems, and they rated that the problems recurred...

  13. Personalization and User Profile Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francoise Petersen

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Personalization and effective user profile management will be critical to meet the individual users’ needs and for achieving e-Inclusion and e-Accessibility. This paper outlines means to achieve the goal of the new ICT era where services and devices can be personalized by the users in order to meet their needs and preferences, in various situations. Behind every instance of personalization is a profile that stores the user preferences, context of use and other information that can be used to deliver a user experience tailored to their individual needs and preferences. Next Generation Networks (NGN and the convergence between telephony and Internet services offer a wide range of new terminal and service definition possibilities, and a much wider range of application in society. This paper describes the personalization and profile management activities at European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI Technical Committee Human Factors, together with relevant experimentations in recent European research projects.

  14. Unobtrusive user modeling for adaptive hypermedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Holz; K. Hofmann; C. Reed

    2008-01-01

    We propose a technique for user modeling in Adaptive Hypermedia (AH) that is unobtrusive at both the level of observable behavior and that of cognition. Unobtrusive user modeling is complementary to transparent user modeling. Unobtrusive user modeling induces user models appropriate for Educational

  15. Transcranial brain stimulation: closing the loop between brain and stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke; Thielscher, Axel; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To discuss recent strategies for boosting the efficacy of noninvasive transcranial brain stimulation to improve human brain function. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent research exposed substantial intra- and inter-individual variability in response to plasticity-inducing transcranial brain...... transcranial brain stimulation. Priming interventions or paired associative stimulation can be used to ‘standardize’ the brain-state and hereby, homogenize the group response to stimulation. Neuroanatomical and neurochemical profiling based on magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy can capture trait......-related and state-related variability. Fluctuations in brain-states can be traced online with functional brain imaging and inform the timing or other settings of transcranial brain stimulation. State-informed open-loop stimulation is aligned to the expression of a predefined brain state, according to prespecified...

  16. Close relationships between Asian American and European American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C; Edwards, K; Young, B; Greenberger, E

    2001-02-01

    The authors examined attitudes and behaviors regarding close relationships between European and Asian Americans, with a particular emphasis on 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Filipino Americans). Participants were 218 Asian American college students and 171 European American college students attending a culturally diverse university. The European Americans did not differentiate among the various subgroups of Asian Americans. Their attitudes regarding close relationships were less positive toward Asian Americans than toward Mexican and African Americans, a finding contrary to the prediction of social exchange theory (H. Tajfel, 1975). In contrast to the European Americans' view of homogeneity among Asian Americans, the 5 major subgroups of Asian Americans expressed a distinctive hierarchy of social preference among themselves. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research on interethnic relations involving Asian Americans. PMID:11294169

  17. Reflections on Lexicographical User Research

    OpenAIRE

    Sven Tarp

    2011-01-01

    Abstract: The last decades have seen a growing interest in theoretical and practical problems related to lexicographical user research. Starting with a discussion of the concept of lexicographically relevant user needs, this contribution analyses, utilising the lexicographical function theory, various types of needs to be taken into account when doing this kind of research. It then discusses the positive and negative aspects of the various methods applied, i.e. questionnaires, interv...

  18. UQICD v2 User Guide

    OpenAIRE

    D.S. Prasada Rao; Alicia N. Rambaldi; K. Renuka Ganegodage; L. T. Huynh; Doran, Howard E.

    2014-01-01

    The University of Queensland International Comparison Database (UQICD) has been created as a part of the research project on developing an econometric approach to the construction of consistent panels of purchasing power parities (PPPs), real gross domestic product (GDP) and real incomes. The database developed from the research is made available to users through the dedicated website for UQICD, http://uqicd.economics.uq.edu.au. An enhanced UQICD Version 2.0 is now available for users. This U...

  19. User-Centered Data Management

    CERN Document Server

    Catarci, Tiziana; Kimani, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This lecture covers several core issues in user-centered data management, including how to design usable interfaces that suitably support database tasks, and relevant approaches to visual querying, information visualization, and visual data mining. Novel interaction paradigms, e.g., mobile and interfaces that go beyond the visual dimension, are also discussed. Table of Contents: Why User-Centered / The Early Days: Visual Query Systems / Beyond Querying / More Advanced Applications / Non-Visual Interfaces / Conclusions

  20. User-Centered Social Software

    OpenAIRE

    Lehel, Vanda

    2007-01-01

    Within the scope of this thesis, the concept of user-centered social software as an innovative approach for personal information management support in online social networks is developed. The basis for this concept is established by the characterization of different kinds of social software and the extension of personal information management to information exchange in online social contexts. The user-centered social software model encompasses services for the acquisition of relevant informat...

  1. Linked data and user interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Cervone, H Frank

    2015-01-01

    This collection of research papers provides extensive information on deploying services, concepts, and approaches for using open linked data from libraries and other cultural heritage institutions. With a special emphasis on how libraries and other cultural heritage institutions can create effective end user interfaces using open, linked data or other datasets. These papers are essential reading for any one interesting in user interface design or the semantic web.

  2. Brain stimulation for intractable epilepsy: Anterior thalamus and responsive stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Despite medications, resective surgery, and vagal nerve stimulation, some patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures. In these patients, other approaches are urgently needed. The biological basis of stimulation of anterior thalamic nucleus and epileptogenic focus is presented. Results from two large randomized controlled trials Stimulation of Anterior Nucleus of Thalamus for Epilepsy (SANTE) and Neuropace pivotal trial are discussed. Neuromodulation provides effective treatment for a se...

  3. The EGEE user support infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Grid user support is a challenging task due to the distributed nature of the Grid. The variety of users and Virtual Organisations adds further to the challenge. Support requests come from Grid beginners, from users with specific applications, from site administrators, or from Grid monitoring operators. With the GGUS infrastructure, EGEE provides a portal where users can find support in their daily use of the Grid. The current use of the system shows that the goal has been achieved with success. The Grid user support model in EGEE can be captioned "regional support with central coordination". This model is realised through a support process which is clearly defined and involves all the parties that are needed to run a project-wide support service. This process is sustained by a help desk system which consists of a central platform integrated with several satellite systems belonging to the Regional Operations Centres (ROCs) and the Virtual Organisations (VOs). The central system (Global Grid User Support, GGUS)...

  4. The EGEE user support infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Antoni, T; Mills, A

    2007-01-01

    User support in a grid environment is a challenging task due to the distributed nature of the grid. The variety of users and VOs adds further to the challenge. One can find support requests by grid beginners, users with specific applications, site administrators, or grid monitoring operators. With the GGUS infrastructure, EGEE provides a portal where users can find support in their daily use of the grid. The current use of the system has shown that the goal has been achieved with success. The grid user support model in EGEE can be captioned ‘regional support with central coordination’. Users can submit a support request to the central GGUS service, or to their Regional Operations' Centre (ROC) or to their Virtual Organisation helpdesks. Within GGUS there are appropriate support groups for all support requests. The ROCs and VOs and the other project wide groups such as middleware groups (JRA), network groups (NA), service groups (SA) and other grid infrastructures (OSG, NorduGrid, etc.) are connected via a...

  5. Young, black, and connected: Facebook usage among African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E Bun

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the extent and intensity of Facebook usage among African American college students and investigates their reasons for using Facebook. As expected, 98% of students in the survey had a Facebook account, and a large number of Facebook “friends.” Younger users spent significantly more time on Facebook than older ones. Our findings underscore the importance of cultural influence for African American online users. Displaying photographs and personal interests on Facebook signals racial identity among African American college students. Personality traits, such as self-esteem, trust in people, satisfaction with university life, and racial identity, were not significant predictors on the time spent on Facebook. PMID:22536626

  6. American Studies in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Gülriz Buken

    2006-01-01

    In the discipline of American Studies in Turkey, the major contribution emanates, on the one hand, from the American Culture and Literature Departments instituted in various Universities in Turkey and, on the other, from the American Studies Association of Turkey. Up till now, unfortunately, no Research and Performance Institute or Center for the Study of America has yet been established to secure the necessary contacts with other similar institutions in Europe and in the United States, to fa...

  7. American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dollars at Work Recognizing Donors Find us on social media! Home Contact Us Marketplace Cart Copyright © 2016 American College Health Association | Privacy and Usage Policies | Spokesperson and ...

  8. Stimulated Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theory of stimulated Thomson scattering is investigated both quantum mechanically and classically. Two monochromatic electromagnetic waves of like polarization travelling in opposite directions are allowed to interact for a time tau with the electrons in a collisionless plasma. The electromagnetic waves have frequencies well above the plasma frequency, and their difference frequency is allowed to range upward from the plasma frequency. With the difference frequency well above the plasma frequency, the rate at which energy is transferred from one wave to the other is calculated quantum mechanically, classically from a fluid theory, and classically from an independent electron theory. The rate is calculated in both the homogeneously broadened limit, and in the inhomogeneously broadened limit

  9. Stimulated Cavity-Optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Bahl, Gaurav; Tomes, Matthew; Carmon, Tal

    2011-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin interaction between sound and light, known to be the strongest optical nonlinearity common to all amorphous and crystalline dielectrics, has been widely studied in fibers and bulk materials but rarely in optical microresonators. The possibility of experimentally extending this principle to excite mechanical resonances in photonic microsystems, for sensing and frequency reference applications, has remained largely unexplored. The challenge lies in the fact that microresonators inherently have large free spectral range, while the phase matching considerations for the Brillouin process require optical modes of nearby frequencies but with different wavevectors. We rely on high-order transverse optical modes to relax this limitation. Here we report on the experimental excitation of mechanical resonances ranging from 49 to 1400 MHz by using forward Brillouin scattering. These natural mechanical resonances are excited in ~100 um silica microspheres, and are of a surface-acoustic whispering-galle...

  10. Femtosecond Stimulated Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Daniel R; Mathies, Richard A

    2016-05-01

    Femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is an ultrafast nonlinear optical technique that provides vibrational structural information with high temporal (sub-50 fs) precision and high spectral (10 cm(-1) ) resolution. Since the first full demonstration of its capabilities ≈15 years ago, FSRS has evolved into a mature technique, giving deep insights into chemical and biochemical reaction dynamics that would be inaccessible with any other technique. It is now being routinely applied to virtually all possible photochemical reactions and systems spanning from single molecules in solution to thin films, bulk crystals and macromolecular proteins. This review starts with an historic overview and discusses the theoretical and experimental concepts behind this technology. Emphasis is put on the current state-of-the-art experimental realization and several variations of FSRS that have been developed. The unique capabilities of FSRS are illustrated through a comprehensive presentation of experiments to date followed by prospects. PMID:26919612

  11. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed

  12. Public Library Users are Challenged by Digital Information Preservation. A Review of: Copeland, A. J. (2011). Analysis of public library users’ digital preservation practices. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(7), 1288-1300. doi: 10.1002/asi.21553

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Robin E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective – To discover the factors that influence digital information preservation practices and attitudes of adult public library users.Design – Mixed methodology combining matrix questionnaires, interviews, and visual mapping.Setting – Urban public library on the EastCoast of the United States.Subjects – 26 adult members of a publiclibrary’s Friends group.Methods – The researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with 26 participants. All participants drew maps to indicate the types of ...

  13. Public Library Users are Challenged by Digital Information Preservation. A Review of: Copeland, A. J. (2011. Analysis of public library users’ digital preservation practices. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62(7, 1288-1300. doi: 10.1002/asi.21553

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin E. Miller

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To discover the factors that influence digital information preservation practices and attitudes of adult public library users.Design – Mixed methodology combining matrix questionnaires, interviews, and visual mapping.Setting – Urban public library on the EastCoast of the United States.Subjects – 26 adult members of a publiclibrary’s Friends group.Methods – The researcher conducted semi-structured interviews with 26 participants. All participants drew maps to indicate the types of information they value and why, and their preferences for information storage and maintenance. Qualitative data were supplemented by a matrix questionnaire on which 22 participants identified the types of digital information they maintain, and modes of storage.Main Results – Some public library users may store and organize information inconsistently, utilizing a variety of digital devices. Technical, social, and emotional context influences choices about organization, sharing of information, and short- and long-term preservation. Users reported placing a higher value on born digital information, and information that they had shared with others. Conclusion – Public librarians may have a role in facilitating growth of patron knowledge about creation, storage, preservation, and sharing of personal digital information.

  14. User Interface Cultures of Mobile Knowledge Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Petri Mannonen

    2008-01-01

    Information and communication tools (ICTs) have become a major influencer of how modern work is carried out. Methods of user-centered design do not however take into account the full complexity of technology and the user interface context the users live in. User interface culture analysis aims providing to designers new ways and strategies to better take into account the current user interface environment when designing new products. This paper describes the reasons behind user interface cult...

  15. Fuzzy Modeling of User Needs for Improvement of Web Search Queries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Snášel, V.; Krömer, P.; Musílek, P.; Nyongesa, H.O.; Húsek, Dušan

    Piscataway : IEEE, 2007 - (Reformat, M.; Berthold, M.), s. 446-451 ISBN 1-4244-1213-7. [NAFIPS '07. Annual Meeting of the North American. San Diego (US), 24.06.2007-27.06.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : WEB search * query optimization * user model * fuzzy sets * evolutionary computing Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  16. An electric stimulation system for electrokinetic particle manipulation in microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-de la Fuente, M. S.; Moncada-Hernandez, H.; Perez-Gonzalez, V. H.; Lapizco-Encinas, B. H.; Martinez-Chapa, S. O.

    2013-03-01

    Microfluidic devices have grown significantly in the number of applications. Microfabrication techniques have evolved considerably; however, electric stimulation systems for microdevices have not advanced at the same pace. Electric stimulation of micro-fluidic devices is an important element in particle manipulation research. A flexible stimulation instrument is desired to perform configurable, repeatable, automated, and reliable experiments by allowing users to select the stimulation parameters. The instrument presented here is a configurable and programmable stimulation system for electrokinetic-driven microfluidic devices; it consists of a processor, a memory system, and a user interface to deliver several types of waveforms and stimulation patterns. It has been designed to be a flexible, highly configurable, low power instrument capable of delivering sine, triangle, and sawtooth waveforms with one single frequency or two superimposed frequencies ranging from 0.01 Hz to 40 kHz, and an output voltage of up to 30 Vpp. A specific stimulation pattern can be delivered over a single time period or as a sequence of different signals for different time periods. This stimulation system can be applied as a research tool where manipulation of particles suspended in liquid media is involved, such as biology, medicine, environment, embryology, and genetics. This system has the potential to lead to new schemes for laboratory procedures by allowing application specific and user defined electric stimulation. The development of this device is a step towards portable and programmable instrumentation for electric stimulation on electrokinetic-based microfluidic devices, which are meant to be integrated with lab-on-a-chip devices.

  17. Optically stimulated differential impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Lonnie C; Parks, II, James E; Lewis, Sr., Samuel A; Partridge, Jr., William P

    2014-02-18

    Methods and apparatuses for evaluating a material are described. Embodiments typically involve use of an impedance measurement sensor to measure the impedance of a sample of the material under at least two different states of illumination. The states of illumination may include (a) substantially no optical stimulation, (b) substantial optical stimulation, (c) optical stimulation at a first wavelength of light, (d) optical stimulation at a second wavelength of light, (e) a first level of light intensity, and (f) a second level of light intensity. Typically a difference in impedance between the impedance of the sample at the two states of illumination is measured to determine a characteristic of the material.

  18. Camera assisted multimodal user interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannuksela, Jari; Silvén, Olli; Ronkainen, Sami; Alenius, Sakari; Vehviläinen, Markku

    2010-01-01

    Since more processing power, new sensing and display technologies are already available in mobile devices, there has been increased interest in building systems to communicate via different modalities such as speech, gesture, expression, and touch. In context identification based user interfaces, these independent modalities are combined to create new ways how the users interact with hand-helds. While these are unlikely to completely replace traditional interfaces, they will considerably enrich and improve the user experience and task performance. We demonstrate a set of novel user interface concepts that rely on built-in multiple sensors of modern mobile devices for recognizing the context and sequences of actions. In particular, we use the camera to detect whether the user is watching the device, for instance, to make the decision to turn on the display backlight. In our approach the motion sensors are first employed for detecting the handling of the device. Then, based on ambient illumination information provided by a light sensor, the cameras are turned on. The frontal camera is used for face detection, while the back camera provides for supplemental contextual information. The subsequent applications triggered by the context can be, for example, image capturing, or bar code reading.

