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Sample records for american statistical association

  1. Past and future American Psychological Association guidelines for statistical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finch, S; Thomason, N; Cumming, G

    2002-01-01

    We review the publication guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) since 1929 and document their advice for authors about statistical practice. Although the advice has been extended with each revision of the guidelines, it has largely focused on null hypothesis significance testing

  2. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol; Naishadham, Deepa; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-05-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society estimates the number of new cancer cases and deaths for African Americans and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, and screening prevalence based upon incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. It is estimated that 176,620 new cases of cancer and 64,880 deaths will occur among African Americans in 2013. From 2000 to 2009, the overall cancer death rate among males declined faster among African Americans than whites (2.4% vs 1.7% per year), but among females, the rate of decline was similar (1.5% vs 1.4% per year, respectively). The decrease in cancer death rates among African American males was the largest of any racial or ethnic group. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of nearly 200,000 deaths from cancer among African Americans. Five-year relative survival is lower for African Americans than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Overall, progress in reducing cancer death rates has been made, although more can and should be done to accelerate this progress through ensuring equitable access to cancer prevention, early detection, and state-of-the-art treatments. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  3. American Medical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AMA Wire For healthy individual market, keep tax rules that spur coverage Senate tax plan would scrap ... Foundation AMA Insurance Copyright 1995 - 2017 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. Terms of Use Privacy Policy ...

  4. American Pediatric Surgical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Pediatric Surgical Association Search for: Login Resources + For Members For Professionals For Training Program Directors For Media For ... Surgical Outcomes Surveys & Results Publications Continuing Education + ExPERT Pediatric Surgery NaT Annual Meeting CME MOC Requirements Residents / ...

  5. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancer Statistics Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ...

  6. Post electrical or lightning injury syndrome: a proposal for an American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual formulation with implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Christopher J; Reisner, Andrew D; Cooper, Mary Ann

    2017-09-01

    In the past, victims of electrical and lightning injuries have been assessed in a manner lacking a systematic formulation, and against ad hoc criteria, particularly in the area of neuropsychological disability. In this manner patients have, for example, only been partially treated, been poorly or incorrectly diagnosed, and have been denied the full benefit of compensation for their injuries. This paper contains a proposal for diagnostic criteria particularly for the neuropsychological aspects of the post injury syndrome. It pays attention to widely published consistent descriptions of the syndrome, and a new cluster analysis of post electrical injury patients. It formulates a proposal which could be incorporated into future editions of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). The major neuropsychological consequences include neurocognitive dysfunction, and memory subgroup dysfunction, with ongoing consequences, and sometimes including progressive or delayed psychiatric, cognitive, and/or neurological symptoms. The proposed diagnostic criteria insist on a demonstrated context for the injury, both specifying the shock circumstance, and also physical consequences. It allows for a certain delay in onset of symptoms. It recognizes exclusory conditions. The outcome is a proposal for a DSM classification for the post electrical or lightning injury syndrome. This proposal is considered important for grounding patient treatment, and for further treatment trials. Options for treatment in electrical or lightning injury are summarised, and future trials are foreshadowed.

  7. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  8. American Heart Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Americans live with heart disease, stroke or a cardiovascular condition. Your donation will help us save and improve their lives with research, education and emergency care. Warning Signs If you or someone else is ...

  9. Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS): 1995. Selected Papers Presented at the Meeting of the American Statistical Association (Orlando, Florida, August 13-17, 1996). Working Paper Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Center for Education Statistics (ED), Washington, DC.

    The papers were presented at the Social Statistics Section, the Government Statistics Section, and the Section on Survey Research Methods. The following papers are included in the Social Statistics Section and Government Statistics Section, "Overcoming the Bureaucratic Paradigm: Memorial Session in Honor of Roger Herriot": "1995…

  10. American Osteopathic Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us A A A Advancing the distinctive philosophy and practice of osteopathic medicine Inside the AOA About the AOA AOA Member Value AOA Membership AOA Annual Statistics Leadership & Policy Employment Opportunities Related Organizations AOA Strategic Plan History ...

  11. American Nephrology Nurses' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association About ANNA Association About ANNA Strategic Plan Constitution and Bylaws Organizational Chart Fact Sheet History The ... Jobs Find a Job Information for Advertisers Health Policy Health Policy Health Policy Handbook Resources and Tools ...

  12. American Public Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... faculty at @PBRCNews! Thanks to co-… Most food advertising to kids remains unhealthy, says @uconnruddcenter: https://t.co/wlWhLnwuEA Follow us on Twitter PH Jobs Coalition Development Associate | Community Anti-Drug ...

  13. American Psychological Association annual report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Presents the 2009 American Psychological Association annual report. It highlights a very important year for APA and psychology by summarizing activities within each directorate. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology-and the unique skills of psychologists-to the attention of the public. This report aims to give insight into the contributions psychologists make to our communities and our country. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. Association of American Indian Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the OMH website Tribal Stories Needed for CDC Museum Exhibition Stories should highlight how Native traditions and ... of American Indian Physicians. Website designed by Back40 Design & managed by Javelin CMS

  15. American Health Information Management Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Government Corporate & Government Training Signature Partners Sponsorship Exhibitors Advertise With AHIMA Copyright & Permissions Privacy Policy RSS LinkedIn Facebook Twitter YouTube Copyright © 2017 by The American Health ...

  16. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Position Statements Publications Bookstore American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry Legislative & Regulatory Agenda AAGP eNews (Members Only) Tools ... Funding Training Resources and Curricula For Clinicians >> Geriatric Psychiatry Identifier Webinar: Billing and Coding Consumer Material Clinical ...

  17. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Online Store Workplace Health & Safety Journal Awards & Recognition Occupational Health Nurses Week Member Discounts Monthly Newsletter Foundation About ... effective January 1, 2018. The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. is the primary association for the ...

  18. American Art Therapy Association, Inc.: 2013 Membership Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, David E.; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    The American Art Therapy Association (AATA) surveys its members biennially to collect data regarding membership demographics as well as variables concerning the work environment for art therapists. These surveys can provide a detailed description of these characteristics and how they may change over time. This article statistically compares the…

  19. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  20. Climate change estimates of South American riverflow through statistical downscaling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, W

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available projections are assimilated into a linear statistical model in order to produce an ensemble of downscaled riverflows in the La Plata Basin and in southern-central Chile. The statistical model uses atmospheric circulation fields (geopotential heights at the 200...

  1. Selected Statistics on the Status of Asian-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Pauline; Cabezas, Amado

    1977-01-01

    Taken from a paper on "The Economic and Employment Status of Asian Women in America" by Pauline Fong and Amado Cabezas of ASIAN, Inc., this brief analysis of statistics on Asian women indicates that highly educated Asian women do not have higher incomes or better jobs than many of those with less education.

  2. American Psychological Association: Annual Report, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the 2008 annual reports from the various directorates and offices of the American Psychological Association (APA). In 2008, APA continued to work on initiatives, programs, and products that lend value to the member's psychology career, support the future of their discipline, and serve the public. APA's goal is to strengthen…

  3. Enhanced statistical tests for GWAS in admixed populations: assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Pasaniuc

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While genome-wide association studies (GWAS have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD, but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations.

  4. History of the american college health association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Following Dr Edward Hitchcock's lead at Amherst College in 1861, soon other institutions of higher education established physical education departments that evolved into independent college health programs. As the field of college health expanded, leaders from numerous campuses began meeting to share information and discuss formation of a national organization. As a result, the American Student Health Association was founded in 1920 to promote campus health care for students and advance the interests of college health. The name was changed to the American College Health Association in 1948. The past history of this organization has been well documented in the literature, so this review will focus more on ACHA's accomplishments over the past 20 years.(1)(,) (2)(,) (3)(,) (4).

  5. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2016: Progress and opportunities in reducing racial disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Siegel, Rebecca L; Sauer, Ann Goding; Miller, Kimberly D; Fedewa, Stacey A; Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-07-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides the estimated number of new cancer cases and deaths for blacks in the United States and the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, screening, and risk factors for cancer. Incidence data are from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, and mortality data are from the National Center for Health Statistics. Approximately 189,910 new cases of cancer and 69,410 cancer deaths will occur among blacks in 2016. Although blacks continue to have higher cancer death rates than whites, the disparity has narrowed for all cancers combined in men and women and for lung and prostate cancers in men. In contrast, the racial gap in death rates has widened for breast cancer in women and remained level for colorectal cancer in men. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since the early 1990s translates to the avoidance of more than 300,000 deaths among blacks. In men, incidence rates from 2003 to 2012 decreased for all cancers combined (by 2.0% per year) as well as for the top 3 cancer sites (prostate, lung, and colorectal). In women, overall rates during the corresponding time period remained unchanged, reflecting increasing trends in breast cancer combined with decreasing trends in lung and colorectal cancer rates. Five-year relative survival is lower for blacks than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Progress in reducing cancer death rates could be accelerated by ensuring equitable access to prevention, early detection, and high-quality treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:290-308. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  6. Report from the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodstein, L D

    1989-01-01

    This article focuses on some of the difficult circumstances that the American Psychological Association (APA) and the mental health community are facing during the 1980s. While a great deal has been learned about mental health issues of older persons and research has demonstrated that they can benefit by appropriate services, the majority of elders needing mental health services are still not receiving them. Service, research and policy issues of concern to APA are discussed and several positive APA activities are noted.

  7. American Association for Aerosol Research (AAAR) `95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    The Fourteenth annual meeting of the American Association for Aerosol Research was held October 9-13, 1995 at Westin William Penn Hotel in Pittsburgh, PA. This volume contains the abstracts of the papers and poster sessions presented at this meeting, grouped by the session in which they were presented as follows: Radiation Effects; Aerosol Deposition; Collision Simulations and Microphysical Behavior; Filtration Theory and Measurements; Materials Synthesis; Radioactive and Nuclear Aerosols; Aerosol Formation, Thermodynamic Properties, and Behavior; Particle Contamination Issues in the Computer Industry; Pharmaceutical Aerosol Technology; Modeling Global/Regional Aerosols; Visibility; Respiratory Deposition; Biomass and Biogenic Aerosols; Aerosol Dynamics; Atmospheric Aerosols.

  8. The health of the American slave examined by means of Union Army medical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freemon, F R

    1985-01-01

    The health status of the American slave in the 19th century remains unclear despite extensive historical research. Better knowledge of slave health would provide a clearer picture of the life of the slave, a better understanding of the 19th-century medicine, and possibly even clues to the health problems of modern blacks. This article hopes to contribute to the literature by examining another source of data. Slaves entering the Union Army joined an organization with standardized medical care that generated extensive statistical information. Review of these statistics answers questions about the health of young male blacks at the time American slavery ended.

  9. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition disorders among older African Americans: findings from the National Survey of American Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Briggett C; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Toler, Amanda K; Neighbors, Harold W; Jackson, James S

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate lifetime and 12-month prevalence of 13 psychiatric disorders for older African Americans. Data are from the older African American subsample of the National Survey of American Life. Selected measures of lifetime and 12-month Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) psychiatric disorders were examined (i.e., panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder, dysthymia, bipolar I and II disorders, alcohol abuse/dependence, and drug abuse/dependence). Twenty-three percent of older African Americans reported at least one lifetime disorder and 8.54% reported at least one 12-month disorder. Alcohol abuse, PTSD, and major depression were the most prevalent lifetime disorders. The most prevalent 12-month disorders were PTSD, major depression, and social phobia. Age, sex, education, and region were significantly associated with the odds of having a lifetime disorder. This is the first study of prevalence rates of serious mental disorders for older African Americans based on a national sample. Demographic correlates of the prevalence of disorders are discussed with an emphasis on age and regional differences.

  10. American Lung Association's radon public information program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCurdy, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    The American Lung Association (ALA), the nation's oldest voluntary health organization, is dedicated to the conquest of lung disease and the promotion of lung health. The objective of the ALA Radon Public Information Program is to reduce public exposure to elevated indoor radon levels through implementing grassroots-based radon public awareness campaigns by 22 local ALA groups. The program, which is funded by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was initiated in December 1989; the first phase will continue until May, 1991. Activities of local Lung Associations include distribution of free or reduced-cost radon kits; presenting programs in elementary and secondary schools; presenting information on TV news series and talk shows, and on radio Public Service Announcements and talk shows; presenting articles and feature stories in the print media; holding conferences, workshops, and displays at fairs and other exhibitions; distributing radon fact sheets through libraries and utility company mailings; and distributing videos through video chains and libraries. The local Lung Associations also serve as promoters for the EPA/Advertising Council Radon Public Service Announcement Campaign. We will highlight the activities of the groups in communicating radon health risks to the public; we will describe the results obtained and will attempt to evaluate the merits of the various approaches on the basis of the initial results

  11. Heather Switzer named American Association of University Women American Dissertation Fellow

    OpenAIRE

    Chadwick, Heather Riley

    2008-01-01

    Heather Switzer, planning, governance, and globalization doctoral student in the School of Public and International Affairs at Virginia Tech, has been named an American Association of University Women American Dissertation Fellow.

  12. 125 years of the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D; Cautin, Robin L

    2017-11-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) began 125 years ago as a small club of a few dozen members in the parlor of its founder, G. Stanley Hall. In the decades since, it has faced many difficulties and even a few existential crises. Originally a scientific society, it spent the decades between the world wars figuring out how to accommodate the growing community of applied psychologists while still retaining and enhancing its scientific reputation. After World War II, with an expanded mandate, it developed formal training models for clinical psychologists and became an important player in legal cases pertaining to civil rights and other social justice issues. With practitioners taking an ever-greater role in the governance of the organization in the late 1970s, and the financial viability of the association in doubt in the 1980s, many psychological scientists felt the need to create a separate organization for themselves. The 1990s and early 2000s brought more challenges: declining divisional memberships; a legal dispute over fees with practitioners; and a serious upheaval over the APA Board of Directors' cooperation with governmental defense and intelligence agencies during the "war on terror." These clashes appear to have precipitated a decline in the association's membership for the first time in its history. The APA has faced many storms over its century-and-a-quarter, but has, thus far, always ultimately found a way forward for itself, for its members, and for the wider discipline of psychology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Using VCT statistics from Kenya in understanding the association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper demonstrates the importance of utilising official statistics from the voluntary counselling and testing centres (VCT) to determine the association between gender and HIV infection rates in Kenya.The study design adopted was a record based survey of data collected from VCT sites in Kenya between the second ...

  14. Statistical Measure Of Association Between Smoking And Lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Statistical Measure Of Association Between Smoking And Lung Cancer In Abakaliki, Ebonyi State Nigeria. ... East African Journal of Public Health ... To investigate the havoc caused by all these on people, questionnaire was distributed among smokers and non smokers in various areas of specialization and habitations.

  15. statistical fluid theory for associating fluids containing alternating ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Statistical associating fluid theory of homonuclear dimerized chain fluids and homonuclear monomer-dimer mixture chain fluids are extended to fluids containing al- ternating heteronuclear chain molecules separately. The proposed models account for the appropriate site-site correlation functions at contact.

  16. A statistical perspective on association studies of psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    the probability of type II errors and thus lowering the power to detect association. Statistical procedures where the test statistics initially are grouped according to some criteria, e.g. by candidate regions or functional pathways, may be one way to decrease the number of tests instead of lowering the threshold......Gene-gene (GxG) and gene-environment (GxE) interactions likely play an important role in the aetiology of complex diseases like psychiatric disorders. Thus, we aim at investigating methodological aspects of and apply methods from statistical genetics taking interactions into account. In addition we...... these markers. However, the validity of the identified haplotypes is also checked by inferring phased haplotypes from genotypes. Haplotype analysis is also used in paper 5 which is otherwise an example of a focused approach to narrow down a previously found signal to search for more precise positions of disease...

  17. Image statistics of American Sign Language: comparison with faces and natural scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Rain G.; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Dobkins, Karen R.

    2006-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the image statistics of the environment shape visual abilities. To date, the image statistics of natural scenes and faces have been well characterized using Fourier analysis. We employed Fourier analysis to characterize images of signs in American Sign Language (ASL). These images are highly relevant to signers who rely on ASL for communication, and thus the image statistics of ASL might influence signers' visual abilities. Fourier analysis was conducted on 105 static images of signs, and these images were compared with analyses of 100 natural scene images and 100 face images. We obtained two metrics from our Fourier analysis: mean amplitude and entropy of the amplitude across the image set (which is a measure from information theory) as a function of spatial frequency and orientation. The results of our analyses revealed interesting differences in image statistics across the three different image sets, setting up the possibility that ASL experience may alter visual perception in predictable ways. In addition, for all image sets, the mean amplitude results were markedly different from the entropy results, which raises the interesting question of which aspect of an image set (mean amplitude or entropy of the amplitude) is better able to account for known visual abilities.

  18. Cardiovascular Health in African Americans: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnethon, Mercedes R; Pu, Jia; Howard, George; Albert, Michelle A; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Bertoni, Alain G; Mujahid, Mahasin S; Palaniappan, Latha; Taylor, Herman A; Willis, Monte; Yancy, Clyde W

    2017-11-21

    Population-wide reductions in cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality have not been shared equally by African Americans. The burden of cardiovascular disease in the African American community remains high and is a primary cause of disparities in life expectancy between African Americans and whites. The objectives of the present scientific statement are to describe cardiovascular health in African Americans and to highlight unique considerations for disease prevention and management. The primary sources of information were identified with PubMed/Medline and online sources from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The higher prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and atherosclerotic cardiovascular risk) underlies the relatively earlier age of onset of cardiovascular diseases among African Americans. Hypertension in particular is highly prevalent among African Americans and contributes directly to the notable disparities in stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease among African Americans. Despite the availability of effective pharmacotherapies and indications for some tailored pharmacotherapies for African Americans (eg, heart failure medications), disease management is less effective among African Americans, yielding higher mortality. Explanations for these persistent disparities in cardiovascular disease are multifactorial and span from the individual level to the social environment. The strategies needed to promote equity in the cardiovascular health of African Americans require input from a broad set of stakeholders, including clinicians and researchers from across multiple disciplines. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T

    1991-01-01

    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  20. Introduction To The Special Section: The American Psychiatric Association's Research Agenda For The DSM-V

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widiger, Thomas A; Simonsen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    of the American Psychiatric Association's (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. This article provides the historical background for and a brief description of the first conference, which was concerned with the research that would help move the field toward a dimensional classification...... of personality disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved) (from the journal abstract)...

  1. Effects of an Interteaching Probe on Learning and Generalization of American Psychological Association (APA) Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slezak, Jonathan M.; Faas, Caitlin

    2017-01-01

    This study implemented the components of interteaching as a probe to teach American Psychological Association (APA) Style to undergraduate university students in a psychology research methods and statistics course. The interteaching method was compared to the traditional lecture-based approach between two sections of the course with the same…

  2. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  3. The new American Heart Association algorithm: is it progress?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    approach to patients with cardiac failure, valvular heart disease and arrhythmias. ... increased risk by this definition.1 The need for further noninvasive testing is now left to ... artery disease.6. Abstract. The new 2014 American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) guideline for the perioperative.

  4. Statistically-Estimated Tree Composition for the Northeastern United States at Euro-American Settlement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Paciorek

    Full Text Available We present a gridded 8 km-resolution data product of the estimated composition of tree taxa at the time of Euro-American settlement of the northeastern United States and the statistical methodology used to produce the product from trees recorded by land surveyors. Composition is defined as the proportion of stems larger than approximately 20 cm diameter at breast height for 22 tree taxa, generally at the genus level. The data come from settlement-era public survey records that are transcribed and then aggregated spatially, giving count data. The domain is divided into two regions, eastern (Maine to Ohio and midwestern (Indiana to Minnesota. Public Land Survey point data in the midwestern region (ca. 0.8-km resolution are aggregated to a regular 8 km grid, while data in the eastern region, from Town Proprietor Surveys, are aggregated at the township level in irregularly-shaped local administrative units. The product is based on a Bayesian statistical model fit to the count data that estimates composition on the 8 km grid across the entire domain. The statistical model is designed to handle data from both the regular grid and the irregularly-shaped townships and allows us to estimate composition at locations with no data and to smooth over noise caused by limited counts in locations with data. Critically, the model also allows us to quantify uncertainty in our composition estimates, making the product suitable for applications employing data assimilation. We expect this data product to be useful for understanding the state of vegetation in the northeastern United States prior to large-scale Euro-American settlement. In addition to specific regional questions, the data product can also serve as a baseline against which to investigate how forests and ecosystems change after intensive settlement. The data product is being made available at the NIS data portal as version 1.0.

  5. Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  6. Educators' Perceptions of the American Association on Mental Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Such, Twila G.; Goldberg, I. Ignacy

    1973-01-01

    Surveyed were the views and opinions of 216 Education Division members of the American Association on Mental Deficiency (AAMD) in an attempt to discover underlying satisfactions or dissatisfactions with the AAMD. (DB)

  7. American Exceptionalism and the American Surgical Association: The Rise of Surgery in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Ira; Lillemoe, Keith D

    2018-04-01

    To explore use of the notion of American exceptionalism by fellows of the American Surgical Association (ASA) (1880 through World War I) and how this proved instrumental in the rise of surgery in the United States. American exceptionalism is the belief that the United States is innately different from other nations because of its economic, geographic, political, religious, and social foundations. Although, currently, the concept of American exceptionalism implies superiority, in its original 19th century connotation, the idea referred to the distinctive character of America as a free nation. An analysis of published literature along with unpublished documents to provide new knowledge and unique insight into the use of American exceptionalism by members of the ASA as they promoted their specialty. Beginning with Samuel Gross's desire that the organization he founded represent "the genius of our republican institutions," to Frederick Dennis's declaration that "American surgery eclipses all other nations because of the wonderful adaptability of the American mind," plus Lewis Pilcher's explanation of how the "stimulating climate, prevailing religious tone, regard for learning, and pride of citizenship are the fruit of the American mind when turned to surgical problems," and ending with Edmond Souchon's 106 page article in the Transactions on surgical firsts, the ASA was the avenue that helped the nation's surgeons define and defend themselves. Use of the concept of American exceptionalism by fellows of the ASA was a key factor in the development of surgery in the United States.

  8. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    For the years 2004 and 2005 the figures shown in the tables of Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics published in Energy Review are presented in more detail in a publication called Energy Statistics that comes out yearly. Energy Statistics also includes historical time-series over a longer period of time (see e.g. Energy Statistics, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2004.) The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes, precautionary stock fees and oil pollution fees

  9. Novel single nucleotide polymorphism associations with colorectal cancer on chromosome 8q24 in African and European Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Sonia S; Torres, Jada Benn; Hooker, Stanley; Anderson, Jeffrey R; Skol, Andrew D; Ellis, Nathan A; Kittles, Rick A

    2009-08-01

    Regions on chromosome 8q24 harbor susceptibility alleles for multiple cancers including colorectal (region 3) and prostate cancer (regions 1-4). The objectives of the present study were (i) to test whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in region 4 are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) in European or African Americans; (ii) to test whether 8q24 SNPs previously shown to be associated with colorectal and prostate cancer also show association in our multiethnic series and (iii) to test for association between 100 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) and CRC in both the African American and European American cohorts. In total, we genotyped nine markers on 8q24 and 100 unlinked AIMs in 569 CRC cases and 439 controls (490 European Americans and 518 African Americans) obtained retrospectively from a hospital-based sample. We found rs7008482 in 8q24 region 4 to be significantly associated with CRC in European Americans (P = 0.03). Also in region 4, we found that a second SNP, rs16900305, trended toward association with CRC in African Americans. The rs6983267 in region 3, previously implicated in CRC risk, trended toward association with disease in European Americans but not in African Americans. Finally, none of the 100 AIMs tested for association reached statistical significance after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. In summary, these results are evidence that 8q24 region 4 contains novel CRC-associated alleles in European and African Americans.

  10. "I am Not a Statistic": Identities of African American Males in Advanced Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Diane Wynn

    The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) expects new industries to generate approximately 2.7 million jobs in science and technology by the year 2018, and there is concern as to whether there will be enough trained individuals to fill these positions. A tremendous resource remains untapped, African American students, especially African American males (National Science Foundation, 2009). Historically, African American males have been omitted from the so called science pipeline. Fewer African American males pursue a science discipline due, in part; to limiting factors they experience in school and at home (Ogbu, 2004). This is a case study of African American males who are enrolled in advanced science courses at a predominantly African American (84%) urban high school. Guided by expectancy-value theory (EVT) of achievement related results (Eccles, 2009; Eccles et al., 1983), twelve African American male students in two advanced science courses were observed in their science classrooms weekly, participated in an in-depth interview, developed a presentation to share with students enrolled in a tenth grade science course, responded to an open-ended identity questionnaire, and were surveyed about their perceptions of school. Additionally, the students' teachers were interviewed, and seven of the students' parents. The interview data analyses highlighted the important role of supportive parents (key socializers) who had high expectations for their sons and who pushed them academically. The students clearly attributed their enrollment in advanced science courses to their high regard for their science teachers, which included positive relationships, hands-on learning in class, and an inviting and encouraging learning environment. Additionally, other family members and coaches played important roles in these young men's lives. Students' PowerPoint(c) presentations to younger high school students on why they should take advanced science courses highlighted these

  11. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  12. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    For the year 1998 and the year 1999, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1998, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1999, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 1999, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 1999, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  13. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    For the year 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually, which also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions from the use of fossil fuels, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  14. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    For the year 2002, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 2001, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2002). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supply and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2003, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2003, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees on energy products

  15. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    For the year 1999 and 2000, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy also includes historical time series over a longer period (see e.g., Energiatilastot 1999, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2000, ISSN 0785-3165). The inside of the Review's back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 2000, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 2000, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees on oil products

  16. Statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    For the year 2003 and 2004, the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are partly preliminary. The annual statistics of the Energy Review also includes historical time-series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 2003, ISSN 0785-3165). The applied energy units and conversion coefficients are shown in the inside back cover of the Review. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in GDP, energy consumption and electricity consumption, Carbon dioxide emissions from fossile fuels use, Coal consumption, Consumption of natural gas, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices in heat production, Fuel prices in electricity production, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Average monthly spot prices at the Nord pool power exchange, Total energy consumption by source and CO 2 -emissions, Supplies and total consumption of electricity GWh, Energy imports by country of origin in January-March 2004, Energy exports by recipient country in January-March 2004, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, natural gas and indigenous fuels, Price of natural gas by type of consumer, Price of electricity by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources and Excise taxes, precautionary stock fees on oil pollution fees

  17. Statistical study of seismicity associated with geothermal reservoirs in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.M.; Cavit, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical methods are outlined to separate spatially, temporally, and magnitude-dependent portions of both the random and non-random components of the seismicity. The methodology employed compares the seismicity distributions with a generalized Poisson distribution. Temporally related events are identified by the distribution of the interoccurrence times. The regions studied to date include the Imperial Valley, Coso, The Geysers, Lassen, and the San Jacinto fault. The spatial characteristics of the random and clustered components of the seismicity are diffuse and appear unsuitable for defining the areal extent of the reservoir. However, from the temporal characteristics of the seismicity associated with these regions a general discriminant was constructed that combines several physical parameters for identifying the presence of a geothermal system.

  18. Recommended Dietary Pattern to Achieve Adherence to the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) Guidelines: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Horn, Linda; Carson, Jo Ann S; Appel, Lawrence J; Burke, Lora E; Economos, Christina; Karmally, Wahida; Lancaster, Kristie; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Johnson, Rachel K; Thomas, Randal J; Vos, Miriam; Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2016-11-29

    In 2013, the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology published the "Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk," which was based on a systematic review originally initiated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The guideline supports the American Heart Association's 2020 Strategic Impact Goals for cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction by providing more specific details for adopting evidence-based diet and lifestyle behaviors to achieve those goals. In addition, the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans issued updated evidence relevant to reducing cardiovascular risk and provided additional recommendations for adopting healthy diet and lifestyle approaches. This scientific statement, intended for healthcare providers, summarizes relevant scientific and translational evidence and offers practical tips, tools, and dietary approaches to help patients/clients adapt these guidelines according to their sociocultural, economic, and taste preferences. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. 2010 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides the highlights of the association's and individual directorate's activities to APA members. APA continued its efforts to advance psychological practice and ensure the public's access to high-quality psychological services, apply psychological…

  20. 2009 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2009. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology--and the unique skills of psychologists--to the attention of the public. This report aims…

  1. 2005 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2005. The examples provided in this report are a small sampling of all that APA is doing to advance the discipline of psychology in an ever-changing world.

  2. North American Tropical Cyclone Landfall and SST: A Statistical Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy; Yonekura, Emmi

    2013-01-01

    A statistical-stochastic model of the complete life cycle of North Atlantic (NA) tropical cyclones (TCs) is used to examine the relationship between climate and landfall rates along the North American Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. The model draws on archived data of TCs throughout the North Atlantic to estimate landfall rates at high geographic resolution as a function of the ENSO state and one of two different measures of sea surface temperature (SST): 1) SST averaged over the NA subtropics and the hurricane season and 2) this SST relative to the seasonal global subtropical mean SST (termed relSST). Here, the authors focus on SST by holding ENSO to a neutral state. Jackknife uncertainty tests are employed to test the significance of SST and relSST landfall relationships. There are more TC and major hurricane landfalls overall in warm years than cold, using either SST or relSST, primarily due to a basinwide increase in the number of storms. The signal along the coast, however, is complex. Some regions have large and significant sensitivity (e.g., an approximate doubling of annual major hurricane landfall probability on Texas from -2 to +2 standard deviations in relSST), while other regions have no significant sensitivity (e.g., the U.S. mid-Atlantic and Northeast coasts). This geographic structure is due to both shifts in the regions of primary TC genesis and shifts in TC propagation.

  3. Association of American Indian cultural identity with physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Glen E; McDougall, Casey L; Dansie, Elizabeth; Garroutte, Eva; Buchwald, Dedra; Henderson, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Cultural factors are associated with health behaviors among American Indians. Accordingly, the objective of our study was to investigate whether cultural identity, defined as the primary language spoken at home, is associated with: 1) higher total physical activity levels, and 2) levels of leisure-time physical activity recommended for health benefits in a diverse sample of American Indians. Cross-sectional analysis of 5,207 American Indian adults 18 to 82 years. Participants resided on the Oglala Sioux (n=2,025) and Cheyenne River Sioux (n=1,528) reservations in South Dakota, and the Gila River Indian Community (n=1,654) in Arizona. Bicultural participants in South Dakota, but not Arizona, reported significantly higher total physical activity compared to the English-only group (Pcultures with which they identify are recommended.

  4. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Oral Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Oral radiology curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools are provided. The guidelines describe minimal conditions under which a satisfactory educational experience can be offered. Principles of x-radiation, radiobiological concepts, radiological health, radiographic technique, radiographic quality, and darkroom…

  5. American Art Therapy Association, Inc.: 2011 Membership Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, David E.; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2013-01-01

    The American Art Therapy Association (AATA) surveys its members biennially to gather information on general demographics, employment-related characteristics, licensing, and professional affiliations. The surveys are used in the development of national media opportunities and public policy initiatives to help increase recognition for the field of…

  6. Associations among Asian Americans' Enculturation, Emotional Experiences, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. Joel; Tran, Kimberly K.; Lai, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Using a computer-based text analysis of 218 Asian Americans' writing samples, the authors found that enculturation as well as use of negative emotion and positive emotion words were associated with depressive symptoms. Enculturation was also found to moderate the relation between use of negative emotion words and cognitive--affective depressive…

  7. The American Psychiatric Association and the history of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshbein, Laura

    2011-09-01

    The history committee within the American Psychiatric Association was actively involved in the history of psychiatry in the early decades of the twentieth century, as well as from 1942 to 2009.This paper explores the role of this committee in the context of changes in the psychiatric profession over the twentieth century.

  8. Independent Consulting and the American Evaluation Association: Twenty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Deborah G.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the evolution of American Evaluation Association's (AEA) Independent Consulting Topical Interest Group (IC TIG). The TIG goes back a joint meeting held in San Francisco in 1984 of the Evaluation Network (ENet) and the Evaluation Research Society (ERS), two years before the organizations merged to become the AEA. On the fringes…

  9. Vital statistics and early death predictors of North American professional basketball players: A historical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, Srdjan; Wattie, Nick; Lawler, Tyler; Baker, Joseph

    2018-07-01

    While empirical evidence suggests that elite athletes have superior lifespan outcomes relative to the general population, less is known regarding their causes of death. The purpose of this study was to critically examine the mortality outcomes of deceased National Basketball Association and American Basketball Association players. Death data were collected from publicly available sources until 11 December 2015, and causes of death were categorized using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD). Mortality was measured through: i) cause-specific crude death rates (CDR), ii) estimates of death rates per athlete-year (AY), and iii) binary and multinomial regression analyses. We identified 514 causes of death from 787 deceased players (M = 68.1 y ± 16.0) from 16 different ICD groups, 432 of which were from natural causes. Findings showed similar leading causes of death and CDRs to sex- and race-matched controls, higher death rate differences per AY within time-dependent variables (i.e., birth decade, race, and height), and a higher likelihood of dying below the median age of death for black and taller players, although this was highly confounded by birth decade. More complete knowledge of mortality outcomes would provide broad public health applications and disarm harmful stereotypes of elite athlete health.

  10. Statistics associated with the scattering of ultrasound from microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yongfeng; Kube, Christopher M; Turner, Joseph A; Li, Xiongbing

    2017-09-01

    The spatial statistics of an ensemble of waveforms containing ultrasonic scattering from microstructure are investigated. The standard deviation of the waveforms is of primary interest, because it is related to the maximum scattering amplitudes in the extreme value statistics theory. Further statistical measures are employed to define theoretical confidence bounds, which bound the experimentally calculated maximum amplitude when a finite number of waveforms are included in the ensemble. These statistical measures are applied in conjunction with a previously developed ultrasonic backscatter model. It is validated through ultrasonic scattering measurements performed on a stainless-steel pipe sample. These considerations are important for forward models related to the probability of detection (POD) of defects and inverse models used for characterization of polycrystalline microstructures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modeling Statistics of Fish Patchiness and Predicting Associated Influence on Statistics of Acoustic Echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    information on fish school distributions by monitoring the direction of birds returning to the colony or the behavior of other birds at sea through...active sonar. Toward this goal, fundamental advances in the understanding of fish behavior , especially in aggregations, will be made under conditions...relevant to the echo statistics problem. OBJECTIVES To develop new models of behavior of fish aggregations, including the fission/fusion process

  12. Poststroke Depression: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towfighi, Amytis; Ovbiagele, Bruce; El Husseini, Nada; Hackett, Maree L; Jorge, Ricardo E; Kissela, Brett M; Mitchell, Pamela H; Skolarus, Lesli E; Whooley, Mary A; Williams, Linda S

    2017-02-01

    Poststroke depression (PSD) is common, affecting approximately one third of stroke survivors at any one time after stroke. Individuals with PSD are at a higher risk for suboptimal recovery, recurrent vascular events, poor quality of life, and mortality. Although PSD is prevalent, uncertainty remains regarding predisposing risk factors and optimal strategies for prevention and treatment. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on the topic of PSD. Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association's Manuscript Oversight Committee. Members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise and reviewed appropriate literature, references to published clinical and epidemiology studies, clinical and public health guidelines, authoritative statements, and expert opinion. This multispecialty statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence and gaps in current knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, outcomes, management, and prevention of PSD, and provides implications for clinical practice. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Defining Optimal Brain Health in Adults: A Presidential Advisory From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Philip B; Furie, Karen L; Iadecola, Costantino; Smith, Eric E; Waddy, Salina P; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Bae, Hee-Joon; Bauman, Mary Ann; Dichgans, Martin; Duncan, Pamela W; Girgus, Meighan; Howard, Virginia J; Lazar, Ronald M; Seshadri, Sudha; Testai, Fernando D; van Gaal, Stephen; Yaffe, Kristine; Wasiak, Hank; Zerna, Charlotte

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive function is an important component of aging and predicts quality of life, functional independence, and risk of institutionalization. Advances in our understanding of the role of cardiovascular risks have shown them to be closely associated with cognitive impairment and dementia. Because many cardiovascular risks are modifiable, it may be possible to maintain brain health and to prevent dementia in later life. The purpose of this American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association presidential advisory is to provide an initial definition of optimal brain health in adults and guidance on how to maintain brain health. We identify metrics to define optimal brain health in adults based on inclusion of factors that could be measured, monitored, and modified. From these practical considerations, we identified 7 metrics to define optimal brain health in adults that originated from AHA's Life's Simple 7: 4 ideal health behaviors (nonsmoking, physical activity at goal levels, healthy diet consistent with current guideline levels, and body mass index brain health but recognize that the truly ideal circumstance may be uncommon because there is a continuum of brain health as demonstrated by AHA's Life's Simple 7. Therefore, there is opportunity to improve brain health through primordial prevention and other interventions. Furthermore, although cardiovascular risks align well with brain health, we acknowledge that other factors differing from those related to cardiovascular health may drive cognitive health. Defining optimal brain health in adults and its maintenance is consistent with the AHA's Strategic Impact Goal to improve cardiovascular health of all Americans by 20% and to reduce deaths resulting from cardiovascular disease and stroke by 20% by the year 2020. This work in defining optimal brain health in adults serves to provide the AHA/American Stroke Association with a foundation for a new strategic direction going forward in cardiovascular health

  14. 2012 Annual report of the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Provides the 2012 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In 2012, APA celebrated its 120th anniversary. It has grown from its original 31 members to the largest association of psychologists in the United States and a worldwide leader within the discipline. This edition of the report introduces each directorate and office within APA and talks about their goals and objectives. the president of APA, Dr. Norman Anderson, also gives a brief report which updates you on the activities of the association during its 120th anniversary as the professional home for psychologists and an advocate for the discipline. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shriner

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.

  16. National Association and Organization Reports. American Library Association; Association of American Publishers; American Booksellers Association; Association of Research Libraries; Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC); Council on Library and Information Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Maurice J.; Platt, Judith; Hoynes, Michael; Webster, Duane E.; Johnson, Richard; Smith, Kathlin

    2003-01-01

    Includes six reports from national associations and organizations. Highlights include annual meetings; government affairs; copyright; administration; diversity; new technologies; international programs; scholarly communication; information policy; access to information; preservation; statistics and measurement; digital libraries; economics of…

  17. 2009 American Thyroid Association guidelines on thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perros, P

    2010-08-01

    The American Thyroid Association guidelines on thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer, published in 2009, provide valuable recommendations based on current evidence. Inevitably, controversies and uncertainties will continue to challenge clinicians and patients. On topics where evidence is not clear-cut, judgement may be coloured by pre-existing practises and the structure of the health service in each country, so one has to be aware of the pitfalls of transferring recommendations to one's own practise.

  18. IGESS: a statistical approach to integrating individual-level genotype data and summary statistics in genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Mingwei; Ming, Jingsi; Cai, Mingxuan; Liu, Jin; Yang, Can; Wan, Xiang; Xu, Zongben

    2017-09-15

    Results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) suggest that a complex phenotype is often affected by many variants with small effects, known as 'polygenicity'. Tens of thousands of samples are often required to ensure statistical power of identifying these variants with small effects. However, it is often the case that a research group can only get approval for the access to individual-level genotype data with a limited sample size (e.g. a few hundreds or thousands). Meanwhile, summary statistics generated using single-variant-based analysis are becoming publicly available. The sample sizes associated with the summary statistics datasets are usually quite large. How to make the most efficient use of existing abundant data resources largely remains an open question. In this study, we propose a statistical approach, IGESS, to increasing statistical power of identifying risk variants and improving accuracy of risk prediction by i ntegrating individual level ge notype data and s ummary s tatistics. An efficient algorithm based on variational inference is developed to handle the genome-wide analysis. Through comprehensive simulation studies, we demonstrated the advantages of IGESS over the methods which take either individual-level data or summary statistics data as input. We applied IGESS to perform integrative analysis of Crohns Disease from WTCCC and summary statistics from other studies. IGESS was able to significantly increase the statistical power of identifying risk variants and improve the risk prediction accuracy from 63.2% ( ±0.4% ) to 69.4% ( ±0.1% ) using about 240 000 variants. The IGESS software is available at https://github.com/daviddaigithub/IGESS . zbxu@xjtu.edu.cn or xwan@comp.hkbu.edu.hk or eeyang@hkbu.edu.hk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Degree of European Genetic Ancestry is Associated with Serum Vitamin D Levelsin African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Stephen A; Ruiz-Narváez, Edward A; Cozier, Yvette C; Gerlovin, Hanna; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2018-01-30

    Circulating levels of vitamin D are generally lower in African Americans compared to U.S. whites, and one prior analysis in a small number of African Americans suggested that, within this population, vitamin D levels may be related to the degree of genetic admixture. We assessed the association of percent European ancestry with serum vitamin D levels in 2183 African American women from the Black Women's Health Study in 2013-2015, whose DNA had been genotyped for ancestry informative markers. ADMIXMAP software was used to estimate percent European versus African ancestry in each individual. In linear regression analyses with adjustment for genotype batch, age, body mass index, supplemental vitamin D use, UVB flux in state of residence, and season of blood draw, each 10% increase in European ancestry was associated with a 0.672 ng/mL increase in serum vitamin D concentration (95% confidence interval 0.173, 1.170). The association was statistically significant only among women who were not taking vitamin D supplements (beta coefficient for 10% increase in European ancestry 0.855, 95% confidence interval 0.139, 1.571). Among African Americans, use of vitamin D supplementation may help to reduce vitamin D deficiency due to genetic ancestry. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Suicide among psychologists and a proposal for the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, D

    1989-02-01

    The response of the American Medical Association and of the American Psychiatric Association to suicide among their members is contrasted with the response of the American Psychological Association. It is suggested that an association should be concerned with suicide among its members and two proposals are suggested.

  1. Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagle, Helen M; Strain, Gladys Witt; Makris, Angela; Reeves, Rebecca S

    2009-02-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that successful weight management to improve overall health for adults requires a lifelong commitment to healthful lifestyle behaviors emphasizing sustainable and enjoyable eating practices and daily physical activity. Given the increasing incidence of overweight and obesity along with the escalating health care costs associated with weight-related illnesses, health care providers must discover how to effectively treat this complex condition. Food and nutrition professionals should stay current and skilled in weight management to assist clients in preventing weight gain, optimizing individual weight loss interventions, and achieving long-term weight loss maintenance. Using the American Dietetic Association's Evidence Analysis Process and Evidence Analysis Library, this position paper presents the current data and recommendations for weight management. The evidence supporting the value of portion control, eating frequency, meal replacements, and very-low-energy diets are discussed as well as physical activity, behavior therapy, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. Public policy changes to create environments that can assist all populations to achieve and sustain healthful lifestyle behaviors are also reviewed.

  2. American Medical Association sponsors press conference in home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayne, C G

    1996-01-01

    On September 12, 1996, the American Medical Association, with an educational grant from Hoffmann-La Roche, sponsored a National Press Conference in New York City at the Millenium Broadway Hotel on Times Square. Attended by more than 40 of the nation's top health care correspondents from the leading magazine and newspapers in the country, this conference was designed to promote "The Revolution in Home and Outpatient Care." With an emphasis on new sites and new technologies, speakers from the Academy of Homecare Physicians presented a number of related subjects.

  3. Adiposity is inversely associated with hippocampal volume in African Americans and European Americans with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Fang-Chi; Yuan, Mingxia; Bowden, Donald W; Xu, Jianzhao; Smith, S Carrie; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Langefeld, Carl D; Divers, Jasmin; Register, Thomas C; Carr, J Jeffrey; Williamson, Jeff D; Sink, Kaycee M; Maldjian, Joseph A; Freedman, Barry I

    To assess associations between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and computed tomography-determined volumes of pericardial, visceral, and subcutaneous adipose tissue with magnetic resonance imaging-(MRI) based cerebral structure and cognitive performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). This study was performed in 348 African Americans (AAs) and 256 European Americans (EAs) with T2D. Associations between adiposity measures with cerebral volumes of white matter (WMV), gray matter (GMV), white matter lesions, hippocampal GMV, and hippocampal WMV, cognitive performance and depression were examined using marginal models incorporating generalized estimating equations. All models were adjusted for age, sex, education, smoking, HbA1c, hypertension, statins, cardiovascular disease, MRI scanner (MRI outcomes only), and time between scans; some neuroimaging measures were additionally adjusted for intracranial volume. Participants were 59.9% female with mean (SD) age 57.7(9.3)years, diabetes duration 9.6(6.8)years, and HbA1c 7.8(1.9)%. In AAs, inverse associations were detected between hippocampal GMV and both BMI (β [95% CI]-0.18 [-0.30, -0.07], P=0.0018) and WC (-0.23 [-0.35, -0.12], P=0.0001). In the full bi-ethnic sample, inverse associations were detected between hippocampal WMV and WC (P≤0.0001). Positive relationships were observed between BMI (P=0.0007) and WC (P<0.0001) with depression in EAs. In patients with T2D, adiposity is inversely associated with hippocampal gray and white matter volumes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Statistical arbitrage and FX exposure with South American ADRs listed on the NYSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadie Broumandi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available An American Depositary Receipt (ADR represents ownership in the shares of a foreign company trading in US financial markets. We test a pair trading rule based on the mean reversion assumption for six South American stocks and their ADR counterparts on the NYSE. In our opinion, such a strategy should separate the spread risk from the currency risk. This paper aims to challenge the positive results found in similar settings. The main achievement is to show that isolating FX exposure turns such strategies that were presented as profitable to unprofitable and abnormal returns are just due to an appreciation in the home currencies versus the USD. Hence the results in some of literature should be revised.

  5. The American Urological Association Symptom Index for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael J; Fowler, Floyd J; O'leary, Michael P; Bruskewitz, Reginald C; Holtgrewe, H Logan; Mebust, Winston K; Cockett, Abraham T K

    2017-02-01

    A symptom index for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was developed and validated by a multidisciplinary measurement committee of the American Urological Association (AUA). Validation studies were conducted involving a total of 210 BPH patients and 108 control subjects. The final AUA symptom index includes 7 questions covering frequency, nocturia, weak urinary stream, hesitancy, intermittence, incomplete emptying and urgency. On revalidation, the index was internally consistent (Cronbach's α = 0.86) and the score generated had excellent test-retest reliability (r = 0.92). Scores were highly correlated with subjects' global ratings of the magnitude of their urinary problem (r = 0.65 to 0.72) and powerfully discriminated between BPH and control subjects (receiver operating characteristic area 0.85). Finally, the index was sensitive to change, with preoperative scores decreasing from a mean of 17.6 to 7.1 by 4 weeks after prostatectomy (p index is clinically sensible, reliable, valid and responsive. It is practical for use in practice and for inclusion in research protocols. Copyright © 1992 American Urological Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. American woodcock (Scolopax minor) mortality associated with a reovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Hansen, W.R.; Norman, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    A virus isolate associated with a 1989-90 die-off in American woodcock (Scolopax minor) was identified as a reovirus. Emaciation was a consistent necropsy finding in the woodcock involved in this die-off. This reovirus infection appeared to be systemic, had the potential for fecal-oral virus transmission, and was associated with deterioration of body condition. To our knowledge this is the first report of a virus isolate from wild American woodcock. A survey conducted in 1990-92 indicated that this virus was not present at detectable levels in the woodcock breeding and wintering population. /// Un virus asociado con la mortalidad de becadas o perdices americanas (Scolopax minor) en 1989-1990-fue identificado como reovirus. La emaciaci??n fue un resultado com??n a la necropsia de las aves que murieron. Esta infecci??n por reovirus pareci?? ser sist??mica, ten?-a el potencial de transmisi??n fecal-oral y estuvo asociada con el deterioro del ave. Creemos que este sea el primer reporte de aislamiento viral a partir de becadas americanas. Una encuesta hecha entre 1990 y 1992 indic?? que este virus no estaba presente en los niveles detectables en los reproductores y en las aves invernales.

  7. 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Presents the 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In his introduction, President Barry Anton describes how 2015 was among APA's most challenging. Although 2015 ushered in an era of greater transparency within the association and enhanced communications to members and the public, it also required painful self-reflection stemming from the revelations of an independent review by an outside law firm. The review examined the question of whether APA played any role related to the Bush administration's use of abusive interrogation techniques during the war on terror. Anton's introduction also discusses (1) the APA convention, (2) representing APA at a White House meeting with health care providers and insurance companies, (3) APA's effort to increase the number of APA-accredited internships, (4) international activities, and (5) the global summit on psychology and integrated care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Fusing Data Mining, Machine Learning and Traditional Statistics to Detect Biomarkers Associated with Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna F Dipnall

    Full Text Available Atheoretical large-scale data mining techniques using machine learning algorithms have promise in the analysis of large epidemiological datasets. This study illustrates the use of a hybrid methodology for variable selection that took account of missing data and complex survey design to identify key biomarkers associated with depression from a large epidemiological study.The study used a three-step methodology amalgamating multiple imputation, a machine learning boosted regression algorithm and logistic regression, to identify key biomarkers associated with depression in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (2009-2010. Depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and 67 biomarkers were analysed. Covariates in this study included gender, age, race, smoking, food security, Poverty Income Ratio, Body Mass Index, physical activity, alcohol use, medical conditions and medications. The final imputed weighted multiple logistic regression model included possible confounders and moderators.After the creation of 20 imputation data sets from multiple chained regression sequences, machine learning boosted regression initially identified 21 biomarkers associated with depression. Using traditional logistic regression methods, including controlling for possible confounders and moderators, a final set of three biomarkers were selected. The final three biomarkers from the novel hybrid variable selection methodology were red cell distribution width (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01, 1.30, serum glucose (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00, 1.01 and total bilirubin (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.05, 0.28. Significant interactions were found between total bilirubin with Mexican American/Hispanic group (p = 0.016, and current smokers (p<0.001.The systematic use of a hybrid methodology for variable selection, fusing data mining techniques using a machine learning algorithm with traditional statistical modelling, accounted for missing data and complex survey sampling

  9. Recommended dietary pattern to achieve adherence to the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2013, the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology published the "Guideline on Lifestyle Management to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk," which was based on a systematic review originally initiated by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The guideline supports the America...

  10. Symptom distress and its association with traditional Chinese medicine use in Chinese American women with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Sun, Yiyuan; Louie, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    To identify symptom distress related to cancer for a group of Chinese American women in treatment, and to examine their use of various forms of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and their relationships to specific symptoms they identified. Cross-sectional, correlational. American Cancer Society Asian Initiatives support groups in the state of New York. 97 Chinese American women residing in New York with a mean age of 57 years; the time since diagnosis of cancer ranged from two months to 24 years. The type of diagnosis for the majority of women was breast cancer. A self-reported questionnaire including a demographic data form, a researcher-developed checklist for types of TCM, and the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (MSAS-SF) were administered. The MSAS-SF has three subscales: global distress index, psychological symptom distress scale, and physical symptom distress scale. Symptoms, symptom distress, and types of TCM. The descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests were applied for data analysis. Chinese American women with cancer in treatment reported multiple symptoms, and the three MSAS-SF distress subscale scores indicated moderate symptom distress. Symptoms were positively associated with the use of TCM. Chinese American women in treatment for cancer reported multiple symptoms and moderate symptom distress. Participants with specific symptoms tended to use specific forms of TCM. High prevalence of psychological symptoms for Chinese American women with cancer suggests that oncology nurses should work with mental health providers for symptom management of this population. Oncology nurses also need to stay informed of the growing body of evidence on the benefits of TCM for patients with cancer. Future studies should include an emphasis on the improvement in methodologic quality for studies that investigate using TCM in participants with cancer.

  11. Associations between food insecurity and the severity of psychological distress among African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Nickolas L; Becerra, Benjamin J; Becerra, Monideepa B

    2017-01-31

    Little research exists on the association between food insecurity and mild to moderate psychological distress (MPD) among Black/African-Americans. In this study, we assess the relationship between food insecurity with and without hunger to that of both MPD and serious psychological distress (SPD) among this population. 2009 and 2011/2012 adult public-use data from African-American respondents of the California Health Interview Survey were utilized for this study (n = 4003). Descriptive statistics were utilized to identify prevalence of psychological distress among sociodemographic and mental-health associated variables. Bivariate analyses were conducted between these variables and psychological distress using survey-weighted chi-square analyses. To evaluate the association between psychological distress, our primary exposure variable of food security, and other variables, we utilized survey-weighted multinomial logistic regression. Prevalence of mild to MPD was higher among those reporting food insecurity while SPD was highest for those with food insecurity and hunger. Results of multinomial logistic regression analysis demonstrate that while MPD was significantly associated with food insecurity, Black/African-Americans with food insecurity and hunger displayed over sixfold odds of higher serious psychological distress, as compared to those living at or above 200% federal poverty level. Our findings add to this growing segment of the literature on psychological distress and food insecurity. Further focus should be placed on improving the efficacy and reach of both formal and informal food support networks to improve the collective health and well-being of poor Black/African-American communities.

  12. Characteristics of American Psychological Association Division 40 (clinical neuropsychology) Fellows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Greene, Doug; Collins, K C

    2011-11-01

    Fellow status is an honor bestowed on American Psychological Association (APA) members who have made unusual and outstanding contributions to the field of psychology that have had a national impact. Thus far no studies have examined the characteristics of the individuals who have received this honor. This study examined publicly available data for 157 Division 40 Fellows. Fellows comprise 3.7% of the 4273 members of the division compared to 5.7% of the entire APA membership. Fellows are predominantly male (73%). All but two fellows had earned a Ph.D. with the average time since granting of the doctoral degree of 17.1 ± 6 years (median=16 years) with a range of 7-40 years post-degree. Slightly over half of the fellows hold board certification (53%) in the American Board of Professional Psychology. The largest group of fellows reports their primary employment currently as a university-affiliated medical setting (48%). These data serve to characterize current Division 40 Fellows for the field of neuropsychology and may provide useful information to assist prospective fellow applicants.

  13. Genomewide Association Study for Maximum Number of Alcoholic Drinks in European Americans and African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ke; Kranzler, Henry R; Sherva, Richard; Sartor, Carolyn E; Almasy, Laura; Koesterer, Ryan; Zhao, Hongyu; Farrer, Lindsay A; Gelernter, Joel

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a genomewide association study (GWAS) for maximum number of alcoholic drinks consumed in a 24-hour period ("MaxDrinks"), in 2 independent samples comprised of over 9,500 subjects, following up on our GWAS for alcohol dependence (AD) in European Americans (EAs) and African Americans (AAs). The samples included our GWAS samples (Yale-UPenn) recruited for studies of the genetics of drug or AD, and a publicly available sample: the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE). Genomewide association analysis was performed for ~890,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using linear association random effects models. EAs and AAs were separately analyzed. The results confirmed significant associations of the well-known functional loci at ADH1B with MaxDrinks in EAs (rs1229984 Arg48His p = 5.96 × 10(-15) ) and AAs (rs2066702 Arg370Cys, p = 2.50 × 10(-10) ). The region of significant association on chromosome 4 was extended to LOC100507053 in AAs but not EAs. We also identified potentially novel significant common SNPs for MaxDrinks in EAs in the Yale-UPenn sample: rs1799876 at SERPINC1 on chromosome 1 (4.00 × 10(-8) ) and rs2309169 close to ANKRD36 on chromosome 2 (p = 5.58 × 10(-9) ). After adjusting for the peak SNP rs1229984 on ADH1B, rs1799876 was nearly significant (p = 1.99 × 10(-7) ) and rs2309169 remained highly significant (2.12 × 10(-9) ). The results provide further support that ADH1B modulates alcohol consumption. Future replications of potential novel loci are warranted. This is the largest MaxDrinks GWAS to date, the first in AAs. Copyright © 2015 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  14. Association of Serum Osteoprotegerin With Left Ventricular Mass in African-American Adults With Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noheria, Amit; Mosley, Thomas H.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND African-Americans with hypertension are susceptible to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Serum osteoprotegerin level has been reported to be associated with LVH. We investigated the association of osteoprotegerin with LV mass (LVM) in 898 African-Americans with hypertension (mean age 65 years, 71% women). METHODS Osteoprotegerin levels were measured in serum by an immunoassay and log-transformed for analyses. LVM index (LVMi; LVM/height2.7) was estimated using M-mode echocardiography. Linear regression analyses using generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association of osteoprotegerin with LVMi. RESULTS Serum osteoprotegerin was correlated with LVMi (r = 0.21; P osteoprotegerin quartile. This association remained statistically significant after adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors (age, sex, body mass index (BMI), history of smoking, diabetes, systolic blood pressure (BP), total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), estimated renal function, history of myocardial infarction and stroke, lifestyle factors (physical activity score, years of education, amount of alcohol consumption), medications (aspirin, antihypertensives, statins, estrogens), and C-reactive protein (CRP) (P = 0.02). Additionally, osteoprotegerin was correlated with early/atrial (E/A) ratio (r = −0.16; P osteoprotegerin level is weakly but independently associated with a higher LVM. PMID:20339356

  15. A classification of generalized quantum statistics associated with classical Lie algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Stoilova, N. I.; Van der Jeugt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Generalized quantum statistics such as para-Fermi statistics is characterized by certain triple relations which, in the case of para-Fermi statistics, are related to the orthogonal Lie algebra B_n=so(2n+1). In this paper, we give a quite general definition of ``a generalized quantum statistics associated to a classical Lie algebra G''. This definition is closely related to a certain Z-grading of G. The generalized quantum statistics is then determined by a set of root vectors (the creation an...

