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Sample records for american statistical association

  1. Past and future American Psychological Association guidelines for statistical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finch, S; Thomason, N; Cumming, G

    2002-01-01

    We review the publication guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) since 1929 and document their advice for authors about statistical practice. Although the advice has been extended with each revision of the guidelines, it has largely focused on null hypothesis significance testing

  2. American Nephrology Nurses' Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help Join/Renew Jobs Contact Corporate Shop American Nephrology Nurses' Association About ANNA Association About ANNA Strategic ... Activities CExpress Events National Events Chapter / Local Events Nephrology Nurses Week ANNA Education Modules CKD Modules Education ...

  3. American Behcet's Disease Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Behcet's Awareness Day Behcet's Disease Awareness Share your story and educate others about Behcet's: www.rareconnect.org/en/community/behcet-s-syndrome Upcoming Events American Behcet's Disease Association PO BOX 80576 Rochester, MI ...

  4. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Latest News American Lung Association Pledges to Fight Trump Administration Assault on Clean Air and Climate Protections March 28, 2017 In response to President Trump's announcement on climate change, Harold P. Wimmer, National ...

  5. American Association of Orthodontists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... step for patients wishing to resolve issues of crowding, misalignment and the burden of feeling self-conscious ... The American Association of Orthodontists does not provide funding for orthodontic treatment. There are several programs that ...

  6. American Sleep Apnea Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Sleep Apnea Association Learn About the CPAP Assistance Program About ASAA News about ASAA Who we are Leadership Team Supporting the ASAA Financials Learn Healthy sleep Sleep apnea Other sleep disorders Personal stories Treat Test Yourself ...

  7. American Sleep Association

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    ... Sleep Disorders Book Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Improving public health by increasing awareness about ... Members Username or Email Password Remember Me Register Sleep Blog Changing Bad Sleep Habits Asthma and Sleep ...

  8. Statistical trends in the Journal of the American Medical Association and implications for training across the continuum of medical education.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren D Arnold

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Statistical training across the continuum of medical education may not have advanced at the pace of statistical reporting in the medical literature, yet a comprehensive understanding of statistical concepts most commonly presented in current research is critical to the effective practice of Evidence Based Medicine. The objective of this content analysis was to describe statistical techniques used in a leading medical journal, JAMA, across a 20-year period, with a focus on implications for medical education. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Two issues of JAMA published each month in 1990, 2000, and 2010 were randomly selected; from these, 361 articles were reviewed. Primary focus, study design, and statistical components were abstracted and examined by year of publication. The number of published RCTs and cohort studies differed significantly across years of interest, with an increasing trend of publication. The most commonly reported statistics over the 20-year period of interest included measures of morbidity and mortality, descriptive statistics, and epidemiologic outcomes. However, between 1990 and 2010, there was an increase in reporting of more advanced methods, such as multivariable regression, multilevel modeling, survival analysis, and sensitivity analysis. While this study is limited by a focus on one specific journal, a strength is that the journal examined is widely read by a range of clinical specialties and is considered a leading journal in the medical field, setting standards for published research. CONCLUSIONS: The increases in frequency and complexity of statistical reporting in the literature over the past two decades may suggest that moving beyond basic statistical concepts to a more comprehensive understanding of statistical methods is an important component of clinicians' ability to effectively read and use the medical research. These findings provide information to consider as medical schools and graduate medical education

  9. HPV-Associated Cancers Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What CDC Is Doing Related Links Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home HPV-Associated Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  10. American Association of Suicidology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts & Statistics Suicide Myths Infographics Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender Links of Interest Recommendations for Reporting on Suicide Recommended Reading Recently Reviewed Recommended Videos Suicide and ...

  11. American Association Of State Climatologists

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  12. American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in your area. Read more » AAGP Journal Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Read more ... RESEARCHERS GMHF Scholars Since my program is so small and there is not much interest among my ...

  13. American Health Care Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Care Association Responds to Ruling on Injunction Delaying CMS Implementation of Arbitration Rule AHCA/NCAL Elects New ... Information Technology Integrity Medicaid Medicare Patient Privacy and Security Survey and Regulatory Therapy Services Workforce Events Calendar ...

  14. American Automobile and Light Truck Statistics Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Given that transportation is an essential topic in any Physics and Society or Energy course, it is necessary to have useful statistics on transportation in order to have a reasoned discussion on this topic. And a major component of the transportation picture is the automobile. This paper presents updated transportation statistics for American…

  15. American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Account Find Members Benefits American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy 112 South Alfred Street Alexandria, ... Fax: (703) 838-9805 © 2002 - American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy Terms of Use | Privacy Policy | ...

  16. Subject Matter Knowledge for Teaching Statistical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Stephanie A.

    2010-01-01

    This study seeks to describe the subject matter knowledge needed for teaching statistical association at the secondary level. Taking a practice-based qualitative approach, three experienced teachers were observed as they taught statistical association and interviewed immediately following each observation. Records of practice were assembled to…

  17. American Health Information Management Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Government Corporate & Government Training Signature Partners Sponsorship Exhibitors Advertise With AHIMA Copyright & Permissions RSS LinkedIn Facebook Twitter YouTube Copyright © 2017 by The American Health ...

  18. American Art Therapy Association, Inc.: 2013 Membership Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, David E.; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    The American Art Therapy Association (AATA) surveys its members biennially to collect data regarding membership demographics as well as variables concerning the work environment for art therapists. These surveys can provide a detailed description of these characteristics and how they may change over time. This article statistically compares the…

  19. A Statistical Model of Skewed Associativity

    OpenAIRE

    Michaud, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a statistical model of set-associativity, victim caching and skewed-associativity, with an emphasis on skewed-associativity. We show that set-associativity is not efficient when the working-set size is close to the cache size. We refer to this as the unit working-set problem. We show that victim-caching is not a practical solution to the unit working-se- t problem either, although victim caching emulates full associativity for working-sets much larger than the victim buffe...

  20. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  1. American Association of Colleges of Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Interprofessional Education Public Health Nursing QSEN Module Series NURSING SHORTAGE RESOURCES About the Nursing Shortage I mpact ... Social Media Communities American Association of Colleges of Nursing One Dupont Circle, NW Suite 530 Washington, DC ...

  2. American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Certification APRN Resources Education State-of-the-art educational programs provide evidence- based knowledge, directly applicable to practice ... Policy Disclaimer © American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Learn ...

  3. Beyond Statistics: African American Male Persistence in Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Manuel Dewayne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study that consists of six African American male participants is to examine, describe, and analyze African American male persistence factors at a community college in the midwest of the United States. The study uses qualitative content analysis as a research method that provides a systematic and objective means…

  4. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabi Nandy

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457. Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work. Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively. American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7. Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack, smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians.

  5. History of the american college health association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Following Dr Edward Hitchcock's lead at Amherst College in 1861, soon other institutions of higher education established physical education departments that evolved into independent college health programs. As the field of college health expanded, leaders from numerous campuses began meeting to share information and discuss formation of a national organization. As a result, the American Student Health Association was founded in 1920 to promote campus health care for students and advance the interests of college health. The name was changed to the American College Health Association in 1948. The past history of this organization has been well documented in the literature, so this review will focus more on ACHA's accomplishments over the past 20 years.(1)(,) (2)(,) (3)(,) (4).

  6. American War and Military Operations Casualties: Lists and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-14

    907) 428-6007, craig.campbell2@us.army.mil American Samoa Attorney General Sialega Malaetasi Togafau, America Samoa Government, P.O. Box 7, Pago ... Pago , AS 96799, (684) 633-4163 Arizona Major General David P. Rataczak, Emergency and Military Affairs Department, 5636 East McDowell Road, Phoenix

  7. Enhanced statistical tests for GWAS in admixed populations: assessment using African Americans from CARe and a Breast Cancer Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Pasaniuc

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available While genome-wide association studies (GWAS have primarily examined populations of European ancestry, more recent studies often involve additional populations, including admixed populations such as African Americans and Latinos. In admixed populations, linkage disequilibrium (LD exists both at a fine scale in ancestral populations and at a coarse scale (admixture-LD due to chromosomal segments of distinct ancestry. Disease association statistics in admixed populations have previously considered SNP association (LD mapping or admixture association (mapping by admixture-LD, but not both. Here, we introduce a new statistical framework for combining SNP and admixture association in case-control studies, as well as methods for local ancestry-aware imputation. We illustrate the gain in statistical power achieved by these methods by analyzing data of 6,209 unrelated African Americans from the CARe project genotyped on the Affymetrix 6.0 chip, in conjunction with both simulated and real phenotypes, as well as by analyzing the FGFR2 locus using breast cancer GWAS data from 5,761 African-American women. We show that, at typed SNPs, our method yields an 8% increase in statistical power for finding disease risk loci compared to the power achieved by standard methods in case-control studies. At imputed SNPs, we observe an 11% increase in statistical power for mapping disease loci when our local ancestry-aware imputation framework and the new scoring statistic are jointly employed. Finally, we show that our method increases statistical power in regions harboring the causal SNP in the case when the causal SNP is untyped and cannot be imputed. Our methods and our publicly available software are broadly applicable to GWAS in admixed populations.

  8. The American Kinesiology Association Undergraduate Core Curriculum©

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the elements of the undergraduate core in kinesiology that have been established by the American Kinesiology Association. The American Kinesiology Association also describes a set of ten student-learning outcomes that emanate from the four core content elements. This information has been developed by the American Kinesiology…

  9. Selected Statistics on the Status of Asian-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Pauline; Cabezas, Amado

    1977-01-01

    Taken from a paper on "The Economic and Employment Status of Asian Women in America" by Pauline Fong and Amado Cabezas of ASIAN, Inc., this brief analysis of statistics on Asian women indicates that highly educated Asian women do not have higher incomes or better jobs than many of those with less education.

  10. Cancer statistics for African Americans, 2016: Progress and opportunities in reducing racial disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSantis, Carol E; Siegel, Rebecca L; Sauer, Ann Goding; Miller, Kimberly D; Fedewa, Stacey A; Alcaraz, Kassandra I; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-07-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides the estimated number of new cancer cases and deaths for blacks in the United States and the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, survival, screening, and risk factors for cancer. Incidence data are from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, and mortality data are from the National Center for Health Statistics. Approximately 189,910 new cases of cancer and 69,410 cancer deaths will occur among blacks in 2016. Although blacks continue to have higher cancer death rates than whites, the disparity has narrowed for all cancers combined in men and women and for lung and prostate cancers in men. In contrast, the racial gap in death rates has widened for breast cancer in women and remained level for colorectal cancer in men. The reduction in overall cancer death rates since the early 1990s translates to the avoidance of more than 300,000 deaths among blacks. In men, incidence rates from 2003 to 2012 decreased for all cancers combined (by 2.0% per year) as well as for the top 3 cancer sites (prostate, lung, and colorectal). In women, overall rates during the corresponding time period remained unchanged, reflecting increasing trends in breast cancer combined with decreasing trends in lung and colorectal cancer rates. Five-year relative survival is lower for blacks than whites for most cancers at each stage of diagnosis. The extent to which these disparities reflect unequal access to health care versus other factors remains an active area of research. Progress in reducing cancer death rates could be accelerated by ensuring equitable access to prevention, early detection, and high-quality treatment. CA Cancer J Clin 2016;66:290-308. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  11. The health of the American slave examined by means of Union Army medical statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freemon, F R

    1985-01-01

    The health status of the American slave in the 19th century remains unclear despite extensive historical research. Better knowledge of slave health would provide a clearer picture of the life of the slave, a better understanding of the 19th-century medicine, and possibly even clues to the health problems of modern blacks. This article hopes to contribute to the literature by examining another source of data. Slaves entering the Union Army joined an organization with standardized medical care that generated extensive statistical information. Review of these statistics answers questions about the health of young male blacks at the time American slavery ended.

  12. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A.; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  13. Statistical Sign Language Machine Translation: from English written text to American Sign Language Gloss

    CERN Document Server

    Othman, Achraf

    2011-01-01

    This works aims to design a statistical machine translation from English text to American Sign Language (ASL). The system is based on Moses tool with some modifications and the results are synthesized through a 3D avatar for interpretation. First, we translate the input text to gloss, a written form of ASL. Second, we pass the output to the WebSign Plug-in to play the sign. Contributions of this work are the use of a new couple of language English/ASL and an improvement of statistical machine translation based on string matching thanks to Jaro-distance.

  14. Track segment association algorithm based on statistical binary thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Lin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The classical Track Segment Association (TSA algorithm suffers from low accuracy and is impractical to use in concentrated targets, branching, and cross-tracking environment. Thus, a new statistical binary track segment association algorithm is proposed. The new algorithm is more appropriate as it increases the sample size for the χ2 distribution threshold detection. Simulation results show that in air cross tracking and for ballistic targets, the global correct association rate and the average correct association rate of the proposed algorithm are remarkably improved, which proves the good performance of the proposed algorithm.

  15. 2010 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides the highlights of the association's and individual directorate's activities to APA members. APA continued its efforts to advance psychological practice and ensure the public's access to high-quality psychological services, apply psychological…

  16. 2009 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2009. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology--and the unique skills of psychologists--to the attention of the public. This report aims…

  17. Statistical tests for associations between two directed acyclic graphs.

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    Robert Hoehndorf

    Full Text Available Biological data, and particularly annotation data, are increasingly being represented in directed acyclic graphs (DAGs. However, while relevant biological information is implicit in the links between multiple domains, annotations from these different domains are usually represented in distinct, unconnected DAGs, making links between the domains represented difficult to determine. We develop a novel family of general statistical tests for the discovery of strong associations between two directed acyclic graphs. Our method takes the topology of the input graphs and the specificity and relevance of associations between nodes into consideration. We apply our method to the extraction of associations between biomedical ontologies in an extensive use-case. Through a manual and an automatic evaluation, we show that our tests discover biologically relevant relations. The suite of statistical tests we develop for this purpose is implemented and freely available for download.

  18. American Art Therapy Association, Inc.: 2011 Membership Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, David E.; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2013-01-01

    The American Art Therapy Association (AATA) surveys its members biennially to gather information on general demographics, employment-related characteristics, licensing, and professional affiliations. The surveys are used in the development of national media opportunities and public policy initiatives to help increase recognition for the field of…

  19. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Oral Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Oral radiology curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools are provided. The guidelines describe minimal conditions under which a satisfactory educational experience can be offered. Principles of x-radiation, radiobiological concepts, radiological health, radiographic technique, radiographic quality, and darkroom…

  20. The American Psychiatric Association and the history of psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirshbein, Laura

    2011-09-01

    The history committee within the American Psychiatric Association was actively involved in the history of psychiatry in the early decades of the twentieth century, as well as from 1942 to 2009.This paper explores the role of this committee in the context of changes in the psychiatric profession over the twentieth century.

  1. American Association of Physics Teachers Annual Report, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Physics Teachers (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    The American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) mission is to enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics through teaching. Aspiring to advance the greater good through physics, AAPT strives to be the leading voice, primary resource, advocate of choice, and driving force in physics education, serving professionals who teach physics…

  2. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines reviewed and approved by the American Association of Dental Schools and sent to the Council on Dental Education in June 1979 are outlined. Educational goals and objectives and sequence of instruction (including growth and development, preclinical orthodontics, and clinical experience) are discussed. (MLW)

  3. Position of the American Dietetic Association and American Society for Nutrition: obesity, reproduction, and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; King, Janet C

    2009-05-01

    Given the detrimental influence of maternal overweight and obesity on reproductive and pregnancy outcomes for the mother and child, it is the position of the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition that all overweight and obese women of reproductive age should receive counseling on the roles of diet and physical activity in reproductive health prior to pregnancy,during pregnancy, and in the inter conceptional period, in order to ameliorate these adverse outcomes. The effect of maternal nutritional status prior to pregnancy on reproduction and pregnancy outcomes is of great public health importance. Obesity in the United States and worldwide has grown to epidemic proportions, with an estimated 33% of US women classified as obese. This position paper has two objectives: (a) to help nutrition professionals become aware of the risks and possible complications of overweight and obesity for fertility,the course of pregnancy, birth outcomes, and short- and long-term maternal and child health outcomes;and (b) related to the commitment to research by the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition, to identify the gaps in research to improve our knowledge of the risks and complications associated with being overweight and obese before and during pregnancy.Only with an increased knowledge of these risks and complications can health care professionals develop effective strategies that can be implemented before and during pregnancy as well as during the inter conceptional period to ameliorate adverse outcomes.

  4. Statistically-Estimated Tree Composition for the Northeastern United States at Euro-American Settlement.

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    Christopher J Paciorek

    Full Text Available We present a gridded 8 km-resolution data product of the estimated composition of tree taxa at the time of Euro-American settlement of the northeastern United States and the statistical methodology used to produce the product from trees recorded by land surveyors. Composition is defined as the proportion of stems larger than approximately 20 cm diameter at breast height for 22 tree taxa, generally at the genus level. The data come from settlement-era public survey records that are transcribed and then aggregated spatially, giving count data. The domain is divided into two regions, eastern (Maine to Ohio and midwestern (Indiana to Minnesota. Public Land Survey point data in the midwestern region (ca. 0.8-km resolution are aggregated to a regular 8 km grid, while data in the eastern region, from Town Proprietor Surveys, are aggregated at the township level in irregularly-shaped local administrative units. The product is based on a Bayesian statistical model fit to the count data that estimates composition on the 8 km grid across the entire domain. The statistical model is designed to handle data from both the regular grid and the irregularly-shaped townships and allows us to estimate composition at locations with no data and to smooth over noise caused by limited counts in locations with data. Critically, the model also allows us to quantify uncertainty in our composition estimates, making the product suitable for applications employing data assimilation. We expect this data product to be useful for understanding the state of vegetation in the northeastern United States prior to large-scale Euro-American settlement. In addition to specific regional questions, the data product can also serve as a baseline against which to investigate how forests and ecosystems change after intensive settlement. The data product is being made available at the NIS data portal as version 1.0.

  5. Lexical Co-occurrence, Statistical Significance, and Word Association

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    Chaudhari, Dipak; Laxman, Srivatsan

    2010-01-01

    Lexical co-occurrence is an important cue for detecting word associations. We present a theoretical framework for discovering statistically significant lexical co-occurrences from a given corpus. In contrast with the prevalent practice of giving weightage to unigram frequencies, we focus only on the documents containing both the terms (of a candidate bigram). We detect biases in span distributions of associated words, while being agnostic to variations in global unigram frequencies. Our framework has the fidelity to distinguish different classes of lexical co-occurrences, based on strengths of the document and corpuslevel cues of co-occurrence in the data. We perform extensive experiments on benchmark data sets to study the performance of various co-occurrence measures that are currently known in literature. We find that a relatively obscure measure called Ochiai, and a newly introduced measure CSA capture the notion of lexical co-occurrence best, followed next by LLR, Dice, and TTest, while another popular m...

  6. Statistical distributions of test statistics used for quantitative trait association mapping in structured populations

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    Teyssèdre Simon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spurious associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms and phenotypes are a major issue in genome-wide association studies and have led to underestimation of type 1 error rate and overestimation of the number of quantitative trait loci found. Many authors have investigated the influence of population structure on the robustness of methods by simulation. This paper is aimed at developing further the algebraic formalization of power and type 1 error rate for some of the classical statistical methods used: simple regression, two approximate methods of mixed models involving the effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP and a random polygenic effect (GRAMMAR and FASTA and the transmission/disequilibrium test for quantitative traits and nuclear families. Analytical formulae were derived using matrix algebra for the first and second moments of the statistical tests, assuming a true mixed model with a polygenic effect and SNP effects. Results The expectation and variance of the test statistics and their marginal expectations and variances according to the distribution of genotypes and estimators of variance components are given as a function of the relationship matrix and of the heritability of the polygenic effect. These formulae were used to compute type 1 error rate and power for any kind of relationship matrix between phenotyped and genotyped individuals for any level of heritability. For the regression method, type 1 error rate increased with the variability of relationships and with heritability, but decreased with the GRAMMAR method and was not affected with the FASTA and quantitative transmission/disequilibrium test methods. Conclusions The formulae can be easily used to provide the correct threshold of type 1 error rate and to calculate the power when designing experiments or data collection protocols. The results concerning the efficacy of each method agree with simulation results in the literature but were

  7. Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.

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    Daniel Shriner

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.

  8. "I am Not a Statistic": Identities of African American Males in Advanced Science Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Diane Wynn

    The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2010) expects new industries to generate approximately 2.7 million jobs in science and technology by the year 2018, and there is concern as to whether there will be enough trained individuals to fill these positions. A tremendous resource remains untapped, African American students, especially African American males (National Science Foundation, 2009). Historically, African American males have been omitted from the so called science pipeline. Fewer African American males pursue a science discipline due, in part; to limiting factors they experience in school and at home (Ogbu, 2004). This is a case study of African American males who are enrolled in advanced science courses at a predominantly African American (84%) urban high school. Guided by expectancy-value theory (EVT) of achievement related results (Eccles, 2009; Eccles et al., 1983), twelve African American male students in two advanced science courses were observed in their science classrooms weekly, participated in an in-depth interview, developed a presentation to share with students enrolled in a tenth grade science course, responded to an open-ended identity questionnaire, and were surveyed about their perceptions of school. Additionally, the students' teachers were interviewed, and seven of the students' parents. The interview data analyses highlighted the important role of supportive parents (key socializers) who had high expectations for their sons and who pushed them academically. The students clearly attributed their enrollment in advanced science courses to their high regard for their science teachers, which included positive relationships, hands-on learning in class, and an inviting and encouraging learning environment. Additionally, other family members and coaches played important roles in these young men's lives. Students' PowerPoint(c) presentations to younger high school students on why they should take advanced science courses highlighted these

  9. Statistical Methods for Detecting Stellar Occultations by Kuiper Belt Objects the Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, C L; De Pater, I; Alcock, C B; Axelrod, T; Wang, A; Liang, Chyng-Lan; Rice, John A.; Pater, Imke de; Alcock, Charles; Axelrod, Tim; Wang, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey (TAOS) will detect objects in the Kuiper Belt, by measuring the rate of occultations of stars by these objects, using an array of three to four 50cm wide-field robotic telescopes. Thousands of stars will be monitored, resulting in hundreds of millions of photometric measurements per night. To optimize the success of TAOS, we have investigated various methods of gathering and processing the data and developed statistical methods for detecting occultations. In this paper we discuss these methods. The resulting estimated detection efficiencies will be used to guide the choice of various operational parameters determining the mode of actual observation when the telescopes come on line and begin routine observations. In particular we show how real-time detection algorithms may be constructed, taking advantage of having multiple telescopes. We also discuss a retrospective method for estimating the rate at which occultations occur.