  19. Surveying Earth Science Users: Improvements Increase Participation and Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boquist, C. L.

    2006-12-01

    NASA has surveyed users of its Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) for three years to determine user satisfaction with its services. The survey is being conducted by Claes Fornell International (CFI) under contract with the Department of Treasury's Federal Consulting Group, Executive Agent in government for the American Customer Satisfaction Index (ACSI). The purpose of this survey is to help EOSDIS and the data centers assess current status and improve future services. Analysis of each year's results has led to refining, dropping, and adding questions that provide the basis of understanding satisfaction levels across data centers, and for functions within each center. This paper will present lessons learned in preparing the invitation and survey questions and the steps taken to make the survey easier to complete. Year three Indicators include increased participation and better identification with data center names and information services.

  20. American Culture Through Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Clair Michael; Pulliam, William E.

    1976-01-01

    In honor of the Bicentennial, current instructional materials concerned with American lifestyles--past and present--American music, art, education, customs and traditions, and language are reviewed. The reviews are presented in a narrative format and value judgments are made where appropriate. Address and price information are found in a list at…

  1. Asian American Cultural Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libretti, Tim

    1997-01-01

    Explores the encounter of Marxism and Asian American literary theory and imagines an Asian American Marxism. To do so requires theorizing race, class, and gender not as substantive categories of antagonisms but as complementary and coordinated elements of a totality of social relations structuring racial patriarchal capitalism. (SLD)

  2. Evidence of the enhancement effect in electrical stimulation via electrode matching (L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goupell, Matthew J; Mostardi, Mitchell J

    2012-02-01

    The ability to match a pulsing electrode during multi-electrode stimulation through a research interface was measured in seven cochlear-implant (CI) users. Five listeners were relatively good at the task and two could not perform the task. Performance did not vary as a function of the number of electrodes or stimulation level. Performance on the matching task was not correlated to performance on an electrode-discrimination task. The listeners may have experienced the auditory enhancement effect, and this may have implications for speech recognition in noise for CI users. PMID:22352475

  3. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  4. American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the world's largest organization dedicated to comprehensive cosmetic dentistry. Join Now Real Patient. Real Result. Dentistry by ... 9540 Contact Us © 2015 American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) © 2015 American ...

  5. Evidence of the enhancement effect in electrical stimulation via electrode matching (L)

    OpenAIRE

    Goupell, Matthew J.; Mostardi, Mitchell J.

    2012-01-01

    The ability to match a pulsing electrode during multi-electrode stimulation through a research interface was measured in seven cochlear-implant (CI) users. Five listeners were relatively good at the task and two could not perform the task. Performance did not vary as a function of the number of electrodes or stimulation level. Performance on the matching task was not correlated to performance on an electrode-discrimination task. The listeners may have experienced the auditory enhancement effe...

  6. The users of legal information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Assis Pinho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The decision making needs must be based on current and reliable information, especially in legal environments. In Brazil, the changes in legislation are constants because of the enactments of the provisional measures. In this sense, it is necessary to know the sources and changes to satisfy the needs of users of legal area. Therefore, through an exploratory research, it aimed to do a user study, experts on legal aspects in the law library of the Regional Procurator of the Republic of the 5th Region (Brazil, which is a unit belonging to Brazil's Federal Public Ministry, with the use of a questionnaire as data collection tool. The results shows that users of legal information is more demanding and expert in their search and uses various sources, because their information needs has a high degree of difficulty.

  7. Wilmar Planning Tool, user guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a short user guide to the Wilmar Planning Tool developed in the project Wind Power Integration in Liberalised Electricity Markets (WILMAR) supported by EU (Contract No. ENK5-CT-2002-00663). A User Shell implemented in an Excel workbook controls the Wilmar Planning Tool. All data are contained in Access databases that communicate with various sub-models through text files that are exported from or imported to the databases. In the User Shell various scenario variables and control parameters are set, and export of model data from the input database, activation of the models, as well as import of model results to the output database are triggered from the shell. (au)

  8. Do recommender systems benefit users?

    CERN Document Server

    Yeung, Chi Ho

    2015-01-01

    Recommender systems are present in many web applications to guide our choices. They increase sales and benefit sellers, but whether they benefit customers by providing relevant products is questionable. Here we introduce a model to examine the benefit of recommender systems for users, and found that recommendations from the system can be equivalent to random draws if one relies too strongly on the system. Nevertheless, with sufficient information about user preferences, recommendations become accurate and an abrupt transition to this accurate regime is observed for some algorithms. On the other hand, we found that a high accuracy evaluated by common accuracy metrics does not necessarily correspond to a high real accuracy nor a benefit for users, which serves as an alarm for operators and researchers of recommender systems. We tested our model with a real dataset and observed similar behaviors. Finally, a recommendation approach with improved accuracy is suggested. These results imply that recommender systems ...

  9. User-Interface Usability Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, computers and internet are playing the major role in the development of business and different aspects of human lives; hence, the quality of user-computer interface became an important issue. User interface (UI can become an Achilles heel in a well-functioning system; due to the fact that most users judge the quality of a product by its usability. The UI layout design improves the usability of a product and accordingly may determine its success; so, due to this and more, the need of an objective way of evaluation of UI has arisen. This paper discusses various UI usability evaluation techniques and shows the recent developments in this field.

  10. Securing the User's Work Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardo, Nicholas P.

    2004-01-01

    High performance computing at the Numerical Aerospace Simulation Facility at NASA Ames Research Center includes C90's, J90's and Origin 2000's. Not only is it necessary to protect these systems from outside attacks, but also to provide a safe working environment on the systems. With the right tools, security anomalies in the user s work environment can be deleted and corrected. Validating proper ownership of files against user s permissions, will reduce the risk of inadvertent data compromise. The detection of extraneous directories and files hidden amongst user home directories is important for identifying potential compromises. The first runs of these utilities detected over 350,000 files with problems. With periodic scans, automated correction of problems takes only minutes. Tools for detecting these types of problems as well as their development techniques will be discussed with emphasis on consistency, portability and efficiency for both UNICOS and IRIX.

  11. Intelligent user interface for intelligent multimedia repository

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Phill-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Sim, B. S.; Zhoo, Z. C.; Park, D.-I.

    1997-10-01

    Recently, much effort has been made for efficiency of user interface since the assumption of expertise or well-trained users is nor more valid these days. Today's users of computer systems are expanded to ordinary people. Furthermore, too much network accessible information resources in the form of various media increases rapidly everyday. The primary goal of the intelligent multimedia repository (IMR) is to assist users in accessing multimedia information efficiently. Primary users of the IMR are assumed to be novice users even though the system can be used for users at different levels of expertise. Users are not well-trained people in using computer system. Thus, the semantic gap between users and the system must be mainly reduced form the system site. The technology of intelligent user interface is adopted to minimize the semantic gap. For the intelligent user interface of been designed and developed. Machine learning technologies have been employed to provide user adaptation/intelligent capability to the system. The IUI of the IMR consist user interface manager (UIM), and user model (UM). The UIM performs the function of managing intelligent user interface. The UM stores the behavioral knowledge of the user. The UM stores the history of query and response interactions to absorb communication errors due to semantic gaps between the user and the IMR. The UM is implemented by decision tree based case- based reasoning and back propagation neural networks. Experimental result show the IUI can improve the performance of the IMR.

  12. Multi-microphone adaptive noise reduction strategies for coordinated stimulation in bilateral cochlear implant devices

    OpenAIRE

    Kokkinakis, Kostas; Loizou, Philipos C.

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral cochlear implant (BI-CI) recipients achieve high word recognition scores in quiet listening conditions. Still, there is a substantial drop in speech recognition performance when there is reverberation and more than one interferers. BI-CI users utilize information from just two directional microphones placed on opposite sides of the head in a so-called independent stimulation mode. To enhance the ability of BI-CI users to communicate in noise, the use of two computationally inexpensi...

  13. Personality Disorders, Narcotics, and Stimulants; Relationship in Iranian Male Substance Dependents Population

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Individuals with certain personality disorders, especially the antisocial and borderline personality disorders, are more prone to substance use disorders. Objectives: Regarding the importance of substance use disorders, this study aimed to explore the association between personality disorders and types of used drugs (narcotics and stimulants) in Iranian male substance users. Patients and Methods: The current study was a correlation study. We evaluated 285 male substance users and ...

  14. HANARO user support and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is aimed to support external users for the effective use of HANARO. The total number of projects selected as the beneficiary of the supporting program by MEST was 21 including this project in this year. We supported 2,339 hr measurements for the 31 requests of the 14 projects selected on the field of neutron beam utilization. In the field of materials and nuclear fuel irradiation test the 3 projects were selected and supported for 80 samples. In the fields of neutron activation analysis and radioisotope production the number of selected and supported projects were 1 and 2 respectively. In order to broaden potential user base, maximize instrument utilization, and enhance cooperation with industries, universities and institutes, practice-oriented HANARO user training courses were held for neutron beam utilization and materials and nuclear fuel irradiation fields. In the fields of neutron activation analysis 3 times training courses were held for the university students. The online neutron beam time allocation system was developed and applied successfully for the HRPD in this year. We are planing to apply this system to other neutron beam instruments in the near future. This project is a kind of the user-based supporting program for the maximize of HANARO utilization. The development products and the ideas and suggestions of users obtained through this projects will be collected and applied to the development of next new facilities. Also, by using the 'HANARO utilization and research information management system(HANARO4U)' we construct the research network among users at industries, universities and institutes. This network is expected to increase HANARO utilization and enhance productivity of the facilities

  15. HANARO user support and training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project is aimed to support external users for the effective use of HANARO. The total number of projects selected as the beneficiary of the supporting program by MEST was 21 including this project in this year. We supported 1,850 hr measurements for the 24 requests of the 16 projects selected on the field of neutron beam utilization. In the field of materials and nuclear fuel irradiation test the 2 projects were selected and supported for 108 samples. In the fields of neutron activation analysis and radioisotope production the number of selected and supported projects was 1 respectively. In order to broaden potential user base, maximize instrument utilization, and enhance cooperation with industries, universities and institutes, practice-oriented HANARO user training courses were held for neutron beam utilization and materials and nuclear fuel irradiation fields. The online neutron beam time allocation system was developed and applied successfully for the HRPD in this year. We are planing to apply this system to other neutron beam instruments in the near future. This project is a kind of the user-based supporting program for the maximize of HANARO utilization. The development products and the ideas and suggestions of users obtained through this projects will be collected and applied to the development of next new facilities. Also, by using the 'HANARO utilization and research information management system(HANARO4U)' we construct the research network among users at industries, universities and institutes. This network is expected to increase HANARO utilization and enhance productivity of the facilities

  16. Clean Lead Facility Inventory System user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.F.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this user`s manual is to provide instruction and guidance needed to enter and maintain inventory information for the Clean Lead Facility (CLF), PER-612. Individuals responsible for maintaining and using the system should study and understand the information provided. The user`s manual describes how to properly use and maintain the CLF Inventory System. Annual, quarterly, monthly, and current inventory reports may be printed from the Inventory System for reporting purposes. Profile reports of each shipment of lead may also be printed for verification and documentation of lead transactions. The CLF Inventory System was designed on Microsoft Access version 2.0. Similar inventory systems are in use at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to facilitate site-wide compilations of mixed waste data. The CLF Inventory System was designed for inventorying the clean or non-radioactive contaminated lead stored at the CLF. This data, along with the mixed waste data, will be compiled into the Idaho Mixed Waste Information (IMWI) system for reporting to the Department of Energy Idaho Office, Department of Energy Headquarters, and/or the State of Idaho.

  17. Google Scholar Users and User Behaviors: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Gail

    2011-01-01

    The University of Mississippi Library created a profile to provide linking from Google Scholar (GS) to library resources in 2005. Although Google Scholar does not provide usage statistics for institutions, use of Google Scholar is clearly evident in looking at library link resolver logs. The purpose of this project is to examine users of Google…

  18. American Indian Influence on the American Pharmacopeia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Virgil J.

    The first U.S. Pharmacopeia, issued in 1820, listed 296 substances of animal, mineral, or vegetable origin in its primary and secondary lists. Of these 130, nearly all of vegetable origin, represented drugs used by American Indians. The number grew at each decennial revision during the 19th century, though some drugs were listed only for a decade.…

  19. Physical Victimization of Rural Methamphetamine and Cocaine Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Borders, Tyrone F.; Tripathi, Shanti; Lynch, Christian; Leukefeld, Carl; Falck, Russel S.; Carlson, Robert G.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2012-01-01

    Substance use and physical violence often co-occur, but little has been published on the correlates associated with receipt of partner versus non-partner physical violence for rural users of methamphetamine and/or cocaine. In this study, participants’ substance use, depression and past-year physical victimization were assessed. In separate logistic regression models, received partner violence in females was associated with age; alcohol, cocaine and methamphetamine abuse/dependence; and number of drugs used in the past six months. In males, received non-partner violence was associated with age, cocaine abuse/dependence and being Caucasian. Findings suggest a relationship between stimulant use and received violence among rural substance users and a need for victimization screenings in settings where such individuals seek health care. PMID:22455188

  20. Building the Realtime User Experience

    CERN Document Server

    Roden, Ted

    2010-01-01

    The Web is increasingly happening in realtime. With websites such as Facebook and Twitter leading the way, users are coming to expect that all sites should serve content as it occurs -- on smartphones as well as computers. This book shows you how to build realtime user experiences by adding chat, streaming content, and including more features on your site one piece at a time, without making big changes to the existing infrastructure. You'll also learn how to serve realtime content beyond the browser. Throughout the book are many practical JavaScript and Python examples that you can use on yo

  1. The IRIS user-guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the first version of the IRIS User-Guide. IRIS is continually evolving and improving and so some of the information contained within this manual will become out of date quite quickly. The basics behind the operation of IRIS, however, should remain essentially constant for the foreseeable future. Updated manuals will be produced when appropriate although it should always be remembered that the most up-to-date sources of information concerning IRIS are the instrument scientist and the local contacts for the experiments. It would be appreciated, however, if this user-guide were to be the first point of call. (author)

  2. Solar information user priority study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report identifies for each solar technology those members or potential members of the solar community who, either currently or in the future, will require solar information. In addition, it rates each user's relative need for information within the next three years. This information will be used as input for subsequent studies that will identify specific user needs information. These studies, in turn, will be the basis for information product and data base development for the Solar Energy Information Data Bank (SEIDB). In addition, they will be input for the Technical Information Dissemination (TID) Program.