  16. Faculty application of the American Psychological Association style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Gwen Goetz

    2009-10-01

    This article explores current faculty methods with the application and evaluation of the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Specific aims were to determine concerns related to APA style, review faculty grading practices, identify institutional resources, and report potential solutions for improving application of APA style. A survey with an exploratory descriptive research design was developed and distributed online to academic chairs and deans, requesting their support in distributing the survey to their faculty. Responses (N = 704) were grouped into five categories: departmental and personal concerns; faculty grading practices; institutional resources; format, writing style, and grammar; and suggestions and potential solutions. Sixty percent reported that application and evaluation of APA style is a concern in their department. Content analysis identified four categories as proposed solutions: consistency, education, resources, and dialogue. On the basis of the feedback of the participants, the CRED program is proposed for the issues that were identified. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. The American Medical Student Association's contributions to advancing primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedgecock, Joan; Steyer, Terrence E

    2008-11-01

    The American Medical Student Association (AMSA) Foundation is the programming arm of AMSA. The AMSA Foundation has administered several Title VII contracts designed to enhance the primary care education, leadership development, and cultural competence of the next generation of physicians, dentists, and other graduate-level health professionals. The authors discuss several AMSA programs developed with Title VII funding: Generalist Physicians in Training; Promoting, Reinforcing, and Improving Medical Education; National Primary Care Week; Leadership Seminar Series; and Achieving Diversity in Dentistry and Medicine. This article summarizes the work of these programs and discusses the impact that decreased funding has had on the training of our nation's future health professionals.This article is part of a theme issue of Academic Medicine on the Title VII health professions training programs.

  18. Position of the American Dietetic Association: oral health and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touger-Decker, Riva; Mobley, Connie C

    2007-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition is an integral component of oral health. The American Dietetic Association supports the integration of oral health with nutrition services, education, and research. Collaboration between dietetics and dental professionals is recommended for oral health promotion and disease prevention and intervention. Scientific and epidemiological data suggest a lifelong synergy between nutrition and the integrity of the oral cavity in health and disease. Oral health and nutrition have a synergistic bidirectional relationship. Oral infectious diseases, as well as acute, chronic, and terminal systemic diseases with oral manifestations, impact the functional ability to eat as well as diet and nutrition status. Likewise, nutrition and diet may affect the development and integrity of the oral cavity as well as the progression of oral diseases. As we advance in our discoveries of the links between oral and nutrition health, practitioners of both disciplines must learn to provide screening, baseline education, and referral to each other as part of comprehensive client/patient care. Dietetics practice requires registered dietitians to provide medical nutrition therapy that incorporates a person's total health needs, including oral health. Inclusion of both didactic and clinical practice concepts that illustrate the role of nutrition in oral health is essential in both dental and dietetic education programs. Collaborative endeavors between dietetics and dentistry in research, education, and delineation of health provider practice roles are needed to ensure comprehensive health care. The multifaceted interactions between diet, nutrition, and oral health in practice, education, and research in both dietetics and dentistry merit continued, detailed delineation.

  19. AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT ON MENOPAUSE-2017 UPDATE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobin, Rhoda H; Goodman, Neil F

    2017-07-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE)/American College of Endocrinology (ACE) Position Statement is designed to update the previous menopause clinical practice guidelines published in 2011 but does not replace them. The current document reviews new clinical trials published since then as well as new information regarding possible risks and benefits of therapies available for the treatment of menopausal symptoms. AACE reinforces the recommendations made in its previous guidelines and provides additional recommendations on the basis of new data. A summary regarding this position statement is listed below: New information available from randomized clinical trials and epidemiologic studies reported after 2011 was critically reviewed. No previous recommendations from the 2011 menopause clinical practice guidelines have been reversed or changed. Newer information enhances AACE's guidance for the use of hormone therapy in different subsets of women. Newer information helps to support the use of various types of estrogens, selective estrogen-receptor modulators (SERMs), and progesterone, as well as the route of delivery. Newer information supports the previous recommendation against the use of bioidentical hormones. The use of nonhormonal therapies for the symptomatic relief of menopausal symptoms is supported. Newer information enhances AACE's guidance for the use of hormone therapy in different subsets of women. Newer information helps to support the use of various types of estrogens, SERMs, and progesterone, as well as the route of delivery. Newer information supports the previous recommendation against the use of bioidentical hormones. The use of nonhormonal therapies for the symptomatic relief of menopausal symptoms is supported. New recommendations in this position statement include: 1. the use of menopausal hormone therapy in symptomatic postmenopausal women should be based on consideration of all risk factors for

  20. Native American Participation among Bachelors in Physical Sciences and Engineering: Results from 2003-13 Data of the National Center for Education Statistics. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merner, Laura; Tyler, John

    2017-01-01

    Using the National Center of Education Statistics' Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), this report analyzes data on Native American recipients of bachelor's degrees among 16 physical science and engineering fields. Overall, Native Americans are earning physical science and engineering bachelor's degrees at lower rates than the…

  1. Factors associated with smoking in Asian American adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhongmiao

    2008-05-01

    This review systematically examined the factors associated with smoking in Asian American adults (aged > or =17 years). A total of 21 quantitative studies published in peer-reviewed journals from 1997 to 2006 were reviewed and abstracted using the matrix method. Statistically significant factors reported by the studies were summarized. Methodological quality of the studies also was assessed (maximum possible score = 10). Acculturation and education were the most frequently reported factors (n = 10, 47.6%). Acculturation was negatively associated with men's smoking but was positively associated with women's smoking. Education was uniformly found to be negatively related to smoking. Age was reported to have either a positive or a negative relationship with smoking (n = 9, 42.9%). Men were more likely to smoke than women (n = 7, 33.3%). The mean methodological score of the reviewed studies was 4.14 (on a scale of 1-10 points; SD = 1.62; range = 2-8). Health promotion professionals need to consider the summarized factors associated with Asian American adults' smoking behavior when planning smoking prevention programs and when recruiting participants for smoking cessation programs. When addressing acculturation, program planners should design different health education materials and use different strategies for men and women. To identify, understand, and incorporate essential factors into effective interventions, future studies should aim at higher methodological quality by using longitudinal design and increasing the use of theory, the test of data validity and reliability, and the report of effect sizes.

  2. Association of genetic loci with sleep apnea in European Americans and African-Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay R Patel

    Full Text Available Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is known to have a strong familial basis, no genetic polymorphisms influencing apnea risk have been identified in cross-cohort analyses. We utilized the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe to identify sleep apnea susceptibility loci. Using a panel of 46,449 polymorphisms from roughly 2,100 candidate genes on a customized Illumina iSelect chip, we tested for association with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI as well as moderate to severe OSA (AHI≥15 in 3,551 participants of the Cleveland Family Study and two cohorts participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study.Among 647 African-Americans, rs11126184 in the pleckstrin (PLEK gene was associated with OSA while rs7030789 in the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1 gene was associated with AHI using a chip-wide significance threshold of p-value<2×10(-6. Among 2,904 individuals of European ancestry, rs1409986 in the prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER3 gene was significantly associated with OSA. Consistency of effects between rs7030789 and rs1409986 in LPAR1 and PTGER3 and apnea phenotypes were observed in independent clinic-based cohorts.Novel genetic loci for apnea phenotypes were identified through the use of customized gene chips and meta-analyses of cohort data with replication in clinic-based samples. The identified SNPs all lie in genes associated with inflammation suggesting inflammation may play a role in OSA pathogenesis.

  3. American Telemedicine Association's Principles for Delivering Telerehabilitation Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Tammy; Peterson, Christopher; Cason, Jana; Billings, Mike; Terrell, Evelyn Abrahante; Lee, Alan Chong W; Towey, Michael; Parmanto, Bambang; Saptono, Andi; Cohn, Ellen R; Brennan, David

    2017-01-01

    Telehealth is a broad term used to describe the use of electronic or digital information and communications technologies to support clinical healthcare, patient and professional health related education, and public health and health administration. Telerehabilitation refers to the delivery of rehabilitation and habilitation services via information and communication technologies (ICT), also commonly referred to as" telehealth" technologies. Telerehabilitation services can include evaluation, assessment, monitoring, prevention, intervention, supervision, education, consultation, and coaching. Telerehabilitation services can be deployed across all patient populations and multiple healthcare settings including clinics, homes, schools, or community-based worksites. This document was adapted from the American Telemedicine Association's (ATA) "A Blueprint for Telerehabilitation Guidelines" (2010) and reflects the current utilization of telerehabilitation services. It was developed collaboratively by members of the ATA Telerehabilitation Special Interest Group, with input and guidance from other practitioners in the field, strategic stakeholders, and ATA staff. Its purpose is to inform and assist practitioners in providing effective and secure services that are based on client needs, current empirical evidence, and available technologies. Rehabilitation professionals, in conjunction with professional associations and other organizations are encouraged to use this document as a resource for developing discipline-specific standards, guidelines, and practice requirements.

  4. Genetic Heterogeneity in Colorectal Cancer Associations in Americans of African vs. European Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Sonia S.; Anderson, Jeffrey R.; Hooker, Stanley; Skol, Andrew; Kittles, Rick A.; Keku, Temitope O.; Sandler, Robert S.; Ellis, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background & Aims Genome-wide association studies of colorectal cancer (CRC) have identified risk variants in 10 genomic regions. None of these studies included African Americans, who have the highest incidence and mortality from CRC in the US. For the 10 genomic regions, we performed an association study of Americans of African and European descent. Methods We genotyped 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA samples from 1194 patients with CRC (795 African Americans and 399 European Americans) and 1352 controls (985 African Americans and 367 European Americans). At chromosome 8q24.21 region 3, we analyzed 6 SNPs from 1000 African American cases and 1393 controls. Association testing was done using multivariate logistic regression controlling for ancestry, age, and sex. Results Sizes and directions of association for all SNPs tested in European Americans were consistent with previously published studies, but for 9 of 22 SNPs tested in African Americans, they were of an opposite direction. Among African Americans, the SNP rs6983267 at 8q24.21 was not associated with CRC (odds ratio [OR]=1.18; P=0.12); instead, the 8q24.21 SNP rs7014346 (OR=1.15; p=0.03) was associated with CRC in this population. At 15q13.3, rs10318 was associated with CRC in both populations. At 10p14, the opposite allele of rs10795668 was associated with CRC in African Americans (OR=1.35; P=0.04). At 11q23.1, rs3802842 was significantly associated with rectal cancer risk only among African Americans (OR 1.34; P=0.01); this observation was made in previous studies. Among European Americans, SNPs at 8q24.21, 11q23.1, and 16q22.1 were associated with CRC, in agreement with previous reports. Conclusion There is genetic heterogeneity in CRC associations in Americans of African vs. European descent. PMID:20659471

  5. Lagged Associations of Metropolitan Statistical Area- and State-Level Income Inequality with Cognitive Function: The Health and Retirement Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daniel; Griffin, Beth Ann; Kabeto, Mohammed; Escarce, José; Langa, Kenneth M; Shih, Regina A

    2016-01-01

    Much variation in individual-level cognitive function in late life remains unexplained, with little exploration of area-level/contextual factors to date. Income inequality is a contextual factor that may plausibly influence cognitive function. In a nationally-representative cohort of older Americans from the Health and Retirement Study, we examined state- and metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level income inequality as predictors of individual-level cognitive function measured by the 27-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS-m) scale. We modeled latency periods of 8-20 years, and controlled for state-/metropolitan statistical area (MSA)-level and individual-level factors. Higher MSA-level income inequality predicted lower cognitive function 16-18 years later. Using a 16-year lag, living in a MSA in the highest income inequality quartile predicted a 0.9-point lower TICS-m score (β = -0.86; 95% CI = -1.41, -0.31), roughly equivalent to the magnitude associated with five years of aging. We observed no associations for state-level income inequality. The findings were robust to sensitivity analyses using propensity score methods. Among older Americans, MSA-level income inequality appears to influence cognitive function nearly two decades later. Policies reducing income inequality levels within cities may help address the growing burden of declining cognitive function among older populations within the United States.

  6. Associations between trajectories of perceived racial discrimination and psychological symptoms among African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Bynum, Mia A; Lambert, Sharon F; English, Devin; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2014-11-01

    Many African American adolescents experience racial discrimination, with adverse consequences; however, stability and change in these experiences over time have not been examined. We examined longitudinal patterns of perceived racial discrimination assessed in Grades 7-10 and how these discrimination trajectories related to patterns of change in depressive and anxious symptoms and aggressive behaviors assessed over the same 4-year period. Growth mixture modeling performed on a community epidemiologically defined sample of urban African American adolescents (n = 504) revealed three trajectories of discrimination: increasing, decreasing, and stable low. As predicted, African American boys were more frequent targets for racial discrimination as they aged, and they were more likely to be in the increasing group. The results of parallel process growth mixture modeling revealed that youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were four times more likely to be in an increasing depression trajectory than were youth in the low stable discrimination trajectory. Though youth in the increasing racial discrimination group were nearly twice as likely to be in the high aggression trajectory, results were not statistically significant. These results indicate an association between variation in the growth of perceived racial discrimination and youth behavior and psychological well-being over the adolescent years.

  7. Association between Obesity and History of Abuse among American Indians in Rural California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Felicia; Stemmler, M Susan; Nandy, Karabi

    2014-01-01

    To explore factors associated with obesity among American Indians. A cross-sectional survey of American Indian adults (N=459) was conducted at 13 rural reservation sites in California. Participants responded to a survey about their health and wellness perceptions. The Body Mass Index (BMI) was used to assess obesity. A predictive model for BMI was built using a generalized regression model. Having high blood pressure and having a history of verbal abuse in childhood were significant predictors of higher BMI. Participants with high blood pressure were likely to have 3.2 units of BMI higher on average than those who do not have high blood pressure (p-value history of childhood verbal abuse were likely to have 1.9 units higher BMI on average compared to those with no such history. Having a history of diabetes or sexual abuse in childhood trend towards increased BMI, although not statistically significant. Identifying childhood trauma and its impact on adult obesity rates among American Indians provides new avenues for intervention. Efforts to reduce over weight and obesity should include culturally sensitive interventions to ameliorate and repair what is lost through personal violations of stigma, abuse or neglect.

  8. Fusing Data Mining, Machine Learning and Traditional Statistics to Detect Biomarkers Associated with Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipnall, Joanna F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Atheoretical large-scale data mining techniques using machine learning algorithms have promise in the analysis of large epidemiological datasets. This study illustrates the use of a hybrid methodology for variable selection that took account of missing data and complex survey design to identify key biomarkers associated with depression from a large epidemiological study. Methods The study used a three-step methodology amalgamating multiple imputation, a machine learning boosted regression algorithm and logistic regression, to identify key biomarkers associated with depression in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (2009–2010). Depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and 67 biomarkers were analysed. Covariates in this study included gender, age, race, smoking, food security, Poverty Income Ratio, Body Mass Index, physical activity, alcohol use, medical conditions and medications. The final imputed weighted multiple logistic regression model included possible confounders and moderators. Results After the creation of 20 imputation data sets from multiple chained regression sequences, machine learning boosted regression initially identified 21 biomarkers associated with depression. Using traditional logistic regression methods, including controlling for possible confounders and moderators, a final set of three biomarkers were selected. The final three biomarkers from the novel hybrid variable selection methodology were red cell distribution width (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01, 1.30), serum glucose (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00, 1.01) and total bilirubin (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.05, 0.28). Significant interactions were found between total bilirubin with Mexican American/Hispanic group (p = 0.016), and current smokers (p<0.001). Conclusion The systematic use of a hybrid methodology for variable selection, fusing data mining techniques using a machine learning algorithm with traditional statistical modelling, accounted for missing data and

  9. Principles for websites of the American Medical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    The Internet has the potential to provide patients and physicians with rapid access to high quality, timely evidence regarding health and medical diagnosis and treatment. However, many barriers must be surmounted before this potential is achieved. Quality of content must be able to be verified, including the accuracy and timeliness of the information, the source of the information, and the objectivity of the source. Advertising and sponsorship must not influence content and should not be juxtaposed with related content. Individuals must be able to access information without loss of personal privacy. To address these issues, the American Medical Association has developed principles to guide development and posting of Web site content, govern acquisition and posting of online advertising and sponsorship, ensure site visitors' and patients' rights to privacy and confidentiality, and provide effective and secure means of e-commerce. While these guidelines were developed specifically for the AMA Web sites and visitors to these sites, they also may be useful to other providers and users of medical information on the Web.

  10. Are the American Psychological Association?s Detainee Interrogation Policies Ethical and Effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Kenneth S.

    2011-01-01

    After 9?11, the United States began interrogating detainees at settings such as Abu Ghraib, Bagram, and Guantanamo. The American Psychological Association (APA) supported psychologists? involvement in interrogations, adopted formal policies, and made an array of public assurances. This article?s purpose is to highlight key APA decisions, policies, procedures, documents, and public statements in urgent need of rethinking and to suggest questions that may be useful in a serious assessment, such...

  11. Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston J; Mangels, Ann Reed

    2009-07-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foods. This article reviews the current data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, n-3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, and vitamins D and B-12. A vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, supplements or fortified foods can provide useful amounts of important nutrients. An evidence- based review showed that vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate in pregnancy and result in positive maternal and infant health outcomes. The results of an evidence-based review showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarians also appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index and lower overall cancer rates. Features of a vegetarian diet that may reduce risk of chronic disease include lower intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, soy products, fiber, and phytochemicals. The variability of dietary practices among vegetarians makes individual assessment of dietary adequacy essential. In addition to assessing dietary adequacy, food and nutrition professionals can also play key roles in educating vegetarians about sources of specific nutrients

  12. Management of Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derdeyn, Colin P; Zipfel, Gregory J; Albuquerque, Felipe C; Cooke, Daniel L; Feldmann, Edward; Sheehan, Jason P; Torner, James C

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this statement is to review the current data and to make suggestions for the diagnosis and management of both ruptured and unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations. The writing group met in person and by teleconference to establish search terms and to discuss narrative text and suggestions. Authors performed their own literature searches of PubMed, Medline, or Embase, specific to their allocated section, through the end of January 2015. Prerelease review of the draft statement was performed by expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council Scientific Oversight Committee and Stroke Council Leadership Committee. The focus of the scientific statement was subdivided into epidemiology; diagnosis; natural history; treatment, including the roles of surgery, stereotactic radiosurgery, and embolization; and management of ruptured and unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations. Areas requiring more evidence were identified. Brain arteriovenous malformations are a relatively uncommon but important cause of hemorrhagic stroke, especially in young adults. This statement describes the current knowledge of the natural history and treatment of patients with ruptured and unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations, suggestions for management, and implications for future research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of excess statistical significance in meta-analyses of 98 biomarker associations with cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Papatheodorou, Stefania I; Evangelou, Evangelos; Ioannidis, John P A

    2012-12-19

    Numerous biomarkers have been associated with cancer risk. We assessed whether there is evidence for excess statistical significance in results of cancer biomarker studies, suggesting biases. We systematically searched PubMed for meta-analyses of nongenetic biomarkers and cancer risk. The number of observed studies with statistically significant results was compared with the expected number, based on the statistical power of each study under different assumptions for the plausible effect size. We also evaluated small-study effects using asymmetry tests. All statistical tests were two-sided. We included 98 meta-analyses with 847 studies. Forty-three meta-analyses (44%) found nominally statistically significant summary effects (random effects). The proportion of meta-analyses with statistically significant effects was highest for infectious agents (86%), inflammatory (67%), and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/insulin system (52%) biomarkers. Overall, 269 (32%) individual studies observed nominally statistically significant results. A statistically significant excess of the observed over the expected number of studies with statistically significant results was seen in 20 meta-analyses. An excess of observed vs expected was observed in studies of IGF/insulin (P ≤ .04) and inflammation systems (P ≤ .02). Only 12 meta-analyses (12%) had a statistically significant summary effect size, more than 1000 case patients, and no hints of small-study effects or excess statistical significance; only four of them had large effect sizes, three of which pertained to infectious agents (Helicobacter pylori, hepatitis and human papilloma viruses). Most well-documented biomarkers of cancer risk without evidence of bias pertain to infectious agents. Conversely, an excess of statistically significant findings was observed in studies of IGF/insulin and inflammation systems, suggesting reporting biases.

  14. Genetic heterogeneity in colorectal cancer associations between African and European americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Sonia S; Anderson, Jeffrey R; Hooker, Stanley; Skol, Andrew; Kittles, Rick A; Keku, Temitope O; Sandler, Robert S; Ellis, Nathan A

    2010-11-01

    Genome-wide association studies of colorectal cancer (CRC) have identified risk variants in 10 genomic regions. None of these studies included African Americans, who have the highest incidence and mortality from CRC in the United States. For the 10 genomic regions, we performed an association study of Americans of African and European descent. We genotyped 22 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA samples from 1194 patients with CRC (795 African Americans and 399 European Americans) and 1352 controls (985 African Americans and 367 European Americans). At chromosome 8q24.21 region 3, we analyzed 6 SNPs from 1000 African American cases and 1393 controls. Association testing was done using multivariate logistic regression controlling for ancestry, age, and sex. Among African Americans, the SNP rs6983267 at 8q24.21 was not associated with CRC (odds ratio, 1.18; P = .12); instead, the 8q24.21 SNP rs7014346 (odds ratio, 1.15; P = .03) was associated with CRC in this population. At 15q13.3, rs10318 was associated with CRC in both populations. At 11q23.1, rs3802842 was significantly associated with rectal cancer risk only among African Americans (odds ratio, 1.34; P = .01); this observation was made in previous studies. Among European Americans, SNPs at 8q24.21, 11q23.1, and 16q22.1 were significantly associated with CRC, and the odds ratios were of the same magnitude and direction for all SNPs tested, consistent with previously published studies. In contrast, in African Americans, the opposite allele of rs10795668 at 10p14 was associated with colorectal cancer (odds ratio, 1.35; P = .04), and altogether the odds ratios were in the opposite direction for 9 of the 22 SNPs tested. There is genetic heterogeneity in CRC associations in Americans of African versus European descent. Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Parental Factors Associated with Mexican American Adolescent Alcohol Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mogro-Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to further the understanding of how parenting and the relationship between the parent and the youth influence adolescent alcohol use in Mexican American families, with particular attention to acculturation. Results indicated that parental warmth is a strong factor in predicting adolescent alcohol use among Mexican adolescents. The parent-youth relationship played an important role in lowering alcohol use for Mexican American youth. Acculturation has an impact on the level of warmth, control, and the parent-youth relationship for Mexican American families. Findings indicate that there are unique family mechanisms for Mexican American families that should be considered when developing prevention and treatment options.

  16. Position of the American Dietetic Association: functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Clare M; Brown, Amy C

    2009-04-01

    All foods are functional at some physiological level, but it is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that functional foods that include whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels. ADA supports research to further define the health benefits and risks of individual functional foods and their physiologically active components. Health claims on food products, including functional foods, should be based on the significant scientific agreement standard of evidence and ADA supports label claims based on such strong scientific substantiation. Food and nutrition professionals will continue to work with the food industry, allied health professionals, the government, the scientific community, and the media to ensure that the public has accurate information regarding functional foods and thus should continue to educate themselves on this emerging area of food and nutrition science. Knowledge of the role of physiologically active food components, from plant, animal, and microbial food sources, has changed the role of diet in health. Functional foods have evolved as food and nutrition science has advanced beyond the treatment of deficiency syndromes to reduction of disease risk and health promotion. This position paper reviews the definition of functional foods, their regulation, and the scientific evidence supporting this evolving area of food and nutrition. Foods can no longer be evaluated only in terms of macronutrient and micronutrient content alone. Analyzing the content of other physiologically active components and evaluating their role in health promotion will be necessary. The availability of health-promoting functional foods in the US diet has the potential to help ensure a healthier population. However, each functional food should be evaluated on the basis of scientific evidence to ensure appropriate integration

  17. Racial-ethnic disparities in stroke care: the American experience: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Rabinstein, Alejandro; Biller, Jose; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Griffith, Patrick; Gorelick, Philip B; Howard, George; Leira, Enrique C; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Peterson, Eric; Rosamond, Wayne; Trimble, Brian; Valderrama, Amy L

    2011-07-01

    Our goal is to describe the effect of race and ethnicity on stroke epidemiology, personal beliefs, access to care, response to treatment, and participation in clinical research. In addition, we seek to determine the state of knowledge on the main factors that may explain disparities in stroke care, with the goal of identifying gaps in knowledge to guide future research. The intended audience includes physicians, nurses, other healthcare professionals, and policy makers. Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and represent different areas of expertise in relation to racial-ethnic disparities in stroke care. The writing group reviewed the relevant literature, with an emphasis on reports published since 1972. The statement was approved by the writing group; the statement underwent peer review, then was approved by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. There are limitations in the definitions of racial and ethnic categories currently in use. For the purpose of this statement, we used the racial categories defined by the US federal government: white, black or African American, Asian, American Indian/Alaskan Native, and Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander. There are 2 ethnic categories: people of Hispanic/Latino origin or not of Hispanic/Latino origin. There are differences in the distribution of the burden of risk factors, stroke incidence and prevalence, and stroke mortality among different racial and ethnic groups. In addition, there are disparities in stroke care between minority groups compared with whites. These disparities include lack of awareness of stroke symptoms and signs and lack of knowledge about the need for urgent treatment and the causal role of risk factors. There are also differences in attitudes, beliefs, and compliance among minorities compared with whites. Differences in socioeconomic status and insurance coverage

  18. A Genome-Wide Association Search for Type 2 Diabetes Genes in African Americans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, N.D.; McDonough, C.W.; Hicks, P.J.; Roh, B.H.; Wing, M.R.; Sandy An, S.; Hester, J.M.; Cooke, J.N.; Bostrom, M.A.; Rudock, M.E.; Talbert, M.E.; Lewis, J.P.; Hottenga, J.J.; de Geus, E.J.C.; Willemsen, G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Ferrara, A.; Lu, L.; Ziegler, J.T.; Sale, M.M.; Divers, J.; Shriner, D.; Adeyemo, A.; Rotimi, C.N.; Ng, M.C.Y.; Langefeld, C.D.; Freedman, B.I.; Bowden, D.W.; Posthuma, D.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Sladek, R.

    2012-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide

  19. 76 FR 37876 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Renewal of American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) Exemption...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ...-28043] Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Renewal of American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) Exemption... announces the renewal of the exemption of specified members of the American Pyrotechnics Association (APA... of this exemption in effect, designated APA-member motor carriers will maintain a level of safety...

  20. 76 FR 30232 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Application of American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...-28043] Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Application of American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) for... American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) has applied for a limited exemption from FMCSA's regulation that... exemption would apply solely to the operation of CMVs by 9 designated APA-member motor carriers in...

  1. 76 FR 37880 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Granting of Exemption; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ...-28043] Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Granting of Exemption; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA... exemption from the American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) on behalf of 9 member motor carriers seeking... such exemption'' (49 U.S.C. 31315(b)(1)). The initial APA application for waiver or exemption relief...

  2. American Library Association (ALA no Second Life (SL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richele Grenge Vignoli

    Full Text Available A American Library Association (ALA está inserida no contexto de Realidade Virtual (RV em 3D, por meio de sua atuação no Second Life (SL, com a ALA Island. Esta pesquisa teve como objetivo analisar o atendimento virtual a bibliotecários no SL; identificar produtos e serviços que a ALA oferece no SL e analisar sua infraestrutura. Para a coleta de dados, foi utilizada a análise documental, ação em que a ALA Island foi observada/explorada e estruturada em dados; e o questionário - enviado a uma bibliotecária da ALA Island. Os resultados demonstram que a atuação da ALA no SL tem como propósito central a divulgação de seus projetos, os eventos físicos e os virtuais e o apoio ao bibliotecário em sua vida profissional. A ALA está inserida em diversos recursos da Web 2.0, além do SL, como blogs, wikis, sites de relacionamento, entre outros. Toda a trajetória da ALA foi analisada, assim como as especificidades do seu trabalho realizado para os bibliotecários. Observou-se que o atendimento a bibliotecários no SL é realizado por meio de robôs e indicação de notecards e hiperlinks informativos. No SL, a ALA disponibiliza diversos serviços e produtos aos bibliotecários, como os relacionados com os escritórios, comitês e instituições, além dos serviços e produtos disponíveis no site e no escritório da ALA em Washington-DC e de seus representantes. Os recursos da ALA e do SL, assim como a inserção de bibliotecários em Realidade Virtual (RV precisam ser estudados por meio de pesquisas, para dinamizar e aproximar essa realidade desses profissionais.

  3. Native American Perceptions of the National Association for Native American Children of Alcoholics: In Their Own Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Jeannette L.; Plemons, Bradford W.; Starr, Edward; Reyes, Raymond; Fleming, Candace; Latimer, Anna; Trimble, Joseph E.

    The National Association for Native American Children of Alcoholics (NANACOA) initiated a strategy in 1995 to evaluate their programs and prevention efforts. The design and methodology of the project incorporated a "naturalistic" approach to help preserve cultural integrity and respect multiple perspectives. Data were gathered from…

  4. GWAPower: a statistical power calculation software for genome-wide association studies with quantitative traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sheng; Wang, Shengchu; Chen, Chia-Cheng; Lan, Lan

    2011-01-21

    In designing genome-wide association (GWA) studies it is important to calculate statistical power. General statistical power calculation procedures for quantitative measures often require information concerning summary statistics of distributions such as mean and variance. However, with genetic studies, the effect size of quantitative traits is traditionally expressed as heritability, a quantity defined as the amount of phenotypic variation in the population that can be ascribed to the genetic variants among individuals. Heritability is hard to transform into summary statistics. Therefore, general power calculation procedures cannot be used directly in GWA studies. The development of appropriate statistical methods and a user-friendly software package to address this problem would be welcomed. This paper presents GWAPower, a statistical software package of power calculation designed for GWA studies with quantitative traits, where genetic effect is defined as heritability. Based on several popular one-degree-of-freedom genetic models, this method avoids the need to specify the non-centrality parameter of the F-distribution under the alternative hypothesis. Therefore, it can use heritability information directly without approximation. In GWAPower, the power calculation can be easily adjusted for adding covariates and linkage disequilibrium information. An example is provided to illustrate GWAPower, followed by discussions. GWAPower is a user-friendly free software package for calculating statistical power based on heritability in GWA studies with quantitative traits. The software is freely available at: http://dl.dropbox.com/u/10502931/GWAPower.zip.

  5. GWAPower: a statistical power calculation software for genome-wide association studies with quantitative traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chia-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In designing genome-wide association (GWA studies it is important to calculate statistical power. General statistical power calculation procedures for quantitative measures often require information concerning summary statistics of distributions such as mean and variance. However, with genetic studies, the effect size of quantitative traits is traditionally expressed as heritability, a quantity defined as the amount of phenotypic variation in the population that can be ascribed to the genetic variants among individuals. Heritability is hard to transform into summary statistics. Therefore, general power calculation procedures cannot be used directly in GWA studies. The development of appropriate statistical methods and a user-friendly software package to address this problem would be welcomed. Results This paper presents GWAPower, a statistical software package of power calculation designed for GWA studies with quantitative traits, where genetic effect is defined as heritability. Based on several popular one-degree-of-freedom genetic models, this method avoids the need to specify the non-centrality parameter of the F-distribution under the alternative hypothesis. Therefore, it can use heritability information directly without approximation. In GWAPower, the power calculation can be easily adjusted for adding covariates and linkage disequilibrium information. An example is provided to illustrate GWAPower, followed by discussions. Conclusions GWAPower is a user-friendly free software package for calculating statistical power based on heritability in GWA studies with quantitative traits. The software is freely available at: http://dl.dropbox.com/u/10502931/GWAPower.zip

  6. Fifth joint meeting of the American Urological Association and the Japanese Urological Association International Affiliate Society Meeting at the 105th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Robert P; Seki, Narihito; Gotoh, Momokazu; Chai, Toby C; Kaplan, Steven A; Inoue, Keiji; Trachtenberg, John; Kikuchi, Eiji; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki; Chang, Sam S; Lee, Cheryl; Muto, Satoru; Ito, Kazuto; Andriole, Gerald L; Eto, Masatoshi; Sumitomo, Makoto; Kamba, Tomomi; Wood, Chrsitopher G; Margulis, Vitaly; Naito, Seiji; Egawa, Shin

    2010-08-01

    We are heartily grateful for the warm support of all of the people concerned, including the moderators and panelists of both societies for giving us the opportunity to hold the 5(th) American Urological Association/Japanese Urological Association (AUA/JUA) International Affiliate Society Meeting, held once again at the 105th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association (29 May-3 June 2010, San Francisco, California, USA). The year of 2010 is a memorable one, being the start of reciprocal collaborations between the AUA and the JUA. The JUA, in collaboration with the AUA, is promoting an academic exchange program whereby outstanding and promising Japanese and American junior faculty members will be given the opportunity to work in the USA and Japan for 1 month. The program not only allows the sharing of knowledge and experience, but also is designed to foster a closer alliance between the AUA and JUA, and assists in identifying future leaders within both organizations. The AUA and JUA will have an exhibit booth at each other's annual meeting, promoting our new joint activities. Both the JUA and AUA will organize educational courses in Hawaii in 2011. With all of these activities, the JUA hopes it will provide greater opportunities for young Japanese urologists to participate in educational projects in the USA. We would like to thank Professor Anton J. Bueschen, President of AUA, Professor Robert C Flanigan, Secretary General of AUA and the staff of the AUA and JUA for supporting our program. At the same time, we need the support of all the members and their valuable suggestions. We look forward to further participation of AUA members to this meeting. Seiji Naito md, President of JUA Shin Egawa md, Chairman of the International Committee of JUA.

  7. Statistical properties of measures of association and the Kappa statistic for assessing the accuracy of remotely sensed data using double sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed A. Kalkhan; Robin M. Reich; Raymond L. Czaplewski

    1996-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation was used to evaluate the statistical properties of measures of association and the Kappa statistic under double sampling with replacement. Three error matrices representing three levels of classification accuracy of Landsat TM Data consisting of four forest cover types in North Carolina. The overall accuracy of the five indices ranged from 0.35...

  8. Overview of American Heart Association / American College of Cardiology guidelines 2017 for management of patients with valvular heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Т. Vatutin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available n June 2017, Circulation journal published updated recommendations of the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology (AHA / ACC on the management of patients with valvular heart disease. The main provisions of this manual are set out in this message. It should be emphasized that the recommendations written by leading US experts in this field are set out clearly, using a variety of tables and figures, which will undoubtedly make them a desktop guide to action for most practitioners in the following years. As usual, when creating such guidelines, the authors were guided by evidence-based methodology using the classes of recommendations and levels of evidence.

  9. Statistics associated with an elemental analysis system of particles induced by X-ray emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romo K, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    In the quantitative elemental analysis by X-ray techniques one has to use data spectra which present fluctuations of statistical nature both from the energy and from the number of counts accumulated. While processing the results for the obtainment of a quantitative result, a detailed knowledge of the associated statistics distributions is needed. In this work, l) the statistics associated with the system photon's counting as well as 2) the distribution of the results as a function of the energy are analyzed. The first one is important for the definition of the expected values and uncertainties and for the spectra simulation (Mukoyama, 1975). The second one is fundamental for the determination of the contribution for each spectral line. (M.R.) [es

  10. Using volcano plots and regularized-chi statistics in genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan; Suh, Young Ju; Yang, Yaning

    2014-02-01

    Labor intensive experiments are typically required to identify the causal disease variants from a list of disease associated variants in the genome. For designing such experiments, candidate variants are ranked by their strength of genetic association with the disease. However, the two commonly used measures of genetic association, the odds-ratio (OR) and p-value may rank variants in different order. To integrate these two measures into a single analysis, here we transfer the volcano plot methodology from gene expression analysis to genetic association studies. In its original setting, volcano plots are scatter plots of fold-change and t-test statistic (or -log of the p-value), with the latter being more sensitive to sample size. In genetic association studies, the OR and Pearson's chi-square statistic (or equivalently its square root, chi; or the standardized log(OR)) can be analogously used in a volcano plot, allowing for their visual inspection. Moreover, the geometric interpretation of these plots leads to an intuitive method for filtering results by a combination of both OR and chi-square statistic, which we term "regularized-chi". This method selects associated markers by a smooth curve in the volcano plot instead of the right-angled lines which corresponds to independent cutoffs for OR and chi-square statistic. The regularized-chi incorporates relatively more signals from variants with lower minor-allele-frequencies than chi-square test statistic. As rare variants tend to have stronger functional effects, regularized-chi is better suited to the task of prioritization of candidate genes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Increasing BMI is associated with reduced expression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1 gene) in the human brain with a stronger association in African-Americans than Caucasians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Julie Vendelbo; Olesen, Rasmus Hansen; Lauridsen, Jesper Krogh

    2016-01-01

    . Using microarray data analysis from 145 neurologically sound adults, this study investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and ABCB1 expression in the frontal cortex. Increasing BMI values were associated with a statistically significantly reduced expression of ABCB1. Investigation...... of DNA methylation patterns in a subgroup of 52 individuals found that the methylation/expression ratios of ABCB1 were unaffected by increasing BMI values. Interestingly, the effect of BMI on ABCB1 expression appeared stronger in African Americans than in Caucasians.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance...

  12. Management of Cardiac Involvement Associated With Neuromuscular Diseases: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Brian; Mahle, William T; Auerbach, Scott; Clemens, Paula; Domenighetti, Andrea A; Jefferies, John L; Judge, Daniel P; Lal, Ashwin K; Markham, Larry W; Parks, W James; Tsuda, Takeshi; Wang, Paul J; Yoo, Shi-Joon

    2017-09-26

    For many neuromuscular diseases (NMDs), cardiac disease represents a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The management of cardiac disease in NMDs is made challenging by the broad clinical heterogeneity that exists among many NMDs and by limited knowledge about disease-specific cardiovascular pathogenesis and course-modifying interventions. The overlay of compromise in peripheral muscle function and other organ systems, such as the lungs, also makes the simple application of endorsed adult or pediatric heart failure guidelines to the NMD population problematic. In this statement, we provide background on several NMDs in which there is cardiac involvement, highlighting unique features of NMD-associated myocardial disease that require clinicians to tailor their approach to prevention and treatment of heart failure. Undoubtedly, further investigations are required to best inform future guidelines on NMD-specific cardiovascular health risks, treatments, and outcomes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Artificial Outdoor Nighttime Lights Associate with Altered Sleep Behavior in the American General Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M.; Milesi, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our study aims to explore the associations between outdoor nighttime lights (ONL) and sleep patterns in the human population. Methods: Cross-sectional telephone study of a representative sample of the general US population age 18 y or older. 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals (participation rate: 83.2%) were interviewed by telephone. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; sleep, mental and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition; International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition). Individuals were geolocated by longitude and latitude. Outdoor nighttime light measurements were obtained from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS), with nighttime passes taking place between 19:30 and 22:30 local time. Light data were correlated precisely to the geolocation of each participant of the general population sample. Results: Living in areas with greater ONL was associated with delayed bedtime (P sleep duration (P sleep quantity and quality (P sleep behaviors and also impinge on the daytime functioning of individuals living in areas with greater ONL. Citation: Ohayon MM, Milesi C. Artificial outdoor nighttime lights associate with altered sleep behavior in the american general population. SLEEP 2016;39(6):1311–1320. PMID:27091523

  14. Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B Gregory; Brown, Robert D; Amin-Hanjani, Sepideh; Broderick, Joseph P; Cockroft, Kevin M; Connolly, E Sander; Duckwiler, Gary R; Harris, Catherine C; Howard, Virginia J; Johnston, S Claiborne Clay; Meyers, Philip M; Molyneux, Andrew; Ogilvy, Christopher S; Ringer, Andrew J; Torner, James

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this updated statement is to provide comprehensive and evidence-based recommendations for management of patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. Writing group members used systematic literature reviews from January 1977 up to June 2014. They also reviewed contemporary published evidence-based guidelines, personal files, and published expert opinion to summarize existing evidence, indicate gaps in current knowledge, and when appropriate, formulated recommendations using standard American Heart Association criteria. The guideline underwent extensive peer review, including review by the Stroke Council Leadership and Stroke Scientific Statement Oversight Committees, before consideration and approval by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. Evidence-based guidelines are presented for the care of patients presenting with unruptured intracranial aneurysms. The guidelines address presentation, natural history, epidemiology, risk factors, screening, diagnosis, imaging and outcomes from surgical and endovascular treatment. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: a thematic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, James; Byrd, Gary D

    2003-04-01

    The Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada (Annual Statistics) is the most recognizable achievement of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries in its history to date. This article gives a thematic history of the Annual Statistics, emphasizing the leadership role of editors and Editorial Boards, the need for cooperation and membership support to produce comparable data useful for everyday management of academic medical center libraries and the use of technology as a tool for data gathering and publication. The Annual Statistics' origin is recalled, and survey features and content are related to the overall themes. The success of the Annual Statistics is evident in the leadership skills of the first editor, Richard Lyders, executive director of the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library. The history shows the development of a survey instrument that strives to produce reliable and valid data for a diverse group of libraries while reflecting the many complex changes in the library environment. The future of the Annual Statistics is assured by the anticipated changes facing academic health sciences libraries, namely the need to reflect the transition from a physical environment to an electronic operation.

  16. Gene-level association analysis of systemic sclerosis: A comparison of African-Americans and White populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlova, Olga Y; Li, Yafang; Gorlov, Ivan; Ying, Jun; Chen, Wei V; Assassi, Shervin; Reveille, John D; Arnett, Frank C; Zhou, Xiaodong; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Lopez-Isac, Elena; Acosta-Herrera, Marialbert; Gregersen, Peter K; Lee, Annette T; Steen, Virginia D; Fessler, Barri J; Khanna, Dinesh; Schiopu, Elena; Silver, Richard M; Molitor, Jerry A; Furst, Daniel E; Kafaja, Suzanne; Simms, Robert W; Lafyatis, Robert A; Carreira, Patricia; Simeon, Carmen Pilar; Castellvi, Ivan; Beltran, Emma; Ortego, Norberto; Amos, Christopher I; Martin, Javier; Mayes, Maureen D

    2018-01-01

    Gene-level analysis of ImmunoChip or genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data has not been previously reported for systemic sclerosis (SSc, scleroderma). The objective of this study was to analyze genetic susceptibility loci in SSc at the gene level and to determine if the detected associations were shared in African-American and White populations, using data from ImmunoChip and GWAS genotyping studies. The White sample included 1833 cases and 3466 controls (956 cases and 2741 controls from the US and 877 cases and 725 controls from Spain) and the African American sample, 291 cases and 260 controls. In both Whites and African Americans, we performed a gene-level analysis that integrates association statistics in a gene possibly harboring multiple SNPs with weak effect on disease risk, using Versatile Gene-based Association Study (VEGAS) software. The SNP-level analysis was performed using PLINK v.1.07. We identified 4 novel candidate genes (STAT1, FCGR2C, NIPSNAP3B, and SCT) significantly associated and 4 genes (SERBP1, PINX1, TMEM175 and EXOC2) suggestively associated with SSc in the gene level analysis in White patients. As an exploratory analysis we compared the results on Whites with those from African Americans. Of previously established susceptibility genes identified in Whites, only TNFAIP3 was significant at the nominal level (p = 6.13x10-3) in African Americans in the gene-level analysis of the ImmunoChip data. Among the top suggestive novel genes identified in Whites based on the ImmunoChip data, FCGR2C and PINX1 were only nominally significant in African Americans (p = 0.016 and p = 0.028, respectively), while among the top novel genes identified in the gene-level analysis in African Americans, UNC5C (p = 5.57x10-4) and CLEC16A (p = 0.0463) were also nominally significant in Whites. We also present the gene-level analysis of SSc clinical and autoantibody phenotypes among Whites. Our findings need to be validated by independent studies, particularly

  17. 2018 Guidelines for the Early Management of Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, William J; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Ackerson, Teri; Adeoye, Opeolu M; Bambakidis, Nicholas C; Becker, Kyra; Biller, José; Brown, Michael; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Hoh, Brian; Jauch, Edward C; Kidwell, Chelsea S; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Scott, Phillip A; Sheth, Kevin N; Southerland, Andrew M; Summers, Deborah V; Tirschwell, David L

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of these guidelines is to provide an up-to-date comprehensive set of recommendations for clinicians caring for adult patients with acute arterial ischemic stroke in a single document. The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators. These guidelines supersede the 2013 guidelines and subsequent updates. Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical expertise. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained. Members were not allowed to participate in discussions or to vote on topics relevant to their relations with industry. The members of the writing group unanimously approved all recommendations except when relations with industry precluded members voting. Prerelease review of the draft guideline was performed by 4 expert peer reviewers and by the members of the Stroke Council's Scientific Statements Oversight Committee and Stroke Council Leadership Committee. These guidelines use the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2015 Class of Recommendations and Levels of Evidence and the new American Heart Association guidelines format. These guidelines detail prehospital care, urgent and emergency evaluation and treatment with intravenous and intra-arterial therapies, and in-hospital management, including secondary prevention measures that are appropriately instituted within the first 2 weeks. The guidelines support the overarching concept of stroke systems of care in both the prehospital and hospital settings. These guidelines are based on the best evidence currently available. In many instances, however, only limited data exist demonstrating the urgent need for continued research on treatment of acute ischemic stroke. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Sunspot activity and influenza pandemics: a statistical assessment of the purported association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, S

    2017-10-01

    Since 1978, a series of papers in the literature have claimed to find a significant association between sunspot activity and the timing of influenza pandemics. This paper examines these analyses, and attempts to recreate the three most recent statistical analyses by Ertel (1994), Tapping et al. (2001), and Yeung (2006), which all have purported to find a significant relationship between sunspot numbers and pandemic influenza. As will be discussed, each analysis had errors in the data. In addition, in each analysis arbitrary selections or assumptions were also made, and the authors did not assess the robustness of their analyses to changes in those arbitrary assumptions. Varying the arbitrary assumptions to other, equally valid, assumptions negates the claims of significance. Indeed, an arbitrary selection made in one of the analyses appears to have resulted in almost maximal apparent significance; changing it only slightly yields a null result. This analysis applies statistically rigorous methodology to examine the purported sunspot/pandemic link, using more statistically powerful un-binned analysis methods, rather than relying on arbitrarily binned data. The analyses are repeated using both the Wolf and Group sunspot numbers. In all cases, no statistically significant evidence of any association was found. However, while the focus in this particular analysis was on the purported relationship of influenza pandemics to sunspot activity, the faults found in the past analyses are common pitfalls; inattention to analysis reproducibility and robustness assessment are common problems in the sciences, that are unfortunately not noted often enough in review.

  19. Breastfeeding associated with higher lung function in African American youths with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sam S; Du, Randal; Zeiger, Andrew M; McGarry, Meghan E; Hu, Donglei; Thakur, Neeta; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Galanter, Joshua M; Eng, Celeste; Nishimura, Katherine Keiko; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Meade, Kelley; Avila, Pedro; Serebrisky, Denise; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten; Lenoir, Michael A; Ford, Jean G; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; Rodriguez-Cintron, William; Thyne, Shannon M; Sen, Saunak; Rodriguez-Santana, Jose R; Williams, Keoki; Kumar, Rajesh; Burchard, Esteban G

    2017-10-01

    In the United States, Puerto Ricans and African Americans have lower prevalence of breastfeeding and worse clinical outcomes for asthma compared with other racial/ethnic groups. We hypothesize that the history of breastfeeding is associated with increased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 ) % predicted and reduced asthma exacerbations in Latino and African American youths with asthma. As part of the Genes-environments & Admixture in Latino Americans (GALA II) Study and the Study of African Americans, asthma, Genes & Environments (SAGE II), we conducted case-only analyses in children and adolescents aged 8-21 years with asthma from four different racial/ethnic groups: African Americans (n = 426), Mexican Americans (n = 424), mixed/other Latinos (n = 255), and Puerto Ricans (n = 629). We investigated the association between any breastfeeding in infancy and FEV 1 % predicted using multivariable linear regression; Poisson regression was used to determine the association between breastfeeding and asthma exacerbations. Prevalence of breastfeeding was lower in African Americans (59.4%) and Puerto Ricans (54.9%) compared to Mexican Americans (76.2%) and mixed/other Latinos (66.9%; p < 0.001). After adjusting for covariates, breastfeeding was associated with a 3.58% point increase in FEV 1 % predicted (p = 0.01) and a 21% reduction in asthma exacerbations (p = 0.03) in African Americans only. Breastfeeding was associated with higher FEV 1 % predicted in asthma and reduced number of asthma exacerbations in African American youths, calling attention to continued support for breastfeeding.

  20. 77 FR 44255 - Medicare Program; Application by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ...] Medicare Program; Application by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) for Continued Recognition as a National Accreditation Organization for Accrediting Entities To Furnish Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicare Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Final...

  1. 77 FR 11130 - Medicare Program; Application by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...] Medicare Program; Application by the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) for Continued Recognition as a National Accreditation Organization for Accrediting Entities To Furnish Outpatient Diabetes Self-Management Training AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicare Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Proposed...

  2. Peer Review Practices for Evaluating Biomedical Research Grants: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Lucy; Freedman, Jane E; Becker, Lance B; Mehta, Nehal N; Liscum, Laura

    2017-08-04

    The biomedical research enterprise depends on the fair and objective peer review of research grants, leading to the distribution of resources through efficient and robust competitive methods. In the United States, federal funding agencies and foundations collectively distribute billions of dollars annually to support biomedical research. For the American Heart Association, a Peer Review Subcommittee is charged with establishing the highest standards for peer review. This scientific statement reviews the current literature on peer review practices, describes the current American Heart Association peer review process and those of other agencies, analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of American Heart Association peer review practices, and recommends best practices for the future. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Non-replication study of a genome-wide association study for hypertension and blood pressure in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidambi Srividya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent genome wide association study in 1017 African Americans identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms that reached genome-wide significance for systolic blood pressure. We attempted to replicate these findings in an independent sample of 2474 unrelated African Americans in the Milwaukee metropolitan area; 53% were women and 47% were hypertensives. Methods We evaluated sixteen top associated SNPs from the above genome wide association study for hypertension as a binary trait or blood pressure as a continuous trait. In addition, we evaluated eight single nucleotide polymorphisms located in two genes (STK-39 and CDH-13 found to be associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures by other genome wide association studies in European and Amish populations. TaqMan MGB-based chemistry with fluorescent probes was used for genotyping. We had an adequate sample size (80% power to detect an effect size of 1.2-2.0 for all the single nucleotide polymorphisms for hypertension as a binary trait, and 1% variance in blood pressure as a continuous trait. Quantitative trait analyses were performed both by excluding and also by including subjects on anti-hypertensive therapy (after adjustments were made for anti-hypertensive medications. Results For all 24 SNPs, no statistically significant differences were noted in the minor allele frequencies between cases and controls. One SNP (rs2146204 showed borderline association (p = 0.006 with hypertension status using recessive model and systolic blood pressure (p = 0.02, but was not significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. In quantitative trait analyses, among normotensives only, rs12748299 was associated with SBP (p = 0.002. In addition, several nominally significant associations were noted with SBP and DBP among normotensives but none were statistically significant. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of replication to confirm the validity of genome wide

  4. THE ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL DATA ON MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN P APILLOMAVIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kostin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study of statistical data for the first time in Russia the analysis of the morbidity and mortality of patients with malignant neoplasms that may be associated with human papilloma virus (HPV is performed: cervical cancer (cervical cancer, cancer of the vulva and vagina, cancer of penis, cancer of the rectum, anal canal and rectosigmoid junction cancer, cancer of the pharynx and larynx.

  5. Workplace wellness recognition for optimizing workplace health: a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonarow, Gregg C; Calitz, Chris; Arena, Ross; Baase, Catherine; Isaac, Fikry W; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Peterson, Eric D; Pronk, Nico; Sanchez, Eduardo; Terry, Paul E; Volpp, Kevin G; Antman, Elliott M

    2015-05-19

    The workplace is an important setting for promoting cardiovascular health and cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention in the United States. Well-designed, comprehensive workplace wellness programs have the potential to improve cardiovascular health and to reduce mortality, morbidity, and disability resulting from cardiovascular disease and stroke. Nevertheless, widespread implementation of comprehensive workplace wellness programs is lacking, and program composition and quality vary. Several organizations provide worksite wellness recognition programs; however, there is variation in recognition criteria, and they do not specifically focus on cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention. Although there is limited evidence to suggest that company performance on employer health management scorecards is associated with favorable healthcare cost trends, these data are not currently robust, and further evaluation is needed. As a recognized national leader in evidence-based guidelines, care systems, and quality programs, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association is uniquely positioned and committed to promoting the adoption of comprehensive workplace wellness programs, as well as improving program quality and workforce health outcomes. As part of its commitment to improve the cardiovascular health of all Americans, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will promote science-based best practices for comprehensive workplace wellness programs and establish benchmarks for a national workplace wellness recognition program to assist employers in applying the best systems and strategies for optimal programming. The recognition program will integrate identification of a workplace culture of health and achievement of rigorous standards for cardiovascular health based on Life's Simple 7 metrics. In addition, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will develop resources that assist employers in meeting these rigorous

  6. Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkinson, Leland

    1999-01-01

    Proposes guidelines for revising the American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual or other APA materials to clarify the application of statistics in research reports. The guidelines are intended to induce authors and editors to recognize the thoughtless application of statistical methods. Contains 54 references. (SLD)

  7. ARPEL: A regional petroleum association serving the Latin American oil industry since 1965

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brussoni, A.

    1993-12-31

    Established in 1965 as a non-governmental international organization aimed to foster the information exchange, cooperation and mutual assistance among its member companies, as well as to promote the economic integration of the Latin American petroleum Sector. Its original name standing for `Association for Reciprocal Assistance of Latin American State Oil Companies` was modified in May, 1993 simultaneously with its by-laws for `Association for Reciprocal Assistance of Latin American Oil Companies`, responding to the sweeping changes of the oil sector in the region. Since May the membership has been opened to the private regional companies.

  8. Evaluating the American Nurses Association's arguments against nurse participation in assisted suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelstein, Eric

    2017-01-01

    This discussion paper critically assesses the American Nurses Association's stated arguments against nurse participation in assisted suicide, as found in its current (2013) position statement. Seven distinct arguments can be gleaned from the American Nurses Association's statement, based on (1) the American Nurses Association's Code of Ethics with Interpretive Statements and its injunction against nurses acting with the sole intent to end life, (2) the risks of abuse and misuse of assisted suicide, (3) nursing's social contract or covenant with society, (4) the contention that nurses must not harm their patients, (5) the sanctity of life, (6) the traditions of nursing, and (7) the fundamental goals of nursing. Each of these arguments is evaluated, and none are found to be convincing. This is crucial because the American Nurses Association's official stance on nurse participation in assisted suicide can have significant consequences for the well-being of nurses who care for patients in jurisdictions in which assisted suicide is legally available. The American Nurses Association should therefore have a strong and convincing justification for opposing the practice, if it is to take such a position. That it fails to evince such a justification in its official statement on the matter places a burden on the American Nurses Association to more strongly justify its position, or else abandon its stance against nurse participation in assisted suicide.

  9. Accuracy of genome-wide imputation of untyped markers and impacts on statistical power for association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElwee Joshua

    2009-06-01

    -eQTL discoveries detected by various methods can be interpreted as their relative statistical power in the GWAS. In this study, we find that imputation offer modest additional power (by 4% on top of either Ilmn317K or Ilmn650Y, much less than the power gain from Ilmn317K to Ilmn650Y (13%. Conclusion Current algorithms can accurately impute genotypes for untyped markers, which enables researchers to pool data between studies conducted using different SNP sets. While genotyping itself results in a small error rate (e.g. 0.5%, imputing genotypes is surprisingly accurate. We found that dense marker sets (e.g. Ilmn650Y outperform sparser ones (e.g. Ilmn317K in terms of imputation yield and accuracy. We also noticed it was harder to impute genotypes for African American samples, partially due to population admixture, although using a pooled reference boosts performance. Interestingly, GWAS carried out using imputed genotypes only slightly increased power on top of assayed SNPs. The reason is likely due to adding more markers via imputation only results in modest gain in genetic coverage, but worsens the multiple testing penalties. Furthermore, cis-eQTL mapping using dense SNP set derived from imputation achieves great resolution, and locate associate peak closer to causal variants than conventional approach.

  10. In utero exposure to pets is associated with asthma and wheezing in Mexican American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldeirawi, Kamal; Kunzweiler, Colin; Combs, Angela M T; Persky, Victoria W

    2016-01-01

    To examine the associations of in utero and early life exposure to cats/dogs and birds with the risk of lifetime doctor-diagnosed asthma and other respiratory conditions in a sample of Mexican American (MA) children 4-18 years of age. This study is a population-based cross-sectional investigation of 1816 MA children. We conducted multiple logistic models examining the relationship of asthma and wheezing with exposures to cats/dogs and birds in utero, infancy and at the time of the survey adjusted for country of birth, family history of asthma/allergies, antibiotics use in infancy and other covariates. In adjusted analyses, in utero exposure to cats/dogs and birds jointly was associated with increased odds of asthma (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.89; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34-6.23), ever wheezing (aOR: 1.96; 95% CI: 1.11-3.46) and current exercise-induced wheezing (aOR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.27-7.85) compared to children not exposed to these pets in utero. Children who were exposed to both cats/dogs and birds in utero had an elevated, albeit statistically non-significant, odds of current wheezing. Exposures in infancy and at the time of the survey to cats/dogs and birds were not associated with asthma or wheezing. In utero exposure to pets might be associated with an increased risk of asthma and respiratory conditions in a sample of non-affluent MA children.