  10. A statistical study of post-flare-associated CME events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, M.; Mawad, R.; shaltout, Mosalam

    2013-04-01

    We present a statistical study of post-flare-associated CMEs (PFA-CMEs) during the period from 1996 to 2010. By investigating all CMEs and X-ray flares, respectively, in the LASCO and GOES archives, we found 15875 CMEs of which masses are well measured and 25112 X-ray flares of which positions are determined from their optical counterparts. Under certain temporal and spatial criteria of these CMEs and solar flare events, 291PFA-CMEs events have been selected. Linking the flare fluxes with CME speeds of these paired events, we found that there is a reasonable positive linear relation between the CME linear speed and associated flare flux. The results show also the CME width increases as the flux of its associated solar flare increases. Besides we found that there is a fine positive linear relation between the CME mass and its width. Matching the flare fluxes with CME masses of these paired events, we find the CME mass increases as the flux of its associated solar flare increases. Finally we find the PFA-CME events are in regular more decelerated than the other CMEs.

  11. [The basic life support guidance of American Heart Association (AHA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashioka, Hiroaki; Yonemori, Terutake; Maeda, Daigen

    2011-04-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) and other member councils of International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) complete review of resuscitation science every 5 years. And ILCOR publishes Consensus on Science with Treatment Recommendations(CoSTR). The AHA published "American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation(CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC)" (G2010), that basis on CoSTR 2010 on Oct. 18th, 2010. The switchover to new curriculum based on G2010 on and after Mar. 1st, 2011 is the policy of AHA in their all training courses. The AHA maintains the quality of their training courses by some systems. AHA instructors are trained by some steps of instructor courses and monitoring systems and update their scientific knowledge on resuscitation by e-learning. The authors introduce an outline of basic life support for healthcare providers, the instructor training systems of AHA and summary of basic life support basis on G2010.

  12. Anxiety reporting and culturally associated interpretation biases and cognitive schemas: a comparison of Mexican, Mexican American, and European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, R Enrique; Vernberg, Eric M; Sanchez-Sosa, Juan Jose; Riveros, Angelica; Mitchell, Montserrat; Mashunkashey, Joanna

    2004-06-01

    This study examined whether Mexican (n = 53), Mexican American (n = 50), and European American (n = 51) children differed in their reporting of anxiety symptoms and whether parental influence and specific cognitive schemas associated with Mexican culture were related to differences in anxiety reporting. As expected, Mexican and Mexican American children reported significantly more physiological and worry symptoms than the European American children. Mexican and Mexican American children endorsed collectivism as a cultural value more strongly than European American children, and the Mexican children evidenced greatest use of social strategies reflecting simpatia. In family discussions of ambiguous, potentially anxiety-arousing situations, Mexican and Mexican American parents verbalized a greater percentage of somatic interpretations than the European American parents. Results indicate potential linkages between cultural values, socialization practices, and anxiety reporting.

  13. Recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. American Medical Informatics Association, Computer-based Patient Record Institute, Medical Library Association, Association of Academic Health Science Libraries, American Health Information Management Association, American Nurses Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R A; Gardner, R M

    1997-01-01

    In mid-1996, the FDA called for discussions on regulation of clinical software programs as medical devices. In response, a consortium of organizations dedicated to improving health care through information technology has developed recommendations for the responsible regulation and monitoring of clinical software systems by users, vendors, and regulatory agencies. Organizations assisting in development of recommendations, or endorsing the consortium position include the American Medical Informatics Association, the Computer-based Patient Record Institute, the Medical Library Association, the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries, the American Health Information Management Association, the American Nurses Association, the Center for Healthcare Information Management, and the American College of Physicians. The consortium proposes four categories of clinical system risks and four classes of measured monitoring and regulatory actions that can be applied strategically based on the level of risk in a given setting. The consortium recommends local oversight of clinical software systems, and adoption by healthcare information system developers of a code of good business practices. Budgetary and other constraints limit the type and number of systems that the FDA can regulate effectively. FDA regulation should exempt most clinical software systems and focus on those systems posing highest clinical risk, with limited opportunities for competent human intervention.

  14. 2009 American Thyroid Association guidelines on thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perros, P

    2010-08-01

    The American Thyroid Association guidelines on thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer, published in 2009, provide valuable recommendations based on current evidence. Inevitably, controversies and uncertainties will continue to challenge clinicians and patients. On topics where evidence is not clear-cut, judgement may be coloured by pre-existing practises and the structure of the health service in each country, so one has to be aware of the pitfalls of transferring recommendations to one's own practise.

  15. Nonlinear Kramers equation associated with nonextensive statistical mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, G A; Ribeiro, M S; Mendes, R S; Lenzi, E K; Nobre, F D

    2015-05-01

    Stationary and time-dependent solutions of a nonlinear Kramers equation, as well as its associated nonlinear Fokker-Planck equations, are investigated within the context of Tsallis nonextensive statistical mechanics. Since no general analytical time-dependent solutions are found for such a nonlinear Kramers equation, an ansatz is considered and the corresponding asymptotic behavior is studied and compared with those known for the standard linear Kramers equation. The H-theorem is analyzed for this equation and its connection with Tsallis entropy is investigated. An application is discussed, namely the motion of Hydra cells in two-dimensional cellular aggregates, for which previous measurements have verified q-Gaussian distributions for velocity components and superdiffusion. The present analysis is in quantitative agreement with these experimental results.

  16. Statistical study of seismicity associated with geothermal reservoirs in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.M.; Cavit, D.S.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical methods are outlined to separate spatially, temporally, and magnitude-dependent portions of both the random and non-random components of the seismicity. The methodology employed compares the seismicity distributions with a generalized Poisson distribution. Temporally related events are identified by the distribution of the interoccurrence times. The regions studied to date include the Imperial Valley, Coso, The Geysers, Lassen, and the San Jacinto fault. The spatial characteristics of the random and clustered components of the seismicity are diffuse and appear unsuitable for defining the areal extent of the reservoir. However, from the temporal characteristics of the seismicity associated with these regions a general discriminant was constructed that combines several physical parameters for identifying the presence of a geothermal system.

  17. Palliative Care and Cardiovascular Disease and Stroke: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Lynne T; Grady, Kathleen L; Kutner, Jean S; Adler, Eric; Berlinger, Nancy; Boss, Renee; Butler, Javed; Enguidanos, Susan; Friebert, Sarah; Gardner, Timothy J; Higgins, Phil; Holloway, Robert; Konig, Madeleine; Meier, Diane; Morrissey, Mary Beth; Quest, Tammie E; Wiegand, Debra L; Coombs-Lee, Barbara; Fitchett, George; Gupta, Charu; Roach, William H

    2016-09-13

    The mission of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association includes increasing access to high-quality, evidence-based care that improves patient outcomes such as health-related quality of life and is consistent with the patients' values, preferences, and goals. Awareness of and access to palliative care interventions align with the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association mission. The purposes of this policy statement are to provide background on the importance of palliative care as it pertains to patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke and their families and to make recommendations for policy decisions. Palliative care, defined as patient- and family-centered care that optimizes health-related quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering, should be integrated into the care of all patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke early in the disease trajectory. Palliative care focuses on communication, shared decision making about treatment options, advance care planning, and attention to physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological distress with inclusion of the patient's family and care system. Our policy recommendations address the following: reimbursement for comprehensive delivery of palliative care services for patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke; strong payer-provider relationships that involve data sharing to identify patients in need of palliative care, identification of better care and payment models, and establishment of quality standards and outcome measurements; healthcare system policies for the provision of comprehensive palliative care services during hospitalization, including goals of care, treatment decisions, needs of family caregivers, and transition to other care settings; and health professional education in palliative care as part of licensure requirements.

  18. Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Hayslett, H T

    1991-01-01

    Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the

  19. Factors Associated With Overweight and Obesity Among Mexican Americans and Central Americans: Results From the 2001 California Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice V. Bowie, PhD, MPH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHispanics are the fastest growing demographic group in the United States; however, “Hispanic” is a broad term that describes people who are from or whose ancestors are from multiple countries of origin. This study examines, separately, the social, cultural, and behavioral factors associated with overweight and obesity among Mexican American adults and among Central American adults. MethodsTo estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans living in California, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey using SUDAAN software to account for the survey’s multistage sampling design.ResultsOf the 8304 Mexican Americans participating in the survey, 36.8% were overweight and 26.2% were obese. Of the 1019 Central Americans, 39.2% were overweight and 22.2% were obese. Among Mexican American men, age and marital status were associated with overweight and obesity; and education, acculturation, health insurance status, health status, and use of vitamins were associated with obesity only. Among Mexican American women, age, education, number of children, health status, and health behavior were associated with overweight and obesity. Among Central American men, age, education, and access to health care were associated with overweight, whereas marital status, acculturation, health care, and binge drinking were associated with obesity. Among Central American women, number of children was associated with overweight and obesity; and age and education were associated with obesity only. ConclusionsOur findings of high rates of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans in California indicate the need for a wide variety of effective weight-loss interventions targeting these populations, and the differences we found in the factors associated with overweight and obesity may suggest the need for unique intervention strategies for different

  20. Youth Sports Safety Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 6):794-799. 31 American Heart Association. CPR statistics. www.heart.org/HEARTORG/CPRAndECC/WhatisCPR/CPRFactsandStats/CPRpercent20Statistics_ ... Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality. (January 10, 2013). The DAWN Report: ...

  1. A weighted U statistic for association analyses considering genetic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Changshuai; Elston, Robert C; Lu, Qing

    2016-07-20

    Converging evidence suggests that common complex diseases with the same or similar clinical manifestations could have different underlying genetic etiologies. While current research interests have shifted toward uncovering rare variants and structural variations predisposing to human diseases, the impact of heterogeneity in genetic studies of complex diseases has been largely overlooked. Most of the existing statistical methods assume the disease under investigation has a homogeneous genetic effect and could, therefore, have low power if the disease undergoes heterogeneous pathophysiological and etiological processes. In this paper, we propose a heterogeneity-weighted U (HWU) method for association analyses considering genetic heterogeneity. HWU can be applied to various types of phenotypes (e.g., binary and continuous) and is computationally efficient for high-dimensional genetic data. Through simulations, we showed the advantage of HWU when the underlying genetic etiology of a disease was heterogeneous, as well as the robustness of HWU against different model assumptions (e.g., phenotype distributions). Using HWU, we conducted a genome-wide analysis of nicotine dependence from the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environments dataset. The genome-wide analysis of nearly one million genetic markers took 7h, identifying heterogeneous effects of two new genes (i.e., CYP3A5 and IKBKB) on nicotine dependence. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Position of the American Dietetic Association: weight management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seagle, Helen M; Strain, Gladys Witt; Makris, Angela; Reeves, Rebecca S

    2009-02-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that successful weight management to improve overall health for adults requires a lifelong commitment to healthful lifestyle behaviors emphasizing sustainable and enjoyable eating practices and daily physical activity. Given the increasing incidence of overweight and obesity along with the escalating health care costs associated with weight-related illnesses, health care providers must discover how to effectively treat this complex condition. Food and nutrition professionals should stay current and skilled in weight management to assist clients in preventing weight gain, optimizing individual weight loss interventions, and achieving long-term weight loss maintenance. Using the American Dietetic Association's Evidence Analysis Process and Evidence Analysis Library, this position paper presents the current data and recommendations for weight management. The evidence supporting the value of portion control, eating frequency, meal replacements, and very-low-energy diets are discussed as well as physical activity, behavior therapy, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. Public policy changes to create environments that can assist all populations to achieve and sustain healthful lifestyle behaviors are also reviewed.

  3. American Telemedicine Association: First China (Tianjin International Telemedicine Technology Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Bernard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the support of Tianjin Municipal People’s Government and the People’s Government of Binhai New Area, the “First China (Tianjin International Telemedicine Technology Exhibition” hosted by the American Telemedicine Association (ATA, will be held October 28- 30, 2014 at the Tianjin Binhai International Convention and Exhibition Center. The three day event will feature keynote sessions, concurrent discussion forums, exhibits (e.g., telemedicine, information technology, mHealth, a venture summit, meet-and-greet sessions for international and domestic companies for potential business collaboration, and policy discussions on China healthcare. For registration information: http://www.atacn.org/en/

  4. SST and North American Tropical Cyclone Landfall: A Statistical Modeling Study

    CERN Document Server

    Hall, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    We employ a statistical model of North Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) tracks to investigate the relationship between sea-surface temperature (SST) and North American TC landfall rates. The track model is conditioned on summer SST in the tropical North Atlantic being in either the 19 hottest or the 19 coldest years in the period 1950-2005. For each conditioning many synthetic TCs are generated and landfall rates computed. Compared to direct analysis of historical landfall, the track model reduces the sampling error by projecting information from the entire basin onto the coast. There are 46% more TCs in hot years than cold in the model, which is highly significant compared to random sampling and corroborates well documented trends in North Atlantic TC number in recent decades. In the absence of other effects, this difference results in a significant increase in model landfall rates in hot years, uniform along the coast. Hot-cold differences in the geographic distribution of genesis and in TC propagation do not...

  5. North American Tropical Cyclone Landfall and SST: A Statistical Model Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy; Yonekura, Emmi

    2013-01-01

    A statistical-stochastic model of the complete life cycle of North Atlantic (NA) tropical cyclones (TCs) is used to examine the relationship between climate and landfall rates along the North American Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. The model draws on archived data of TCs throughout the North Atlantic to estimate landfall rates at high geographic resolution as a function of the ENSO state and one of two different measures of sea surface temperature (SST): 1) SST averaged over the NA subtropics and the hurricane season and 2) this SST relative to the seasonal global subtropical mean SST (termed relSST). Here, the authors focus on SST by holding ENSO to a neutral state. Jackknife uncertainty tests are employed to test the significance of SST and relSST landfall relationships. There are more TC and major hurricane landfalls overall in warm years than cold, using either SST or relSST, primarily due to a basinwide increase in the number of storms. The signal along the coast, however, is complex. Some regions have large and significant sensitivity (e.g., an approximate doubling of annual major hurricane landfall probability on Texas from -2 to +2 standard deviations in relSST), while other regions have no significant sensitivity (e.g., the U.S. mid-Atlantic and Northeast coasts). This geographic structure is due to both shifts in the regions of primary TC genesis and shifts in TC propagation.

  6. Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.

  7. Associations between depression, distress tolerance, delay discounting, and alcohol-related problems in European American and African American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G

    2011-12-01

    Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors.

  8. American woodcock (Scolopax minor) mortality associated with a reovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Hansen, W.R.; Norman, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    A virus isolate associated with a 1989-90 die-off in American woodcock (Scolopax minor) was identified as a reovirus. Emaciation was a consistent necropsy finding in the woodcock involved in this die-off. This reovirus infection appeared to be systemic, had the potential for fecal-oral virus transmission, and was associated with deterioration of body condition. To our knowledge this is the first report of a virus isolate from wild American woodcock. A survey conducted in 1990-92 indicated that this virus was not present at detectable levels in the woodcock breeding and wintering population. /// Un virus asociado con la mortalidad de becadas o perdices americanas (Scolopax minor) en 1989-1990-fue identificado como reovirus. La emaciaci??n fue un resultado com??n a la necropsia de las aves que murieron. Esta infecci??n por reovirus pareci?? ser sist??mica, ten?-a el potencial de transmisi??n fecal-oral y estuvo asociada con el deterioro del ave. Creemos que este sea el primer reporte de aislamiento viral a partir de becadas americanas. Una encuesta hecha entre 1990 y 1992 indic?? que este virus no estaba presente en los niveles detectables en los reproductores y en las aves invernales.

  9. 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Presents the 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In his introduction, President Barry Anton describes how 2015 was among APA's most challenging. Although 2015 ushered in an era of greater transparency within the association and enhanced communications to members and the public, it also required painful self-reflection stemming from the revelations of an independent review by an outside law firm. The review examined the question of whether APA played any role related to the Bush administration's use of abusive interrogation techniques during the war on terror. Anton's introduction also discusses (1) the APA convention, (2) representing APA at a White House meeting with health care providers and insurance companies, (3) APA's effort to increase the number of APA-accredited internships, (4) international activities, and (5) the global summit on psychology and integrated care. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Peer Associations and Coping: The Mediating Role of Ethnic Identity for Urban, African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Jeneka A; O'Neil, Maya E; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; McWhirter, Ellen H; Dishion, Thomas J

    2013-10-01

    This study sought to examine the relationship between coping strategies and prosocial and deviant peer associations for urban, African American adolescents. In addition, the study analyzed the mediating role of ethnic identity for coping strategies and peer associations. Results of the African American models were then compared with models for European American adolescents. Results indicated that African American and European American adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were more likely to associate with prosocial peers, and those who reported using self-destruction strategies were less likely to associate with prosocial peers. Adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were less likely to associate with deviant peers, and adolescents who reported using self-destruction strategies were more likely to associate with deviant peers. Ethnic identity mediated the relationship between coping and prosocial peer association for African American adolescents. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also presented.

  11. Modeling Statistics of Fish Patchiness and Predicting Associated Influence on Statistics of Acoustic Echoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    suggestions for reducing this burden to Washington Headquarters Service , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports 1215 Jefferson Davis...caveat in the population statistics shown in Figure 10 is that the data represent aggregations of both juveniles and adults, nighttime and daytime...to left. In this plot, black circles indicate the raw position data; the blue line represents a corrected path after fdtering’to remove frame rate

  12. American Dental Association's Resources to Support Evidence-Based Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravamudhan, K; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie

    2009-09-01

    Time and access have often been cited as barriers to implementing Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD). This paper describes a new web-based resource launched by the American Dental Association to enable practitioners to incorporate evidence into treatment planning. The website offers a database of systematic reviews, critical summaries of systematic reviews, evidence-based clinical recommendations and links to external resources to enable practitioners to access evidence at the point of care. In addition the site offers an online space for clinicians to suggest clinical scenarios where evidence is lacking. This could potentially be a source of topics to drive future research. With the explosion in the use of information technology within a dental office, this web-site will serve as the one-stop resource for credible scientific information for practitioners.

  13. 67 th annual meeting of the American Diabetes Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colca, Jerry R

    2007-10-01

    The 67 th meeting of the American Diabetes Association was held in Chicago on 22 - 26 June. This annual meeting continues to grow in size and scope and is a unique combination of basic science and medical science but also incorporates all aspects of healthcare and pharmaceutical business relating to the treatment of diabetes. The meeting was composed of general sessions, symposia summarizing the status of various fields of study and medical practice, together with both oral and poster presentations of new, previously unpublished research. The abstracts are published in Diabetes and a collection of the information can be found online with very useful summaries from the final day. These contain personalized summaries of key findings of the meetings as seen by key researches in the field. In this Meeting Highlights article, the key take-away messages are summarized from the author's point of view.

  14. Faculty application of the American Psychological Association style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Gwen Goetz

    2009-10-01

    This article explores current faculty methods with the application and evaluation of the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Specific aims were to determine concerns related to APA style, review faculty grading practices, identify institutional resources, and report potential solutions for improving application of APA style. A survey with an exploratory descriptive research design was developed and distributed online to academic chairs and deans, requesting their support in distributing the survey to their faculty. Responses (N = 704) were grouped into five categories: departmental and personal concerns; faculty grading practices; institutional resources; format, writing style, and grammar; and suggestions and potential solutions. Sixty percent reported that application and evaluation of APA style is a concern in their department. Content analysis identified four categories as proposed solutions: consistency, education, resources, and dialogue. On the basis of the feedback of the participants, the CRED program is proposed for the issues that were identified.

  15. American Telemedicine Association: 18th Annual International Meeting & Tradeshow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Forstag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For 18 years, the American Telemedicine Association (ATA Annual International Meeting & Exposition has been the premier forum for professionals in the telemedicine, telehealth and mHealth space -- one of the fastest growing meetings in the country. ATA 2013 is on course to be the largest ATA meeting ever, with over 6,000 projected attendees.  The program will include 500 educational sessions and posters, highlighting the latest innovations, applications and research in telemedicine. The 2013 exhibit hall will feature nearly 300 of the leading vendors in remote healthcare technologies. With over 6000 projected attendees, from all around the world, there's no better place to meet and network with your peers and thought leaders in the field. Detailed program information--including courses, sessions and CME information--will be available January 2013 at:http://www.americantelemed.org.

  16. Enrichment of statistical power for genome-wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inheritance of most human diseases and agriculturally important traits is controlled by many genes with small effects. Identifying these genes, while simultaneously controlling false positives, is challenging. Among available statistical methods, the mixed linear model (MLM) has been the most fl...