  3. User-centered agile method

    CERN Document Server

    Deuff, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Agile development methods began to emerge around 20 years ago. However, it was not until the early 2000s that they began to be widely used in industry. This growth was often due to the advent of Internet services requiring faster cycles of development in order to heighten the rate at which an ever-greater number of functionalities were made available. In parallel, user-centered design (UCD) methods were also becoming more and more widely used: hence, user-centered design and agile methods were bound to cross paths, at least in the telecoms industry! During this period, in the field of telec

  4. Reflections on Lexicographical User Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Tarp

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The last decades have seen a growing interest in theoretical and practical problems related to lexicographical user research. Starting with a discussion of the concept of lexicographically relevant user needs, this contribution analyses, utilising the lexicographical function theory, various types of needs to be taken into account when doing this kind of research. It then discusses the positive and negative aspects of the various methods applied, i.e. questionnaires, interviews, observation, protocols, experiments, tests, and log files. With reference to both lexicographical and sociological literature, it raises a number of problems com-mon to most of the lexicographical user research conducted until now and recommends the application of scientific methods in future research. Finally, it proposes a number of alternative methods in order to obtain more knowledge about the real user needs.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, FUNCTION THEORY, DICTIONARY USAGE, USER NEEDS, USER TYPOLOGY, USER SITUATIONS, USER RESEARCH, RESEARCH METHODS, QUES-TIONNAIRES, INTERVIEWS, OBSERVATION, EXPERIMENTS, TESTS, LOG FILES

    Opsomming: Gedagtes oor leksikografiese gebruikersnavorsing. Die laaste dekades het 'n groeiende belangstelling in teoretiese en praktiese probleme betreffende leksikogra-fiese gebruikersnavorsing gesien. Deur met 'n bespreking van die konsep van leksikografies ter-saaklike gebruikersbehoeftes te begin, ontleed hierdie bydrae, met gebruikmaking van die leksiko-grafiese funksieteorie, verskillende soorte behoeftes wat in aanmerking geneem moet word wan-neer hierdie soort navorsing gedoen word. Dit bespreek dan die positiewe en negatiewe aspekte van die verskillende metodes wat benut word, d.w.s. vraelyste, onderhoude, waarneming, proto-kolle, eksperimente, toetse, en loglêers. Met verwysing na sowel leksikografiese as sosiologiese literatuur, bring dit 'n aantal probleme ter sprake tipies van die meeste leksikografiese gebruikers

  5. Improving the Drupal User Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Vacek

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Drupal is a powerful, but complex, Web Content Management System, being adopted by many libraries. Installing Drupal typically involves adding additional modules for flexibility and increased functionality. Although installing additional modules does increase functionality, it inevitably complicates usability. At the University of Houston Libraries, the Web Services department researched what modules work well together to accomplish a simpler interface while simultaneously providing the flexibility and advanced tools needed to create a successful user experience within Drupal. This article explains why particular modules were chosen or developed, how the design enhanced the user experience, how the CMS architecture was created, and how other library systems were integrated into Drupal.

  6. Designing end-user interfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Heaton, N

    1988-01-01

    Designing End-User Interfaces: State of the Art Report focuses on the field of human/computer interaction (HCI) that reviews the design of end-user interfaces.This compilation is divided into two parts. Part I examines specific aspects of the problem in HCI that range from basic definitions of the problem, evaluation of how to look at the problem domain, and fundamental work aimed at introducing human factors into all aspects of the design cycle. Part II consists of six main topics-definition of the problem, psychological and social factors, principles of interface design, computer intelligenc

  7. User cognition in product operation

    OpenAIRE

    Gelderblom, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Daily a large number of everyday consumer products are being used. Unfortunately part of this usage is not successful. One of the causes of failure lies in the cognitive aspects of product use, users do not know how to operate the product or try to use it in a way which is not successful. Ideally, the designer of a product should convey information on the use of the product through the design, enabling the user by intuition to operate the product successfully. However, theoretical insights on...

  8. Momentary gods and their users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelowski, Matthew John; Motoyama, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we introduce and explore the concept of anthropomorphic attachment by a human user to a man-made environment and its imagined creator. By utilizing the ELIZA program by Joseph Weizenbaum, and discussing some issues raised by him in response to his perception of the relationship...... between his users and his program, specifically a human's relationship to a virtual environment and virtual agents, we offer a cognitive analysis of object-attachment in a human-derived environment, borrowing concepts from the field of anthropology and art, which we feel can better incorporate the role of...

  9. Sketching user experiences the workbook

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Saul; Marquardt, Nicolai; Buxton, Bill

    2012-01-01

    In Sketching User Experiences: The Workbook, you will learn, through step-by-step instructions and exercises, various sketching methods that will let you express your design ideas about user experiences across time. Collectively, these methods will be your sketching repertoire: a toolkit where you can choose the method most appropriate for developing your ideas, which will help you cultivate a culture of experience-based design and critique in your workplace. Features standalone modules detailing methods and exercises for practitioners who want to learn and develop their sketching skills E

  10. EOR by stimulated microflora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svarovskaya, L.I.; Altunina, L.K.; Rozhenkova, Z.A.; Bulavin, V.D. [Institute of Petroleum Chemistry, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-12-31

    A combined microbiological and physico-chemical method for EOR has been developed for flooded West Siberia oil fields with formation temperature of 45{degrees}-95{degrees}C (318-365K). Formation water includes rich and various biocenoses numbering up to 2 x 10{sup 7} cells per ml. Representatives of genera, i.e, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Actinomyces, Micrococcus, Mycobacterium, Sarcina, etc. were found to be the most widely distributed microorganisms. The method is based on injection of systems exhibiting high oil displacing capacity and at the same time being an additional nitrous nutrient for endemic populations of microorganisms. Their injection into formation water favors biomass growth by 4-6 orders and promotes syntheses of biosurfactants, biopolymers, acids, etc., and gaseous products. The features of residual oil displacement have been studied on laboratory models using a combined microbiological and physico-chemical method. A curve for the yield of residual oil is presented by two peaks. The first peak is stipulated by the washing action of oil displacement system, and the second one by the effect of metabolites produced at stimulation of biogenic processes. Oil displacement index increases by 15%-30%.

  11. Multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessment of farming systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sustainability assessment is needed to build sustainable farming systems. A broad range of sustainability concepts, methodologies and applications already exists. They differ in level, focus, orientation, measurement, scale, presentation and intended end-users. In this paper we illustrate that a smart combination of existing methods with different levels of application can make sustainability assessment more profound, and that it can broaden the insights of different end-user groups. An overview of sustainability assessment tools on different levels and for different end-users shows the complementarities and the opportunities of using different methods. In a case-study, a combination of the sustainable value approach (SVA) and MOTIFS is used to perform a sustainability evaluation of farming systems in Flanders. SVA is used to evaluate sustainability at sector level, and is especially useful to support policy makers, while MOTIFS is used to support and guide farmers towards sustainability at farm level. The combined use of the two methods with complementary goals can widen the insights of both farmers and policy makers, without losing the particularities of the different approaches. To stimulate and support further research and applications, we propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments. - Highlights: ► We give an overview of sustainability assessment tools for agricultural systems. ► SVA and MOTIFS are used to evaluate the sustainability of dairy farming in Flanders. ► Combination of methods with different levels broadens the insights of different end-user groups. ► We propose guidelines for multilevel and multi-user sustainability assessments.

  12. Dichotic Stimulation and Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, James L.; Virbancic, Mirna I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews literature on the use of dichotic stimulation in individuals with mental retardation, and examines how noninvasive dichotic stimulation relates to hemisphere lateralization. Common findings are discussed concerning direction and magnitude of ear asymmetries, patterns of intrusion errors, and speech lateralization of Down…

  13. Subliminal Stimulation: Hoax or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trank, Douglas M.

    Subliminal stimulation is defined as that which is perceived by an individual below the threshold of awareness or cognizance. This article traces the history of research in subliminal stimulation to illustrate that under certain circumstances and conditions, this behavioral phenomenon does occur. Although subliminal stimuli do affect human…

  14. Stimulating Language: Insights from TMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Joseph T.; Watkins, Kate E.

    2007-01-01

    Fifteen years ago, Pascual-Leone and colleagues used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate speech production in pre-surgical epilepsy patients and in doing so, introduced a novel tool into language research. TMS can be used to non-invasively stimulate a specific cortical region and transiently disrupt information processing. These…

  15. Kuhlthau’s Classic Research on the Information Search Process (ISP Provides Evidence for Information Seeking as a Constructivist Process. A review of: Kuhlthau, Carol C. “Inside the Search Process: Information Seeking from the User's Perspective.” Journal of the American Society for Information Science 42.5 (1991: 361‐71.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelagh K. Genuis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To extend understanding of purposeful information seeking and to present a model of the information search process (ISP from the perspective of the user.Design – Review of theoretical foundation, summing up of qualitative and quantitative data from a series of five foundational studies, and presentation of ISP model. Setting – Summarised research was conducted primarily in high school and college environments where subjects were investigating an assigned topic. A small proportion of public libraries were used in the fifth study within the reviewed series.Subjects – The ISP model as presented in this ‘classic’ article is based on studies involving a total of 558 participants. The first study involved 26 academically advanced high school seniors, and the 2 subsequent studies involved respectively 20 and 4 of the original participants following their completion of 4 years of college. The final 2 studies involved respectively 147 high, middle and low achieving high school seniors, and 385 academic, public and school library users.Methods – This paper presents the foundation for the ISP model by reviewing the relationship between Kelly’s personal construct theory, Belkin, Brooks, and Oddy’s investigation of cognitive aspects of the constructive information seeking process, and Taylor’s work on levels of information need (“Question‐negotiation” and value‐added information (“Value added”. This is followed by a review of Kuhlthau’s five foundational studies, which investigated the common information seeking experiences of users who were seeking to expand knowledge related to a particular topic or problem. The first of these studies was a small‐scale exploration in which participants were given two assignments. Questionnaires, journaling, search logs, and reflective writing were used to collect data throughout the process of assignment completion. Data collection was augmented by case studies involving in

  16. MDMA, cortisol, and heightened stress in recreational ecstasy users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Andrew C; Montgomery, Cathy; Wetherell, Mark A; Downey, Luke A; Stough, Con; Scholey, Andrew B

    2014-09-01

    Stress develops when an organism requires additional metabolic resources to cope with demanding situations. This review will debate how recreational 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') can increase some aspects of acute and chronic stress in humans. Laboratory studies on the acute effects of MDMA on cortisol release and neurohormone levels in drug-free regular ecstasy/MDMA users have been reviewed, and the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in chronic changes in anxiety, stress, and cognitive coping is debated. In the laboratory, acute ecstasy/MDMA use can increase cortisol levels by 100-200%, whereas ecstasy/MDMA-using dance clubbers experience an 800% increase in cortisol levels, because of the combined effects of the stimulant drug and dancing. Three-month hair samples of abstinent users revealed cortisol levels 400% higher than those in controls. Chronic users show heightened cortisol release in stressful environments and deficits in complex neurocognitive tasks. Event-related evoked response potential studies show altered patterns of brain activation, suggestive of increased mental effort, during basic information processing. Chronic mood deficits include more daily stress and higher depression in susceptible individuals. We conclude that ecstasy/MDMA increases cortisol levels acutely and subchronically and that changes in the HPA axis may explain why recreational ecstasy/MDMA users show various aspects of neuropsychobiological stress. PMID:25014666

  17. 2010 American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS 2010)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billinge, Simon

    2011-06-17

    The ACNS provides a focal point for the national neutron user community to strengthen ties within this diverse group, while at the same time promoting neutron research among colleagues in related disciplines identified as “would-be” neutron users. The American Conference on Neutron Scattering thus serves a dual role as a national user meeting and a scientific meeting. As a venue for scientific exchange, the ACNS showcases recent results and provides forums for scientific discussion of neutron research in diverse fields such as hard and soft condensed matter, liquids, biology, magnetism, engineering materials, chemical spectroscopy, crystal structure, and elementary excitations, fundamental physics and development of neutron instrumentation through a combination of invited talks, contributed talks and poster sessions. As a “super-user” meeting, the ACNS fulfills the main objectives of users' meetings previously held periodically at individual national neutron facilities, with the advantage of a larger and more diverse audience. To this end, each of the major national neutron facilities (NIST, LANSCE, HFIR and SNS) have an opportunity to exchange information and update users, and potential users, of their facility. This is also an appropriate forum for users to raise issues that relate to the facilities. For many of the national facilities, this super-user meeting should obviate the need for separate user meetings that tax the time, energy and budgets of facility staff and the users alike, at least in years when the ACNS is held. We rely upon strong participation from the national facilities. The NSSA intends that the American Conference on Neutron Scattering (ACNS) will occur approximately every two years, but not in years that coincide with the International or European Conferences on Neutron Scattering. The ACNS is to be held in association with one of the national neutron centers in a rotating sequence, with the host facility providing local

  18. Cart-Ball User's Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvaran, H.; Jantzen, Jan

    1998-01-01

    This document is a user manual for the Pendulum simulation software used in an Internet course on fuzzy control, taught at the Technical University of Denmark. It contains installation instructions, a brief description of the software, and how to use it....

  19. User cognition in product operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Daily a large number of everyday consumer products are being used. Unfortunately part of this usage is not successful. One of the causes of failure lies in the cognitive aspects of product use, users do not know how to operate the product or try to use it in a way which is not successful. Ideally, t

  20. Commitment Information System: user guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misek, A.F.

    1977-02-01

    This report is a user guide for the Commitment Information System. It describes the operation of the System, types of information input into the data base, reports issued, and protection of the data base. The report discusses options available, computer programs used, timing of update, distribution, and deletion of records. 2 figures, 1 table.

  1. GOCE user toolbox and tutorial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per; Benveniste, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    consists of a series of advanced computer routines that carry out the required computations. It may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux Workstations, and Mac. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUT Install Guide. A set of a-priori data and models are made...

  2. SecSIP User Documentation

    OpenAIRE

    Boeglin, Alexandre; Lahmadi, Abdelkader; Festor, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    This document is the user's guide of the SecSip software, a stateful SIP firewall. The report contains the installation guidelines, details the usage of the binaries delivered in the distribution, and explores the web-based manager interface that comes with it.

  3. User Centred Information Literacy Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blåbjerg, Niels Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    This case study presents the application of multimedia in an E-learning and blended learning product which aims at developing students’ information literacy. The paper will elaborate on our development concept. Especially, on how we have applied our main principle; to create user focused e-learni...

  4. User discrimination in automotive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrushin, Andrey; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus; Leich, Marcus

    2011-03-01

    The recently developed dual-view touch screens, which are announced to be installed in cars in a near future, give rise to completely new challenges in human-machine interaction. The automotive system should be able to identify if the driver or the passenger is currently interacting with the touch screen to provide a correct response to the touch. The optical devices, due to availability, acceptance by the users and multifunctional usage, approved to be the most appropriate sensing technology for driver/passenger discrimination. In this work the prototypic optical user discrimination system is implemented in the car simulator and evaluated in the laboratory environment with entirely controlled illumination. Three tests were done for this research. One of them examined if the near-infrared illumination should be switched on around the clock, the second one if there is a difference in discrimination performance between day, twilight and night conditions, and the third one examined how the intensive directional lighting influences the performance of the implemented user discrimination algorithm. Despite the high error rates, the evaluation results show that very simple computer vision algorithms are able to solve complicated user discrimination task. The average error rate of 10.42% (daytime with near-infrared illumination) is a very promising result for optical systems.

  5. Mini-MAX User's Guide.

    OpenAIRE

    Ellen Bouchery; David Baugh; John Czajka; Rosemary Borck; Rosalie Malsberger; Allison Dodd; Sheng Wang; Carol Irvin; Julie Sykes

    2012-01-01

    The Mini-Max User's Guide is intended to expand and support the community of researchers using Medicaid data by providing background information on the Medicaid program, highlighting important features of the Mini-MAX files, and providing guidance to researchers about issues to be considered when conducting research with Mini-MAX.

  6. Trading Agents for Roaming Users

    OpenAIRE

    Boman, Magnus; Bylund, Markus; Espinoza, Fredrik; Danielson, Mats; Lyback, David

    2002-01-01

    Some roaming users need services to manipulate autonomous processes. Trading agents running on agent trade servers are used as a case in point. We present a solution that provides the agent owners with means to upkeeping their desktop environment, and maintaining their agent trade server processes, via a briefcase service.

  7. Inclusive Briefing and User Involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker

    2011-01-01

    number of different processes with varying purposes before and during the design and construction activities. Thus, briefing can be regarded as a continuous process but it should also be an inclusive and interactive process with the involvement of all stakeholders, including end users. This article...

  8. User perspectives on query difficulty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lioma, Christina; Larsen, Birger; Schütze, Hinrich

    difficult for the system to address? (2) Are users aware of specific features in their query (e.g., domain-specificity, vagueness) that may render their query difficult for an IR system to address? A study of 420 queries from a Web search engine query log that are pre-categorised as easy, medium, hard by...