  11. The 2016 American Orthopaedic Association-Japanese Orthopaedic Association Traveling Fellowship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sumon; Cho, Samuel K; Freedman, Brett A; Firoozabadi, Reza

    2017-06-07

    The American Orthopaedic Association-Japanese Orthopaedic Association (AOA-JOA) Traveling Fellowship, which began in 1992 as a collaborative effort between the 2 orthopaedic communities, is aimed at fostering leadership among early-career surgeons through clinical, academic, and cultural exchange. Over 3 weeks, we experienced an extraordinary journey that led us across nearly 800 miles of the picturesque Japanese countryside, with stops at 6 distinguished academic centers. The opportunity to become personally acquainted with orthopaedic leaders in Japan, learn from their experiences, and immerse ourselves in the ancient and storied culture of a beautiful country was one that we will not soon forget. Along the way, we accumulated a wealth of information while enjoying the legendary hospitality of the Japanese people. There is a ubiquitous challenge in delivering cost-effective, accessible health care while maintaining a commitment to education and research. The U.S. orthopaedic community may take solace in the fact that our Japanese colleagues stand with us as partners in this pursuit, and our relationship with them continues to grow stronger through endeavors such as the AOA-JOA Traveling Fellowship. We look forward to honoring our Japanese colleagues in 2017 when we host them in the United States.

  12. Statistical power of model selection strategies for genome-wide association studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheyang Wu

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS aim to identify genetic variants related to diseases by examining the associations between phenotypes and hundreds of thousands of genotyped markers. Because many genes are potentially involved in common diseases and a large number of markers are analyzed, it is crucial to devise an effective strategy to identify truly associated variants that have individual and/or interactive effects, while controlling false positives at the desired level. Although a number of model selection methods have been proposed in the literature, including marginal search, exhaustive search, and forward search, their relative performance has only been evaluated through limited simulations due to the lack of an analytical approach to calculating the power of these methods. This article develops a novel statistical approach for power calculation, derives accurate formulas for the power of different model selection strategies, and then uses the formulas to evaluate and compare these strategies in genetic model spaces. In contrast to previous studies, our theoretical framework allows for random genotypes, correlations among test statistics, and a false-positive control based on GWAS practice. After the accuracy of our analytical results is validated through simulations, they are utilized to systematically evaluate and compare the performance of these strategies in a wide class of genetic models. For a specific genetic model, our results clearly reveal how different factors, such as effect size, allele frequency, and interaction, jointly affect the statistical power of each strategy. An example is provided for the application of our approach to empirical research. The statistical approach used in our derivations is general and can be employed to address the model selection problems in other random predictor settings. We have developed an R package markerSearchPower to implement our formulas, which can be downloaded from the

  13. Psychological Distress and Associated Factors Among Mexican American Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recto, Pamela; Champion, Jane Dimmitt

    2016-12-01

    Mental health literacy is a critical component of adolescent health enabling recognition, management, and prevention of psychological distress. Adolescents engaging in risk behaviors and experiencing interpersonal violence, substance use, and pregnancy are at high risk for psychological distress. Secondary analysis of data collected via a control randomized trial among Mexican American females (aged 14-18 years; N = 461) experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and sexually transmitted infection was conducted with comparisons of psychological distress by pregnancy status. At study entry, 46.4% (n = 214) self-reported ever experiencing pregnancy (ever-pregnant) while 53.6% (n = 246) self-reported never experiencing pregnancy (never-pregnant). Adolescents reporting ever-pregnancy status were older and school dropouts. However, adolescents reporting never-pregnancy experienced higher sexual risk behaviors, substance use, interpersonal violence, and psychological distress than those reporting ever-pregnancy. A higher proportion of ever- versus never-pregnant adolescents were born in Mexico and preferred Spanish language indicating less acculturation. Findings support the need for mental health literacy concerning psychological distress with consideration of implications of acculturation among adolescents experiencing high-risk sexual behavior, interpersonal violence, and substance use. More never- than ever-pregnant adolescents were attending school, presenting opportunities for implementation of health promotion strategies within community health settings for mental health literacy. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  15. Genetic variants associated with warfarin dose in African-American individuals: a genome-wide association study

    OpenAIRE

    Perera, Minoli A; Cavallari, Larisa H; Limdi, Nita A; Gamazon, Eric R; Konkashbaev, Anuar; Daneshjou, Roxana; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Crawford, Dana C; Wang, Jelai; Liu, Nianjun; Tatonetti, Nicholas; Bourgeois, Stephane; Takahashi, Harumi; Bradford, Yukiko; Burkley, Benjamin M

    2013-01-01

    Summary BackgroundVKORC1 and CYP2C9 are important contributors to warfarin dose variability, but explain less variability for individuals of African descent than for those of European or Asian descent. We aimed to identify additional variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. MethodsWe did a genome-wide association study of discovery and replication cohorts. Samples from African-American adults (aged ≥18 years) who were taking a stable maintenance dose of warfar...

  16. Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Silent Cerebrovascular Disease: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric E; Saposnik, Gustavo; Biessels, Geert Jan; Doubal, Fergus N; Fornage, Myriam; Gorelick, Philip B; Greenberg, Steven M; Higashida, Randall T; Kasner, Scott E; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-02-01

    Two decades of epidemiological research shows that silent cerebrovascular disease is common and is associated with future risk for stroke and dementia. It is the most common incidental finding on brain scans. To summarize evidence on the diagnosis and management of silent cerebrovascular disease to prevent stroke, the Stroke Council of the American Heart Association convened a writing committee to evaluate existing evidence, to discuss clinical considerations, and to offer suggestions for future research on stroke prevention in patients with 3 cardinal manifestations of silent cerebrovascular disease: silent brain infarcts, magnetic resonance imaging white matter hyperintensities of presumed vascular origin, and cerebral microbleeds. The writing committee found strong evidence that silent cerebrovascular disease is a common problem of aging and that silent brain infarcts and white matter hyperintensities are associated with future symptomatic stroke risk independently of other vascular risk factors. In patients with cerebral microbleeds, there was evidence of a modestly increased risk of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage in patients treated with thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke but little prospective evidence on the risk of symptomatic hemorrhage in patients on anticoagulation. There were no randomized controlled trials targeted specifically to participants with silent cerebrovascular disease to prevent stroke. Primary stroke prevention is indicated in patients with silent brain infarcts, white matter hyperintensities, or microbleeds. Adoption of standard terms and definitions for silent cerebrovascular disease, as provided by prior American Heart Association/American Stroke Association statements and by a consensus group, may facilitate diagnosis and communication of findings from radiologists to clinicians. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. 2011 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    As we have throughout the association's history, we focused in 2011 on multiple initiatives--all designed to further, support, and communicate the important work that psychologists do. This year we had the benefit of APA's first-ever strategic plan as well as funding for the following seven initiatives that are specifically designed to execute the…

  18. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Mueller, Constance G.

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  19. Physical Performance Is Associated with Executive Functioning in Older African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke C. Schneider

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An older adult's ability to perform physical tasks is predictive of disability onset and is associated with declines in cognition. Risk factors for physical performance declines among African Americans, a group with the highest rates of disability, remain understudied. This study sought to identify demographic, health, and cognitive factors associated with lower-extremity physical performance in a sample of 106 African American women ages 56 to 91. After controlling for global cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Exam, physical performance was associated with executive functioning (Stroop Color/Word, but not visuospatial construction (WASI Block Design or processing speed (Trail Making Test, Part A. Executive functioning remained associated with physical performance after entry of demographic variables, exercise, depression, disease burden, and body mass index (BMI. Age, and BMI were also significant in this model. Executive functioning, age and BMI are associated with lower-extremity physical performance among older African American women.

  20. Celebrating the 125th anniversary of the American Psychological Association: A quarter century of neuropsychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gregory G; Anderson, Vicki; Bigler, Erin D; Chan, Agnes S; Fama, Rosemary; Grabowski, Thomas J; Zakzanis, Konstantine K

    2017-11-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) celebrated its 125th anniversary in 2017. As part of this celebration, the APA journal Neuropsychology has published in its November 2017 issue 11 papers describing some of the advances in the field of neuropsychology over the past 25 years. The papers address three broad topics: assessment and intervention, brain imaging, and theory and methods. The papers describe the rise of new assessment and intervention technologies, the impact of evidence for neuroplasticity on neurorehabilitation. Examples of the use of mathematical models of cognition to investigate latent neurobehavioral processes, the development of the field of neuropsychology in select international countries, the increasing sophistication of brain imaging methods, the recent evidence for localizationist and connectionist accounts of neurobehavioral functioning, the advances in neurobehavioral genomics, and descriptions of newly developed statistical models of longitudinal change. Together the papers convey evidence of the vibrant growth in the field of neuropsychology over the quarter century since APA's 100th anniversary in 1992. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Association testing for next-generation sequencing data using score statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skotte, Line; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    computationally feasible due to the use of score statistics. As part of the joint likelihood, we model the distribution of the phenotypes using a generalized linear model framework, which works for both quantitative and discrete phenotypes. Thus, the method presented here is applicable to case-control studies...... of genotype calls into account have been proposed; most require numerical optimization which for large-scale data is not always computationally feasible. We show that using a score statistic for the joint likelihood of observed phenotypes and observed sequencing data provides an attractive approach...... to association testing for next-generation sequencing data. The joint model accounts for the genotype classification uncertainty via the posterior probabilities of the genotypes given the observed sequencing data, which gives the approach higher power than methods based on called genotypes. This strategy remains...

  2. Designs and Methods for Association Studies and Population Size Inference in Statistical Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    method provides a simple goodness of t test by comparing the observed SFS with the expected SFS under a given model of population size changes. By the use of Monte Carlo estimation the expected time between coalescent events can be estimated and the expected SFS can thereby be evaluated. Using...... the changes in population size. By adding a penalising term to the goodness-of-t described above, we are able to estimate the integrated intensity of the coalescent process by a two times continuous dierentiable piecewise cubic polynomial.......This dissertation falls in two parts. The rst part discusses statistical modelling of association studies within the eld of epidemiology. A special focus is given to genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which are able to investigate specic associations between positions in the genome and dierent...

  3. A functional U-statistic method for association analysis of sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Sneha; Tong, Xiaoran; Lu, Qing

    2017-11-01

    Although sequencing studies hold great promise for uncovering novel variants predisposing to human diseases, the high dimensionality of the sequencing data brings tremendous challenges to data analysis. Moreover, for many complex diseases (e.g., psychiatric disorders) multiple related phenotypes are collected. These phenotypes can be different measurements of an underlying disease, or measurements characterizing multiple related diseases for studying common genetic mechanism. Although jointly analyzing these phenotypes could potentially increase the power of identifying disease-associated genes, the different types of phenotypes pose challenges for association analysis. To address these challenges, we propose a nonparametric method, functional U-statistic method (FU), for multivariate analysis of sequencing data. It first constructs smooth functions from individuals' sequencing data, and then tests the association of these functions with multiple phenotypes by using a U-statistic. The method provides a general framework for analyzing various types of phenotypes (e.g., binary and continuous phenotypes) with unknown distributions. Fitting the genetic variants within a gene using a smoothing function also allows us to capture complexities of gene structure (e.g., linkage disequilibrium, LD), which could potentially increase the power of association analysis. Through simulations, we compared our method to the multivariate outcome score test (MOST), and found that our test attained better performance than MOST. In a real data application, we apply our method to the sequencing data from Minnesota Twin Study (MTS) and found potential associations of several nicotine receptor subunit (CHRN) genes, including CHRNB3, associated with nicotine dependence and/or alcohol dependence. © 2017 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  4. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Saver, Jeffrey L; Adams, Harold P; Bruno, Askiel; Connors, J J Buddy; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Khatri, Pooja; McMullan, Paul W; Qureshi, Adnan I; Rosenfield, Kenneth; Scott, Phillip A; Summers, Debbie R; Wang, David Z; Wintermark, Max; Yonas, Howard

    2013-03-01

    The authors present an overview of the current evidence and management recommendations for evaluation and treatment of adults with acute ischemic stroke. The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators responsible for the care of acute ischemic stroke patients within the first 48 hours from stroke onset. These guidelines supersede the prior 2007 guidelines and 2009 updates. Members of the writing committee were appointed by the American Stroke Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical expertise. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained throughout the consensus process. Panel members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the stroke literature with emphasis on publications since the prior guidelines, and drafted recommendations in accordance with the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Level of Evidence grading algorithm. The goal of these guidelines is to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with stroke. The guidelines support the overarching concept of stroke systems of care and detail aspects of stroke care from patient recognition; emergency medical services activation, transport, and triage; through the initial hours in the emergency department and stroke unit. The guideline discusses early stroke evaluation and general medical care, as well as ischemic stroke, specific interventions such as reperfusion strategies, and general physiological optimization for cerebral resuscitation. Because many of the recommendations are based on limited data, additional research on treatment of acute ischemic stroke remains urgently needed.

  5. Associations Between Cigarette Print Advertising and Smoking Initiation Among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinidad, Dennis R; Blanco, Lyzette; Emery, Sherry L; Fagan, Pebbles; White, Martha M; Reed, Mark B

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to examine changes in the annual number of cigarette advertisements in magazines with a predominantly African-American audience following the broadcast ban on tobacco, and whether fluctuations in cigarette print advertising targeting African Americans during the late-1970s until the mid-1980s were associated with declines in smoking initiation. We tabulated the annual number of cigarette advertisements from magazines with large African-American readerships (Ebony, Essence, and Jet) from 1960 to 1990. Advertisements were coded depending on whether they featured African-American models. We calculated the incidence rate of regular smoking initiation from 1975 to 1990 for African-American 14-25 years old using data from the 1992-1993, 1995-1996, 1998-1999, and 2001-2002 Tobacco Use Supplements of the Current Population Survey. We examined whether trends in smoking initiation coincided with trends in cigarette advertising practices among African Americans. The annual aggregated number of printed cigarette advertisements in Ebony, Essence, and Jet magazines increased at least five-fold starting in 1971, following the broadcast ban on cigarette advertising. A decrease in the percentage of ads by Brown & Williamson that showed African-American models was positively correlated (r = 0.30) with declines in the incidence rate of smoking initiation among African Americans from the late-1970s to the mid-1980s. The tobacco industry adapted quickly following the broadcast ban on cigarettes by increasing print advertising in African-American magazines. However, changes in print advertising practices by were associated with declines in smoking initiation among African Americans from the late-1970s to mid-1980s.

  6. The potential for enhancing the power of genetic association studies in African Americans through the reuse of existing genotype data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary K Chen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the feasibility of reusing existing control data obtained in genetic association studies in order to reduce costs for new studies. We discuss controlling for the population differences between cases and controls that are implicit in studies utilizing external control data. We give theoretical calculations of the statistical power of a test due to Bourgain et al (Am J Human Genet 2003, applied to the problem of dealing with case-control differences in genetic ancestry related to population isolation or population admixture. Theoretical results show that there may exist bounds for the non-centrality parameter for a test of association that places limits on study power even if sample sizes can grow arbitrarily large. We apply this method to data from a multi-center, geographically-diverse, genome-wide association study of breast cancer in African-American women. Our analysis of these data shows that admixture proportions differ by center with the average fraction of European admixture ranging from approximately 20% for participants from study sites in the Eastern United States to 25% for participants from West Coast sites. However, these differences in average admixture fraction between sites are largely counterbalanced by considerable diversity in individual admixture proportion within each study site. Our results suggest that statistical correction for admixture differences is feasible for future studies of African-Americans, utilizing the existing controls from the African-American Breast Cancer study, even if case ascertainment for the future studies is not balanced over the same centers or regions that supplied the controls for the current study.

  7. Are well functioning civil registration and vital statistics systems associated with better health outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, David E; AbouZahr, Carla; Lopez, Alan D; Mikkelsen, Lene; de Savigny, Don; Lozano, Rafael; Wilmoth, John; Setel, Philip W

    2015-10-03

    In this Series paper, we examine whether well functioning civil registration and vital statistics (CRVS) systems are associated with improved population health outcomes. We present a conceptual model connecting CRVS to wellbeing, and describe an ecological association between CRVS and health outcomes. The conceptual model posits that the legal identity that civil registration provides to individuals is key to access entitlements and services. Vital statistics produced by CRVS systems provide essential information for public health policy and prevention. These outcomes benefit individuals and societies, including improved health. We use marginal linear models and lag-lead analysis to measure ecological associations between a composite metric of CRVS performance and three health outcomes. Results are consistent with the conceptual model: improved CRVS performance coincides with improved health outcomes worldwide in a temporally consistent manner. Investment to strengthen CRVS systems is not only an important goal for individuals and societies, but also a development imperative that is good for health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Latin American Social Medicine Association: Agenda 2009 – 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rovere

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the 14th to the 19th of November 2009 we spent five intense days during the Congress developing this electoral platform with the input offered by national delegations to all candidates for the General Coordinator position. The contributions by the national delegations demonstrated their interest in the future of ALAMES. It was an intensive learning experience for us made up of conversations with delegations and participants, the challenge and effort of incorporating the various mandates given to us by the pre-Congress courses, the round table discussions, the commission, the plenary and multiple conversations in coffe breaks and the corridors. We have also attempted to incorporate those declarations which seemed to generate the most enthusiasm and those commentaries which we heard over and over again in our conversations. Finally, we congratulate all those who have made this Congress so productive, so moving, and so diverse; the presence of social movements has expanded the diversity and wealth of voices heard at the Congress. We know from previous experiences that elections are often associated with tension. Yet elections can also serve to stimulate discussion at a Congress. In our case, the election has encouraged us to create this proposal. This is a proposal which could not have been developed prior to the Congress since it is the outcome of dialogues, expectations, and discoveries made during our conversations. We offer it to the members and institutions associated with ALAMES as a roadmap for their commentary, discussion, and criticism.

  9. Association between Copy Number Variation Losses and Alcohol Dependence across African American and European American Ethnic Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Alvaro Emilio; Chen, Jiayu; Vergara, Victor Manuel; Calhoun, Vince; Liu, Jingyu

    2014-01-01

    Background Copy number variations (CNVs) are structural genetic mutations consisting of segmental gains or losses in DNA sequence. Although CNVs contribute substantially to genomic variation, few genetic and imaging studies report association of CNVs with alcohol dependence (AD). Our purpose is to find evidence of this association across ethnic populations and genders. This work is the first AD-CNV study across ethnic groups and the first to include the African American population. Methods This study considers two CNV datasets, one for discovery (2,345 samples) and the other for validation (239 samples), both including subjects with AD and healthy controls of European and African ancestry. Our analysis assesses the association between AD and CNV losses across ethnic groups and gender by examining the effect of overall losses across the whole genome, collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands and specific losses in CNV regions. Results Results from the discovery dataset showed an association between CNV losses within 16q12.2 and AD diagnosis (p = 4.53x10−3). An overlapping CNV region from the validation dataset exhibited the same direction of effect with respect to AD (p = 0.051). This CNV region affects the genes CES1p1 and CES1, which are members of the carboxylesterase (CES) family. The enzyme encoded by CES1 is a major liver enzyme that typically catalyzes the decomposition of ester into alcohol and carboxylic acid and is involved in drug or xenobiotics, fatty acid and cholesterol metabolisms. In addition, the most significantly associated CNV region was located at 9p21.2 (p = 1.9×10−3) in our discovery dataset. Although not observed in the validation dataset, probably due to small sample size, this result might hold potential connection to AD given its connection with neuronal death. In contrast, we did not find any association between AD and the overall total losses or the collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands. Conclusions

  10. 77 FR 38378 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Revision of Exemption; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ...-28043] Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Revision of Exemption; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA... Pyrotechnics Association (APA) that were granted an exemption from FMCSA's prohibition on driving commercial...-July 8, inclusive, in 2011 and 2012. The exemption covered renewal of 53 APA-member motor carriers and...

  11. Different Approaches to Teaching the Mechanics of American Psychological Association Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Timothy M.; Spitzer, Tam M.

    2006-01-01

    Students have to learn two distinctly different tasks when writing research papers: a) creating and organizing prose, and b) formatting a manuscript according to the nuances and mechanics of a pre-determined format, such as Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. Two studies examined different…

  12. Officers, Boards, Committees, and Representatives of the American Psychological Association, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Council of Representatives is composed of the Board of Directors, the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) representative, division representatives, and state, provincial, and territorial association representatives. Then representatives for the current year, with terms of office, are listed in this article.

  13. 76 FR 66929 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; The American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities for Approval of Deeming Authority for Rural... American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF) for recognition as a... of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF's) request for deeming authority for RHCs. This notice also...

  14. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Asian American Students' Suicidal Ideation: A Multicampus, National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. Joel; Brownson, Chris; Schwing, Alison E.

    2011-01-01

    Risk and protective factors associated with suicidal ideation among 1,377 Asian American college students across 66 U.S. campuses were examined. The results indicated a variety of factors were associated with morbid thoughts: medication for mental health concerns, gender, GPA, undergraduate status, religious affiliation, living with a family…

  15. Is family functioning and communication associated with health-related quality of life for Chinese- and Korean-American breast cancer survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jung-won; Ashing-Giwa, Kimlin T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate direct and indirect pathways of family flexibility, social support, and family communication on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for Chinese- and Korean-American breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods A total of 157 Chinese (n = 86)- and Korean-American (n = 71) BCS were recruited from the California Cancer Surveillance Program and area hospitals in Los Angeles County. The present study was guided by the Resiliency Model of Family Stress, Adjustment, and Adaptation. Results Structural equation modeling demonstrated that (1) family communication was directly associated with HRQOL for both groups; (2) family flexibility was indirectly associated with HRQOL through family communication for Korean-Americans only; (3) social support mediated the relationship between family flexibility and family communication for Chinese-Americans only; and (4) acculturation was directly related to social support for both groups. Multigroup analysis demonstrated that the structural paths were equivalent between Chinese- and Korean-American BCS, although statistical differences in baseline parameters were noted. Conclusions Our findings suggest that family communication impacts HRQOL among Asian-American BCS. Our results show that while there are commonalities in family characteristics among Asian-Americans, specific ethnic variations also exist. Therefore, specific cultural and familial contexts should be assessed to better inform interventions to enhance family communication strategies and improve HRQOL. PMID:22875219

  16. Genetic variation in the raptor gene is associated with overweight but not hypertension in American men of Japanese ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Brian J; Carnes, Bruce A; Chen, Randi; Donlon, Timothy A; He, Qimei; Grove, John S; Masaki, Kamal H; Elliott, Ayako; Willcox, Donald C; Allsopp, Richard; Willcox, Bradley J

    2015-04-01

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is pivotal for cell growth. Regulatory associated protein of mTOR complex I (Raptor) is a unique component of this pro-growth complex. The present study tested whether variation across the raptor gene (RPTOR) is associated with overweight and hypertension. We tested 61 common (allele frequency ≥ 0.1) tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that captured most of the genetic variation across RPTOR in 374 subjects of normal lifespan and 439 subjects with a lifespan exceeding 95 years for association with overweight/obesity, essential hypertension, and isolated systolic hypertension. Subjects were drawn from the Honolulu Heart Program, a homogeneous population of American men of Japanese ancestry, well characterized for phenotypes relevant to conditions of aging. Hypertension status was ascertained when subjects were 45-68 years old. Statistical evaluation involved contingency table analysis, logistic regression, and the powerful method of recursive partitioning. After analysis of RPTOR genotypes by each statistical approach, we found no significant association between genetic variation in RPTOR and either essential hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension. Models generated by recursive partitioning analysis showed that RPTOR SNPs significantly enhanced the ability of the model to accurately assign individuals to either the overweight/obese or the non-overweight/obese groups (P = 0.008 by 1-tailed Z test). Common genetic variation in RPTOR is associated with overweight/obesity but does not discernibly contribute to either essential hypertension or isolated systolic hypertension in the population studied. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cigarette smoking and the association with serous ovarian cancer in African American women: African American Cancer Epidemiology Study (AACES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelemen, Linda E; Abbott, Sarah; Qin, Bo; Peres, Lauren Cole; Moorman, Patricia G; Wallace, Kristin; Bandera, Elisa V; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Bondy, Melissa; Cartmell, Kathleen; Cote, Michele L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Paddock, Lisa E; Peters, Edward S; Schwartz, Ann G; Terry, Paul; Alberg, Anthony J; Schildkraut, Joellen M

    2017-07-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for mucinous ovarian cancer (OvCa) in Caucasians. Whether a similar association exists in African Americans (AA) is unknown. We conducted a population-based case-control study of incident OvCa in AA women across 11 geographic locations in the US. A structured telephone interview asked about smoking, demographic, health, and lifestyle factors. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (OR, 95% CI) were estimated from 613 cases and 752 controls using unconditional logistic regression in multivariable adjusted models. Associations were greater in magnitude for serous OvCa than for all OvCa combined. Compared to never smokers, increased risk for serous OvCa was observed for lifetime ever smokers (1.46, 1.11-1.92), former smokers who quit within 0-2 years of diagnosis (5.48, 3.04-9.86), and for total pack-years smoked among lifetime ever smokers (0-5 pack-years: 1.79, 1.23-2.59; >5-20 pack-years: 1.52, 1.05-2.18; >20 pack-years: 0.98, 0.61-1.56); however, we observed no dose-response relationship with increasing duration or consumption and no significant associations among current smokers. Smoking was not significantly associated with mucinous OvCa. Associations for all OvCa combined were consistently elevated among former smokers. The proportion of ever smokers who quit within 0-2 years was greater among cases (23%) than controls (7%). Cigarette smoking may be associated with serous OvCa among AA, which differs from associations reported among Caucasians. Exposure misclassification or reverse causality may partially explain the absence of increased risk among current smokers and lack of dose-response associations. Better characterization of smoking patterns is needed in this understudied population.

  18. Association between haptoglobin gene and insulin resistance in Arab-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghardt, Kyle J; Masri, Dana El; Dass, Sabrina E; Shikwana, Sara S; Jaber, Linda A

    2017-11-01

    To analyze associations between variation in the HP gene and lipid and glucose-related measures in Arab-Americans. Secondary analyses were performed based on sex. Genomic DNA was extracted from samples obtained from a previous epidemiological study of diabetes in Arab-Americans. The HP 1 and 2 alleles were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction and gel electrophoresis. Associations were analyzed by linear regression. Associations were identified between the heterozygous haptoglobin 2-1 genotype and insulin resistance, fasting insulin and fasting c-peptide. The effect of sex did not remain significant after adjustment for relevant variables. HP genetic variation may have utility as a biomarker of insulin resistance and diabetes risk in Arab-Americans, however, future prospective studies are needed.

  19. Factors associated with positive attitudes toward organ donation in Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I; Rasheed, Shoaib; Warren, Gareth J W; Choi, Hwajung; Mathur, Amit K

    2011-01-01

    The demand for transplantable organ continues to exceed supply, particularly in minority patient populations. We explored the factors influencing organ donation attitude within the Arab American community. Secondary data analysis from a face-to-face survey administered in late 2003 to 1016 adults from a representative population-based sample on Greater Detroit Arab Americans. Christian Arab Americans were more likely than Muslim Arab Americans, and women more than men, to believe organ donation after death was justifiable. Higher educational attainment and income, as well as greater acculturation into American society, were associated with greater odds of believing organ donation to be justified. Self-reported health status and level of psychological distress and health insurance status were not associated with beliefs about organ donation. A multifaceted approach toward increasing organ donation rates in this growing population requires targeted community-health care system collaborations involving religious and civic leaders using Arabic language and culturally sensitive media. Arab Americans represent a growing population about which little is known in regard to organ donation and transplantation. This population is not specifically captured within national and local transplantation databases, and little empiric work has assessed attitudes and barriers toward organ donation and transplantation within this community. Our work represents the first to use a representative population-based sample to explore the modifiable and non-modifiable characteristics of those who believe cadaveric organ donation to be justified. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Statistical-dynamical long-range seasonal forecasting of streamflow with the North-American Multi Model Ensemble (NMME)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Louise; Villarini, Gabriele

    2017-04-01

    There are two main approaches to long-range (monthly to seasonal) streamflow forecasting: statistical approaches that typically relate climate precursors directly to streamflow, and dynamical physically-based approaches in which spatially distributed models are forced with downscaled meteorological forecasts. While the former approach is potentially limited by a lack of physical causality, the latter tends to be complex and time-consuming to implement. In contrast, hybrid statistical-dynamical techniques that use global climate model (GCM) ensemble forecasts as inputs to statistical models are both physically-based and rapid to run, but are a relatively new field of research. Here, we conduct the first systematic multimodel statistical-dynamical forecasting of streamflow using NMME climate forecasts from eight GCMs (CCSM3, CCSM4, CanCM3, CanCM4, GFDL2.1, FLORb01, GEOS5, and CFSv2) across a broad region. At several hundred U.S. Midwest stream gauges with long (50+ continuous years) streamflow records, we fit probabilistic statistical models for seasonal streamflow percentiles ranging from minimum to maximum flows. As predictors, we use basin-averaged values of precipitation, antecedent wetness, temperature, agricultural row crop acreage, and population density. Using the observed data, we select the best-fitting probabilistic model for every site, season, and streamflow percentile (ranging from low to high flows). The best-fitting models are then used to obtain streamflow predictions by incorporating the NMME climate forecasts and the extrapolated agricultural and population time series as predictors. The forecasting skill of our models is assessed using both deterministic and probabilistic verification measures. The influence of the different predictors is evaluated for all streamflow percentiles and across the full range of lead times. Our findings reveal that statistical-dynamical streamflow forecasting produces promising results, which may enable water managers

  1. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valicenti, Richard K.; Thompson, Ian; Albertsen, Peter; Davis, Brian J.; Goldenberg, S. Larry; Wolf, J. Stuart; Sartor, Oliver; Klein, Eric; Hahn, Carol; Michalski, Jeff; Roach, Mack; Faraday, Martha M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review

  2. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicenti, Richard K., E-mail: Richard.valicenti@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California (United States); Thompson, Ian [Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Albertsen, Peter [Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goldenberg, S. Larry [Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Wolf, J. Stuart [Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sartor, Oliver [Department of Medicine and Urology, Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Klein, Eric [Glickman Urological Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Carol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Faraday, Martha M. [Four Oaks, Inc (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.

  3. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of Older Adults: A Scientific Statement from the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society: Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-11-01

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults aged 75 and older. Despite the effect of CVD on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, individuals aged 75 and older have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older adults with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in nursing homes and assisted living facilities. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older adults typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision-making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, a detailed review was conducted of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) and American Stroke Association (ASA) guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older adults. A pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision-making in older adults with CVD was found, as well as a paucity of data on the effect of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on outcomes that are particularly important to older adults, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older adults representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older adults in the study design. The results of these studies will provide the foundation for

  4. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  5. A large insertion in intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene associated with American Palomino phenotype in American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Kristiansen, Thea

    2016-01-01

    A number of American mink phenotypes display a range of brownish colours. One of these phenotypes, namely American Palomino (b (P) b (P) ) (AP) has been found to be associated with the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene by genotyping microsatellite markers in one sire family. Trials...

  6. A review of American psychiatry through its diagnoses: the history and development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    The history of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) reflects the larger history of American psychiatry. As the field anticipates DSM-5, it is useful to take stock of this history and consider not only how diagnosis impacts our understanding of mental illness but also how contemporary thought influences diagnosis. Before the DSM, the field was disjointed. The publication of the first American diagnostic manual, the precursor of the DSM, mirrored society's interest in organized record keeping and prevention rather than treatment of mental illness. The first and second editions of DSM brought a common language to diagnosis and were largely the work of outpatient and academic psychiatrists rather than those based in large state hospitals. The third edition of the DSM saw the shift in American psychiatry's leadership from the eminent clinician to the researcher, whereas the fourth edition reflected the rise of "evidence-based medicine." DSM-5 will likewise represent the current status of the field-not only with regard to science but also reflecting the place of American psychiatry in medicine today.

  7. Poor Sleep Quality and Associated Inflammation Predict Preterm Birth: Heightened Risk among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Lisa M; Porter, Kyle; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz; Christian, Lisa M

    2015-08-01

    Poor sleep promotes inflammation. In turn, inflammation is a causal mechanism in term as well as preterm parturition. In the United States, a persistent racial disparity in preterm birth exists, with African Americans showing ∼1.5 times greater risk. This study examined associations among sleep quality, serum proinflammatory cytokines, and length of gestation in a racially diverse sample of 138 pregnant women. Observational. Women completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other psychosocial and behavioral measures during midpregnancy. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined by high-sensitivity assays. Birth outcomes were determined via medical record review. Among African American women (n = 79), shorter gestation was predicted by poorer overall sleep (rs = -0.35, P = 0.002) as well the following PSQI subscales: subjective sleep quality (rs = -0.34, P = 0.002), sleep latency (rs = -0.27, P = 0.02), and sleep efficiency (rs = -0.27, P = 0.02). African American women with poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) had 10.2 times the odds of preterm birth compared to those with good sleep quality. In contrast, among European American women (n = 53), gestational length was not significantly predicted by sleep quality (Ps > 0.12). Bootstrapping analyses showed that, among African Americans, IL-8 significantly mediated the association between sleep quality and length of gestation (indirect effect estimate -0.029; 95% confidence interval -0.06, -0.002). The data provide novel evidence that African American women exhibit greater inflammation in response to sleep disturbance than European American women and these effects correspond with length of gestation. Racial differences in susceptibility to sleep induced immune dysregulation may contribute to marked racial disparities in preterm birth. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  8. Statistical Analysis on Detecting Recombination Sites in DNA-β Satellites Associated with Old World Geminiviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kai; Yoshida, Ruriko

    2010-01-01

    Although exchange of genetic information by recombination plays an important role in the evolution of viruses, it is not clear how it generates diversity. Understanding recombination events helps with the study of the evolution of new virus strains or new viruses. Geminiviruses are plant viruses which have ambisense single-stranded circular DNA genomes and are one of the most economically important plant viruses in agricultural production. Small circular single-stranded DNA satellites, termed DNA-β, have recently been found to be associated with some geminivirus infections. In this paper we analyze several DNA-β sequences of geminiviruses for recombination events using phylogenetic and statistical analysis and we find that one strain from ToLCMaB has a recombination pattern and is a recombinant molecule between two strains from two species, PaLCuB-[IN:Chi:05] (major parent) and ToLCB-[IN:CP:04] (minor parent). We propose that this recombination event contributed to the evolution of the strain of ToLCMaB in South India. The Hidden Markov Chain (HMM) method developed by Webb et al. (2009) estimating phylogenetic tree through out the whole alignment provide us a recombination history of these DNA-β strains. It is the first time that this statistic method has been used on DNA-β recombination study and give a clear recombination history of DNA-β recombination. PMID:21423447

  9. Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Hivert, Marie-France; Alhassan, Sofiya; Camhi, Sarah M; Ferguson, Jane F; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Lewis, Cora E; Owen, Neville; Perry, Cynthia K; Siddique, Juned; Yong, Celina M

    2016-09-27

    Epidemiological evidence is accumulating that indicates greater time spent in sedentary behavior is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults such that some countries have disseminated broad guidelines that recommend minimizing sedentary behaviors. Research examining the possible deleterious consequences of excess sedentary behavior is rapidly evolving, with the epidemiology-based literature ahead of potential biological mechanisms that might explain the observed associations. This American Heart Association science advisory reviews the current evidence on sedentary behavior in terms of assessment methods, population prevalence, determinants, associations with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality, potential underlying mechanisms, and interventions. Recommendations for future research on this emerging cardiovascular health topic are included. Further evidence is required to better inform public health interventions and future quantitative guidelines on sedentary behavior and cardiovascular health outcomes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Sex-related differences in habitat associations of wintering American Kestrels in California's Central Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandolfino, E.R.; Herzog, M.P.; Smith, Z.

    2011-01-01

    We used roadside survey data collected from 19 routes over three consecutive winters from 200708 to 200910 to compare habitat associations of male and female American Kestrels (Falco sparverius) in the Central Valley of California to determine if segregation by sex was evident across this region. As a species, American Kestrels showed positive associations with alfalfa and other forage crops like hay and winter wheat, as well as grassland, irrigated pasture, and rice. Habitat associations of females were similar, with female densities in all these habitats except rice significantly higher than average. Male American Kestrels showed a positive association only with grassland and were present at densities well below those of females in alfalfa, other forage crops, and grassland. Males were present in higher densities than females in most habitats with negative associations for the species, such as orchards, urbanized areas, and oak savannah. The ratio of females to males for each route was positively correlated with the overall density of American Kestrels on that route. Our findings that females seem to occupy higher quality habitats in winter are consistent with observations from elsewhere in North America. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  11. Sequence data and association statistics from 12,940 type 2 diabetes cases and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Flannick; Fuchsberger, Christian; Mahajan, Anubha; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Agarwala, Vineeta; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Caulkins, Lizz; Koesterer, Ryan; Ma, Clement; Moutsianas, Loukas; McCarthy, Davis J.; Rivas, Manuel A.; Perry, John R. B.; Sim, Xueling; Blackwell, Thomas W.; Robertson, Neil R.; Rayner, N William; Cingolani, Pablo; Locke, Adam E.; Tajes, Juan Fernandez; Highland, Heather M.; Dupuis, Josee; Chines, Peter S.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Hartl, Christopher; Jackson, Anne U.; Chen, Han; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; van de Bunt, Martijn; Pearson, Richard D.; Kumar, Ashish; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Grarup, Niels; Stringham, Heather M.; Gamazon, Eric R.; Lee, Jaehoon; Chen, Yuhui; Scott, Robert A.; Below, Jennifer E.; Chen, Peng; Huang, Jinyan; Go, Min Jin; Stitzel, Michael L.; Pasko, Dorota; Parker, Stephen C. J.; Varga, Tibor V.; Green, Todd; Beer, Nicola L.; Day-Williams, Aaron G.; Ferreira, Teresa; Fingerlin, Tasha; Horikoshi, Momoko; Hu, Cheng; Huh, Iksoo; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Kim, Bong-Jo; Kim, Yongkang; Kim, Young Jin; Kwon, Min-Seok; Lee, Juyoung; Lee, Selyeong; Lin, Keng-Han; Maxwell, Taylor J.; Nagai, Yoshihiko; Wang, Xu; Welch, Ryan P.; Yoon, Joon; Zhang, Weihua; Barzilai, Nir; Voight, Benjamin F.; Han, Bok-Ghee; Jenkinson, Christopher P.; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Kuusisto, Johanna; Manning, Alisa; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Balkau, Beverley; Stančáková, Alena; Abboud, Hanna E.; Boeing, Heiner; Giedraitis, Vilmantas; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Gottesman, Omri; Scott, James; Carey, Jason; Kwan, Phoenix; Grant, George; Smith, Joshua D.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Purcell, Shaun; Butterworth, Adam S.; Howson, Joanna M. M.; Lee, Heung Man; Lu, Yingchang; Kwak, Soo-Heon; Zhao, Wei; Danesh, John; Lam, Vincent K. L.; Park, Kyong Soo; Saleheen, Danish; So, Wing Yee; Tam, Claudia H. T.; Afzal, Uzma; Aguilar, David; Arya, Rector; Aung, Tin; Chan, Edmund; Navarro, Carmen; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Palli, Domenico; Correa, Adolfo; Curran, Joanne E.; Rybin, Dennis; Farook, Vidya S.; Fowler, Sharon P.; Freedman, Barry I.; Griswold, Michael; Hale, Daniel Esten; Hicks, Pamela J.; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Kumar, Satish; Lehne, Benjamin; Thuillier, Dorothée; Lim, Wei Yen; Liu, Jianjun; Loh, Marie; Musani, Solomon K.; Puppala, Sobha; Scott, William R.; Yengo, Loïc; Tan, Sian-Tsung; Taylor, Herman A.; Thameem, Farook; Wilson, Gregory; Wong, Tien Yin; Njølstad, Pål Rasmus; Levy, Jonathan C.; Mangino, Massimo; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Schwarzmayr, Thomas; Fadista, João; Surdulescu, Gabriela L.; Herder, Christian; Groves, Christopher J.; Wieland, Thomas; Bork-Jensen, Jette; Brandslund, Ivan; Christensen, Cramer; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Doney, Alex S. F.; Kinnunen, Leena; Esko, Tõnu; Farmer, Andrew J.; Hakaste, Liisa; Hodgkiss, Dylan; Kravic, Jasmina; Lyssenko, Valeri; Hollensted, Mette; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Jørgensen, Torben; Ladenvall, Claes; Justesen, Johanne Marie; Käräjämäki, Annemari; Kriebel, Jennifer; Rathmann, Wolfgang; Lannfelt, Lars; Lauritzen, Torsten; Narisu, Narisu; Linneberg, Allan; Melander, Olle; Milani, Lili; Neville, Matt; Orho-Melander, Marju; Qi, Lu; Qi, Qibin; Roden, Michael; Rolandsson, Olov; Swift, Amy; Rosengren, Anders H.; Stirrups, Kathleen; Wood, Andrew R.; Mihailov, Evelin; Blancher, Christine; Carneiro, Mauricio O.; Maguire, Jared; Poplin, Ryan; Shakir, Khalid; Fennell, Timothy; DePristo, Mark; de Angelis, Martin Hrabé; Deloukas, Panos; Gjesing, Anette P.; Jun, Goo; Nilsson, Peter; Murphy, Jacquelyn; Onofrio, Robert; Thorand, Barbara; Hansen, Torben; Meisinger, Christa; Hu, Frank B.; Isomaa, Bo; Karpe, Fredrik; Liang, Liming; Peters, Annette; Huth, Cornelia; O'Rahilly, Stephen P; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Pedersen, Oluf; Rauramaa, Rainer; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Salomaa, Veikko; Watanabe, Richard M.; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Bergman, Richard N.; Bharadwaj, Dwaipayan; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Cho, Yoon Shin; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Chan, Juliana CN; Chia, Kee Seng; Daly, Mark J.; Ebrahim, Shah B.; Langenberg, Claudia; Elliott, Paul; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Lehman, Donna M.; Jia, Weiping; Ma, Ronald C. W.; Pollin, Toni I.; Sandhu, Manjinder; Tandon, Nikhil; Froguel, Philippe; Barroso, Inês; Teo, Yik Ying; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Small, Kerrin S.; Ried, Janina S.; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Grallert, Harald; Glaser, Benjamin; Metspalu, Andres; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Walker, Mark; Banks, Eric; Gieger, Christian; Ingelsson, Erik; Im, Hae Kyung; Illig, Thomas; Franks, Paul W.; Buck, Gemma; Trakalo, Joseph; Buck, David; Prokopenko, Inga; Mägi, Reedik; Lind, Lars; Farjoun, Yossi; Owen, Katharine R.; Gloyn, Anna L.; Strauch, Konstantin; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Kooner, Jaspal Singh; Lee, Jong-Young; Park, Taesung; Donnelly, Peter; Morris, Andrew D.; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Bowden, Donald W.; Collins, Francis S.; Atzmon, Gil; Chambers, John C.; Spector, Timothy D.; Laakso, Markku; Strom, Tim M.; Bell, Graeme I.; Blangero, John; Duggirala, Ravindranath; Tai, E. Shyong; McVean, Gilean; Hanis, Craig L.; Wilson, James G.; Seielstad, Mark; Frayling, Timothy M.; Meigs, James B.; Cox, Nancy J.; Sladek, Rob; Lander, Eric S.; Gabriel, Stacey; Mohlke, Karen L.; Meitinger, Thomas; Groop, Leif; Abecasis, Goncalo; Scott, Laura J.; Morris, Andrew P.; Kang, Hyun Min; Altshuler, David; Burtt, Noël P.; Florez, Jose C.; Boehnke, Michael; McCarthy, Mark I.

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to high resolution, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia catalogued variation from whole-genome sequencing of 2,657 European individuals and exome sequencing of 12,940 individuals of multiple ancestries. Over 27M SNPs, indels, and structural variants were identified, including 99% of low-frequency (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.1–5%) non-coding variants in the whole-genome sequenced individuals and 99.7% of low-frequency coding variants in the whole-exome sequenced individuals. Each variant was tested for association with T2D in the sequenced individuals, and, to increase power, most were tested in larger numbers of individuals (>80% of low-frequency coding variants in ~82 K Europeans via the exome chip, and ~90% of low-frequency non-coding variants in ~44 K Europeans via genotype imputation). The variants, genotypes, and association statistics from these analyses provide the largest reference to date of human genetic information relevant to T2D, for use in activities such as T2D-focused genotype imputation, functional characterization of variants or genes, and other novel analyses to detect associations between sequence variation and T2D. PMID:29257133

  12. How allele frequency and study design affect association test statistics with misrepresentation errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escott-Price, Valentina; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Schmidt, Karl Michael

    2014-04-01

    We evaluate the effect of genotyping errors on the type-I error of a general association test based on genotypes, showing that, in the presence of errors in the case and control samples, the test statistic asymptotically follows a scaled non-central $\\chi ^2$ distribution. We give explicit formulae for the scaling factor and non-centrality parameter for the symmetric allele-based genotyping error model and for additive and recessive disease models. They show how genotyping errors can lead to a significantly higher false-positive rate, growing with sample size, compared with the nominal significance levels. The strength of this effect depends very strongly on the population distribution of the genotype, with a pronounced effect in the case of rare alleles, and a great robustness against error in the case of large minor allele frequency. We also show how these results can be used to correct $p$-values.

  13. Acute Myocardial Infarction in Women: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Laxmi S; Beckie, Theresa M; DeVon, Holli A; Grines, Cindy L; Krumholz, Harlan M; Johnson, Michelle N; Lindley, Kathryn J; Vaccarino, Viola; Wang, Tracy Y; Watson, Karol E; Wenger, Nanette K

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in American women. Since 1984, the annual cardiovascular disease mortality rate has remained greater for women than men; however, over the last decade, there have been marked reductions in cardiovascular disease mortality in women. The dramatic decline in mortality rates for women is attributed partly to an increase in awareness, a greater focus on women and cardiovascular disease risk, and the increased application of evidence-based treatments for established coronary heart disease. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on acute myocardial infarction in women. Sex-specific differences exist in the presentation, pathophysiological mechanisms, and outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence of the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcomes of women with acute myocardial infarction. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Sexual Violence Victimization and Associations with Health in a Community Sample of African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Kathleen C.; Smith, Sharon G.; Fowler, Dawnovise N.; Walters, Mikel L.; Hamburger, Merle E.

    2018-01-01

    Limited information exists on the relationship between sexual violence victimization and health among African American women. Using data from a community sample of African American women, we examine the association between current health and lifetime experiences of sexual violence. Inperson interviews were completed in 2010. Among interviewees, 53.7% of women reported rape victimization and 44.8% reported sexual coercion in their lifetime. Victims of rape or sexual coercion were significantly more likely to report depression and posttraumatic stress disorder during their lifetime. Among victims whose first unwanted sexual experience was rape or sexual coercion, perpetrators were mostly acquaintances and intimate partners, and over one third were injured and needed services. More attention is needed on the health needs of African American women and their association to victimization status.

  15. Ageism and body esteem: associations with psychological well-being among late middle-aged African American and European American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabik, Natalie J

    2015-03-01

    Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals' self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism's associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Ageism and Body Esteem: Associations With Psychological Well-Being Among Late Middle-Aged African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Social expectancy theory posits that cultural values shape how individuals perceive and evaluate others, and this influences how others evaluate themselves. Based on this theory, ageism may shape older individuals’ self-evaluations. Given the cultural focus on beauty and youth, perceptions of age discrimination may be associated with lower body esteem, and this may be associated with poor psychological well-being. Because discrimination has been associated with poor health, and perceptions of health can affect body perceptions, subjective health status may also contribute to lower body esteem. Method. These associations are assessed in a structural equation model for 244 African American and European American women in their early 60s. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination and body esteem were associated with lower psychological well-being for both ethnic groups. Body esteem partially mediated the association between age discrimination and psychological well-being among European American women but not among African American women. Discussion. Age-related discrimination is one source of psychological distress for older adults, though ageism’s associations with body esteem, health, and psychological well-being vary significantly for European American and African American women. Examining body perceptions and health in the contexts of ageism and ethnicity is necessary when considering the psychological well-being of older women. PMID:24013801

  17. Genetic Polymorphisms are Associated with Hair, Blood, and Urine Mercury Levels in the American Dental Association (ADA) Study Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad; Goodrich, Jaclyn M.; Chou, Hwai-Nan; Gruninger, Stephen E.; Dolinoy, Dana C.; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Mercury (Hg) is a potent toxicant of concern to the general public. Recent studies suggest that several genes that mediate Hg metabolism are polymorphic. We hypothesize that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in such genes may underline inter-individual differences in exposure biomarker concentrations. Methods Dental professionals were recruited during the American Dental Association (ADA) 2012 Annual Meeting. Samples of hair, blood, and urine were collected for quantifying Hg levels and genotyping (88 SNPs in classes relevant to Hg toxicokinetics including glutathione metabolism, selenoproteins, metallothioneins, and xenobiotic transporters). Questionnaires were administrated to obtain information on demographics and sources of Hg exposure (e.g., fish consumption and use of dental amalgam). Here, we report results for 380 participants with complete genotype and Hg biomarker datasets. ANOVA and linear regressions were used for statistical analysis. Results Mean (geometric) Hg levels in hair (hHg), blood (bHg), urine (uHg), and the average estimated Hg intake from fish were 0.62μg/g, 3.75μg/L, 1.32μg/L, and 0.12μg/kg body weight/day, respectively. Out of 88 SNPs successfully genotyped, Hg biomarker levels differed by genotype for 25 SNPs, one of which remained significant following Bonferroni correction in ANOVA. When the associations between sources of Hg exposure and SNPs were analyzed with respect to Hg biomarker concentrations, 38 SNPs had significant main effects and/or gene-Hg exposure source interactions. Twenty-five, 23, and four SNPs showed significant main effects and/or interactions for hHg, bHg, and uHg levels, respectively (p<0.05), and six SNPs (in GCLC, MT1M, MT4, ATP7B, and BDNF) remained significant following Bonferroni correction. Conclusion The findings suggest that polymorphisms in environmentally-responsive genes can influence Hg biomarker levels. Hence, consideration of such gene-environment factors may improve the

  18. Physical activity and exercise recommendations for stroke survivors: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billinger, Sandra A; Arena, Ross; Bernhardt, Julie; Eng, Janice J; Franklin, Barry A; Johnson, Cheryl Mortag; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn; Macko, Richard F; Mead, Gillian E; Roth, Elliot J; Shaughnessy, Marianne; Tang, Ada

    2014-08-01

    This scientific statement provides an overview of the evidence on physical activity and exercise recommendations for stroke survivors. Evidence suggests that stroke survivors experience physical deconditioning and lead sedentary lifestyles. Therefore, this updated scientific statement serves as an overall guide for practitioners to gain a better understanding of the benefits of physical activity and recommendations for prescribing exercise for stroke survivors across all stages of recovery. Members of the writing group were appointed by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association's Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writers used systematic literature reviews, references to published clinical and epidemiology studies, morbidity and mortality reports, clinical and public health guidelines, authoritative statements, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence and indicate gaps in current knowledge. Physical inactivity after stroke is highly prevalent. The assessed body of evidence clearly supports the use of exercise training (both aerobic and strength training) for stroke survivors. Exercise training improves functional capacity, the ability to perform activities of daily living, and quality of life, and it reduces the risk for subsequent cardiovascular events. Physical activity goals and exercise prescription for stroke survivors need to be customized for the individual to maximize long-term adherence. The recommendation from this writing group is that physical activity and exercise prescription should be incorporated into the management of stroke survivors. The promotion of physical activity in stroke survivors should emphasize low- to moderate-intensity aerobic activity, muscle-strengthening activity, reduction of sedentary behavior, and risk management for secondary prevention of stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. The Violence Epidemic in the African American Community: A Call by the National Medical Association for Comprehensive Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Eva; Mitchell, Roger A; Nesbitt, LaQuandra S; Williams, Mallory; Mitchell, Edith P; Williams, Richard Allen; Browne, Doris

    2018-02-01

    While much progress has occurred since the civil rights act of 1964, minorities have continued to suffer disparate and discriminatory access to economic opportunities, education, housing, health care and criminal justice. The latest challenge faced by the physicians and public health providers who serve the African American community is the detrimental, and seemingly insurmountable, causes and effects of violence in impoverished communities of color. According to statistics from the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the number one killer of black males ages 10-35 is homicide, indicating a higher rate of violence than any other group. Black females are four times more likely to be murdered by a boyfriend or girlfriend than their white counterparts, and although intimate partner violence has declined for both black and white females, black women are still disproportionately killed. In addition, anxiety and depression that can lead to suicide is on the rise among African American adolescents and adults. Through an examination of the role of racism in the perpetuation of the violent environment and an exploration of the effects of gang violence, intimate partner violence/child maltreatment and police use of excessive force, this work attempts to highlight the repercussions of violence in the African American community. The members of the National Medical Association have served the African American community since 1895 and have been advocates for the patients they serve for more than a century. This paper, while not intended to be a comprehensive literature review, has been written to reinforce the need to treat violence as a public health issue, to emphasize the effect of particular forms of violence in the African American community and to advocate for comprehensive policy reforms that can lead to the eradication of this epidemic. The community of African American physicians must play a vital role in the treatment and prevention of violence as well as advocating for

  20. In Asian americans, is having a family member diagnosed with cancer associated with fatalistic beliefs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolee Polek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cancer can evoke long-held cultural beliefs which either facilitate or impede efforts to expand the health literacy of families. Among these beliefs is fatalism which holds that controlling ones′ outcome is not possible, and that ones′ outcome is predestined. Some fatalistic beliefs are broadly held within the Asian American (AA community and may be challenged or reinforced by the experience of having a family member diagnosed with cancer. This study evaluated the relationship between having a family member diagnosed with cancer and selected demographics in AAs on fatalistic beliefs. Methods: Data from 519 AA subjects from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Health Information Trends Survey were used to complete a secondary analysis. Descriptive statistics characterize fatalistic beliefs. Four models using four questions assessed fatalistic beliefs as dependent variables and independent variables of having or not having a family member diagnosed with cancer, completing college or not, sex, and age were assessed using ordinal regression. Results: All of the fatalistic beliefs examined were endorsed by large portions of the subjects. When considering the role of being exposed to having a family member with cancer, it was associated with an increase in the likelihood in a belief that one is likely to get cancer, and everything can cause cancer. Being exposed to a family member diagnosed with cancer was not significantly associated with believing, there was little one could do to control their cancer risk. This belief was broadly rejected. While the belief that there are so many different recommendations about preventing cancer, it is hard to know what to do, was broadly endorsed and not associated with having a family member diagnosed with cancer. Conclusions: The major practice implications within oncology nursing suggest the importance in assessing cancer health literacy and providing corrective knowledge in families

  1. Resiliency in American Library Association Award Winning Juvenile Fiction: A Correlational Content Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, Michelle T.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative content analysis was to determine whether there was a relationship between the age, gender, or race of protagonists in contemporary American Library Association award-winning juvenile literature and the representation of resilience by those characters. Award-winning juvenile fiction and biography books were…

  2. 78 FR 17679 - Implementation of the Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition... for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition (Guidelines). The NIH is seeking input from the public on... updated AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition must be submitted electronically at...

  3. Do Psychology Department Mission Statements Reflect the American Psychological Association Undergraduate Learning Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warchal, Judith R.; Ruiz, Ana I.; You, Di

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the inclusion of the American Psychological Association's learning goals in the mission statements of undergraduate psychology programs across the US. We reviewed the mission statements available on websites for 1336 psychology programs listed in the Carnegie classification. Results of a content analysis revealed that of the…

  4. Developing a Measure of Stigma by Association with African American Adolescents Whose Mothers Have HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sally; Berger, Barbara; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Sultzman, Vickey; Fendrich, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: African American urban adolescents are one of the fastest growing groups of children affected by their mother's HIV status. These children experience HIV stigma by association with their HIV-positive mothers. Stigma may contribute to adverse outcomes for these teens. Methods: The authors describe a multistage process of scale…

  5. An Examination of the Association between Demographic and Educational Factors and African American Achievement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010…

  6. Graduate student elected chair of American Planning Association Student Representatives Council, to serve as board advisor

    OpenAIRE

    Micale, Barbara L.

    2010-01-01

    Mary Catherine Barganier of Fort Deposit, Ala., a graduate student in the Master of Urban Planning Program in Virginia Tech's College of Architecture and Urban Studies, was recently elected chair of the Student Representatives Council (SRC) of the American Planning Association (APA).