  17. Position of the American Dietetic Association: food and water safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, Bonnie L; Perkin, Judy E

    2003-09-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public has the right to a safe food and water supply. The Association supports collaboration among dietetics professionals, academics, representatives of the agriculture and food industries, and appropriate government agencies to ensure the safety of the food and water supply by providing education to the public and industry, promoting technologic innovation and applications, and supporting further research. Numerous bacterial, viral, and chemical food and water threats exist with certain populations such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, those in institutionalized settings, and the immune compromised being at high risk. Recent outbreaks of food and waterborne disease and threats of bioterrorism have focused attention on the safety of US food and water systems. The US government and other entities have developed programs to address challenges associated with maintaining food and water safety. Safety initiatives such as the Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis Critical Point (HACCP), revisions to the Food Code, and the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations provide a framework to evaluate current and future challenges to the safety of food and water systems. Dietetics professionals should take a proactive role in ensuring that appropriate food and water safety practices are followed and can also assume major roles in food and water safety education and research.

  18. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Food and water safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Julie A; Nagy-Nero, Debe

    2009-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public has the right to a safe food and water supply. The Association supports collaboration among food and nutrition professionals, academics, representatives of the agricultural and food industries, and appropriate government agencies to ensure the safety of the food and water supply by providing education to the public and industry, promoting technological innovation and applications, and supporting further research. New food and water safety issues evolve as the environment changes. Food and nutrition professionals should collaborate with food and agriculture industries and members of the medical community in a joint effort to address these issues. Recent food- and waterborne illnesses have occurred in new settings and/or unique foods not traditionally associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. New issues associated with food safety and security that have emerged support the need for continued education and research. Government programs have developed powerful tools such as FoodNet and PulseNet to detect food- and waterborne illness outbreaks in the United States. These government programs have provided the data to enhance public policy and educational programs such as FightBac! Mandatory and voluntary adoption of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points in the foodservice and processing industries have contributed to a decrease in foodborne illness outbreaks from traditional foods and some microorganisms usually associated with foodborne illnesses. Food and nutrition professionals are positioned to provide food and water safety education in community, clinical settings, and foodservice operations and food industries. With an aging population and an increased number of people at risk due to medical conditions for food- and waterborne illness, food and nutrition professionals should be involved in collaborative food and water safety issues in educational, research, and policy agenda settings. As

  19. Association of genetic loci with sleep apnea in European Americans and African-Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay R Patel

    Full Text Available Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is known to have a strong familial basis, no genetic polymorphisms influencing apnea risk have been identified in cross-cohort analyses. We utilized the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe to identify sleep apnea susceptibility loci. Using a panel of 46,449 polymorphisms from roughly 2,100 candidate genes on a customized Illumina iSelect chip, we tested for association with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI as well as moderate to severe OSA (AHI≥15 in 3,551 participants of the Cleveland Family Study and two cohorts participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study.Among 647 African-Americans, rs11126184 in the pleckstrin (PLEK gene was associated with OSA while rs7030789 in the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1 gene was associated with AHI using a chip-wide significance threshold of p-value<2×10(-6. Among 2,904 individuals of European ancestry, rs1409986 in the prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER3 gene was significantly associated with OSA. Consistency of effects between rs7030789 and rs1409986 in LPAR1 and PTGER3 and apnea phenotypes were observed in independent clinic-based cohorts.Novel genetic loci for apnea phenotypes were identified through the use of customized gene chips and meta-analyses of cohort data with replication in clinic-based samples. The identified SNPs all lie in genes associated with inflammation suggesting inflammation may play a role in OSA pathogenesis.

  20. Fusing Data Mining, Machine Learning and Traditional Statistics to Detect Biomarkers Associated with Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna F Dipnall

    Full Text Available Atheoretical large-scale data mining techniques using machine learning algorithms have promise in the analysis of large epidemiological datasets. This study illustrates the use of a hybrid methodology for variable selection that took account of missing data and complex survey design to identify key biomarkers associated with depression from a large epidemiological study.The study used a three-step methodology amalgamating multiple imputation, a machine learning boosted regression algorithm and logistic regression, to identify key biomarkers associated with depression in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (2009-2010. Depression was measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and 67 biomarkers were analysed. Covariates in this study included gender, age, race, smoking, food security, Poverty Income Ratio, Body Mass Index, physical activity, alcohol use, medical conditions and medications. The final imputed weighted multiple logistic regression model included possible confounders and moderators.After the creation of 20 imputation data sets from multiple chained regression sequences, machine learning boosted regression initially identified 21 biomarkers associated with depression. Using traditional logistic regression methods, including controlling for possible confounders and moderators, a final set of three biomarkers were selected. The final three biomarkers from the novel hybrid variable selection methodology were red cell distribution width (OR 1.15; 95% CI 1.01, 1.30, serum glucose (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1.00, 1.01 and total bilirubin (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.05, 0.28. Significant interactions were found between total bilirubin with Mexican American/Hispanic group (p = 0.016, and current smokers (p<0.001.The systematic use of a hybrid methodology for variable selection, fusing data mining techniques using a machine learning algorithm with traditional statistical modelling, accounted for missing data and complex survey sampling

  1. Hispanics/Latinos & Cardiovascular Disease: Statistical Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... statistics or any points made in the 2013 Statistical Update, please contact the American Heart Association National Center, Office of Science & Medicine at statistics@ heart. org. Please direct all media ...

  2. 76 FR 37880 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Granting of Exemption; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    ...; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT... decision to grant the application for exemption from the American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) on behalf.... Christine Hydock, FMCSA Driver and Carrier Operations Division, Office of Bus and Truck Standards...

  3. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Nicholette D; McDonough, Caitrin W; Hicks, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wid...

  4. A Genome-Wide Association Search for Type 2 Diabetes Genes in African Americans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palmer, Nicholette D.; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Roh, Bong H.; Wing, Maria R.; An, S. Sandy; Hester, Jessica M.; Cooke, Jessica N.; Bostrom, Meredith A.; Rudock, Megan E.; Talbert, Matthew E.; Lewis, Joshua P.; Ferrara, Assiamira; Lu, Lingyi; Ziegler, Julie T.; Sale, Michele M.; Divers, Jasmin; Shriner, Daniel; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N.; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.

    2012-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide A

  5. 77 FR 38378 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Revision of Exemption; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Exemption; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... the list of member motor carriers of the American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) that were granted an... covered renewal of 53 APA-member motor carriers and added 9 new APA-member carriers. It allowed drivers...

  6. AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY, AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION AND EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF CARDIOLOGY GUIDELINES (2006 FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION (ENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fuster

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A report of the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for practice guidelines.

  7. AMERICAN COLLEGE OF CARDIOLOGY, AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION AND EUROPEAN SOCIETY OF CARDIOLOGY GUIDELINES (2006 FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH ATRIAL FIBRILLATION (ENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fuster

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A report of the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for practice guidelines.

  8. Generalizing Terwilliger's likelihood approach: a new score statistic to test for genetic association

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu Li; Helmer Quinta; de Visser Marieke CH; Uitte de Willige Shirley; el Galta Rachid; Houwing-Duistermaat Jeanine J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background: In this paper, we propose a one degree of freedom test for association between a candidate gene and a binary trait. This method is a generalization of Terwilliger's likelihood ratio statistic and is especially powerful for the situation of one associated haplotype. As an alternative to the likelihood ratio statistic, we derive a score statistic, which has a tractable expression. For haplotype analysis, we assume that phase is known. Results: By means of a simulation study...

  9. 77 FR 70446 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the American Association for Accreditation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF) for Continuing CMS Approval of Its Ambulatory Surgical Center Accreditation Program AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid... Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF) for continued recognition as...

  10. Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston J; Mangels, Ann Reed

    2009-07-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foods. This article reviews the current data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, n-3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, and vitamins D and B-12. A vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, supplements or fortified foods can provide useful amounts of important nutrients. An evidence- based review showed that vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate in pregnancy and result in positive maternal and infant health outcomes. The results of an evidence-based review showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarians also appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index and lower overall cancer rates. Features of a vegetarian diet that may reduce risk of chronic disease include lower intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, soy products, fiber, and phytochemicals. The variability of dietary practices among vegetarians makes individual assessment of dietary adequacy essential. In addition to assessing dietary adequacy, food and nutrition professionals can also play key roles in educating vegetarians about sources of specific nutrients

  11. A statistical perspective on association studies of psychiatric disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldager, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    and 2 were motivated by the hypothesis that defects of the immune system may increase risk of psychiatric disorders. We consider two components from the lectin pathway of activation: mannan-binding lectin (MBL) and MBL-associated serine protease-2 (MASP-2) via continuous traits (protein level...... accepted genome-wide threshold for single-marker association tests has become 5e-8 but searching for interactions genome-wide results in drastically many more tests and thus the need of an even lower p-value threshold. Lowering the threshold comes at the unfortunate but inevitable expense of increasing...... for significance. Yet, in paper 6 we propose the Landscape method to summarise a series of sequentially ordered test values without the need of more or less arbitrary prior grouping....

  12. Methanol Maser Associated Outflows: Detection statistics and properties

    CERN Document Server

    de Villiers, H M; Thompson, M A; Ellingsen, S P; Urquhart, J S; Breen, S L; Burton, M G; Csengeri, T; Ward-Thompson, D

    2014-01-01

    We have selected the positions of 54 6.7GHz methanol masers from the Methanol Multibeam Survey catalogue, covering a range of longitudes between $20^{\\circ}$ and $34^{\\circ}$ of the Galactic Plane. These positions were mapped in the J=3-2 transition of both the $\\rm{^{13}CO}$ and $\\rm{C^{18}O}$ lines. A total of 58 $\\rm{^{13}CO}$ emission peaks are found in the vicinity of these maser positions. We search for outflows around all $\\rm{^{13}CO}$ peaks, and find evidence for high-velocity gas in all cases, spatially resolving the red and blue outflow lobes in 55 cases. Of these sources, 44 have resolved kinematic distances, and are closely associated with the 6.7GHz masers, a sub-set referred to as Methanol Maser Associated Outflows (MMAOs). We calculate the masses of the clumps associated with each peak using 870 $\\rm{\\mu m}$ continuum emission from the ATLASGAL survey. A strong correlation is seen between the clump mass and both outflow mass and mechanical force, lending support to models in which accretion is...

  13. The mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between harsh parental practices and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in Hispanic American, African American, and European American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Elif Dede; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L

    2015-07-01

    Using data from the add-on 5-year cohort of In-Home Longitudinal Study of preschool aged Children of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), we examined the mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between positive and harsh maternal practices and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of 1,922 low-income Hispanic American, African American, and European American families. For European Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression and hostility and children's externalizing behaviors were direct. Similarly, for Hispanic Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression, physical assault, and hostility and externalizing behaviors were direct, as was the link between maternal physical assault and internalizing behaviors. For African Americans, maternal warmth partially mediated the links between maternal hostility and physical assault and externalizing behaviors. However, the associations between psychological aggression and externalizing and internalizing behaviors were direct. The data are discussed with respect to similarities in cultural pathways of influence between harsh maternal treatment and children's behavioral difficulties across ethnic groups.

  14. The American Urological Association symptom index for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The Measurement Committee of the American Urological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M J; Fowler, F J; O'Leary, M P; Bruskewitz, R C; Holtgrewe, H L; Mebust, W K; Cockett, A T

    1992-11-01

    A symptom index for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was developed and validated by a multidisciplinary measurement committee of the American Urological Association (AUA). Validation studies were conducted involving a total of 210 BPH patients and 108 control subjects. The final AUA symptom index includes 7 questions covering frequency, nocturia, weak urinary stream, hesitancy, intermittence, incomplete emptying and urgency. On revalidation, the index was internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) and the score generated had excellent test-retest reliability (r = 0.92). Scores were highly correlated with subjects' global ratings of the magnitude of their urinary problem (r = 0.65 to 0.72) and powerfully discriminated between BPH and control subjects (receiver operating characteristic area 0.85). Finally, the index was sensitive to change, with preoperative scores decreasing from a mean of 17.6 to 7.1 by 4 weeks after prostatectomy (p < 0.001). The AUA symptom index is clinically sensible, reliable, valid and responsive. It is practical for use in practice and for inclusion in research protocols.

  15. Position of the American Dietetic Association: functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Clare M; Brown, Amy C

    2009-04-01

    All foods are functional at some physiological level, but it is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that functional foods that include whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels. ADA supports research to further define the health benefits and risks of individual functional foods and their physiologically active components. Health claims on food products, including functional foods, should be based on the significant scientific agreement standard of evidence and ADA supports label claims based on such strong scientific substantiation. Food and nutrition professionals will continue to work with the food industry, allied health professionals, the government, the scientific community, and the media to ensure that the public has accurate information regarding functional foods and thus should continue to educate themselves on this emerging area of food and nutrition science. Knowledge of the role of physiologically active food components, from plant, animal, and microbial food sources, has changed the role of diet in health. Functional foods have evolved as food and nutrition science has advanced beyond the treatment of deficiency syndromes to reduction of disease risk and health promotion. This position paper reviews the definition of functional foods, their regulation, and the scientific evidence supporting this evolving area of food and nutrition. Foods can no longer be evaluated only in terms of macronutrient and micronutrient content alone. Analyzing the content of other physiologically active components and evaluating their role in health promotion will be necessary. The availability of health-promoting functional foods in the US diet has the potential to help ensure a healthier population. However, each functional food should be evaluated on the basis of scientific evidence to ensure appropriate integration

  16. Correlation of 1H NMR Chemical Shift for Aqueous Solutions by Statistical Associating Fluid Theory Association Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许波; 李浩然; 王从敏; 许映杰; 韩世钧

    2005-01-01

    1H NMR chemical shifts of binary aqueous mixtures of acylamide, alcohol, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), and acetone are correlated by statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) association model. The comparison between SAFT association model and Wilson equation shows that the former is better for dealing with aqueous solutions. Finally, the specialties of both models are discussed.

  17. Association between asthma and obesity among immigrant Asian Americans, California Health Interview Survey, 2001-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, Benjamin J; Scroggins, Christy M; Becerra, Monideepa B

    2014-11-26

    Our objective was to study the comorbidity of asthma and obesity among foreign-born Asian Americans, by subgroups. Public data from the California Health Interview Survey, 2001-2011, were analyzed by using independent logistic regressions, yielding the association between asthma and obesity (Asian and standard cutoffs for body mass index [BMIs]) of 19,841 Asian American immigrant respondents. Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, and Japanese immigrants had a positive association between lifetime asthma and obesity, whereas among Korean immigrants, a positive association was found between lifetime asthma and overweight status (standard BMI cutoffs). Routine screening for this comorbidity is warranted among immigrant Asian Americans.

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study in African-Americans with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Americans with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John Harley, M.D., Ph.D...September 2012 – 31 August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genome-Wide Association Study in African-Americans with Systemic Lupus ...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Systemic lupus erythematosus ( lupus ) is a potentially deadly systemic autoimmune disease that disproportionately

  19. How to construct the statistic network? An association network of herbaceous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In present study I defined a new type of network, the statistic network. The statistic network is a weighted and non-deterministic network. In the statistic network, a connection value, i.e., connection weight, represents connection strength and connection likelihood between two nodes and its absolute value falls in the interval (0,1]. The connection value is expressed as a statistical measure such as correlation coefficient, association coefficient, or Jaccard coefficient, etc. In addition, all connections of the statistic network can be statistically tested for their validity. A connection is true if the connection value is statistically significant. If all connection values of a node are not statistically significant, it is an isolated node. An isolated node has not any connection to other nodes in the statistic network. Positive and negative connection values denote distinct connectiontypes (positive or negative association or interaction. In the statistic network, two nodes with the greater connection value will show more similar trend in the change of their states. At any time we can obtain a sample network of the statistic network. A sample network is a non-weighted and deterministic network. Thestatistic network, in particular the plant association network that constructed from field sampling, is mostly an information network. Most of the interspecific relationships in plant community are competition and cooperation. Therefore in comparison to animal networks, the methodology of statistic network is moresuitable to construct plant association networks. Some conclusions were drawn from this study: (1 in the plant association network, most connections are weak and positive interactions. The association network constructed from Spearman rank correlation has most connections and isolated taxa are fewer. From net linear correlation,linear correlation, to Spearman rank correlation, the practical number of connections and connectance in the

  20. Relationships between Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Statistics and Bibliometric Indicators: A Principal Components Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Dean

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed 2005-2006 Web of Science bibliometric data from institutions belonging to the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and corresponding ARL statistics to find any associations between indicators from the two data sets. Principal components analysis on 36 variables from 103 universities revealed obvious associations between…

  1. American Urological Association survey of transurethral prostatectomy and the impact of changing medicare reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtgrewe, H L

    1990-08-01

    The American Urological Association, in a survey of all American urologists, found that TURP accounts for 38 per cent of their major surgery and also found that activities associated with the operation account for nearly 25 per cent of their total patient workload. American urologists regard TURP as complex, and they believe proficiency requires more practical case experience during residency training than is required for any other urologic operation. American urologists assign TURP a significantly higher relative value than that proposed in the pending national Medicare Fee Schedule formulated by medical economists and the Physician Payment Review Commission. The legislated reductions in allowable Medicare fees for TURP and the possible shift in management of benign prostatic hyperplasia to nonsurgical methods create a financial vulnerability for American urologists who remain economically dependent on this dominant operation. Adjustments in practice patterns and manpower policy planning may well be required.

  2. Frank Gwazdauskas honored with the American Dairy Science Association Fellow Award

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Lori A.

    2008-01-01

    Frank C. Gwazdauskas of Blacksburg, Va., the David and Margaret Lincicome Professor in the Department of Dairy Science in Virginia Tech's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, received the 2008 American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) Fellow Award.

  3. 75 FR 51464 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Approval of the American Association for Accreditation of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities for Continued Deeming Authority for Ambulatory Surgical Centers AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). ACTION: Final notice... for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities' (AAAASF) request for continued recognition as...

  4. Modification of the American Public Health Association procedure for counting yeast and mold in cottage cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, E M; Ay, C C; Eckfeldt, G A; Rowley, D B

    1971-01-01

    The American Public Health Association method for counting low numbers of yeast and mold in cottage cheese was unsatisfactory due to altered pH of the culture medium. A modification of this method is presented.

  5. Non-replication study of a genome-wide association study for hypertension and blood pressure in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kidambi Srividya

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent genome wide association study in 1017 African Americans identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms that reached genome-wide significance for systolic blood pressure. We attempted to replicate these findings in an independent sample of 2474 unrelated African Americans in the Milwaukee metropolitan area; 53% were women and 47% were hypertensives. Methods We evaluated sixteen top associated SNPs from the above genome wide association study for hypertension as a binary trait or blood pressure as a continuous trait. In addition, we evaluated eight single nucleotide polymorphisms located in two genes (STK-39 and CDH-13 found to be associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressures by other genome wide association studies in European and Amish populations. TaqMan MGB-based chemistry with fluorescent probes was used for genotyping. We had an adequate sample size (80% power to detect an effect size of 1.2-2.0 for all the single nucleotide polymorphisms for hypertension as a binary trait, and 1% variance in blood pressure as a continuous trait. Quantitative trait analyses were performed both by excluding and also by including subjects on anti-hypertensive therapy (after adjustments were made for anti-hypertensive medications. Results For all 24 SNPs, no statistically significant differences were noted in the minor allele frequencies between cases and controls. One SNP (rs2146204 showed borderline association (p = 0.006 with hypertension status using recessive model and systolic blood pressure (p = 0.02, but was not significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. In quantitative trait analyses, among normotensives only, rs12748299 was associated with SBP (p = 0.002. In addition, several nominally significant associations were noted with SBP and DBP among normotensives but none were statistically significant. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of replication to confirm the validity of genome wide

  6. Mining a clinical data warehouse to discover disease-finding associations using co-occurrence statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hui; Markatou, Marianthi; Melton, Genevieve B; Chiang, Michael F; Hripcsak, George

    2005-01-01

    This paper applies co-occurrence statistics to discover disease-finding associations in a clinical data warehouse. We used two methods, chi2 statistics and the proportion confidence interval (PCI) method, to measure the dependence of pairs of diseases and findings, and then used heuristic cutoff values for association selection. An intrinsic evaluation showed that 94 percent of disease-finding associations obtained by chi2 statistics and 76.8 percent obtained by the PCI method were true associations. The selected associations were used to construct knowledge bases of disease-finding relations (KB-chi2, KB-PCI). An extrinsic evaluation showed that both KB-chi2 and KB-PCI could assist in eliminating clinically non-informative and redundant findings from problem lists generated by our automated problem list summarization system.

  7. A robust statistical method for association-based eQTL analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been well established that theoretical kernel for recently surging genome-wide association study (GWAS is statistical inference of linkage disequilibrium (LD between a tested genetic marker and a putative locus affecting a disease trait. However, LD analysis is vulnerable to several confounding factors of which population stratification is the most prominent. Whilst many methods have been proposed to correct for the influence either through predicting the structure parameters or correcting inflation in the test statistic due to the stratification, these may not be feasible or may impose further statistical problems in practical implementation. METHODOLOGY: We propose here a novel statistical method to control spurious LD in GWAS from population structure by incorporating a control marker into testing for significance of genetic association of a polymorphic marker with phenotypic variation of a complex trait. The method avoids the need of structure prediction which may be infeasible or inadequate in practice and accounts properly for a varying effect of population stratification on different regions of the genome under study. Utility and statistical properties of the new method were tested through an intensive computer simulation study and an association-based genome-wide mapping of expression quantitative trait loci in genetically divergent human populations. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: The analyses show that the new method confers an improved statistical power for detecting genuine genetic association in subpopulations and an effective control of spurious associations stemmed from population structure when compared with other two popularly implemented methods in the literature of GWAS.