  9. SPORTS (version 1) user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SPORTS is a transient one-dimensional thermalhydraulic code formulated from the non-linear time dependent conservation equations and designed to investigate two-phase flow stability. The SPORTS Users' Guide contains some features of the code, a brief description of the program environment and access, and a description of the input data complete with a sample problem

  10. Charging Users for Library Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Michael D.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the question of instituting direct charges for library service, using on-line bibliographic searching as an example, and contrasts this with the current indirect charging system where services are paid for by taxes. Information, as a merit good, should be supplied with or without direct charges, depending upon user status. (CWM)

  11. Users, Economics, Technology: Unavoidable Interdynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Rui Luís; Onur, Ertan; Skouby, Knud Erik; Aguayo-Torres, Mari Carmen; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2010-01-01

    This paper briefly presents some conclusions of a brainstorming session on the way technology is evolving in ICT. Technology advances have overcome society ability to answer, both in economic and in human aspects. The current design paradigms, of agnostic technology development, need to be reconsidered, and the user needs to be repositioned at the center of future developments.

  12. User Experience Design in Webpage Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许钰伟

    2014-01-01

    User experience design is becoming more and more important. It originates from network as well as screen products interactive with users, whose scope is very wide. Although research orientations are different, their objective is the same, that is, to make users enjoy the simplest usage mode and reduce thinking in use; Although there is uncertainty, for some specific user group, the similarity of user experience can be recognized by excellent design;Although user experience is at the initial stage, with higher demand of comfort degree in surfing the internet, user experience design will be the core of future website design.

  13. User Participation in Social Media: Digg Study

    CERN Document Server

    Lerman, Kristina

    2007-01-01

    The social news aggregator Digg allows users to submit and moderate stories by voting on (digging) them. As is true of most social sites, user participation on Digg is non-uniformly distributed, with few users contributing a disproportionate fraction of content. We studied user participation on Digg, to see whether it is motivated by competition, fueled by user ranking, or social factors, such as community acceptance. For our study we collected activity data of the top users weekly over the course of a year. We computed the number of stories users submitted, dugg or commented on weekly. We report a spike in user activity in September 2006, followed by a gradual decline, which seems unaffected by the elimination of user ranking. The spike can be explained by a controversy that broke out at the beginning of September 2006. We believe that the lasting acrimony that this incident has created led to a decline of top user participation on Digg.

  14. American Studies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Fasce

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1990s, introducing the Journal of American History’s internationalization project, Maurizio Vaudagna urged his Italian colleagues and all “non-English-speaking American historians in Europe […] to abandon the melancholic but somewhat comfortable situation of being marginal in both worlds.” More than a decade later, now that studying American history has been enormously complicated by the seismic changes connected with the end of the Cold War, the tragedy of 9/11, and the attendan...

  15. CHARACTERISTICS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦娟; 黄舜

    2007-01-01

    The large scale colonization of America by British settlers took place in the seventeenth century.During the process,the immigrants brought English to America.They desert great influence to the development of American English.After the civil war,American got political independence,and then there arose a tendency to develop an American brand of English.Famous persons like Thomas Jeffe,Benjamin,Franklin,and Noah Webster began to consider that the country should have a language of its own.

  16. LOLITA - THE AMERICAN NIGHTMARE

    OpenAIRE

    GRISELDA (ABAZAJ) DANGLLI

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the analysis of Lolita seen through the lenses of the American society and norms of today. We will see that many observations of the American way of behaving and social norms still hold true even nowadays years after this novel was written. Nabokov, on the other hand, never accepted the fact that this novel probed into the very depths of American life and that his intentions were purely aesthetic. Nevertheless, the phenomenon of pedophilia, obvious in the book, is a po...

  17. American Studies in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Luca

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available American Studies at the University of BucharestThe idea of teaching American Studies and founding a program in American Studies was first voiced in the long meetings of faculty and students held at the University of Bucharest soon after the collapse of the communist regime. The proposal was one of many that reflected the spirit of reform and hope for radical changes at the outset of Romania’s transition to democracy. The absence of institutional structures other than English departments and t...

  18. A Fully Implantable Stimulator With Wireless Power and Data Transmission for Experimental Investigation of Epidural Spinal Cord Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi; Hu, Dingyin; Duan, Bingyu; He, Jiping

    2015-07-01

    Epidural spinal cord stimulation (ESCS) combined with partial weight-bearing therapy (PWBT) has been shown to facilitate recovery of functional walking for individuals after spinal cord injury (SCI). The investigation of neural mechanisms of recovery from SCI under this treatment has been conducted broadly in rodent models, yet a suitable ESCS system is still unavailable. This paper describes a practical, programmable, and fully implantable stimulator for laboratory research on rats to explore fundamental neurophysiological principles for functional recovery after SCI. The ESCS system is composed of a personal digital assistant (PDA), an external controller, an implantable pulse generator (IPG), lead extension, and stimulating electrodes. The stimulation parameters can be programmed and adjusted through a graphical user interface on the PDA. The external controller is placed on the rat back and communicates with the PDA via radio-frequency (RF) telemetry. An RF carrier from the class-E power amplifier in the external controller provides both data and power for the IPG through an inductive link. The IPG is built around a microcontroller unit to generate voltage-regulated pulses delivered to the bipolar electrode for ESCS in rats. The encapsulated IPG measures 22 mm × 23 mm × 7 mm with a mass of  ∼  3.78 g. This fully implantable batteryless stimulator provided a simplified and efficient method to carry out chronic experiments in untethered animals for medical electro-neurological research. PMID:25680207

  19. International User Acquisition Processes of Mobile Games

    OpenAIRE

    Kesto, Kiira

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is about the user acquisition of mobile games, more specifically marketing them in different regions of the world. The main research question was “How to successfully market to different parts of the world from the point of view of user acquisition”. The objective of the thesis was to research the differences in user acquisition marketing in different regions of the world. The focus was on bought media, specifically user acquisition done through user acquisition agencies and netwo...

  20. Nanomaterial-Enabled Neural Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongchen; Guo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a high spatial resolution and cell-type specificity. In these techniques, a nanomaterial converts a remotely transmitted primary stimulus such as a light, magnetic or ultrasonic signal to a localized secondary stimulus such as an electric field or heat to stimulate neurons. The ease of surface modification and bio-conjugation of nanomaterials facilitates cell-type-specific targeting, designated placement and highly localized membrane activation. This review focuses on nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation techniques primarily involving opto-electric, opto-thermal, magneto-electric, magneto-thermal and acousto-electric transduction mechanisms. Stimulation techniques based on other possible transduction schemes and general consideration for these emerging neurotechnologies are also discussed. PMID:27013938

  1. Nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongchen eWang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a high spatial resolution and cell-type specificity. In these techniques, a nanomaterial converts a remotely transmitted primary stimulus such as a light, magnetic or ultrasonic signal to a localized secondary stimulus such as an electric field or heat to stimulate neurons. The ease of surface modification and bio-conjugation of nanomaterials facilitates cell-type-specific targeting, designated placement and highly localized membrane activation. This review focuses on nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation techniques primarily involving opto-electric, opto-thermal, magneto-electric, magneto-thermal and acousto-electric transduction mechanisms. Stimulation techniques based on other possible transduction schemes and general consideration for these emerging neurotechnologies are also discussed.

  2. New controller for functional electrical stimulation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisekovic, N; Popovic, D B

    2001-07-01

    A novel, self-contained controller for functional electrical stimulation systems has been designed. The development was motivated by the need to have a general purpose, easy to use controller capable of stimulating many muscle groups, thus restoring complex motor functions (e.g. standing, walking, reaching, and grasping). The designed controller can regulate the frequency, pulse duration, and charge balance on up to 16 channels, and execute pre-programmed and sensory-driven control operations. The controller supports up to eight analog and six digital sensors, and comprises a memory block for including history of the sensory data (time series). Five independent timers provide the basis for the multi-modal and multi-level control of movement. The PC compatible interface is realised via an IR serial communication channel. The PC based software is user friendly and fully menu driven. This paper also presents a case study where the controller was implemented to restore walking in a paraplegic subject. The assistive system comprised the novel controller, the power and output stages of an eight-channel FES system (IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng, TRE-2 (1994) 234), ankle-foot orthoses, and a rolling walker. Stimulation was applied with surface electrodes positioned over the motoneurons that innervate muscles responsible for the hip and knee flexion and extension. The sensory system included goniometers at knee and hip joints, force-sensing resistors built in the shoe insoles, and digital accelerometers at the hips. A rule-based control algorithm was generated following a two-step procedure: (1) simulation and (2) machine learning as described in earlier studies (IEEE Trans Rehab Eng, TRE-7 (1999) 69). The paraplegic subject walked faster, and with less physiological effort, when automatic control was applied as compared to hand-control. This case study, as well as a previous one for assisting grasping (The design and testing of a new programmable electronic stimulator. N

  3. Stimulant Use, Religiosity, and the Odds of Developing or Maintaining an Alcohol Use Disorder Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about whether cocaine or methamphetamine use, particularly among stimulant users residing in rural areas, is associated with increased odds of developing or maintaining an alcohol use disorder (AUD) over time. One factor that may help to protect some users against the development of an AUD is religiosity. This study examined how stimulant use and religiosity are associated longitudinally with the odds of an AUD among a rural population-based cohort of stimulant users. Method: Recent stimulant users (N = 710) were recruited via respondent-driven sampling and were interviewed every 6 months over a 3-year period. Concurrent and lagged generalized estimating equations analyses were conducted to estimate how past-30-day crack cocaine, powder cocaine, and methamphetamine use; religiosity; and other covariates were associated with the odds of an AUD. Results: At baseline, 56% of the participants met AUD criteria. The odds of an AUD declined significantly over time in the concurrent, but not the lagged, model. Crack cocaine use was associated with increased odds of an AUD in both models, although the strength of the concurrent association between an AUD and crack cocaine use declined over time. Powder cocaine use and more frequent church attendance also were concurrently associated with decreased odds of an AUD. Conclusions: Rural stimulant users, especially those using cocaine, could potentially benefit from treatment for both alcohol use and stimulant use. In addition, our findings suggest that greater frequency of church attendance may be related to lower odds of the development or maintenance of an AUD. PMID:23490565

  4. Waste treatability guidance program. User`s guide. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, C.

    1995-12-21

    DOE sites across the country generate and manage radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary wastes. It is necessary for each site to find the technologies and associated capacities required to manage its waste. One role of DOE HQ Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is to facilitate the integration of the site- specific plans into coherent national plans. DOE has developed a standard methodology for defining and categorizing waste streams into treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. This Waste Treatability Guidance Program automates the Guidance Document for the categorization of waste information into treatability groups; this application provides a consistent implementation of the methodology across the National TRU Program. This User`s Guide provides instructions on how to use the program, including installations instructions and program operation. This document satisfies the requirements of the Software Quality Assurance Plan.

  5. Investigating User Experience and User Engagement for Design

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, Jennefer

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the interactive experience of using digital technologies is a complex process. Traditional methods of evaluating interactive technologies originate from usability, which focuses on ease of use, ease of learning and performance. User Experience (UX) emerged from the recognition that usability alone does not account for the more subjective emotional responses experienced when interacting with a product. Although the term UX has become widely accepted within the area of Human Comp...

  6. TRANS-USERS:Transforming construction by user-driven innovation

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This report addresses user-orientated strategies for industrialising the construction industry. In the first part, the objectives of the study are described along with the theoretical framework and the research design of the study. The second part of this report contains five case studies conducted in Denmark, Sweden and France. The five case studies are: The industrialised home building concept BoKlok, a web based product configurator for kitchens by HTH, the innovative potential of the dual...

  7. Electrical stimulation in exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has a long history of use in medicine dating back to 46 A.D. when the Roman physician Largus found the electrical discharge of torpedo fishes useful in the treatment of pain produced by headache and gout. A rival Greek physician, Dioscorides, discounted the value of the torpedo fish for headache relief but did recommend its use in the treatment of hemorrhoids. In 1745, the Leyden jar and various sized electrostatic generators were used to treat angina pectoris, epilepsy, hemiplegia, kidney stones, and sciatica. Benjamin Franklin used an electrical device to treat successfully a young woman suffering from convulsive fits. In the late 1800's battery powered hydroelectric baths were used to treat chronic inflammation of the uterus while electrified athletic supporters were advertised for the treatment of male problems. Fortunately, such an amusing early history of the simple beginnings of electrical stimulation did not prevent eventual development of a variety of useful therapeutic and rehabilitative applications of electrical stimulation. Over the centuries electrical stimulation has survived as a modality in the treatment of various medical disorders with its primary application being in the rehabilitation area. Recently, a surge of new interest in electrical stimulation has been kindled by the work of a Russian sport scientist who reported remarkable muscle strength and endurance improvements in elite athletes. Yakov Kots reported his research on electric stimulation and strength improvements in 1977 at a Canadian-Soviet Exchange Symposium held at Concordia University in Montreal. Since then an explosion of new studies has been seen in both sport science and in medicine. Based upon the reported works of Kots and the present surge of new investigations, one could be misled as to the origin of electrical stimulation as a technique to increase muscle strength. As a matter of fact, electric stimulation has been used as a technique to improve

  8. User`s manual for the NEFTRAN II computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olague, N.E.; Campbell, J.E.; Leigh, C.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA); Longsine, D.E. [INTERA, Inc., Austin, TX (USA)

    1991-02-01

    This document describes the NEFTRAN II (NEtwork Flow and TRANsport in Time-Dependent Velocity Fields) computer code and is intended to provide the reader with sufficient information to use the code. NEFTRAN II was developed as part of a performance assessment methodology for storage of high-level nuclear waste in unsaturated, welded tuff. NEFTRAN II is a successor to the NEFTRAN and NWFT/DVM computer codes and contains several new capabilities. These capabilities include: (1) the ability to input pore velocities directly to the transport model and bypass the network fluid flow model, (2) the ability to transport radionuclides in time-dependent velocity fields, (3) the ability to account for the effect of time-dependent saturation changes on the retardation factor, and (4) the ability to account for time-dependent flow rates through the source regime. In addition to these changes, the input to NEFTRAN II has been modified to be more convenient for the user. This document is divided into four main sections consisting of (1) a description of all the models contained in the code, (2) a description of the program and subprograms in the code, (3) a data input guide and (4) verification and sample problems. Although NEFTRAN II is the fourth generation code, this document is a complete description of the code and reference to past user`s manuals should not be necessary. 19 refs., 33 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. Gonorrhea among drug users: an Alaskan versus a national sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschane, D M; Fisher, D G; Cagle, H H; Fenaughty, A M

    1998-05-01

    The study described here investigates the replicability of gender-specific risk profiles for gonorrhea based on an Alaskan sample compared to a U.S. national sample of drug users at risk for HIV infection. The Alaska sample (interviewed at a field station in Anchorage, Alaska; N=1,049) and the national sample (interviewed at 18 sites other than Alaska; N=17,619) consisted of cocaine smokers and injection drug users not in drug treatment. A history of gonorrhea infection was self-reported and coded as ever or never. The Anchorage and national risk profile for men included the following factors: (a) history of intranasal or parenteral cocaine use, (b) being black versus nonblack, (c) being older, (d) income from illegal activity, and (e) history of amphetamine use. The Anchorage and national risk profiles for women included the following factors: (a) trading sex for money, (b) being Native American versus non-Native American, and (c) trading sex for drugs. The Anchorage model for women included perceived homelessness as a factor, but it was not retained in the national model. The extent of the replicability of these models illustrates the generalizability of Alaskan findings to other U.S. drug-using populations. The authors also discuss the implications of these findings for disease prevention. PMID:9643466

  10. Holistic-medical foundations of American psychiatry: a bicentennial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipowski, Z J

    1981-07-01

    American psychiatry has reached its bicentennial. Holistic-medical foundations have been its hallmark, inspiration, and source of preeminence. Incorporated by psychobiology, the American school, they enabled the growth of psychiatry as a medical specialty and scientific discipline and stimulated unparalleled growth of general hospital psychiatry, psychiatric research and teaching, and psychosomatic medicine and liaison psychiatry. Holistic conceptions, a product of a democratic system and the liberal mind, continue to provide the best framework for psychiatry and an antidote to dogma and fanaticism. PMID:7020433

  11. American Society of Neuroradiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to announce Mary Beth Hepp, MBA, as the society’s next executive director, replacing James B. Gantenberg, FACHE ... Contact Search form Search 2005-2015 Copyright American Society of Neuroradiology OM Base Theme 2016 | V7.x- ...