  7. American Association for Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy (General and Oral).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Frank; Mundell, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Association for Dental Schools are presented. These guidelines were drawn up as an effort to provide a general criterion-referenced standard against which a school can measure its course content in histology. (MLW)

  8. The Asian American Psychological Association: Parallels and Intersections with Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Wu, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the AAPA. AAPA was created in 1972 in response to psychology's neglect…

  9. University of Central Florida and the American Association of State Colleges and Universities: Blended Learning Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Blended Learning Toolkit supports the course redesign approach, and interest in its openly available clearinghouse of online tools, strategies, curricula, and other materials to support the adoption of blended learning continues to grow. When the resource originally launched in July 2011, 20 AASCU [American Association of State Colleges and…

  10. Evaluation Use: Results from a Survey of U.S. American Evaluation Association Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Dreolin N.; Christie, Christina A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a cross-sectional survey on evaluation use completed by 1,140 U.S. American Evaluation Association members. This study had three foci: evaluators' current attitudes, perceptions, and experiences related to evaluation use theory and practice, how these data are similar to those reported in a previous study…

  11. Albinism in the american mink (Neovison vison) is associated with a tyrosinase nonsense mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anistoroaei, Razvan Marian; Fredholm, Merete; Christensen, Knud

    2008-01-01

    Albino phenotypes are documented in various species including the American mink. In other species the albino phenotypes are associated with tyrosinase (TYR) gene mutations; therefore TYR was considered the candidate gene for albinism in mink. Four microsatellite markers were chosen in the prodicted...

  12. Signal Detection Analysis of Factors Associated with Diabetes among Semirural Mexican American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanni, K. D.; Ahn, D. A.; Winkleby, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    Signal detection analysis was used to evaluate a combination of sociodemographic, acculturation, mental health, health care, and chronic disease risk factors potentially associated with diabetes in a sample of 4,505 semirural Mexican American adults. Overall, 8.9% of adults had been diagnosed with diabetes. The analysis resulted in 12 mutually…

  13. "Mens Sana": The Growth of Mental Health in the American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, David P.

    2009-01-01

    In 1910, the first college mental health service sought to help college students with personality development and building a healthy mind. In 1920, the meeting that founded the American College Health Association (ACHA) identified "mental hygiene" as important, although a separate Mental Health Section was not established in ACHA until 1957.…

  14. The American Bar Association and Legislatively Mandated Treatment for Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallone, Nathanial J.

    1991-01-01

    Offers historical overview of "criminal sexual psychopath" legislation, which customarily prescribes confinement for treatment (rather than incarceration for punishment) for offenders whose sex crimes are attributed to sexual psychopathology. Discusses desire of American Bar Association and Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry to…

  15. How Is Postsecondary Education Associated with Membership in the American Corporate Elite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Molly C.

    2011-01-01

    This study contributes to the discussion around the value of a college degree and associated career advantages by considering how postsecondary education contributes to the attainment of the most powerful and prestigious positions in the American corporate world. Guided by a conceptual framework informed by status attainment, power elite, and…

  16. Ethical principles of the American Psychological Association: an argument for philosophical and practical ranking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjistavropoulos, Thomas; Malloy, David Cruise

    1999-01-01

    Unlike the American Psychological Association (APA), the Canadian Psychological Association has adopted a code of ethics in which principles are organized in order of importance. The validity of this hierarchical organization has received some empirical and theoretical support. We conducted a theoretical analysis that revealed conceptual justification for a ranking of the 6 principles in the APA code. Such a ranking could assist psychologists in making more informed and consistent moral choices when confronted with ethical dilemmas that involve conflicts among principles.

  17. Don E. Detmer and the American Medical Informatics Association: An Appreciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortliffe, Edward H.; Bates, David W.; Bloomrosen, Meryl; Greenwood, Karen; Safran, Charles; Steen, Elaine B.; Tang, Paul C.; Williamson, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    Don E. Detmer has served as President and Chief Executive Officer of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) for the past five years, helping to set a course for the organization and demonstrating remarkable leadership as AMIA has evolved into a vibrant and influential professional association. On the occasion of Dr. Detmer's retirement, we fondly reflect on his professional life and his many contributions to biomedical informatics and, more generally, to health care in the U.S. and globally. PMID:19574463

  18. A Bayesian Framework for Multiple Trait Colo-calization from Summary Association Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambartolomei, Claudia; Zhenli Liu, Jimmy; Zhang, Wen; Hauberg, Mads; Shi, Huwenbo; Boocock, James; Pickrell, Joe; Jaffe, Andrew E; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Roussos, Panos

    2018-03-19

    Most genetic variants implicated in complex diseases by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are non-coding, making it challenging to understand the causative genes involved in disease. Integrating external information such as quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of molecular traits (e.g., expression, methylation) is a powerful approach to identify the subset of GWAS signals explained by regulatory effects. In particular, expression QTLs (eQTLs) help pinpoint the responsible gene among the GWAS regions that harbor many genes, while methylation QTLs (mQTLs) help identify the epigenetic mechanisms that impact gene expression which in turn affect disease risk. In this work we propose multiple-trait-coloc (moloc), a Bayesian statistical framework that integrates GWAS summary data with multiple molecular QTL data to identify regulatory effects at GWAS risk loci. We applied moloc to schizophrenia (SCZ) and eQTL/mQTL data derived from human brain tissue and identified 52 candidate genes that influence SCZ through methylation. Our method can be applied to any GWAS and relevant functional data to help prioritize disease associated genes. moloc is available for download as an R package (https://github.com/clagiamba/moloc). We also developed a web site to visualize the biological findings (icahn.mssm.edu/moloc). The browser allows searches by gene, methylation probe, and scenario of interest. claudia.giambartolomei@gmail.com. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. Substorm associated radar auroral surges: a statistical study and possible generation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Shand

    Full Text Available Substorm-associated radar auroral surges (SARAS are a short lived (15–90 minutes and spatially localised (~5° of latitude perturbation of the plasma convection pattern observed within the auroral E-region. The understanding of such phenomena has important ramifications for the investigation of the larger scale plasma convection and ultimately the coupling of the solar wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere system. A statistical investigation is undertaken of SARAS, observed by the Sweden And Britain Radar Experiment (SABRE, in order to provide a more extensive examination of the local time occurrence and propagation characteristics of the events. The statistical analysis has determined a local time occurrence of observations between 1420 MLT and 2200 MLT with a maximum occurrence centred around 1700 MLT. The propagation velocity of the SARAS feature through the SABRE field of view was found to be predominately L-shell aligned with a velocity centred around 1750 m s–1 and within the range 500 m s–1 and 3500 m s–1. This comprehensive examination of the SARAS provides the opportunity to discuss, qualitatively, a possible generation mechanism for SARAS based on a proposed model for the production of a similar phenomenon referred to as sub-auroral ion drifts (SAIDs. The results of the comparison suggests that SARAS may result from a similar geophysical mechanism to that which produces SAID events, but probably occurs at a different time in the evolution of the event.

    Key words. Substorms · Auroral surges · Plasma con-vection · Sub-auroral ion drifts

  20. The American Dental Association Caries Classification System for clinical practice: a report of the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Douglas A; Nový, Brian B; Zeller, Gregory G; Hale, Robert; Hart, Thomas C; Truelove, Edmond L

    2015-02-01

    The caries lesion, the most commonly observed sign of dental caries disease, is the cumulative result of an imbalance in the dynamic demineralization and remineralization process that causes a net mineral loss over time. A classification system to categorize the location, site of origin, extent, and when possible, activity level of caries lesions consistently over time is necessary to determine which clinical treatments and therapeutic interventions are appropriate to control and treat these lesions. In 2008, the American Dental Association (ADA) convened a group of experts to develop an easy-to-implement caries classification system. The ADA Council on Scientific Affairs subsequently compiled information from these discussions to create the ADA Caries Classification System (CCS) presented in this article. The ADA CCS offers clinicians the capability to capture the spectrum of caries disease presentations ranging from clinically unaffected (sound) tooth structure to noncavitated initial lesions to extensively cavitated advanced lesions. The ADA CCS supports a broad range of clinical management options necessary to treat both noncavitated and cavitated caries lesions. The ADA CCS is available for implementation in clinical practice to evaluate its usability, reliability, and validity. Feedback from clinical practitioners and researchers will allow system improvement. Use of the ADA CCS will offer standardized data that can be used to improve the scientific rationale for the treatment of all stages of caries disease. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An updated definition of stroke for the 21st century: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Ralph L; Kasner, Scott E; Broderick, Joseph P; Caplan, Louis R; Connors, J J Buddy; Culebras, Antonio; Elkind, Mitchell S V; George, Mary G; Hamdan, Allen D; Higashida, Randall T; Hoh, Brian L; Janis, L Scott; Kase, Carlos S; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Lee, Jin-Moo; Moseley, Michael E; Peterson, Eric D; Turan, Tanya N; Valderrama, Amy L; Vinters, Harry V

    2013-07-01

    Despite the global impact and advances in understanding the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases, the term "stroke" is not consistently defined in clinical practice, in clinical research, or in assessments of the public health. The classic definition is mainly clinical and does not account for advances in science and technology. The Stroke Council of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association convened a writing group to develop an expert consensus document for an updated definition of stroke for the 21st century. Central nervous system infarction is defined as brain, spinal cord, or retinal cell death attributable to ischemia, based on neuropathological, neuroimaging, and/or clinical evidence of permanent injury. Central nervous system infarction occurs over a clinical spectrum: Ischemic stroke specifically refers to central nervous system infarction accompanied by overt symptoms, while silent infarction by definition causes no known symptoms. Stroke also broadly includes intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The updated definition of stroke incorporates clinical and tissue criteria and can be incorporated into practice, research, and assessments of the public health.

  2. Symptoms of Anxiety and Associated Risk and Protective Factors in Young Asian American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Sabrina; Calzada, Esther; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most prevalent mental health problems in young children but there has been a dearth of studies focusing on Asian American children. This study examines the patterns and the predictors of childhood anxiety and related symptoms in young children in a diverse Asian American (ASA) sample (n = 101). Findings indicate that ASA children are at higher risk for anxiety, somatization, and depressive problems than their peers. Parents’ level of acculturation (i.e., American identity, English competence), parental negative emotion socialization, conflicted parent–child relationship, child emotional knowledge and adaptive skills, as well as teachers’ ethnic background and school class types were all associated with ASA children’s anxiety. A combination of cultural, family, and school factors explained from 17 to 39 % of the variance in anxiety symptoms. Findings inform prevention services for young ASA children. PMID:22410755

  3. High rates of fructose malabsorption are associated with reduced liver fat in obese African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan W; Lê, Kim-Anne; Davis, Jaime; Alderete, Tanya L; Cherry, Rebecca; Lebel, Sylvie; Goran, Michael I

    2012-10-01

    African Americans commonly have lower liver fat accumulation than Hispanics, despite a similar propensity for obesity. Both ethnicities exhibit high consumption of fructose-containing beverages, which has been associated with high liver fat owing to the lipogenic properties of fructose. Therefore, differences in fructose absorption may be an important factor in regulating liver fat deposition. We hypothesized that fructose malabsorption in African Americans may reduce hepatic delivery of fructose, thus contributing to lower liver fat deposition compared to Hispanics. Thirty-seven obese young adults aged 21.4 ± 2.1 years (16 African American, 21 Hispanic) underwent a 3-hour hydrogen (H2) breath test to assess fructose malabsorption. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to determine visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue volume and liver fat. Fructose malabsorption was expressed as an area under the curve for H2 production (H2 AUC). Compared to Hispanics, African Americans had lower liver fat (5.4% ± 5.0% vs 8.9% ± 2.3%, p = 0.02) and a higher prevalence of fructose malabsorption (75.0% vs 42.9%; p = 0.05). Liver fat was negatively related to the extent of fructose malabsorption in African Americans (r = -0.53, p = 0.03), and this relationship was independent of the volumes of total fat and subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. There were no significant relationships between liver fat and fructose malabsorption in Hispanics. African Americans have both a higher prevalence and a greater magnitude of fructose malabsorption than Hispanics. In African Americans, fructose malabsorption was negatively correlated with liver fat, which may be protective against fatty liver disease.

  4. Everyday discrimination is associated with nicotine dependence among African American, Latino, and White smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Rios, Debra M; Scheuermann, Taneisha S; Pulvers, Kim; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S

    2014-06-01

    Discrimination is a commonly perceived stressor among African Americans and Latinos, and previous research has linked stress with substance dependence. Although studies have shown a link between discrimination and smoking, little is known about the relationship between discrimination and nicotine dependence. A total of 2,376 African American (33.4%; n = 794), Latino (33.1%; n = 786), and White (33.5%; n = 796) smokers completed an online survey. Everyday discrimination experiences were described in total and by race/ethnicity. Covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate the associations between everyday discrimination and indicators of nicotine dependence. Most participants (79.1%), regardless of race/ethnicity, reported experiencing everyday discrimination. However, total scores on the discrimination measure were higher among Latinos and African Americans than among Whites (p Whites. Regression analyses indicated that everyday discrimination was positively associated with indicators of nicotine dependence, including the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI; p < .001) and the Brief Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM) scales (all ps < .001). There was a significant interaction between race/ethnicity and discrimination, such that discrimination was associated with the HSI only among Latinos. Similarly, discrimination was most strongly associated with the WISDM scales among Latinos. Analyses indicated that discrimination is a common stressor associated with nicotine dependence. Findings suggest that greater nicotine dependence is a potential pathway through which discrimination may influence health.

  5. Factors Associated With Increased Cesarean Risk Among African American Women: Evidence From California, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Jason N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We studied if both observed and unobserved maternal health in African American women in hospitals or communities were associated with cesarean delivery of infants. Methods. We examined the relationship between African American race and cesarean delivery among 493 433 women discharged from 255 Californian hospitals in 2010 using administrative data; we adjusted for patient comorbidities and maternal, fetal, and placental risk factors, as well as clustering of patients within hospitals. Results. Cesarean rates were significantly higher overall for African American women than other women (unadjusted rate 36.8% vs 32.7%), as were both elective and emergency primary cesarean rates. Elevated risks persisted after risk adjustment (odds ratio generally > 1.27), but the prevalence of particular risk factors varied. Although African American women were clustered in some hospitals, the proportion of African Americans among all women delivering in a hospital was not related to its overall cesarean rate. Conclusions. To address the higher likelihood of elective cesarean delivery, attention needs to be given to currently unmeasured patient-level health factors, to the quality of provider–physician interactions, as well as to patient preferences. PMID:25790391

  6. Higher diet quality is inversely associated with mortality in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, Deborah A; Ban, Yulun; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2015-03-01

    Diet quality has been inversely associated with overall mortality in white populations, but the evidence in African-American populations is limited. The goal of the present study was to assess diet quality in relation to all-cause mortality in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of African-American women begun in 1995. Data used in this study were obtained via biennial questionnaires from 1995 to 2011. Based on food-frequency questionnaire data collected in 1995 and 2001, we calculated an index-based diet quality score [Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)] and derived dietary patterns (prudent and Western) with the use of factor analysis. We followed 37,001 women who were aged 30-69 y and free of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes at baseline for mortality through 2011. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Based on a total of 1678 deaths during 16 y of follow-up, higher DASH scores were associated with reduced all-cause mortality (HR: 0.75; 95% CI: 0.63, 0.89 for highest vs. lowest quintiles). The DASH components most strongly associated with lower mortality were high intake of whole grains and low intake of red and processed meat. A Western dietary pattern, characterized by high intake of red and processed meat, was associated with increased all-cause mortality rates (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.60 for highest vs. lowest quintiles of score); a prudent dietary pattern was not associated with risk. A DASH-style diet high in intake of whole grains and low in consumption of red meat is associated with reduced mortality rates in healthy African-American women. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Statistical and Scaling Properties of Remotely-Sensed Soil Moisture in Two Contrasting Domains in the North American Monsoon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Giuseppe; Vivoni, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Characterizing soil moisture (theta) variability is important for inferring high-resolution information from coarse estimates provided by remote sensors. In this study, we analyze the spatial variability and scale invariance of high-resolution theta estimates collected in two contrasting semiarid areas, Arizona (AZ) and Sonora (SON), during the Soil Moisture Experiment - North American Monsoon in 2004 (SMEX04- NAME). Results reveal that as the mean theta condition () becomes drier, the spatial standard deviation becomes smaller in both domains. The coefficient of variation of theta decreases with in SON, but does not display a clear tendency with in AZ. We also found the presence of scale invariance and multifractality in the range of support scales from 51.2 km to 0.8 km for all soil moisture fields in the two regions. The multifractal properties of theta are clearly linked to in SON, while the relation is affected by more dispersion in AZ. We argue this is due to differences in the dynamic (rainfall) and static (vegetation) controls on theta in the two domains.

  8. Association Between Playing American Football in the National Football League and Long-term Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataramani, Atheendar S; Gandhavadi, Maheer; Jena, Anupam B

    2018-02-27

    Studies of the longevity of professional American football players have demonstrated lower mortality relative to the general population but they may have been susceptible to selection bias. To examine the association between career participation in professional American football and mortality risk in retirement. Retrospective cohort study involving 3812 retired US National Football League (NFL) players who debuted in the NFL between 1982 and 1992, including regular NFL players (n = 2933) and NFL "replacement players" (n = 879) who were temporarily hired to play during a 3-game league-wide player strike in 1987. Follow-up ended on December 31, 2016. NFL participation as a career player or as a replacement player. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality by December 31, 2016. Cox proportional hazards models were estimated to compare the observed number of years from age 22 years until death (or censoring), adjusted for birth year, body mass index, height, and position played. Information on player death and cause of death was ascertained from a search of the National Death Index and web-based sources. Of the 3812 men included in this study (mean [SD] age at first NFL activity, 23.4 [1.5] years), there were 2933 career NFL players (median NFL tenure, 5 seasons [interquartile range {IQR}, 2-8]; median follow-up, 30 years [IQR, 27-33]) and 879 replacement players (median NFL tenure, 1 season [IQR, 1-1]; median follow-up, 31 years [IQR, 30-33]). At the end of follow-up, 144 NFL players (4.9%) and 37 replacement players (4.2%) were deceased (adjusted absolute risk difference, 1.0% [95% CI, -0.7% to 2.7%]; P = .25). The adjusted mortality hazard ratio for NFL players relative to replacements was 1.38 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.99; P = .09). Among career NFL players, the most common causes of death were cardiometabolic disease (n = 51; 35.4%), transportation injuries (n = 20; 13.9%), unintentional injuries (n = 15; 10.4%), and neoplasms (n = 15

  9. Statistical inference on associated fertility life table parameters using jackknife technique: computational aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, A de H; Luiz, A J; Campanhola, C

    2000-04-01

    Knowledge of population growth potential is crucial for studying population dynamics and for establishing management tactics for pest control. Estimation of population growth can be achieved with fertility life tables because they synthesize data on reproduction and mortality of a population. The five main parameters associated with a fertility life table are as follows: (1) the net reproductive rate (Ro), (2) the intrinsic rate of increase (rm), 3) the mean generation time (T), (4) the doubling time (Dt), and (5) the finite rate of increase (lambda). Jackknife and bootstrap techniques are used to calculate the variance of the rm estimate, which can be extended to the other parameters of life tables. Those methods are computer-intensive, their application requires the development of efficient algorithms, and their implementation is based on a programming language that encompasses quickness and reliability. The objectives of this article are to discuss statistical and computational aspects related to estimation of life table parameters and to present a SAS program that uses jackknife to estimate parameters for fertility life tables. The SAS program presented here allows the calculation of confidence intervals for all estimated parameters, as well as provides one-sided and two-sided t-tests to perform pairwise or multiple comparison between groups, with their respective P values.

  10. Brief research report: sociodemographic factors associated with HIV status among African American women in Washington, DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins EL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors

  11. Depression symptoms associated with cannabis dependence in an adolescent American Indian community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilder, David A; Ehlers, Cindy L

    2012-01-01

    Depression and substance use disorders, including cannabis dependence, arise during adolescence, are frequently comorbid, and represent major health burdens in the general US population. Yet little is known about the association of depression symptoms with cannabis and other substance use and use disorders in Native American adolescents. To investigate the comorbidity of cannabis use and depression symptoms in Native American adolescents. This study used the Children's Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (Adolescent Version) to obtain lifetime DSM-III-R diagnoses from a community sample of 202 (98 boys, 104 girls) American Indian adolescents living on contiguous reservations. Thirteen percent of boys and 38% of girls had a lifetime DSM-III-R major depression disorder (MDD) independent of substance use. Fifteen percent of boys and 41% of girls had a major depression episode (MDE) either coincident with or independent of cannabis use. MDE and several individual depression symptoms were significantly associated with cannabis dependence in boys but not in girls. The median ages of onset of MDE were the same in the boys and girls who had experienced both depression and cannabis use. These findings suggest that the association of depression with cannabis dependence is more significant in boys than girls in this population of adolescents. Understanding comorbidity between depression and cannabis use is important in order to disentangle the etiological relationship between the two and also for designing more effective treatment and prevention strategies, particularly in Native Americans who are at high risk for both disorders. Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  12. Associations Between Religion-Related Factors and Breast Cancer Screening Among American Muslims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padela, Aasim I.; Murrar, Sohad; Adviento, Brigid; Liao, Chuanhong; Hosseinian, Zahra; Peek, Monica; Curlin, Farr

    2015-01-01

    American Muslims have low rates of mammography utilization, and research suggests that religious values influence their health-seeking behaviors. We assessed associations between religion-related factors and breast cancer screening in this population. A diverse group of Muslim women were recruited from mosques and Muslim organization sites in Greater Chicago to self-administer a survey incorporating measures of fatalism, religiosity, discrimination, and Islamic modesty. 254 surveys were collected of which 240 met age inclusion criteria (40 years of age or older). Of the 240, 72 respondents were Arab, 71 South Asian, 59 African American, and 38 identified with another ethnicity. 77 % of respondents had at least one mammogram in their lifetime, yet 37 % had not obtained mammography within the past 2 years. In multivariate models, positive religious coping, and perceived religious discrimination in healthcare were negatively associated with having a mammogram in the past 2 years, while having a PCP was positively associated. Ever having a mammogram was positively associated with increasing age and years of US residency, and knowing someone with breast cancer. Promoting biennial mammography among American Muslims may require addressing ideas about religious coping and combating perceived religious discrimination through tailored interventions. PMID:24700026

  13. Association Between Neighborhood Cohesion and Self-Neglect in Chinese-American Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei, Ailian; Dong, XinQi

    2017-12-01

    To examine the association between neighborhood cohesion and risk of self-neglect in a community-dwelling Chinese-American older population. Community. Chinese-American older adults aged 60 and older interviewed from 2011 to 2013 (N = 3,159). Data were drawn from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly, a cross-sectional community-engaged study in the greater Chicago area. Self-neglect was assessed with systematic observations of a participant's personal and home environment. Neighborhood cohesion was measured using six questions. After controlling for potential confounders, greater neighborhood cohesion was significantly associated with lower risk of overall self-neglect (odds ratio (OR) = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.77-0.98) and moderate to severe self-neglect (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.58-0.85) but not significantly associated with mild self-neglect (OR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.82-1.09). Regarding the phenotypes of self-neglect, greater neighborhood cohesion was significantly associated with lower risk of poor personal hygiene (OR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.67-0.96) and need for home repair (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.60-0.83) but not significantly for hoarding (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.89-1.21), unsanitary conditions (OR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.76-1.02), and inadequate utilities (OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.77-1.31). This study highlights the association between greater neighborhood cohesion and lower risk of overall self-neglect in Chinese-American older adults. Enhancing neighborhood cohesion may enhance elder self-neglect prevention and intervention. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. North American Tropospheric Ozone Profiles from IONS (INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study, 2004, 2006): Ozone Budgets, Polution Statistics, Satellite Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Witte, J. C.; Miller, S. K.; Oltmans, S. J.; Cooper, O. R.; Tarasick, D. W.; Chatfield, R. B.; Taubman, B. F.; Joseph, E.; Baumgardner, D.; Merrill, J. T.; Morris, G. A.; Rappenglueck, B.; Lefer, B.; Forbes, G.; Newchurch, M. J.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Pierce, R. B.; Leblanc, T.; Dubey, M.; Minschwaner, K.

    2007-12-01

    During INTEX-B (both Milagro and IMPEX phases in Spring 2006) and during the summer TEXAQS- 2006/GOMACCS period, the INTEX Ozonesonde Network Study (IONS-06) coordinated ozonesonde launches over North America for Aura overpasses. IONS-06 supported aircraft operations and provided profiles for ozone budgets and pollution transport, satellite validation and evaluation of models. In contrast to IONS-04, IONS-06 had a greater range (all but one 2004 IONS site plus a dozen in California, New Mexico, Mexico City, Barbados and southwestern Canada), yielding more than 700 profiles. Tropospheric pollution statistics to guide Aura satellite retrievals and contrasts in UT-LS (upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric) ozone between 2004 and 2006 are presented. With IONS-04 dominated by low-pressure conditions over northeastern North America, UT ozone originated 25% from the stratosphere [Thompson et al., 2007a,b] with significant amounts from aged or relatively fresh pollution and lightning [Cooper et al., 2006; Morris et al., 2006]. Both IONS-04 and IONS-06 summer periods displayed a persistent UT ozone maximum [Cooper et al., 2007] over the south-central US. March 2006 IONS sondes over Mexico manifested persistent UT/LS gravity wave influence and more sporadic pollution. Regional and seasonal contrasts in IONS-06 ozone distributions are described. intexb/ions06.html

  15. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  16. Position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to athletes' energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, athletes' nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs - especially carbohydrate and protein intake - must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repairing tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20-25% of energy); there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose levels during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before beginning exercise; they should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose levels and the

  17. Joint Position Statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs-especially carbohydrate and protein intake-must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain

  18. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs--especially carbohydrate and protein intake--must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help

  19. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholette D Palmer

    Full Text Available African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071, were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05. Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8. SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9, OR (95% CI = 0.75 (0.67-0.84 is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217 were associated with T2DM (P<0.05 and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5 in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.

  20. Revised American Thyroid Association Guidelines for the Management of Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asa, Sylvia L.; Dralle, Henning; Elisei, Rossella; Evans, Douglas B.; Gagel, Robert F.; Lee, Nancy; Machens, Andreas; Moley, Jeffrey F.; Pacini, Furio; Raue, Friedhelm; Frank-Raue, Karin; Robinson, Bruce; Rosenthal, M. Sara; Santoro, Massimo; Schlumberger, Martin; Shah, Manisha; Waguespack, Steven G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The American Thyroid Association appointed a Task Force of experts to revise the original Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. Methods: The Task Force identified relevant articles using a systematic PubMed search, supplemented with additional published materials, and then created evidence-based recommendations, which were set in categories using criteria adapted from the United States Preventive Services Task Force Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The original guidelines provided abundant source material and an excellent organizational structure that served as the basis for the current revised document. Results: The revised guidelines are focused primarily on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and hereditary MTC. Conclusions: The Task Force developed 67 evidence-based recommendations to assist clinicians in the care of patients with MTC. The Task Force considers the recommendations to represent current, rational, and optimal medical practice. PMID:25810047

  1. Association between childhood school segregation and changes in adult sense of control in the African American health cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinsky, Fredric D; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Miller, J Phillip; Andresen, Elena M; Schootman, Mario; Miller, Douglas K

    2013-11-01

    Cross-sectional associations between childhood school segregation and adult sense of control and physical performance have been established in the African American Health (AAH) cohort. Here we extend that work by estimating the association between childhood school segregation and 2-year changes in adult sense of control. Method. Complete data on 541 older AAH men and women were used to estimate the association between childhood school segregation and changes in the sense of control. Exposure to segregation was self-reported in 2004, and the sense of control was measured in 2008 and 2010 using Blom rank transformations of Mirowsky and Ross' 8-item scale. Declining subjective income and experiencing major life stressors between 2008 and 2010, as well as traditional covariates (demographic factors, socioeconomic status, self-rated health, racial attitudes and beliefs, and religiosity) were included for statistical adjustment. Multiple linear regression analysis with propensity score reweighting was used. Receiving the majority of one's primary and secondary education in segregated schools had a significant net positive association (d = 0.179; p = .029) with 2-year changes in adult sense of control. AAH participants receiving the majority of their primary and secondary educations in segregated schools appeared to have been protected, in part, from age-related declines in the sense of control.

  2. Association of genetic variation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure among African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Ervin R.; Young, J. Hunter; Li, Yali; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Keating, Brendan J.; Musani, Solomon K.; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ganesh, Santhi; Kutlar, Abdullah; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Polak, Josef F.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Dries, Daniel L.; Farlow, Deborah N.; Redline, Susan; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Hirschorn, Joel N.; Sun, Yan V.; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Penman, Alan D.; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Lyon, Helen N.; Kang, Sun J.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cooper, Richard S.; Franceschini, Nora; Curb, J. David; Martin, Lisa W.; Eaton, Charles B.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Taylor, Herman A.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ehret, Georg B.; Johnson, Toby; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Levy, Daniel; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Kumari, Meena; JinGo, Min; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D.G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Charlotte Onland-Moret, N.; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G.P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S.P.M.; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N.M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Collins, Rory; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Bis, Joshua C.; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Hoffman Bolton, Judith A.; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; SolerArtigas, Maria; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairajan; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; MariaCorsi, Anna; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Chris; Schwartz, Steven M.; Arfan Ikram, M.; Longstreth, Will T.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R.G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J.L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Radha Mani, K.; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U.S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würz, Peter; Twee-Hee Ong, Rick; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kranthi Kumar, M.J.; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Wong, Tien Y.; Shyong Tai, E.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J.G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn , Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unknown if these variants confer susceptibility in people of African ancestry. Here, we examined genome-wide and candidate gene associations with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) using the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) consortium consisting of 8591 AAs. Genotypes included genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data utilizing the Affymetrix 6.0 array with imputation to 2.5 million HapMap SNPs and candidate gene SNP data utilizing a 50K cardiovascular gene-centric array (ITMAT-Broad-CARe [IBC] array). For Affymetrix data, the strongest signal for DBP was rs10474346 (P= 3.6 × 10−8) located near GPR98 and ARRDC3. For SBP, the strongest signal was rs2258119 in C21orf91 (P= 4.7 × 10−8). The top IBC association for SBP was rs2012318 (P= 6.4 × 10−6) near SLC25A42 and for DBP was rs2523586 (P= 1.3 × 10−6) near HLA-B. None of the top variants replicated in additional AA (n = 11 882) or European-American (n = 69 899) cohorts. We replicated previously reported European-American blood pressure SNPs in our AA samples (SH2B3, P= 0.009; TBX3-TBX5, P= 0.03; and CSK-ULK3, P= 0.0004). These genetic loci represent the best evidence of genetic influences on SBP and DBP in AAs to date. More broadly, this work supports that notion that blood pressure among AAs is a trait with genetic underpinnings but also with significant complexity. PMID:21378095

  3. Utility of 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Guidelines in HIV-Infected Adults With Carotid Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Binh An P.; Weigel, Bernard; Ma, Yifei; Scherzer, Rebecca; Li, Danny; Hur, Sophia; Kalapus, S.C.; Deeks, Steven

    2017-01-01

    Background— Although HIV is associated with increased atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, it is unknown whether guidelines can identify HIV-infected adults who may benefit from statins. We compared the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and 2004 Adult Treatment Panel III recommendations in HIV-infected adults and evaluated associations with carotid artery intima-media thickness and plaque. Methods and Results— Carotid artery intima-media thickness was measured at baseline and 3 years later in 352 HIV-infected adults without clinical atherosclerotic CVD and not on statins. Plaque was defined as IMT >1.5 mm in any segment. At baseline, the median age was 43 (interquartile range, 39–49), 85% were men, 74% were on antiretroviral medication, and 50% had plaque. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines were more likely to recommend statins compared with the Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, both overall (26% versus 14%; PCardiology/American Heart Association guidelines recommended statins to a greater number of HIV-infected adults compared with the Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, both failed to recommend therapy in the majority of HIV-affected adults with carotid plaque. Baseline carotid atherosclerosis but not atherosclerotic CVD risk scores was an independent predictor of mortality. HIV-specific guidelines that include detection of subclinical atherosclerosis may help to identify HIV-infected adults who are at increased atherosclerotic CVD risk and may be considered for statins. PMID:28674084

  4. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2016, New Orleans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaki, Makoto; Konagai, Nao; Fujino, Masashi; Kawakami, Shouji; Nakao, Kazuhiro; Hasegawa, Takuya; Sugano, Yasuo; Tahara, Yoshio; Yasuda, Satoshi

    2016-12-22

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2016 were held on November 12-16 at the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center, New Orleans, LA. This 5-day event featured cardiovascular clinical practice covering all aspects of basic, clinical, population, and translational content. One of the hot topics at AHA 2016 was precision medicine. The key presentations and highlights from the AHA Scientific Sessions 2016, including "precision medicine" as one of the hot topics, are herein reported.

  5. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Nicholette D; McDonough, Caitrin W; Hicks, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n¿=¿550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n¿=¿98 independent loci) were...

  6. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Session 2017, Anaheim, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yoshihiro

    2018-01-25

    On November 11-15, the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2017 were held in Anaheim, California, for the first time in 16 years. The annual sessions attracted nearly 18,000 attendees, with a global presence from more than 100 countries, and featured 5 days of programming for cardiovascular basic scientists, clinicians, and researchers. As usual, activities of participants from Japan were prominent. From the exciting sessions, I report the topics and key presentations including the late-breaking clinical trials.

  7. Bidirectional Associations between Behavior Problems and Teacher-Child Relationship Quality in Chinese American Immigrant Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prospective associations between behavior problems and teacher-child relationship quality (TCRQ) in a socio-economically diverse sample of Chinese American first- and second-grade children in immigrant families (N = 258). Externalizing and internalizing problems were assessed using parents' and teachers' ratings. Teachers completed a questionnaire measuring TCRQ dimensions of Warmth and Conflict and children completed a questionnaire measuring Closeness. Path analyses ...

  8. Radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics: A statistical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. L.; Wang, Y. X.; Ni, B.; Zhang, J.-C.; Reeves, G. D.; Su, Z. P.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Funsten, H. O.; Blake, J. B.

    2017-05-01

    Using the particle data measured by Van Allen Probe A from October 2012 to March 2016, we investigate in detail the radiation belt seed population and its association with the relativistic electron dynamics during 74 geomagnetic storms. The period of the storm recovery phase was limited to 72 h. The statistical study shows that geomagnetic storms and substorms play important roles in the radiation belt seed population (336 keV electrons) dynamics. Based on the flux changes of 1 MeV electrons before and after the storm peak, these storm events are divided into two groups of "large flux enhancement" and "small flux enhancement." For large flux enhancement storm events, the correlation coefficients between the peak flux location of the seed population and those of relativistic electrons (592 keV, 1 MeV, 1.8 MeV, and 2.1 MeV) during the storm recovery phase decrease with electron kinetic energy, being 0.92, 0.68, 0.49, and 0.39, respectively. The correlation coefficients between the peak flux of the seed population and those of relativistic electrons are 0.92, 0.81, 0.75, and 0.73. For small flux enhancement storm events, the correlation coefficients between the peak flux location of the seed population and those of relativistic electrons are relatively smaller, while the peak flux of the seed population is well correlated with those of relativistic electrons (correlation coefficients >0.84). It is suggested that during geomagnetic storms there is a good correlation between the seed population and ≤1 MeV electrons and the seed population is important to the relativistic electron dynamics.

  9. The Evolving Position of the American Psychiatric Association on Firearm Policy (1993-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie, Richard J; Appelbaum, Paul S; Pinals, Debra A

    2015-06-01

    Before the Supreme Court's 2008 decision in District of Columbia v. Heller, the American Psychiatric Association's position on gun policy reflected the strong gun control perspective championed by the nation's public health establishment. After Heller declared that an individual's right to bear arms is constitutionally protected, the APA refocused its attention on the specific aspects of firearm policy that implicate the interests and rights of persons with mental illness. Psychiatrists are mindful of the need to curtail firearm access by persons with mental disorders that elevate the risk of suicide or violence to others, but they are also opposed to stigmatization, discrimination, and unfair treatment of individuals based on mental illness. Although civil commitment is an acceptable basis for prohibiting access to firearms, other adjudications of conduct indicative of elevated risk should also be included. Every state should provide a fair and reasonable process for restoring firearm rights after a suitable waiting period based on individualized assessment of whether the person remains at an elevated risk. However, restricting firearm rights of persons solely on the basis of a diagnosis of a mental disorder or voluntary treatment, whether in-patient or outpatient, discourages treatment and would be counterproductive. Copyright © 2015 American Psychiatric Association. Published with permission (original adopted by the American Psychiatric Association 2014).

  10. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition intervention in the treatment of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozier, Amy D; Henry, Beverly W

    2011-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition intervention, including nutritional counseling by a registered dietitian (RD), is an essential component of team treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders (EDs) during assessment and treatment across the continuum of care. Diagnostic criteria for EDs provide important guidelines for identification and treatment. In addition, individuals may experience disordered eating that extends along a range from food restriction to partial conditions to diagnosed EDs. Understanding the roles and responsibilities of RDs is critical to the effective care of individuals with EDs. The complexities of EDs, such as epidemiologic factors, treatment guidelines, special populations, and emerging trends highlight the nature of EDs, which require a collaborative approach by an interdisciplinary team of mental health, nutrition, and medical specialists. RDs are integral members of treatment teams and are uniquely qualified to provide medical nutrition therapy for the normalization of eating patterns and nutritional status. However, this role requires understanding of the psychologic and neurobiologic aspects of EDs. Advanced training is needed to work effectively with this population. Further efforts with evidenced-based research must continue for improved treatment outcomes related to EDs, along with identification of effective primary and secondary interventions. This paper supports the "Practice Paper of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Intervention in the Treatment of Eating Disorders" published online at www.eatright.org/positions. Copyright © 2011 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Guidelines for Adult Stroke Rehabilitation and Recovery: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstein, Carolee J; Stein, Joel; Arena, Ross; Bates, Barbara; Cherney, Leora R; Cramer, Steven C; Deruyter, Frank; Eng, Janice J; Fisher, Beth; Harvey, Richard L; Lang, Catherine E; MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Pugh, Sue; Reeves, Mathew J; Richards, Lorie G; Stiers, William; Zorowitz, Richard D

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide a synopsis of best clinical practices in the rehabilitative care of adults recovering from stroke. Writing group members were nominated by the committee chair on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association (AHA) Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and the AHA's Manuscript Oversight Committee. The panel reviewed relevant articles on adults using computerized searches of the medical literature through 2014. The evidence is organized within the context of the AHA framework and is classified according to the joint AHA/American College of Cardiology and supplementary AHA methods of classifying the level of certainty and the class and level of evidence. The document underwent extensive AHA internal and external peer review, Stroke Council Leadership review, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee review before consideration and approval by the AHA Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. Stroke rehabilitation requires a sustained and coordinated effort from a large team, including the patient and his or her goals, family and friends, other caregivers (eg, personal care attendants), physicians, nurses, physical and occupational therapists, speech-language pathologists, recreation therapists, psychologists, nutritionists, social workers, and others. Communication and coordination among these team members are paramount in maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency of rehabilitation and underlie this entire guideline. Without communication and coordination, isolated efforts to rehabilitate the stroke survivor are unlikely to achieve their full potential. As systems of care evolve in response to healthcare reform efforts, postacute care and rehabilitation are often considered a costly area of care to be trimmed but without recognition of their clinical impact and ability to reduce the risk of downstream medical morbidity resulting from

  12. Genome-wide association studies of the PR interval in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gustav Smith

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The PR interval on the electrocardiogram reflects atrial and atrioventricular nodal conduction time. The PR interval is heritable, provides important information about arrhythmia risk, and has been suggested to differ among human races. Genome-wide association (GWA studies have identified common genetic determinants of the PR interval in individuals of European and Asian ancestry, but there is a general paucity of GWA studies in individuals of African ancestry. We performed GWA studies in African American individuals from four cohorts (n = 6,247 to identify genetic variants associated with PR interval duration. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 microarray. Imputation was performed for 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using combined YRI and CEU HapMap phase II panels. We observed a strong signal (rs3922844 within the gene encoding the cardiac sodium channel (SCN5A with genome-wide significant association (p<2.5 x 10⁻⁸ in two of the four cohorts and in the meta-analysis. The signal explained 2% of PR interval variability in African Americans (beta  = 5.1 msec per minor allele, 95% CI  = 4.1-6.1, p = 3 x 10⁻²³. This SNP was also associated with PR interval (beta = 2.4 msec per minor allele, 95% CI = 1.8-3.0, p = 3 x 10⁻¹⁶ in individuals of European ancestry (n = 14,042, but with a smaller effect size (p for heterogeneity <0.001 and variability explained (0.5%. Further meta-analysis of the four cohorts identified genome-wide significant associations with SNPs in SCN10A (rs6798015, MEIS1 (rs10865355, and TBX5 (rs7312625 that were highly correlated with SNPs identified in European and Asian GWA studies. African ancestry was associated with increased PR duration (13.3 msec, p = 0.009 in one but not the other three cohorts. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of common variants to African Americans at four loci previously associated with PR interval in European and

  13. Neighborhood perceptions are associated with tobacco dependence among African American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; Cao, Yumei; Mazas, Carlos A; Li, Yisheng; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Wetter, David W

    2012-07-01

    The animal and human research literatures suggest that deprived environmental conditions may be associated with drug dependence, but the relation of neighborhood perceptions with a multidimensional measure of tobacco dependence has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between neighborhood perceptions (neighborhood problems and neighborhood vigilance) and tobacco dependence among smokers as measured by the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives-68 (WISDM). Participants were 384 African American smokers (49% men, 80% < $30,000 annual household income) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a smoking cessation intervention. A series of regression models were conducted to examine the associations between neighborhood perceptions and tobacco dependence using a generalized estimating equation approach, which accounted for potential correlation in tobacco dependence between participants from the same neighborhood. Results indicated that more self-reported neighborhood problems and greater neighborhood vigilance were significantly associated with tobacco dependence as measured by the WISDM total score in analyses adjusted for age, gender, income, education, employment status, and partner status (p ≤ .002). Neighborhood perceptions were related to both primary and secondary dependence motives (p ≤ .005). Results suggest that the neighborhood context is associated with dependence on tobacco among African American smokers but longitudinal studies are needed to assess causation. Future research should also explore the mechanisms that account for the associations between neighborhood perceptions and tobacco dependence to better inform intervention development.

  14. Associations Between Parenting Factors, Motivation, and Physical Activity in Overweight African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lauren E; Wilson, Dawn K; Van Horn, M Lee; Pate, Russell R

    2018-02-05

    Positive parenting practices and environmental supports have been linked to physical activity (PA) levels in youth, yet factors associated with positive parenting styles have been understudied in African American adolescents. This study expands on previous literature by examining associations between motivation, parenting factors associated with Self-Determination Theory's psychological needs (competence, autonomy, and relatedness) including authoritative parenting, autonomy support and emotional and tangible support, and adolescent moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and light PA (LPA). Participants were African American adolescents (N = 148; Mage = 13.6 years; MBMI% = 96.6) and their care-givers (Mage = 43.4 years; MBMI = 37.4) enrolled in the Families Improving Together for Weight Loss trial. Parenting factors were measured using self-report surveys, and PA minutes were measured using 7-day accelerometry estimates. Regression analyses indicated that overall models for MVPA (F(11,134) = 4.35; R2 = 0.26) and LPA (F(11,134) = 5.84, R2 = 0.32) were significant. Adolescent motivation for PA (B = 0.58, SE = 0.16) was positively associated with MVPA minutes. Authoritative parenting (B = 15.71, SE = 4.38) and tangible support (B = 8.53, SE = 4.02) were positively associated with adolescent LPA minutes. Unexpectedly, emotional support was negatively associated with both MVPA (B = -0.47, SE = 0.17) and LPA (B = -11.22, SE = 4.79), with follow-up analyses showing this relationship stronger in males. Findings highlight the importance of adolescent motivation for PA onMVPA and positive parenting styles and tangible supports on adolescent LPA in overweight African American youth. Recommendations for integrating these factors within the context of intervention studies are discussed.

  15. Association between general self-efficacy level and use of dietary supplements in the group of American football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacek, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Increased nutritional demands of athletes should be covered with a variable well-balanced diet, supported by dietary supplements stimulating synthesis of energy, development of muscle mass and strength, and improving physical capacity. The aim of this study was to analyze an association between the level of general self-efficacy and dietary supplement use among Polish athletes practicing American football on a competitive basis. The study included the group of 100 athletes (20-30 years of age, mean 24.27±2.76 years) who practiced American football on a competitive basis. The popularity of various dietary supplements was determined with an original survey, and the level of general self-efficacy with General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) by Schwarzer et al. Statistical analysis, conducted with Statistica 10.0 PL software, included intergroup comparisons with the Chi-square test. Isotonic drinks (74%), vitamin (65%) and mineral supplements (50%) and protein concentrates (53%) turned out to be the most popular ergogenic supplements among the American footballers. The group of less popular supplements included caffeine and/or guarana (44%), joint supporting supplements (40%), BCAA amino acids (39%), creatine (36%), carbohydrate concentrates (30%) and omega-3 fatty acids (30%). Analysis of a relationship between the popularity of ergogenic supplements and general self-efficacy showed that the athletes presenting with lower levels of this trait used multivitamin supplements significantly more often than did the persons characterized by lower self-efficacy levels (p<0.05). The popularity of some dietary supplements varied depending on the general self-efficacy level of the athletes; the popularity of vitamins was significantly higher among the sportsmen who presented with lower levels of this trait.

  16. The association of breast density with breast cancer mortality in African American and white women screened in community practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shengfan; Ivy, Julie S; Diehl, Kathleen M; Yankaskas, Bonnie C

    2013-01-01

    The effect of breast density on survival outcomes for American women who participate in screening remains unknown. We studied the role of breast density on both breast cancer and other cause of mortality in screened women. Data for women with breast cancer, identified from the community-based Carolina Mammography Registry, were linked with the North Carolina cancer registry and NC death tapes for this study. Cause-specific Cox proportional hazards models were developed to analyze the effect of several covariates on breast cancer mortality-namely, age, race (African American/White), cancer stage at diagnosis (in situ, local, regional, and distant), and breast density (BI-RADS( ® ) 1-4). Two stratified Cox models were considered controlling for (1) age and race, and (2) age and cancer stage, respectively, to further study the effect of density. The cumulative incidence function with confidence interval approximation was used to quantify mortality probabilities over time. For this study, 22,597 screened women were identified as having breast cancer. The non-stratified and stratified Cox models showed no significant statistical difference in mortality between dense tissue and fatty tissue, while controlling for other covariate effects (p value = 0.1242, 0.0717, and 0.0619 for the non-stratified, race-stratified, and cancer stage-stratified models, respectively). The cumulative mortality probability estimates showed that women with dense breast tissues did not have significantly different breast cancer mortality than women with fatty breast tissue, regardless of age (e.g., 10-year confidence interval of mortality probabilities for whites aged 60-69 white: 0.056-0.090 vs. 0.054-0.083). Aging, African American race, and advanced cancer stage were found to be significant risk factors for breast cancer mortality (hazard ratio >1.0). After controlling for cancer incidence, there was not a significant association between mammographic breast density and mortality, adjusting

  17. Contemporary Management of Cardiogenic Shock: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Sean; Katz, Jason N; Albert, Nancy M; Henry, Timothy D; Jacobs, Alice K; Kapur, Navin K; Kilic, Ahmet; Menon, Venu; Ohman, E Magnus; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Thiele, Holger; Washam, Jeffrey B; Cohen, Mauricio G

    2017-10-17

    Cardiogenic shock is a high-acuity, potentially complex, and hemodynamically diverse state of end-organ hypoperfusion that is frequently associated with multisystem organ failure. Despite improving survival in recent years, patient morbidity and mortality remain high, and there are few evidence-based therapeutic interventions known to clearly improve patient outcomes. This scientific statement on cardiogenic shock summarizes the epidemiology, pathophysiology, causes, and outcomes of cardiogenic shock; reviews contemporary best medical, surgical, mechanical circulatory support, and palliative care practices; advocates for the development of regionalized systems of care; and outlines future research priorities. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Associations between coping, affect, and social support among low-income African American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb Hooper, Monica; Baker, Elizabeth A; McNutt, Marcia D

    2013-11-01

    Previous research has documented disparities in smoking cessation between African Americans and Caucasians. Many low-income African American smokers face a range of circumstances that may inhibit effective coping during quit attempts, yet previous research has not considered factors that influence coping in this population. This study examined (a) affect (positive and negative) and (b) perceived social support in association with coping strategies. The baseline assessment of African American smokers (N = 168) enrolled in a randomized controlled trial included the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, and the Brief COPE. A factor analysis of the Brief COPE resulted in two factors, adaptive and maladaptive strategies. Participants were mostly single (64%), women (61%), with ≥12 years of education (68%), and low-income. They were middle aged (M = 46.1, SD = 8.7), smoked 21.8 (SD = 13.3) cigarettes/day for 24.3 (SD = 11) years, and were moderately nicotine dependent. Results demonstrated that adaptive coping was positively correlated with positive affect and social support. Maladaptive coping was positively correlated with negative affect, and inversely related to positive affect and social support. Multivariate analyses revealed that positive affect and social support were independently associated with adaptive coping strategies. In contrast, maladaptive coping was independently associated with negative affect, but not social support. Interventions that harness positive resources, such as social support and positive mood, may facilitate adaptive coping. Also, addressing negative affect among low-income African American smokers may be important to reduce maladaptive coping strategies. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between Perceived Ethnic Discrimination and Health: Evidence from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siordia, C; Covington-Ward, Y D

    2016-01-01

    The field of aging studies continues to better understand between-racial-group health disparities. Previous work provides empirical evidence for a statistical relationship between perceived discrimination and adverse health across all age groups. We contribute to the literature by investigating the quantitative relationship between Perceived Ethnic Discrimination (PED), Self-Rated Physical Health (SR-PH), Self-Rated Mental Health (SR-MH), and their combined score (SR-PH-MH). The cross-sectional observational study used data collected between 2002 and 2004 from the National Latino and Asian American Study (n=4,559; average age=41; 54% female; 18% Mexican; 36% Non-Mexican Latinos; 12% Chinese; 31% Non-Chinese Asians). We provide descriptive statistics for those below and at or above age 65. Multivariable linear models adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education, body mass index, and neighborhood perception provide evidence that although a small effect, PED explains between-people variance in SR-PH (β=-0.01; α=0.001), SR-MH (β=-0.03; α=0.001), and SR-PH-MH (β=-0.04; α=0.001). The analysis supports arguments that PED has a non-random association with health. As we continue to explore novel measures of frailty, markers of social stress should be considered.

  20. Difference in Association of Obesity With Prostate Cancer Risk Between US African American and Non-Hispanic White Men in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Wendy E; Schenk, Jeannette M; Etzioni, Ruth; Arnold, Kathryn B; Neuhouser, Marian L; Thompson, Ian M; Lucia, M Scott; Kristal, Alan R

    2015-06-01

    African American men have the highest rates of prostate cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. Understanding underlying reasons for this disparity could identify preventive interventions important to African American men. To determine whether the association of obesity with prostate cancer risk differs between African American and non-Hispanic white men and whether obesity modifies the excess risk associated with African American race. Prospective study of 3398 African American and 22,673 non-Hispanic white men who participated in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (2001-2011) with present analyses completed in 2014. Total, low-grade (Gleason score men and a corresponding 1453, 898, and 441 cases in non-Hispanic white men, respectively. Although not associated with risk among non-Hispanic white men, BMI was positively associated with an increase in risk among African American men (BMI, men with BMI less than 25 to 103% (HR, 2.03 [95% CI, 1.38-2.98]) among African American men with BMI at least 35 (P for trend = .03). Body mass index was inversely associated with low-grade prostate cancer risk within non-Hispanic white men (BMI, men (BMI, men (BMI, men, although the increase may be larger within African American men, albeit the racial interaction was not statistically significant (BMI, Obesity is more strongly associated with increased prostate cancer risk among African American than non-Hispanic white men and reducing obesity among African American men could reduce the racial disparity in cancer incidence. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of obesity in African American and non-Hispanic white men.

  1. The American Association of Plastic Surgeons Recent History, with a Review of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, W Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The American Association of Plastic Surgeons was founded in 1921 and is the oldest of the plastic surgery societies. It was born out of the enthusiasm of reconstructive surgeons who had recently increased in numbers and expanded the scope of their activities as a result of the challenges posed by battle-injured soldiers during World War I. Early meetings were small, focused exclusively on the head and neck, and often included live surgical demonstrations. The Association has grown in size and scope with time, but it has maintained its academic focus. This article focuses on the most recent 15 years of the Association's history, as prior publications have chronicled the history of the organization up to 2000. The organization has remained robust in the new millennium, with the national meetings being its most prominent activity. The format of the meetings has continually been improved to remain relevant and of interest to the membership and other attendees. The organization continues to support the development of young academic plastic surgeons through the Academic Scholars Program. It has established new programs such as the Constable Fellowship to support international exchange and has also sponsored two consensus conferences to help define standards of care in plastic surgery-related issues. The Association annually recognizes significant contributors to the field through the variety of awards that it bestows as well. The mission of the American Association of Plastic Surgeons is to provide scholarly leadership in plastic surgery, and the organization continues to successfully accomplish this mission.

  2. The Association of Panic Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Major Depression With Smoking in American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Craig N; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Noonan, Carolyn; Bogart, Andy; Goldberg, Jack; Manson, Spero M; Buchwald, Dedra

    2016-03-01

    Rates of cigarette smoking are disproportionately high among American Indian populations, although regional differences exist in smoking prevalence. Previous research has noted that anxiety and depression are associated with higher rates of cigarette use. We asked whether lifetime panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and major depression were related to lifetime cigarette smoking in two geographically distinct American Indian tribes. Data were collected in 1997-1999 from 1506 Northern Plains and 1268 Southwest tribal members; data were analyzed in 2009. Regression analyses examined the association between lifetime anxiety and depressive disorders and odds of lifetime smoking status after controlling for sociodemographic variables and alcohol use disorders. Institutional and tribal approvals were obtained for all study procedures, and all participants provided informed consent. Odds of smoking were two times higher in Southwest participants with panic disorder and major depression, and 1.7 times higher in those with posttraumatic stress disorder, after controlling for sociodemographic variables. After accounting for alcohol use disorders, only major depression remained significantly associated with smoking. In the Northern Plains, psychiatric disorders were not associated with smoking. Increasing psychiatric comorbidity was significantly linked to increased smoking odds in both tribes, especially in the Southwest. This study is the first to examine the association between psychiatric conditions and lifetime smoking in two large, geographically diverse community samples of American Indians. While the direction of the relationship between nicotine use and psychiatric disorders cannot be determined, understanding unique social, environmental, and cultural differences that contribute to the tobacco-psychiatric disorder relationship may help guide tribe-specific commercial tobacco control strategies. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  3. Violence Exposure and the Association between Young African American Mothers’ Discipline and Child Problem Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Lewin, Amy; Horn, Ivor B.; Rasmussen, Andrew; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Valentine, Dawn; Joseph, Jill G.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Children of adolescent mothers are at increased risk of violence exposure and behavior problems, which have been linked to mothers’ disciplinary practices. This study examines how the effect of young African American mothers’ discipline on their preschool-age children’s externalizing and internalizing behavior varies by mother and child violence exposure. Participants and Methods A sample of 230 African American mothers who gave birth as adolescents and their 3- to 6-year-old children were recruited from community-based day care and primary health care sites in the Washington, DC metropolitan region. In-person interviews were conducted by trained research assistants using standard survey instruments. Results Hierarchical regression models revealed an interaction effect such that adolescent mothers’ harsh disciplinary practices, specifically physical discipline strategies, were positively associated with young children’s internalizing and externalizing behavior in the context of high or moderate but not low maternal violence exposure. Conclusions As compared to less violence-exposed mothers, the harsh disciplinary practices of young African American mothers who have been exposed to high levels of violence are more strongly associated with their children’s problem behavior. Practitioners should screen mothers for violence exposure in order to address potential issues of discipline and behavior problems. PMID:19450775

  4. Violence exposure and the association between young African American mothers' discipline and child problem behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Stephanie J; Lewin, Amy; Horn, Ivor B; Rasmussen, Andrew; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Valentine, Dawn; Joseph, Jill G

    2009-01-01

    Children of adolescent mothers are at increased risk of violence exposure and behavior problems, which have been linked to mothers' disciplinary practices. This study examines how the effect of young African American mothers' discipline on their preschool-age children's externalizing and internalizing behavior varies by mother and child violence exposure. A sample of 230 African American mothers who gave birth as adolescents and their 3- to 6-year-old children were recruited from community-based day care and primary health care sites in the Washington, DC, metropolitan region. In-person interviews were conducted by trained research assistants who administered standard survey instruments. Hierarchical regression models revealed an interaction effect such that adolescent mothers' harsh disciplinary practices, specifically physical discipline strategies, were positively associated with young children's internalizing and externalizing behavior in the context of high or moderate, but not low, maternal violence exposure. Compared with less violence-exposed mothers, the harsh disciplinary practices of young African American mothers who have been exposed to high levels of violence are more strongly associated with their children's problem behavior. Practitioners should screen mothers for violence exposure in order to address potential issues of discipline and behavior problems.