  8. Factors Associated with American Indian Cigarette Smoking in Rural Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Karabi Nandy; Felicia Hodge

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the env...

  9. Lack of Association between SLC30A8 Variants and Type 2 Diabetes in Mexican American Families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available SLC30A8 encodes zinc transporter 8 which is involved in packaging and release of insulin. Evidence for the association of SLC30A8 variants with type 2 diabetes (T2D is inconclusive. We interrogated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs around SLC30A8 for association with T2D in high-risk, pedigreed individuals from extended Mexican American families. This study of 118 SNPs within 50 kb of the SLC30A8 locus tested the association with eight T2D-related traits at four levels: (i each SNP using measured genotype approach (MGA; (ii interaction of SNPs with age and sex; (iii combinations of SNPs using Bayesian Quantitative Trait Nucleotide (BQTN analyses; and (iv entire gene locus using the gene burden test. Only one SNP (rs7817754 was significantly associated with incident T2D but a summary statistic based on all T2D-related traits identified 11 novel SNPs. Three SNPs and one SNP were weakly but interactively associated with age and sex, respectively. BQTN analyses could not demonstrate any informative combination of SNPs over MGA. Lastly, gene burden test results showed that at best the SLC30A8 locus could account for only 1-2% of the variability in T2D-related traits. Our results indicate a lack of association of the SLC30A8 SNPs with T2D in Mexican American families.

  10. The application of the entropy-based statistic for genomic association study of QTL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiang; Yumei Li; Zaiming Liu; Zhenqiu Sun

    2008-01-01

    An entropy-based statistic TPE has been proposed for genomic association study for disease-susceptibility locus.The statistic TPE may be directly adopted and/or extended to quantitative-trait locus (QTL)mapping for quantitative traits.In this article,the statistic TPE was extended and applied to quantitative trait for association analysis of QTL by means of selective genotyping.The statistical properties (the type I error rate and the power) were examined under a range of parameters and population-sampling strategies (e.g.,various genetic models,various heritabilities,and various sample-selection threshold values) by simulation studies.The results indicated that the statistic Tee is robust and powerful for genomic association study of QTL.A simulation study based on the haplotype frequencies of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of angiotensin-I converting enzyme genes was conducted to evaluate the performance of the statistic TPE for genetic association study.

  11. The application of the entropy-based statistic for genomic association study of QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yang; Li, Yumei; Liu, Zaiming; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2008-03-01

    An entropy-based statistic T(PE) has been proposed for genomic association study for disease-susceptibility locus. The statistic T(PE) may be directly adopted and/or extended to quantitative-trait locus (QTL) mapping for quantitative traits. In this article, the statistic T(PE) was extended and applied to quantitative trait for association analysis of QTL by means of selective genotyping. The statistical properties (the type I error rate and the power) were examined under a range of parameters and population-sampling strategies (e.g., various genetic models, various heritabilities, and various sample-selection threshold values) by simulation studies. The results indicated that the statistic T(PE) is robust and powerful for genomic association study of QTL. A simulation study based on the haplotype frequencies of 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of angiotensin-I converting enzyme genes was conducted to evaluate the performance of the statistic T(PE) for genetic association study.

  12. Association of genetic variation with systolic and diastolic blood pressure among African Americans : the Candidate Gene Association Resource study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fox, Ervin R.; Young, J. Hunter; Li, Yali; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Keating, Brendan J.; Musani, Solomon K.; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ganesh, Santhi; Kutlar, Abdullah; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Polak, Josef F.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Dries, Daniel L.; Farlow, Deborah N.; Redline, Susan; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Hirschorn, Joel N.; Sun, Yan V.; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Penman, Alan D.; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Lyon, Helen N.; Kang, Sun J.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cooper, Richard S.; Franceschini, Nora; Curb, J. David; Martin, Lisa W.; Eaton, Charles B.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Taylor, Herman A.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ehret, Georg B.; Johnson, Toby; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Levy, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unkno

  13. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G.; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  14. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, H. Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-01 and 2004-05 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family suppor...

  15. Physical Performance Is Associated with Executive Functioning in Older African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke C. Schneider

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An older adult's ability to perform physical tasks is predictive of disability onset and is associated with declines in cognition. Risk factors for physical performance declines among African Americans, a group with the highest rates of disability, remain understudied. This study sought to identify demographic, health, and cognitive factors associated with lower-extremity physical performance in a sample of 106 African American women ages 56 to 91. After controlling for global cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Exam, physical performance was associated with executive functioning (Stroop Color/Word, but not visuospatial construction (WASI Block Design or processing speed (Trail Making Test, Part A. Executive functioning remained associated with physical performance after entry of demographic variables, exercise, depression, disease burden, and body mass index (BMI. Age, and BMI were also significant in this model. Executive functioning, age and BMI are associated with lower-extremity physical performance among older African American women.

  16. Meta-analysis for Discovering Rare-Variant Associations: Statistical Methods and Software Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zheng-Zheng; Lin, Dan-Yu

    2015-07-02

    There is heightened interest in using next-generation sequencing technologies to identify rare variants that influence complex human diseases and traits. Meta-analysis is essential to this endeavor because large sample sizes are required for detecting associations with rare variants. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of statistical methods for meta-analysis of sequencing studies for discovering rare-variant associations. Specifically, we discuss the calculation of relevant summary statistics from participating studies, the construction of gene-level association tests, the choice of transformation for quantitative traits, the use of fixed-effects versus random-effects models, and the removal of shadow association signals through conditional analysis. We also show that meta-analysis based on properly calculated summary statistics is as powerful as joint analysis of individual-participant data. In addition, we demonstrate the performance of different meta-analysis methods by using both simulated and empirical data. We then compare four major software packages for meta-analysis of rare-variant associations-MASS, RAREMETAL, MetaSKAT, and seqMeta-in terms of the underlying statistical methodology, analysis pipeline, and software interface. Finally, we present PreMeta, a software interface that integrates the four meta-analysis packages and allows a consortium to combine otherwise incompatible summary statistics.

  17. Performance evaluation of three computed radiography systems using methods recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilbroad Muhogora

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The performances of three clinical computed radiography (CR systems, (Agfa CR 75 (with CRMD 4.0 image plates, Kodak CR 850 (with Kodak GP plates and Kodak CR 850A (with Kodak GP plates were evaluated using six tests recommended in American Association of Physicists in Medicine Report 93. The results indicated variable performances with majority being within acceptable limits. The variations were mainly attributed to differences in detector formulations, plate readers′ characteristics, and aging effects. The differences of the mean low contrast scores between the imaging systems for three observers were statistically significant for Agfa and Kodak CR 850A (P=0.009 and for Kodak CR systems (P=0.006 probably because of the differences in ages. However, the differences were not statistically significant between Agfa and Kodak CR 850 (P=0.284 suggesting similar perceived image quality. The study demonstrates the need to implement quality control program regularly.

  18. Designs and Methods for Association Studies and Population Size Inference in Statistical Genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waltoft, Berit Lindum

    diseases. In the second part statistical methods for inferring population history is discussed. Knowledge on e.g. the common ancestor of the human species, possible bottlenecks back in time, and the expected number of rare variants in each genome, may be factors in the full picture of any disease aetiology...... the classical chi-square statistics we are able to infer single parameter models. Multiple parameter models, e.g. multiple epochs, are harder to identify. By introducing the inference of population size back in time as an inverse problem, the second procedure applies the theory of smoothing splines to infer......This dissertation falls in two parts. The rst part discusses statistical modelling of association studies within the eld of epidemiology. A special focus is given to genome-wide association studies (GWAS), which are able to investigate specic associations between positions in the genome and dierent...

  19. Characterization of genome-wide association-identified variants for atrial fibrillation in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica T Delaney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a greater burden of risk factors, atrial fibrillation (AF is less common among African Americans than European-descent populations. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS for AF in European-descent populations have identified three predominant genomic regions associated with increased risk (1q21, 4q25, and 16q22. The contribution of these loci to AF risk in African American is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 73 African Americans with AF from the Vanderbilt-Meharry AF registry and 71 African American controls, with no history of AF including after cardiac surgery. Tests of association were performed for 148 SNPs across the three regions associated with AF, and 22 SNPs were significantly associated with AF (P<0.05. The SNPs with the strongest associations in African Americans were both different from the index SNPs identified in European-descent populations and independent from the index European-descent population SNPs (r(2<0.40 in HapMap CEU: 1q21 rs4845396 (odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.67, P = 0.003, 4q25 rs4631108 (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.59-7.42, P = 0.002, and 16q22 rs16971547 (OR 8.1, 95% CI 1.46-45.4, P = 0.016. Estimates of European ancestry were similar among cases (23.6% and controls (23.8%. Accordingly, the probability of having two copies of the European derived chromosomes at each region did not differ between cases and controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Variable European admixture at known AF loci does not explain decreased AF susceptibility in African Americans. These data support the role of 1q21, 4q25, and 16q22 variants in AF risk for African Americans, although the index SNPs differ from those identified in European-descent populations.

  20. Position of the American Dietetic Association: phytochemicals and functional foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Never before has the focus on the health benefits of commonly available foods been so strong. The philosophy that food can be health promoting beyond its nutritional value is gaining acceptance within the public arena and among the scientific community as mounting research links diet/food components to disease prevention and treatment. Dietitians are uniquely qualified and positioned to translate the available sound scientific evidence into practical dietary applications for the consumer and to provide the food industry and the government with valuable insight and expertise for future research, product development, and regulation of phytochemicals and functional foods. Increasing the availability of healthful foods, including functional foods, in the American diet is critical to ensuring a healthier population. As the nutrition experts, dietetics professionals must be the leaders in this new, exciting, and meaningful field as it evolves.

  1. Different Approaches to Teaching the Mechanics of American Psychological Association Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Timothy M.; Spitzer, Tam M.

    2006-01-01

    Students have to learn two distinctly different tasks when writing research papers: a) creating and organizing prose, and b) formatting a manuscript according to the nuances and mechanics of a pre-determined format, such as Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. Two studies examined different…

  2. A Collective Biography of the Founders of the American Association of University Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Alberta J.

    2013-01-01

    This archival study used constructivist grounded theory to document the educational and professional lives of seventeen women who founded the Association of Collegiate Alumnae (ACA) in 1881, which later became known as the American Association of University Women (AAUW). This study resulted in a collective biography of the seventeen women which…

  3. American Association of Dental Schools 1998-99 Annual Proceedings (March 6, 1998-March 10, 1999).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The proceedings of the annual meeting of the American Association of Dental Schools include the president's annual report, president-elect's and executive director's addresses, a summary of proceedings, the revised constitution, a list of competencies for entry into the dental hygiene profession, association bylaws, member administrators,…

  4. 76 FR 30232 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Application of American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... Pyrotechnics Association (APA) for Exemption From the 14-Hour Rule During Independence Day Celebrations AGENCY...; request for comments. SUMMARY: The American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) has applied for a limited... designated APA-member motor carriers in conjunction with staging fireworks shows celebrating Independence...

  5. 78 FR 17679 - Implementation of the Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Association Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health... the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013... updated Guidelines. DATES: Public concerns regarding the updated AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia...

  6. 77 FR 42229 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association... Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM...

  7. Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkinson, Leland

    1999-01-01

    Proposes guidelines for revising the American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual or other APA materials to clarify the application of statistics in research reports. The guidelines are intended to induce authors and editors to recognize the thoughtless application of statistical methods. Contains 54 references. (SLD)

  8. Accuracy of genome-wide imputation of untyped markers and impacts on statistical power for association studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElwee Joshua

    2009-06-01

    -eQTL discoveries detected by various methods can be interpreted as their relative statistical power in the GWAS. In this study, we find that imputation offer modest additional power (by 4% on top of either Ilmn317K or Ilmn650Y, much less than the power gain from Ilmn317K to Ilmn650Y (13%. Conclusion Current algorithms can accurately impute genotypes for untyped markers, which enables researchers to pool data between studies conducted using different SNP sets. While genotyping itself results in a small error rate (e.g. 0.5%, imputing genotypes is surprisingly accurate. We found that dense marker sets (e.g. Ilmn650Y outperform sparser ones (e.g. Ilmn317K in terms of imputation yield and accuracy. We also noticed it was harder to impute genotypes for African American samples, partially due to population admixture, although using a pooled reference boosts performance. Interestingly, GWAS carried out using imputed genotypes only slightly increased power on top of assayed SNPs. The reason is likely due to adding more markers via imputation only results in modest gain in genetic coverage, but worsens the multiple testing penalties. Furthermore, cis-eQTL mapping using dense SNP set derived from imputation achieves great resolution, and locate associate peak closer to causal variants than conventional approach.

  9. Association between household income and overweight of Korean and American children: trends and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yongju; Oh, Sangwoo; Park, Sangshin; Park, Yongsoon

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has been dramatically increasing worldwide, and socioeconomic status is an important risk factor. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that household income is negatively associated with overweight in Korean and American girls and boys. In the study, 2117 children 7 to 12 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2007 and 3016 children from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2006 were included. Overweight is defined as the sex- and age-specific body mass index cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Lower household income significantly increased the risk for overweight in Korean boys, irrespective of adjustments. The negative association between household income and overweight of American boys disappeared after adjusting for the frequency of dining out and TV viewing time. There was no significant association between household income and overweight of Korean and American girls. As household income increased, the intake of energy from protein was increased, but energy from carbohydrates was decreased in Korean boys. On the other hand, as household income increased, energy intake from carbohydrates was increased and energy intake from proteins decreased in American boys. In conclusion, positive association between household income and overweight was found in Korean boys, but not in Korean girls and American boys and girls. Effects solely targeting reduction in income disparities cannot effectively reduce sex disparities in overweight of children.

  10. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, H Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P; Angel, Jacqueline L

    2013-09-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family support (kin availability and co-residence) relative to health care needs (quality-adjusted life years (QALY) weighted scores and functional limitations) on women's risk of entry into a nursing home. A small percentage (~5%) of men and women had entered a long-term care facility. Women had lower weights for QALY weights and greater disability than men, but on average were more likely to live with or in closer proximity to an adult child. Higher disability rates (p long-term care use.

  11. Using volcano plots and regularized-chi statistics in genetic association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wentian; Freudenberg, Jan; Suh, Young Ju; Yang, Yaning

    2014-02-01

    Labor intensive experiments are typically required to identify the causal disease variants from a list of disease associated variants in the genome. For designing such experiments, candidate variants are ranked by their strength of genetic association with the disease. However, the two commonly used measures of genetic association, the odds-ratio (OR) and p-value may rank variants in different order. To integrate these two measures into a single analysis, here we transfer the volcano plot methodology from gene expression analysis to genetic association studies. In its original setting, volcano plots are scatter plots of fold-change and t-test statistic (or -log of the p-value), with the latter being more sensitive to sample size. In genetic association studies, the OR and Pearson's chi-square statistic (or equivalently its square root, chi; or the standardized log(OR)) can be analogously used in a volcano plot, allowing for their visual inspection. Moreover, the geometric interpretation of these plots leads to an intuitive method for filtering results by a combination of both OR and chi-square statistic, which we term "regularized-chi". This method selects associated markers by a smooth curve in the volcano plot instead of the right-angled lines which corresponds to independent cutoffs for OR and chi-square statistic. The regularized-chi incorporates relatively more signals from variants with lower minor-allele-frequencies than chi-square test statistic. As rare variants tend to have stronger functional effects, regularized-chi is better suited to the task of prioritization of candidate genes.

  12. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  13. 78 FR 13072 - Seventh Annual Drug Information Association/Food and Drug Administration Statistics Forum-2013...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Seventh Annual Drug Information Association/Food and Drug... Hotel and Conference Center, 5701 Marinelli Rd., Bethesda, MD 20852, 1-301-822-9200. FOR FURTHER... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background This annual FDA/DIA statistics forum will establish a unique,...

  14. Factors associated with willingness to participate in biospecimen research among Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wanzhen; Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Fang, Carolyn; Weaver, JoEllen; Jin, Ming; Lai, Philip

    2014-04-01

    A paucity of information exists on the recruitment of Asian Americans for biospecimen research. Although studies show that Chinese Americans are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, little is known about their willingness to participate in HBV-related biospecimen research and how knowledge, attitudes, and cultural factors impact their willingness to participate. The study was guided by Community-Based Participatory Research principles. Data were derived from an assessment study on HBV-related biospecimen research participation among Chinese Americans in the Philadelphia region. The assessment was conducted with 415 Chinese Americans recruited from eight Chinese community-based organizations. Cultural beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes toward biospecimen research were examined for associations with their willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Overall, 192 (46.3%) of 415 participants who completed the assessment indicated they were willing to participate if they were invited to donate blood to be frozen and stored for future HBV biospecimen studies. Cultural variables significant in bivariate analysis included collectivism, knowledge about biospecimen research, and Yin-Yang beliefs. Fatalism and individualism were not associated with participation willingness. In multivariate analysis, age, health care attitudes, and trust were significantly associated with willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Asian American communities have little knowledge of biospecimen banking and will benefit from educational campaigns that emphasize collective benefits and attitudes towards and trust in the health care system. Understanding cultural factors is important for improving Chinese Americans' knowledge, awareness, and intentions of participation in biospecimen research. Similar efforts need to be undertaken to develop culturally appropriate educational intervention programs to increase participation in biospecimen research

  15. 2011 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    As we have throughout the association's history, we focused in 2011 on multiple initiatives--all designed to further, support, and communicate the important work that psychologists do. This year we had the benefit of APA's first-ever strategic plan as well as funding for the following seven initiatives that are specifically designed to execute the…

  16. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries Annual Statistics: a thematic history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shedlock, James; Byrd, Gary D

    2003-04-01

    The Annual Statistics of Medical School Libraries in the United States and Canada (Annual Statistics) is the most recognizable achievement of the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries in its history to date. This article gives a thematic history of the Annual Statistics, emphasizing the leadership role of editors and Editorial Boards, the need for cooperation and membership support to produce comparable data useful for everyday management of academic medical center libraries and the use of technology as a tool for data gathering and publication. The Annual Statistics' origin is recalled, and survey features and content are related to the overall themes. The success of the Annual Statistics is evident in the leadership skills of the first editor, Richard Lyders, executive director of the Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center Library. The history shows the development of a survey instrument that strives to produce reliable and valid data for a diverse group of libraries while reflecting the many complex changes in the library environment. The future of the Annual Statistics is assured by the anticipated changes facing academic health sciences libraries, namely the need to reflect the transition from a physical environment to an electronic operation.

  17. Toward improved statistical methods for analyzing Cotinine-Biomarker health association data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clark John D

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, is frequently used in research as a biomarker of recent tobacco smoke exposure. Historically, secondhand smoke (SHS research uses suboptimal statistical methods due to censored serum cotinine values, meaning a measurement below the limit of detection (LOD. Methods We compared commonly used methods for analyzing censored serum cotinine data using parametric and non-parametric techniques employing data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES. To illustrate the differences in associations obtained by various analytic methods, we compared parameter estimates for the association between cotinine and the inflammatory marker homocysteine using complete case analysis, single and multiple imputation, "reverse" Kaplan-Meier, and logistic regression models. Results Parameter estimates and statistical significance varied according to the statistical method used with censored serum cotinine values. Single imputation of censored values with either 0, LOD or LOD/√2 yielded similar estimates and significance; multiple imputation method yielded smaller estimates than the other methods and without statistical significance. Multiple regression modelling using the "reverse" Kaplan-Meier method yielded statistically significant estimates that were larger than those from parametric methods. Conclusions Analyses of serum cotinine data with values below the LOD require special attention. "Reverse" Kaplan-Meier was the only method inherently able to deal with censored data with multiple LODs, and may be the most accurate since it avoids data manipulation needed for use with other commonly used statistical methods. Additional research is needed into the identification of optimal statistical methods for analysis of SHS biomarkers subject to a LOD.

  18. Rates and factors associated with falls in older European Americans, Afro-Caribbeans, African-Americans, and Hispanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira ER

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Edgar Ramos Vieira,1,2 Ruth Tappen,3 Gabriella Engstrom,3 Bruno R da Costa11Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Neuroscience, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 3Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USAPurpose: To evaluate rates and factors associated with older adult falls in different ethnic groups.Participants and methods: Information on demographics, medical and falls history, and pain and physical activity levels was collected from 550 community-dwelling older adults (75±9 years old, 222 European Americans, 109 Afro-Caribbeans, 106 African-Americans, and 113 Hispanics.Results: Taking medications for anxiety (risk ratio [RR] =1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.1–2.0, having incontinence (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.1–1.8, P=0.013, back pain (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.0–1.8, feet swelling (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.1–1.7, and age ≥75 years (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.0–1.6 were associated with falls. The associations were stronger for Afro-Caribbeans, but they presented approximately 40% lower prevalence of falls than the other groups.Conclusion: Taking anxiety medication, incontinence, back pain, feet swelling, and age ≥75 years were associated with falls, and Afro-Caribbeans presented lower prevalence of falls. These findings need to be taken into consideration in clinical interventions in aging.Keywords: ethnicity, falls, risks, community dwelling, older adults

  19. Associations between the Autumn Arctic Sea Ice and North American Winter Precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Mi-Rong; LIU Ji-Ping; LIU Hai-Long; REN Xiao-Bo; WANG Xiu-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Associations between the autumn Arctic sea ice concentrations (SICs) and North American winter precipitation were examined using singular value decomposition. The results show that a reduced SIC in the majority of the Arctic is accompanied by dry conditions over the Great Plains, the southern United States, Mexico, eastern Alaska, and southeastern Greenland, and by wet conditions over the majority of Canada, the northeastern United States, and the majority of Greenland. Atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with the SIC variability show a wave train structure that is persistent from autumn to winter and is responsible for the covariability between the autumn Arctic SICs and North American winter precipitation. This relationship suggests a potential long-term outlook for the North American winter precipitation.