  12. American Society of Hematology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main Navigation Account Navigation Main Content American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate My Account Search Show Main Menu + About Awards Membership ASH ...

  13. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  14. American Therapeutic Recreation Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Remember Me I forgot my password American Therapeutic Recreation Association Promoting Health & Wellness Services Annual Conference 2016 ... and leave your opinion Join thousands of Therapeutic Recreation specialists today Join Now Renew your membership today ...

  15. American Samoa Longline Logbook

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data system contains the logbook data of vessels unloading in American Samoa. In 1992, the logbooks of three longline trips conducting an experiment to test...

  16. American Sleep Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Professionals Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Share What is Sleep ? Insight into the ... Forums Contact Us Login Join ASA – for FREE Sleep Blog ASA Charitable Work – Sleeping Children Around the ...

  17. American Telemedicine Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ATA On Twitter Tweets by @AmericanTelemed ATA On Facebook Physicians and Clinicians Increase your reach as a ... the global deployment of telemedicine. ATA provides proven marketing opportunities, connecting buyers and sellers. Upcoming Trade Shows ...

  18. Native American Tribal Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Eric L.

    1999-01-01

    Lists Web sites maintained by 38 different Native American nations that deal with topics ranging from tribal history, news, arts and crafts, tourism, entertainment, and commerce. Represented nations include Apache, Blackfeet, Creek, Iroquois, Mohegan, and Sioux. (CMK)

  19. Native Americans and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Her children's father is an African-American. This means her children have inherited genes from the three ... name and that's what makes me think a little bit more about people and their feet, especially ...

  20. American Tinnitus Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  1. Contemporary American Physics Fiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Alan J.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the works by six contemporary American novelists that illustrate the current state of "physics fiction." The discussed examples of physics fiction ranged from the fluent and frequent inclusion of the casual, to the elaborate systems of physics metaphors. (GA)

  2. American Samoa Cannery Offloading

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — From 1995 through 2010, the two canneries in American Samoa provided Cannery Offloading Reports to the Department of Marine and Wildlife Resources (DMWR) office. In...

  3. American Heart Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) Healthy Living Conditions Caregiver ...

  4. Native Americans and Diabetes

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Do you want another pickle? Child: I got a big pickle! Announcer: The 48-year-old from ... Announcer: She had an American Indian mother and a Hispanic father. Her children's father is an African- ...

  5. American College of Rheumatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lists Supporters About Us Leadership Careers at ACR Social Media Newsroom Annual Reports & Financial Statements Policies & Guidelines Connect Join Donate © 2016 American College of Rheumatology. All rights reserved. Website Policies Sitemap ...

  6. American Studies in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Federmayer

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The beginning of American Studies as an academic discipline at Hungarian colleges and universities is basically coterminous with the watershed years of 1989-1990 when the country made a radical shift from state socialism toward parliamentary democracy and a free economy. This political and economic about-face, which came hand in hand with the undermining of foundationalist certainties and the generation of new anxieties coincided, more or less, with the radical transformation that American St...

  7. American Pet Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海焰

    2007-01-01

    In America you can find dogs,cats, horses,monkeys, snakes and even pigs in almost every family.They are their pets.Americans love pets and look on them as a part of the family.Sometimes pet owners dress their pets in fashionable clothes.They even buy toys for their pets.Americans love their pets as their children, sometimes even better.

  8. American Studies in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Jopi Nyman

    2005-01-01

    Since its establishment in 1996, the Finnish American Studies Association has sought to promote the field of American Studies in Finland by organizing conferences, events and by increasing networking amongst its scattered membership (ca. 35) working at various universities and other higher education institutions. The current President of the Association is Dr Jopi Nyman (University of Joensuu) and its Secretary is Dr Ari Helo (University of Helsinki). While currently only the University of He...

  9. User Preferences in Image Map Using

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráková, A.; Vozenilek, V.

    2016-06-01

    In the process of map making, the attention is given to the resulting image map (to be accurate, readable, and suit the primary purpose) and its user aspects. Current cartography understands the user issues as all matters relating to user perception, map use and also user preferences. Most commercial cartographic production is strongly connected to economic circumstances. Companies are discovering user's interests and market demands. However, is it sufficient to focus just on the user's preferences? Recent research on user aspects at Palacký University Olomouc addresses a much wider scope of user aspects. The user's preferences are very often distorting - the users think that the particular image map is kind, beautiful, and useful and they wants to buy it (or use it - it depends on the form of the map production). But when the same user gets the task to use practically this particular map (such as finding the shortest way), so the user concludes that initially preferred map is useless, and uses a map, that was worse evaluated according to his preferences. It is, therefore, necessary to evaluate not only the correctness of image maps and their aesthetics but also to assess the user perception and other user issues. For the accomplishment of such testing, eye-tracking technology is a useful tool. The research analysed how users read image maps, or if they prefer image maps over traditional maps. The eye tracking experiment on the comparison of the conventional and image map reading was conducted. The map readers were asked to solve few simple tasks with either conventional or image map. The readers' choice of the map to solve the task was one of investigated aspect of user preferences. Results demonstrate that the user preferences and user needs are often quite different issues. The research outcomes show that it is crucial to implement map user testing into the cartographic production process.

  10. Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation for Mobility Support of Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, Winfried

    2015-08-24

    The stimulator for neuromuscular electrical stimulation for mobility support of elderly is not very complicated, but for application within "MOBIL" we have some additional demands to fulfill. First we have specific safety issues for this user group. A powerful compliance management system is crucial not only to guide daily application, but for creating hard data for the scientific outcome. We also need to assure easy handling of the stimulator, because the subjects are generally not able to cope with too difficult and complex motor skills. So, we developed five generations of stimulators and optimizing solutions after field tests. We are already planning the sixth generation with wireless control of the stimulation units by the central main handheld control unit. In a prototype, we have implemented a newly available high capacity memory, a breakthrough in "compliance data storage" as they offer the necessary high storage capacity and fast data handling for an affordable prize. The circuit also contains a 3D accelerometer sensor which acts as a further important safety features: if the control unit drops, this event is detected automatically by the sensor and activates an emergency switch-off that disables the stimulation to avoid associated risks. Further, we have implemented a hardware emergence shutdown and other safety measures. Finally, in the last example muscle torque measurements are referenced with compliance data. In the study normalized maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and maximum stimulation induced contraction (MSC) were assessed in regular check-ups along the training period. With additional consideration of adjusted stimulation intensity for training out of the compliance data records we are able to estimate the induced contraction strength, which turned out to amount in average 11% of MVC. This value may seem on a first sight rather low, and ought to be considered in relation to the results at the end of the training period. Therefore the

  11. Profiles and changes in stimulant use in Belgium in the period of 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Frederic; Lai, Foon Yin; Kinyua, Juliet; Covaci, Adrian; van Nuijs, Alexander L N

    2016-09-15

    Adapting illicit drug policy strategies requires detailed knowledge on types and amounts of substances consumed by the target population. In this study, we applied wastewater-based epidemiology to detect spatio-temporal changes in the relative amounts of stimulants (amphetamine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), cocaine) used in seven locations in Belgium over 2011-2015. Clear geographical differences were observed with stimulant users in large cities (Antwerp, Brussels) showing a preference for cocaine, while amphetamine use was most abundant in smaller cities (Geraardsbergen, Koksijde, Lier, Ninove, Ostend). Results obtained across õdifferent years revealed that the investigated substances had a stable share in the total amount of stimulants used, suggesting that habits of stimulant use remained constant, although differences in absolute amounts were observed across years. Investigation of the weekly pattern in stimulant use showed an increase in the use of MDMA on the weekends compared to cocaine and amphetamine. PMID:27251771

  12. Contemporary American Chinese Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Huafei

    2008-01-01

    The rise of modern American scholarship on China was largely attributed to the establishment of the American Joint Committee on Contemporary China (JCCC) in 1959 which sponsored all kinds of activities to promote Chinese studies, ranging from institutional support and financial resources to training courses. Since then, American study of China has entered into a period of sustainability that features academic and group-oriented research. It has become a mainstream discipline in American social science studies.1 There are some distinctive differences between early sinology and modern Chinese Studies: the latter is much more concentrated on the study of issues, comparative historical studies, and contemporary Chinese society. American Chinese studies stresses empirical research, textual data, and the application of theory to practice.Shanghai. He was a Fulbright visiting professor at State University of New York at Geneseo from 2006-2007. This treatise is one of a series of studies for China's National Research Foundation of Philosophy and Social Science (05BGJ012), "American Chinese Studies."

  13. Demultiplexer circuit for neural stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessendorf, Kurt O; Okandan, Murat; Pearson, Sean

    2012-10-09

    A demultiplexer circuit is disclosed which can be used with a conventional neural stimulator to extend the number of electrodes which can be activated. The demultiplexer circuit, which is formed on a semiconductor substrate containing a power supply that provides all the dc electrical power for operation of the circuit, includes digital latches that receive and store addressing information from the neural stimulator one bit at a time. This addressing information is used to program one or more 1:2.sup.N demultiplexers in the demultiplexer circuit which then route neural stimulation signals from the neural stimulator to an electrode array which is connected to the outputs of the 1:2.sup.N demultiplexer. The demultiplexer circuit allows the number of individual electrodes in the electrode array to be increased by a factor of 2.sup.N with N generally being in a range of 2-4.

  14. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double...... plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that enteral feeding can be given without stimulating pancreatic trypsin secretion provided it is delivered into the mid-distal jejunum. The mechanism may involve activation of the ileal brake mechanism....

  15. Conceptual Model of User Adaptive Enterprise Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inese Šūpulniece

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The user adaptive enterprise application is a software system, which adapts its behavior to an individual user on the basis of nontrivial inferences from information about the user. The objective of this paper is to elaborate a conceptual model of the user adaptive enterprise applications. In order to conceptualize the user adaptive enterprise applications, their main characteristics are analyzed, the meta-model defining the key concepts relevant to these applications is developed, and the user adaptive enterprise application and its components are defined in terms of the meta-model. Modeling of the user adaptive enterprise application incorporates aspects of enterprise modeling, application modeling, and design of adaptive characteristics of the application. The end-user and her expectations are identified as two concepts of major importance not sufficiently explored in the existing research. Understanding these roles improves the adaptation result in the user adaptive applications.

  16. Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease Information Page Condensed from ... and Information Publicaciones en Español What is Deep Brain Stimulation for Parkinson's Disease? Deep brain stimulation (DBS) ...

  17. Decision Support for Internet Users:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Kazunori; Shimazu, Mitsunobu

    This paper describes availability of personal Web-pages and a prototype development for Decision Support for Internet Users, called DSIU, which is an area of research for decision support by using information on the Internet. The availability of Web-pages concerns usage of formal pages, which are provided by companies and so on, and personal pages, which are provided by private persons. Web-pages are gathered by using an Internet search engine to determine destinations for travel and personal pages are confirmed to provide much subjective information than formal pages. The prototype development concerns a travel recommendation system, which is a kind of decision support systems. The prototype uses subjective and objective information on the Internet to select several destinations for users and to provide explanations the reason why the destinations are recommended. This paper also describes our perspective of DSIU researches.

  18. User friendly far front ends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For years controls group hardware designers have designed microprocessor systems to accomplish specific functions such as refrigeration control. These systems often require years of software effort. The backlog of requests for even simple additions or modifications to software in embedded controllers has become overwhelming. We discuss the requirements of ''far forward'' controllers. Can we build a system that is modular enough to be configurable for specific applications without sacrificing performance? The hardware and software framework must be complete enough to isolate the end user from the peculiarities of bit and byte manipulation, but still allow system specifics to be implanted by the user. It is time to provide embedded controller systems as easy to use as workstation consoles

  19. UNIX and LNF : User guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carboni, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy)

    1996-02-01

    This User`s Guide describe the UNIX configuration available at LNF, introduced as a central facilities since December 1992. The original configuration was based only on HP 9000/7XX with HP-UX operating systems, now the new digital with operating system DEC-OSF/1 are also included. This guide gives an overview of the LNF UNIX service and describes the procedure for job submission using Network Queuing System, NQS. More detailed description of the local commands are given in the online man pages. In addition, up to now only for HP-UX, a complete set of manuals is available, on line via Irom command, which accesses a CD-ROM over the network.

  20. User Driven Innovative Building Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansson, Per; Sørensen, Kristian Birch; Steffensen, K. G.;

    2009-01-01

    During recent years there has been an ever-increasing focus on the possibilities to change the building process to raise quality on the final building products as well as on the activities of actors involved in the building process. One reason for this interest is the new opportunities evolving due...... buildings in a collaborative/participative creative and innovative building design process. The AEC professionals also appreciate development, enhancement and to some extent formalization of existing methods for user involvement in the building process....... emphasis that the users are the key to next level of successful building projects. VICMET defines four spaces to support the activities in a innovative/creative design process; The Contextual Inquiry Space, the Conceptual Modeling and Game Space, the Functional Building Systems (FBS) Consolidation Space...

  1. User Experience of Mobile Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raptis, Dimitrios

    that the overall physical form of a mobile device has a significant effect on the perceived usability of an application: the more attractive the physical form, the higher the perceived usability. The other study validated the effect of a particular physical form element on usability and showed that the screen size......This thesis focuses on mobile devices and it specifically investigates the effect of their physical form on two perceived user experience qualities, usability and coolness. With the term mobile devices, I refer to interactive products that users interact with while being on the move......, and with the term physical form I refer to the physical elements that constitute a mobile device as a whole, such as weight, size and materials. The selected research area was addressed through two research questions, one focusing on effects of physical form on usability and the other on effects on coolness...

  2. User book of SPAD software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data-gathering and accumulation is swelling in any domain thanks to computer science. A data analysis is aimed at extraction of useful data easily readable for the user. Among the mathematical methods used three of them are developed in the Spad software: - principal component analysis, - factorial analysis of simple correspondence, - factorial analysis of multiple correspondence. Data tables are first defined in this paper together with terms used by statisticians. Then the user manual describes the six analysis steps (or modules) included in the program, the links of steps which give classical data analysis. At last, for each step an ''using notice'' is given which describes the step parameters after some comments on the step object

  3. Transcutaneous Spinal Direct Current Stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Cogiamanian, Filippo; Ardolino, Gianluca; Vergari, Maurizio; Ferrucci, Roberta; Ciocca, Matteo; Scelzo, Emma; Barbieri, Sergio; Priori, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    In the past 10 years renewed interest has centered on non-invasive transcutaneous weak direct currents applied over the scalp to modulate cortical excitability (“brain polarization” or transcranial direct current stimulation, tDCS). Extensive literature shows that tDCS induces marked changes in cortical excitability that outlast stimulation. Aiming at developing a new, non-invasive, approach to spinal cord neuromodulation we assessed the after-effects of thoracic transcutaneous spinal DC stim...

  4. Transcranial electrical stimulation: An introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tarazona, Carlos G; Chávez, Laura; Andrade, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the electrical stimulation of the brain is to generate action potentials from the application of electromagnetic fields. Among the available techniques, transcranial electrical stimulation (TES) represents a popular method of administration that has the advantage of being non-invasive and economically more affordable. This article aims to briefly introduce the reader into the understanding of TES in terms of the physics involved as well as for some of the relevant results of studies applying this technique.

  5. S-DEMON USER'S MANUAL

    OpenAIRE

    Stettler, M. A.; Das, A; Lundstrom, M. S.