  5. Generation and acculturation status are associated with dietary intake and body weight in Mexican American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ji-Hong; Chu, Yong H; Frongillo, Edward A; Probst, Janice C

    2012-02-01

    Mexican American children are disproportionately affected by obesity. Data on how the acculturation process influences diet and body weight among adolescents are limited. We used the data from the 1999-2004 NHANES, restricting to 2286 Mexican American children between 12 and 19 y old. Acculturation was measured by generation status and language preference. Diet was assessed using 24-h diet recall. Multiple linear, Tobit, logistic, and quantile regression models were used. We found, after adjusting for socio-demographic factors, health, dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviors compared to the first generation, second and third generations had greater odds of overweight and obesity. Adolescents in the second generation had higher BMI Z-scores than adolescents in the first and third generations. Both second and third generation adolescents consumed less fruit, whole fruit, vegetables, grains, and meats but more sweetened beverages, whole grains, saturated fat, sodium, oil, and energy from discretionary foods. Higher language acculturation was associated with poorer diet and greater body weight. Our findings suggest that Mexican American adolescents face challenges in terms of poorer diet and excessive weight gain associated with their immigration experience.

  6. African American adolescents and new media: associations with HIV/STI risk behavior and psychosocial variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteley, Laura B; Brown, Larry K; Swenson, Rebecca R; Romer, Daniel; DiClemente, Ralph J P; Salazar, Laura E; Vanable, Peter A; Carey, Michael P; Valois, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Cell phones and online media are used frequently but we know little about their use among African American adolescents. This study examines the frequency of such use and its relationship to psychosocial variables and STI/HIV risk behavior. 1,518 African American, aged 13-18 years, from 2 Northeast US cities (Providence, RI; Syracuse, NY) and 2 Southeast US cities (Columbia, SC; Macon, GA), were assessed from 2008-2009. Participants were assessed on frequency of cell phone and Internet use, psychological constructs (ie, depression, life satisfaction, impulsivity) and HIV/STI risk behaviors (ie, history of intercourse, sexual sensation seeking attitudes, peer sexual risks norms) with reliable scales and measures using an audio computer-assisted self-interview. Over 90% of African American adolescents used cell phones every day or most days and 60% used social networking sites every day or most days (96% used Myspace). Greater frequency of cell phone use was associated with sexual sensation seeking (P = .000), riskier peer sexual norms (P = .000), and impulsivity (P = .016). Greater frequency of Internet use was associated with a history of oral/vaginal/anal sex (OR = 1.03, CI = 1.0-1.05) and sexual sensation seeking (P = .000). These findings suggest that riskier youth are online and using cell phones frequently. The Internet and cell phones may be useful platforms for targeted health promotion and prevention efforts with AA adolescents.

  7. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' collaboration with the Association of American Medical Colleges, Medical Library Association, and other organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Carol G; Bader, Shelley A

    2003-04-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries has made collaboration with other organizations a fundamental success strategy throughout its twenty-five year history. From the beginning its relationships with Association of American Medical Colleges and with the Medical Library Association have shaped its mission and influenced its success at promoting academic health sciences libraries' roles in their institutions. This article describes and evaluates those relationships. It also describes evolving relationships with other organizations including the National Library of Medicine and the Association of Research Libraries.

  8. Genetic variants associated with warfarin dose in African-American individuals: a genome-wide association study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Minoli A; Cavallari, Larisa H; Limdi, Nita A; Gamazon, Eric R; Konkashbaev, Anuar; Daneshjou, Roxana; Pluzhnikov, Anna; Crawford, Dana C; Wang, Jelai; Liu, Nianjun; Tatonetti, Nicholas; Bourgeois, Stephane; Takahashi, Harumi; Bradford, Yukiko; Burkley, Benjamin M; Desnick, Robert J; Halperin, Jonathan L; Khalifa, Sherief I; Langaee, Taimour Y; Lubitz, Steven A; Nutescu, Edith A; Oetjens, Matthew; Shahin, Mohamed H; Patel, Shitalben R; Sagreiya, Hersh; Tector, Matthew; Weck, Karen E; Rieder, Mark J; Scott, Stuart A; Wu, Alan HB; Burmester, James K; Wadelius, Mia; Deloukas, Panos; Wagner, Michael J; Mushiroda, Taisei; Kubo, Michiaki; Roden, Dan M; Cox, Nancy J; Altman, Russ B; Klein, Teri E; Nakamura, Yusuke; Johnson, Julie A

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background VKORC1 and CYP2C9 are important contributors to warfarin dose variability, but explain less variability for individuals of African descent than for those of European or Asian descent. We aimed to identify additional variants contributing to warfarin dose requirements in African Americans. Methods We did a genome-wide association study of discovery and replication cohorts. Samples from African-American adults (aged ≥18 years) who were taking a stable maintenance dose of warfarin were obtained at International Warfarin Pharmacogenetics Consortium (IWPC) sites and the University of Alabama at Birmingham (Birmingham, AL, USA). Patients enrolled at IWPC sites but who were not used for discovery made up the independent replication cohort. All participants were genotyped. We did a stepwise conditional analysis, conditioning first for VKORC1 −1639G→A, followed by the composite genotype of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3. We prespecified a genome-wide significance threshold of p<5×10−8 in the discovery cohort and p<0·0038 in the replication cohort. Findings The discovery cohort contained 533 participants and the replication cohort 432 participants. After the prespecified conditioning in the discovery cohort, we identified an association between a novel single nucleotide polymorphism in the CYP2C cluster on chromosome 10 (rs12777823) and warfarin dose requirement that reached genome-wide significance (p=1·51×10−8). This association was confirmed in the replication cohort (p=5·04×10−5); analysis of the two cohorts together produced a p value of 4·5×10−12. Individuals heterozygous for the rs12777823 A allele need a dose reduction of 6·92 mg/week and those homozygous 9·34 mg/week. Regression analysis showed that the inclusion of rs12777823 significantly improves warfarin dose variability explained by the IWPC dosing algorithm (21% relative improvement). Interpretation A novel CYP2C single nucleotide polymorphism exerts a clinically relevant

  9. The Association Between Racial Discrimination and Suicidality among African-American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshanapally, Suraj; Werner, Kimberly B; Sartor, Carolyn E; Bucholz, Kathleen K

    2017-11-09

    This study assessed the association between racial discrimination and suicidality (ideation, plan, or attempt) in African-American adolescents and young adults (n = 806, mean age = 17.9 years). Structured psychiatric phone interviews were conducted in offspring and their mothers in a high-risk alcoholism family study. Logistic regression analyses using offspring's own racial discrimination as a predictor revealed elevated odds of suicidality, even after adjusting for correlated psychiatric conditions (OR = 1.76) but was reduced to non-significance after adjusting for maternal experiences of racial discrimination (OR = 3.19 in males), depression, and problem drinking. Findings support a link between racial discrimination and suicidality in African-American youth that, for males, is partially explained by maternal racial discrimination.

  10. Statistical Interpolation of Tidal Datums and Computation of Its Associated Spatially Varying Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Shi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tidal datums are key components in NOAA’s Vertical Datum transformation project (VDatum. In this paper, we propose a statistical interpolation method, derived from the variational principle, to calculate tidal datums by blending the modeled and the observed tidal datums. Through the implementation of this statistical interpolation method in the Chesapeake and Delaware Bays, we conclude that the statistical interpolation method for tidal datums has great advantages over the currently used deterministic interpolation method. The foremost, and inherent, advantage of the statistical interpolation is its capability to integrate data from different sources and with different accuracies without concern for their relative spatial locations. The second advantage is that it provides a spatially varying uncertainty for the entire domain in which data is being integrated. The latter is especially helpful for the decision-making process of where new instruments would be most effectively placed. Lastly, the test case results show that the statistical interpolation reduced the bias, maximum absolute error, mean absolute error, and root mean square error in comparison to the current deterministic approach.

  11. Statistical deferred weighted [Formula: see text]-summability and its applications to associated approximation theorems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, T; Paikray, S K; Jena, B B; Dutta, H

    2018-01-01

    The notion of statistical weighted [Formula: see text]-summability was introduced very recently (Kadak et al. in Appl. Math. Comput. 302:80-96, 2017). In the paper, we study the concept of statistical deferred weighted [Formula: see text]-summability and deferred weighted [Formula: see text]-statistical convergence and then establish an inclusion relation between them. In particular, based on our proposed methods, we establish a new Korovkin-type approximation theorem for the functions of two variables defined on a Banach space [Formula: see text] and then present an illustrative example to show that our result is a non-trivial extension of some traditional and statistical versions of Korovkin-type approximation theorems which were demonstrated in the earlier works. Furthermore, we establish another result for the rate of deferred weighted [Formula: see text]-statistical convergence for the same set of functions via modulus of continuity. Finally, we consider a number of interesting special cases and illustrative examples in support of our findings of this paper.

  12. The level crossing rates and associated statistical properties of a random frequency response function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Robin S.

    2018-03-01

    This work is concerned with the statistical properties of the frequency response function of the energy of a random system. Earlier studies have considered the statistical distribution of the function at a single frequency, or alternatively the statistics of a band-average of the function. In contrast the present analysis considers the statistical fluctuations over a frequency band, and results are obtained for the mean rate at which the function crosses a specified level (or equivalently, the average number of times the level is crossed within the band). Results are also obtained for the probability of crossing a specified level at least once, the mean rate of occurrence of peaks, and the mean trough-to-peak height. The analysis is based on the assumption that the natural frequencies and mode shapes of the system have statistical properties that are governed by the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE), and the validity of this assumption is demonstrated by comparison with numerical simulations for a random plate. The work has application to the assessment of the performance of dynamic systems that are sensitive to random imperfections.

  13. Associations of Adiponectin with Individual European Ancestry in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian eBidulescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AA exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA for the African Americans enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS. We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors.Methods: Plasma specimens from 1,439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1,447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA.Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years, the median (interquartile range of PEA was 15.8 (9.3%. Body mass index (p = 0.04 and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001 modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (β = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03 among non-obese (n = 673 and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1,141; β = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001, but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold effect was detected for non-obese participants.Conclusions: In a large African American population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin

  14. Association of adiponectin and socioeconomic status in African American men and women: the Jackson heart study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon K. Davis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent emphasis has been placed on elucidating the biologic mechanism linking socioeconomic status (SES to cardiovascular disease (CVD. Positive associations of inflammatory biomarkers provide evidence suggestive of a biologic pathway by which SES may predispose to CVD. African Americans have disproportionately lower SES and have a higher prevalence of CVD risk factors compared to most ethnic/racial groups. Adiponectin (an anti-inflammatory marker is also lower. The objective of this study was to assess the association of adiponectin with SES among African American men and women using the Jackson Heart Study. Methods Study sample included 4340 participants. Linear regression was performed separately by SES and stratified by sex. Annual household income and level of education was used as proxies for SES. Crude, age, health behavior and health status adjusted models were analyzed. The main outcome was log-transformed adiponectin. Results Men in the lowest income group had significantly higher adiponectin than those in the highest income group in the fully adjusted model (ß/standard error [se], p value = .16/.08, p = .0008. Men with < high school level of education had significantly higher adiponectin in the crude and age adjusted models than those with ≥ college degree (.25/.05, p < .0001; .14/.05/ p = .005, respectively. Women with some college or vocational training in the crude and age adjusted models had lower adiponectin compared to women with ≥ college degree (−.09/.03, p = .004; −.06/.03, p = .04, respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest a potential inverse biologic pathway between annual household income and adiponectin among African American men. There was no such finding among women. Findings suggest interventions should be targeted for higher SES African American men to improve adiponectin levels.

  15. Childhood and Adolescent Adversity and Cardiometabolic Outcomes: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F; Koenen, Karestan C; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Chan, Paul S; Clark, Cari J; Danese, Andrea; Faith, Myles S; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Hayman, Laura L; Isasi, Carmen R; Pratt, Charlotte A; Slopen, Natalie; Sumner, Jennifer A; Turer, Aslan; Turer, Christy B; Zachariah, Justin P

    2018-01-30

    Adverse experiences in childhood and adolescence, defined as subjectively perceived threats to the safety or security of the child's bodily integrity, family, or social structures, are known to be associated with cardiometabolic outcomes over the life course into adulthood. This American Heart Association scientific statement reviews the scientific literature on the influence of childhood adversity on cardiometabolic outcomes that constitute the greatest public health burden in the United States, including obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease. This statement also conceptually outlines pathways linking adversity to cardiometabolic health, identifies evidence gaps, and provides suggestions for future research to inform practice and policy. We note that, despite a lack of objective agreement on what subjectively qualifies as exposure to childhood adversity and a dearth of prospective studies, substantial evidence documents an association between childhood adversity and cardiometabolic outcomes across the life course. Future studies that focus on mechanisms, resiliency, and vulnerability factors would further strengthen the evidence and provide much-needed information on targets for effective interventions. Given that childhood adversities affect cardiometabolic health and multiple health domains across the life course, interventions that ameliorate these initial upstream exposures may be more appropriate than interventions remediating downstream cardiovascular disease risk factor effects later in life. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Added Sugars and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Children: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Miriam B; Kaar, Jill L; Welsh, Jean A; Van Horn, Linda V; Feig, Daniel I; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Patel, Mahesh J; Cruz Munos, Jessica; Krebs, Nancy F; Xanthakos, Stavra A; Johnson, Rachel K

    2017-05-09

    Poor lifestyle behaviors are leading causes of preventable diseases globally. Added sugars contribute to a diet that is energy dense but nutrient poor and increase risk of developing obesity, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, obesity-related cancers, and dental caries. For this American Heart Association scientific statement, the writing group reviewed and graded the current scientific evidence for studies examining the cardiovascular health effects of added sugars on children. The available literature was subdivided into 5 broad subareas: effects on blood pressure, lipids, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and obesity. Associations between added sugars and increased cardiovascular disease risk factors among US children are present at levels far below current consumption levels. Strong evidence supports the association of added sugars with increased cardiovascular disease risk in children through increased energy intake, increased adiposity, and dyslipidemia. The committee found that it is reasonable to recommend that children consume ≤25 g (100 cal or ≈6 teaspoons) of added sugars per day and to avoid added sugars for children added sugars most likely can be safely consumed in low amounts as part of a healthy diet, few children achieve such levels, making this an important public health target. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. The toll of the gridiron: damage-associated molecular patterns and hypertension in American football

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Cameron G.; Webb, R. Clinton

    2016-01-01

    American football has unequivocally been linked to elevations in blood pressure and hypertension, especially in linemen. However, the mechanisms of this increase cannot be attributed solely to increased body weight and associated cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g.,dyslipidemia or hyperglycemia). Therefore, understanding the etiology of football-associated hypertension is essential for improving the quality of life in this mostly young population, as well as for lowering the potential for chronic disease in the future. We propose that inflammatogenic damage–associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released into the circulation from football-induced musculoskeletal trauma activate pattern-recognition receptors of the innate immune system—specifically, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and mitochondrial (mt)DNA which activate Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and -9, respectively. Previously, we observed that circulating levels of these 2 DAMPs are increased in hypertension, and activation of TLR4 and -9 causes endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Therefore, our novel hypothesis is that musculoskeletal injury from repeated hits in football players, particularly in linemen, leads to elevated circulating HMGB1 and mtDNA to activate TLRs on endothelial cells leading to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased vascular tone, and hypertension.—McCarthy, C. G., Webb, R. C. The toll of the gridiron: damage-associated molecular patterns and hypertension in American football. PMID:26316270

  18. Bidirectional Associations Between Teacher-Child Relationship Quality and Chinese American Immigrant Children's Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Jennifer; Zhou, Qing

    2016-07-15

    The goal of the study was to test the bidirectional associations between teacher-child relationship quality and behavior problems in an elementary school age sample of Chinese American immigrant children. A socioeconomically diverse sample (N = 258) of first- and second-generation Chinese American children (M ages = 7.4 and 9.2 years at Wave 1 and Wave 2, respectively; 48% girls) was recruited from schools and communities and followed for 1 to 2 years. Two waves of data on dimensions of teacher-child relationship quality (i.e., warmth, closeness, and conflict) and children's externalizing and internalizing problems were collected through parents', teachers', and children's report. Path analyses were conducted to test the bidirectional associations between teacher-child relationship quality and behavior problems, controlling for prior levels, child demographic characteristics, and teacher ethnicity. Transactional associations between teacher-child relationship quality and children's behavior problems were found for externalizing problems. That is, teacher-rated externalizing problems negatively predicted child-rated closeness, and teacher-rated conflict positively predicted parent-rated externalizing problems. On the other hand, teacher-child relationship quality did not predict subsequent internalizing problems. However, parent-rated internalizing problems negatively predicted teacher-rated warmth, and teacher-rated internalizing problems negatively predicted teacher-rated conflict. Using a multiple informant approach and a diverse sample of Chinese American immigrant children, this study extends our knowledge of the reciprocal associations between teacher-child relationship quality and children's behavior problems. Based on the results of this study, the authors provide recommendations for educators and future research with this understudied population.

  19. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Learn About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  20. Errors by the American Psychiatric Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Educational, Association in representing homosexuality in amicus briefs about Amendment 2 to the U.S. Supreme Court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, P; Cameron, K; Landess, T

    1996-10-01

    In October 1995, consortiums of psychiatric and educational profes sional organizations, including the American Psychological Association and the American Psychiatric Association and the National Educational Association, submitted amicus briefs to the U.S. Supreme Court asserting that the scientific literature unequivocally supports the following propositions (a) that homosexuals, including homosexual teachers, do not disproportionately molest children, (b) that children of homosexual patients are not more likely to become homosexuals, (c) that professionals agree that homosexuality is not a pathology, and (d) that homosexual attractions are biologically or genetically predetermined and are therefore beyond the control of the individual. The first two contentions are inconsistent with the scientific literature, and the second two grossly oversimplify a contentious and uncertain literature.

  1. Association of social isolation and health across different racial and ethnic groups of older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Christina E

    2015-11-01

    Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57-85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health

  2. The Application of Strength of Association Statistics to the Item Analysis of an In-Training Examination in Diagnostic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, James J.; McCormick, Janet

    1986-01-01

    Using item responses from an in-training examination in diagnostic radiology, the application of a strength of association statistic to the general problem of item analysis is illustrated. Criteria for item selection, general issues of reliability, and error of measurement are discussed. (Author/LMO)

  3. Evaluation of the truncated perturbed chain-polar statistical associating fluid theory for complex mixture fluid phase equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakatsani, Eirini; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Economou, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    Perturbed chain-statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) was extended rigorously to polar fluids based on the theory of Stell and co-workers [Mol. Phys. 1977, 33, 987]. The new PC-PSAFT was simplified to truncated PC-PSAFT (tPC-PSAFT) so that it can be practical for real polar fluid...

  4. Implementation of a combined association-linkage model for quantitative traits in linear mixed model procedures of statistical packages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beem, A. Leo; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2006-01-01

    A transmission disequilibrium test for quantitative traits which combines association and linkage analyses is currently available in several dedicated software packages. We describe how to implement such models in linear mixed model procedures that are available in widely used statistical packages

  5. Prospective associations of coronary heart disease loci in African Americans using the MetaboChip : The PAGE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Franceschini (Nora); Hu, Y. (Yijuan); A. Reiner (Alexander); S. Buyske (Steven); M.A. Nalls (Michael); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); Y. Li (Yun); L.A. Hindorff (Lucia A); Cole, S.A. (Shelley A.); Howard, B.V. (Barbara V.); J.M. Stafford (Jeanette M.); C. Carty (Cara); P. Sethupathy (Praveen); Martin, L.W. (Lisa W.); D.Y. Lin (Dan); Johnson, K.C. (Karen C.); L.C. Becker (Lewis); K.E. North (Kari); A. Dehghan (Abbas); J.C. Bis (Joshua); Y. Liu (YongMei); P. Greenland (Philip); J.E. Manson (Joann); Maeda, N. (Nobuyo); M.E. Garcia (M.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); D.M. Becker (Diane); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); G. Heiss (Gerardo); C. Kooperberg (Charles); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in African Americans. However, there is a paucity of studies assessing genetic determinants of CHD in African Americans. We examined the association of published variants in CHD loci with incident CHD,

  6. An Analysis of Independent, Non-Academic Characteristics of Chinese and American Business Students Associated with Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.; Hignite, Michael A.; Moses, Duane R.

    2014-01-01

    In a continuation of their prior research which focused on the differences in Emotional Intelligence (EI) levels between Chinese and American business students and the academic variables associated with those scores, the authors extend their efforts to investigate those personal (non-academic) characteristics of both American and Chinese business…

  7. Nature and statistical properties of quasar associated absorption systems in the XQ-100 Legacy Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrotta, Serena; D'Odorico, Valentina; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    We statistically study the physical properties of a sample of narrow absorption line (NAL) systems looking for empirical evidences to distinguish between intrinsic and intervening NALs without taking into account any a priori definition or velocity cut-off. We analyze the spectra of 100 quasars...

  8. Healthy eating patterns associated with acculturation, sex and BMI among Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reininger, Belinda; Lee, MinJae; Jennings, Rose; Evans, Alexandra; Vidoni, Michelle

    2017-05-01

    Examine relationships of healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns with BMI, sex, age and acculturation among Mexican Americans. Cross-sectional. Participants completed culturally tailored Healthy and Unhealthy Eating Indices. Multivariable mixed-effect Poisson regression models compared food pattern index scores and dietary intake of specific foods by BMI, sex, age and acculturation defined by language preference and generational status. Participants recruited from the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort study, Texas-Mexico border region, between 2008 and 2011. Mexican-American males and females aged 18-97 years (n 1250). Participants were primarily female (55·3 %), overweight or obese (85·7 %), preferred Spanish language (68·0 %) and first-generation status (60·3 %). Among first-generation participants, bilingual participants were less likely to have a healthy eating pattern than preferred Spanish-speaking participants (rate ratio (RR)=0·79, P=0·0218). This association was also found in males (RR=0·81, P=0·0098). Preferred English-speaking females were less likely to consume healthy foods than preferred Spanish-speaking females (RR=0·84, P=0·0293). Among second-generation participants, preferred English-speaking participants were more likely to report a higher unhealthy eating pattern than preferred Spanish-speaking participants (RR=1·23, P=0·0114). Higher unhealthy eating patterns were also found in females who preferred English v. females who preferred Spanish (RR=1·23, P=0·0107) or were bilingual (RR=1·26, P=0·0159). Younger, male participants were more likely to have a higher unhealthy eating pattern. BMI and diabetes status were not significantly associated with healthy or unhealthy eating patterns. Acculturation, age, sex and education are associated with healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns. Nutrition interventions for Mexican Americans should tailor approaches by these characteristics.

  9. A genome-wide association study of hypertension and blood pressure in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebowale Adeyemo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The evidence for the existence of genetic susceptibility variants for the common form of hypertension ("essential hypertension" remains weak and inconsistent. We sought genetic variants underlying blood pressure (BP by conducting a genome-wide association study (GWAS among African Americans, a population group in the United States that is disproportionately affected by hypertension and associated complications, including stroke and kidney diseases. Using a dense panel of over 800,000 SNPs in a discovery sample of 1,017 African Americans from the Washington, D.C., metropolitan region, we identified multiple SNPs reaching genome-wide significance for systolic BP in or near the genes: PMS1, SLC24A4, YWHA7, IPO7, and CACANA1H. Two of these genes, SLC24A4 (a sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger and CACNA1H (a voltage-dependent calcium channel, are potential candidate genes for BP regulation and the latter is a drug target for a class of calcium channel blockers. No variant reached genome wide significance for association with diastolic BP (top scoring SNP rs1867226, p = 5.8 x 10(-7 or with hypertension as a binary trait (top scoring SNP rs9791170, p = 5.1 x 10(-7. We replicated some of the significant SNPs in a sample of West Africans. Pathway analysis revealed that genes harboring top-scoring variants cluster in pathways and networks of biologic relevance to hypertension and BP regulation. This is the first GWAS for hypertension and BP in an African American population. The findings suggests that, in addition to or in lieu of relying solely on replicated variants of moderate-to-large effect reaching genome-wide significance, pathway and network approaches may be useful in identifying and prioritizing candidate genes/loci for further experiments.

  10. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  11. Policing the social boundaries of the American Medical Association, 1847-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Douglas M

    2005-04-01

    In May 1870 the American Medical Association (AMA) voted to deny the admission of black delegates and their white colleagues to the national meeting in Washington, D.C. Historians of race and medicine have customarily viewed this decision as marking a crucial milestone in the formation of the nexus between racism and the development of the American medical profession in the era after the Civil War (1861-64). This study recasts this narrative by locating the 1870 decision in relation to the antebellum practices of the association and their social consequences for American medicine. It argues that the viability of the AMA as the national voice of the profession was critically dependent on rejecting racial equality. Indeed, at a moment when the question of the abolition of slavery polarized the nation, the AMA was founded in 1847 to create a voluntary professional organization, national in scope, dedicated to raising the standards of medical training and practice. To this end, the AMA elected presidents and selected host cities for annual meetings in the North, South, and West. Seven out of the fourteen meetings and six out of fourteen presidents were from slave and/or border states. These institutional practices together with the representation of blacks as different and enjoying an appropriate status as slaves grounded the national identity of the profession in black subordination. Similarly, the gendered discourses about healing and practices of female exclusion privileged medical authority as male by drawing on and reinforcing patriarchy. In the wake of the war, leaders hoped to restore the national character of the organization by resuming antebellum practices. In response to the new possibilities for blacks in medicine--as represented by the biracial National Medical Society--the AMA took steps to vigorously police the racial boundaries of the national profession. As this study will show, the 1870 decision reflected the logic of the racial politics at the heart

  12. 2017 American Heart Association Focused Update on Adult Basic Life Support and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Quality: An Update to the American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Monica E; Goldberger, Zachary D; Rea, Thomas; Swor, Robert A; Bobrow, Bentley J; Brennan, Erin E; Terry, Mark; Hemphill, Robin; Gazmuri, Raúl J; Hazinski, Mary Fran; Travers, Andrew H

    2018-01-02

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation is a lifesaving technique for victims of sudden cardiac arrest. Despite advances in resuscitation science, basic life support remains a critical factor in determining outcomes. The American Heart Association recommendations for adult basic life support incorporate the most recently published evidence and serve as the basis for education and training for laypeople and healthcare providers who perform cardiopulmonary resuscitation. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Collusion, torture, and inequality: Understanding the actions of the American Psychological Association as institutional betrayal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Jennifer M; Smith, Carly P; Gobin, Robyn L; Tang, Shin Shin; Freyd, Jennifer J

    2016-01-01

    The Hoffman Report (Hoffman et al., 2015) documented devastating information about the American Psychological Association (APA) and the profession of psychology in the United States, prompting a public apology and a formal commitment by APA to correct its mistakes (APA, 2015). In the current article, we utilize betrayal trauma theory (Freyd, 1997), including betrayal blindness (e.g., Freyd, 1996; Tang, 2015) and institutional betrayal (Smith & Freyd, 2014b), to understand and learn from APA's behaviors. We further situate this discussion in the context of inequality, both within APA and in American society generally. We detail how the impact of APA's institutional betrayals extended beyond the organization, its members, and the psychology profession, highlighting the potential for disproportionate harm to minorities, including those who were tortured; Muslims, Middle Easterners, Afghans, and non-Americans who were not tortured; and other minority individuals (Gómez, 2015d). Acknowledging, understanding, and addressing its institutional betrayals offers APA the opportunity to take meaningful corrective and preventive measures. We propose several institutional reparations, including making concrete changes with transparency and conducting self-assessments to inform further needed changes (Freyd & Birrell, 2013). By engaging in institutional courage, APA has the potential to grow into an ethical governing body that fulfills its mission to "advance the creation, communication and application of psychological knowledge to benefit society and improve people's lives" (APA, 2016).

  14. Significant Association of Urinary Toxic Metals and Autism-Related Symptoms-A Nonlinear Statistical Analysis with Cross Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James; Howsmon, Daniel P; Kruger, Uwe; Geis, Elizabeth; Gehn, Eva; Fimbres, Valeria; Pollard, Elena; Mitchell, Jessica; Ingram, Julie; Hellmers, Robert; Quig, David; Hahn, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    A number of previous studies examined a possible association of toxic metals and autism, and over half of those studies suggest that toxic metal levels are different in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Additionally, several studies found that those levels correlate with the severity of ASD. In order to further investigate these points, this paper performs the most detailed statistical analysis to date of a data set in this field. First morning urine samples were collected from 67 children and adults with ASD and 50 neurotypical controls of similar age and gender. The samples were analyzed to determine the levels of 10 urinary toxic metals (UTM). Autism-related symptoms were assessed with eleven behavioral measures. Statistical analysis was used to distinguish participants on the ASD spectrum and neurotypical participants based upon the UTM data alone. The analysis also included examining the association of autism severity with toxic metal excretion data using linear and nonlinear analysis. "Leave-one-out" cross-validation was used to ensure statistical independence of results. Average excretion levels of several toxic metals (lead, tin, thallium, antimony) were significantly higher in the ASD group. However, ASD classification using univariate statistics proved difficult due to large variability, but nonlinear multivariate statistical analysis significantly improved ASD classification with Type I/II errors of 15% and 18%, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the urinary toxic metal excretion profiles of participants in the ASD group were significantly different from those of the neurotypical participants. Similarly, nonlinear methods determined a significantly stronger association between the behavioral measures and toxic metal excretion. The association was strongest for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (including subscales on Irritability, Stereotypy, Hyperactivity, and Inappropriate Speech), but significant associations were found

  15. Significant Association of Urinary Toxic Metals and Autism-Related Symptoms—A Nonlinear Statistical Analysis with Cross Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James; Kruger, Uwe; Geis, Elizabeth; Gehn, Eva; Fimbres, Valeria; Pollard, Elena; Mitchell, Jessica; Ingram, Julie; Hellmers, Robert; Quig, David; Hahn, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A number of previous studies examined a possible association of toxic metals and autism, and over half of those studies suggest that toxic metal levels are different in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Additionally, several studies found that those levels correlate with the severity of ASD. Methods In order to further investigate these points, this paper performs the most detailed statistical analysis to date of a data set in this field. First morning urine samples were collected from 67 children and adults with ASD and 50 neurotypical controls of similar age and gender. The samples were analyzed to determine the levels of 10 urinary toxic metals (UTM). Autism-related symptoms were assessed with eleven behavioral measures. Statistical analysis was used to distinguish participants on the ASD spectrum and neurotypical participants based upon the UTM data alone. The analysis also included examining the association of autism severity with toxic metal excretion data using linear and nonlinear analysis. “Leave-one-out” cross-validation was used to ensure statistical independence of results. Results and Discussion Average excretion levels of several toxic metals (lead, tin, thallium, antimony) were significantly higher in the ASD group. However, ASD classification using univariate statistics proved difficult due to large variability, but nonlinear multivariate statistical analysis significantly improved ASD classification with Type I/II errors of 15% and 18%, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the urinary toxic metal excretion profiles of participants in the ASD group were significantly different from those of the neurotypical participants. Similarly, nonlinear methods determined a significantly stronger association between the behavioral measures and toxic metal excretion. The association was strongest for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (including subscales on Irritability, Stereotypy, Hyperactivity, and Inappropriate

  16. The Association between Subjective Memory Complaints and Sleep within Older African American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamaldo, Alyssa A; Wright, Regina S; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T; Allaire, Jason C; Thorpe, Roland J; Whitfield, Keith E

    2017-06-13

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the association between subjective memory complaints and sleep (quantity and quality) in African American older adults. Participants from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging (BSBA; n = 351; mean age = 71.99) completed a self-report sleep scale, subjective memory complaint scale, global cognitive status measure, and demographic questionnaire. Worse overall sleep quality was significantly associated with subjective reports of difficulty recalling the placement of objects, recalling specific facts from reading materials, and worse memory currently compared to the past. Specific sleep parameters (e.g., longer sleep latency and shorter sleep duration) were associated with negative appraisals of participants' ability to do specific tasks involving memory (e.g., difficulty recalling placement of objects). Participants classified as poor sleepers (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI] total score > 5) were more likely to report worse memory now compared to the past than participants classified as good sleepers (PSQI total score ≤ 5). Evaluation of sleep may be warranted when older adults, particularly African Americans, communicate concerns regarding their memory. Insufficient sleep may be a useful marker of acute daytime dysfunction and, perhaps, cognitive decline. Given memory problems are the hallmark of dementia, our findings support further evaluation of whether poor sleep can aid in the diagnosis of cognitive impairment. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Telemedicine Quality and Outcomes in Stroke: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsler, Lawrence R; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Schwamm, Lee H; Adeoye, Opeolu M; Audebert, Heinrich J; Fanale, Christopher V; Hess, David C; Majersik, Jennifer J; Nystrom, Karin V; Reeves, Mathew J; Rosamond, Wayne D; Switzer, Jeffrey A

    2017-01-01

    Telestroke is one of the most frequently used and rapidly expanding applications of telemedicine, delivering much-needed stroke expertise to hospitals and patients. This document reviews the current status of telestroke and suggests measures for ongoing quality and outcome monitoring to improve performance and to enhance delivery of care. A literature search was undertaken to examine the current status of telestroke and relevant quality indicators. The members of the writing committee contributed to the review of specific quality and outcome measures with specific suggestions for metrics in telestroke networks. The drafts were circulated and revised by all committee members, and suggestions were discussed for consensus. Models of telestroke and the role of telestroke in stroke systems of care are reviewed. A brief description of the science of quality monitoring and prior experience in quality measures for stroke is provided. Process measures, outcomes, tissue-type plasminogen activator use, patient and provider satisfaction, and telestroke technology are reviewed, and suggestions are provided for quality metrics. Additional topics include licensing, credentialing, training, and documentation. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Treatment and Outcome of Hemorrhagic Transformation After Intravenous Alteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghi, Shadi; Willey, Joshua Z; Cucchiara, Brett; Goldstein, Joshua N; Gonzales, Nicole R; Khatri, Pooja; Kim, Louis J; Mayer, Stephan A; Sheth, Kevin N; Schwamm, Lee H

    2017-12-01

    Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) is the most feared complication of intravenous thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke. Treatment of sICH is based on expert opinion and small case series, with the efficacy of such treatments not well established. This document aims to provide an overview of sICH with a focus on pathophysiology and treatment. A literature review was performed for randomized trials, prospective and retrospective studies, opinion papers, case series, and case reports on the definitions, epidemiology, risk factors, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcome of sICH. The document sections were divided among writing group members who performed the literature review, summarized the literature, and provided suggestions on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with sICH caused by systemic thrombolysis with alteplase. Several drafts were circulated among writing group members until a consensus was achieved. sICH is an uncommon but severe complication of systemic thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke. Prompt diagnosis and early correction of the coagulopathy after alteplase have remained the mainstay of treatment. Further research is required to establish treatments aimed at maintaining integrity of the blood-brain barrier in acute ischemic stroke based on inhibition of the underlying biochemical processes. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Homophobic Attitudes and Associated Factors Among Adolescents: A Comparison of Six Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; León, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Homophobic attitudes are still very common in the world, although there are large differences between countries. This study analyzed the responses of almost 30,000 8th- and 9th-grade students from six countries who participated in the Latin American component of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study. Higher levels of homophobia were found in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay than in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Homophobic attitudes were positively associated with being male, having lower levels of empathy, spending less time with friends and the media, having aggressive attitudes, and being more religious, in particular non-Catholic Christian.

  20. Multilevel Associations of Neighborhood Poverty, Crime, and Satisfaction With Blood Pressure in African-American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Alia, Kassandra A; Van Horn, M Lee

    2016-01-01

    African-American adults experience the highest rates of elevated blood pressure (BP), and this disparity may be linked to socioeconomic and neighborhood-related disadvantage. Based on a bioecological stress-buffering framework, relations of poverty and neighborhood environmental perceptions with BP were assessed using multilevel regression in at-risk African-American adults. This cross-sectional study used baseline data that were collected in 2008 as part of the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial (N = 409), a community-based intervention to increase walking in low-income, high-crime neighborhoods. BP and perceived neighborhood crime and satisfaction were investigated as individual-level indicators of health and neighborhood environment. Census block groups (N = 22) served as geographic proxies for neighborhoods, and poverty was obtained using 2010 U.S. Census data, to characterize the neighborhood-level socioeconomic environment. There were no individual-level direct associations. Significant cross-product interactions demonstrated that with higher perceived crime, high satisfaction was associated with lower systolic (γ = 3.34) and diastolic (γ = -1.37) BP, but low satisfaction was associated with higher systolic (γ = 15.12) and diastolic (γ = 7.57) BP. Neighborhood-level poverty was associated with diastolic (γ = 11.48, SE = 4.08, P = 0.008) and systolic BP (γ = 12.79, SE = 6.33, P = 0.052). Variance in BP across block groups was low (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.002-0.014) and there were no significant random effects. Results supported hypotheses, with greater neighborhood satisfaction linked to lower systolic and diastolic BP when perceived crime was high. Neighborhood poverty was also linked to higher systolic and diastolic BP. Prevention efforts should further investigate whether attending to issues of poverty and related neighborhood perceptions reduces high BP in at-risk African-American communities. © Published by Oxford

  1. Do the American Medical Association's campaign contributions influence health care legislation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, K R; Jones, W

    1986-08-01

    Despite the fact that ideology and party overshadow campaign contributions as determinants of congressional voting behavior, the thesis of this study is that the American Medical Association's contributions have an important policy impact. Their donations had a significant effect on an index of three votes in 1979 in the House of Representatives. The contributions of the AMA had more of an effect than did those of the AFL-CIO. The AMA's money was related to decision-making in the Ways and Means and Energy and Commerce Committees. While the medical lobby does not dominate health care policy, its power should not be underestimated.

  2. Workforce and Salary Survey Trends: Opportunities and Challenges for the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    The American Association of Medical Dosimetrists (AAMD) designed and directed 2 surveys of the AAMD membership. The first was in 2011 and the second in 2014. There were a number of questions common to both surveys, and this article seeks to evaluate these common questions to determine trends among the professional membership of the AAMD. It is demonstrated that the observed trends are consistent with the goals and objectives established by the leadership of the AAMD and the Medical Dosimetry Certification Board (MDCB) for the medical dosimetry community. In addition, certain challenges and opportunities involving the scope of practice for the medical dosimetry profession are discussed

  3. America: AGA [American Gas Association] initiative aims to boost gas demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, K.M.

    1992-01-01

    This article focuses on the aim of the American Gas Association to increase natural gas demand in the key areas of gas electric generation, natural gas vehicles, gas cooling, and conversion of oil burning facilities, electric water heaters and household appliances such as space heating, stoves, washers and lighting. The need to improve the reliability of natural gas supplies is discussed. It is anticipated that natural gas will not replace coal as the main energy source for power generation, but that it will help utilities to meet environmental regulations. (UK)

  4. Evaluating and Reporting Statistical Power in Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Sheperis, Carl J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite recommendations from the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (6th ed.) to include information on statistical power when publishing quantitative results, authors seldom include analysis or discussion of statistical power. The rationale for discussing statistical power is addressed, approaches to using "G*Power" to…

  5. An overview of recent developments in genomics and associated statistical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Peter J; Brown, James B; Huang, Haiyan; Li, Qunhua

    2009-11-13

    The landscape of genomics has changed drastically in the last two decades. Increasingly inexpensive sequencing has shifted the primary focus from the acquisition of biological sequences to the study of biological function. Assays have been developed to study many intricacies of biological systems, and publicly available databases have given rise to integrative analyses that combine information from many sources to draw complex conclusions. Such research was the focus of the recent workshop at the Isaac Newton Institute, 'High dimensional statistics in biology'. Many computational methods from modern genomics and related disciplines were presented and discussed. Using, as much as possible, the material from these talks, we give an overview of modern genomics: from the essential assays that make data-generation possible, to the statistical methods that yield meaningful inference. We point to current analytical challenges, where novel methods, or novel applications of extant methods, are presently needed.

  6. Statistical Association Criteria in Forensic Psychiatry–A criminological evaluation of casuistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, V; Buda, O; Popescu, I; Trandafir, MS

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Identification of potential shared primary psychoprophylaxis and crime prevention is measured by analyzing the rate of commitments for patients–subjects to forensic examination. Material and method. The statistic trial is a retrospective, document–based study. The statistical lot consists of 770 initial examination reports performed and completed during the whole year 2007, primarily analyzed in order to summarize the data within the National Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bucharest, Romania (INML), with one of the group variables being ‘particularities of the psychiatric patient history’, containing the items ‘forensic onset’, ‘commitments within the last year prior to the examination’ and ‘absence of commitments within the last year prior to the examination’. The method used was the Kendall bivariate correlation. For this study, the authors separately analyze only the two items regarding commitments by other correlation alternatives and by modern, elaborate statistical analyses, i.e. recording of the standard case study variables, Kendall bivariate correlation, cross tabulation, factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Results. The results are varied, from theoretically presumed clinical nosography (such as schizophrenia or manic depression), to non–presumed (conduct disorders) or unexpected behavioral acts, and therefore difficult to interpret. Conclusions. One took into consideration the features of the batch as well as the results of the previous standard correlation of the whole statistical lot. The authors emphasize the role of medical security measures that are actually applied in the therapeutic management in general and in risk and second offence management in particular, as well as the role of forensic psychiatric examinations in the detection of certain aspects related to the monitoring of mental patients. PMID:21505571

  7. Comments to guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism prepared by the American thyroid association task force on thyroid hormone replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Viktorovich Fadeev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the discussion about to guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism prepared by the American thyroid association task force on thyroid hormone replacement.

  8. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCAA, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70th anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world’s population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  9. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCAA, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70 th anniversary of Estadística , made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world's population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística , han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  10. Living near a freeway is associated with lower bone mineral density among Mexican Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Salam, M T; Karim, R; Toledo-Corral, C M; Watanabe, R M; Xiang, A H; Buchanan, T A; Habre, R; Bastain, T M; Lurmann, F; Taher, M; Wilson, J P; Trigo, E; Gilliland, F D

    2015-06-01

    We hypothesized that chronic exposures to traffic combustion products may lower bone mineral density (BMD). We found that proximity to freeways was associated with reduced BMD. Our findings suggest that traffic-related pollution may contribute to the occurrence of osteopenia and osteoporosis. Adults residing in rural areas have been linked with higher BMD. We aimed to determine if this difference is due in part to air pollution by examining the relationships between traffic metrics and ambient air pollution with total body and pelvic BMD. Mexican American adults (n = 1,175; mean 34 years; 72 % female) who had participated in the BetaGene study of air pollution, obesity, and insulin resistance were included in this analysis. Total body and pelvic BMD were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Traffic and ambient air pollutant exposures were estimated at residences using location and ambient monitoring data. Variance component models were used to analyze the associations between residential distance to the nearest freeway and ambient air pollutants with BMD. Residential proximity to a freeway was associated with lower total body BMD (p-trend = 0.01) and pelvic BMD (p-trend = 0.03) after adjustment for age, sex, weight, and height. The adjusted mean total body and pelvic BMD in participants living within 500 m of a freeway were 0.02 and 0.03 g/cm(2) lower than participants living greater than 1,500 m from a freeway. These associations did not differ significantly by age, sex, or obesity status. Results were similar after further adjustment for body fat and weekly physical activity minutes. Ambient air pollutants (NO2, O3, and PM2.5) were not significantly associated with BMD. Traffic-related exposures in overweight and obese Mexican Americans may adversely affect BMD. Our findings indicate that long-term exposures to traffic may contribute to the occurrence of osteoporosis and its consequences.

  11. Rheumatoid arthritis in Latin Americans enriched for Amerindian ancestry is associated with loci in chromosomes 1, 12, and 13, and the HLA class II region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Herráez, David; Martínez-Bueno, Manuel; Riba, Laura; García de la Torre, Ignacio; Sacnún, Mónica; Goñi, Mario; Berbotto, Guillermo A; Paira, Sergio; Musuruana, Jorge Luis; Graf, César E; Alvarellos, Alejandro J; Messina, Osvaldo D; Babini, Alejandra M; Strusberg, Ingrid; Marcos, Juan Carlos; Scherbarth, Hugo; Spindler, Alberto J; Quinteros, Ana; Toloza, Sergio M A; Moreno, José Luis C; Catoggio, Luis J; Tate, Guillermo; Eimon, Alicia; Citera, Gustavo; Catalán Pellet, Antonio; Nasswetter, Gustavo G; Cardiel, Mario H; Miranda, Pedro; Ballesteros, Francisco; Esquivel-Valerio, Jorge A; Maradiaga-Ceceña, Marco A; Acevedo-Vásquez, Eduardo M; García García, Conrado; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E

    2013-06-01

    To identify susceptibility loci for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Latin American individuals with admixed European and Amerindian genetic ancestry. Genotyping was performed in 1,475 patients with RA and 1,213 control subjects, using a customized BeadArray containing 196,524 markers covering loci previously associated with various autoimmune diseases. Principal components analysis (EigenSoft package) and Structure software were used to identify outliers and define the population substructure. REAP software was used to define cryptic relatedness and duplicates, and genetic association analyses were conducted using Plink statistical software. A strong genetic association between RA and the major histocompatibility complex region was observed, localized within BTNL2/DRA-DQB1- DQA2 (P = 7.6 × 10(-10) ), with 3 independent effects. We identified an association in the PLCH2-HES5-TNFRSF14-MMEL1 region of chromosome 1 (P = 9.77 × 10(-6) ), which was previously reported in Europeans, Asians, and Native Canadians. We identified one novel putative association in ENOX1 on chromosome 13 (P = 3.24 × 10(-7) ). Previously reported associations were observed in the current study, including PTPN22, SPRED2, STAT4, IRF5, CCL21, and IL2RA, although the significance was relatively moderate. Adjustment for Amerindian ancestry improved the association of a novel locus in chromosome 12 at C12orf30 (NAA25) (P = 3.9 × 10(-6) ). Associations with the HLA region, SPRED2, and PTPN22 improved in individuals positive for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies. Our data define, for the first time, the contribution of Amerindian ancestry to the genetic architecture of RA in an admixed Latin American population by confirming the role of the HLA region and supporting the association with a locus in chromosome 1. In addition, we provide data for novel putative loci in chromosomes 12 and 13. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  12. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Adults and Children With Mechanical Circulatory Support: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peberdy, Mary Ann; Gluck, Jason A; Ornato, Joseph P; Bermudez, Christian A; Griffin, Russell E; Kasirajan, Vigneshwar; Kerber, Richard E; Lewis, Eldrin F; Link, Mark S; Miller, Corinne; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J; Thiagarajan, Ravi; Weiss, Robert M; O'Neil, Brian

    2017-06-13

    Cardiac arrest in patients on mechanical support is a new phenomenon brought about by the increased use of this therapy in patients with end-stage heart failure. This American Heart Association scientific statement highlights the recognition and treatment of cardiovascular collapse or cardiopulmonary arrest in an adult or pediatric patient who has a ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. Specific, expert consensus recommendations are provided for the role of external chest compressions in such patients. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of fetal cardiac disease: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donofrio, Mary T; Moon-Grady, Anita J; Hornberger, Lisa K; Copel, Joshua A; Sklansky, Mark S; Abuhamad, Alfred; Cuneo, Bettina F; Huhta, James C; Jonas, Richard A; Krishnan, Anita; Lacey, Stephanie; Lee, Wesley; Michelfelder, Erik C; Rempel, Gwen R; Silverman, Norman H; Spray, Thomas L; Strasburger, Janette F; Tworetzky, Wayne; Rychik, Jack

    2014-05-27

    The goal of this statement is to review available literature and to put forth a scientific statement on the current practice of fetal cardiac medicine, including the diagnosis and management of fetal cardiovascular disease. A writing group appointed by the American Heart Association reviewed the available literature pertaining to topics relevant to fetal cardiac medicine, including the diagnosis of congenital heart disease and arrhythmias, assessment of cardiac function and the cardiovascular system, and available treatment options. The American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association classification of recommendations and level of evidence for practice guidelines were applied to the current practice of fetal cardiac medicine. Recommendations relating to the specifics of fetal diagnosis, including the timing of referral for study, indications for referral, and experience suggested for performance and interpretation of studies, are presented. The components of a fetal echocardiogram are described in detail, including descriptions of the assessment of cardiac anatomy, cardiac function, and rhythm. Complementary modalities for fetal cardiac assessment are reviewed, including the use of advanced ultrasound techniques, fetal magnetic resonance imaging, and fetal magnetocardiography and electrocardiography for rhythm assessment. Models for parental counseling and a discussion of parental stress and depression assessments are reviewed. Available fetal therapies, including medical management for arrhythmias or heart failure and closed or open intervention for diseases affecting the cardiovascular system such as twin-twin transfusion syndrome, lung masses, and vascular tumors, are highlighted. Catheter-based intervention strategies to prevent the progression of disease in utero are also discussed. Recommendations for delivery planning strategies for fetuses with congenital heart disease including models based on classification of disease severity and delivery room

  14. American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 263: Standardizing Nomenclatures in Radiation Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Charles S; Moran, Jean M; Bosch, Walter; Xiao, Ying; McNutt, Todd; Popple, Richard; Michalski, Jeff; Feng, Mary; Marks, Lawrence B; Fuller, Clifton D; Yorke, Ellen; Palta, Jatinder; Gabriel, Peter E; Molineu, Andrea; Matuszak, Martha M; Covington, Elizabeth; Masi, Kathryn; Richardson, Susan L; Ritter, Timothy; Morgas, Tomasz; Flampouri, Stella; Santanam, Lakshmi; Moore, Joseph A; Purdie, Thomas G; Miller, Robert C; Hurkmans, Coen; Adams, Judy; Jackie Wu, Qing-Rong; Fox, Colleen J; Siochi, Ramon Alfredo; Brown, Norman L; Verbakel, Wilko; Archambault, Yves; Chmura, Steven J; Dekker, Andre L; Eagle, Don G; Fitzgerald, Thomas J; Hong, Theodore; Kapoor, Rishabh; Lansing, Beth; Jolly, Shruti; Napolitano, Mary E; Percy, James; Rose, Mark S; Siddiqui, Salim; Schadt, Christof; Simon, William E; Straube, William L; St James, Sara T; Ulin, Kenneth; Yom, Sue S; Yock, Torunn I

    2018-03-15

    A substantial barrier to the single- and multi-institutional aggregation of data to supporting clinical trials, practice quality improvement efforts, and development of big data analytics resource systems is the lack of standardized nomenclatures for expressing dosimetric data. To address this issue, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group 263 was charged with providing nomenclature guidelines and values in radiation oncology for use in clinical trials, data-pooling initiatives, population-based studies, and routine clinical care by standardizing: (1) structure names across image processing and treatment planning system platforms; (2) nomenclature for dosimetric data (eg, dose-volume histogram [DVH]-based metrics); (3) templates for clinical trial groups and users of an initial subset of software platforms to facilitate adoption of the standards; (4) formalism for nomenclature schema, which can accommodate the addition of other structures defined in the future. A multisociety, multidisciplinary, multinational group of 57 members representing stake holders ranging from large academic centers to community clinics and vendors was assembled, including physicists, physicians, dosimetrists, and vendors. The stakeholder groups represented in the membership included the AAPM, American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO), NRG Oncology, European Society for Radiation Oncology (ESTRO), Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG), Children's Oncology Group (COG), Integrating Healthcare Enterprise in Radiation Oncology (IHE-RO), and Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine working group (DICOM WG); A nomenclature system for target and organ at risk volumes and DVH nomenclature was developed and piloted to demonstrate viability across a range of clinics and within the framework of clinical trials. The final report was approved by AAPM in October 2017. The approval process included review by 8 AAPM committees, with additional review by ASTRO

  15. Health seeking behavioral analysis associated with breast cancer screening among Asian American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast

  16. A Season of American Football Is Not Associated with Changes in Plasma Tau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Jonathan M; Jones, Margaret T; Anzalone, Anthony J; Kirk, K Michele; Gable, David A; Repshas, Justin T; Johnson, Torie A; Höglund, Kina; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik

    2017-12-01

    American football athletes are routinely exposed to sub-concussive impacts over the course of the season. This study sought to examine the effect of a season of American football on plasma tau, a potential marker of axonal damage. Nineteen National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) football athletes underwent serial blood sampling over the course of the 2014-2015 season at those times in which the number and magnitude of head impacts likely changed. Non-contact sport controls (NCAA men's swim athletes; n = 19) provided a single plasma sample for comparison. No significant differences were observed between control swim athletes and football athletes following a period of non-contact (p = 0.569) or a period of contact (p = 0.076). Football athletes categorized as starters (n = 11) had higher tau concentrations than non-starters (n = 8) following a period of non-contact (p = 0.039) and contact (p = 0.036), but not higher than swimmers (p = 1.000 and p = 1.000, respectively). No difference was noted over the course of the season in football athletes, irrespective of starter status. Despite routine head impacts common to the sport of American football, no changes were observed over the course of the season in football athletes, irrespective of starter status. Further, no difference was observed between football athletes and non-contact control swim athletes following a period of non-contact or contact. These data suggest that plasma tau is not sensitive enough to detect damage associated with repetitive sub-concussive impacts sustained by collegiate-level football athletes.

  17. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition and lifestyle for a healthy pregnancy outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Lucia; Allen, Lindsay H

    2008-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that women of child-bearing ages should maintain good nutritional status through a lifestyle that optimizes maternal health and reduces the risk of birth defects, suboptimal fetal growth and development, and chronic health problems in their children. The key components of a health-promoting lifestyle during pregnancy include appropriate weight gain; appropriate physical activity; consumption of a variety of foods in accordance with the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005; appropriate and timely vitamin and mineral supplementation; avoidance of alcohol, tobacco, and other harmful substances; and safe food handling. Pregnant women with inappropriate weight gain, hyperemesis, poor dietary patterns, phenylketonuria, certain chronic health problems, or a history of substance abuse should be referred to a registered dietitian for medical nutrition therapy. Prenatal weight gain within the Institute of Medicine recommended ranges has been associated with better pregnancy outcomes. Most pregnant women need 2,200 to 2,900 kcal a day, but prepregnancy body mass index, rate of weight gain, maternal age, and appetite must be considered when tailoring this recommendation to the individual. The consumption of more food to meet energy needs, and the increased absorption and efficiency of nutrient utilization that occurs in pregnancy, are generally adequate to meet the needs for most nutrients. However, vitamin and mineral supplementation is appropriate for some nutrients and situations. This position paper also includes recommendations pertaining to use of alcohol, tobacco, caffeine, and illicit drugs.

  18. Albinism in the American mink (Neovison vison) is associated with a tyrosinase nonsense mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anistoroaei, R; Fredholm, M; Christensen, K; Leeb, T

    2008-12-01

    Albino phenotypes are documented in various species including the American mink. In other species the albino phenotypes are associated with tyrosinase (TYR) gene mutations; therefore TYR was considered the candidate gene for albinism in mink. Four microsatellite markers were chosen in the predicted region of the TYR gene. Genotypes at the markers Mvi6025 and Mvi6034 were found to be associated with the albino phenotype within an extended half-sib family. A BAC clone containing Mvi6034 was mapped to chromosome 7q1.1-q1.3 by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Subsequent analysis of genomic TYR sequences from wild-type and albino mink samples identified a nonsense mutation in exon 1, which converts a TGT codon encoding cysteine to a TGA stop codon (c.138T>A, p.C46X; EU627590). The mutation truncates more than 90% of the normal gene product including the putative catalytic domains. The results indicate that the nonsense mutation is responsible for the albino phenotype in the American mink.

  19. State Anxiety Is Associated with Cardiovascular Reactivity in Young, Healthy African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildred A. Pointer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies have shown that enhanced cardiovascular reactivity can predict hypertension development in African Americans, these findings have not been consistent among all studies examining reactivity and hypertension susceptibility. This inconsistency may be explained by the influence of anxiety (state and trait on the blood pressure response to stress. Therefore, this study sought to determine whether anxiety is associated with blood pressure response to cold pressor (CP and anger recall (AR stress tests in young healthy African Americans. Modeling using state and trait anxiety revealed that state anxiety predicts systolic (SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP response to CP and AR (P≤0.02. Interestingly, state anxiety predicted heart rate changes only to CP (P<0.01; P=0.3 for AR. Although trait anxiety was associated with SBP response to AR and not CP, it was not a significant predictor of reactivity in our models. We conclude that anxiety levels may contribute to the variable blood pressure response to acute stressors and, therefore, should be assessed when performing cardiovascular reactivity measures.

  20. Assessing the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses' Progress on the Institute of Medicine Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lori Kennedy; Hundley, Lynn; Summers, Debbie; Villanueva, Nancy; Walter, Suzy Mascaro

    2017-06-01

    The American Association of Neuroscience Nurses (AANN) has worked toward meeting the challenges and addressing the key messages from the 2010 Institute of Medicine report on the future of nursing. In 2012, AANN developed an article summarizing how the association has addressed key issues. Since that time, new recommendations have been made to advance nursing, and AANN has updated its strategic plan. The AANN has assessed organizational progress in these initiatives in a 2017 white paper. This process included review of plans since the initial report and proposal of further efforts the organization can make in shaping the future of neuroscience nursing. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide an overview of the AANN white paper.