  20. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  1. Transferability and Fine Mapping of genome-wide associated loci for lipids in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyemo Adebowale

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent, large genome-wide association study (GWAS of European ancestry individuals has identified multiple genetic variants influencing serum lipids. Studies of the transferability of these associations to African Americans remain few, an important limitation given interethnic differences in serum lipids and the disproportionate burden of lipid-associated metabolic diseases among African Americans. Methods We attempted to evaluate the transferability of 95 lipid-associated loci recently identified in European ancestry individuals to 887 non-diabetic, unrelated African Americans from a population-based sample in the Washington, DC area. Additionally, we took advantage of the generally reduced linkage disequilibrium among African ancestry populations in comparison to European ancestry populations to fine-map replicated GWAS signals. Results We successfully replicated reported associations for 10 loci (CILP2/SF4, STARD3, LPL, CYP7A1, DOCK7/ANGPTL3, APOE, SORT1, IRS1, CETP, and UBASH3B. Through trans-ethnic fine-mapping, we were able to reduce associated regions around 75% of the loci that replicated. Conclusions Between this study and previous work in African Americans, 40 of the 95 loci reported in a large GWAS of European ancestry individuals also influence lipid levels in African Americans. While there is now evidence that the lipid-influencing role of a number of genetic variants is observed in both European and African ancestry populations, the still considerable lack of concordance highlights the importance of continued ancestry-specific studies to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of these traits.

  2. A weighted U-statistic for genetic association analyses of sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Changshuai; Li, Ming; He, Zihuai; Vsevolozhskaya, Olga; Schaid, Daniel J; Lu, Qing

    2014-12-01

    With advancements in next-generation sequencing technology, a massive amount of sequencing data is generated, which offers a great opportunity to comprehensively investigate the role of rare variants in the genetic etiology of complex diseases. Nevertheless, the high-dimensional sequencing data poses a great challenge for statistical analysis. The association analyses based on traditional statistical methods suffer substantial power loss because of the low frequency of genetic variants and the extremely high dimensionality of the data. We developed a Weighted U Sequencing test, referred to as WU-SEQ, for the high-dimensional association analysis of sequencing data. Based on a nonparametric U-statistic, WU-SEQ makes no assumption of the underlying disease model and phenotype distribution, and can be applied to a variety of phenotypes. Through simulation studies and an empirical study, we showed that WU-SEQ outperformed a commonly used sequence kernel association test (SKAT) method when the underlying assumptions were violated (e.g., the phenotype followed a heavy-tailed distribution). Even when the assumptions were satisfied, WU-SEQ still attained comparable performance to SKAT. Finally, we applied WU-SEQ to sequencing data from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), and detected an association between ANGPTL 4 and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

  3. Latin American Social Medicine Association: Agenda 2009 – 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Rovere

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available From the 14th to the 19th of November 2009 we spent five intense days during the Congress developing this electoral platform with the input offered by national delegations to all candidates for the General Coordinator position. The contributions by the national delegations demonstrated their interest in the future of ALAMES. It was an intensive learning experience for us made up of conversations with delegations and participants, the challenge and effort of incorporating the various mandates given to us by the pre-Congress courses, the round table discussions, the commission, the plenary and multiple conversations in coffe breaks and the corridors. We have also attempted to incorporate those declarations which seemed to generate the most enthusiasm and those commentaries which we heard over and over again in our conversations. Finally, we congratulate all those who have made this Congress so productive, so moving, and so diverse; the presence of social movements has expanded the diversity and wealth of voices heard at the Congress. We know from previous experiences that elections are often associated with tension. Yet elections can also serve to stimulate discussion at a Congress. In our case, the election has encouraged us to create this proposal. This is a proposal which could not have been developed prior to the Congress since it is the outcome of dialogues, expectations, and discoveries made during our conversations. We offer it to the members and institutions associated with ALAMES as a roadmap for their commentary, discussion, and criticism.

  4. American Association for Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Microscopic Anatomy (General and Oral).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susi, Frank; Mundell, Robert

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Association for Dental Schools are presented. These guidelines were drawn up as an effort to provide a general criterion-referenced standard against which a school can measure its course content in histology. (MLW)

  5. Expanding the Epistemological Terrain: Increasing Equity and Diversity within the American Educational Research Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2016-01-01

    During the civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the quest for civil rights by African Americans and other groups of color reverberated throughout the United States and the world, including within educational professional and research organizations, such as the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the National Council of…

  6. An Examination of the Association between Demographic and Educational Factors and African American Achievement in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010…

  7. Family Friendly Libraries vs. the American Library Association: A Test of Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinsburg, Jane D.

    1997-01-01

    To protect children from material it considers harmful, Family Friendly Libraries (FFL) seeks to limit access to information in public libraries. This article describes the conflict between the FFL and the American Library Association (ALA). Provides an overview of censorship and U.S. legislative history, presents the FFL position and the ALA…

  8. "Mens Sana": The Growth of Mental Health in the American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, David P.

    2009-01-01

    In 1910, the first college mental health service sought to help college students with personality development and building a healthy mind. In 1920, the meeting that founded the American College Health Association (ACHA) identified "mental hygiene" as important, although a separate Mental Health Section was not established in ACHA until 1957.…

  9. University of Central Florida and the American Association of State Colleges and Universities: Blended Learning Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Blended Learning Toolkit supports the course redesign approach, and interest in its openly available clearinghouse of online tools, strategies, curricula, and other materials to support the adoption of blended learning continues to grow. When the resource originally launched in July 2011, 20 AASCU [American Association of State Colleges and…

  10. Importation of Hybrid Human-Associated Trypanosoma cruzi Strains of Southern South American Origin, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    We report the characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi of southern South American origin among humans, domestic vectors, and peridomestic hosts in Colombia using high-resolution nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping. Expanding our understanding of the geographic range of lineage TcVI, which is associated with severe Chagas disease, will help clarify risk of human infection for improved disease control.

  11. The American Bar Association and Legislatively Mandated Treatment for Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallone, Nathanial J.

    1991-01-01

    Offers historical overview of "criminal sexual psychopath" legislation, which customarily prescribes confinement for treatment (rather than incarceration for punishment) for offenders whose sex crimes are attributed to sexual psychopathology. Discusses desire of American Bar Association and Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry to…

  12. Content Analysis of 32 Years of American Counseling Association Convention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helwig, Andrew A.; Schmidt, Lisa L. L.

    2011-01-01

    A content analysis of American Counseling Association convention sessions offered from 1977 to 2008 was conducted. The intent was to identify changes and trends in the counseling profession. Content of more than 15,000 sessions, including educational programs, keynote presentations, and training sessions, was assigned to 1 of 86 categories. A…

  13. 78 FR 38043 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Application From the American Osteopathic Association/Health...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ..., Attention: CMS-3285-PN, Mail Stop C4-26-05, 7500 Security Boulevard, Baltimore, MD 21244-1850. 4. By hand or... the American Osteopathic Association/Health Facilities Accreditation Program for Continued CMS.... ADDRESSES: In commenting, please refer to file code CMS-3285-PN. Because of staff and resource...

  14. AERA Code of Ethics: American Educational Research Association Approved by the AERA Council February 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Researcher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) articulates a common set of values upon which education researchers build their professional and scientific work. The Code is intended to provide both the principles and the rules to cover professional situations encountered by education researchers. It has as its primary…

  15. Longitudinal associations between social support and physical and mental health in African American adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    African Americans report a greater number of modifiable risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits, putting them at increased risk of developing and dying from chronic diseases. These risk factors are also associated with poorer health-related quality of li...

  16. The Asian American Psychological Association: Parallels and Intersections with Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Wu, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the AAPA. AAPA was created in 1972 in response to psychology's neglect…

  17. Female genital mutilation. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-06

    Female genital mutilation is the medically unnecessary modification of female genitalia. Female genital mutilation typically occurs at about 7 years of age, but mutilated women suffer severe medical complications throughout their adult lives. Female genital mutilation most frequently occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, and it is generally part of a ceremonial induction into adult society. Recent political and economic problems in these regions, however, have increased the numbers of students and refugees to the United States. Consequently, US physicians are treating an increasing number of mutilated patients. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that US physicians join the World Health Organization, the World Medical Association, and other major health care organizations in opposing all forms of medically unnecessary surgical modification of the female genitalia.

  18. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicenti, Richard K., E-mail: Richard.valicenti@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California (United States); Thompson, Ian [Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Albertsen, Peter [Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goldenberg, S. Larry [Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Wolf, J. Stuart [Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sartor, Oliver [Department of Medicine and Urology, Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Klein, Eric [Glickman Urological Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Carol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Faraday, Martha M. [Four Oaks, Inc (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.

  19. Descriptors of American Physical Therapy Association physical therapist members' reading of professional publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Russell E; Stoecker, Judith

    2006-11-01

    One of the components of evidence-based practice (EBP) is reading the literature. The purpose of this investigation was 1) to determine which publications are read most frequently by physical therapists (PTs), 2) to identify employment and education characteristics related to reading patterns, and 3) to determine how PTs use information gained from reading professional publications. A survey was constructed, pretested, revised, and then mailed to a random sample of 1,000 physical therapists, 500 from the general American Physical Therapy Association (APTA) membership and 500 from the combined Geriatric and Orthopedic section memberships. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. After all mailings, 43.3% of the sample responded. Of those responding, 66.3% were employed as clinicians, 14.7% as clinician-administrators, 6% as educators, and 4.9% as administrators. Overall, and for clinicians, the two most frequently read professional publications were non peer-reviewed. For clinician groups "patient management" was among the top two most selected uses of information from reading professional publications. Educators and those with an advanced doctorate indicated "class lectures" as either their second most frequently selected use or tied for first with "keeping current." Only educators and those with or pursuing an advanced doctorate reported using information from reading professional publications for "research ideas" or "research methods" among their top five uses. Slightly more than 10% of the respondents cited a peer-reviewed published article as having been most influential on their practice. Non peer-reviewed professional publications appear to serve as a more frequent source of information for "patient management" than do peer-reviewed publications. Efforts to increase the use of EBP need to be explored and evaluated for impact on physical therapists' practice.

  20. Statistical analysis of associated vertebra and costal anomalies in spina bifida patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alatas Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Spina bifida is one of the most severe birth defects and can happen as a result of disrupted primary neurulation. Congenital vertebra and costa anomalies are more frequently seen with spina bifida, and associated anomalies significantly affect the prognosis of affected children. In this study, we aimed to determine the incidence of scoliosis, costal anomalies, and vertebral deformations seen at the time of diagnosis and to statistically evaluate their concomitancies.

  1. From association to causation: some remarks on the history of statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Freedman, David

    1999-01-01

    The “numerical method” in medicine goes back to Pierre Louis’ 1835 study of pneumonia and John Snow’s 1855 book on the epidemiology of cholera. Snow took advantage of natural experiments and used convergent lines of evidence to demonstrate that cholera is a waterborne infectious disease. More recently, investigators in the social and life sciences have used statistical models and significance tests to deduce cause­and­effect relationships from patterns of association; an ...

  2. THE ANALYSIS OF STATISTICAL DATA ON MALIGNANT NEOPLASMS ASSOCIATED WITH HUMAN P APILLOMAVIRUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kostin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study of statistical data for the first time in Russia the analysis of the morbidity and mortality of patients with malignant neoplasms that may be associated with human papilloma virus (HPV is performed: cervical cancer (cervical cancer, cancer of the vulva and vagina, cancer of penis, cancer of the rectum, anal canal and rectosigmoid junction cancer, cancer of the pharynx and larynx.

  3. Modeling of aqueous electrolyte solutions with perturbed-chain statistical associated fluid theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameretti, Luca F.; Sadowski, Gabriele; Mollerup, Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    The vapor pressures and liquid densities of single-salt electrolyte solutions containing NaCl, LiCl, KCl, NaBr, LiBr, KBr, NaI, LiI, KI, Li2SO4, Na2SO4, and K2SO4 were modeled with an equation of state based on perturbed-chain statistical associated fluid theory (PC-SAFT). The PC-SAFT model...

  4. Meta-analysis reveals association between most common class II haplotype in full-heritage Native Americans and rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R C; Jacobsson, L T; Knowler, W C; del Puente, A; Kostyu, D; McAuley, J E; Bennett, P H; Pettitt, D J

    1995-01-01

    The association of RA with the alleles at the HLA system was tested among Pima and Tohono O'odham Indians (Pimans) of the Gila River Indian Community of Arizona. Serologic class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) alleles were typed in 51 individuals with RA and in 302 without RA. Serologic class II (HLA-DR, DQ; DR52 DR53) alleles were typed in a subset of 47 with RA and 147 without RA. Molecular subtypes of DR3X6, DRB1*1402, and *1406 were determined in 29 individuals, 16 with RA and 13 without RA. Among the cases with RA, 46 of 47 had the serologic antigen HLA-DR3X6, as did 140 of 147 of those without the disease. However, this association was not statistically significant because of the high prevalence of the antigen in the controls. Data from Pimans were analyzed with similar results from the Tlingit and Yakima Indians. A meta-analysis employing the Mantel-Haenszel procedure, stratified by tribe, revealed a statistically significant association between the most common haplotype, DRB1*1402 DQA1*0501 DQB1*0301 DRB3*0101, and RA (summary odds ratio = 2.63, 95% confidence interval = 1.08, 6.46). There was also a statistically significant difference in the genotype distributions of one class I locus, HLA-C, between those with and without RA (chi 2 = 12.4, 5 df; p = 0.03). It is concluded that the association with the most common class II haplotype in full-heritage Native Americans might help explain their high prevalence of RA.

  5. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Society for Nutrition Education, and American School Food Service Association--Nutrition services: an essential component of comprehensive school health programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Safaii, SeAnne; Beall, Deborah Lane

    2003-04-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), the Society for Nutrition Education (SNE), and the American School Food Service Association (ASFSA) that comprehensive nutrition services must be provided to all of the nation's preschool through grade twelve students. These nutrition services shall be integrated with a coordinated, comprehensive school health program and implemented through a school nutrition policy. The policy should link comprehensive, sequential nutrition education; access to and promotion of child nutrition programs providing nutritious meals and snacks in the school environment; and family, community, and health services' partnerships supporting positive health outcomes for all children. Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is directly attributed to physical inactivity and diet. Schools can play a key role in reversing this trend through coordinated nutrition services that promote policies linking comprehensive, sequential nutrition education programs, access to and marketing of child nutrition programs, a school environment that models healthy food choices, and community partnerships. This position paper provides information and resources for nutrition professionals to use in developing and supporting comprehensive school health programs. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103:505-514.

  6. Localized-statistical quantification of human serum proteome associated with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Xia Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent advances in proteomics have shed light to discover serum proteins or peptides as biomarkers for tracking the progression of diabetes as well as understanding molecular mechanisms of the disease. RESULTS: In this work, human serum of non-diabetic and diabetic cohorts was analyzed by proteomic approach. To analyze total 1377 high-confident serum-proteins, we developed a computing strategy called localized statistics of protein abundance distribution (LSPAD to calculate a significant bias of a particular protein-abundance between these two cohorts. As a result, 68 proteins were found significantly over-represented in the diabetic serum (p<0.01. In addition, a pathway-associated analysis was developed to obtain the overall pathway bias associated with type 2 diabetes, from which the significant over-representation of complement system associated with type 2 diabetes was uncovered. Moreover, an up-stream activator of complement pathway, ficolin-3, was observed over-represented in the serum of type 2 diabetic patients, which was further validated with statistic significance (p = 0.012 with more clinical samples. CONCLUSIONS: The developed LSPAD approach is well fit for analyzing proteomic data derived from biological complex systems such as plasma proteome. With LSPAD, we disclosed the comprehensive distribution of the proteins associated with diabetes in different abundance levels and the involvement of ficolin-related complement activation in diabetes.

  7. An Adaptive Association Test for Multiple Phenotypes with GWAS Summary Statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junghi; Bai, Yun; Pan, Wei

    2015-12-01

    We study the problem of testing for single marker-multiple phenotype associations based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics without access to individual-level genotype and phenotype data. For most published GWASs, because obtaining summary data is substantially easier than accessing individual-level phenotype and genotype data, while often multiple correlated traits have been collected, the problem studied here has become increasingly important. We propose a powerful adaptive test and compare its performance with some existing tests. We illustrate its applications to analyses of a meta-analyzed GWAS dataset with three blood lipid traits and another with sex-stratified anthropometric traits, and further demonstrate its potential power gain over some existing methods through realistic simulation studies. We start from the situation with only one set of (possibly meta-analyzed) genome-wide summary statistics, then extend the method to meta-analysis of multiple sets of genome-wide summary statistics, each from one GWAS. We expect the proposed test to be useful in practice as more powerful than or complementary to existing methods.

  8. Brief research report: sociodemographic factors associated with HIV status among African American women in Washington, DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkins EL

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors

  9. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  10. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  11. Analysis of Bidirectional Associative Memory using Self-consistent Signal to Noise Analysis and Statistical Neurodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouno, Hayaru; Kido, Shoji; Okada, Masato

    2004-09-01

    Bidirectional associative memory (BAM) is a kind of an artificial neural network used to memorize and retrieve heterogeneous pattern pairs. Many efforts have been made to improve BAM from the the viewpoint of computer application, and few theoretical studies have been done. We investigated the theoretical characteristics of BAM using a framework of statistical-mechanical analysis. To investigate the equilibrium state of BAM, we applied self-consistent signal to noise analysis (SCSNA) and obtained a macroscopic parameter equations and relative capacity. Moreover, to investigate not only the equilibrium state but also the retrieval process of reaching the equilibrium state, we applied statistical neurodynamics to the update rule of BAM and obtained evolution equations for the macroscopic parameters. These evolution equations are consistent with the results of SCSNA in the equilibrium state.

  12. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholette D Palmer

    Full Text Available African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071, were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05. Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8. SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9, OR (95% CI = 0.75 (0.67-0.84 is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217 were associated with T2DM (P<0.05 and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5 in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.

  13. Predicting adsorption isotherms using a two-dimensional statistical associating fluid theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alejandro; Castro, Martin; McCabe, Clare; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro

    2007-02-01

    A molecular thermodynamics approach is developed in order to describe the adsorption of fluids on solid surfaces. The new theory is based on the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range [A. Gil-Villegas et al., J. Chem. Phys. 106, 4168 (1997)] and uses a quasi-two-dimensional approximation to describe the properties of adsorbed fluids. The theory is tested against Gibbs ensemble Monte Carlo simulations and excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions is achieved. Additionally the authors use the new approach to describe the adsorption isotherms for nitrogen and methane on dry activated carbon.

  14. Multi-modality Imaging: Bird's eye view from the 2015 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Andrew J; Lloyd, Steven G; Chaudhry, Farooq A; AlJaroudi, Wael A; Hage, Fadi G

    2016-04-01

    Multiple novel studies were presented at the 2015 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions which was considered a successful conference at many levels. In this review, we will summarize key studies in nuclear cardiology, cardiac magnetic resonance, echocardiography, and cardiac computed tomography that were presented at the Sessions. We hope that this bird's eye view will keep readers updated on the newest imaging studies presented at the meeting whether or not they were able to attend the meeting.

  15. Delegation of China-Latin America Friendship Association Visits Four Latin American Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>Cheng Siwei,former Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and President of the China -Latin America Friendship Association (CLAFA),led a CLAFA delegation on a visit to four Central and South American countries from October 25 to November 11,2009 during which they met national leaders and other influential persons in the fields of foreign and cul-

  16. Is Age-Related Macular Degeneration Associated with Stroke Among Elderly Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Liao, Duanping; Mo, Jingping; Duan, Yinkang; Klein, Ronald; Scott, Ingrid U.; Huang, Kui A; Zhou, Haibo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with the development of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke among elderly Americans. Design: Population-based cohort study. Participants: The five percent random sample of 2000-2003 Medicare enrollees was obtained. The cohort (n=1,519,086) consisted of enrollees who were aged 65 or older at the first two-year (January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001). Methods: Baseline demographic variables and chronic conditions ...

  17. Cardiac Arrest in Pregnancy: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeejeebhoy, Farida M; Zelop, Carolyn M; Lipman, Steve; Carvalho, Brendan; Joglar, Jose; Mhyre, Jill M; Katz, Vern L; Lapinsky, Stephen E; Einav, Sharon; Warnes, Carole A; Page, Richard L; Griffin, Russell E; Jain, Amish; Dainty, Katie N; Arafeh, Julie; Windrim, Rory; Koren, Gideon; Callaway, Clifton W

    2015-11-01

    This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on maternal resuscitation. This document will provide readers with up-to-date and comprehensive information, guidelines, and recommendations for all aspects of maternal resuscitation. Maternal resuscitation is an acute event that involves many subspecialties and allied health providers; this document will be relevant to all healthcare providers who are involved in resuscitation and specifically maternal resuscitation.

  18. Proceedings of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons 2015 Research Summit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cillo, Joseph E; Basi, David; Peacock, Zachary; Aghaloo, Tara; Bouloux, Gary; Dodson, Thomas; Edwards, Sean P; Kademani, Deepak

    2016-03-01

    The Fifth Biennial Research Summit of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons and its Committee on Research Planning and Technology Assessment was held in Rosemont, Illinois on May 6 and 7, 2015. The goal of the symposium is to provide a forum for the most recent clinical and scientific advances to be brought to the specialty. The proceedings of the events of that summit are presented in this report.