    1992-01-01

    S-DEMON (Version 2.0) is a computer program that simulates electron transport through Silicon DEvices by the MONte Carlo technique. The program will print and plot histograms of the carrier distribution function at different positions as well as other quantities of interest such as the average velocity, carrier density, and energy. For a more thorough discussion of the theoretical basis and the implementatioin of S-DEMON, the user is directed to the references [I-71. Material parameters taken...

  6. GOCE User Toolbox and Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benveniste, Jérôme; Knudsen, Per

    2016-07-01

    The GOCE User Toolbox GUT is a compilation of tools for the utilisation and analysis of GOCE Level 2 products. GUT support applications in Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid Earth Physics. The GUT Tutorial provides information and guidance in how to use the toolbox for a variety of applications. GUT consists of a series of advanced computer routines that carry out the required computations. It may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux Workstations, and Mac. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUT Install Guide. A set of a-priori data and models are made available as well. Without any doubt the development of the GOCE user toolbox have played a major role in paving the way to successful use of the GOCE data for oceanography. The GUT version 2.2 was released in April 2014 and beside some bug-fixes it adds the capability for the computation of Simple Bouguer Anomaly (Solid-Earth). During this fall a new GUT version 3 has been released. GUTv3 was further developed through a collaborative effort where the scientific communities participate aiming on an implementation of remaining functionalities facilitating a wider span of research in the fields of Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid earth studies. Accordingly, the GUT version 3 has: - An attractive and easy to use Graphic User Interface (GUI) for the toolbox, - Enhance the toolbox with some further software functionalities such as to facilitate the use of gradients, anisotropic diffusive filtering and computation of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies. - An associated GUT VCM tool for analyzing the GOCE variance covariance matrices.

  7. GOCE User Toolbox and Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Per; Benveniste, Jerome; Team Gut

    2016-04-01

    The GOCE User Toolbox GUT is a compilation of tools for the utilisation and analysis of GOCE Level 2 products.
GUT support applications in Geodesy, Oceanography and Solid Earth Physics. The GUT Tutorial provides information
and guidance in how to use the toolbox for a variety of applications. GUT consists of a series of advanced
computer routines that carry out the required computations. It may be used on Windows PCs, UNIX/Linux Workstations,
and Mac. The toolbox is supported by The GUT Algorithm Description and User Guide and The GUT
Install Guide. A set of a-priori data and models are made available as well. Without any doubt the development
of the GOCE user toolbox have played a major role in paving the way to successful use of the GOCE data for
oceanography. The GUT version 2.2 was released in April 2014 and beside some bug-fixes it adds the capability for the computation of Simple Bouguer Anomaly (Solid-Earth). During this fall a new GUT version 3 has been released. GUTv3 was further developed through a collaborative effort where the scientific communities participate aiming
on an implementation of remaining functionalities facilitating a wider span of research in the fields of Geodesy,
Oceanography and Solid earth studies.
Accordingly, the GUT version 3 has:
 - An attractive and easy to use Graphic User Interface (GUI) for the toolbox,
 - Enhance the toolbox with some further software functionalities such as to facilitate the use of gradients,
anisotropic diffusive filtering and computation of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies.
 - An associated GUT VCM tool for analyzing the GOCE variance covariance matrices.

  8. User Interface Goals, AI Opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Lieberman, Henry; Massachusetts Institute of Technology Media Lab

    2009-01-01

    This is an opinion piece about the relationship between the fields of human-computer interaction (HCI), and artificial intelligence (AI). The ultimate goal of both fields is to make user interfaces more effective and easier to use for people. But historically, they have disagreed about whether "intelligence" or "direct manipulation" is the better route to achieving this. There is an unjustified perception in HCI that AI is unreliable. There is an unjustified perception in AI that interfaces a...

  9. Social networks user: current research

    OpenAIRE

    Agadullina E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review current research studies focusing on the users of Facebook and their behaviors in social networks. This review is organized into two sections: 1) social-demographic characteristics (Age, Gender, Nationality); 2) personality characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness-to-Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Narcissism, Self-esteem). The results showed that the information in the personal profile and online behavior are strongly connect...

  10. User research & technology, pt.2

    CERN Document Server

    Greifeneder, Elke

    2011-01-01

    This e-book is Part 2 on the theme "User Research and Technology". The research covers the testing of online digital library resources using various methods. Library and information science as a field is changing and the requirements for top quality research are growing more stringent. This is typical of the experience of other professional fields as they have moved from practitioners advising practitioners to researchers building on past results. This e-book contains 12 papers on this theme.

  11. Social networks user: current research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agadullina E.R.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review current research studies focusing on the users of Facebook and their behaviors in social networks. This review is organized into two sections: 1 social-demographic characteristics (Age, Gender, Nationality; 2 personality characteristics (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness-to-Experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Narcissism, Self-esteem. The results showed that the information in the personal profile and online behavior are strongly connected with socio-demographic and personality characteristics

  12. Fifteenth LAMPF users group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fifteenth LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 2-3, 1981 at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physical Facility. The program of papers scheduled to be presented was amended to include a Report from Washington by Clarence R. Richardson, US Department of Energy. The general meeting ended with a round-table working group discussion concerning the Planning for a Kaon Factory. Individual items from the meeting were prepared separately for the data base

  13. User recognition in AAL environments

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, Ricardo; Novais, Paulo; Costa, Ângelo; Lima, Luís; Neves, José

    2010-01-01

    Healthcare projects that intend to decrease the economical and social costs of the real ageing population phenomenon, through the de-localisation of healthcare services delivery and management to the home, have been arising in the scientific community. The VirtualECare project is one of those, so called, Ambient Assisted Living environments, which we have taken a step forward with the introduction of proactive techniques for better adapting to its users, namely elderly or ch...

  14. SharePoint User's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Corporation, Infusion Development

    2009-01-01

    This straightforward guide shows SharePoint users how to create and use web sites for sharing and collaboration. Learn to use the document and picture libraries for adding and editing content, add discussion boards and surveys, receive alerts when documents and information have been added or changed, and enhance security. Designed to help you find answers quickly, the book shows how to make the most of SharePoint for productivity and collaboration.

  15. Fifteenth LAMPF users group meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, D.R.F. (comp.)

    1982-03-01

    The Fifteenth LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 2-3, 1981 at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physical Facility. The program of papers scheduled to be presented was amended to include a Report from Washington by Clarence R. Richardson, US Department of Energy. The general meeting ended with a round-table working group discussion concerning the Planning for a Kaon Factory. Individual items from the meeting were prepared separately for the data base.

  16. Economics of nuclear gas stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear stimulation of the Mesaverde Formation in the Piceance Basin appears to be the only available method that can release the contained gas economically. In the Rulison Field alone estimates show six to eight trillion cubic feet of gas may be made available by nuclear means, and possibly one hundred trillion cubic feet could be released in the Piceance Basin. Several problems remain to be solved before this tremendous gas reserve can be tapped. Among these are (1) rates of production following nuclear stimulation; (2) costs of nuclear stimulation; (3) radioactivity of the chimney gas; and (4) development of the ideal type of device to carry out the stimulations. Each of these problems is discussed in detail with possible solutions suggested. First and foremost is the rate at which gas can be delivered following nuclear stimulation. Calculations have been made for expected production behavior following a 5-kiloton device and a 40-kiloton device with different permeabilities. These are shown, along with conventional production history. The calculations show that rates of production will be sufficient if costs can be controlled. Costs of nuclear stimulation must be drastically reduced for a commercial process. Project Rulison will cost approximately $3.7 million, excluding lease costs, preliminary tests, and well costs. At such prices, nothing can possibly be commercial; however, these costs can come down in a logical step-wise fashion. Radiation contamination of the gas remains a problem. Three possible solutions to this problem are included. (author)

  17. Neuroprotection trek--the next generation: neuromodulation I. Techniques--deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Russell J.

    2003-01-01

    Neuromodulation denotes controlled electrical stimulation of the central or peripheral nervous system. The three forms of neuromodulation described in this paper-deep brain stimulation, vagus nerve stimulation, and transcranial magnetic stimulation-were chosen primarily for their demonstrated or potential clinical usefulness. Deep brain stimulation is a completely implanted technique for improving movement disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, by very focal electrical stimulation of the brain-a technique that employs well-established hardware (electrode and pulse generator/battery). Vagus nerve stimulation is similar to deep brain stimulation in being well-established (for the treatment of refractory epilepsy), completely implanted, and having hardware that can be considered standard at the present time. Vagus nerve stimulation differs from deep brain stimulation, however, in that afferent stimulation of the vagus nerve results in diffuse effects on many regions throughout the brain. Although use of deep brain stimulation for applications beyond movement disorders will no doubt involve placing the stimulating electrode(s) in regions other than the thalamus, subthalamus, or globus pallidus, the use of vagus nerve stimulation for applications beyond epilepsy-for example, depression and eating disorders-is unlikely to require altering the hardware significantly (although stimulation protocols may differ). Transcranial magnetic stimulation is an example of an external or non-implanted, intermittent (at least given the current state of the hardware) stimulation technique, the clinical value of which for neuromodulation and neuroprotection remains to be determined.

  18. Crack/cocaine users show more family problems than other substance users

    OpenAIRE

    Moura, Helena Ferreira; Benzano, Daniela; Pechansky, Flavio; Kessler, Felix Henrique Paim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate family problems among crack/cocaine users compared with alcohol and other substance users. METHODS: A cross-sectional multi-center study selected 741 current adult substance users from outpatient and inpatient Brazilian specialized clinics. Subjects were evaluated with the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index, and 293 crack users were compared with 126 cocaine snorters and 322 alcohol and other drug users. RESULTS: Cocaine users showed more family problems whe...

  19. Privatizing user credential information of Web services in a shared user environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Pinaki; Das, Rinku; Sundaram, Girish

    2013-01-01

    User credentials security is one of the most important tasks in Web World. Most Web sites on the Internet that support user accounts store the users credentials in a database. Now a days, most of the web browsers offer auto login feature for the favorite web sites such as yahoo, google, gmail etc. using these credential information. This facilitates the misuse of user credentials. Privatizing user credential information of web services in a shared user environment provides a feature enhanceme...

  20. Exploiting individual users and user groups interaction features: methodology and infrastructure design

    OpenAIRE

    Di Buccio, Emanuele; Melucci, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    The user may be a source of evidence for supporting infor- mation access through Digital Library (DL) systems. In particular, the features gathered while monitoring the interaction between the user and a DL system can be used as implicit indicators of the user interests. How- ever, each user has his own style of interaction and a feature which is a reliable indicator with regard to one user may be no longer reliable when referred to another user. This suggests the need to de...

  1. Do You Know Your Music Users' Needs? A Library User Survey that Helps Enhance a User-Centered Music Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Katie; Chan, Kylie

    2010-01-01

    While many surveys aim primarily at measuring general user satisfaction, this survey is dedicated to understanding music users' needs, usage patterns, and preferences towards various collections. Findings showed dissimilar use behavior and perceived importance of materials between academic- and performance-oriented music users. Needs for different…

  2. Concurrent use of amphetamine stimulants and antidepressants by undergraduate students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vo K

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Kim Vo,1 Patricia J Neafsey,2 Carolyn A Lin3 1University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, 2School of Nursing and Center for Health Information and Prevention, University of Connecticut, Storrs, 3Department of Communication Sciences and Center for Health Information and Prevention, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA Abstract: Undergraduate students were recruited to participate in an online survey to report their use of amphetamine stimulants and other drugs. Significant differences were found between students reporting (n=79; 4.0% and not reporting (n=1,897; 96% amphetamine-stimulant use in the past month – in terms of race/ethnicity, class standing, residence, health symptoms, self-health report – in addition to alcohol, tobacco, pain-reliever, and antidepressant use. Health symptoms reported more often by stimulant users included depression, diarrhea, difficulty sleeping, fatigue, dizziness, difficulty concentrating, and nicotine craving. Health care providers of college students should query these patients about symptoms that could be related to depression and amphetamine use. In particular, they should provide education at the point of care around the risks of amphetamine use in general and the specific risks in those students who have symptoms of depression and/or are taking antidepressant medication. Prevention programs should also target the risks of concurrent use of amphetamines, antidepressants, and other drugs among college students. Keywords: stimulant use, depression, college students, self-medication

  3. MAMA- User Feedback and Training Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ruggiero, Christy E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-21

    This document describes the current state of the MAMA (Morphological Analysis of Materials) software user identified bugs, issues, and requests for improvements. It also lists Current users and current training methods.

  4. An Authentication Framework for Nomadic Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    . This is probably best explained by considering password based authentication, where a user is actively involved in the process. If the time required to log in to an account is considered too high, users tend to leave their terminals logged in throughout the day and share their account with other users...... defeating the obstacle by leaving terminals logged in or choosing short and easy to type passwords. Therefore, a password based authentication mechanism, which is quite simple and secure in personal computing, has become too cumbersome for nomadic users, which means that other means of authentication must...... be developed for nomadic users. In this paper, we focus on usability of authentication for nomadic users in a ubiquitous computing environment. We identify requirements for authentication of nomadic users and propose an authentication framework for this class of users. A prototype of the proposed...

  5. User`s guide to ESME v. 8.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLachlan, J.

    1993-08-26

    ESME is a computer program to calculate the evolution of a distribution of particles in energy and azimuth as it is acted upon by the radio frequency system of a proton synchrotron. It provides for the modeling of multiple rf systems, feedback control, space charge, and many of the effects of longitudinal coupling impedance. The capabilities of the program are described, and the requirements for input data are specified in sufficient detail to permit significant calculations by an uninitiated user. The program is currently at version 8.1 and extensively modified since the previous user documentation. Changes since the 7.xx versions include a new command and associated parameters for mapping phase space flow lines, new names for a few parameters, and a few new parameters for old commands. Special attention has been given to features relating to calculation of the collective potential and the generation of phase space trajectories including its effects. The VAX-based code management convention has been modified slightly to permit pre-compile options to be used in the include files as well as the program source files. The biggest change from v. 8.0 to v. 8.1 is the addition of code for HIGZ-based graphics; the new code and that using DI3000/GRAFMAKER are alternatives selectable at compilation. Other changes relate to improved control of smoothing options in the calculation of collective potential, fourier spectra, and mountain range plots.

  6. Manufactured Home Energy Audit user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    The Manufactured Home Energy Audit (MHEA) is a software tool that predicts manufactured home energy consumption and recommends weatherization retrofit measures. It was developed to assist local weatherization agencies working with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program. Whether new or experienced, employed within or outside the Weatherization Assistance Program, all users can benefit from incorporating MHEA into their manufactured home weatherization programs. DOE anticipates that the state weatherization assistance programs that incorporate MHEA into their programs will find significant growth in the energy and cost savings achieved from manufactured home weatherization. The easy-to-use MHEA displays a colorful, graphical interface for entering simple inputs and provides understandable, usable results. The user enters information about the manufactured home construction, heating equipment, cooling equipment, and weather site. MHEA then calculates annual energy consumption using a simplified building energy analysis technique. MHEA stands apart from other building energy analysis tools in many ways. Calculations incorporated into the computer code specifically address manufactured home heating and cooling load trends. The retrofit measures evaluated by MHEA are all applicable to manufactured homes. Help messages describe common manufactured home weatherization practices as well as provide hints on how to install retrofit measures. These and other features help make MHEA easy to use when evaluating energy consumption and the effects of weatherization retrofit measures for manufactured homes.

  7. Reproducing American Sign Language Sentences: Cognitive Scaffolding in Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    TedSupalla; PeterHauser; DaphneBavelier

    2014-01-01

    The American Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (ASL-SRT) requires the precise reproduction of a series of ASL sentences increasing in complexity and length. Error analyses of such tasks provides insight into working memory and scaffolding processes. Data was collected from three groups expected to differ in fluency: deaf children, deaf adults and hearing adults, all users of ASL. Quantitative (correct/incorrect recall) and qualitative error analyses were performed. Percent correct on ...