  1. Statistical analysis of accident data associated with sea transport (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffestin, D.; Armingaud, F.; Schneider, T.; Delaigue, S.

    1998-01-01

    This analysis, based on Lloyd's database, gives an accurate description of the world fleet and the most severe ship accidents, as well as the frequencies of accident per ship type, accident category and age category. Complementary analyses were achieved using fire accident databases from AEA Technology and the French Bureau Veritas. The results should be used in the perspective of safety assessments of maritime shipments of radioactive material. For this purpose the existence of the regulations of the International Maritime Organisation has to be considered, leading to the introduction of correction factors to these statistical data derived from general cargo-carrying ships. (author)

  2. Statistical analysis of accident data associated with sea transport (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffestin, D.; Armingaud, F.; Schneider, T.; Delaigue, S

    1998-07-01

    This analysis, based on Lloyd's database, gives an accurate description of the world fleet and the most severe ship accidents, as well as the frequencies of accident per ship type, accident category and age category. Complementary analyses were achieved using fire accident databases from AEA Technology and the French Bureau Veritas. The results should be used in the perspective of safety assessments of maritime shipments of radioactive material. For this purpose the existence of the regulations of the International Maritime Organisation has to be considered, leading to the introduction of correction factors to these statistical data derived from general cargo-carrying ships. (author)

  3. Statistics in the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Martin T; Wells, Martin T

    2001-01-01

    Exactly what is the state of the art in statistics as we move forward into the 21st century? What promises, what trends does its future hold? Through the reflections of 70 of the world's leading statistical methodologists, researchers, theorists, and practitioners, Statistics in the 21st Century answers those questions. Originally published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, this collection of vignettes examines our statistical past, comments on our present, and speculates on our future. Although the coverage is broad and the topics diverse, it reveals the essential intell

  4. Statistical associations between radiation exposure and the clinical examination data of Japanese radiology technicians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka; Aoyama, Takashi; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki; Yamamoto, Yoichi.

    1995-01-01

    The associations between occupational irradiation, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and clinical examination data were investigated in Japanese male radiology technicians. The number of investigated examination items was 35, including 29 biochemical serum test, four hematological tests and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The associations with each factor were evaluated using the multiple linear regression model. As single factors, radiation associated with urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, monoamine oxidase and leukocyte count (four items), smoking associated with albumin-globulin index, zinc sulfate turbidity test, urea nitrogen, creatinine, neutral fat, amylase, serum iron, leukocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit (10 items), and drinking associated with creatinine, uric acid, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, leucine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and erythrocyte count (six items). As synergistic factors, the combination of radiation and smoking associated with nine items, radiation and drinking 10 items, smoking and drinking four items, and radiation, smoking and drinking two items. These results suggested that the number of items which radiation associated as single-factor were less than that of smoking and of drinking, however suggested that associations between radiation and examination data was synergistic when combined with smoking or drinking. (author)

  5. Statistical associations between radiation exposure and the clinical examination data of Japanese radiology technicians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Aoyama, Takashi; Sugahara, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Tetsuaki; Yamamoto, Yoichi

    1995-06-01

    The associations between occupational irradiation, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and clinical examination data were investigated in Japanese male radiology technicians. The number of investigated examination items was 35, including 29 biochemical serum test, four hematological tests and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The associations with each factor were evaluated using the multiple linear regression model. As single factors, radiation associated with urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, monoamine oxidase and leukocyte count (four items), smoking associated with albumin-globulin index, zinc sulfate turbidity test, urea nitrogen, creatinine, neutral fat, amylase, serum iron, leukocyte count, hemoglobin and hematocrit (10 items), and drinking associated with creatinine, uric acid, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, leucine aminopeptidase, alkaline phosphatase and erythrocyte count (six items). As synergistic factors, the combination of radiation and smoking associated with nine items, radiation and drinking 10 items, smoking and drinking four items, and radiation, smoking and drinking two items. These results suggested that the number of items which radiation associated as single-factor were less than that of smoking and of drinking, however suggested that associations between radiation and examination data was synergistic when combined with smoking or drinking. (author).

  6. Living near a Freeway is Associated with Lower Bone Mineral Density among Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T.; Karim, Roksana; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Xiang, Anny H.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Habre, Rima; Bastain, Theresa M.; Lurmann, Fred; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John P.; Trigo, Enrique; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adults residing in rural areas have been linked with higher bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to determine if this difference is due in part to air pollution by examining the relationships between traffic metrics and ambient air pollution with total body and pelvic BMD. Methods Mexican-American adults (n=1,175; mean 34 years; 72% female) who had participated in the BetaGene study of air pollution, obesity and insulin resistance were included in this analysis. Total body and pelvic BMD were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Traffic and ambient air pollutant exposures were estimated at residences using location and ambient monitoring data. Variance component models were used to analyze the associations between residential distance to the nearest freeway and ambient air pollutants with BMD. Results Residential proximity to a freeway was associated with lower total body BMD (p-trend=0.01) and pelvic BMD (p-trend=0.03) after adjustment for age, sex, weight and height. The adjusted mean total body and pelvic BMD in participants living within 500m of a freeway were 0.02 g/cm2 and 0.03 g/cm2 lower than participants living greater than 1,500m from a freeway. These associations did not differ significantly by age, sex or obesity status. Results were similar after further adjustment for body fat and weekly physical activity minutes. Ambient air pollutants (NO2, O3 and PM2.5) were not significantly associated with BMD. Conclusions Traffic-related exposures in overweight and obese Mexican-Americans may adversely affect BMD. Our findings indicate that long-term exposures to traffic may contribute to the occurrence of osteoporosis and its consequences. PMID:25677718

  7. American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7: Avoiding Heart Failure and Preserving Cardiac Structure and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folsom, Aaron R; Shah, Amil M; Lutsey, Pamela L; Roetker, Nicholas S; Alonso, Alvaro; Avery, Christy L; Miedema, Michael D; Konety, Suma; Chang, Patricia P; Solomon, Scott D

    2015-09-01

    Many people may underappreciate the role of lifestyle in avoiding heart failure. We estimated whether greater adherence in middle age to American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 guidelines—on smoking, body mass, physical activity, diet, cholesterol, blood pressure, and glucose—is associated with lower lifetime risk of heart failure and greater preservation of cardiac structure and function in old age. We studied the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study cohort of 13,462 adults ages 45-64 years in 1987-1989. From the 1987-1989 risk factor measurements, we created a Life's Simple 7 score (range 0-14, giving 2 points for ideal, 1 point for intermediate, and 0 points for poor components). We identified 2218 incident heart failure events using surveillance of hospital discharge and death codes through 2011. In addition, in 4855 participants free of clinical cardiovascular disease in 2011-2013, we performed echocardiography from which we quantified left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction. One in four participants (25.5%) developed heart failure through age 85 years. Yet, this lifetime heart failure risk was 14.4% for those with a middle-age Life's Simple 7 score of 10-14 (optimal), 26.8% for a score of 5-9 (average), and 48.6% for a score of 0-4 (inadequate). Among those with no clinical cardiovascular event, the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy in late life was approximately 40% as common, and diastolic dysfunction was approximately 60% as common, among those with an optimal middle-age Life's Simple 7 score, compared with an inadequate score. Greater achievement of American Heart Association's Life's Simple 7 in middle age is associated with a lower lifetime occurrence of heart failure and greater preservation of cardiac structure and function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Phylogenetic analysis of algal symbionts associated with four North American amphibian egg masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunsoo; Lin, Yuan; Kerney, Ryan; Blumenberg, Lili; Bishop, Cory

    2014-01-01

    Egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum form an association with the green alga "Oophila amblystomatis" (Lambert ex Wille), which, in addition to growing within individual egg capsules, has recently been reported to invade embryonic tissues and cells. The binomial O. amblystomatis refers to the algae that occur in A. maculatum egg capsules, but it is unknown whether this population of symbionts constitutes one or several different algal taxa. Moreover, it is unknown whether egg masses across the geographic range of A. maculatum, or other amphibians, associate with one or multiple algal taxa. To address these questions, we conducted a phylogeographic study of algae sampled from egg capsules of A. maculatum, its allopatric congener A. gracile, and two frogs: Lithobates sylvatica and L. aurora. All of these North American amphibians form associations with algae in their egg capsules. We sampled algae from egg capsules of these four amphibians from localities across North America, established representative algal cultures, and amplified and sequenced a region of 18S rDNA for phylogenetic analysis. Our combined analysis shows that symbiotic algae found in egg masses of four North American amphibians are closely related to each other, and form a well-supported clade that also contains three strains of free-living chlamydomonads. We designate this group as the 'Oophila' clade, within which the symbiotic algae are further divided into four distinct subclades. Phylogenies of the host amphibians and their algal symbionts are only partially congruent, suggesting that host-switching and co-speciation both play roles in their associations. We also established conditions for isolating and rearing algal symbionts from amphibian egg capsules, which should facilitate further study of these egg mass specialist algae.

  9. Phylogenetic analysis of algal symbionts associated with four North American amphibian egg masses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsoo Kim

    Full Text Available Egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum form an association with the green alga "Oophila amblystomatis" (Lambert ex Wille, which, in addition to growing within individual egg capsules, has recently been reported to invade embryonic tissues and cells. The binomial O. amblystomatis refers to the algae that occur in A. maculatum egg capsules, but it is unknown whether this population of symbionts constitutes one or several different algal taxa. Moreover, it is unknown whether egg masses across the geographic range of A. maculatum, or other amphibians, associate with one or multiple algal taxa. To address these questions, we conducted a phylogeographic study of algae sampled from egg capsules of A. maculatum, its allopatric congener A. gracile, and two frogs: Lithobates sylvatica and L. aurora. All of these North American amphibians form associations with algae in their egg capsules. We sampled algae from egg capsules of these four amphibians from localities across North America, established representative algal cultures, and amplified and sequenced a region of 18S rDNA for phylogenetic analysis. Our combined analysis shows that symbiotic algae found in egg masses of four North American amphibians are closely related to each other, and form a well-supported clade that also contains three strains of free-living chlamydomonads. We designate this group as the 'Oophila' clade, within which the symbiotic algae are further divided into four distinct subclades. Phylogenies of the host amphibians and their algal symbionts are only partially congruent, suggesting that host-switching and co-speciation both play roles in their associations. We also established conditions for isolating and rearing algal symbionts from amphibian egg capsules, which should facilitate further study of these egg mass specialist algae.

  10. American Spinal Injury Association A (sensory and motor complete) is not different from American Spinal Injury Association B (sensory incomplete, motor complete) in gunshot-related spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Eric; Eftekhary, Nima; Nwosu, Kenneth; Fukunaga, Dudley; Liu, Charles; Rolfe, Kevin

    2017-12-01

    We receive a large number of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) due to penetrating gunshot wounds (GSW) at our national rehabilitation center. Although many patients are labeled American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) B sensory incomplete because of sensory sparing, especially deep anal pressure, with purported prognostic value, we have not observed a clinical difference from patients labeled ASIA A complete. We hypothesized that sensory sparing, if meaningful, should reduce the occurrence of pressure ulcers. To determine if ASIA classifications A and B are important distinctions for patients with SCIs secondary to civilian gunshot wounds. A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients with civilian gunshot-induced SCI transferred to Rancho Los Amigos Rehabilitation Center between 1999 and 2014. Outcome measures were occurrence of pressure ulcers and surgical intervention for pressure ulcers. We included a total of 487 patients who sustained civilian gunshot wounds to the spine and were provided care at Rancho Los Amigos Rehabilitation Center from 2001 to 2014. Occurrence of pressure ulcers and surgical intervention for pressure ulcers among patients who suffered civilian-induced gunshot wounds to the spine. Retrospective chart review identified 487 SCIs due to gunshot wounds that were treated at Rancho Los Amigos from 2001 to 2014. Injury characteristics including ASIA classification, pressure ulcers, and pressure ulcer surgeries were recorded. Comprehensive surgical data were obtained for all patients. Chart reviews and telephone interviews were performed to determine the occurrence of any pressure ulcers and pressure ulcer surgeries. Statistical analysis was performed to compare data by spinal region and ASIA grade. There were no conflicts of interest from any of the authors, and there was no funding obtained for this study. There was no statistical difference for cervical ASIA A versus ASIA B for the occurrence of pressure ulcers or the

  11. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  12. Global DNA methylation loss associated with mercury contamination and aging in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Frances M; Parrott, Benjamin B; Bowden, John A; Kassim, Brittany L; Somerville, Stephen E; Bryan, Teresa A; Bryan, Colleen E; Lange, Ted R; Delaney, J Patrick; Brunell, Arnold M; Long, Stephen E; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-03-01

    Mercury is a widespread environmental contaminant with exposures eliciting a well-documented catalog of adverse effects. Yet, knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms by which mercury exposures are translated into biological effects remains incomplete. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is sensitive to environmental cues, and alterations in DNA methylation at the global level are associated with a variety of diseases. Using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS/MS) approach, global DNA methylation levels were measured in red blood cells of 144 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from 6 sites with variable levels of mercury contamination across Florida's north-south axis. Variation in mercury concentrations measured in whole blood was highly associated with location, allowing the comparison of global DNA methylation levels across different "treatments" of mercury. Global DNA methylation in alligators across all locations was weakly associated with increased mercury exposure. However, a much more robust relationship was observed in those animals sampled from locations more highly contaminated with mercury. Also, similar to other vertebrates, global DNA methylation appears to decline with age in alligators. The relationship between age-associated loss of global DNA methylation and varying mercury exposures was examined to reveal a potential interaction. These findings demonstrate that global DNA methylation levels are associated with mercury exposure, and give insights into interactions between contaminants, aging, and epigenetics. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Association between anxiety and severe quality-of-life impairment in postmenopausal women: analysis of a multicenter Latin American cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Pizarro, Jorge L; González-Luna, Alejandro; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Blümel, Juan E; Barón, Germán; Bencosme, Ascanio; Benítez, Zully; Bravo, Luz M; Calle, Andrés; Flores, Daniel; Espinoza, María T; Gómez, Gustavo; Hernández-Bueno, José A; Martino, Mabel; Lima, Selva; Monterrosa, Alvaro; Mostajo, Desiree; Ojeda, Eliana; Onatra, William; Sánchez, Hugo; Tserotas, Konstantinos; Vallejo, María S; Witis, Silvina; Zúñiga, María C; Chedraui, Peter

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate associations between anxiety and severe impairment of quality of life (QoL) in Latin American postmenopausal women. This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter cross-sectional study among postmenopausal women aged 40 to 59 from 11 Latin American countries. We evaluated anxiety (The Goldberg Depression and Anxiety Scale), and QoL (Menopause Rating Scale [MRS]), and included sociodemographic, clinical, lifestyle, and anthropometric variables in the analysis. Poisson family generalized linear models with robust standard errors were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs. There were two adjusted models: a statistical model that included variables associated with the outcomes in bivariate analyses, and an epidemiologic model that included potentially confounding variables from literature review. Data from 3,503 women were included; 61.9% had anxiety (Goldberg). Severe QoL impairment (total MRS score ≥17) was present in 13.7% of women, as well as severe symptoms (MRS subscales): urogenital (25.5%), psychological (18.5%), and somatic (4.5%). Anxiety was independently associated with severe QoL impairment and severe symptoms in the epidemiological (MRS total score: PR 3.6, 95% CI, 2.6-5.0; somatic: 5.1, 95% CI, 2.6-10.1; psychological: 2.8, 95% CI, 2.2-3.6; and urogenital: 1.4, 95% CI, 1.2-1.6) and the statistical model (MRS total score: PR 3.5, 95% CI, 2.6-4.9; somatic: 5.0, 95% CI, 2.5-9.9; psychological: 2.9, 95% CI, 2.2-3.7; and urogenital: 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6). In this postmenopausal Latin American sample, anxiety was independently associated with severe QoL impairment. Hence, screening for anxiety in this population is important.

  14. Conflict of interest and professional medical associations: the North American Spine Society experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofferman, Jerome A; Eskay-Auerbach, Marjorie L; Sawyer, Laura S; Herring, Stanley A; Arnold, Paul M; Muehlbauer, Eric J

    2013-08-01

    Recently the financial relationships between industry and professional medical associations have come under increased scrutiny because of the concern that industry ties may create real or perceived conflicts of interest. Professional medical associations pursue public advocacy as well as promote medical education, develop clinical practice guidelines, fund research, and regulate professional conduct. Therefore, the conflicts of interest of a professional medical association and its leadership can have more far-reaching effects on patient care than those of an individual physician. Few if any professional medical associations have reported their experience with implementing strict divestment and disclosure policies, and among the policies that have been issued, there is little uniformity. We describe the experience of the North American Spine Society (NASS) in implementing comprehensive conflicts of interest policies. A special feature article. We discuss financial conflicts of interest as they apply to professional medical associations rather than to individual physicians. We describe the current policies of disclosure and divestment adopted by the NASS and how these policies have evolved, been refined, and have had no detrimental impact on membership, attendance at annual meetings, finances, or leadership recruitment. No funding was received for this work. The authors report no potential conflict-of-interest-associated biases in the text. The NASS has shown that a professional medical association can manage its financial relationships with industry in a manner that minimizes influence and bias. The NASS experience can provide a template for other professional medical associations to help manage their own possible conflicts of interest issues. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genetic associations in the vitamin D receptor and colorectal cancer in African Americans and Caucasians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia S Kupfer

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC and higher mortality from the disease. In the US, African Americans (AAs have the highest CRC incidence and mortality and the lowest levels of vitamin D. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the vitamin D receptor (VDR gene have been previously associated with CRC, but few studies have included AAs. We studied 795 AA CRC cases and 985 AA controls from Chicago and North Carolina as well as 1324 Caucasian cases and 990 Caucasian controls from Chicago and Spain. We genotyped 54 tagSNPs in VDR (46586959 to 46521297 Mb and tested for association adjusting for West African ancestry, age, gender, and multiple testing. Untyped markers were imputed using MACH1.0. We analyzed associations by gender and anatomic location in the whole study group as well as by vitamin D intake in the North Carolina AA group. In the joint analysis, none of the SNPs tested was significantly associated with CRC. For four previously tested restriction fragment length polymorphisms, only one (referred to as ApaI, tagged by the SNP rs79628898, had a nominally significant p-value in AAs; none of these polymorphisms were associated with CRC in Caucasians. In the North Carolina AAs, for whom we had vitamin D intake data, we found a significant association between an intronic SNP rs11574041 and vitamin D intake, which is evidence for a VDR gene-environment interaction in AAs. In summary, using a systematic tagSNP approach, we have not found evidence for significant associations between VDR and CRC in AAs or Caucasians.

  16. Genetic associations in the vitamin D receptor and colorectal cancer in African Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupfer, Sonia S; Anderson, Jeffrey R; Ludvik, Anton E; Hooker, Stanley; Skol, Andrew; Kittles, Rick A; Keku, Temitope O; Sandler, Robert S; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Castells, Antoni; Carracedo, Angel; Ellis, Nathan A

    2011-01-01

    Low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) and higher mortality from the disease. In the US, African Americans (AAs) have the highest CRC incidence and mortality and the lowest levels of vitamin D. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been previously associated with CRC, but few studies have included AAs. We studied 795 AA CRC cases and 985 AA controls from Chicago and North Carolina as well as 1324 Caucasian cases and 990 Caucasian controls from Chicago and Spain. We genotyped 54 tagSNPs in VDR (46586959 to 46521297 Mb) and tested for association adjusting for West African ancestry, age, gender, and multiple testing. Untyped markers were imputed using MACH1.0. We analyzed associations by gender and anatomic location in the whole study group as well as by vitamin D intake in the North Carolina AA group. In the joint analysis, none of the SNPs tested was significantly associated with CRC. For four previously tested restriction fragment length polymorphisms, only one (referred to as ApaI), tagged by the SNP rs79628898, had a nominally significant p-value in AAs; none of these polymorphisms were associated with CRC in Caucasians. In the North Carolina AAs, for whom we had vitamin D intake data, we found a significant association between an intronic SNP rs11574041 and vitamin D intake, which is evidence for a VDR gene-environment interaction in AAs. In summary, using a systematic tagSNP approach, we have not found evidence for significant associations between VDR and CRC in AAs or Caucasians.

  17. A history of binge drinking during adolescence is associated with poorer sleep quality in young adult Mexican Americans and American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Cindy L; Wills, Derek; Gilder, David A

    2018-03-27

    Binge drinking during adolescence is common, and adolescents and young adults with alcohol problems may also have sleep difficulties. However, few studies have documented the effects of a history of adolescent binge drinking on sleep in young adulthood in high-risk minority populations. To quantify sleep disturbance, as indexed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), in a sample of young adult Mexican American and American Indian men and women (18-30 years, n = 800) with and without a history of alcohol binge drinking during adolescence, controlling for age, gender, and race. Gender was found to affect PSQI responses with females reporting waking up at night, having more bad dreams, and later habitual bedtimes than males, and males reporting more problems with breathing and snoring. Increasing age was associated with snoring or coughing, less hours spent in bed, and later evening bedtimes. Race also influenced the PSQI with American Indians reporting longer sleep latencies and sleep durations, more hours spent in bed, and more trouble with coughing and snoring than Mexican Americans, and Mexican Americans reporting later bedtimes. A history of adolescent regular binge drinking was associated with longer sleep latencies, more problems with breathing, bad dreams, and an overall higher PSQI total score, when controlling for age, race, and gender. This report suggests, like what has been found in young adults in general population samples, that binge drinking during adolescence is associated with deleterious consequences on sleep quality in young adulthood in these high-risk and understudied ethnic groups.

  18. Significant Association of Urinary Toxic Metals and Autism-Related Symptoms?A Nonlinear Statistical Analysis with Cross Validation

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, James; Howsmon, Daniel P.; Kruger, Uwe; Geis, Elizabeth; Gehn, Eva; Fimbres, Valeria; Pollard, Elena; Mitchell, Jessica; Ingram, Julie; Hellmers, Robert; Quig, David; Hahn, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A number of previous studies examined a possible association of toxic metals and autism, and over half of those studies suggest that toxic metal levels are different in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Additionally, several studies found that those levels correlate with the severity of ASD. Methods In order to further investigate these points, this paper performs the most detailed statistical analysis to date of a data set in this field. First morning urine sampl...

  19. Problems Associated with Statistical Pattern Recognition of Acoustic Emission Signals in a Compact Tension Fatigue Specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Yolanda L.

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) data were acquired during fatigue testing of an aluminum 2024-T4 compact tension specimen using a commercially available AE system. AE signals from crack extension were identified and separated from noise spikes, signals that reflected from the specimen edges, and signals that saturated the instrumentation. A commercially available software package was used to train a statistical pattern recognition system to classify the signals. The software trained a network to recognize signals with a 91-percent accuracy when compared with the researcher's interpretation of the data. Reasons for the discrepancies are examined and it is postulated that additional preprocessing of the AE data to focus on the extensional wave mode and eliminate other effects before training the pattern recognition system will result in increased accuracy.

  20. Understanding Statistics - Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annual reports of U.S. cancer statistics including new cases, deaths, trends, survival, prevalence, lifetime risk, and progress toward Healthy People targets, plus statistical summaries for a number of common cancer types.

  1. Proceedings from the 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons Research Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Zachary S; Aghaloo, Tara; Bouloux, Gary F; Cillo, Joseph E; Hale, Robert G; Le, Anh D; Lee, Janice S; Kademani, Deepak

    2014-02-01

    The American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons, the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Foundation, and the International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons sponsored the fifth research summit, which convened on May 2 and 3 in Rosemont, Illinois. The Research Summits are convened biennially to facilitate the discussion and collaboration of oral and maxillofacial surgeons with clinical and basic science researchers in fields affecting the specialty. The goal is to advance the field of oral and maxillofacial surgery through exposure and education in topics that ultimately benefit the oral and maxillofacial surgical patient. This edition of the research summit included the topics of robotic surgery and antiresorptive-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (ARONJ). Most importantly, this research summit saw the development of research interest groups (RIGs) in the fields of anesthesia, maxillofacial oncology and reconstructive surgery, obstructive sleep apnea and orthognathic surgery, temporomandibular joint surgery, and trauma. These RIGs developed specific research goals with a plan to continue working on potential projects at the AAOMS Clinical Trials Course on May 7 to 9, 2013 at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. The summit program was developed by the AAOMS Committee on Research Planning and Technology Assessment. The charge of the committee is to encourage and promote research within the specialty and to encourage interdisciplinary collaboration. The research summit serves as a platform for oral and maxillofacial surgeons to lead the goal of advancement of research relevant to the specialty. This article provides an overview of the presentations that were made in the sessions on robotic surgery and ARONJ. The research summit keynote address and two additional presentations on patient registries are summarized and updates from the RIGs that were formed at the 2013 research summit are highlighted. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral

  2. Association Between Periodontal Disease and Kidney Function Decline in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Vanessa; Vittinghoff, Eric; Beck, James D; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V; Wang, Wei; Griswold, Michael E; Powe, Neil R; Correa, Adolfo; Young, Bessie

    2015-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains a prevalent public health problem that disproportionately affects African Americans, despite intense efforts targeting traditional risk factors. Periodontal disease, a chronic bacterial infection of the oral cavity, is both common and modifiable and has been implicated as a novel potential CKD risk factor. The authors seek to examine to what extent periodontal disease is associated with kidney function decline. This retrospective cohort study examines 699 African American participants with preserved kidney function (defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) at baseline) who underwent complete dental examinations as part of the Dental-Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (1996 to 1998) and subsequently enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (2000 to 2004). Using multivariable Poisson regression, the authors examined the association of periodontal disease (severe versus non-severe) with incident CKD, defined as incident eGFR periodontal disease. There were 21 cases (3.0%) of incident CKD after a mean follow-up of 4.8 (± 0.6) years. Compared with participants with non-severe periodontal disease, those with severe periodontal disease had a four-fold greater rate of incident CKD (adjusted incidence rate ratio 4.18 [95% confidence interval 1.68 to 10.39], P = 0.002). Severe periodontal disease is prevalent among a population at high risk for CKD and is associated with clinically significant kidney function decline. Further research is needed to determine if periodontal disease treatment alters the trajectory of renal deterioration.

  3. Fisher's method of combining dependent statistics using generalizations of the gamma distribution with applications to genetic pleiotropic associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qizhai; Hu, Jiyuan; Ding, Juan; Zheng, Gang

    2014-04-01

    A classical approach to combine independent test statistics is Fisher's combination of $p$-values, which follows the $\\chi ^2$ distribution. When the test statistics are dependent, the gamma distribution (GD) is commonly used for the Fisher's combination test (FCT). We propose to use two generalizations of the GD: the generalized and the exponentiated GDs. We study some properties of mis-using the GD for the FCT to combine dependent statistics when one of the two proposed distributions are true. Our results show that both generalizations have better control of type I error rates than the GD, which tends to have inflated type I error rates at more extreme tails. In practice, common model selection criteria (e.g. Akaike information criterion/Bayesian information criterion) can be used to help select a better distribution to use for the FCT. A simple strategy of the two generalizations of the GD in genome-wide association studies is discussed. Applications of the results to genetic pleiotrophic associations are described, where multiple traits are tested for association with a single marker.

  4. Racial discrimination associated with higher diastolic blood pressure in a sample of American Indian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Zaneta M; Blair, Irene V; Buchwald, Dedra S; Manson, Spero M

    2017-05-01

    Hypertension prevalence is high among American Indians (AIs). AIs experience a substantial burden of interpersonal racial discrimination, which in other populations has been associated with higher blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to understand whether racial discrimination experiences are associated with higher blood pressure in AIs. We used the Everyday Discrimination Scale to evaluate the relationship between discrimination and measured blood pressure among 77 AIs from two reservation communities in the Northern Plains. We used multivariate linear regression to evaluate the association of racial discrimination with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Racial discrimination, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure were analyzed as continuous variables. All analyses adjusted for sex, waist circumference, age, posttraumatic stress disorder status, and education. We found that 61% of participants experienced discrimination that they attributed to their race or ancestry. Racial discrimination was associated with significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.22, SE = 0.09, p = .02), and with a similar non-significant trend toward higher systolic blood pressure (β = 0.25, SE = 0.15, p = .09). The results of this analysis suggest that racial discrimination may contribute to higher diastolic blood pressure within Native communities. These findings highlight one pathway through which the social environment can shape patterns of biology and health in AI and other socially and politically marginalized groups. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Association between Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among African Americans in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintan J. Bhanushali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although there is a reported association between lifestyle factors and metabolic syndrome, very few studies have used national level data restricted to the African Americans (AAs in the United States (US. Methods. A cross-sectional evaluation was conducted using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 1999 to 2006 including men and nonpregnant women of 20 years or older. Multiple logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate the association between lifestyle factors and metabolic syndrome. Results. AA women had a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (39.43% than AA men (26.77%. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, no significant association was found between metabolic syndrome and lifestyle factors including alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking, and physical activity. Age and marital status were significant predictors for metabolic syndrome. With increase in age, both AA men and AA women were more likely to have metabolic syndrome (AA men: ORadj=1.05, 95% CI 1.04–1.06, AA women: ORadj=1.06, 95% CI 1.04–1.07. Single AA women were less likely to have metabolic syndrome than married women (ORadj=0.66, 95% CI 0.43–0.99. Conclusion. Lifestyle factors had no significant association with metabolic syndrome but age and marital status were strong predictors for metabolic syndrome in AAs in the US.

  6. Changes in biological anthropology: results of the 1998 American Association of Physical Anthropology Membership Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Trudy R

    2002-06-01

    In response to the results of the 1996 survey of the membership of the American Association of Physical Anthropology (AAPA), the Executive Committee of the Association sponsored a follow-up survey designed to assess gender and specialty differences in training, employment, academic status, mentoring, and research support. A total of 993 questionnaires was analyzed, representing approximately 62% of the 1998 membership of the Association. There has been a marked shift in the number of males and females in the discipline from the 1960s to the 1990s. While 51.2% of all respondents are female and 48.8% are male, 70% of the students are female. Chi-square tests indicate significant differences between males and females by highest degree, age, status, obtaining a tenure-track position, receiving tenure, and taking nontenure-track employment before receiving a tenure-track position. In recent years, there has been an increasing number of females in the ranks of assistant and associate professors; however, this is not true for the rank of professor. There are also significant differences between males and females by specialty within the discipline: researchers in primatology, human biological variation, skeletal biology, and paleopathology are primarily female, while researchers in human and primate evolution are increasingly female. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Primary outcomes for resuscitation science studies: a consensus statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Lance B; Aufderheide, Tom P; Geocadin, Romergryko G; Callaway, Clifton W; Lazar, Ronald M; Donnino, Michael W; Nadkarni, Vinay M; Abella, Benjamin S; Adrie, Christophe; Berg, Robert A; Merchant, Raina M; O'Connor, Robert E; Meltzer, David O; Holm, Margo B; Longstreth, William T; Halperin, Henry R

    2011-11-08

    The guidelines presented in this consensus statement are intended to serve researchers, clinicians, reviewers, and regulators in the selection of the most appropriate primary outcome for a clinical trial of cardiac arrest therapies. The American Heart Association guidelines for the treatment of cardiac arrest depend on high-quality clinical trials, which depend on the selection of a meaningful primary outcome. Because this selection process has been the subject of much controversy, a consensus conference was convened with national and international experts, the National Institutes of Health, and the US Food and Drug Administration. The Research Working Group of the American Heart Association Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee nominated subject leaders, conference attendees, and writing group members on the basis of their expertise in clinical trials and a diverse perspective of cardiovascular and neurological outcomes (see the online-only Data Supplement). Approval was obtained from the Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee and the American Heart Association Manuscript Oversight Committee. Preconference position papers were circulated for review; the conference was held; and postconference consensus documents were circulated for review and comments were invited from experts, conference attendees, and writing group members. Discussions focused on (1) when after cardiac arrest the measurement time point should occur; (2) what cardiovascular, neurological, and other physiology should be assessed; and (3) the costs associated with various end points. The final document underwent extensive revision and peer review by the Emergency Cardiovascular Care Committee, the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee, and oversight committees. There was consensus that no single primary outcome is appropriate for all studies of cardiac arrest. The best outcome measure is the pairing of a time point and physiological condition that will best

  8. Careers in Medical Physics and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amols, Howard

    2006-03-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), a member society of the AIP is the largest professional society of medical physicists in the world with nearly 5700 members. Members operate in medical centers, university and community hospitals, research laboratories, industry, and private practice. Medical physics specialties include radiation therapy physics, medical diagnostic and imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, and medical radiation safety. The majority of AAPM members is based in hospital departments of radiation oncology or radiology and provide technical support for patient diagnosis and treatment in a clinical environment. Job functions include support of clinical care, calibration and quality assurance of medical devices such as linear accelerators for cancer therapy, CT, PET, MRI, and other diagnostic imaging devices, research, and teaching. Pathways into a career in medical physics require an advanced degree in medical physics, physics, engineering, or closely related field, plus clinical training in one or more medical physics specialties (radiation therapy physics, imaging physics, or radiation safety). Most clinically based medical physicists also obtain certification from the American Board of Radiology, and some states require licensure as well.

  9. The association between Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores and disability among older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Beibei; Houston, Denise; Locher, Julie L; Zizza, Claire

    2012-05-01

    several studies examining diet and functional status of individuals have focused on single nutrients or food groups. Studies examining the relationship between diet and health have increasingly witnessed a shift in focus from single nutrients to overall diet quality. The objective of this study was to examine the association between overall diet quality and self-reported disability. the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). a nationally representative sample of Americans ≥60 years. overall diet quality was assessed using the United States Department of Agriculture's (USDA) Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005). Self-reported measures of disability included activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), leisure and social activities (LSAs), lower extremity mobility (LEM) and general physical activities (GPAs). older adults with higher HEI-2005 scores were less likely to experience LEM (P for trend = 0.001) and GPAs (P for trend disability. Compared with older adults whose HEI-2005 scores were in the lowest quartile, the likelihood of both IADLs and GPAs disability were significantly lower in those with HEI-2005 scores in quartiles two, three and four. Compared with those who had HEI-2005 scores in the lowest quartile, the odds of LEM disability were significantly lower for those with HEI-2005 scores in the highest quartile. older adults who do not adhere to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans report disability more frequently than those who do adhere to the guidelines.

  10. From the American Psychological Association to the American Psychology Association--An Organization for Psychologists or for the Discipline? 2007 Annual Report of the APA Policy and Planning Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Each year, the American Psychological Association's Policy and Planning Board takes the pulse of the Association and the discipline as a whole and writes a report that represents the Board's best appraisal of a fundamental policy. Our main objective, however, is not simply to assess the current situation but to look forward on behalf of the…

  11. Language statistics explain the spatial-numerical association of response codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hutchinson, Sterling; Louwerse, Max M

    The spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) has shown that parity judgments with participants' left hands yield faster response times (RTs) for smaller numbers than for larger numbers, with the opposite result for right-hand responses. These findings have been explained by

  12. GWAS in a box: statistical and visual analytics of structured associations via GenAMap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Xing

    Full Text Available With the continuous improvement in genotyping and molecular phenotyping technology and the decreasing typing cost, it is expected that in a few years, more and more clinical studies of complex diseases will recruit thousands of individuals for pan-omic genetic association analyses. Hence, there is a great need for algorithms and software tools that could scale up to the whole omic level, integrate different omic data, leverage rich structure information, and be easily accessible to non-technical users. We present GenAMap, an interactive analytics software platform that 1 automates the execution of principled machine learning methods that detect genome- and phenome-wide associations among genotypes, gene expression data, and clinical or other macroscopic traits, and 2 provides new visualization tools specifically designed to aid in the exploration of association mapping results. Algorithmically, GenAMap is based on a new paradigm for GWAS and PheWAS analysis, termed structured association mapping, which leverages various structures in the omic data. We demonstrate the function of GenAMap via a case study of the Brem and Kruglyak yeast dataset, and then apply it on a comprehensive eQTL analysis of the NIH heterogeneous stock mice dataset and report some interesting findings. GenAMap is available from http://sailing.cs.cmu.edu/genamap.

  13. Correct Effect Size Estimates for Strength of Association Statistics: Comment on Odgaard and Fowler (2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Matthew D.; Mikami, Amori Yee

    2013-01-01

    Odgaard and Fowler (2010) articulated the importance of reporting confidence intervals (CIs) on effect size estimates, and they provided useful formulas for doing so. However, one of their reported formulas, pertaining to the calculation of CIs on strength of association effect sizes (e.g., R[squared] or [eta][squared]), is erroneous. This comment…

  14. A statistical study of ionopause perturbation and associated boundary wave formation at Venus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, G. S.; Pope, S. A.; Walker, S. N.; Zhang, T.; Balikhin, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    In contrast to Earth, Venus does not possess an intrinsic magnetic field. Hence the interaction between solar wind and Venus is significantly different when compared to Earth, even though these two planets were once considered similar. Within the induced magnetosphere and ionosphere of Venus, previous studies have shown the existence of ionospheric boundary waves. These structures may play an important role in the atmospheric evolution of Venus. By using Venus Express data, the crossings of the ionopause boundary are determined based on the observations of photoelectrons during 2011. Pulses of dropouts in the electron energy spectrometer were observed in 92 events, which suggests potential perturbations of the boundary. Minimum variance analysis of the 1Hz magnetic field data for the perturbations is conducted and used to confirm the occurrence of the boundary waves. Statistical analysis shows that they were propagating mainly in the ±VSO-Y direction in the polar north terminator region. The generation mechanisms of boundary waves and their evolution into the potential nonlinear regime are discussed and analysed.

  15. American Thyroid Association Guide to investigating thyroid hormone economy and action in rodent and cell models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Antonio C; Anderson, Grant; Forrest, Douglas; Galton, Valerie Anne; Gereben, Balázs; Kim, Brian W; Kopp, Peter A; Liao, Xiao Hui; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Peeters, Robin P; Refetoff, Samuel; Sharlin, David S; Simonides, Warner S; Weiss, Roy E; Williams, Graham R

    2014-01-01

    An in-depth understanding of the fundamental principles that regulate thyroid hormone homeostasis is critical for the development of new diagnostic and treatment approaches for patients with thyroid disease. Important clinical practices in use today for the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid cancer are the result of laboratory discoveries made by scientists investigating the most basic aspects of thyroid structure and molecular biology. In this document, a panel of experts commissioned by the American Thyroid Association makes a series of recommendations related to the study of thyroid hormone economy and action. These recommendations are intended to promote standardization of study design, which should in turn increase the comparability and reproducibility of experimental findings. It is expected that adherence to these recommendations by investigators in the field will facilitate progress towards a better understanding of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone dependent processes.

  16. The American Public Health Association's 2017 Year of Climate Change and Health: Time for Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJarnett, Natasha; Robb, Katherine; Castellanos, Ivana; Dettman, Louise; Patel, Surili S

    2017-10-26

    Climate change is today's greatest public health threat. 1 As the nation's leading voice in public health, the American Public Health Association (APHA) has demonstrated an enduring commitment to climate change as a health issue. As far back as the mid-1920s, AJPH reported on the health impacts of climate change. 2-4 Shaping the development of future organizational efforts, APHA members created the organization's first policy statement on climate change in 1995 (updated in 2007 and 2015). APHA continued to bring attention to climate change and public health, making it the theme of National Public Health Week 2008. Since then, evidence of climate change's causes and effects has mounted, but politicization of the issue and low prioritization by the public has made progress toward mitigation and adaptation slow. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 26, 2017: e1-e2. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304168).

  17. The Learning Healthcare System and Cardiovascular Care: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Thomas M; Albert, Nancy M; Borden, William B; Curtis, Lesley H; Ferguson, T Bruce; Kao, David P; Marcus, Gregory M; Peterson, Eric D; Redberg, Rita; Rumsfeld, John S; Shah, Nilay D; Tcheng, James E

    2017-04-04

    The learning healthcare system uses health information technology and the health data infrastructure to apply scientific evidence at the point of clinical care while simultaneously collecting insights from that care to promote innovation in optimal healthcare delivery and to fuel new scientific discovery. To achieve these goals, the learning healthcare system requires systematic redesign of the current healthcare system, focusing on 4 major domains: science and informatics, patient-clinician partnerships, incentives, and development of a continuous learning culture. This scientific statement provides an overview of how these learning healthcare system domains can be realized in cardiovascular disease care. Current cardiovascular disease care innovations in informatics, data uses, patient engagement, continuous learning culture, and incentives are profiled. In addition, recommendations for next steps for the development of a learning healthcare system in cardiovascular care are presented. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Future translational applications from the contemporary genomics era: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Caroline S; Hall, Jennifer L; Arnett, Donna K; Ashley, Euan A; Delles, Christian; Engler, Mary B; Freeman, Mason W; Johnson, Julie A; Lanfear, David E; Liggett, Stephen B; Lusis, Aldons J; Loscalzo, Joseph; MacRae, Calum A; Musunuru, Kiran; Newby, L Kristin; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Rich, Stephen S; Terzic, Andre

    2015-05-12

    The field of genetics and genomics has advanced considerably with the achievement of recent milestones encompassing the identification of many loci for cardiovascular disease and variable drug responses. Despite this achievement, a gap exists in the understanding and advancement to meaningful translation that directly affects disease prevention and clinical care. The purpose of this scientific statement is to address the gap between genetic discoveries and their practical application to cardiovascular clinical care. In brief, this scientific statement assesses the current timeline for effective translation of basic discoveries to clinical advances, highlighting past successes. Current discoveries in the area of genetics and genomics are covered next, followed by future expectations, tools, and competencies for achieving the goal of improving clinical care. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Mexican American caregivers' coping efficacy: associations with caregivers' distress and positivity to their relatives with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez García, Jorge I; Hernández, Brenda; Dorian, Marina

    2009-02-01

    Coping styles utilized by family caregivers of persons with schizophrenia have been implicated in the mental health of those caregivers and in the course of schizophrenia. We tested the relation between caregivers' coping efficacy, defined as the caregiver's perceptions of how successful they were in modifying their relative's behavior, and caregiver's psychological distress as well as criticisms and positivity toward their relatives diagnosed with schizophrenia. We sampled 31 dyads of Mexican American caregivers and their relative with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and used multiple methods of measurement including caregiver interviews, interactions between caregivers and their relatives, and clinician interviews with patients. Coping efficacy accounted for significant variance beyond patient symptoms and caregiver burden to: (a) caregiver psychological distress (beta=-0.35, Pcoping efficacy has heuristic value for research on the alleviation of caregiver psychological distress and the promotion of family caregiver behaviors associated with a benign course of illness.

  20. American Thyroid Association Guide to Investigating Thyroid Hormone Economy and Action in Rodent and Cell Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Grant; Forrest, Douglas; Galton, Valerie Anne; Gereben, Balázs; Kim, Brian W.; Kopp, Peter A.; Liao, Xiao Hui; Obregon, Maria Jesus; Peeters, Robin P.; Refetoff, Samuel; Sharlin, David S.; Simonides, Warner S.; Weiss, Roy E.; Williams, Graham R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: An in-depth understanding of the fundamental principles that regulate thyroid hormone homeostasis is critical for the development of new diagnostic and treatment approaches for patients with thyroid disease. Summary: Important clinical practices in use today for the treatment of patients with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid cancer are the result of laboratory discoveries made by scientists investigating the most basic aspects of thyroid structure and molecular biology. In this document, a panel of experts commissioned by the American Thyroid Association makes a series of recommendations related to the study of thyroid hormone economy and action. These recommendations are intended to promote standardization of study design, which should in turn increase the comparability and reproducibility of experimental findings. Conclusions: It is expected that adherence to these recommendations by investigators in the field will facilitate progress towards a better understanding of the thyroid gland and thyroid hormone dependent processes. PMID:24001133

  1. Updates in the American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and potential applications to veterinary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maton, Barbara L; Smarick, Sean D

    2012-04-01

    To review the updates in the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and identify potential applications to veterinary patients. Cardiopulmonary arrest is common in veterinary emergency and critical care, and consensus guidelines are lacking. Human resuscitation guidelines are continually evolving as new clinical and experimental studies support updated recommendations. Synthesis of human, experimental animal model, and veterinary literature support the potential for updates and advancement in veterinary CPR practices. This review serves to highlight updates in the AHA guidelines for CPR and evaluate their application to small animal veterinary patients. Interventions identified will be evaluated for trans-species potential, raise questions regarding best resuscitation recommendations, and offer opportunities for further research to continue to advance veterinary CPR. The prognosis for any patient undergoing cardiopulmonary arrest remains guarded. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  2. “... And Gladly Teach”: The American Hospital Association's Experience in Conducting Institutes on Hospital Librarianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yast, Helen

    1964-01-01

    As part of its overall educational program, the American Hospital Association has since 1959 conducted three institutes on hospital librarianship to meet the demand for more competent librarians in medical, nursing school, and patients' libraries. The purpose of such institutes is to teach the basic elements of library science to untrained personnel in hospital libraries. Discussed are steps in initiating an institute; factors determining length, date, and place; financing; publicity; choice and responsibility of local advisory committee; program content; qualifications of instructors; characteristics of registrants; materials for distribution; evaluations. Details of the most recent institute are outlined. A summary of problems still facing this type of educational program and suggestions for future improvements conclude the paper. PMID:14119309

  3. Fundamental Cardiovascular Research: Returns on Societal Investment: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Joseph A; Ardehali, Reza; Clarke, Kimberli Taylor; Del Zoppo, Gregory J; Eckhardt, Lee L; Griendling, Kathy K; Libby, Peter; Roden, Dan M; Sadek, Hesham A; Seidman, Christine E; Vaughan, Douglas E

    2017-07-21

    Recent decades have witnessed robust successes in conquering the acutely lethal manifestations of heart and vascular diseases. Many patients who previously would have died now survive. Lifesaving successes like these provide a tremendous and easily recognized benefit to individuals and society. Although cardiovascular mortality has declined, the devastating impact of chronic heart disease and comorbidities on quality of life and healthcare resources continues unabated. Future strides, extending those made in recent decades, will require continued research into mechanisms underlying disease prevention, pathogenesis, progression, and therapeutic intervention. However, severe financial constraints currently jeopardize these efforts. To chart a path for the future, this report analyzes the challenges and opportunities we face in continuing the battle against cardiovascular disease and highlights the return on societal investment afforded by fundamental cardiovascular research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Anthropology of the Memorial: Observations and Reflections on American Cultural Rituals Associated with Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hemmingson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a meditation on contemporary rituals in the United States associated with death—in this case, the memorial. The essay addresses David R. MAINES' advocacy of using narrative to address a social (and anthropological event. There are social expectations at memorials, rituals of talking good about the deceased, rituals of grief. Friends and family come together to communicate about the deceased. Strangers connect by their mutual connection to the dead. Every culture has its own set of rituals and rules when it comes to honoring and admiring the dead; this one is American. From an autoethnographical approach, the author reveals his own inner ritual, a personal memory, of a friend and former lover who has passed. The author discusses the processes of recording dialogue and experience via memory, and the criteria for quality in this autoethnography. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs090360

  5. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC): 50 Years of History and Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccabe, Andrew T; Crawford, Lester; Heider, Lawrence E; Hooper, Billy; Mann, Curt J; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) is to advance the quality of academic veterinary medicine. Founded in 1966 by the 18 US colleges of veterinary medicine and 3 Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine then in existence, the AAVMC is celebrating 50 years of public service. Initially, the AAVMC comprised the Council of Deans, the Council of Educators, and the Council of Chairs. In 1984, the tri-cameral structure was abandoned and a new governing structure with a board of directors was created. In 1997, the AAVMC was incorporated in Washington, DC and a common application service was created. Matters such as workforce issues and the cost of veterinary medical education have persisted for decades. The AAVMC is a champion of diversity in the veterinary profession and a strong advocate for One Health. The AAVMC has adopted a global perspective as more international colleges of veterinary medicine have earned COE accreditation and become members.

  6. American Burn Association consensus conference to define sepsis and infection in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Saffle, Jeffrey R; Holmes, James H; Gamelli, Richard L; Palmieri, Tina L; Horton, Jureta W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Traber, Daniel L; Mozingo, David W; Deitch, Edwin A; Goodwin, Cleon W; Herndon, David N; Gallagher, James J; Sanford, Art P; Jeng, James C; Ahrenholz, David H; Neely, Alice N; O'Mara, Michael S; Wolf, Steven E; Purdue, Gary F; Garner, Warren L; Yowler, Charles J; Latenser, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    Because of their extensive wounds, burn patients are chronically exposed to inflammatory mediators. Thus, burn patients, by definition, already have "systemic inflammatory response syndrome." Current definitions for sepsis and infection have many criteria (fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, leukocytosis) that are routinely found in patients with extensive burns, making these current definitions less applicable to the burn population. Experts in burn care and research, all members of the American Burn Association, were asked to review the literature and prepare a potential definition on one topic related to sepsis or infection in burn patients. On January 20, 2007, the participants met in Tucson, Arizona to develop consensus for these definitions. After review of the definitions, a summary of the proceedings was prepared. The goal of the consensus conference was to develop and publish standardized definitions for sepsis and infection-related diagnoses in the burn population. Standardized definitions will improve the capability of performing more meaningful multicenter trials among burn centers.

  7. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: comprehensive school nutrition services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Fleischhacker, Sheila; Mueller, Constance G

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health, and academic performance of our nation's children. Local school wellness policies may strengthen comprehensive nutrition services by encouraging multidisciplinary wellness teams, composed of school and community members, to work together in identifying local school needs, developing feasible strategies to address priority areas, and integrating comprehensive nutrition services with a coordinated school health program. This joint position paper affirms schools as an important partner in health promotion. To maximize the impact of school wellness policies on strengthening comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools nationwide, ADA, SNA, and SNE recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: nutrition education and promotion, food and nutrition programs available on the school campus, school-home-community partnerships, and nutrition-related health services. Copyright © 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Juan Comas's summary history of the American association of physical anthropologists (1928-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Marta P; Little, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    This translation of Juan Comas's Summary History of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists was originally published in Spanish by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico, in 1969 (Departamento de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Publication 22). Physical anthropologists from North America and members of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists owe Juan Comas a debt of gratitude for having labored to produce this Summary History of the AAPA. There is much useful and interesting material in this document: extensive endnotes that are helpful to the historian of the profession; an appendix of the Journal issues where the proceedings of annual meetings can be found; a detailed listing of contributors of papers to annual meetings from 1930-1968; a warm acknowledgment and history of the contributions of the Wenner-Gren Foundation to biological anthropology; a history of the Yearbook of Physical Anthropology; and comments on the short-lived PA Newsletter. In addition, there are appendices with the founding AAPA Constitution and By-Laws from 1930 and as they existed in 1968. All of this synoptic information saves the reader with interests in the history of the AAPA considerable effort, especially when few university and college libraries have the full (old and new) series of the AJPA on their shelves. We have tried to provide a translation of Comas's history that is faithful to the original Spanish-language publication. In a few cases, we shortened sentences and applied a slightly more modern usage than was popular in the late 1960s. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Impact of Hypertension on Cognitive Function: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iadecola, Costantino; Yaffe, Kristine; Biller, José; Bratzke, Lisa C; Faraci, Frank M; Gorelick, Philip B; Gulati, Martha; Kamel, Hooman; Knopman, David S; Launer, Lenore J; Saczynski, Jane S; Seshadri, Sudha; Zeki Al Hazzouri, Adina

    2016-12-01

    Age-related dementia, most commonly caused by Alzheimer disease or cerebrovascular factors (vascular dementia), is a major public health threat. Chronic arterial hypertension is a well-established risk factor for both types of dementia, but the link between hypertension and its treatment and cognition remains poorly understood. In this scientific statement, a multidisciplinary team of experts examines the impact of hypertension on cognition to assess the state of the knowledge, to identify gaps, and to provide future directions. Authors with relevant expertise were selected to contribute to this statement in accordance with the American Heart Association conflict-of-interest management policy. Panel members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the literature, and summarized the available data. Hypertension disrupts the structure and function of cerebral blood vessels, leads to ischemic damage of white matter regions critical for cognitive function, and may promote Alzheimer pathology. There is strong evidence of a deleterious influence of midlife hypertension on late-life cognitive function, but the cognitive impact of late-life hypertension is less clear. Observational studies demonstrated a cumulative effect of hypertension on cerebrovascular damage, but evidence from clinical trials that antihypertensive treatment improves cognition is not conclusive. After carefully reviewing the literature, the group concluded that there were insufficient data to make evidence-based recommendations. However, judicious treatment of hypertension, taking into account goals of care and individual characteristics (eg, age and comorbidities), seems justified to safeguard vascular health and, as a consequence, brain health. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Meditation and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Glenn N; Lange, Richard A; Bairey-Merz, C Noel; Davidson, Richard J; Jamerson, Kenneth; Mehta, Puja K; Michos, Erin D; Norris, Keith; Ray, Indranill Basu; Saban, Karen L; Shah, Tina; Stein, Richard; Smith, Sidney C

    2017-09-28

    Despite numerous advances in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Novel and inexpensive interventions that can contribute to the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease are of interest. Numerous studies have reported on the benefits of meditation. Meditation instruction and practice is widely accessible and inexpensive and may thus be a potential attractive cost-effective adjunct to more traditional medical therapies. Accordingly, this American Heart Association scientific statement systematically reviewed the data on the potential benefits of meditation on cardiovascular risk. Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies demonstrate that meditation can have long-standing effects on the brain, which provide some biological plausibility for beneficial consequences on the physiological basal state and on cardiovascular risk. Studies of the effects of meditation on cardiovascular risk have included those investigating physiological response to stress, smoking cessation, blood pressure reduction, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome, endothelial function, inducible myocardial ischemia, and primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Overall, studies of meditation suggest a possible benefit on cardiovascular risk, although the overall quality and, in some cases, quantity of study data are modest. Given the low costs and low risks of this intervention, meditation may be considered as an adjunct to guideline-directed cardiovascular risk reduction by those interested in this lifestyle modification, with the understanding that the benefits of such intervention remain to be better established. Further research on meditation and cardiovascular risk is warranted. Such studies, to the degree possible, should utilize randomized study design, be adequately powered to meet the primary study outcome, strive to achieve low drop-out rates, include long

  11. Peripheral Endocannabinoids Associated With Energy Expenditure in Native Americans of Southwestern Heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinitz, Sascha; Basolo, Alessio; Piaggi, Paolo; Piomelli, Daniele; Jumpertz von Schwartzenberg, Reiner; Krakoff, Jonathan

    2018-03-01

    The endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), as well as the related acylethanolamide oleoylethanolamide (OEA), have been implicated in energy expenditure (EE) regulation and metabolic diseases. Muscle (fat-free mass) and fat (fat mass) are metabolically active compartments and main determinants of EE. To assess whether human muscle, adipose, and plasma endocannabinoids correlate with EE. Muscle, adipose, and plasma AEA, 2-AG, and OEA concentrations were measured via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. EE was assessed by indirect whole-room calorimetry. Clinical trial. Obese/overweight Native Americans of full (n = 35) and at least half (n = 21) Southwestern heritage. Twenty-four-hour EE, sleeping EE (SLEEP), resting EE (REE), respiratory quotient (RQ), and macronutrient oxidation. In full Natives, muscle AEA concentration correlated with SLEEP (r = -0.65, P = 0.004) and REE (r = -0.53, P = 0.02). Muscle 2-AG was associated with SLEEP (r = -0.75, P = 0.0003). Adipose OEA concentration correlated with RQ (r = -0.47, P = 0.04) and lipid oxidation (r = 0.51, P = 0.03). Plasma OEA concentration was associated with SLEEP (r = -0.52, P = 0.04). After adjustment for major determinants, these lipids explained nearly 20% of the additional variance of the respective measure. Similarly, in Native Americans of at least half Southwestern heritage, investigated lipids correlated with EE measures. Endocannabinoids in metabolically relevant peripheral tissues explained a large part of EE variation and may be involved in regulating EE. Dysregulation of peripheral endocannabinoids may predispose people to metabolic diseases via an effect on EE and lipid oxidation.

  12. Validation of statistical models for estimating hospitalization associated with influenza and other respiratory viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reliable estimates of disease burden associated with respiratory viruses are keys to deployment of preventive strategies such as vaccination and resource allocation. Such estimates are particularly needed in tropical and subtropical regions where some methods commonly used in temperate regions are not applicable. While a number of alternative approaches to assess the influenza associated disease burden have been recently reported, none of these models have been validated with virologically confirmed data. Even fewer methods have been developed for other common respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, parainfluenza and adenovirus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We had recently conducted a prospective population-based study of virologically confirmed hospitalization for acute respiratory illnesses in persons <18 years residing in Hong Kong Island. Here we used this dataset to validate two commonly used models for estimation of influenza disease burden, namely the rate difference model and Poisson regression model, and also explored the applicability of these models to estimate the disease burden of other respiratory viruses. The Poisson regression models with different link functions all yielded estimates well correlated with the virologically confirmed influenza associated hospitalization, especially in children older than two years. The disease burden estimates for RSV, parainfluenza and adenovirus were less reliable with wide confidence intervals. The rate difference model was not applicable to RSV, parainfluenza and adenovirus and grossly underestimated the true burden of influenza associated hospitalization. CONCLUSION: The Poisson regression model generally produced satisfactory estimates in calculating the disease burden of respiratory viruses in a subtropical region such as Hong Kong.