  19. Rare variant associations with waist-to-hip ratio in European-American and African-American women from the NHLBI-Exome Sequencing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Mengyuan; Auer, Paul L; Wang, Gao T; Bucasas, Kristine L; Hooker, Stanley; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Li, Biao; Ellis, Jaclyn; Adrienne Cupples, L; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Dupuis, Josée; Fox, Caroline S; Gross, Myron D; Smith, Joshua D; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Meigs, James B; Pankow, James S; Rotter, Jerome I; Siscovick, David; Wilson, James G; Shendure, Jay; Jackson, Rebecca; Peters, Ulrike; Zhong, Hua; Lin, Danyu; Hsu, Li; Franceschini, Nora; Carlson, Chris; Abecasis, Goncalo; Gabriel, Stacey; Bamshad, Michael J; Altshuler, David; Nickerson, Deborah A; North, Kari E; Lange, Leslie A; Reiner, Alexander P; Leal, Suzanne M

    2016-08-01

    Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), a relative comparison of waist and hip circumferences, is an easily accessible measurement of body fat distribution, in particular central abdominal fat. A high WHR indicates more intra-abdominal fat deposition and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic loci influencing WHR, but the contributions of rare variants have not been previously reported. We investigated rare variant associations with WHR in 1510 European-American and 1186 African-American women from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Exome Sequencing Project. Association analysis was performed on the gene level using several rare variant association methods. The strongest association was observed for rare variants in IKBKB (P=4.0 × 10(-8)) in European-Americans, where rare variants in this gene are predicted to decrease WHRs. The activation of the IKBKB gene is involved in inflammatory processes and insulin resistance, which may affect normal food intake and body weight and shape. Meanwhile, aggregation of rare variants in COBLL1, previously found to harbor common variants associated with WHR and fasting insulin, were nominally associated (P=2.23 × 10(-4)) with higher WHR in European-Americans. However, these significant results are not shared between African-Americans and European-Americans that may be due to differences in the allelic architecture of the two populations and the small sample sizes. Our study indicates that the combined effect of rare variants contribute to the inter-individual variation in fat distribution through the regulation of insulin response.

  20. "APEC Blue" association with emission control and meteorological conditions detected by multi-scale statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Dai, Xin-Gang

    2016-09-01

    The term "APEC Blue" has been created to describe the clear sky days since the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) summit held in Beijing during November 5-11, 2014. The duration of the APEC Blue is detected from November 1 to November 14 (hereafter Blue Window) by moving t test in statistics. Observations show that APEC Blue corresponds to low air pollution with respect to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, and NO2 under strict emission-control measures (ECMs) implemented in Beijing and surrounding areas. Quantitative assessment shows that ECM is more effective on reducing aerosols than the chemical constituents. Statistical investigation has revealed that the window also resulted from intensified wind variability, as well as weakened static stability of atmosphere (SSA). The wind and ECMs played key roles in reducing air pollution during November 1-7 and 11-13, and strict ECMs and weak SSA become dominant during November 7-10 under weak wind environment. Moving correlation manifests that the emission reduction for aerosols can increase the apparent wind cleanup effect, leading to significant negative correlations of them, and the period-wise changes in emission rate can be well identified by multi-scale correlations basing on wavelet decomposition. In short, this case study manifests statistically how human interference modified air quality in the mega city through controlling local and surrounding emissions in association with meteorological condition.

  1. Genome-wide association studies of the PR interval in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gustav Smith

    Full Text Available The PR interval on the electrocardiogram reflects atrial and atrioventricular nodal conduction time. The PR interval is heritable, provides important information about arrhythmia risk, and has been suggested to differ among human races. Genome-wide association (GWA studies have identified common genetic determinants of the PR interval in individuals of European and Asian ancestry, but there is a general paucity of GWA studies in individuals of African ancestry. We performed GWA studies in African American individuals from four cohorts (n = 6,247 to identify genetic variants associated with PR interval duration. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 microarray. Imputation was performed for 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using combined YRI and CEU HapMap phase II panels. We observed a strong signal (rs3922844 within the gene encoding the cardiac sodium channel (SCN5A with genome-wide significant association (p<2.5 x 10⁻⁸ in two of the four cohorts and in the meta-analysis. The signal explained 2% of PR interval variability in African Americans (beta  = 5.1 msec per minor allele, 95% CI  = 4.1-6.1, p = 3 x 10⁻²³. This SNP was also associated with PR interval (beta = 2.4 msec per minor allele, 95% CI = 1.8-3.0, p = 3 x 10⁻¹⁶ in individuals of European ancestry (n = 14,042, but with a smaller effect size (p for heterogeneity <0.001 and variability explained (0.5%. Further meta-analysis of the four cohorts identified genome-wide significant associations with SNPs in SCN10A (rs6798015, MEIS1 (rs10865355, and TBX5 (rs7312625 that were highly correlated with SNPs identified in European and Asian GWA studies. African ancestry was associated with increased PR duration (13.3 msec, p = 0.009 in one but not the other three cohorts. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of common variants to African Americans at four loci previously associated with PR interval in European and

  2. Detecting Associations between Early-Life DDT Exposures and Childhood Growth Patterns: A Novel Statistical Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggeseth, Brianna; Harley, Kim; Warner, Marcella; Jewell, Nicholas; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that environmental exposures at key development periods such as in utero play a role in childhood growth and obesity. To investigate whether in utero exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolite, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDE), is associated with childhood physical growth, we took a novel statistical approach to analyze data from the CHAMACOS cohort study. To model heterogeneity in the growth patterns, we used a finite mixture model in combination with a data transformation to characterize body mass index (BMI) with four groups and estimated the association between exposure and group membership. In boys, higher maternal concentrations of DDT and DDE during pregnancy are associated with a BMI growth pattern that is stable until about age five followed by increased growth through age nine. In contrast, higher maternal DDT exposure during pregnancy is associated with a flat, relatively stable growth pattern in girls. This study suggests that in utero exposure to DDT and DDE may be associated with childhood BMI growth patterns, not just BMI level, and both the magnitude of exposure and sex may impact the relationship.

  3. Hippocampal Structure Predicts Statistical Learning and Associative Inference Abilities during Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, Margaret L; Guarino, Katharine F; Schapiro, Anna C; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B; Preston, Alison R

    2017-01-01

    Despite the importance of learning and remembering across the lifespan, little is known about how the episodic memory system develops to support the extraction of associative structure from the environment. Here, we relate individual differences in volumes along the hippocampal long axis to performance on statistical learning and associative inference tasks-both of which require encoding associations that span multiple episodes-in a developmental sample ranging from ages 6 to 30 years. Relating age to volume, we found dissociable patterns across the hippocampal long axis, with opposite nonlinear volume changes in the head and body. These structural differences were paralleled by performance gains across the age range on both tasks, suggesting improvements in the cross-episode binding ability from childhood to adulthood. Controlling for age, we also found that smaller hippocampal heads were associated with superior behavioral performance on both tasks, consistent with this region's hypothesized role in forming generalized codes spanning events. Collectively, these results highlight the importance of examining hippocampal development as a function of position along the hippocampal axis and suggest that the hippocampal head is particularly important in encoding associative structure across development.

  4. A usability evaluation exploring the design of American Nurses Association state web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gregory L; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Anbari, Allison B; Lyons, Vanessa; Prentice, Donna; Shepherd, Marilyn; Strecker, E Bradley; Weston, Marla J

    2014-08-01

    National leaders are calling for opportunities to facilitate the Future of Nursing. Opportunities can be encouraged through state nurses association Web sites, which are part of the American Nurses Association, that are well designed, with appropriate content, and in a language professional nurses understand. The American Nurses Association and constituent state nurses associations provide information about nursing practice, ethics, credentialing, and health on Web sites. We conducted usability evaluations to determine compliance with heuristic and ethical principles for Web site design. We purposefully sampled 27 nursing association Web sites and used 68 heuristic and ethical criteria to perform systematic usability assessments of nurse association Web sites. Web site analysis included seven double experts who were all RNs trained in usability analysis. The extent to which heuristic and ethical criteria were met ranged widely from one state that met 0% of the criteria for "help and documentation" to states that met greater than 92% of criteria for "visibility of system status" and "aesthetic and minimalist design." Suggested improvements are simple yet make an impact on a first-time visitor's impression of the Web site. For example, adding internal navigation and tracking features and providing more details about the application process through help and frequently asked question documentation would facilitate better use. Improved usability will improve effectiveness, efficiency, and consumer satisfaction with these Web sites.

  5. A review of American psychiatry through its diagnoses: the history and development of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Bernard A

    2012-12-01

    The history of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) reflects the larger history of American psychiatry. As the field anticipates DSM-5, it is useful to take stock of this history and consider not only how diagnosis impacts our understanding of mental illness but also how contemporary thought influences diagnosis. Before the DSM, the field was disjointed. The publication of the first American diagnostic manual, the precursor of the DSM, mirrored society's interest in organized record keeping and prevention rather than treatment of mental illness. The first and second editions of DSM brought a common language to diagnosis and were largely the work of outpatient and academic psychiatrists rather than those based in large state hospitals. The third edition of the DSM saw the shift in American psychiatry's leadership from the eminent clinician to the researcher, whereas the fourth edition reflected the rise of "evidence-based medicine." DSM-5 will likewise represent the current status of the field-not only with regard to science but also reflecting the place of American psychiatry in medicine today.

  6. An Analysis of Independent, Non-Academic Characteristics of Chinese and American Business Students Associated with Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.; Hignite, Michael A.; Moses, Duane R.

    2014-01-01

    In a continuation of their prior research which focused on the differences in Emotional Intelligence (EI) levels between Chinese and American business students and the academic variables associated with those scores, the authors extend their efforts to investigate those personal (non-academic) characteristics of both American and Chinese business…

  7. Prospective associations of coronary heart disease loci in African Americans using the MetaboChip : The PAGE study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Franceschini (Nora); Hu, Y. (Yijuan); A. Reiner (Alexander); S. Buyske (Steven); M.A. Nalls (Michael); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); Y. Li (Yun); L.A. Hindorff (Lucia A); Cole, S.A. (Shelley A.); Howard, B.V. (Barbara V.); J.M. Stafford (Jeanette M.); C. Carty (Cara); P. Sethupathy (Praveen); Martin, L.W. (Lisa W.); D.Y. Lin (Dan); Johnson, K.C. (Karen C.); L.C. Becker (Lewis); K.E. North (Kari); A. Dehghan (Abbas); J.C. Bis (Joshua); Y. Liu (Yongmei); P. Greenland (Philip); J.E. Manson (Joann); Maeda, N. (Nobuyo); M.E. Garcia (M.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); D.M. Becker (Diane); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); G. Heiss (Gerardo); C. Kooperberg (Charles); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in African Americans. However, there is a paucity of studies assessing genetic determinants of CHD in African Americans. We examined the association of published variants in CHD loci with incident CHD,

  8. The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' collaboration with the Association of American Medical Colleges, Medical Library Association, and other organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Carol G; Bader, Shelley A

    2003-04-01

    The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries has made collaboration with other organizations a fundamental success strategy throughout its twenty-five year history. From the beginning its relationships with Association of American Medical Colleges and with the Medical Library Association have shaped its mission and influenced its success at promoting academic health sciences libraries' roles in their institutions. This article describes and evaluates those relationships. It also describes evolving relationships with other organizations including the National Library of Medicine and the Association of Research Libraries.

  9. A Statistical Study of Rapid Sunspot Structure Change Associated with Flares

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We reported recently some rapid changes of sunspot structure in white-light (WL) associated with major flares. We extend the study to smaller events and present here results of a statistical study of this phenomenon. In total, we investigate 403 events from 1998 May 9 to 2004 July 17, including 40 X-class, 174 M-class, and 189 C-class flares. By monitoring the structure of the flaring active regions using the WL observations from the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE), we find that segments in the outer sunspot structure decayed rapidly right after many flares; and that, on the other hand, the central part of sunspots near the flare-associated magnetic neutral line became darkened. These rapid and permanent changes are evidenced in the time profiles of WL mean intensity and are not likely resulted from the flare emissions. Our study further shows that the outer sunspot structure decay as well as the central structure darkening are more likely to be detected hi larger solar flares. For X-class flares, over 40% events show distinct sunspot structure change. For M- and C-class flares, this percentage drops to 17% and 10%, respectively. The results of this statistical study support our previously proposed reconnection picture, i.e., the flare-related magnetic fields evolve from a highly inclined to a more vertical configuration.

  10. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  11. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs--especially carbohydrate and protein intake--must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help

  12. Position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and Athletic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to athletes' energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, athletes' nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs - especially carbohydrate and protein intake - must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repairing tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20-25% of energy); there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose levels during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before beginning exercise; they should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose levels and the

  13. Joint Position Statement: nutrition and athletic performance. American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs-especially carbohydrate and protein intake-must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain

  14. The American Association of Plastic Surgeons Recent History, with a Review of the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, W Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The American Association of Plastic Surgeons was founded in 1921 and is the oldest of the plastic surgery societies. It was born out of the enthusiasm of reconstructive surgeons who had recently increased in numbers and expanded the scope of their activities as a result of the challenges posed by battle-injured soldiers during World War I. Early meetings were small, focused exclusively on the head and neck, and often included live surgical demonstrations. The Association has grown in size and scope with time, but it has maintained its academic focus. This article focuses on the most recent 15 years of the Association's history, as prior publications have chronicled the history of the organization up to 2000. The organization has remained robust in the new millennium, with the national meetings being its most prominent activity. The format of the meetings has continually been improved to remain relevant and of interest to the membership and other attendees. The organization continues to support the development of young academic plastic surgeons through the Academic Scholars Program. It has established new programs such as the Constable Fellowship to support international exchange and has also sponsored two consensus conferences to help define standards of care in plastic surgery-related issues. The Association annually recognizes significant contributors to the field through the variety of awards that it bestows as well. The mission of the American Association of Plastic Surgeons is to provide scholarly leadership in plastic surgery, and the organization continues to successfully accomplish this mission.

  15. Position of the American Dietetic Association: total diet approach to communicating food and nutrition information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzke, Susan; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne

    2007-07-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of a healthful eating style. All foods can fit within this pattern, if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with regular physical activity. The American Dietetic Association strives to communicate healthful eating messages to the public that emphasize a balance of foods, rather than any one food or meal. Public policies that support the total diet approach include the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, MyPyramid, the DASH Diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), Dietary Reference Intakes, and nutrition labeling. The value of a food should be determined within the context of the total diet because classifying foods as "good" or "bad" may foster unhealthful eating behaviors. Alternative approaches may be necessary in some health conditions. Eating practices are dynamic and influenced by many factors, including taste and food preferences, weight concerns, physiology, lifestyle, time challenges, economics, environment, attitudes and beliefs, social/cultural influences, media, food technology, and food product safety. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, food and nutrition professionals should utilize appropriate behavioral theory and evidence-based strategies. A focus on moderation and proportionality in the context of a healthful lifestyle, rather than specific nutrients or foods, can help reduce consumer confusion. Proactive, empowering, and practical messages that emphasize the total diet approach promote positive lifestyle changes.

  16. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Dietary guidance for healthy children ages 2 to 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Thersea; Johnson, Rachel

    2004-04-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. The health status of American children has generally improved over the past three decades. However, the number of children who are overweight has more than doubled among 2- to 5-year-old children and more than tripled among 6- to 11-year-old children, which has major health consequences. This increase in childhood overweight has broadened the focus of dietary guidance to address children's over consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and physical activity patterns. Health promotion will help reduce diet-related risks of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This position paper reviews what US children are eating and explores trends in food and nutrient intakes as well as the impact of school meals on children's diets. Dietary recommendations and guidelines and the benefits of physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The American Dietetic Association works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into achievable, healthful messages. Specific recommendations to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for dietetics professionals, parents, and caregivers.

  17. MYH9 is associated with nondiabetic end-stage renal disease in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, W H Linda; Klag, Michael J; Meoni, Lucy A; Reich, David; Berthier-Schaad, Yvette; Li, Man; Coresh, Josef; Patterson, Nick; Tandon, Arti; Powe, Neil R; Fink, Nancy E; Sadler, John H; Weir, Matthew R; Abboud, Hanna E; Adler, Sharon G; Divers, Jasmin; Iyengar, Sudha K; Freedman, Barry I; Kimmel, Paul L; Knowler, William C; Kohn, Orly F; Kramp, Kristopher; Leehey, David J; Nicholas, Susanne B; Pahl, Madeleine V; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Sedor, John R; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Winkler, Cheryl A; Smith, Michael W; Parekh, Rulan S

    2008-10-01

    As end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has a four times higher incidence in African Americans compared to European Americans, we hypothesized that susceptibility alleles for ESRD have a higher frequency in the West African than the European gene pool. We carried out a genome-wide admixture scan in 1,372 ESRD cases and 806 controls and found a highly significant association between excess African ancestry and nondiabetic ESRD (lod score = 5.70) but not diabetic ESRD (lod = 0.47) on chromosome 22q12. Each copy of the European ancestral allele conferred a relative risk of 0.50 (95% CI = 0.39-0.63) compared to African ancestry. Multiple common SNPs (allele frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 0.6) in the gene encoding nonmuscle myosin heavy chain type II isoform A (MYH9) were associated with two to four times greater risk of nondiabetic ESRD and accounted for a large proportion of the excess risk of ESRD observed in African compared to European Americans.

  18. Differences in candidate gene association between European ancestry and African American asthmatic children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaye M Baye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Candidate gene case-control studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with asthma susceptibility. Most of these studies have been restricted to evaluations of specific SNPs within a single gene and within populations from European ancestry. Recently, there is increasing interest in understanding racial differences in genetic risk associated with childhood asthma. Our aim was to compare association patterns of asthma candidate genes between children of European and African ancestry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a custom-designed Illumina SNP array, we genotyped 1,485 children within the Greater Cincinnati Pediatric Clinic Repository and Cincinnati Genomic Control Cohort for 259 SNPs in 28 genes and evaluated their associations with asthma. We identified 14 SNPs located in 6 genes that were significantly associated (p-values <0.05 with childhood asthma in African Americans. Among Caucasians, 13 SNPs in 5 genes were associated with childhood asthma. Two SNPs in IL4 were associated with asthma in both races (p-values <0.05. Gene-gene interaction studies identified race specific sets of genes that best discriminate between asthmatic children and non-allergic controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified IL4 as having a role in asthma susceptibility in both African American and Caucasian children. However, while IL4 SNPs were associated with asthma in asthmatic children with European and African ancestry, the relative contributions of the most replicated asthma-associated SNPs varied by ancestry. These data provides valuable insights into the pathways that may predispose to asthma in individuals with European vs. African ancestry.

  19. Statistical estimation of correlated genome associations to a quantitative trait network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyoung Kim

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Many complex disease syndromes, such as asthma, consist of a large number of highly related, rather than independent, clinical or molecular phenotypes. This raises a new technical challenge in identifying genetic variations associated simultaneously with correlated traits. In this study, we propose a new statistical framework called graph-guided fused lasso (GFlasso to directly and effectively incorporate the correlation structure of multiple quantitative traits such as clinical metrics and gene expressions in association analysis. Our approach represents correlation information explicitly among the quantitative traits as a quantitative trait network (QTN and then leverages this network to encode structured regularization functions in a multivariate regression model over the genotypes and traits. The result is that the genetic markers that jointly influence subgroups of highly correlated traits can be detected jointly with high sensitivity and specificity. While most of the traditional methods examined each phenotype independently and combined the results afterwards, our approach analyzes all of the traits jointly in a single statistical framework. This allows our method to borrow information across correlated phenotypes to discover the genetic markers that perturb a subset of the correlated traits synergistically. Using simulated datasets based on the HapMap consortium and an asthma dataset, we compared the performance of our method with other methods based on single-marker analysis and regression-based methods that do not use any of the relational information in the traits. We found that our method showed an increased power in detecting causal variants affecting correlated traits. Our results showed that, when correlation patterns among traits in a QTN are considered explicitly and directly during a structured multivariate genome association analysis using our proposed methods, the power of detecting true causal SNPs with possibly pleiotropic

  20. Acute Myocardial Infarction in Women: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Laxmi S; Beckie, Theresa M; DeVon, Holli A; Grines, Cindy L; Krumholz, Harlan M; Johnson, Michelle N; Lindley, Kathryn J; Vaccarino, Viola; Wang, Tracy Y; Watson, Karol E; Wenger, Nanette K

    2016-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in American women. Since 1984, the annual cardiovascular disease mortality rate has remained greater for women than men; however, over the last decade, there have been marked reductions in cardiovascular disease mortality in women. The dramatic decline in mortality rates for women is attributed partly to an increase in awareness, a greater focus on women and cardiovascular disease risk, and the increased application of evidence-based treatments for established coronary heart disease. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on acute myocardial infarction in women. Sex-specific differences exist in the presentation, pathophysiological mechanisms, and outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence of the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcomes of women with acute myocardial infarction.

  1. Statistical Analysis of Seismicity Associated with Hydraulic Fracturing in Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, R.; Ghofrani, H.; Kothari, S.; Atkinson, G. M.; Cheadle, B.; Eaton, D. W. S.; Tiampo, K. F.