  8. Substance Use Correlates of Depression among African American Male Inmates

    OpenAIRE

    Holliday, Rhonda Conerly; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Yancey, Elleen; Akintobi, Tabia; Stevens-Watkins, Danielle; Smith, Selina; Powell, C. Lamonte

    2016-01-01

    Substance use correlates of depressive symptoms among incarcerated adult male African American substance users were examined in the current study. Frequency of drug use was assessed with 12 items specific to an individual’s substance use. The Patient Depression Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess symptoms of depression. Approximately 90% of the sample displayed symptoms of depression ranging from minimal to severe. Regression models revealed that three substance use variables demonstrate...

  9. Improving user experience in StateCraft

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Christoph Mandler; Hellevang, Mathias

    2010-01-01

    User experience is an important aspect of game development, and techniques in Artificial Intelligence have been proved to increase the agent performance and have the potential to affect user experience in games. In this thesis, we aim to improve the user experience of the computer game known as StateCraft by extending the computer controlled opponent with the Emotion module and the Prisoner's Dilemma module. We conducted simulations and user tests to study the effects of these modules on the ...

  10. Pinterest Board Recommendation for Twitter Users

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xitong; Li, Yuncheng; Luo, Jiebo

    2015-01-01

    Pinboard on Pinterest is an emerging media to engage online social media users, on which users post online images for specific topics. Regardless of its significance, there is little previous work specifically to facilitate information discovery based on pinboards. This paper proposes a novel pinboard recommendation system for Twitter users. In order to associate contents from the two social media platforms, we propose to use MultiLabel classification to map Twitter user followees to pinboard...

  11. User Intent in Online Video Search

    OpenAIRE

    Kofler, C.

    2015-01-01

    Over the recent years, user expectations of the ability of video search engines have significantly risen. Users expect video search engines to be useful as an instrument that facilitates communication, education, entertainment and problem solving and, in relation to this, to satisfy diverse information needs. A user's information need is the lack that a user is attempting to overcome by engaging in information seeking behavior and can be seen as having two important dimensions: it comprises b...

  12. Users' reading habits in online news portals

    OpenAIRE

    Esiyok, Cagdas; Kille, Benjamin; Jain, Brijnesh Johannes; Hopfgartner, Frank; Albayrak, Sahin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to survey reading habits of users of an online news portal. The assumption motivating this study is that insight into the reading habits of users can be helpful to design better news recommendation systems. We estimated the transition probabilities that users who read an article of one news category will move to read an article of another (not necessarily distinct) news category. For this, we analyzed the users' click behavior within plista data set. Key findings are ...

  13. Twitter User Classification using Ambient Metadata

    OpenAIRE

    Nagpal, Chirag; Singhal, Khushboo

    2014-01-01

    Microblogging websites, especially Twitter have become an important means of communication, in today's time. Often these services have been found to be faster than conventional news services. With millions of users, a need was felt to classify users based on ambient metadata associated with their user accounts. We particularly look at the effectiveness of the profile description field in order to carry out the task of user classification. Our results show that such metadata can be an effectiv...

  14. Context aware adaptation of user interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Genaro Motti, Vivian; Vanderdonckt, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Context-aware Adaptation (CAA) of user interfaces involves the identification of the relevant context information that surrounds the user during her interaction in order to properly adapt elements of an interactive system aiming at enhancing the end user interaction. The main goals of CAA are improving the usability levels of the system by using the relevant information of the user context to properly transform a system.In this special issue the authors are presenting various model-based appr...

  15. User and Performance Impacts from Franklin Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yun (Helen)

    2009-05-10

    The NERSC flagship computer Cray XT4 system"Franklin" has gone through three major upgrades: quad core upgrade, CLE 2.1 upgrade, and IO upgrade, during the past year. In this paper, we will discuss the various aspects of the user impacts such as user access, user environment, and user issues etc from these upgrades. The performance impacts on the kernel benchmarks and selected application benchmarks will also be presented.

  16. Capturing information need by learning user context

    OpenAIRE

    Goker, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    Learning techniques can be applied to help information retrieval systems adapt to users' specific needs. They can be used to learn from user searches to improve subsequent searches. This paper describes the approach taken to learn about particular users' contexts in order to improve document ranking produced by a probabilistic information retrieval system. The approach is based on the argument that there is a pattern in user queries in that they tend to remain within a particular context over...

  17. Evaluating Web Usability from the User's Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hema Banati; Punam Bedi; Grover, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    The presence of multiple websites offering similar services has changed the user outlook. The user now prefers to visit those sites, which are easy to use. Many different methods have been proposed to measure usability of a website. The quantitative methods focus on the performance measurement of the website whereas the qualitative methods estimate the user's opinion of a website. However none of these specify measurement of the human emotions; the emotional experiences of the user during the...

  18. Improving the User Experience of Finding and Visualizing Oceanographic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, S.; Allison, M. D.; Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C. L.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Kinkade, D.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    users to construct their own custom searches by applying multiple filters. New filtering and visualization tools are continually being added to the BCO-DMO system as new data types are encountered and as we receive feedback from our data contributors and users. As our system becomes more complex, teaching users about the many interactive features becomes increasingly important. Tutorials and videos are made available online. Recent in-person classroom-style tutorials have proven useful for both demonstrating our system to users and for obtaining feedback to further improve the user experience. References: [1] University of Minnesota. MapServer: Open source web mapping. http://www.mapserver.org [2] OpenLayers: Free Maps for the Web. http://www.openlayers.org [3] Sencha. ExtJS. http://www.sencha.com/products/extjs [4] MySQL. http://www.mysql.com/ [5] Maffei, A. R., Rozell, E. A., West, P., Zednik, S., and Fox, P. A. 2011. Open Standards and Technologies in the S2S Framework. Abstract IN31A-1435 presented at American Geophysical Union 2011 Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, 7 December 2011.

  19. Deep brain stimulation: new techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariz, Marwan

    2014-01-01

    The technology of the hardware used in deep brain stimulation (DBS), and the mode of delivering the stimulation have not significantly evolved since the start of the modern era of DBS 25 years ago. However, new technology is now being developed along several avenues. New features of the implantable pulse generator (IPG) allow fractionation of the electric current into variable proportions between different contacts of the multi-polar lead. Another design consists in leads that allow selective current steering from directionally placed electrode contacts that would deliver the stimulation in a specific direction or even create a directional shaped electric field that would conform to the anatomy of the brain target aimed at, avoiding adjacent structures, and thus avoiding side effects. Closed loop adaptive stimulation technologies are being developed, allowing a tracking of the pathological local field potential of the brain target, and delivering automatically the stimulation to suppress the pathological activity as soon as it is detected and for as long as needed. This feature may contribute to a DBS therapy "on demand", instead of continuously. Finally, advances in imaging technology are providing "new" brain targets, and increasingly allowing DBS to be performed accurately while avoiding the risks of microelectrode recording. PMID:24262179

  20. TO ALL CERN GSM USERS

    CERN Multimedia

    1999-01-01

    Due to modifications introduced by SWISSCOM to their GSM network, the following changes will be made on Monday 5 July 1999:the CERN Closed User Group (CUG) area will extend to the whole of Switzerland for a period of approximately 3 monthsthe prefixes 0 and/or 11, hitherto used by authorised subscribers to make outside calls via the CERN telephone exchange, will be replaced by the prefix 22.Further information can be obtained on the Web at the following URL:http://nicewww.cern.ch/st/el/telecom/GSMopE.htm

  1. User Participation in Pilot Implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkilsheyggi, Arnvør Martinsdóttir á; Hertzum, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Pilot implementations provide users with real-work experiences of how a system will affect their daily work before the design of the system is finalized. On the basis of a pilot implementation of a system for coordinating the transport of patients by hospital porters, we investigate pilot...... the use of the pilot system because the porters and nurses learned about their needs throughout the pilot implementation, not just during use. Finally, we discuss how the scope and duration of a pilot implementation influence the conditions for participation....

  2. New users of antipsychotic medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baandrup, L; Kruse, M

    2016-01-01

    patterns and labor market affiliation, considering both authority approved and off-label prescriptions and the relation to polypharmacy. METHODS: Register-based cohort study using a dataset of 71,254 new antipsychotic users with a psychiatric diagnosis. Labor market affiliation and duration of welfare...... received welfare payments for prolonged periods of time during the observation period, even more so for individuals treated with antipsychotic polypharmacy or other antipsychotic combination regimens. The risk of permanently leaving the labor market was also associated with antipsychotic combination...

  3. Hanford inventory program user's manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provides users with instructions and information about accessing and operating the Hanford Inventory Program (HIP) system. The Hanford Inventory Program is an integrated control system that provides a single source for the management and control of equipment, parts, and material warehoused by Westinghouse Hanford Company in various site-wide locations. The inventory is comprised of spare parts and equipment, shop stock, special tools, essential materials, and convenience storage items. The HIP replaced the following systems; ACA, ASP, PICS, FSP, WSR, STP, and RBO. In addition, HIP manages the catalog maintenance function for the General Supplies inventory stocked in the 1164 building and managed by WIMS

  4. Visual User Interface for PDAs

    OpenAIRE

    Ricknäs, Daniel; Stam, Frida

    2003-01-01

    This report is a part of a diploma work, conducted as a part of a Master of Science degree. The diploma work consists of a preliminary study, two case studies, a user study, a paper and this report. It was created at the Linköping University for the department of Science and Technology, in cooperation with Unilever Research in the UK, and partly with the EC founded project, Smartdoc IST-2000-28137. Hand-held, mobile devices like Personal Digital Assistances (PDAs) are becoming increasingly p...

  5. MRDAP User/Developer Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshua Cogliati; Michael Milvich

    2009-09-01

    The Multi-Reactor Design and Analysis Platform (MRDAP) is designed to simplify the creation, transfer and processing of data between computational codes. MRDAP accomplishes these objectives with three parts: 1. allows each integrated code, through a plugin, to specify the required input for execution and the required output needed, 2. creates an interface for execution and data transfer, 3. enables the creation of Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) to assist with input preparation and data visualization. Ultimately, the main motivation of this work is to enable analysts (who perform reactor physics calculations routinely), by providing a tool that increases efficiency and minimizes the potential for errors or failed executions.

  6. User manual of UNF code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UNF code (2001 version) written in FORTRAN-90 is developed for calculating fast neutron reaction data of structure materials with incident energies from about 1 Kev up to 20 Mev. The code consists of the spherical optical model, the unified Hauser-Feshbach and exciton model. The man nal of the UNF code is available for users. The format of the input parameter files and the output files, as well as the functions of flag used in UNF code, are introduced in detail, and the examples of the format of input parameters files are given

  7. Power reserves at end users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper puts the attention to power reserves at end users. As a result of entered export obligations of power by inter-connecting the Norwegian hydroelectric power system and thermal power generating systems on the Continent, there is expected to be a shortage of electric power supply in Norway. In this connection, the paper evaluates and describes some typical types of loads suited for power control. The execution on how to control these loads is discussed. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  8. A user's guide to ellipsometry

    CERN Document Server

    Tompkins, Harland G

    1992-01-01

    This book is specifically designed for the user who wishes expanded use of ellipsometry beyond the relatively limited number of turn-key applications. The book provides a concise discussion of theory and instrumentation before describing how to use optical parameters to determine material properties and optical parameters for inaccessible substrates and unknown films, and how to measure extremely thin films. The book also addresses polysilicon, a material commonly used in the microelectronics industry, and the effect of substrate roughness. This book's concepts and applications are reinforced

  9. Coordinating user interfaces for consistency

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Jakob

    2001-01-01

    In the years since Jakob Nielsen's classic collection on interface consistency first appeared, much has changed, and much has stayed the same. On the one hand, there's been exponential growth in the opportunities for following or disregarding the principles of interface consistency-more computers, more applications, more users, and of course the vast expanse of the Web. On the other, there are the principles themselves, as persistent and as valuable as ever. In these contributed chapters, you'll find details on many methods for seeking and enforcing consistency, along with bottom-line analys

  10. Coping with Loneliness: Young Adult Drug Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokach, Ami; Orzeck, Tricia

    Since there appears to be a connection between substance use (and abuse) and loneliness it is of theoretical and clinical interest to explore the differences of coping with loneliness which drug users employ. The present study examined the manner in which MDMA (Ecstasy) users in comparison with non-MDMA (Non-Ecstasy) users and the general…

  11. Soil classifcation and user-friendly soilmaps

    OpenAIRE

    Nyborg, Åge Arild; Olsen, Hilde

    2016-01-01

    Soil names from the soil classi cation systems are too complicated to decipher for most of our soil map users. To reach out to potential users of soil information, apart from people working with soil erosion related issues, we translated WRB unit names into user friendly map information, that shows soil quality and limiting soil properties on farmland.

  12. Let Your Users Do the Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Anders; Gull, Peter; Hofmeister, Lene;

    2009-01-01

    Remote asynchronous usability testing is characterized by both a spatial and temporal separation of users and evaluators. This has the potential both to reduce practical problems with securing user attendance and to allow direct involvement of users in usability testing. In this paper, we report ...

  13. User studies for digital library development

    CERN Document Server

    Dobreva, Milena; Feliciati, Pierluigi

    2012-01-01

    As the information environment becomes increasingly electronic, digital libraries have proliferated, but the focus has often been on innovations in technology and not the user. This title provides a clear overview of the user studies domain and user issues in digital libraries.

  14. Second Language Users and Emerging English Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jay

    2009-01-01

    As English spreads as an international language, it evolves through diverse users' writing and speaking. However, traditional views of ESL users focus on their distance from fairly static notions of English-language competence. This research uses a grounded theory approach to describe a range of competencies that emerge in ESL users' interactions…

  15. Pan American physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early in January, a unique meeting of Latin American physicists took place at Cocoyoc in Mexico. Apart from a strong summer school programme, the last time so many Latin American institutions got together was more than ten years ago. The meeting had about 50 attendees with strong representations from the US, Brazil and Mexico. The meeting was designed with two objectives — to review the substance, current status and future expectations of high energy particle physics, and to survey the state of physics research and education in Latin America and explore the possibilities of increased collaboration with the US, consistent with the idea of a host US Laboratory

  16. The process of paradoxical autonomy and survival in the heroin careers of Mexican American women

    OpenAIRE

    Valdez, Avelardo; Kaplan, Charles D.; Cepeda, Alice

    2000-01-01

    This study focuses on the process of paradoxical autonomy and survival in the heroin careers of Mexican American women. We explore how gender roles among Mexican American female heroin users influence the emergence of a paradoxical autonomy. Five key subprocesses of this autonomy were identified from 14 life history narratives: sustaining employment, working the welfare system, illegal activities, emotional aloofness, and loss of family and children. Dependency on drugs did not lead simply to...

  17. Action research through stimulated recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, John

    1993-12-01

    The emphasis in classroom learning research has moved from process-product models to the mediating process paradigm. The stimulated-recall interview and thik aloud techniques are the two main processes that have been used in attempts to find out what goes on inside students' heads while they are learning. For example, this researcher has used the stimulated-recall interview technique to identify the workplace thinking of a marine science researcher, and the in-class thinking of a year eleven biology student. Such studies as these have produced findings with important implications for the classroom teacher in the role of action researcher. This paper describes how to conduct stimulated-recall interviews and discusses some classroom implications from the two studies.