  13. A Statistical Analysis of the Solar Phenomena Associated with Global EUV Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, D. M.; Murphy, P.; Graham, G.; Carley, E. P.; Pérez-Suárez, D.

    2017-12-01

    Solar eruptions are the most spectacular events in our solar system and are associated with many different signatures of energy release including solar flares, coronal mass ejections, global waves, radio emission and accelerated particles. Here, we apply the Coronal Pulse Identification and Tracking Algorithm (CorPITA) to the high-cadence synoptic data provided by the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) to identify and track global waves observed by SDO. 164 of the 362 solar flare events studied (45%) were found to have associated global waves with no waves found for the remaining 198 (55%). A clear linear relationship was found between the median initial velocity and the acceleration of the waves, with faster waves exhibiting a stronger deceleration (consistent with previous results). No clear relationship was found between global waves and type II radio bursts, electrons or protons detected in situ near Earth. While no relationship was found between the wave properties and the associated flare size (with waves produced by flares from B to X-class), more than a quarter of the active regions studied were found to produce more than one wave event. These results suggest that the presence of a global wave in a solar eruption is most likely determined by the structure and connectivity of the erupting active region and the surrounding quiet solar corona rather than by the amount of free energy available within the active region.

  14. An Efficient Stepwise Statistical Test to Identify Multiple Linked Human Genetic Variants Associated with Specific Phenotypic Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iksoo Huh

    Full Text Available Recent advances in genotyping methodologies have allowed genome-wide association studies (GWAS to accurately identify genetic variants that associate with common or pathological complex traits. Although most GWAS have focused on associations with single genetic variants, joint identification of multiple genetic variants, and how they interact, is essential for understanding the genetic architecture of complex phenotypic traits. Here, we propose an efficient stepwise method based on the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test (for stratified categorical data to identify causal joint multiple genetic variants in GWAS. This method combines the CMH statistic with a stepwise procedure to detect multiple genetic variants associated with specific categorical traits, using a series of associated I × J contingency tables and a null hypothesis of no phenotype association. Through a new stratification scheme based on the sum of minor allele count criteria, we make the method more feasible for GWAS data having sample sizes of several thousands. We also examine the properties of the proposed stepwise method via simulation studies, and show that the stepwise CMH test performs better than other existing methods (e.g., logistic regression and detection of associations by Markov blanket for identifying multiple genetic variants. Finally, we apply the proposed approach to two genomic sequencing datasets to detect linked genetic variants associated with bipolar disorder and obesity, respectively.

  15. EEG spectral phenotypes: heritability and association with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community study

    OpenAIRE

    Ehlers, Cindy L.; Phillips, Evelyn; Gizer, Ian R.; Gilder, David A.; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.

    2009-01-01

    Native Americans have some of the highest rates of marijuana and alcohol use and abuse, yet neurobiological measures associated with dependence on these substances in this population remain unknown. The present investigation evaluated the heritability of spectral characteristics of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and their correlation with marijuana and alcohol dependence in an American Indian community. Participants (n=626) were evaluated for marijuana (MJ) and alcohol (ALC) dependence, as we...

  16. Association between residential exposure to outdoor alcohol advertising and problem drinking among African American women in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2009-02-01

    We evaluated the association between residential exposure to outdoor alcohol advertising and current problem drinking among 139 African American women aged 21 to 49 years in Central Harlem, New York City. We found that exposure to advertisements was positively related to problem drinking (13% greater odds), even after we controlled for a family history of alcohol problems and socioeconomic status. The results suggest that the density of alcohol advertisements in predominantly African American neighborhoods may add to problem drinking behavior of their residents.

  17. Resetting the bar: Statistical significance in whole-genome sequencing-based association studies of global populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulit, Sara L; de With, Sera A J; de Bakker, Paul I W

    2017-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of common disease have been hugely successful in implicating loci that modify disease risk. The bulk of these associations have proven robust and reproducible, in part due to community adoption of statistical criteria for claiming significant genotype-phenotype associations. As the cost of sequencing continues to drop, assembling large samples in global populations is becoming increasingly feasible. Sequencing studies interrogate not only common variants, as was true for genotyping-based GWAS, but variation across the full allele frequency spectrum, yielding many more (independent) statistical tests. We sought to empirically determine genome-wide significance thresholds for various analysis scenarios. Using whole-genome sequence data, we simulated sequencing-based disease studies of varying sample size and ancestry. We determined that future sequencing efforts in >2,000 samples of European, Asian, or admixed ancestry should set genome-wide significance at approximately P = 5 × 10 -9 , and studies of African samples should apply a more stringent genome-wide significance threshold of P = 1 × 10 -9 . Adoption of a revised multiple test correction will be crucial in avoiding irreproducible claims of association. © 2016 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  18. The toll of the gridiron: damage-associated molecular patterns and hypertension in American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Cameron G; Webb, R Clinton

    2016-01-01

    American football has unequivocally been linked to elevations in blood pressure and hypertension, especially in linemen. However, the mechanisms of this increase cannot be attributed solely to increased body weight and associated cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g.,dyslipidemia or hyperglycemia). Therefore, understanding the etiology of football-associated hypertension is essential for improving the quality of life in this mostly young population, as well as for lowering the potential for chronic disease in the future. We propose that inflammatogenic damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released into the circulation from football-induced musculoskeletal trauma activate pattern-recognition receptors of the innate immune system-specifically, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and mitochondrial (mt)DNA which activate Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and -9, respectively. Previously, we observed that circulating levels of these 2 DAMPs are increased in hypertension, and activation of TLR4 and -9 causes endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Therefore, our novel hypothesis is that musculoskeletal injury from repeated hits in football players, particularly in linemen, leads to elevated circulating HMGB1 and mtDNA to activate TLRs on endothelial cells leading to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased vascular tone, and hypertension. © FASEB.

  19. Game Related Statistics Discriminating Between Starters and Nonstarters Players in Women’S National Basketball Association League (WNBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gòmez, Miguel-Ángel; Lorenzo, Alberto; Ortega, Enrique; Sampaio, Jaime; Ibàñez, Sergio-José

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify the game-related statistics that allow discriminating between starters and nonstarter players in women’s basketball when related to winning or losing games and best or worst teams. The sample comprised all 216 regular season games from the 2005 Women’s National Basketball Association League (WNBA). The game-related statistics included were 2- and 3- point field-goals (both successful and unsuccessful), free-throws (both successful and unsuccessful), defensive and offensive rebounds, assists, blocks, fouls, steals, turnovers and minutes played. Results from multivariate analysis showed that when best teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field-goals (SC = 0.47), successful free-throws (SC = 0.44), fouls (SC = -0.41), assists (SC = 0.37), and defensive rebounds (SC = 0.37). When the worst teams won, the discriminant game-related statistics were successful 2-point field- goals (SC = 0.37), successful free-throws (SC = 0.45), assists (SC = 0.58), and steals (SC = 0.35). The results showed that the successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and the assists were the most powerful variables discriminating between starters and nonstarters. These specific characteristics helped to point out the importance of starters’ players shooting and passing ability during competitions. Key points The players’ game-related statistical profile varied according to team status, game outcome and team quality in women’s basketball. The results of this work help to point out the different player’s performance described in women’s basketball compared with men’s basketball. The results obtained enhance the importance of starters and nonstarters contribution to team’s performance in different game contexts. Results showed the power of successful 2-point field-goals, successful free-throws and assists discriminating between starters and nonstarters in all the analyses. PMID:24149538

  20. Sequence data and association statistics from 12,940 type 2 diabetes cases and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jason, Flannick; Fuchsberger, Christian; Mahajan, Anubha

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) to high resolution, the GoT2D and T2D-GENES consortia catalogued variation from whole-genome sequencing of 2,657 European individuals and exome sequencing of 12,940 individuals of multiple ancestries. Over 27M SNPs, indels, and structural...... variants were identified, including 99% of low-frequency (minor allele frequency [MAF] 0.1-5%) non-coding variants in the whole-genome sequenced individuals and 99.7% of low-frequency coding variants in the whole-exome sequenced individuals. Each variant was tested for association with T2D in the sequenced...... from these analyses provide the largest reference to date of human genetic information relevant to T2D, for use in activities such as T2D-focused genotype imputation, functional characterization of variants or genes, and other novel analyses to detect associations between sequence variation and T2D....

  1. Socioeconomic and nutritional factors account for the association of gastric cancer with Amerindian ancestry in a Latin American admixed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Latife; Zamudio, Roxana; Soares-Souza, Giordano; Herrera, Phabiola; Cabrera, Lilia; Hooper, Catherine C; Cok, Jaime; Combe, Juan M; Vargas, Gloria; Prado, William A; Schneider, Silvana; Kehdy, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Maira R; Chanock, Stephen J; Berg, Douglas E; Gilman, Robert H; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru) and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans), we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls) and a very low African ancestry (American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group.

  2. Socioeconomic and nutritional factors account for the association of gastric cancer with Amerindian ancestry in a Latin American admixed population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latife Pereira

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans, we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls and a very low African ancestry (<5%. We determined that higher Native American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group.

  3. Meta-Analysis of Genome-Wide Association Studies Identifies Genetic Risk Factors for Stroke in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Cara L; Keene, Keith L; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Meschia, James F; Chen, Wei-Min; Nalls, Mike; Bis, Joshua C; Kittner, Steven J; Rich, Stephen S; Tajuddin, Salman; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K; Langefeld, Carl D; Gottesman, Rebecca; Mosley, Thomas H; Shahar, Eyal; Woo, Daniel; Yaffe, Kristine; Liu, Yongmei; Sale, Michèle M; Dichgans, Martin; Malik, Rainer; Longstreth, W T; Mitchell, Braxton D; Psaty, Bruce M; Kooperberg, Charles; Reiner, Alexander; Worrall, Bradford B; Fornage, Myriam

    2015-08-01

    The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of stroke have focused on European-ancestry populations; however, none has been conducted in African Americans, despite the disproportionately high burden of stroke in this population. The Consortium of Minority Population Genome-Wide Association Studies of Stroke (COMPASS) was established to identify stroke susceptibility loci in minority populations. Using METAL, we conducted meta-analyses of GWAS in 14 746 African Americans (1365 ischemic and 1592 total stroke cases) from COMPASS, and tested genetic variants with Pstroke genetic studies in European-ancestry populations. We also evaluated stroke loci previously identified in European-ancestry populations. The 15q21.3 locus linked with lipid levels and hypertension was associated with total stroke (rs4471613; P=3.9×10(-8)) in African Americans. Nominal associations (Pstroke were observed for 18 variants in or near genes implicated in cell cycle/mRNA presplicing (PTPRG, CDC5L), platelet function (HPS4), blood-brain barrier permeability (CLDN17), immune response (ELTD1, WDFY4, and IL1F10-IL1RN), and histone modification (HDAC9). Two of these loci achieved nominal significance in METASTROKE: 5q35.2 (P=0.03), and 1p31.1 (P=0.018). Four of 7 previously reported ischemic stroke loci (PITX2, HDAC9, CDKN2A/CDKN2B, and ZFHX3) were nominally associated (Pstroke in COMPASS. We identified a novel genetic variant associated with total stroke in African Americans and found that ischemic stroke loci identified in European-ancestry populations may also be relevant for African Americans. Our findings support investigation of diverse populations to identify and characterize genetic risk factors, and the importance of shared genetic risk across populations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Statistical mechanics of consciousness: Maximization of information content of network is associated with conscious awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Erra, R.; Mateos, D. M.; Wennberg, R.; Perez Velazquez, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    It is said that complexity lies between order and disorder. In the case of brain activity and physiology in general, complexity issues are being considered with increased emphasis. We sought to identify features of brain organization that are optimal for sensory processing, and that may guide the emergence of cognition and consciousness, by analyzing neurophysiological recordings in conscious and unconscious states. We find a surprisingly simple result: Normal wakeful states are characterized by the greatest number of possible configurations of interactions between brain networks, representing highest entropy values. Therefore, the information content is larger in the network associated to conscious states, suggesting that consciousness could be the result of an optimization of information processing. These findings help to guide in a more formal sense inquiry into how consciousness arises from the organization of matter.

  5. Gender-specific association of functional prodynorphin 68 bp repeats with cannabis exposure in an African American cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuferov V

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vadim Yuferov,* Eduardo R Butelman,* Mary Jeanne Kreek Laboratory of the Biology of Addictive Diseases, The Rockefeller University, New York, NY, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Cannabis use disorders (CUDs cause substantial neuropsychiatric morbidity and comorbidity. There is evidence for gender-based differences in CUDs, for instance, a greater prevalence in males than in females. The main active component of cannabis is delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC, a partial agonist of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor. Preclinical studies show that genetic or pharmacological manipulation of the kappa opioid receptor/dynorphin system modulates the effects of delta 9-THC. Methods: In this case-control study of adult African Americans (n=476; 206 females, 270 males, we examined the association of the functional prodynorphin 68 bp (PDYN 68 bp promoter repeats with categorical diagnoses of cannabis dependence (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria, as well as with a rapid dimensional measure of maximum lifetime cannabis exposure (the Kreek–McHugh–Schluger–Kellogg cannabis scale. Results: The PDYN 68 bp genotype (examined as short–short [SS], short–long [SL], or long–long [LL], based on the number of repeats was not significantly associated with categorical cannabis-dependence diagnoses, either in males or in females. However, in males, the PDYN 68 bp SS+SL genotype was associated with both greater odds of any use of cannabis (p<0.05 and earlier age of first cannabis use, compared to the LL genotype (ie, 15 versus 16.5 years of age; p<0.045. Males in the SS+SL group also had greater odds of high lifetime exposure to cannabis, compared to the LL group (p<0.045. Of interest, none of the aforementioned genetic associations were significant in females. Conclusion: This study provides the first data on how the PDYN 68 bp genotype is associated with gender-specific patterns of

  6. Travel for the 2004 American Statistical Association Biannual Radiation Meeting: "Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-07-21

    The 16th ASA Conference on Radiation and Health, held June 27-30, 2004 in Beaver Creek, CO, offered a unique forum for discussing research related to the effects of radiation exposures on human health in a multidisciplinary setting. The Conference furnishes investigators in health related disciplines the opportunity to learn about new quantitative approaches to their problems and furnishes statisticians the opportunity to learn about new applications for their discipline. The Conference was attended by about 60 scientists including statisticians, epidemiologists, biologists and physicists interested in radiation research. For the first time, ten recipients of Young Investigator Awards participated in the conference. The Conference began with a debate on the question: “Do radiation doses below 1 cGy increase cancer risks?” The keynote speaker was Dr. Martin Lavin, who gave a banquet presentation on the timely topic “How important is ATM?” The focus of the 2004 Conference on Radiation and Health was Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Risk Modifiers. The sessions of the conference included: Radiation, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Interactions of Radiation with Genetic Factors: ATM Radiation, Genetics, and Epigenetics Radiotherapeutic Interactions The Conference on Radiation and Health is held bi-annually, and participants are looking forward to the 17th conference to be held in 2006.

  7. Nutrient and organochlorine pesticide concentrations in American alligator eggs and their associations with clutch viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberger, R Heath; Sepúlveda, Maria S; Wiebe, Jon J; Wiebe, Janet E; Honeyfield, Dale C; Gross, Timothy S

    2009-12-01

    Since the early 1900s, the lakes of the Ocklawaha basin in central Florida have experienced ecological degradation due to anthropogenic development. One species affected by this degradation is the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis, which has suffered from poor clutch viability and embryo mortality. Although some studies indicate that organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) may be involved, OCPs do not account for all of the variation seen in hatch rates. Indeed, nutrition and non-OCP contaminants have been associated with developmental problems in fish and birds. Our study evaluated embryo mortality in alligators at reference and OCP-contaminated sites as a function of exposure to OCPs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), along with egg nutrients (Zn, Se, and vitamins A, E, and B1). The four-pronged study consisted of a case-control cohort study, an expanded field study, a topical egg treatment thiamine amelioration experiment, and a topical egg treatment thiamine antagonist experiment. The results from the two field studies suggested that the total thiamine levels in the eggs were positively associated with clutch viability and negatively associated with the lipid content and certain OCPs measured in egg yolks. In addition, PCBs, PAHs, Zn, Se, and vitamins A and E were not found to be associated with the observed clutch viability defects. The thiamine levels in the eggs explained 38% of the variation in clutch survival in the case-control cohort study and 27% in the expanded field study. The topical egg treatment experiments were successful in elevating the thiamine concentrations in the albumin but not the yolk. No significant differences were noted among treatment groups in either egg treatment experiment with respect to clutch survival. In summary, thiamine egg concentrations explain some of the variation in the clutch viability of free-ranging alligators, but the cause-effect relationships are still unclear.

  8. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Resuscitation Systems of Care: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, James J; Carr, Brendan; Sasson, Comilla; Bobrow, Bentley J; Callaway, Clifton W; Neumar, Robert W; Ferrer, Jose Maria E; Garvey, J Lee; Ornato, Joseph P; Gonzales, Louis; Granger, Christopher B; Kleinman, Monica E; Bjerke, Chris; Nichol, Graham

    2018-02-26

    The American Heart Association previously recommended implementation of cardiac resuscitation systems of care that consist of interconnected community, emergency medical services, and hospital efforts to measure and improve the process of care and outcome for patients with cardiac arrest. In addition, the American Heart Association proposed a national process to develop and implement evidence-based guidelines for cardiac resuscitation systems of care. Significant experience has been gained with implementing these systems, and new evidence has accumulated. This update describes recent advances in the science of cardiac resuscitation systems and evidence of their effectiveness, as well as recent progress in dissemination and implementation throughout the United States. Emphasis is placed on evidence published since the original recommendations (ie, including and since 2010). © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Statistical shape modelling to aid surgical planning: associations between surgical parameters and head shapes following spring-assisted cranioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Florez, Naiara; Bruse, Jan L; Borghi, Alessandro; Vercruysse, Herman; Ong, Juling; James, Greg; Pennec, Xavier; Dunaway, David J; Jeelani, N U Owase; Schievano, Silvia

    2017-10-01

    Spring-assisted cranioplasty is performed to correct the long and narrow head shape of children with sagittal synostosis. Such corrective surgery involves osteotomies and the placement of spring-like distractors, which gradually expand to widen the skull until removal about 4 months later. Due to its dynamic nature, associations between surgical parameters and post-operative 3D head shape features are difficult to comprehend. The current study aimed at applying population-based statistical shape modelling to gain insight into how the choice of surgical parameters such as craniotomy size and spring positioning affects post-surgical head shape. Twenty consecutive patients with sagittal synostosis who underwent spring-assisted cranioplasty at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (London, UK) were prospectively recruited. Using a nonparametric statistical modelling technique based on mathematical currents, a 3D head shape template was computed from surface head scans of sagittal patients after spring removal. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was employed to quantify and visualise trends of localised head shape changes associated with the surgical parameters recorded during spring insertion: anterior-posterior and lateral craniotomy dimensions, anterior spring position and distance between anterior and posterior springs. Bivariate correlations between surgical parameters and corresponding PLS shape vectors demonstrated that anterior-posterior (Pearson's [Formula: see text]) and lateral craniotomy dimensions (Spearman's [Formula: see text]), as well as the position of the anterior spring ([Formula: see text]) and the distance between both springs ([Formula: see text]) on average had significant effects on head shapes at the time of spring removal. Such effects were visualised on 3D models. Population-based analysis of 3D post-operative medical images via computational statistical modelling tools allowed for detection of novel associations between surgical

  10. Prevalence of abnormal patellofemoral congruence in elite American football players and association with quadriceps isokinetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher A; Carragee, Cat; Sox-Harris, Alex; Merchant, Alan C; Mcadams, Timothy R

    2014-02-01

    Abnormal patellofemoral joint alignment has been discussed as a potential risk factor for patellofemoral disorders and can impact the longevity of any elite athlete's career. The prevalence of abnormal patellofemoral congruence in elite American football athletes is similar to the general population and does not have a relationship with quadriceps isokinetic testing. A total of 125 athletes (220 knees) from the 2011 National Football League (NFL) Combine database who had radiographic and isokinetic studies were reviewed. Congruence angles (CA) and lateral patellofemoral angles (LPA) were calculated on a Merchant radiographic view. Isokinetic testing was used to determine quadriceps-to-hamstring strength (Q/H) ratio and side-to-side deficits. The relationships between abnormal CA and LPA with Q/H ratios, side-to-side deficits, and body mass index (BMI) were examined in separate logistic regression models. A Chi-square test was used to examine the association between CA and player position. Of all, 26.8% of the knees (95% CI: 21.1-33.2%) had an abnormal CA. Knees with normal CA (n = 161) did not significantly differ from those with an abnormal CA (n  = 59) in Q/H ratios (mean: 0.699 vs. 0.728, p = 0.19) or side-to-side quadriceps deficits (mean: 4.0 vs. 1.24, p  = 0.45). For each point increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR) of abnormal congruence increased by 11.4% (p = 0.002). Of all the knees, 4.1% (95% CI: 1.9-7.6%) had an abnormal LPA, and this was not associated with Q/H ratios (p  =  0.13). For each point increase in BMI, the odds of abnormal LPA increased by 16% (p  = 0.036). CA abnormality had much higher odds of having an abnormal LPA (OR: 5.96, p = 0.014). We found that abnormal patellofemoral radiographic alignment in elite American football players is relatively common and there was no association with isokinetic testing. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Implementation of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Blood Cholesterol Guideline Including Data From the Improved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeian, Boback; Dinkler, John; Watson, Karol

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. The management of blood cholesterol through use of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) in at-risk patients is a pillar of medical therapy for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The recent 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline on managing blood cholesterol provides an important framework for the effective implementation of risk-reduction strategies. The guideline identifies four cohorts of patients with proven benefits from statin therapy and streamlines the dosing and monitoring recommendations based on evidence from published, randomized controlled trials. Primary care physicians and cardiologists play key roles in identifying populations at elevated ASCVD risk. In providing a practical management overview of the current blood cholesterol guideline, we facilitate more informed discussions on treatment options between healthcare providers and their patients. PMID:26198559

  12. American Medical Association concepts of nutrition and health. Council on Scientific Affairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-23

    Although human need for various nutrients is well-established, the exact requirements for the different nutrients are not well-known. Nutrient requirements are affected by genetics; environment; nature of the diet; and hemeostatic demands under changing physiological conditions expressed as growth, reproduction and response to the stress of injury or disease. Pregnant and lactating women should be properly nourished if well-nourished infants are desired. Nutrient and energy needs are considerably increased during pregnancy and lactation. The most rapid growth of infants occurs during the 1st 4 to 6 months of life. Because of the many advantages of breast milk over artificial milk, full-term newborn infants should be breastfed, unless there are specific contraindications or breastfeeding is unsuccessful. The American Medical Association (AMA) urges that better efforts be made to educate the public and the medical profession as to the advantages of breastfeeding. The 4th to the 6th months of life constitute the transitional period in infant feeding. The baby should be introduced to single-ingredient foods in small quantities, one at a time, to isolate food sensitivities. Good eating habits can be formed early in life through the proper and gradual introduction of varied and nutritional meal patterns. Energy balance is a nutritional problem in late childhood and once maturity is achieved, while calorically and nutritionally inadequate diets are a growing concern for the elderly. Immoderate eating habits (e.g., overeating) may aggravate or contribute to the development of degenerative diseases and should be discouraged. The AMA recommends that the American public focus on the achievement and maintenance of the most desirable body weight through a proper combination of dietary control and exercise. Specific dietary modifications (sodium restriction, weight control) are necessary in the management of hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart diseases and other medical

  13. Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Sweeteners elicit pleasurable sensations with (nutritive) or without (nonnutritive) energy. Nutritive sweeteners (eg, sucrose, fructose) are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), yet concern exists about increasing sweetener intakes relative to optimal nutrition and health. Dietary quality suffers at intakes above 25% of total energy (the Institutes of Medicine's suggested maximal intake level). In the United States, estimated intakes of nutritive sweeteners fall below this, although one in four children (ages 9 to 18 years) can surpass this level. Polyols (sugar alcohols), GRAS-affirmed or petitions filed for GRAS, add sweetness with reduced energy and functional properties to foods/beverages and promote dental health. Five nonnutritive sweeteners with intense sweetening power have FDA approval (acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, sucralose) and estimated intakes below the Acceptable Daily Intake (level that a person can safely consume everyday over a lifetime without risk). By increasing palatability of nutrient-dense foods/beverages, sweeteners can promote diet healthfulness. Scientific evidence supports neither that intakes of nutritive sweeteners by themselves increase the risk of obesity nor that nutritive or nonnutritive sweeteners cause behavioral disorders. However, nutritive sweeteners increase risk of dental caries. High fructose intakes may cause hypertriglyceridemia and gastrointestinal symptoms in susceptible individuals. Thus, it is the position of The American Dietetic Association that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners when consumed in a diet that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary References Intakes, as well as individual health goals. Dietetics professionals should provide consumers with science-based information about sweeteners and support research on the use of sweeteners

  14. Molecular Biomarkers for the Evaluation of Colorectal Cancer: Guideline From the American Society for Clinical Pathology, College of American Pathologists, Association for Molecular Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Antonia R; Hamilton, Stanley R; Allegra, Carmen J; Grody, Wayne; Cushman-Vokoun, Allison M; Funkhouser, William K; Kopetz, Scott E; Lieu, Christopher; Lindor, Noralane M; Minsky, Bruce D; Monzon, Federico A; Sargent, Daniel J; Singh, Veena M; Willis, Joseph; Clark, Jennifer; Colasacco, Carol; Bryan Rumble, R; Temple-Smolkin, Robyn; B Ventura, Christina; Nowak, Jan A

    2017-05-01

    - To develop evidence-based guideline recommendations through a systematic review of the literature to establish standard molecular biomarker testing of colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues to guide epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapies and conventional chemotherapy regimens. - The American Society for Clinical Pathology, College of American Pathologists, Association for Molecular Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology convened an expert panel to develop an evidence-based guideline to establish standard molecular biomarker testing and guide therapies for patients with CRC. A comprehensive literature search that included more than 4,000 articles was conducted. - Twenty-one guideline statements were established. - Evidence supports mutational testing for EGFR signaling pathway genes, since they provide clinically actionable information as negative predictors of benefit to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapies for targeted therapy of CRC. Mutations in several of the biomarkers have clear prognostic value. Laboratory approaches to operationalize CRC molecular testing are presented.

  15. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2012, Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions were held for the first time in Los Angeles in 2012, with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science in the field presented and heard by physicians, research scientists, students, and paramedical personnel from 100 countries. Japan accounted for the second highest number of submitted abstracts and the Japanese Circulation Society actively contributed to the success of the AHA Scientific Sessions this year. The Late-Breaking Clinical Trial sessions comprised 27 clinical studies presented in the main hall. The FREEDOM study revealed the superiority of using a coronary artery bypass graft for diabetic multivessel coronary artery diseases over percutaneous coronary intervention using a drug-eluting stent. A new peptide hormone, serelaxin, improved dyspnea in heart failure patients and significantly reduced mortality rates according to the RELAX-AHF study. In the basic sciences, primary necrosis in mitochondria was the hot topic, while genetics, including genome-wide association studies, and epigenetics were strong features of the basic and clinical cardiovascular (CV) science. It was also clear that regenerative medicine is now part of mainstream CV research, with several clinical trials underway and many basic research projects ongoing around the world. Induced pluripotent stem cells in particular have the potential to change CV medicine, and will underpin the next era of regenerative medicine and personal therapies for heart diseases.

  16. American Thyroid Association Statement on Preoperative Imaging for Thyroid Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Andrew J.; Bernet, Victor A.; Ferris, Robert L.; Loevner, Laurie A.; Mandel, Susan J.; Orloff, Lisa A.; Randolph, Gregory W.; Steward, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The success of surgery for thyroid cancer hinges on thorough and accurate preoperative imaging, which enables complete clearance of the primary tumor and affected lymph node compartments. This working group was charged by the Surgical Affairs Committee of the American Thyroid Association to examine the available literature and to review the most appropriate imaging studies for the planning of initial and revision surgery for thyroid cancer. Summary: Ultrasound remains the most important imaging modality in the evaluation of thyroid cancer, and should be used routinely to assess both the primary tumor and all associated cervical lymph node basins preoperatively. Positive lymph nodes may be distinguished from normal nodes based upon size, shape, echogenicity, hypervascularity, loss of hilar architecture, and the presence of calcifications. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of suspicious lymph nodes may be useful in guiding the extent of surgery. Cross-sectional imaging (computed tomography with contrast or magnetic resonance imaging) may be considered in select circumstances to better characterize tumor invasion and bulky, inferiorly located, or posteriorly located lymph nodes, or when ultrasound expertise is not available. The above recommendations are applicable to both initial and revision surgery. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or PET-CT may be helpful in cases of recurrent cancer with positive tumor markers and negative anatomic imaging. PMID:25188202

  17. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: a critique of policy and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Brad; Soldz, Stephen; Davis, Martha

    2008-01-29

    The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative) side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights.

  18. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: A critique of policy and process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Martha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs, as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights.

  19. Bilingualism in older Mexican-American immigrants is associated with higher scores on cognitive screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Padilla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bilingualism may protect against cognitive aging and delay the onset of dementia. However, studies comparing monolinguals and bilinguals on such metrics have produced inconsistent results complicated by confounding variables and methodological concerns. Methods We addressed this issue by comparing cognitive performance in a more culturally homogeneous cohort of older Spanish-speaking monolingual (n = 289 and Spanish-English bilingual (n = 339 Mexican-American immigrants from the Sacramento Longitudinal Study on Aging. Results After adjusting for demographic differences and depressive symptoms, both groups performed similarly at baseline on verbal memory but the bilingual group performed significantly better than the monolingual group on a cognitive screening test, the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS; p < 0.001. Group differences on the 3MS were driven by language/executive and language/praxis factors. Within the bilingual group, neither language of testing nor degree of bilingualism was significantly associated with 3MS or verbal memory scores. Amongst individuals who performed in the normal or better range on both tests at baseline and were followed for an average of 6 years, both monolinguals and bilinguals exhibited similar rates of cognitive decline on both measures. Conclusions These findings suggest that bilingualism is associated with modest benefits in cognitive screening performance in older individuals in cross-sectional analyses that persist across longitudinal analyses. The effects of bilingualism should be considered when cognitively screening is performed in aging immigrant populations.

  20. Multifactor dimensionality reduction reveals gene–gene interactions associated with multiple sclerosis susceptibility in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassat, D; Motsinger, AA; Caillier, SJ; Erlich, HA; Walker, K; Steiner, LL; Cree, BAC; Barcellos, LF; Pericak-Vance, MA; Schmidt, S; Gregory, S; Hauser, SL; Haines, JL; Oksenberg, JR; Ritchie, MD

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, myelin loss, gliosis, varying degrees of axonal pathology, and progressive neurological dysfunction. Multiple sclerosis exhibits many of the characteristics that distinguish complex genetic disorders including polygenic inheritance and environmental exposure risks. Here, we used a highly efficient multilocus genotyping assay representing variation in 34 genes associated with inflammatory pathways to explore gene–gene interactions and disease susceptibility in a well-characterized African-American case–control MS data set. We applied the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) test to detect epistasis, and identified single-IL4R(Q576R)- and three-IL4R(Q576R), IL5RA(-80), CD14(-260)- locus association models that predict MS risk with 75–76% accuracy (P < 0.01). These results demonstrate the importance of exploring both main effects and gene–gene interactions in the study of complex diseases. PMID:16625214

  1. Multifactor dimensionality reduction reveals gene-gene interactions associated with multiple sclerosis susceptibility in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassat, D; Motsinger, A A; Caillier, S J; Erlich, H A; Walker, K; Steiner, L L; Cree, B A C; Barcellos, L F; Pericak-Vance, M A; Schmidt, S; Gregory, S; Hauser, S L; Haines, J L; Oksenberg, J R; Ritchie, M D

    2006-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common disease of the central nervous system characterized by inflammation, myelin loss, gliosis, varying degrees of axonal pathology, and progressive neurological dysfunction. Multiple sclerosis exhibits many of the characteristics that distinguish complex genetic disorders including polygenic inheritance and environmental exposure risks. Here, we used a highly efficient multilocus genotyping assay representing variation in 34 genes associated with inflammatory pathways to explore gene-gene interactions and disease susceptibility in a well-characterized African-American case-control MS data set. We applied the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) test to detect epistasis, and identified single-IL4R(Q576R)- and three-IL4R(Q576R), IL5RA(-80), CD14(-260)- locus association models that predict MS risk with 75-76% accuracy (P<0.01). These results demonstrate the importance of exploring both main effects and gene-gene interactions in the study of complex diseases.

  2. Statin-associated muscle symptoms: position paper from the Luso-Latin American Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposito, Andrei C; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Carvalho, Luiz Sergio F de; Lorenzatti, Alberto; Cafferata, Alberto; Elikir, Gerardo; Esteban, Eduardo; Morales Villegas, Enrique C; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Alonso, Rodrigo; Ruiz, Alvaro J; Rocha, Viviane Z; Faludi, André A; Xavier, Hermes T; Coelho, Otávio Rizzi; Assad, Marcelo H V; Izar, Maria C; Santos, Raul D; Fonseca, Francisco A H; Mello E Silva, Alberto; Silva, Pedro Marques da; Bertolami, Marcelo C

    2017-02-01

    In the last two decades, statin therapy has proved to be the most potent isolated therapy for attenuation of cardiovascular risk. Its frequent use has been seen as one of the most important elements for the reduction of cardiovascular mortality in developed countries. However, the recurrent incidence of muscle symptoms in statin users raised the possibility of causal association, leading to a disease entity known as statin associated muscle symptoms (SAMS). Mechanistic studies and clinical trials, specifically designed for the study of SAMS have allowed a deeper understanding of the natural history and accurate incidence. This set of information becomes essential to avoid an unnecessary risk of severe forms of SAMS. At the same time, this concrete understanding of SAMS prevents overdiagnosis and an inadequate suspension of one of the most powerful prevention strategies of our times. In this context, the Luso-Latin American Consortium gathered all available information on the subject and presents them in detail in this document as the basis for the identification and management of SAMS.

  3. Bilingualism in older Mexican-American immigrants is associated with higher scores on cognitive screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Claudia; Mendez, Mario F; Jimenez, Elvira E; Teng, Edmond

    2016-11-24

    Bilingualism may protect against cognitive aging and delay the onset of dementia. However, studies comparing monolinguals and bilinguals on such metrics have produced inconsistent results complicated by confounding variables and methodological concerns. We addressed this issue by comparing cognitive performance in a more culturally homogeneous cohort of older Spanish-speaking monolingual (n = 289) and Spanish-English bilingual (n = 339) Mexican-American immigrants from the Sacramento Longitudinal Study on Aging. After adjusting for demographic differences and depressive symptoms, both groups performed similarly at baseline on verbal memory but the bilingual group performed significantly better than the monolingual group on a cognitive screening test, the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS; p bilingual group, neither language of testing nor degree of bilingualism was significantly associated with 3MS or verbal memory scores. Amongst individuals who performed in the normal or better range on both tests at baseline and were followed for an average of 6 years, both monolinguals and bilinguals exhibited similar rates of cognitive decline on both measures. These findings suggest that bilingualism is associated with modest benefits in cognitive screening performance in older individuals in cross-sectional analyses that persist across longitudinal analyses. The effects of bilingualism should be considered when cognitively screening is performed in aging immigrant populations.

  4. American Thyroid Association statement on preoperative imaging for thyroid cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Michael W; Bauer, Andrew J; Bernet, Victor A; Ferris, Robert L; Loevner, Laurie A; Mandel, Susan J; Orloff, Lisa A; Randolph, Gregory W; Steward, David L

    2015-01-01

    The success of surgery for thyroid cancer hinges on thorough and accurate preoperative imaging, which enables complete clearance of the primary tumor and affected lymph node compartments. This working group was charged by the Surgical Affairs Committee of the American Thyroid Association to examine the available literature and to review the most appropriate imaging studies for the planning of initial and revision surgery for thyroid cancer. Ultrasound remains the most important imaging modality in the evaluation of thyroid cancer, and should be used routinely to assess both the primary tumor and all associated cervical lymph node basins preoperatively. Positive lymph nodes may be distinguished from normal nodes based upon size, shape, echogenicity, hypervascularity, loss of hilar architecture, and the presence of calcifications. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration of suspicious lymph nodes may be useful in guiding the extent of surgery. Cross-sectional imaging (computed tomography with contrast or magnetic resonance imaging) may be considered in select circumstances to better characterize tumor invasion and bulky, inferiorly located, or posteriorly located lymph nodes, or when ultrasound expertise is not available. The above recommendations are applicable to both initial and revision surgery. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) or PET-CT may be helpful in cases of recurrent cancer with positive tumor markers and negative anatomic imaging.

  5. Outcomes of American Lung Association-Indiana Lung Centers asthma program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Kent H; Zillich, Alan J; Nyhuis, Allen W; Twigg, Homer L

    2005-10-01

    The American Lung Association of Indiana (ALA-I), in conjunction with participating Indiana hospitals, developed the Lung Center concept as a mechanism to provide standardized delivery of lung health education. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate initial experience with the Lung Center program "Overcoming Your Asthma," a two-session asthma education program, and identify areas needing improvement. A total of 305 participants responded to a 31-item questionnaire at baseline (immediately prior to program exposure) and again at 1 month (n = 75) and 6 months (n = 30) after participation. Overall, delivery of the ALA-I Lung Center asthma education program improved respondents' experience with asthma. At one month after the educational session, the program improved participant knowledge about asthma. This was associated with modest improvements in treatment behaviors, economic outcomes and asthma symptoms such as reduced breathing difficulties, wheezing and asthma exacerbations, and improvement in sleep. Improvements were not uniformly sustained at 6 months. In summary, the Lung Center asthma education program appears to benefit patients with asthma. The results provide preliminary evidence to support continued delivery of asthma education in Lung Centers. Future efforts should emphasize education to improve treatment attitudes and behaviors.

  6. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a policy statement from the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Thomas H; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Hanna, Nasser H; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Herbst, Roy S; Hobin, Jennifer A; Ostroff, Jamie S; Shields, Peter G; Toll, Benjamin A; Tyne, Courtney A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Warren, Graham W

    2015-02-01

    Combustible tobacco use remains the number one preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include e-cigarettes, are devices capable of delivering nicotine in an aerosolized form. ENDS use by both adults and youth has increased rapidly, and some have advocated these products could serve as harm-reduction devices and smoking cessation aids. ENDS may be beneficial if they reduce smoking rates or prevent or reduce the known adverse health effects of smoking. However, ENDS may also be harmful, particularly to youth, if they increase the likelihood that nonsmokers or formers smokers will use combustible tobacco products or if they discourage smokers from quitting. The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recognize the potential ENDS have to alter patterns of tobacco use and affect the public's health; however, definitive data are lacking. AACR and ASCO recommend additional research on these devices, including assessing the health impacts of ENDS, understanding patterns of ENDS use, and determining what role ENDS have in cessation. Key policy recommendations include supporting federal, state, and local regulation of ENDS; requiring manufacturers to register with the FDA and report all product ingredients, requiring childproof caps on ENDS liquids, and including warning labels on products and their advertisements; prohibiting youth-oriented marketing and sales; prohibiting child-friendly ENDS flavors; and prohibiting ENDS use in places where cigarette smoking is prohibited. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research and American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  7. ADIPOSITY-BASED CHRONIC DISEASE AS A NEW DIAGNOSTIC TERM: THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY POSITION STATEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Hurley, Daniel L; Garvey, W Timothy

    2017-03-01

    The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) have created a chronic care model, advanced diagnostic framework, clinical practice guidelines, and clinical practice algorithm for the comprehensive management of obesity. This coordinated effort is not solely based on body mass index as in previous models, but emphasizes a complications-centric approach that primarily determines therapeutic decisions and desired outcomes. Adiposity-Based Chronic Disease (ABCD) is a new diagnostic term for obesity that explicitly identifies a chronic disease, alludes to a precise pathophysiologic basis, and avoids the stigmata and confusion related to the differential use and multiple meanings of the term "obesity." Key elements to further the care of patients using this new ABCD term are: (1) positioning lifestyle medicine in the promotion of overall health, not only as the first algorithmic step, but as the central, pervasive action; (2) standardizing protocols that comprehensively and durably address weight loss and management of adiposity-based complications; (3) approaching patient care through contextualization (e.g., primordial prevention to decrease obesogenic environmental risk factors and transculturalization to adapt evidence-based recommendations for different ethnicities, cultures, and socio-economics); and lastly, (4) developing evidence-based strategies for successful implementation, monitoring, and optimization of patient care over time. This AACE/ACE blueprint extends current work and aspires to meaningfully improve both individual and population health by presenting a new ABCD term for medical diagnostic purposes, use in a complications-centric management and staging strategy, and precise reference to the obesity chronic disease state, divested from counterproductive stigmata and ambiguities found in the general public sphere. AACE = American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists ABCD = Adiposity

  8. Artificial Outdoor Nighttime Lights Associate with Altered Sleep Behavior in the American General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Milesi, Cristina

    2016-06-01

    Our study aims to explore the associations between outdoor nighttime lights (ONL) and sleep patterns in the human population. Cross-sectional telephone study of a representative sample of the general US population age 18 y or older. 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals (participation rate: 83.2%) were interviewed by telephone. The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; sleep, mental and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders, Second Edition; International Classification of Diseases, 10(th) Edition). Individuals were geolocated by longitude and latitude. Outdoor nighttime light measurements were obtained from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP/OLS), with nighttime passes taking place between 19:30 and 22:30 local time. Light data were correlated precisely to the geolocation of each participant of the general population sample. Living in areas with greater ONL was associated with delayed bedtime (P sleep duration (P sleep quantity and quality (P sleep behaviors and also impinge on the daytime functioning of individuals living in areas with greater ONL. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  9. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims.

  10. Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huifen; Livingston, Kara A; Fox, Caroline S; Meigs, James B; Jacques, Paul F

    2013-01-01

    The evidence-based Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends increasing the intake of fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products. However, yogurt, a nutrient-dense milk product, has been understudied. This cross-sectional study examined whether yogurt consumption was associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile among adults (n = 6526) participating in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (1998-2001) and Third Generation (2002-2005) cohorts. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake, and the Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index (DGAI) was used to measure overall diet quality. Standardized clinical examinations and laboratory tests were conducted. Generalized estimating equations examined the associations of yogurt consumption with diet quality and levels of metabolic factors. Approximately 64% of women (vs 41% of men) were yogurt consumers (ie, consumed >0 servings/week). Yogurt consumers had a higher DGAI score (ie, better diet quality) than nonconsumers. Adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors and DGAI, yogurt consumers, compared with nonconsumers, had higher potassium intakes (difference, 0.12 g/d) and were 47%, 55%, 48%, 38%, and 34% less likely to have inadequate intakes (based on Dietary Reference Intake) of vitamins B2 and B12, calcium, magnesium, and zinc, respectively (all P ≤ .001). In addition, yogurt consumption was associated with lower levels of circulating triglycerides, glucose, and lower systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance (all P < .05). Yogurt is a good source of several micronutrients and may help to improve diet quality and maintain metabolic well-being as part of a healthy, energy-balanced dietary pattern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations Between Bullying Involvement, Protective Factors, and Mental Health Among American Indian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloppen, Kari; McMorris, Barbara; Gower, Amy; Eisenberg, Marla

    2017-08-17

    Bullying involvement as a victim or perpetrator is associated with depression and suicidality, and American Indian (AI) youth experience a disproportionately high rate of these mental health issues. This study assessed whether AI young people involved in bullying were more likely to experience negative mental health problems than AI youth who were not involved in bullying, and identified protective factors that might support this particularly vulnerable population. Data come from 1,409 8th, 9th, and 11th Grade AI students who completed the 2013 Minnesota Student Survey. Logistic regression models estimated associations between bullying involvement and internalizing symptoms and suicidality. Selected protective factors (internal assets, empowerment, positive student-teacher relationships, and feeling safe at school) were also examined as independent variables. All forms of bullying perpetration and victimization were associated with increased risk for mental health problems (odds ratio [OR]: 1.57-2.87). AI youth who reported higher levels of protective factors were less likely to report internalizing symptoms and suicidality even in the presence of bullying involvement. For example, AI youth who reported high levels of internal assets had half the odds of reporting internalizing symptoms compared with those with low levels of internal assets (OR = 0.53, confidence interval [CI] 0.38, 0.74). Findings suggest that, similar to a general sample of students, bullying-involved AI students are significantly more likely to experience mental health problems. Promoting school as a safe place and incorporating culturally relevant programming to promote internal assets such as positive identity, social competence, and empowerment among AI students could help reduce the negative effects of bullying involvement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huifen; Livingston, Kara A.; Fox, Caroline S.; Meigs, James B.; Jacques, Paul F.

    2013-01-01

    The evidence-based Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends increasing the intake of fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products. However, yogurt, a nutrient-dense milk product, has been understudied. This cross-sectional study examined whether yogurt consumption was associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile among adults (n = 6526) participating in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (1998-2001) and Third Generation (2002-2005) cohorts. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake, and the Dietary Guidelines Adherence Index (DGAI) was used to measure overall diet quality. Standardized clinical examinations and laboratory tests were conducted. Generalized estimating equations examined the associations of yogurt consumption with diet quality and levels of metabolic factors. Approximately 64% of women (vs 41% of men) were yogurt consumers (ie, consumed >0 servings/week). Yogurt consumers had a higher DGAI score (ie, better diet quality) than nonconsumers. Adjusted for demographic and lifestyle factors and DGAI, yogurt consumers, compared with nonconsumers, had higher potassium intakes (difference, 0.12 g/d) and were 47%, 55%, 48%, 38%, and 34% less likely to have inadequate intakes (based on Dietary Reference Intake) of vitamins B2 and B12, calcium, magnesium, and zinc, respectively (all P ≤ .001). In addition, yogurt consumption was associated with lower levels of circulating triglycerides, glucose, and lower systolic blood pressure and insulin resistance (all P Yogurt is a good source of several micronutrients and may help to improve diet quality and maintain metabolic well-being as part of a healthy, energy-balanced dietary pattern. PMID:23351406

  13. Association of Job Insecurity with Health Risk Factors and Poorer Health in American Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H

    2017-04-01

    Perceived job insecurity and health risk factors have not been well studied in the United States (US) workforce. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of specific health risk factors and morbidities with perceived job insecurity in a large national random sample of working adults in the US. The National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed for this study. We computed the prevalence of perceived job insecurity by demographic characteristics and tested the relative association between perceived job insecurity and selected health risk factors using logistic regression analysis with adjusted odds ratios (AORs). A total of 17,441 working adults were included in the study: 75 % Whites, 51.5 % females, 73.3 % worked for a private company, and 82.6 % were 25-64 years of age. One in three (33 %) workers perceived their job to be insecure. Those who reported job insecurity had significantly higher odds of: being obese, sleeping less than 6 h/day, smoking every day, having work loss days >2 weeks, and worsening of general health in the past year. Job insecure individuals had a likelihood of serious mental illness within the past 30 days almost five times higher than those who were not job insecure. In addition, job insecure individuals were significantly more likely to report pain conditions (i.e. headaches, neck pain, and low back pain), and lifetime histories of having ulcers, diabetes, hypertension, angina pectoris, and coronary heart diseases. Job insecurity is associated with poor health and health risk behaviors in American adults. Potential interventions to address job insecurity and improve the health and well-being of working adults have been discussed based on study findings.

  14. American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM): a professional association in service to industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph; Teitelbaum, Daniel T; Egilman, David S; Frank, Arthur L; Kramer, Sharon N; Huff, James

    2007-01-01

    The American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM) is a professional association that represents the interests of its company-employed physician members. Fifty years ago the ACOEM began to assert itself in the legislative arena as an advocate of limited regulation and enforcement of occupational health and safety standards and laws, and environmental protection. Today the ACOEM provides a legitimizing professional association for company doctors, and continues to provide a vehicle to advance the agendas of their corporate sponsors. Company doctors in ACOEM recently blocked attempts to have the organization take a stand on global warming. Company doctors employed by the petrochemical industry even blocked the ACOEM from taking a position on particulate air pollution. Industry money and influence pervade every aspect of occupational and environmental medicine. The controlling influence of industry over the ACOEM physicians should cease. The conflict of interests inherent in the practice of occupational and environmental medicine is not resolved by the ineffectual efforts of the ACOEM to establish a pretentious code of conduct. The conflicted interests within the ACOEM have become too deeply embedded to be resolved by merely a self-governing code of conduct. The specialty practice of occupational and environmental medicine has the opportunity and obligation to join the public health movement. If it does, the ACOEM will have no further purpose as it exists, and specialists in occupational and environmental medicine will meet with and be represented by public health associations. This paper chronicles the history of occupational medicine and industry physicians as influenced and even controlled by corporate leaders.

  15. Wintertime East Asian Jet Stream and its Association with the Asian-Pacific-American Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song; Lau, K.-M.; Kim, K.-M.

    1999-01-01

    The wintertime upper-tropospheric westerly jet stream over subtropical East Asia and western Pacific, often referred to as East Asian Jet (EAJ), is an important atmospheric circulation system in the Asian-Pacific-American (APA) region. It is characterized by variabilities on a wide range of time scales and exerts a strong impact on the weather and climate of the region. On the synoptic scale, the jet is closely linked to many phenomena such as cyclogenesis, frontogenesis, blocking, storm track activity, and the development of other atmospheric disturbances. On the seasonal time scale, the variation of the EAJ determines many characteristics of the seasonal transition of the atmospheric circulation over Asia. The variabilities of the jet on these time scales have been relatively well documented (e.g., Yeh et al. 1959, Palmen and Newton 1969; Zeng 1979). It has also been understood that the inter-annual variability of the EAJ is associated with many climate signals in the APA region. These signals include the persistent anomalies of the East Asian winter monsoon and the changes in diabatic heating and in the Hadley circulation (Bjerknes 1966; Chang and Lau 1980; Huang and Gambo 1982; Kang and Held 1986; Tao and Chen 1987; Lau et al. 1988; Yang and Webster 1990; Ding 1992; Webster and Yang 1992; Dong et al. 1999). However, many questions remain for the year-to-year variabilities of the jet and their relation to the APA climate. For example, what is the relationship between the EAJ and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO)? Will the jet and ENSO play different roles in modulating the APA climate? How is the jet linked to North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and the Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern? In this study, we address several issues related to the wintertime EAJ with a focus on interannual time scales. We will examine the association between the jet core and ENSO, which has always been overshadowed by the relationship between ENSO and the

  16. To Be or Not to Be Associated: Power study of four statistical modeling approaches to identify parasite associations in cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise eVaumourin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies are reporting simultaneous infections by parasites in many different hosts. The detection of whether these parasites are significantly associated is important in medicine and epidemiology. Numerous approaches to detect associations are available, but only a few provide statistical tests. Furthermore, they generally test for an overall detection of association and do not identify which parasite is associated with which other one. Here, we developed a new approach, the association screening approach, to detect the overall and the detail of multi-parasite associations. We studied the power of this new approach and of three other known ones (i.e. the generalized chi-square, the network and the multinomial GLM approaches to identify parasite associations either due to parasite interactions or to confounding factors. We applied these four approaches to detect associations within two populations of multi-infected hosts: 1 rodents infected with Bartonella sp., Babesia microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum and 2 bovine population infected with Theileria sp. and Babesia sp.. We found that the best power is obtained with the screening model and the generalized chi-square test. The differentiation between associations, which are due to confounding factors and parasite interactions was not possible. The screening approach significantly identified associations between Bartonella doshiae and B. microti, and between T. parva, T. mutans and T. velifera. Thus, the screening approach was relevant to test the overall presence of parasite associations and identify the parasite combinations that are significantly over- or under-represented. Unravelling whether the associations are due to real biological interactions or confounding factors should be further investigated. Nevertheless, in the age of genomics and the advent of new technologies, it is a considerable asset to speed up researches focusing on the mechanisms driving interactions

  17. Combining Multiple Hypothesis Testing with Machine Learning Increases the Statistical Power of Genome-wide Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieth, Bettina; Kloft, Marius; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Sonnenburg, Sören; Vobruba, Robin; Morcillo-Suárez, Carlos; Farré, Xavier; Marigorta, Urko M.; Fehr, Ernst; Dickhaus, Thorsten; Blanchard, Gilles; Schunk, Daniel; Navarro, Arcadi; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-01-01

    The standard approach to the analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is based on testing each position in the genome individually for statistical significance of its association with the phenotype under investigation. To improve the analysis of GWAS, we propose a combination of machine learning and statistical testing that takes correlation structures within the set of SNPs under investigation in a mathematically well-controlled manner into account. The novel two-step algorithm, COMBI, first trains a support vector machine to determine a subset of candidate SNPs and then performs hypothesis tests for these SNPs together with an adequate threshold correction. Applying COMBI to data from a WTCCC study (2007) and measuring performance as replication by independent GWAS published within the 2008–2015 period, we show that our method outperforms ordinary raw p-value thresholding as well as other state-of-the-art methods. COMBI presents higher power and precision than the examined alternatives while yielding fewer false (i.e. non-replicated) and more true (i.e. replicated) discoveries when its results are validated on later GWAS studies. More than 80% of the discoveries made by COMBI upon WTCCC data have been validated by independent studies. Implementations of the COMBI method are available as a part of the GWASpi toolbox 2.0. PMID:27892471

  18. Dengue hemorrhagic fever and typhoid fever association based on spatial standpoint using scan statistics in DKI Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervind, Widyaningsih, Y.

    2017-07-01

    Concurrent infection with multiple infectious agents may occur in one patient, it appears frequently in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and typhoid fever. This paper depicted association between DHF and typhoid based on spatial point of view. Since paucity of data regarding dengue and typhoid co-infection, data that be used are the number of patients of those diseases in every district (kecamatan) in Jakarta in 2014 and 2015 obtained from Jakarta surveillance website. Poisson spatial scan statistics is used to detect DHF and typhoid hotspots area district in Jakarta separately. After obtain the hotspot, Fisher's exact test is applied to validate association between those two diseases' hotspot. The result exhibit hotspots of DHF and typhoid are located around central Jakarta. The further analysis used Poisson space-time scan statistics to reveal the hotspot in term of spatial and time. DHF and typhoid fever more likely occurr from January until May in the area which is relatively similar with pure spatial result. Preventive action could be done especially in the hotspot areas and it is required further study to observe the causes based on characteristics of the hotspot area.

  19. Biogeographic ancestry is associated with higher total body adiposity among African-American females: the Boston Area Community Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonesekera, Sunali D; Fang, Shona C; Piccolo, Rebecca S; Florez, Jose C; McKinlay, John B

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately higher among African-Americans and Hispanics as compared to whites. We investigated the role of biogeographic ancestry (BGA) on adiposity and changes in adiposity in the Boston Area Community Health Survey. We evaluated associations between BGA, assessed via Ancestry Informative Markers, and adiposity (body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (PBF), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)) and changes in adiposity over 7 years for BMI and WHR and 2.5 years for PBF, per 10% greater proportion of BGA using multivariable linear regression. We also examined effect-modification by demographic and socio-behavioral variables. We observed positive associations between West-African ancestry and cross-sectional BMI (percent difference=0.62%; 95% CI: 0.04%, 1.20%), and PBF (β=0.35; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.58). We also observed significant effect-modification of the association between West-African ancestry and BMI by gender (p-interaction: women. We observed no main associations between Native-American ancestry and adiposity but observed significant effect-modification of the association with BMI by diet (p-interaction: ancestry may contribute to high prevalence of total body adiposity among African-Americans, particularly African-American women.