    2015-12-01

    The unconventional extraction of shale oil or gas is typically carried out by the subsurface injection of large volumes of fluids. The fluids are used in the process of hydraulic fracturing and subsequent wastewater injection into high volume disposal wells. These operations are usually accompanied by various levels of seismic activity and sometimes result in the occurrence of moderate to large earthquakes. It is suggested that the increase in seismic activity within the central U.S. in the last decade or so is primely associated with large-scale disposal of wastewater. The Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB) is an active exploration area for the extraction of oil and gas. The average rate of seismicity is lower than in the central U.S., however, there are several active clusters, where in the last 8-10 years, there has been an increase in the occurrence of moderate earthquakes. In this study, we analyze the statistical properties of seismicity associated with the WCSB. We find that the increase in seismicity rate is mostly associated with the hydraulic fracturing operations in several well defined spatial zones. Hydraulic fracturing involves high-pressure injections of fluids and is performed in multiple stages. This is done along horizontal wells which are drilled at average depths of 2 to 3 km. The triggering of large earthquakes is mostly due to injection of fluids into nearby tectonic faults which are close to failure. To model the rate of the occurrence of earthquakes we introduce a modified version of the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence model. The earthquake occurrence rate associated with several prominent clusters is characterized by bursts of activity associated with specifics of hydraulic fracturing operations. The proposed model can be used in the probabilistic assessment and mitigation of the risks associated with hydraulic fracturing.

  2. Web-Based Statistical Sampling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Anne; Larson, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Consistent with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSI 2010), the authors write that they have asked students to do statistics projects with real data. To obtain real data, their students use the free Web-based app, Census at School, created by the American Statistical Association (ASA) to help promote civic awareness among school…

  3. Sedentary Behavior and Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality: A Science Advisory From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Hivert, Marie-France; Alhassan, Sofiya; Camhi, Sarah M; Ferguson, Jane F; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Lewis, Cora E; Owen, Neville; Perry, Cynthia K; Siddique, Juned; Yong, Celina M

    2016-09-27

    Epidemiological evidence is accumulating that indicates greater time spent in sedentary behavior is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults such that some countries have disseminated broad guidelines that recommend minimizing sedentary behaviors. Research examining the possible deleterious consequences of excess sedentary behavior is rapidly evolving, with the epidemiology-based literature ahead of potential biological mechanisms that might explain the observed associations. This American Heart Association science advisory reviews the current evidence on sedentary behavior in terms of assessment methods, population prevalence, determinants, associations with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality, potential underlying mechanisms, and interventions. Recommendations for future research on this emerging cardiovascular health topic are included. Further evidence is required to better inform public health interventions and future quantitative guidelines on sedentary behavior and cardiovascular health outcomes.

  4. Comments to guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism prepared by the American thyroid association task force on thyroid hormone replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Viktorovich Fadeev

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the discussion about to guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism prepared by the American thyroid association task force on thyroid hormone replacement.

  5. Associations of Adiponectin with Individual European Ancestry in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian eBidulescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AA exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA for the African Americans enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS. We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors.Methods: Plasma specimens from 1,439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1,447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA.Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years, the median (interquartile range of PEA was 15.8 (9.3%. Body mass index (p = 0.04 and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001 modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (β = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03 among non-obese (n = 673 and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1,141; β = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001, but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold effect was detected for non-obese participants.Conclusions: In a large African American population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin

  6. Statistical identification of gene association by CID in application of constructing ER regulatory network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lien Huang-Chun

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A variety of high-throughput techniques are now available for constructing comprehensive gene regulatory networks in systems biology. In this study, we report a new statistical approach for facilitating in silico inference of regulatory network structure. The new measure of association, coefficient of intrinsic dependence (CID, is model-free and can be applied to both continuous and categorical distributions. When given two variables X and Y, CID answers whether Y is dependent on X by examining the conditional distribution of Y given X. In this paper, we apply CID to analyze the regulatory relationships between transcription factors (TFs (X and their downstream genes (Y based on clinical data. More specifically, we use estrogen receptor α (ERα as the variable X, and the analyses are based on 48 clinical breast cancer gene expression arrays (48A. Results The analytical utility of CID was evaluated in comparison with four commonly used statistical methods, Galton-Pearson's correlation coefficient (GPCC, Student's t-test (STT, coefficient of determination (CoD, and mutual information (MI. When being compared to GPCC, CoD, and MI, CID reveals its preferential ability to discover the regulatory association where distribution of the mRNA expression levels on X and Y does not fit linear models. On the other hand, when CID is used to measure the association of a continuous variable (Y against a discrete variable (X, it shows similar performance as compared to STT, and appears to outperform CoD and MI. In addition, this study established a two-layer transcriptional regulatory network to exemplify the usage of CID, in combination with GPCC, in deciphering gene networks based on gene expression profiles from patient arrays. Conclusion CID is shown to provide useful information for identifying associations between genes and transcription factors of interest in patient arrays. When coupled with the relationships detected by GPCC, the

  7. Addressing issues associated with evaluating prediction models for survival endpoints based on the concordance statistic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming; Long, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Prediction models for disease risk and prognosis play an important role in biomedical research, and evaluating their predictive accuracy in the presence of censored data is of substantial interest. The standard concordance (c) statistic has been extended to provide a summary measure of predictive accuracy for survival models. Motivated by a prostate cancer study, we address several issues associated with evaluating survival prediction models based on c-statistic with a focus on estimators using the technique of inverse probability of censoring weighting (IPCW). Compared to the existing work, we provide complete results on the asymptotic properties of the IPCW estimators under the assumption of coarsening at random (CAR), and propose a sensitivity analysis under the mechanism of noncoarsening at random (NCAR). In addition, we extend the IPCW approach as well as the sensitivity analysis to high-dimensional settings. The predictive accuracy of prediction models for cancer recurrence after prostatectomy is assessed by applying the proposed approaches. We find that the estimated predictive accuracy for the models in consideration is sensitive to NCAR assumption, and thus identify the best predictive model. Finally, we further evaluate the performance of the proposed methods in both settings of low-dimensional and high-dimensional data under CAR and NCAR through simulations.

  8. A Novel Method for Micro-Aggregation in Secure Statistical Databases Using Association and Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oommen, B. John; Fayyoumi, Ebaa

    We consider the problem of micro-aggregation in secure statistical databases, by enhancing the primitive Micro-Aggregation Technique (MAT), which incorporates proximity information. The state-of-the-art MAT recursively reduces the size of the data set by excluding points which are farthest from the centroid, and those which are closest to these farthest points, while it ignores the mutual Interaction between the records. In this paper, we argue that inter-record relationships can be quantified in terms of two entities, namely their "Association" and "Interaction". Based on the theoretically sound principles of the neural networks (NN), we believe that the proximity information can be quantified using the mutual Association, and their mutual Interaction can be quantified by invoking transitive-closure like operations on the latter. By repeatedly invoking the inter-record Associations and Interactions, the records are grouped into sizes of cardinality "k", where k is the security parameter in the algorithm. Our experimental results, which are done on artificial data and on the benchmark data sets for real-life data, demonstrate that the newly proposed method is superior to the state-of-the-art by as much as 13%.

  9. Modified interfacial statistical associating fluid theory: a perturbation density functional theory for inhomogeneous complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shekhar; Dominik, Aleksandra; Chapman, Walter G

    2007-12-28

    A density functional theory based on Wertheim's first order perturbation theory is developed for inhomogeneous complex fluids. The theory is derived along similar lines as interfacial statistical associating fluid theory [S. Tripathi and W. G. Chapman, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 094506 (2005)]. However, the derivation is more general and applies broadly to a range of systems, retaining the simplicity of a segment density based theory. Furthermore, the theory gives the exact density profile for ideal chains in an external field. The general avail of the theory has been demonstrated by applying the theory to lipids near surfaces, lipid bilayers, and copolymer thin films. The theoretical results show excellent agreement with the results from molecular simulations.

  10. International Reports. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions; A Canadian-American Librarianship or an American-Canadian Librarianship in the 21st Century?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, Winston; Birdsall, William F.

    2002-01-01

    Includes two reports: one from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that discusses digital libraries, standards, collaboration, and membership and structure of IFLA; and one that considers Canadian-American librarianship in the 21st century, including federal government policy, copyright reform, and…

  11. AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Suzanne M; Baker, Diane R; Coldiron, Brett M; Fazio, Michael J; Storrs, Paul A; Vidimos, Allison T; Zalla, Mark J; Brewer, Jerry D; Smith Begolka, Wendy; Berger, Timothy G; Bigby, Michael; Bolognia, Jean L; Brodland, David G; Collins, Scott; Cronin, Terrence A; Dahl, Mark V; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Hanke, C William; Hruza, George J; James, William D; Lober, Clifford Warren; McBurney, Elizabeth I; Norton, Scott A; Roenigk, Randall K; Wheeland, Ronald G; Wisco, Oliver J

    2012-10-01

    The appropriate use criteria process synthesizes evidence-based medicine, clinical practice experience, and expert judgment. The American Academy of Dermatology in collaboration with the American College of Mohs Surgery, the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery has developed appropriate use criteria for 270 scenarios for which Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is frequently considered based on tumor and patient characteristics. This document reflects the rating of appropriateness of MMS for each of these clinical scenarios by a ratings panel in a process based on the appropriateness method developed by the RAND Corp (Santa Monica, CA)/University of California-Los Angeles (RAND/UCLA). At the conclusion of the rating process, consensus was reached for all 270 (100%) scenarios by the Ratings Panel, with 200 (74.07%) deemed as appropriate, 24 (8.89%) as uncertain, and 46 (17.04%) as inappropriate. For the 69 basal cell carcinoma scenarios, 53 were deemed appropriate, 6 uncertain, and 10 inappropriate. For the 143 squamous cell carcinoma scenarios, 102 were deemed appropriate, 7 uncertain, and 34 inappropriate. For the 12 lentigo maligna and melanoma in situ scenarios, 10 were deemed appropriate, 2 uncertain, and 0 inappropriate. For the 46 rare cutaneous malignancies scenarios, 35 were deemed appropriate, 9 uncertain, and 2 inappropriate. These appropriate use criteria have the potential to impact health care delivery, reimbursement policy, and physician decision making on patient selection for MMS, and aim to optimize the use of MMS for scenarios in which the expected clinical benefit is anticipated to be the greatest. In addition, recognition of those scenarios rated as uncertain facilitates an understanding of areas that would benefit from further research. Each clinical scenario identified in this document is crafted for the average patient and not the exception. Thus, the ultimate decision regarding the

  12. Policing the social boundaries of the American Medical Association, 1847-70.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Douglas M

    2005-04-01

    In May 1870 the American Medical Association (AMA) voted to deny the admission of black delegates and their white colleagues to the national meeting in Washington, D.C. Historians of race and medicine have customarily viewed this decision as marking a crucial milestone in the formation of the nexus between racism and the development of the American medical profession in the era after the Civil War (1861-64). This study recasts this narrative by locating the 1870 decision in relation to the antebellum practices of the association and their social consequences for American medicine. It argues that the viability of the AMA as the national voice of the profession was critically dependent on rejecting racial equality. Indeed, at a moment when the question of the abolition of slavery polarized the nation, the AMA was founded in 1847 to create a voluntary professional organization, national in scope, dedicated to raising the standards of medical training and practice. To this end, the AMA elected presidents and selected host cities for annual meetings in the North, South, and West. Seven out of the fourteen meetings and six out of fourteen presidents were from slave and/or border states. These institutional practices together with the representation of blacks as different and enjoying an appropriate status as slaves grounded the national identity of the profession in black subordination. Similarly, the gendered discourses about healing and practices of female exclusion privileged medical authority as male by drawing on and reinforcing patriarchy. In the wake of the war, leaders hoped to restore the national character of the organization by resuming antebellum practices. In response to the new possibilities for blacks in medicine--as represented by the biracial National Medical Society--the AMA took steps to vigorously police the racial boundaries of the national profession. As this study will show, the 1870 decision reflected the logic of the racial politics at the heart

  13. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.

  14. Association between Serum 25-Hydroxy-Vitamin D and Aggressive Prostate Cancer in African American Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakira M. Nelson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available African American men have higher incidence rates of aggressive prostate cancer, where high levels of calcium and serum vitamin D deficient levels play a role in the racial differences in incidence. In this study, we examined associations of serum vitamin D with aggressive prostate cancer to improve our understanding of higher susceptibility of aggressive disease in this racial cohort. From Howard University Hospital, 155 African American men with clinically-identified prostate cancer were identified; 46 aggressive cases, and 58 non-aggressive cases. Serum vitamin D was assessed from fasting blood samples, and total calcium intake was assessed using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms from three different loci were genotyped; rs731236, rs1544410, and rs11568820. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI comparing aggressive to non-aggressive prostate cancer. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL significantly increased risk of aggressive disease (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.03–9.57, p-value = 0.04. Stratification by total calcium showed high calcium levels (≥800 mg/day modified this association (OR: 7.3, 95% CI: 2.15–47.68, p-interaction = 0.03. Genetic variant rs11568820 appeared to increase the magnitude of association between deficient serum vitamin D and aggressive prostate cancer (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.12–11.75, p-value = 0.05. These findings suggest that high incidence of aggressive prostate cancer risk in African American men may be due in-part to deficient levels of serum vitamin D. Other factors, including genetics, should be considered for future studies.

  15. A genome-wide association study of hypertension and blood pressure in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebowale Adeyemo

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The evidence for the existence of genetic susceptibility variants for the common form of hypertension ("essential hypertension" remains weak and inconsistent. We sought genetic variants underlying blood pressure (BP by conducting a genome-wide association study (GWAS among African Americans, a population group in the United States that is disproportionately affected by hypertension and associated complications, including stroke and kidney diseases. Using a dense panel of over 800,000 SNPs in a discovery sample of 1,017 African Americans from the Washington, D.C., metropolitan region, we identified multiple SNPs reaching genome-wide significance for systolic BP in or near the genes: PMS1, SLC24A4, YWHA7, IPO7, and CACANA1H. Two of these genes, SLC24A4 (a sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger and CACNA1H (a voltage-dependent calcium channel, are potential candidate genes for BP regulation and the latter is a drug target for a class of calcium channel blockers. No variant reached genome wide significance for association with diastolic BP (top scoring SNP rs1867226, p = 5.8 x 10(-7 or with hypertension as a binary trait (top scoring SNP rs9791170, p = 5.1 x 10(-7. We replicated some of the significant SNPs in a sample of West Africans. Pathway analysis revealed that genes harboring top-scoring variants cluster in pathways and networks of biologic relevance to hypertension and BP regulation. This is the first GWAS for hypertension and BP in an African American population. The findings suggests that, in addition to or in lieu of relying solely on replicated variants of moderate-to-large effect reaching genome-wide significance, pathway and network approaches may be useful in identifying and prioritizing candidate genes/loci for further experiments.

  16. Workforce and Salary Survey Trends: Opportunities and Challenges for the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Michael D., E-mail: mdmill03@exchange.louisville.edu

    2015-07-01

    The American Association of Medical Dosimetrists (AAMD) designed and directed 2 surveys of the AAMD membership. The first was in 2011 and the second in 2014. There were a number of questions common to both surveys, and this article seeks to evaluate these common questions to determine trends among the professional membership of the AAMD. It is demonstrated that the observed trends are consistent with the goals and objectives established by the leadership of the AAMD and the Medical Dosimetry Certification Board (MDCB) for the medical dosimetry community. In addition, certain challenges and opportunities involving the scope of practice for the medical dosimetry profession are discussed.

  17. The American Association for Thoracic Surgery Consensus Guidelines: Reasons and purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Lars G; Gillinov, A Marc; Weisel, Richard D; Keshavjee, Shaf; Bacha, Emile A; Moon, Marc R; Cameron, Duke E; Sugarbaker, David J; Adams, David H; Gaynor, J William; Coselli, Joseph S; Del Nido, Pedro J; Jones, David; Sundt, Thoralf M; Cohn, Lawrence H; Pomar, Jose L; Lytle, Bruce W; Schaff, Hartzell V

    2016-04-01

    The time interval for the doubling of medical knowledge continues to decline. Physicians, patients, administrators, government officials, and payors are struggling to keep up to date with the waves of new information and to integrate the knowledge into new patient treatment protocols, processes, and metrics. Guidelines, Consensus Guidelines, and Consensus Statements, moderated by seasoned content experts, offer one method to rapidly distribute new information in a timely manner and also guide minimal standards of treatment of clinical care pathways as they are developed as part of bundled care programs. These proposed Consensus Guidelines advance The American Association for Thoracic Surgery's mission of leading in cardiothoracic health care, education, innovation, and modeling excellence.

  18. Homophobic Attitudes and Associated Factors Among Adolescents: A Comparison of Six Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; León, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Homophobic attitudes are still very common in the world, although there are large differences between countries. This study analyzed the responses of almost 30,000 8th- and 9th-grade students from six countries who participated in the Latin American component of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study. Higher levels of homophobia were found in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay than in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Homophobic attitudes were positively associated with being male, having lower levels of empathy, spending less time with friends and the media, having aggressive attitudes, and being more religious, in particular non-Catholic Christian.

  19. A dataset to assess providers׳ knowledge and attitudes towards the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Management Guideline

    OpenAIRE

    Yashashwi Pokharel; Lynne Steinberg; Winston Chan; Akeroyd, Julia M; Jones, Peter H.; Vijay Nambi; Khurram Nasir; Laura Petersen; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Virani, Salim S.

    2016-01-01

    We previously examined provider׳s understanding of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) cholesterol management guideline (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2015.11.002)(Virani et al., 2013) [1], and also assessed whether a case-based educational intervention could improve providers׳ knowledge gaps and attitudes towards the guideline (DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.12.044) (Pokharel, et al., 2016) [2]. Here we describe the dataset that we used t...

  20. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a policy statement from the American Association for Cancer Research and the American Society of Clinical Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Thomas H; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Hanna, Nasser H; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Herbst, Roy S; Hobin, Jennifer A; Ostroff, Jamie S; Shields, Peter G; Toll, Benjamin A; Tyne, Courtney A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Warren, Graham W

    2015-03-10

    Combustible tobacco use remains the number-one preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include electronic cigarettes, are devices capable of delivering nicotine in an aerosolized form. ENDS use by both adults and youth has increased rapidly, and some have advocated these products could serve as harm-reduction devices and smoking cessation aids. ENDS may be beneficial if they reduce smoking rates or prevent or reduce the known adverse health effects of smoking. However, ENDS may also be harmful, particularly to youth, if they increase the likelihood that nonsmokers or former smokers will use combustible tobacco products or if they discourage smokers from quitting. The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recognize the potential ENDS have to alter patterns of tobacco use and affect the health of the public; however, definitive data are lacking. The AACR and ASCO recommend additional research on these devices, including assessing the health impacts of ENDS, understanding patterns of ENDS use, and determining what role ENDS have in cessation. Key policy recommendations include supporting federal, state, and local regulation of ENDS; requiring manufacturers to register with the US Food and Drug Administration and report all product ingredients, requiring childproof caps on ENDS liquids, and including warning labels on products and their advertisements; prohibiting youth-oriented marketing and sales; prohibiting child-friendly ENDS flavors; and prohibiting ENDS use in places where cigarette smoking is prohibited. This policy statement was developed by a joint writing group composed of members from the Tobacco and Cancer Subcommittee of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Science Policy and Government Affairs (SPGA) Committee and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Tobacco Cessation and Control

  1. A dataset to assess providers׳ knowledge and attitudes towards the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Management Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Yashashwi; Steinberg, Lynne; Chan, Winston; Akeroyd, Julia M; Jones, Peter H; Nambi, Vijay; Nasir, Khurram; Petersen, Laura; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S

    2016-06-01

    We previously examined provider׳s understanding of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) cholesterol management guideline (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2015.11.002)(Virani et al., 2013) [1], and also assessed whether a case-based educational intervention could improve providers׳ knowledge gaps and attitudes towards the guideline (DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.12.044) (Pokharel, et al., 2016) [2]. Here we describe the dataset that we used to examine our objectives.

  2. Genetic Association Analysis of 30 Genes Related to Obesity in a European American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Lin, Wan-Yu; Allison, David B.; Chung, Wendy K.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Yi, Nengjun; Liu, Nianjun

    2013-01-01

    Objective Obesity, which is frequently associated with diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases, is primarily the result of a net excess of caloric intake over energy expenditure. Human obesity is highly heritable, but the specific genes mediating susceptibility in non-syndromic obesity remain unclear. We tested candidate genes in pathways related to food intake and energy expenditure for association with body mass index (BMI). Methods We re-analyzed 355 common genetic variants of 30 candidate genes in 7 molecular pathways related to obesity in 1,982 unrelated European Americans from the New York Health Project. Data were analyzed by using a Bayesian hierarchical generalized linear model. The BMIs were log-transformed and then adjusted for covariates including age, age2, gender, and diabetes status. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were modeled as additive effects. Results With the stipulated adjustments, nine SNPs in eight genes were significantly associated with BMI: GHRL (rs35683), AGRP (rs5030980), CPE (rs1946816 and rs4481204), GLP1R (rs2268641), HTR2A (rs912127), NPY5R (Y5R1c52), SOCS3 (rs4969170), and STAT3 (rs4796793). We also found a gender-by-SNP interaction (rs1745837 in HTR2A), which indicated that variants in the gene HTR2A had a stronger association with BMI in males. In addition, NPY1R was detected as having a significant gene effect even though none of the SNPs in this gene was significant. Conclusion Variations in genes AGRP, CPE, GHRL, GLP1R, HTR2A, NPY1R, NPY5R, SOCS3, and STAT3 showed modest associations with BMI in European Americans. The pathways in which these genes participate regulate energy intake and thus these associations are mechanistically plausible in this context. PMID:23900445

  3. Modeling of CO2 solubility in single and mixed electrolyte solutions using statistical associating fluid theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.; Economou, Ioannis G.