  18. Shared neural basis of social and non-social reward deficits in chronic cocaine users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobler, Philippe N; Preller, Katrin H; Campbell-Meiklejohn, Daniel K; Kirschner, Matthias; Kraehenmann, Rainer; Stämpfli, Philipp; Herdener, Marcus; Seifritz, Erich; Quednow, Boris B

    2016-06-01

    Changed reward functions have been proposed as a core feature of stimulant addiction, typically observed as reduced neural responses to non-drug-related rewards. However, it was unclear yet how specific this deficit is for different types of non-drug rewards arising from social and non-social reinforcements. We used functional neuroimaging in cocaine users to investigate explicit social reward as modeled by agreement of music preferences with music experts. In addition, we investigated non-social reward as modeled by winning desired music pieces. The study included 17 chronic cocaine users and 17 matched stimulant-naive healthy controls. Cocaine users, compared with controls, showed blunted neural responses to both social and non-social reward. Activation differences were located in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex overlapping for both reward types and, thus, suggesting a non-specific deficit in the processing of non-drug rewards. Interestingly, in the posterior lateral orbitofrontal cortex, social reward responses of cocaine users decreased with the degree to which they were influenced by social feedback from the experts, a response pattern that was opposite to that observed in healthy controls. The present results suggest that cocaine users likely suffer from a generalized impairment in value representation as well as from an aberrant processing of social feedback. PMID:26969866

  19. Health status of ayahuasca users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Paulo Cesar Ribeiro; Mizumoto, Suely; Bogenschutz, Michael P; Strassman, Rick J

    2012-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a psychedelic brew originally used for magico-religious purposes by Amerindian populations of the western Amazon Basin. Throughout the last four decades, the use of ayahuasca spread towards major cities in all regions of Brazil and abroad. This trend has raised concerns that regular use of this N,N-dimethyltryptamine- and harmala-alkaloid-containing tea may lead to mental and physical health problems associated typically with drug abuse. To further elucidate the mental and physical health of ayahuasca users, we conducted a literature search in the international medical PubMed database. Inclusion criteria were evaluation of any related effect of ayahuasca use that occurred after the resolution of acute effects of the brew. Fifteen publications were related to emotional, cognitive, and physical health of ayahuasca users. The accumulated data suggest that ayahuasca use is safe and may even be, under certain conditions, beneficial. However, methodological bias of the reviewed studies might have contributed to the preponderance of beneficial effects and to the few adverse effects reported. The data up to now do not appear to allow for definitive conclusions to be drawn on the effects of ayahuasca use on mental and physical health, but some studies point in the direction of beneficial effects. Additional studies are suggested to provide further clarification. PMID:22761152

  20. Deep brain stimulation: Current status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, applications of deep brain stimulation (DBS have expanded rapidly in the field of neurosciences. The most common indications for DBS are Parkinson′s disease, medically refractory seizures, essential tremors, and primary dystonia. This device has also been used as an investigational tool in patients having Tourette′s syndrome, tardive dyskinesia, and refractory seizures. In the field of psychiatry, DBS has been used for the treatment of refractory obsessive compulsive disorder and depression. The complications are mainly related to surgery, the device, and its stimulation. This article provides an overview of the current status and recent advances in the field of DBS.

  1. The Chaco user`s guide. Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-11-01

    Graph partitioning is a fundamental problem in many scientific settings. This document describes the capabilities and operation of Chaco, a software package designed to partition graphs. Chaco allows for recursive application of any of several different methods for finding small edge separators in weighted graphs. These methods include inertial, spectral, Kernighan-Lin and multilevel methods in addition to several simpler strategies. Each of these methods can be used to partition the graph into two, four or eight pieces at each level of recursion. In addition, the Kernighan-Lin method can be used to improve partitions generated by any of the other methods. Brief descriptions of these methods are provided, along with references to relevant literature. The user interface, input/output formats and appropriate settings for a variety of code parameters are discussed in detail, and some suggestions on algorithm selection are offered.

  2. Trajectory analysis and optimization system (TAOS) user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salguero, D.E.

    1995-12-01

    The Trajectory Analysis and Optimization System (TAOS) is software that simulates point--mass trajectories for multiple vehicles. It expands upon the capabilities of the Trajectory Simulation and Analysis program (TAP) developed previously at Sandia National Laboratories. TAOS is designed to be a comprehensive analysis tool capable of analyzing nearly any type of three degree-of-freedom, point-mass trajectory. Trajectories are broken into segments, and within each segment, guidance rules provided by the user control how the trajectory is computed. Parametric optimization provides a powerful method for satisfying mission-planning constraints. Althrough TAOS is not interactive, its input and output files have been designed for ease of use. When compared to TAP, the capability to analyze trajectories for more than one vehicle is the primary enhancement, although numerous other small improvements have been made. This report documents the methods used in TAOS as well as the input and output file formats.

  3. Interpulse interval discrimination within and across channels: comparison of monopolar and tripolar mode of stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielden, Claire A; Kluk, Karolina; McKay, Colette M

    2014-05-01

    Perception of temporal patterns is crucial to speech understanding and music perception in normal hearing, and is fundamental in the design and implementation of processing strategies for cochlear implants. Two experiments described here investigated the effect of stimulation mode (monopolar versus tripolar) on interpulse interval discrimination using single-electrode stimulation (experiment 1) and dual-electrode stimulation (experiment 2). Experiment 1 required participants to discriminate stimuli containing different interpulse intervals and experiment 2 required listeners to discriminate between two dual-electrode stimuli that had the same temporal pattern on each electrode, but differed in inter-electrode timing. The hypotheses were that (i) stimulation mode would affect the ability to distinguish interpulse interval patterns on a single electrode and (ii) the electrode separation range in which subjects were sensitive to inter-electrode timing would be more restricted in tripolar than in monopolar stimulation. Results in nine cochlear implant users showed that mode did not have a significant mean effect on either the ability to discriminate interpulse intervals in single-electrode stimulation or the range of electrode separation in dual-electrode stimulation in which participants were sensitive to inter-electrode timing. In conclusion, tripolar stimulation did not show any advantage in delivering temporal information within or across channels in this group. PMID:24815271

  4. Multi-user data acquisition environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The typical data acquisition environment involves data collection and monitoring by a single user. However, in order to support experiments on the Mars facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have had to create a multi-user data acquisition environment where any user can control the data acquisition and several users can monitor and analyze data being collected in real time. This paper describes how we accomplished this on an HP A600 computer. It focuses on the overall system description and user communication with the tasks within the system. Our current implementation is one phase of a long-term software development project

  5. User fluctuation in communities: a forum case

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushyna, Zinayida

    2016-01-01

    Understanding fluctuation of users help stakeholders to provide a better support to communities. Below we present an experiment where we detect communities, their evolution and based on the data characterize users that stay, leave or join a community. Using a resulted feature set and logistic regression we operate with models of users that are joining and users that are staying in a community. In the related work we emphasize a number of features we will include in our future experiments to enhance train accuracy. This work represents a ?first from a series of experiments devoted to user fluctuation in communities.

  6. 5G Visions of User Privacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Khajuria, Samant; Skouby, Knud Erik

    2015-01-01

    Currently, the discussions are going on the elements and definition of 5G networks. One of the elements in this discussion is how to provide for user controlled privacy for securing users' digital interaction. The purpose of this paper is to present elements of user controlled privacy needed for...... the future 5G networks. The paper concludes that an ecosystem consisting of Trusted Third Party between the end user and the service providers as a distributed system could be integrated to secure the perspective of user controlled privacy for future systems...

  7. Novel autostereoscopic single-user displays with user interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Klaus; Chojecki, Paul; Neumannn, Frank; Przewozny, David

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes recent advances in the field of autostereoscopic display development and introduces an appropriate integration of a novel user interaction technology. Beside technical aspects of the developed autostereoscopic display technology, the paper includes topics of our video-based interaction technique and introduces promising applications of autostereoscopic single user displays. Based on results of the European ATTEST project, the Fraunhofer Institute for Telecommunications (HHI) has developed the Free2C 3D display technology, which provides free positioning of a single viewer. The optics of the Free2C displays is designed such that extremely low crosstalk, excellent color reproduction and high brightness are achieved. Simple and intuitive interaction is a requirement for multi-modal 3D displays. For this reason, a novel technology has been integrated into the control console that can recognize a persons' hand and its gestures. Displayed 3D objects floating in front of the screen can be rotated by simple gestures and virtual buttons can be pressed by pointing at them (virtual 3D touch screen). Several applications are currently used by customers and have been presented at trade shows, exhibitions and showrooms. Feasible applications are based on computer generated content, live video created by stereoscopic cameras and films stored on hard disk. Immersive media presentations are one promising application for attractive stereoscopic representations. The Free2C Kiosk and the 3D Media Center combine a high-resolution autostereoscopic 3D display with a video-based hand-gesture recognition device for direct manipulation of virtual 3D objects floating in front of the screen.

  8. Parallel community climate model: Description and user`s guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, J.B.; Flanery, R.E.; Semeraro, B.D.; Worley, P.H. [and others

    1996-07-15

    This report gives an overview of a parallel version of the NCAR Community Climate Model, CCM2, implemented for MIMD massively parallel computers using a message-passing programming paradigm. The parallel implementation was developed on an Intel iPSC/860 with 128 processors and on the Intel Delta with 512 processors, and the initial target platform for the production version of the code is the Intel Paragon with 2048 processors. Because the implementation uses a standard, portable message-passing libraries, the code has been easily ported to other multiprocessors supporting a message-passing programming paradigm. The parallelization strategy used is to decompose the problem domain into geographical patches and assign each processor the computation associated with a distinct subset of the patches. With this decomposition, the physics calculations involve only grid points and data local to a processor and are performed in parallel. Using parallel algorithms developed for the semi-Lagrangian transport, the fast Fourier transform and the Legendre transform, both physics and dynamics are computed in parallel with minimal data movement and modest change to the original CCM2 source code. Sequential or parallel history tapes are written and input files (in history tape format) are read sequentially by the parallel code to promote compatibility with production use of the model on other computer systems. A validation exercise has been performed with the parallel code and is detailed along with some performance numbers on the Intel Paragon and the IBM SP2. A discussion of reproducibility of results is included. A user`s guide for the PCCM2 version 2.1 on the various parallel machines completes the report. Procedures for compilation, setup and execution are given. A discussion of code internals is included for those who may wish to modify and use the program in their own research.

  9. American Indian Perspectives of Euro-American Counseling Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokken, Jayne M.; Twohey, Denise

    2004-01-01

    Thirteen American Indians participated in 17 counseling interviews with Euro-American counselors. The study analyzed interviews of American Indian participants using Interpersonal Process Recall (IPR). Counselor trustworthiness, which was increased by counselor empathy, genuineness, concern, self-disclosure, and slow pace of problem…

  10. Chemosensory stimulation during sleep - Arousal responses to gustatory stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuck, B A; Moutsis, T T; Bingel, U; Sommer, J U

    2016-05-13

    The processing of nociceptive, visual, vibrotactile, thermal and acoustic stimuli during sleep has been extensively investigated in the past. Recently, interest has focused on the impact of olfactory stimulation on sleep. In contrast to all other sensory systems, olfactory stimulation does not lead to an increased arousal frequency, regardless of hedonicity and concentration. The impact of the second chemosensory system, gustation, on sleep however has not been investigated to date. Twenty-one normosmic and normogeusic volunteers of both genders, aged 19-33years, participated in the trial. Stimulation was performed with a gustometer using the following aqueous solutions: saccharose 20% (sweet), sodium chloride (NaCl) 7.5% (salty), citrate 5% (sour), and quinine 0.02% (bitter). A tasteless solution was used as negative control. Capsaicin, a strong trigeminal stimulus, served as positive control. Primary outcome was arousal frequency per stimulus in each sleep stage, as assessed with polysomnography. The frequency of arousals decreased in deeper sleep stages (N1: 211 arousals of 333 stimuli=63%, N2: 676/2728=25%, N3: 43/1378=3%, REM: 57/1010=6%). Statistically significant differences in terms of arousal frequency were found in N2 between the negative control and NaCl 100μl (pCapsaicin led to complete awakenings in 94% of stimuli (30/32). These results demonstrate that gustatory stimulation during sleep induces arousals depending on stimulus intensity and sleep stage, which is different to olfactory stimulation and may be related to differences in central processing of the two chemosensory systems. PMID:26921652

  11. A monoclonal thyroid-stimulating antibody

    OpenAIRE

    Ando, Takao; Latif, Rauf; Pritsker, Alla; Moran, Thomas; Nagayama, Yuji; Davies, Terry F.

    2002-01-01

    The thyrotropin receptor, also known as the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), is the primary antigen of Graves disease. Stimulating TSHR antibodies are the cause of thyroid overstimulation and were originally called long-acting thyroid stimulators due to their prolonged action. Here we report the successful cloning and characterization of a monoclonal antibody (MS-1) with TSHR-stimulating activity. The thyroid-stimulating activity of MS-1 was evident at IgG concentrations as low as...

  12. Collaborative Filtering Recommendation on Users' Interest Sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Weijie; Yin, Guisheng; Dong, Yuxin; Dong, Hongbin; Zhang, Wansong

    2016-01-01

    As an important factor for improving recommendations, time information has been introduced to model users' dynamic preferences in many papers. However, the sequence of users' behaviour is rarely studied in recommender systems. Due to the users' unique behavior evolution patterns and personalized interest transitions among items, users' similarity in sequential dimension should be introduced to further distinguish users' preferences and interests. In this paper, we propose a new collaborative filtering recommendation method based on users' interest sequences (IS) that rank users' ratings or other online behaviors according to the timestamps when they occurred. This method extracts the semantics hidden in the interest sequences by the length of users' longest common sub-IS (LCSIS) and the count of users' total common sub-IS (ACSIS). Then, these semantics are utilized to obtain users' IS-based similarities and, further, to refine the similarities acquired from traditional collaborative filtering approaches. With these updated similarities, transition characteristics and dynamic evolution patterns of users' preferences are considered. Our new proposed method was compared with state-of-the-art time-aware collaborative filtering algorithms on datasets MovieLens, Flixster and Ciao. The experimental results validate that the proposed recommendation method is effective and outperforms several existing algorithms in the accuracy of rating prediction. PMID:27195787

  13. Native Americans: Subject Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonanni, Mimmo; Etter, Patricia A.

    This annotated subject guide lists reference material that deals with Native Americans and is available in the Arizona State University Libraries. Entries were published 1933-98, but mostly in the 1980s-90s. The guide is not comprehensive, but rather a selective list of resources useful for researching a topic in a variety of fields. The guide…

  14. American Macular Degeneration Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Macular Degeneration The Eye as a Camera Anatomy of a Normal Human Eye ADA and Your Legal Protection AMD Treatment ... Amsler Grid Ten Questions to Ask Your Doctor Anatomy of a Normal Human Eye Disclaimer Privacy Policy Americans with Disabilities Act ...

  15. American Indian Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momaday, Natachee Scott

    Twenty-six selections by 15 contemporary American Indian authors are given in this book. The selections--legends, ceremonial chants and prayers, poems, and stories--are accompanied by topics for discussion. Some of the selections deal with the supernatural, and some tell an actual story about the author. Pictures and short biographies of each…

  16. American Overseas Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Robert J., Ed.; Duke, Charles R., Ed.

    A compilation of articles examines the similarities and differences of educational administration in schools for American students overseas. The "Introductions and Orientations" section includes: "The Association for the Advancement of International Education" (Lewis A. Grell); "The Office of Overseas Schools of the United States Department of…

  17. Unionism and American Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Joel

    Organized labor in the United States has been divided in the types of economic solutions it has sought for the working class and in the type of support it has given education. In terms of education, rightwing unionism has tended to accept the basic structure of American education and the general ideology of equality of opportunity. Leftwing…

  18. Gifted Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Margie K.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an analysis of personal, socialization, and structural factors affecting the lifespan achievement of 15 Asian American women identified as gifted. Their families' intense focus on educational achievement and hard work are described, and the need for better preparation to overcome obstacles in the workplace is discussed. (Author/CR)

  19. American College of Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American College of Radiology JOIN ACR Login About Us Media Center Contact Us Follow us Shopping Cart (0) ACR Catalog Donate My ACR ... Education Center eLearning Exams & Assessments MOC Marketplace AIRP™ Radiology Leadership Institute ® Quality & Safety Accreditation Appropriateness Criteria® Practice ...

  20. BYD's American Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chinese automaker BYD Co.Ltd.repeated its goal of selling electric vehicles in the United States during its third appearance at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit this year.But unlike previous years,BYD gained ground in its efforts to promote electric cars.