  20. ABO blood group is associated with peripheral arterial disease in African Americans: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Mindy M; Larson, Nicholas B; Wassel, Christina L; Cohoon, Kevin P; Tsai, Michael Y; Pankow, James S; Hanson, Naomi Q; Decker, Paul A; Berardi, Cecilia; Alexander, Kristine S; Cushman, Mary; Zakai, Neil A; Bielinski, Suzette J

    2017-05-01

    Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects 8.5 million Americans and thus improving our understanding of PAD is critical to developing strategies to reduce disease burden. The objective of the study was to determine the association of ABO blood type with ankle brachial index (ABI) as well as prevalent and incident PAD in a multi-ethnic cohort. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis includes non-Hispanic White, African, Hispanic, and Chinese Americans aged 45-84. ABO blood type was estimated using ABO genotypes in 6027 participants who had ABI assessed at the baseline exam. Associations with ABO blood type were evaluated categorically and under an additive genetic model by number of major ABO alleles. After excluding those with ABI>1.4, prevalent PAD was defined as ABI≤0.9 at baseline and incident PAD as ABI≤0.9 for 5137 participants eligible for analysis. There were 222 prevalent cases and 239 incident cases of PAD. In African Americans, each additional copy of the A allele was associated with a 0.02 lower baseline ABI (p=0.006). Each copy of the A allele also corresponded to 1.57-fold greater odds of prevalent PAD (95% CI, 1.17-2.35; p=0.004), but was not associated with incident PAD. No associations were found in other racial/ethnic groups for ABI, prevalent PAD, or incident PAD across all races/ethnicities. Blood type A and the A allele count were significantly associated with baseline ABI and prevalent PAD in African Americans. Further research is needed to confirm and study the mechanisms of this association in African Americans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Contemporary management of high-grade renal trauma: Results from the American Association for the Surgery of Trauma Genitourinary Trauma study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihani, Sorena; Xu, Yizhe; Presson, Angela P; Hotaling, James M; Nirula, Raminder; Piotrowski, Joshua; Dodgion, Christopher M; Black, Cullen M; Mukherjee, Kaushik; Morris, Bradley J; Majercik, Sarah; Smith, Brian P; Schwartz, Ian; Elliott, Sean P; DeSoucy, Erik S; Zakaluzny, Scott; Thomsen, Peter B; Erickson, Bradley A; Baradaran, Nima; Breyer, Benjamin N; Miller, Brandi; Santucci, Richard A; Carrick, Matthew M; Hewitt, Timothy; Burks, Frank N; Kocik, Jurek F; Askari, Reza; Myers, Jeremy B

    2018-03-01

    The rarity of renal trauma limits its study and the strength of evidence-based guidelines. Although management of renal injuries has shifted toward a nonoperative approach, nephrectomy remains the most common intervention for high-grade renal trauma (HGRT). We aimed to describe the contemporary management of HGRT in the United States and also evaluate clinical factors associated with nephrectomy after HGRT. From 2014 to 2017, data on HGRT (American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grades III-V) were collected from 14 participating Level-1 trauma centers. Data were gathered on demographics, injury characteristics, management, and short-term outcomes. Management was classified into three groups-expectant, conservative/minimally invasive, and open operative. Descriptive statistics were used to report management of renal trauma. Univariate and multivariate logistic mixed effect models with clustering by facility were used to look at associations between proposed risk factors and nephrectomy. A total of 431 adult HGRT were recorded; 79% were male, and mechanism of injury was blunt in 71%. Injuries were graded as III, IV, and V in 236 (55%), 142 (33%), and 53 (12%), respectively. Laparotomy was performed in 169 (39%) patients. Overall, 300 (70%) patients were managed expectantly and 47 (11%) underwent conservative/minimally invasive management. Eighty-four (19%) underwent renal-related open operative management with 55 (67%) of them undergoing nephrectomy. Nephrectomy rates were 15% and 62% for grades IV and V, respectively. Penetrating injuries had significantly higher American Association for the Surgery of Trauma grades and higher rates of nephrectomy. In multivariable analysis, only renal injury grade and penetrating mechanism of injury were significantly associated with undergoing nephrectomy. Expectant and conservative management is currently utilized in 80% of HGRT; however, the rate of nephrectomy remains high. Clinical factors, such as surrogates of

  2. Report on the American Association of Medical Physics Undergraduate Fellowship Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilowitz, Jennifer B; Avery, Stephen; Gueye, Paul; Sandison, George A

    2013-01-07

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) sponsors two summer undergraduate research programs to attract top performing undergraduate students into graduate studies in medical physics: the Summer Undergraduate Fellowship Program (SUFP) and the Minority Undergraduate Summer Experience (MUSE). Undergraduate research experience (URE) is an effective tool to encourage students to pursue graduate degrees. The SUFP and MUSE are the only medical physics URE programs. From 2001 to 2012, 148 fellowships have been awarded and a total of $608,000 has been dispersed to fellows. This paper reports on the history, participation, and status of the programs. A review of surveys of past fellows is presented. Overall, the fellows and mentors are very satisfied with the program. The efficacy of the programs is assessed by four metrics: entry into a medical physics graduate program, board certification, publications, and AAPM involvement. Sixty-five percent of past fellow respondents decided to pursue a graduate degree in medical physics as a result of their participation in the program. Seventy percent of respondents are currently involved in some educational or professional aspect of medical physics. Suggestions for future enhancements to better track and maintain contact with past fellows, expand funding sources, and potentially combine the programs are presented.

  3. Report of the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on Treatment of Gender Identity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byne, William; Bradley, Susan J; Coleman, Eli; Eyler, A Evan; Green, Richard; Menvielle, Edgardo J; Meyer-Bahlburg, Heino F L; Pleak, Richard R; Tompkins, D Andrew

    2012-08-01

    Both the diagnosis and treatment of Gender Identity Disorder (GID) are controversial. Although linked, they are separate issues and the DSM does not evaluate treatments. The Board of Trustees (BOT) of the American Psychiatric Association (APA), therefore, formed a Task Force charged to perform a critical review of the literature on the treatment of GID at different ages, to assess the quality of evidence pertaining to treatment, and to prepare a report that included an opinion as to whether or not sufficient credible literature exists for development of treatment recommendations by the APA. The literature on treatment of gender dysphoria in individuals with disorders of sex development was also assessed. The completed report was accepted by the BOT on September 11, 2011. The quality of evidence pertaining to most aspects of treatment in all subgroups was determined to be low; however, areas of broad clinical consensus were identified and were deemed sufficient to support recommendations for treatment in all subgroups. With subjective improvement as the primary outcome measure, current evidence was judged sufficient to support recommendations for adults in the form of an evidence-based APA Practice Guideline with gaps in the empirical data supplemented by clinical consensus. The report recommends that the APA take steps beyond drafting treatment recommendations. These include issuing position statements to clarify the APA's position regarding the medical necessity of treatments for GID, the ethical bounds of treatments of gender variant minors, and the rights of persons of any age who are gender variant, transgender or transsexual.

  4. Transforming systems of care: the American Association of Community Psychiatrists Guidelines for Recovery Oriented Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Wesley

    2005-12-01

    Thinking about recovery has grown significantly over the last 70 years, and particularly in the past fifteen. Promotion of recovery has recently been recognized as an organizing principle for the transformation of behavioral health services. Recovery is a personal process of growth and change which typically embraces hope, autonomy and affiliation as elements of establishing satisfying and productive lives in spite of disabling conditions or experiences. Recovery oriented services replace paternalistic, illness oriented perspectives with collaborative, autonomy enhancing approaches and represent a major cultural shift in service delivery. Recovery oriented services replace the myth of chronicity and dependence with a message of individualism, empowerment and choice in the context of collaborative relationships with service providers. The American Association of Community Psychiatrists has developed Guidelines for Recovery Oriented Services to facilitate the transformation of services to this new paradigm. The guidelines are divided into three domains: administration, treatment, and supports, each consisting of several elements for which recovery enhancing characteristics are defined. Several example indicators are also provided for each element. This paper presents these guidelines and discusses their application.

  5. Peer review of psychodynamic psychotherapy. Experimental studies of the American Psychological Association/CHAMPUS program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, L H; Pizzirusso, D

    1982-12-01

    Two factorial experiments examined the effects of reviewer theoretical orientation, documented treatment progress, and patient concurrence data on the peer review of clinical treatment reports that described long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy with a depressed, female outpatient. The experiments employed an unobtrusive methodology; peer reviewers believed that their evaluations would affect the disposition of actual mental health insurance claims. Subjects (n = 105) were American Psychological Association/Civilian Health and Medical Program of the Uniformed Services (CHAMPUS) peer reviewers of a psychodynamic, behavioral, or eclectic theoretical orientation. The psychodynamic reviewers, compared with the behavioral and eclectic reviewers, were more positive in their ratings of treatment and more generous in their future care reimbursement recommendations. Additionally, the data demonstrated that APA/CHAMPUS peer review was sensitive to reported treatment progress, and that reviewers of diverse orientations were equally responsive to documented progress in psychodynamic psychotherapy. The patient concurrence manipulation had little effect on the dependent measures. Implications for mental health quality assurance programs are discussed.

  6. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Intervention and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields-Gardner, Cade; Campa, Adriana

    2010-07-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that efforts to optimize nutritional status through individualized medical nutrition therapy, assurance of food and nutrition security, and nutrition education are essential to the total system of health care available to people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection throughout the continuum of care. Broad-based efforts to improve health care access and treatment have stabilized HIV prevalence levels in many parts of the world and led to longer survival for people living with HIV infection. Confounding clinical and social issues, such as medication interactions, comorbidities, wasting, lipodystrophy, food insecurity, aging, and other related conditions further complicate disease management. With greater understanding of the mechanisms of HIV disease and its impact on body function, development of new treatments, and wider ranges of populations affected, the management of chronic HIV infection continues to become more complex and demanding. Achievement of food and nutrition security and management of nutrition-related complications of HIV infection remain significant challenges for clients with HIV infection and health care professionals. Registered dietitians and dietetic technicians, registered, should integrate their efforts into the overall health care strategies to optimize their clinical and social influence for people living with HIV infection.

  7. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  8. Developmental effects of Arochlor 1242 in American kestrels and associated hormone concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.B.; Henry, P.F.P.; Rattner, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, diverse field and experimental studies have been brought together to suggest that abnormal sexual and reproductive development in wildlife might be caused by the endocrine-like activity of pollutants acting on embryos. For example, hormonal and gonadal anomalies in juvenile alligators from Florida are associated with exposure to DDT and dicofol, experimental work on laboratory rodents has identified estrogenic and androgenic properties of several pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, and injection of gull eggs with metabolites of DDT produces intersex gonads in the male hatchlings. Very little evidence is available for birds that demonstrates a deficit in reproductive capability by this mechanism. Our breeding and egg-injection studies are investigating the potential of Aroclor 1242 and hydroxylated PCB congener 30, both with known estrogenic activity, to alter the course of embryonic development of reproductive structures and to affect later reproductive function in American kestrels. Findings from young birds whose parents were exposed indicated that gonadal morphology appeared consistent with the genetic sex of exposed birds; testes of exposed birds showed no difference in size or symmetry when compared to controls. Histological preparations showed very little intersexuality of male testes; females had ovaries that were indistinguishable from controls. Female hatchlings tended to show increased androgen and decreased estrogen in their serum with greater dose of Aroclor; females hatchlings that resulted from injected eggs showed an opposite trend. Analyses in progress include LHRH and catecholamine concentrations in the brain.

  9. Obesity and Associated Health Disparities Among Understudied Multiracial, Pacific Islander, and American Indian Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subica, Andrew M; Agarwal, Neha; Sullivan, J Greer; Link, Bruce G

    2017-12-01

    This study examined the state of obesity, diabetes, and associated health disparities among understudied multiracial, Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI), and American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN) adults. Aggregated data for 184,617 adults from the California Health Interview Survey (2005 to 2011) were analyzed to determine obesity, diabetes, poor/fair health, and physical disability prevalence by racial group. Logistic regressions controlling for age, gender, and key social determinants (education, marital status, poverty, health insurance) generated multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults' odds ratios (ORs) for our targeted health conditions versus non-Hispanic white adults. Obesity, diabetes, and other targeted health conditions were highly prevalent among multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults, who displayed significantly greater adjusted odds than non-Hispanic white adults for obesity (ORs = 1.2-1.9), diabetes (ORs = 1.6-2.4), poor/fair health (ORs = 1.4-1.7), and, with the exception of NHOPI adults, physical disability (ORs = 1.5-1.6). Multiracial and AIAN adults with obesity also had significantly higher adjusted odds of diabetes (OR = 1.5-2.6) than non-Hispanic white adults with obesity. Multiracial, NHOPI, and AIAN adults experience striking obesity-related disparities versus non-Hispanic white adults, urging further disparities research with these vulnerable minority populations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  10. Should title lengths really adhere to the American Psychological Association's twelve word limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Robert M; Dillner, Kari M

    2016-04-01

    The publication manual for the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that title lengths do not exceed 12 words, yet journals do not prevent longer titles. Here, we examined title lengths in APA journals to see how many exceeded the APA's suggested limit. First, we conducted a systematic analysis of 235 articles in the current issues of 23 APA journals. A total of 52% of titles were more than 12 words long. Second, we examined articles from APA journals that were at least 50 years old to examine whether title lengths have changed over time. Our results suggested that the average title lengths have indeed increased with time. One of 2 courses should be taken. Perhaps science is becoming more complex that longer titles are needed in order to convey the primary message to the reader. If this is the case, then the APA's word limit should be increased. On the other hand, however, maybe editor and reviewers should try to enforce the current word limit to force writers to be succinct. Either way, editors should make their preferences clear so that the trend for longer titles does not continue unchecked. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Prosperity Games prototyping with the American Electronics Association, March 8--9, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    Prosperity Games are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Prosperity Game conducted under the sponsorship of the American Electronics Association in conjunction with the Electronics Subcommittee of the Civilian Industrial Technology Committee of the National Science and Technology Council. Players were drawn from government, national laboratories, and universities, as well as from the electronics industry. The game explored policy changes that could enhance US competitiveness in the manufacturing of consumer electronics. Two teams simulated a presidentially appointed commission comprised of high-level representatives from government, industry, universities and national laboratories. A single team represented the foreign equivalent of this commission, formed to develop counter strategies for any changes in US policies. The deliberations and recommendations of these teams provide valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning policy changes, foreign competition, and the development, delivery and commercialization of new technologies.

  12. Serum trans-fatty acids level are positively associated with lower food security among american adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2018-03-07

    In the current study we aimed to assess whether the food security is associated with serum trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and dietary fat. Analyses were restricted to participants (from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) with data available on serum and diet TFAs and food security status from 2009 to 2010. All statistical analyses (analysis of covariance and linear regression) accounted for the survey design and sample weights. We included 3876 participants, overall (48.6%) participants were men, and (51.4%) were women, generally (69.0%) had high food security. Subjects with higher food security had a higher level of education as well (p security (all p security. Further, age, sex, race, education, and energy intake adjusted mean of dietary fatty acids show that total polyunsaturated fatty acids are higher in subjects with higher food security (p = 0.026) while, cholesterol consumption is higher in subjects with lower food security (p = 0.039). Our findings provide more evidence on the association between food insecurity and the higher level of TFAs in serum and different type of fat in the diet.

  13. Pre-existing biotherapeutic-reactive antibodies: survey results within the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Li; Fiscella, Michele; Rajadhyaksha, Manoj; Goyal, Jaya; Holland, Claire; Gorovits, Boris; Morimoto, Alyssa

    2013-07-01

    The immunogenicity profile of a biotherapeutic is determined by a multitude of product and patient-related risk factors that can influence the observed incidence and clinical consequences of immunogenicity. Pre-existing antibodies, i.e., biotherapeutic-reactive antibodies present in samples from treatment-naïve subjects, have been commonly observed during immunogenicity assessments; however their relevance in terms of the safety and efficacy of a biotherapeutic is poorly understood. An American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists-sponsored survey was conducted to gather information about the prevalence, nature, and consequences of pre-existing antibodies in clinical and nonclinical studies. The survey results indicate that pre-existing antibodies against a variety of biotherapeutics (e.g., mAbs, fusion proteins) are frequently encountered, especially in the context of autoimmune diseases, but that the methods and approaches used to detect, characterize, and report these antibodies vary. In most cases, pre-existing antibodies did not appear to have clinical consequences; however, a few of the respondents reported having observed an effect on pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, safety, and/or efficacy parameters. The findings from this survey are an important first step in evaluating the potential risks associated with the presence of pre-existing antibodies and highlight the importance of standardizing the approaches for detection and characterization of these antibodies. Cross-industry sharing of case studies and relevant data collection will help better inform biotherapeutic risk/benefit profiles and provide deeper understanding of the biological consequences of pre-existing antibodies.

  14. Association between adolescent drinking and adult violence: evidence from a longitudinal study of urban African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kerry M; Doherty, Elaine E; Zebrak, Katarzyna A; Ensminger, Margaret E

    2011-09-01

    This study examined the relationship between adolescent alcohol use and adult violence from a developmental perspective, specifically whether frequent adolescent drinking predicts adult violence once shared risk factors are taken into account through propensity score matching. The research considered multiple types of violence, including assault, robbery, and suicidal behavior, as well as other types of offending. It tested whether educational attainment and adult alcohol use and problems contribute to the adolescent drinking-adult violence relationship. Data came from a longitudinal epidemiological study of a community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 (N = 702; 51% female). Frequent adolescent drinking was operationalized as 20 times or more by age 16. Data on violent arrests and offenses were collected throughout adulthood from self-reports and official criminal records. Matching variables came from childhood and adolescence and included such shared risk factors as childhood externalizing behaviors, school achievement, and family functioning. Adjusted logistic regression analyses on the sample matched on childhood and adolescent risk factors showed that frequent adolescent drinking was associated with an increased risk of violence in young adulthood (in particular assault) but not with other types of crime, self-directed violence, or violence in midlife. Findings varied by gender. Heavy episodic drinking in adulthood seemed to account for some of the association between frequent adolescent drinking and adult assault. The results of this study suggest that preventing frequent adolescent drinking could potentially decrease adult assault. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting long-term negative consequences of adolescent alcohol use.

  15. Association Between Adolescent Drinking and Adult Violence: Evidence From a Longitudinal Study of Urban African Americans*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between adolescent alcohol use and adult violence from a developmental perspective, specifically whether frequent adolescent drinking predicts adult violence once shared risk factors are taken into account through propensity score matching. The research considered multiple types of violence, including assault, robbery, and suicidal behavior, as well as other types of offending. It tested whether educational attainment and adult alcohol use and problems contribute to the adolescent drinking–adult violence relationship. Method: Data came from a longitudinal epidemiological study of a community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 (N = 702; 51% female). Frequent adolescent drinking was operationalized as 20 times or more by age 16. Data on violent arrests and offenses were collected throughout adulthood from self-reports and official criminal records. Matching variables came from childhood and adolescence and included such shared risk factors as childhood externalizing behaviors, school achievement, and family functioning. Results: Adjusted logistic regression analyses on the sample matched on childhood and adolescent risk factors showed that frequent adolescent drinking was associated with an increased risk of violence in young adulthood (in particular assault) but not with other types of crime, self-directed violence, or violence in midlife. Findings varied by gender. Heavy episodic drinking in adulthood seemed to account for some of the association between frequent adolescent drinking and adult assault. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that preventing frequent adolescent drinking could potentially decrease adult assault. This study adds to the growing body of literature suggesting long-term negative consequences of adolescent alcohol use. PMID:21906497

  16. Obesity is associated with more activated neutrophils in African American male youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X; Su, S; Wang, X; Barnes, V; De Miguel, C; Ownby, D; Pollock, J; Snieder, H; Chen, W; Wang, X

    2015-01-01

    There is emerging evidence suggesting the role of peripheral blood leukocytes in the pathogenesis of obesity and related diseases. However, few studies have taken a genome-wide approach to investigating gene expression profiles in peripheral leukocytes between obese and lean individuals with the consideration of obesity-related shifts in leukocyte types. We conducted this study in 95 African Americans (AAs) of both genders (age 14-20 years, 46 lean and 49 obese). Complete blood count with differential test (CBC) was performed in whole blood. Genome-wide gene expression analysis was obtained using the Illumina HumanHT-12 V4 Beadchip with RNA extracted from peripheral leukocytes. Out of the 95 participants, 64 had neutrophils stored. The validation study was based on real-time PCR with RNA extracted from purified neutrophils. CBC test suggested that, in males, obesity was associated with increased neutrophil percentage (P=0.03). Genome-wide gene expression analysis showed that, in males, the majority of the most differentially expressed genes were related to neutrophil activation. Validation of the gene expression levels of ELANE (neutrophil elastase) and MPO (myeloperoxidase) in purified neutrophils demonstrated that the expression of these two genes--important biomarkers of neutrophils activation--were significantly elevated in obese males (P=0.01 and P=0.02, respectively). The identification of increased neutrophil percentage and activation in obese AA males suggests that neutrophils have an essential role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related disease. Further functional and mechanistic studies on neutrophils may contribute to the development of novel intervention strategies reducing the burden associated with obesity-related health problems.

  17. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies genetic risk factors for stroke in African-Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carty, Cara L.; Keene, Keith L.; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Meschia, James F.; Chen, Wei-Min; Nalls, Mike; Bis, Joshua C.; Kittner, Steven J.; Rich, Stephen S.; Tajuddin, Salman; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Gottesman, Rebecca; Mosley, Thomas H.; Shahar, Eyal; Woo, Daniel; Yaffe, Kristine; Liu, YongMei; Sale, Michèle M.; Dichgans, Martin; Malik, Rainer; Longstreth, WT; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Kooperberg, Charles; Reiner, Alexander; Worrall, Bradford B.; Fornage, Myriam

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of stroke have focused on European-ancestry populations; however, none has been conducted in African-Americans despite the disproportionately high burden of stroke in this population. The Consortium of Minority Population genome-wide Association Studies of Stroke (COMPASS) was established to identify stroke susceptibility loci in minority populations. Methods Using METAL, we conducted meta-analyses of GWAS in 14,746 African-Americans (1,365 ischemic and 1,592 total stroke cases) from COMPASS, and tested SNPs with Pstroke genetic studies in European-ancestry populations. We also evaluated stroke loci previously identified in European-ancestry populations. Results The 15q21.3 locus linked with lipid levels and hypertension was associated with total stroke (rs4471613, P=3.9×10−8) in African-Americans. Nominal associations (Pstroke were observed for 18 variants in or near genes implicated in cell cycle/ mRNA pre-splicing (PTPRG, CDC5L), platelet function (HPS4), blood-brain barrier permeability (CLDN17), immune response (ELTD1, WDFY4, IL1F10-IL1RN), and histone modification (HDAC9). Two of these loci achieved nominal significance in METASTROKE: 5q35.2 (P=0.03), and 1p31.1 (P=0.018). Four of 7 previously reported ischemic stroke loci (PITX2, HDAC9, CDKN2A/CDKN2B and ZFHX3) were nominally associated (Pstroke in COMPASS. Conclusions We identified a novel SNP associated with total stroke in African-Americans and found that ischemic stroke loci identified in European-ancestry populations may also be relevant for African-Americans. Our findings support investigation of diverse populations to identify and characterize genetic risk factors, and the importance of shared genetic risk across populations. PMID:26089329

  18. Evaluating genome-wide association study-identified breast cancer risk variants in African-American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirong Long

    Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies (GWAS, conducted mostly in European or Asian descendants, have identified approximately 67 genetic susceptibility loci for breast cancer. Given the large differences in genetic architecture between the African-ancestry genome and genomes of Asians and Europeans, it is important to investigate these loci in African-ancestry populations. We evaluated index SNPs in all 67 breast cancer susceptibility loci identified to date in our study including up to 3,300 African-American women (1,231 cases and 2,069 controls, recruited in the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS and the Nashville Breast Health Study (NBHS. Seven SNPs were statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05 with the risk of overall breast cancer in the same direction as previously reported: rs10069690 (5p15/TERT, rs999737 (14q24/RAD51L1, rs13387042 (2q35/TNP1, rs1219648 (10q26/FGFR2, rs8170 (19p13/BABAM1, rs17817449 (16q12/FTO, and rs13329835 (16q23/DYL2. A marginally significant association (P<0.10 was found for three additional SNPs: rs1045485 (2q33/CASP8, rs4849887 (2q14/INHBB, and rs4808801 (19p13/ELL. Three additional SNPs, including rs1011970 (9p21/CDKN2A/2B, rs941764 (14q32/CCDC88C, and rs17529111 (6q14/FAM46A, showed a significant association in analyses conducted by breast cancer subtype. The risk of breast cancer was elevated with an increasing number of risk variants, as measured by quintile of the genetic risk score, from 1.00 (reference, to 1.75 (1.30-2.37, 1.56 (1.15-2.11, 2.02 (1.50-2.74 and 2.63 (1.96-3.52, respectively, (P = 7.8 × 10(-10. Results from this study highlight the need for large genetic studies in AAs to identify risk variants impacting this population.

  19. Transformation of Summary Statistics from Linear Mixed Model Association on All-or-None Traits to Odds Ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd-Jones, Luke R; Robinson, Matthew R; Yang, Jian; Visscher, Peter M

    2018-04-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci that are robustly associated with complex diseases. The use of linear mixed model (LMM) methodology for GWAS is becoming more prevalent due to its ability to control for population structure and cryptic relatedness and to increase power. The odds ratio (OR) is a common measure of the association of a disease with an exposure ( e.g. , a genetic variant) and is readably available from logistic regression. However, when the LMM is applied to all-or-none traits it provides estimates of genetic effects on the observed 0-1 scale, a different scale to that in logistic regression. This limits the comparability of results across studies, for example in a meta-analysis, and makes the interpretation of the magnitude of an effect from an LMM GWAS difficult. In this study, we derived transformations from the genetic effects estimated under the LMM to the OR that only rely on summary statistics. To test the proposed transformations, we used real genotypes from two large, publicly available data sets to simulate all-or-none phenotypes for a set of scenarios that differ in underlying model, disease prevalence, and heritability. Furthermore, we applied these transformations to GWAS summary statistics for type 2 diabetes generated from 108,042 individuals in the UK Biobank. In both simulation and real-data application, we observed very high concordance between the transformed OR from the LMM and either the simulated truth or estimates from logistic regression. The transformations derived and validated in this study improve the comparability of results from prospective and already performed LMM GWAS on complex diseases by providing a reliable transformation to a common comparative scale for the genetic effects. Copyright © 2018 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Addressing world hunger, malnutrition, and food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struble, Marie Boyle; Aomari, Laurie Lindsay

    2003-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that access to adequate amounts of safe, nutritious, and culturally appropriate food at all times is a fundamental human right. Hunger continues to be a worldwide problem of staggering proportions. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat hunger and malnutrition, produce food security, promote self-sufficiency, and are environmentally and economically sustainable. The Association is aware that hunger exists in a world of plenty and that poverty, gender inequity, ethnocentrism, racism, and the lack of political will are key constraints to solving the problems of global hunger and malnutrition. Recognizing that simplistic approaches are inadequate, the ADA identifies sustainable development as the long-term strategy to ending world hunger and achieving food security. Sustainable development requires political, economic, and social changes that include empowering the disenfranchised, widening access to assets and other resources, narrowing the gap between rich and poor, and adjusting consumption patterns so as to foster good stewardship of nature. Additionally, because the health status of future generations is related to the well-being of their mothers, achieving food security will also require increased access for women to education, adequate health care and sanitation, and economic opportunities. This position paper reviews the complex issues of global food insecurity and discusses long-term solutions for achieving world food security. Achieving the end of world hunger has been and is now within our grasp. There is sufficient food to feed everyone, and solutions can be realized now that will benefit all of humanity. As noted in the paper, most people who examine the costs of ending versus not ending world hunger are bewildered by the question of why humanity did not solve the problem a long time ago. The Association supports programs and encourages practices that combat

  1. Molecular phylogeny, diversity and bioprospecting of endophytic fungi associated with wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 ...

  2. Update to Practice Standards for Electrocardiographic Monitoring in Hospital Settings: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandau, Kristin E; Funk, Marjorie; Auerbach, Andrew; Barsness, Gregory W; Blum, Kay; Cvach, Maria; Lampert, Rachel; May, Jeanine L; McDaniel, George M; Perez, Marco V; Sendelbach, Sue; Sommargren, Claire E; Wang, Paul J

    2017-11-07

    This scientific statement provides an interprofessional, comprehensive review of evidence and recommendations for indications, duration, and implementation of continuous electro cardiographic monitoring of hospitalized patients. Since the original practice standards were published in 2004, new issues have emerged that need to be addressed: overuse of arrhythmia monitoring among a variety of patient populations, appropriate use of ischemia and QT-interval monitoring among select populations, alarm management, and documentation in electronic health records. Authors were commissioned by the American Heart Association and included experts from general cardiology, electrophysiology (adult and pediatric), and interventional cardiology, as well as a hospitalist and experts in alarm management. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained throughout the consensus process. Authors were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the literature with an emphasis on publications since the prior practice standards, and drafted recommendations on indications and duration for electrocardiographic monitoring in accordance with the American Heart Association Level of Evidence grading algorithm that was in place at the time of commissioning. The comprehensive document is grouped into 5 sections: (1) Overview of Arrhythmia, Ischemia, and QTc Monitoring; (2) Recommendations for Indication and Duration of Electrocardiographic Monitoring presented by patient population; (3) Organizational Aspects: Alarm Management, Education of Staff, and Documentation; (4) Implementation of Practice Standards; and (5) Call for Research. Many of the recommendations are based on limited data, so authors conclude with specific questions for further research. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. School Public Relations and the Principalship: An Interview with Mark Bielang, President of American Association of School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    From returning phone calls to traversing the political landscape to building trust, American Association of School Administrators (AASA) president Mark Bielang covers a lot of territory as he describes the public relations challenges confronting today's school administrators. Having just concluded his term as AASA president, Mr. Bielang has served…

  4. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-01-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to…

  5. National Cancer Institute and American Association for Clinical Chemistry Partner to Bridge the Gap | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute, through its Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer (CPTC) initiative has entered into a memorandum of understanding with the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) to join forces to promote and educate the clinical chemistry community in the area of proteomic standards and technology advances.

  6. Residency Training in Emergency Psychiatry: A Model Curriculum Developed by the Education Committee of the American Association for Emergency Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasch, Jennifer; Glick, Rachel Lipson; Cobb, Thomas G.; Richmond, Janet

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Describe training goals, objectives and requirements in emergency psychiatry to assist residency programs in developing comprehensive training programs to ensure psychiatric residents acquire the necessary skills and knowledge to competently assess and manage patients with psychiatric emergencies. Methods: The American Association for…

  7. Advancing Multicultural and Diversity Competence in Art Therapy: American Art Therapy Association Multicultural Committee 1990-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potash, Jordan S.; Doby-Copeland, Cheryl; Stepney, Stella A.; Washington, Brittney N.; Vance, Lindsey D.; Short, Gwendolyn M.; Boston, Charlotte G.; Ballbé ter Maat, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    For 25 years the Multicultural Committee of the American Art Therapy Association has provided education, networking, and mentoring activities for all art therapists, as well as support for art therapists of color. The formation of the committee demonstrates increasing cultural competence within the profession, and its continuation promises future…

  8. Design and Validation of a Rubric to Assess the Use of American Psychological Association Style in Scientific Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merma Molina, Gladys; Peña Alfaro, Hilda; Peña Alfaro González, Silvia Rosa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the "American Psychological Association" (APA). The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific…

  9. [Papers Presented at the American Medical Association's Air Pollution Medical Research Conference (New Orleans, Louisiana, October 5-7, 1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Medical Association, Chicago, IL.

    This is a collection of twenty speeches presented at the American Medical Association's Air Pollution Medical Conference, October 5-7, 1970. Speeches included: Air Pollution Control: The Physician's Role; Air Pollution Problems in Nuclear Power Development; Airway Resistance and Collateral Ventilation; Asbestos Air Pollution in Urban Areas;…

  10. The Policy Recommendations of the Association of American Geographers as Reflected In the Ventura County Community College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDannold, Thomas A.

    A survey was conducted to identify the degree to which the Association of American Geographers (AAG) 1970 recommendations on geography programs in two-year colleges were reflected in geography programs offered in the Ventura County Community College District (California). Results indicated that the recommendations were followed to a great extent,…

  11. Short sleep duration is associated with eating more carbohydrates and less dietary fat in Mexican American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Mechanisms are unclear, but may involve selection of high carbohydrate foods. This study examined the association between estimated sleep duration and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy among Mexican American (MA) 9-11 yea...

  12. The Effects of the Physical Features Associated with Albinism on the Self-Esteem of African American Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Moniqueka E.

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the effects of the physical features associated with albinism on three groups of African American youths (ages 14-19) with albinism: those with no disabilities, those with visual impairments, and those with oculocutaneous albinism. No significant differences in self-esteem were found among the three groups. (Contains…

  13. Teaching the Principles of Economics: Reconciling the Canon of the American Economics Association to Catholic Social Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The American Economics Association, through its Committee on Economic Education, has worked since 1950 to develop a set of standards for what is taught in introductory economics courses. The result is the Test for Understanding in College Economics. The TUCE has come to define a canon of expectations for students in college business schools. Some…

  14. Statistical Profile of Older Hispanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Statistical Profile of Older Hispanic Americans INTRODUCTION In 2014, there were 46.2 million Americans aged 65 and over and ... were Hispanic. Principal sources of data for this Profile are the most current information available from the ...

  15. Utility of Nontraditional Risk Markers in Individuals Ineligible for Statin Therapy According to the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeboah, Joseph; Polonsky, Tamar S; Young, Rebekah; McClelland, Robyn L; Delaney, Joseph C; Dawood, Farah; Blaha, Michael J; Miedema, Michael D; Sibley, Christopher T; Carr, J Jeffrey; Burke, Gregory L; Goff, David C; Psaty, Bruce M; Greenland, Philip; Herrington, David M

    2015-09-08

    In the general population, the majority of cardiovascular events occur in people at the low to moderate end of population risk distribution. The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline on the treatment of blood cholesterol recommends consideration of statin therapy for adults with an estimated 10-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk ≥7.5% based on traditional risk factors. Whether use of nontraditional risk markers can improve risk assessment in those below this threshold for statin therapy is unclear. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a population sample free of clinical CVD at baseline, we calibrated the Pooled Cohort Equations (cPCE). ASCVD was defined as myocardial infarction, coronary heart disease death, or fatal or nonfatal stroke. Adults with an initial cPCE statin eligible: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥160 mg/dL; family history of ASCVD; high-sensitivity C-reactive protein ≥2 mg/dL; coronary artery calcium score ≥300 Agatston units or ≥75th percentile for age, sex, and ethnicity; and ankle-brachial index statin eligible. Of 5185 participants not taking statins with complete data (age, 45-84 years), 4185 had a cPCE risk statin eligible) by at least 1 of the additional risk marker criteria. In this generally low-risk population sample, a large proportion of ASCVD events occurred among adults with a 10-year cPCE risk 7.5% who may warrant statin therapy considerations. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. The Social Patterning of Sleep in African Americans: Associations of Socioeconomic Position and Neighborhood Characteristics with Sleep in the Jackson Heart Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Dayna A.; Lisabeth, Lynda; Hickson, DeMarc; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Samdarshi, Tandaw; Taylor, Herman; Diez Roux, Ana V.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We investigated cross-sectional associations of individual-level socioeconomic position (SEP) and neighborhood characteristics (social cohesion, violence, problems, disadvantage) with sleep duration and sleep quality in 5,301 African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study. Methods: All measures were self-reported. Sleep duration was assessed as hours of sleep; sleep quality was reported as poor (1) to excellent (5). SEP was measured by categorized years of education and income. Multinomial logistic and linear regression models were fit to examine the associations of SEP and neighborhood characteristics (modeled dichotomously and tertiles) with sleep duration (short vs. normal, long vs. normal) and continuous sleep duration and quality after adjustment for demographics and risk factors. Results: The mean sleep duration was 6.4 ± 1.5 hours, 54% had a short (≤ 6 h) sleep duration, 5% reported long (≥ 9 h) sleep duration, and 24% reported fair to poor sleep quality. Lower education was associated with greater odds of long sleep (odds ratio [OR] = 2.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.42, 3.38) and poorer sleep quality (β = −0.17, 95% CI = −0.27, −0.07) compared to higher education after adjustment for demographics and risk factors. Findings were similar for income. High neighborhood violence was associated with shorter sleep duration (−9.82 minutes, 95% CI = −16.98, −2.66) and poorer sleep quality (β = −0.11, 95% CI = −0.20, 0.00) after adjustment for demographics and risk factors. Results were similar for neighborhood problems. In secondary analyses adjusted for depressive symptoms in a subset of participants, most associations were attenuated and only associations of low SEP with higher odds of long sleep and higher neighborhood violence with poorer sleep quality remained statistically significant. Conclusions: Social and environmental characteristics are associated with sleep duration and quality in African Americans

  17. Biogeographic ancestry is associated with higher total body adiposity among African-American females: the Boston Area Community Health Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunali D Goonesekera

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity is disproportionately higher among African-Americans and Hispanics as compared to whites. We investigated the role of biogeographic ancestry (BGA on adiposity and changes in adiposity in the Boston Area Community Health Survey.We evaluated associations between BGA, assessed via Ancestry Informative Markers, and adiposity (body mass index (BMI, percent body fat (PBF, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR and changes in adiposity over 7 years for BMI and WHR and 2.5 years for PBF, per 10% greater proportion of BGA using multivariable linear regression. We also examined effect-modification by demographic and socio-behavioral variables.We observed positive associations between West-African ancestry and cross-sectional BMI (percent difference=0.62%; 95% CI: 0.04%, 1.20%, and PBF (β=0.35; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.58. We also observed significant effect-modification of the association between West-African ancestry and BMI by gender (p-interaction: <0.002 with a substantially greater association in women. We observed no main associations between Native-American ancestry and adiposity but observed significant effect-modification of the association with BMI by diet (p-interaction: <0.003 with inverse associations among participants with higher Healthy Eating Scores. No associations were observed between BGA and changes in adiposity over time.Findings support that West-African ancestry may contribute to high prevalence of total body adiposity among African-Americans, particularly African-American women.

  18. Are Religiosity and Spirituality Associated with Obesity Among African Americans in the Southeastern United States (the Jackson Heart Study)?

    OpenAIRE

    Reeves, Roy R.; Adams, Claire E.; Dubbert, Patricia M.; Hickson, DeMarc A.; Wyatt, Sharon B.

    2012-01-01

    There are several lines of evidence that suggest religiosity and spirituality are protective factors for both physical and mental health, but the association with obesity is less clear. This study examined the associations between dimensions of religiosity and spirituality (religious attendance, daily spirituality, and private prayer), health behaviors and weight among African Americans in central Mississippi. Jackson Heart Study participants with complete data on religious attendance, privat...

  19. Urban Neighborhood and Residential Factors Associated with Breast Cancer in African American Women: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandi Patrice; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep

    2018-04-01

    Residential characteristics in urban neighborhoods impact health and might be important factors contributing to health disparities, especially in the African American population. The purpose of this systematic review is to understand the relationship between urban neighborhood and residential factors and breast cancer incidence and prognosis in African American women. Using PubMed and Web of Science, the existing literature was reviewed. Observational, cross-sectional, cohort, and prospective studies until February 2017 were examined. Studies including populations of African American women, setting in "urban" areas, and a measure of a neighborhood or residential factor were reviewed. Four parameters related to neighborhood or residential factors were extracted including: neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), residential segregation, spatial access to mammography, and residential pollution. Our analysis showed that African American women living in low nSES have greater odds of late stage diagnosis and mortality. Furthermore, African American women living in segregated areas (higher percentage of Blacks) have higher odds of late stage diagnosis and mortality compared to White and Hispanic women living in less segregated areas (lower percentage of Blacks). Late stage diagnosis was also shown to be significantly higher in areas with poor mammography access and areas with higher Black residential segregation. Lastly, residential pollution did not affect breast cancer risk in African American women. Overall, this systematic review provides a qualitative synthesis of major neighborhood and residential factors on breast cancer outcomes in African American women.

  20. Scientific Rationale for the Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Intravenous Alteplase in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaerschalk, Bart M; Kleindorfer, Dawn O; Adeoye, Opeolu M; Demchuk, Andrew M; Fugate, Jennifer E; Grotta, James C; Khalessi, Alexander A; Levy, Elad I; Palesch, Yuko Y; Prabhakaran, Shyam; Saposnik, Gustavo; Saver, Jeffrey L; Smith, Eric E

    2016-02-01

    To critically review and evaluate the science behind individual eligibility criteria (indication/inclusion and contraindications/exclusion criteria) for intravenous recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (alteplase) treatment in acute ischemic stroke. This will allow us to better inform stroke providers of quantitative and qualitative risks associated with alteplase administration under selected commonly and uncommonly encountered clinical circumstances and to identify future research priorities concerning these eligibility criteria, which could potentially expand the safe and judicious use of alteplase and improve outcomes after stroke. Writing group members were nominated by the committee chair on the basis of their previous work in relevant topic areas and were approved by the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee and the American Heart Association's Manuscript Oversight Committee. The writers used systematic literature reviews, references to published clinical and epidemiology studies, morbidity and mortality reports, clinical and public health guidelines, authoritative statements, personal files, and expert opinion to summarize existing evidence and to indicate gaps in current knowledge and, when appropriate, formulated recommendations using standard American Heart Association criteria. All members of the writing group had the opportunity to comment on and approved the final version of this document. The document underwent extensive American Heart Association internal peer review, Stroke Council Leadership review, and Scientific Statements Oversight Committee review before consideration and approval by the American Heart Association Science Advisory and Coordinating Committee. After a review of the current literature, it was clearly evident that the levels of evidence supporting individual exclusion criteria for intravenous alteplase vary widely. Several exclusionary criteria have already undergone

  1. Order, 19 May 1982, in the matter of the American Medical Association, the Connecticut State Medical Society, the New Haven County Medical Association, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-27

    The text of a Federal Trade Commission cease-and-desist order against the American Medical Association (AMA) is reprinted. The order prohibits the AMA from restricting or declaring unethical the advertising of physician services or the participation of physicians in health maintenance organizations.

  2. Admixture mapping and subsequent fine-mapping suggests a biologically relevant and novel association on chromosome 11 for type 2 diabetes in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina M Jeff

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is a complex metabolic disease that disproportionately affects African Americans. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have identified several loci that contribute to T2D in European Americans, but few studies have been performed in admixed populations. We first performed a GWAS of 1,563 African Americans from the Vanderbilt Genome-Electronic Records Project and Northwestern University NUgene Project as part of the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE network. We successfully replicate an association in TCF7L2, previously identified by GWAS in this African American dataset. We were unable to identify novel associations at p5,000 African Americans. We identified 13 independent associations between TCIRG1, CHKA, and ALDH3B1 genes on chromosome 11 and T2D. Our results suggest a novel region on chromosome 11 identified by admixture mapping is associated with T2D in African Americans.

  3. Is Age-Related Macular Degeneration Associated with Stroke Among Elderly Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Duanping; Mo, Jingping; Duan, Yinkang; Klein, Ronald; Scott, Ingrid U; Huang, Kui A; Zhou, Haibo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with the development of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke among elderly Americans. Design: Population-based cohort study. Participants: The five percent random sample of 2000-2003 Medicare enrollees was obtained. The cohort (n=1,519,086) consisted of enrollees who were aged 65 or older at the first two-year (January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001). Methods: Baseline demographic variables and chronic conditions (AMD and type, history of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, hypertension, and diabetes) were defined based on the occurrence of relevant ICD-9 codes in relevant diagnosis fields of the baseline Medicare Data. We excluded 215,900 persons who had a diagnosis of MI or stroke during baseline period to form a cohort of 1,303,186 individuals who were free of major cardio-cerebral vascular disease (CVD) at baseline. Main Outcome Measures: In two years of follow-up (January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2003), a total of 89,501 incident stroke cases were identified, including 80,018 ischemic, 7048 hemorrhagic, and 2,435 stroke cases of both types. Results: Baseline mean age was 75 years (Standard Divination=7.7), with 60% women and 88% whites. The prevalence of AMD was 10.6%, with 19.7% being neovascular AMD and 80.3% being non-neovascular AMD. Baseline age, gender, race, hypertension, and diabetes adjusted 2-year incident odds ratios and 95% confidence internal of stroke associated with AMD were 1.31 (1.26, 1.36) for neovascular AMD, 1.18 (1.15, 1.21) for non-neovascular AMD, and 1.21 (1.18, 1.23) for either neovascular or non-neovascular AMD. Conclusion: The findings are suggestive of an association between AMD, especially neovascular AMD, and incident stroke, independent of demographic factors and co-morbidity. These findings, if confirmed by other studies that control for smoking and other lifestyle covariables not measured in this study, suggest the possibility of shared common

  4. Is age-related macular degeneration associated with stroke among elderly americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Duanping; Mo, Jingping; Duan, Yinkang; Klein, Ronald; Scott, Ingrid U; Huang, Kui A; Zhou, Haibo

    2008-03-08

    To investigate whether age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with the development of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke among elderly Americans. Population-based cohort study. The five percent random sample of 2000-2003 Medicare enrollees was obtained. The cohort (n=1,519,086) consisted of enrollees who were aged 65 or older at the first two-year (January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001). Baseline demographic variables and chronic conditions (AMD and type, history of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, hypertension, and diabetes) were defined based on the occurrence of relevant ICD-9 codes in relevant diagnosis fields of the baseline Medicare Data. We excluded 215,900 persons who had a diagnosis of MI or stroke during baseline period to form a cohort of 1,303,186 individuals who were free of major cardio-cerebral vascular disease (CVD) at baseline. In two years of follow-up (January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2003), a total of 89,501 incident stroke cases were identified, including 80,018 ischemic, 7048 hemorrhagic, and 2,435 stroke cases of both types. Baseline mean age was 75 years (Standard Divination=7.7), with 60% women and 88% whites. The prevalence of AMD was 10.6%, with 19.7% being neovascular AMD and 80.3% being non-neovascular AMD. Baseline age, gender, race, hypertension, and diabetes adjusted 2-year incident odds ratios and 95% confidence internal of stroke associated with AMD were 1.31 (1.26, 1.36) for neovascular AMD, 1.18 (1.15, 1.21) for non-neovascular AMD, and 1.21 (1.18, 1.23) for either neovascular or non-neovascular AMD. The findings are suggestive of an association between AMD, especially neovascular AMD, and incident stroke, independent of demographic factors and co-morbidity. These findings, if confirmed by other studies that control for smoking and other lifestyle covariables not measured in this study, suggest the possibility of shared common antecedents between stroke and AMD.

  5. Pautas para citar textos y hacer listas de referencias según las normas de la American Psichological Association (APA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ossa, Marcela

    2003-01-01

    La escritura de documentos, artículos, ensayos etc. implica seguir cuidadosamente algunas normas. La Revista EMA se guía para la edición de sus artículos por las normas de la American Psychological Association (APA). El presente documento tiene como objeto dar a conocer algunas de estas normas de tal modo que quien envíe un artículo para su publicación las utilice. Encontrarán algunas pautas para citar textos y hacer listas de referencias según las normas de la American Psychological Associat...

  6. Bidirectional Associations Between Teacher–Child Relationship Quality and Chinese American Immigrant Children’s Behavior Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Ly, J; Zhou, Q

    2016-01-01

    Copyright © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLCThe goal of the study was to test the bidirectional associations between teacher–child relationship quality and behavior problems in an elementary school age sample of Chinese American immigrant children. A socioeconomically diverse sample (N = 258) of first- and second-generation Chinese American children (M ages = 7.4 and 9.2 years at Wave 1 and Wave 2, respectively; 48% girls) was recruited from schools and communities and followed for 1 to 2 yea...

  7. New Variant of the Universal Constants in the Perturbed Chain-Statistical Associating Fluid Theory Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    resolved the mostly criticized numerical pitfall, that is, the presence of more than three volume roots at real application conditions. Finally, the possibility of using the original PC-SAFT EOS parameters with the new universal constants has been investigated for the phase equilibria of the systems......The Perturbed Chain-Statistical Associating Fluid Theory Equation of State (PC-SAFT EOS) has been successfully applied to model phase behavior of various types of systems, while it is also well-known that the PC-SAFT EOS has difficulties in describing some second-order derivative properties...... roots, have been analyzed. Then, a practical procedure has been proposed to refit the universal constants of the PC-SAFT EOS with the purpose of fixing the numerical pitfalls in the real application ranges and reusing the original parameters. It is shown that the new universal constants have practically...

  8. Factors Influencing Texas Physical Therapy Students' Membership in the American Physical Therapy Association and the Texas Physical Therapy Association: Implications for Academicians, Clinicians, and Professional Associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Lynne C; Book, Ashley; Lewis, Harriet

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors impacting the decisions of student physical therapists (PTs) and physical therapist assistants (PTAs) to join and maintain membership in the American Physical Therapy Association and the Texas Physical Therapy Association, in light of a membership initiative of Reach 100 that was adopted in Texas. Survey, descriptive. An online membership survey invitation was distributed to Texas PT and PTA students. A total of 479 students responded to the survey. A majority of participants (67%) reported being members, while 33% reported being non-members. The primary reason students (74%) reported for being a member was that they were encouraged by their academic program. Students who are not members (87%) cited the high cost of national dues. A majority of participants (n=379, 83%) rated faculty promotion of membership as somewhat high to high. In contrast, only 26% rated the promotion of membership by their clinical education sites as somewhat high to high. Professional growth and development was cited as the main reason to maintain membership. Although students are being encouraged to join, a third of the respondents still do not belong. It is imperative that clinical mentors model and support membership activities. Association leadership may use this information to develop strategic plans to be inclusive of the student and new professional.

  9. Retrospective chart review for obesity and associated interventions among rural Mexican-American adolescents accessing healthcare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, Jane Dimmitt; Collins, Jennifer L

    2013-11-01

    To report a retrospective analysis of data routinely collected in the course of healthcare services at a rural health clinic and to assess obesity incidence and associated interventions among rural Mexican-American adolescents. Two hundred and twelve charts reviewed; 98 (46.2%) males and 114 (53.8%) females. Data extracted included Medicaid exams conducted at the clinic within 5 years. Equal overweight or obese (n = 105, 49.5%), versus normal BMI categorizations (n = 107, 50.5%) documented overall and by gender. Female obesity higher (25.4%) than national norms (17.4%); male rates (25.5%) were within national norm. Interventions provided by nurse practitioners (94%) for 34.8%-80% of overweight/obese had limited follow-up (4%). Obesity incidence markedly increased between 13 and 18 years of age without associated interventions; 51.4%-75.6% without interventions. Obesity is a healthcare problem among rural Mexican-American adolescents accessing care at the rural health clinic. Obesity intervention and follow-up was suboptimal within this setting. Rural and ethnic minority adolescents experience health disparities concerning obesity prevalence and remote healthcare access. Obesity prevention and treatment during adolescence is a national health priority given physiologic and psychological tolls on health and potential for obesity into adulthood. Obesity assessment and translation of evidence-based interventions for rural Mexican-American adolescents at rural health clinics is implicated. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  10. Association of Total Marine Fatty Acids, Eicosapentaenoic and Docosahexaenoic Acids, With Aortic Stiffness in Koreans, Whites, and Japanese Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Few previous studies have reported the association of aortic stiffness with marine n-3 fatty acids (Fas) in the general population. The aim of this study was to determine the combined and independent associations of 2 major marine n-3 FAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), with aortic stiffness evaluated using carotid–femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) in Korean, white, and Japanese American men. METHODS A population-based sample of 851 middle-aged men (299 Koreans, 266 whites, and 286 Japanese Americans) was examined for cfPWV during 2002–2006. Serum FAs, including EPA and DHA, were measured as a percentage of total FAs using gas chromatography. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association of EPA and DHA with cfPWV after adjusting for blood pressure and other confounders. RESULTS Mean EPA and DHA levels were 1.9 (SD = 1.0) and 4.8 (SD = 1.4) for Koreans, 0.8 (SD = 0.6) and 2.4 (SD = 1.2) for whites, and 1.0 (SD = 1.0) and 3.2 (SD = 1.4) for Japanese Americans. Both EPA and DHA were significantly higher in Koreans than in the other 2 groups (P < 0.01). Multiple regression analyses in Koreans showed that cfPWV had a significant inverse association with total marine n-3 FAs and with EPA alone after adjusting for blood pressure and other potential confounders. In contrast, there was no significant association of cfPWV with DHA. Whites and Japanese Americans did not show any significant associations of cfPWV with total marine n-3 FAs, EPA, or DHA. CONCLUSIONS High levels of EPA observed in Koreans have an inverse association with aortic stiffness. PMID:23820020

  11. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, H; Papini, E; Paschke, R

    2010-01-01

    American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules are systematically developed statements to assist health care professionals in medical...... in this area are expected, periodic revisions are inevitable. We encourage medical professionals to use this information in conjunction with their best clinical judgment. Any decision by practitioners to apply these guidelines must be made in light of local resources and individual patient circumstances....

  12. Conjunctivitis and pterygium associated with the American Indian type of polymorphous light eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, D C; Romanchuk, K G; Lane, P R

    1988-02-01

    We describe three patients with the American Indian type of polymorphous light eruption (actinic prurigo), two Cree Indian sisters and a Cree Indian boy, who had eye symptoms similar to those seen in limbal-type vernal catarrh.

  13. 77 FR 42229 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza; Filing of Food Additive Petition..., March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La...

  14. Allergy associations with the adult fecal microbiota: Analysis of the American Gut Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hua

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation: American adults with allergies, especially to nuts and seasonal pollen, have low diversity, reduced Clostridiales, and increased Bacteroidales in their gut microbiota. This dysbiosis might be targeted to improve treatment or prevention of allergy.

  15. Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2008-10-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. In addition, intake of dietary fiber has beneficial effects on risk factors for developing several chronic diseases. Dietary Reference Intakes recommend consumption of 14 g dietary fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men, based on epidemiologic studies showing protection against cardiovascular disease. Appropriate kinds and amounts of dietary fiber for children, the critically ill, and the very old are unknown. The Dietary Reference Intakes for fiber are based on recommended energy intake, not clinical fiber studies. Usual intake of dietary fiber in the United States is only 15 g/day. Although solubility of fiber was thought to determine physiological effect, more recent studies suggest other properties of fiber, perhaps fermentability or viscosity are important parameters. High-fiber diets provide bulk, are more satiating, and have been linked to lower body weights. Evidence that fiber decreases cancer is mixed and further research is needed. Healthy children and adults can achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes by increasing variety in daily food patterns. Dietary messages to increase consumption of high-fiber foods such as whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables should be broadly supported by food and nutrition professionals. Consumers are also turning to fiber supplements and bulk laxatives as additional fiber sources. Few fiber supplements have been studied for physiological effectiveness, so the best advice is to consume fiber in foods. Look for physiological studies of effectiveness before selecting functional fibers in dietetics practice.

  16. The American Dental Hygienists' Association Leads the Profession into 21st Century Workforce Opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battrell, Ann; Lynch, Ann; Steinbach, Pam

    2016-06-01

    With the dental hygiene profession undergoing tremendous transformation as greater and more diverse workplace opportunities present themselves, the American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) is leading the effort to ensure that dental hygienists are prepared to take advantage of these growing opportunities in today's constantly evolving health care landscape. ADHA's vision statement calls for the integration of dental hygienists into the health care delivery system as essential primary care providers to expand access to oral health care. This article discusses changes in dental hygiene curriculum, as well as how changes in the health care environment and legislative outcomes are impacting workplace opportunities for dental hygienists in the 21st century. Research from ADHA's Transforming Dental Hygiene Education and the Profession for the 21st Century white paper and other oral health-related literature, ADHA policies, and ADHA survey research describe the evolving dental hygiene workplace environment. The article discusses trends in education, health care, legislative and regulatory practice, and societal need that are creating new workforce opportunities for the dental hygiene profession. With rapid change in both the oral and overall health care environments, transformation in dental hygiene curriculum and competencies, and more states allowing the public to have direct access to dental hygienists, dental hygiene professionals are expanding their presence into all aspects of the health care system. ADHA is leading this effort to help dental hygienists provide that care by expanding workforce opportunities and allowing dental hygienists to practice to the full extent of their scope. The dental hygiene profession must be prepared and ready to embrace these opportunities. In doing so, new career pathways will be available for dental hygiene professionals that will also improve the public's access to oral health care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Same-sex parenting and children's outcomes: A closer examination of the American psychological association's brief on lesbian and gay parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Loren

    2012-07-01

    In 2005, the American Psychological Association (APA) issued an official brief on lesbian and gay parenting. This brief included the assertion: "Not a single study has found children of lesbian or gay parents to be disadvantaged in any significant respect relative to children of heterosexual parents" (p. 15). The present article closely examines this assertion and the 59 published studies cited by the APA to support it. Seven central questions address: (1) homogeneous sampling, (2) absence of comparison groups, (3) comparison group characteristics, (4) contradictory data, (5) the limited scope of children's outcomes studied, (6) paucity of long-term outcome data, and (7) lack of APA-urged statistical power. The conclusion is that strong assertions, including those made by the APA, were not empirically warranted. Recommendations for future research are offered. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Association of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) population density with climate variables in Montes Claros, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Rocha, Marilia Fonseca; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2009-12-01

    In the present paper, we evaluate the relationship between climate variables and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Montes Claros, an area of active transmission of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in Brazil. Entomological captures were performed in 10 selected districts of the city, between September 2002-August 2003. A total of 773 specimens of L. longipalpiswere captured in the period and the population density could be associated with local climate variables (cumulative rainfall, average temperature and relative humidity) through a mathematical linear model with a determination coefficient (Rsqr) of 0.752. Although based on an oversimplified statistical analysis, as far as the vector is concerned, this approach showed to be potentially useful as a starting point to guide control measures for AVL in Montes Claros.

  19. Association of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae population density with climate variables in Montes Claros, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Monteiro Michalsky

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we evaluate the relationship between climate variables and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Montes Claros, an area of active transmission of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL in Brazil. Entomological captures were performed in 10 selected districts of the city, between September 2002-August 2003. A total of 773 specimens of L. longipalpiswere captured in the period and the population density could be associated with local climate variables (cumulative rainfall, average temperature and relative humidity through a mathematical linear model with a determination coefficient (Rsqr of 0.752. Although based on an oversimplified statistical analysis, as far as the vector is concerned, this approach showed to be potentially useful as a starting point to guide control measures for AVL in Montes Claros.

  20. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Examining the Associations of Racism, Sexism, and Stressful Life Events on Psychological Distress among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.

    2013-01-01

    African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African American women, and are correlated both with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  2. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associa