    2016-03-01

    Statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) is used to model CO2 solubilities in single and mixed electrolyte solutions. The proposed SAFT model implements an improved mean spherical approximation in the primitive model to represent the electrostatic interactions between ions, using a parameter K to correct the excess energies ("KMSA" for short). With the KMSA formalism, the proposed model is able to describe accurately mean ionic activity coefficients and liquid densities of electrolyte solutions including Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cl-, Br- and SO42- from 298.15 K to 473.15 K using mostly temperature independent parameters, with sole exception being the volume of anions. CO2 is modeled as a non-associating molecule, and temperature-dependent CO2-H2O and CO2-ion cross interactions are used to obtain CO2 solubilities in H2O and in single ion electrolyte solutions. Without any additional fitting parameters, CO2 solubilities in mixed electrolyte solutions and synthetic brines are predicted, in good agreement with experimental measurements.

  4. Statistical Study of Shocks and CMEs Associated With Interplanetary Type II Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Gopalswamy, N.; MacDowall, R.; Yashiro, S.; Kaiser, M. L.

    2005-05-01

    We present a study of some spectral properties associated with interplanetary Type II radio emission. Type II radio bursts are signatures of violent eruptions from the Sun that result in shock waves propagating through the corona and the interplanetary medium. We investigated the relative bandwidth of all the type II bursts observed by the Radio and Plasma Wave Experiment (WAVES) on board the Wind spacecraft from 1997 up to 2003. We obtained three sets of events, based on the frequency domain of occurrence: 109 events in the low frequency domain (30 KHz to 1000 kHz detected by the RAD1 receiver), 216 events in the high frequency domain (1-14 MHz, observed by the RAD2 receiver), and 73 events that spanned both domains (RAD1 and RAD2). We present statistical results for the bandwidth-to-frequency ratio (BFR) in the three subsets as well as a comparision of our results with the Type II solar radio bursts observed by ISEE-3 radio experiment, which is similar to WAVES/RAD1. We analyzed the bandwidth and BFR evolution with the heliocentric distance as well as an analysis of drift rate magnitude of type II radio bursts and its starting frequency. We also present some properties of shocks and coronal mass ejections associated with interplanetary type II bursts. This work is partially supported by NSF/SHINE (ATM 0204588)

  5. Evaluating and Reporting Statistical Power in Counseling Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkin, Richard S.; Sheperis, Carl J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite recommendations from the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (6th ed.) to include information on statistical power when publishing quantitative results, authors seldom include analysis or discussion of statistical power. The rationale for discussing statistical power is addressed, approaches to using "G*Power" to…

  6. Substorm associated radar auroral surges: a statistical study and possible generation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Shand

    Full Text Available Substorm-associated radar auroral surges (SARAS are a short lived (15–90 minutes and spatially localised (~5° of latitude perturbation of the plasma convection pattern observed within the auroral E-region. The understanding of such phenomena has important ramifications for the investigation of the larger scale plasma convection and ultimately the coupling of the solar wind, magnetosphere and ionosphere system. A statistical investigation is undertaken of SARAS, observed by the Sweden And Britain Radar Experiment (SABRE, in order to provide a more extensive examination of the local time occurrence and propagation characteristics of the events. The statistical analysis has determined a local time occurrence of observations between 1420 MLT and 2200 MLT with a maximum occurrence centred around 1700 MLT. The propagation velocity of the SARAS feature through the SABRE field of view was found to be predominately L-shell aligned with a velocity centred around 1750 m s–1 and within the range 500 m s–1 and 3500 m s–1. This comprehensive examination of the SARAS provides the opportunity to discuss, qualitatively, a possible generation mechanism for SARAS based on a proposed model for the production of a similar phenomenon referred to as sub-auroral ion drifts (SAIDs. The results of the comparison suggests that SARAS may result from a similar geophysical mechanism to that which produces SAID events, but probably occurs at a different time in the evolution of the event.

    Key words. Substorms · Auroral surges · Plasma con-vection · Sub-auroral ion drifts

  7. Health seeking behavioral analysis associated with breast cancer screening among Asian American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast

  8. Socioeconomic and nutritional factors account for the association of gastric cancer with Amerindian ancestry in a Latin American admixed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Latife; Zamudio, Roxana; Soares-Souza, Giordano; Herrera, Phabiola; Cabrera, Lilia; Hooper, Catherine C; Cok, Jaime; Combe, Juan M; Vargas, Gloria; Prado, William A; Schneider, Silvana; Kehdy, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Maira R; Chanock, Stephen J; Berg, Douglas E; Gilman, Robert H; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru) and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans), we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls) and a very low African ancestry (gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group.

  9. Position of the American Dietetic Association: nutrition intervention in the treatment of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozier, Amy D; Henry, Beverly W

    2011-08-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition intervention, including nutritional counseling by a registered dietitian (RD), is an essential component of team treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders (EDs) during assessment and treatment across the continuum of care. Diagnostic criteria for EDs provide important guidelines for identification and treatment. In addition, individuals may experience disordered eating that extends along a range from food restriction to partial conditions to diagnosed EDs. Understanding the roles and responsibilities of RDs is critical to the effective care of individuals with EDs. The complexities of EDs, such as epidemiologic factors, treatment guidelines, special populations, and emerging trends highlight the nature of EDs, which require a collaborative approach by an interdisciplinary team of mental health, nutrition, and medical specialists. RDs are integral members of treatment teams and are uniquely qualified to provide medical nutrition therapy for the normalization of eating patterns and nutritional status. However, this role requires understanding of the psychologic and neurobiologic aspects of EDs. Advanced training is needed to work effectively with this population. Further efforts with evidenced-based research must continue for improved treatment outcomes related to EDs, along with identification of effective primary and secondary interventions. This paper supports the "Practice Paper of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Intervention in the Treatment of Eating Disorders" published online at www.eatright.org/positions.

  10. Statistical Association: Alignment of Current U.S. High School Textbooks with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dung

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the alignment of three selected U.S. high school textbooks series with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) regarding the treatment of statistical association. A framework grounded in the literature for inclusion and exclusion of reasoning about association topics was developed, and textbook entries were…

  11. Associations Among Religiousness and Community Volunteerism in National Random Samples of American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Megan C; Kang, Linda L; Rowatt, Wade C; Shen, Megan Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The connection between religiousness and volunteering for the community can be explained through two distinct features of religion. First, religious organizations are social groups that encourage members to help others through planned opportunities. Second, helping others is regarded as an important value for members in religious organizations to uphold. We examined the relationship between religiousness and self-reported community volunteering in two independent national random surveys of American adults (i.e., the 2005 and 2007 waves of the Baylor Religion Survey). In both waves, frequency of religious service attendance was associated with an increase in likelihood that individuals would volunteer, whether through their religious organization or not, whereas frequency of reading sacred texts outside of religious services was associated with an increase in likelihood of volunteering only for or through their religious organization. The role of religion in community volunteering is discussed in light of these findings.

  12. Living near a Freeway is Associated with Lower Bone Mineral Density among Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T.; Karim, Roksana; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Xiang, Anny H.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Habre, Rima; Bastain, Theresa M.; Lurmann, Fred; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John P.; Trigo, Enrique; Gilliland, Frank D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adults residing in rural areas have been linked with higher bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to determine if this difference is due in part to air pollution by examining the relationships between traffic metrics and ambient air pollution with total body and pelvic BMD. Methods Mexican-American adults (n=1,175; mean 34 years; 72% female) who had participated in the BetaGene study of air pollution, obesity and insulin resistance were included in this analysis. Total body and pelvic BMD were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Traffic and ambient air pollutant exposures were estimated at residences using location and ambient monitoring data. Variance component models were used to analyze the associations between residential distance to the nearest freeway and ambient air pollutants with BMD. Results Residential proximity to a freeway was associated with lower total body BMD (p-trend=0.01) and pelvic BMD (p-trend=0.03) after adjustment for age, sex, weight and height. The adjusted mean total body and pelvic BMD in participants living within 500m of a freeway were 0.02 g/cm2 and 0.03 g/cm2 lower than participants living greater than 1,500m from a freeway. These associations did not differ significantly by age, sex or obesity status. Results were similar after further adjustment for body fat and weekly physical activity minutes. Ambient air pollutants (NO2, O3 and PM2.5) were not significantly associated with BMD. Conclusions Traffic-related exposures in overweight and obese Mexican-Americans may adversely affect BMD. Our findings indicate that long-term exposures to traffic may contribute to the occurrence of osteoporosis and its consequences. PMID:25677718

  13. Nature and statistical properties of quasar associated absorption systems in the XQ-100 Legacy Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Perrotta, Serena; Prochaska, J Xavier; Cristiani, Stefano; Cupani, Guido; Ellison, Sara; Lòpez, Sebastian; Becker, George D; Berg, Trystyn A M; Christensen, Lise; Denney, Kelly D; Hamann, Frederick; Pâris, Isabelle; Vestergaard, Marianne; Worseck, Gábor

    2016-01-01

    We statistically study the physical properties of a sample of narrow absorption line (NAL) systems looking for empirical evidences to distinguish between intrinsic and intervening NALs without taking into account any a priori definition or velocity cut-off. We analyze the spectra of 100 quasars with 3.5 < z$\\rm_{em}$ < 4.5, observed with X-shooter/VLT in the context of the XQ-100 Legacy Survey. We detect a $\\sim$ 8 $\\sigma$ excess in the number density of absorbers within 10,000 km/s of the quasar emission redshift with respect to the random occurrence of NALs. This excess does not show a dependence on the quasar bolometric luminosity and it is not due to the redshift evolution of NALs. It extends far beyond the standard 5000 km/s cut-off traditionally defined for associated absorption lines. We propose to modify this definition, extending the threshold to 10,000 km/s when also weak absorbers (equivalent width < 0.2 \\AA) are considered. We infer NV is the ion that better traces the effects of the qua...

  14. Statistically Inferring Protein-Protein Associations with Affinity Isolation LC-MS/MS Assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, Julia L. [Montana State University; Anderson, Kevin K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Daly, Don S. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Pelletier, Dale A [ORNL; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B [ORNL; Cannon, Bill [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Auberry, Deanna L [ORNL; Schmoyer, Denise D [ORNL; McDonald, W Hayes [ORNL; White, Amanda M. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Hooker, Brian [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Victry, Kristin D [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Buchanan, Michelle V [ORNL; Kerry, Vladimir [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Wiley, Steven [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)

    2007-01-01

    Affinity isolation of protein complexes followed by protein identification by LC-MS/MS is an increasingly popular approach for mapping protein interactions. However, systematic and random assay errors from multiple sources must be considered to confidently infer authentic protein-protein interactions. To address this issue, we developed a general, robust statistical method for inferring authentic interactions from protein prey-by-bait frequency tables using a binomial-based likelihood ratio test (LRT) coupled with Bayes Odds estimation. We then applied our LRT-Bayes algorithm experimentally using data from protein complexes isolated from Rhodopseudomonas palustris. Our algorithm, in conjunction with the experimental protocol, inferred with high confidence authentic interacting proteins from abundant, stable complexes, but few or no authentic interactions for lower-abundance complexes. We conclude that the experimental protocol including the LRT-Bayes algorithm produces results with high confidence but moderate sensitivity. We also found that Monte Carlo simulation is a feasible tool for checking modeling assumptions, estimating parameters, and evaluating the significance of results in protein association studies.

  15. Systematic and Statistical Errors Associated with Nuclear Decay Constant Measurements Using the Counting Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltick, David; Wang, Haoyu; Liu, Shih-Chieh; Heim, Jordan; Nistor, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Typical nuclear decay constants are measured at the accuracy level of 10-2. There are numerous reasons: tests of unconventional theories, dating of materials, and long term inventory evolution which require decay constants accuracy at a level of 10-4 to 10-5. The statistical and systematic errors associated with precision measurements of decays using the counting technique are presented. Precision requires high count rates, which introduces time dependent dead time and pile-up corrections. An approach to overcome these issues is presented by continuous recording of the detector current. Other systematic corrections include, the time dependent dead time due to background radiation, control of target motion and radiation flight path variation due to environmental conditions, and the time dependent effects caused by scattered events are presented. The incorporation of blind experimental techniques can help make measurement independent of past results. A spectrometer design and data analysis is reviewed that can accomplish these goals. The author would like to thank TechSource, Inc. and Advanced Physics Technologies, LLC. for their support in this work.

  16. Interaction of parasitism and nutrition in goats: effects on haematological parameters, correlations, and other statistical associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, H D; Rocha, J L; Figueiredo, E P; Berne, M E; Vieira, L S; Cavalcante, A R; Rosa, J S

    1992-10-01

    Weaned wether goats (n = 144) approximately 6 months of age were placed in a 2 x 3 factorial experiment to test the effects and interaction of two levels of nutrition (growth+maintenance, NUT1; and twice growth+maintenance, NUT2) and three levels of Haemonchus contortus burden (0, 500, and 2000 larvae administered every 2 weeks; W0, W500, and W2000, respectively) on packed cell volume, red blood cell count, total serum protein and leukocytes. The statistical analysis revealed clear and proportionate differences among levels of infection for all variables. A significant (P effect was also found associated with all the variables except leukocytes. Nutrition by worm load interactions were found for packed cell volume and leukocytes. The neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio was higher in the NUT1-infected animals, leading to the nutrition by worm load interaction for leukocytes. An analysis for the different leukocyte types revealed significant (P effect for basophil count and immature white cells. Several significant correlations were observed between pairs of variables. Faecal egg output could be predicted from actual worm count in three of the four necropsy periods. The clear differences observed for blood parameters were not present in production traits, suggesting that physiological thresholds may play an important role in framing the metabolic activity of biological organisms. Total serum protein was the best indicator of these effects on production parameters.

  17. Modeling of density of aqueous solutions of amino acids with the statistical associating fluid theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji Peijun [College of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Feng Wei [College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)]. E-mail: fengwei@mail.buct.edu.cn; Tan Tianwei [College of Life Science and Technology, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2007-07-15

    The density of aqueous solutions of amino acids has been modeled with the statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) equation of state. The modeling is accomplished by extending the previously developed new method to determine the SAFT parameters for amino acids. The modeled systems include {alpha}-alanine/H{sub 2}O, {beta}-alanine/H{sub 2}O, proline/H{sub 2}O, L-asparagine/H{sub 2}O, L-glutamine/H{sub 2}O, L-histidine/H{sub 2}O, serine/H{sub 2}O, glycine/H{sub 2}O, alanine/H{sub 2}O/sucrose, DL-valine/H{sub 2}O/sucrose, arginine/H{sub 2}O/sucrose, serine/H{sub 2}O/ethylene glycol, and glycine/H{sub 2}O/ethylene glycol. The density of binary solutions of amino acids has been correlated or predicted with a high precision. And then the density of multicomponent aqueous solutions of amino acids has been modeled based on the modeling results of binary systems, and a high accuracy of density calculations has been obtained. Finally, the water activities of DL-valine/H{sub 2}O, glycine/H{sub 2}O, and proline/H{sub 2}O have been predicted without using binary interaction parameters, and good results have been obtained.

  18. Assessing pneumococcal meningitis association with viral respiratory infections and antibiotics: insights from statistical and mathematical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opatowski, Lulla; Varon, Emmanuelle; Dupont, Claire; Temime, Laura; van der Werf, Sylvie; Gutmann, Laurent; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Watier, Laurence; Guillemot, Didier

    2013-08-01

    Pneumococcus is an important human pathogen, highly antibiotic resistant and a major cause of bacterial meningitis worldwide. Better prevention requires understanding the drivers of pneumococcal infection incidence and antibiotic susceptibility. Although respiratory viruses (including influenza) have been suggested to influence pneumococcal infections, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown, and viruses are rarely considered when studying pneumococcus epidemiology. Here, we propose a novel mathematical model to examine hypothetical relationships between Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis incidence (SPMI), acute viral respiratory infections (AVRIs) and antibiotic exposure. French time series of SPMI, AVRI and penicillin consumption over 2001-2004 are analysed and used to assess four distinct virus-bacteria interaction submodels, ascribing the interaction on pneumococcus transmissibility and/or pathogenicity. The statistical analysis reveals strong associations between time series: SPMI increases shortly after AVRI incidence and decreases overall as the antibiotic-prescription rate rises. Model simulations require a combined impact of AVRI on both pneumococcal transmissibility (up to 1.3-fold increase at the population level) and pathogenicity (up to threefold increase) to reproduce the data accurately, along with diminished epidemic fitness of resistant pneumococcal strains causing meningitis (0.97 (0.96-0.97)). Overall, our findings suggest that AVRI and antibiotics strongly influence SPMI trends. Consequently, vaccination protecting against respiratory virus could have unexpected benefits to limit invasive pneumococcal infections.

  19. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Christina T L; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K; Andrews, Jeanette S; Arnold, Alice M; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E; Kerr, Kathleen F; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K; Musani, Solomon K; Nalls, Michael A; Raffel, Leslie J; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L; Goodarzi, Mark O; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L; Olshan, Andrew F; Press, Michael F; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F; Taylor, Herman A; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K; Harris, Tamara B; Henderson, Brian E; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G; Zonderman, Alan B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-06-15

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA.

  20. Global DNA methylation loss associated with mercury contamination and aging in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Frances M; Parrott, Benjamin B; Bowden, John A; Kassim, Brittany L; Somerville, Stephen E; Bryan, Teresa A; Bryan, Colleen E; Lange, Ted R; Delaney, J Patrick; Brunell, Arnold M; Long, Stephen E; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-03-01

    Mercury is a widespread environmental contaminant with exposures eliciting a well-documented catalog of adverse effects. Yet, knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms by which mercury exposures are translated into biological effects remains incomplete. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is sensitive to environmental cues, and alterations in DNA methylation at the global level are associated with a variety of diseases. Using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS/MS) approach, global DNA methylation levels were measured in red blood cells of 144 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from 6 sites with variable levels of mercury contamination across Florida's north-south axis. Variation in mercury concentrations measured in whole blood was highly associated with location, allowing the comparison of global DNA methylation levels across different "treatments" of mercury. Global DNA methylation in alligators across all locations was weakly associated with increased mercury exposure. However, a much more robust relationship was observed in those animals sampled from locations more highly contaminated with mercury. Also, similar to other vertebrates, global DNA methylation appears to decline with age in alligators. The relationship between age-associated loss of global DNA methylation and varying mercury exposures was examined to reveal a potential interaction. These findings demonstrate that global DNA methylation levels are associated with mercury exposure, and give insights into interactions between contaminants, aging, and epigenetics.

  1. The Association of Resilience with Mental and Physical Health among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, Marc B.; Odden, Michelle; Goins, R. Turner

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association of resilience with measures of mental and physical health in a sample of older American Indians (AIs). A validated scale measuring resilience was administered to 185 noninstitutionalized AIs aged greater than or equal to 55 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed that higher levels of resilience were associated with lower…

  2. TRANSCULTURALIZATION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEVELOPING LATIN AMERICAN CLINICAL PRACTICE ALGORITHMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY--PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2015 PAN-AMERICAN WORKSHOP BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Harrell, R Mack; Allende-Vigo, Myriam Z; Alvayero, Carlos; Arita-Melzer, Onix; Aschner, Pablo; Camacho, Pauline M; Castillo, Rogelio Zacarias; Cerdas, Sonia; Coutinho, Walmir F; Davidson, Jaime A; Garber, Jeffrey R; Garvey, W Timothy; González, Fernando Javier Lavalle; Granados, Denis O; Hamdy, Osama; Handelsman, Yehuda; Jiménez-Navarrete, Manuel Francisco; Lupo, Mark A; Mendoza, Enrique J; Jiménez-Montero, José G; Zangeneh, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) convened their first Workshop for recommendations to optimize Clinical Practice Algorithm (CPA) development for Latin America (LA) in diabetes (focusing on glycemic control), obesity (focusing on weight loss), thyroid (focusing on thyroid nodule diagnostics), and bone (focusing on postmenopausal osteoporosis) on February 28, 2015, in San Jose, Costa Rica. A standardized methodology is presented incorporating various transculturalization factors: resource availability (including imaging equipment and approved pharmaceuticals), health care professional and patient preferences, lifestyle variables, socio-economic parameters, web-based global accessibility, electronic implementation, and need for validation protocols. A standardized CPA template with node-specific recommendations to assist the local transculturalization process is provided. Participants unanimously agreed on the following five overarching principles for LA: (1) there is only one level of optimal endocrine care, (2) hemoglobin A1C should be utilized at every level of diabetes care, (3) nutrition education and increased pharmaceutical options are necessary to optimize the obesity care model, (4) quality neck ultrasound must be part of an optimal thyroid nodule care model, and (5) more scientific evidence is needed on osteoporosis prevalence and cost to justify intervention by governmental health care authorities. This 2015 AACE/ACE Workshop marks the beginning of a structured activity that assists local experts in creating culturally sensitive, evidence-based, and easy-to-implement tools for optimizing endocrine care on a global scale.

  3. Socioeconomic and nutritional factors account for the association of gastric cancer with Amerindian ancestry in a Latin American admixed population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latife Pereira

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans, we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls and a very low African ancestry (<5%. We determined that higher Native American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group.

  4. Careers in Medical Physics and the American Association of Physicists in Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amols, Howard

    2006-03-01

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), a member society of the AIP is the largest professional society of medical physicists in the world with nearly 5700 members. Members operate in medical centers, university and community hospitals, research laboratories, industry, and private practice. Medical physics specialties include radiation therapy physics, medical diagnostic and imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, and medical radiation safety. The majority of AAPM members is based in hospital departments of radiation oncology or radiology and provide technical support for patient diagnosis and treatment in a clinical environment. Job functions include support of clinical care, calibration and quality assurance of medical devices such as linear accelerators for cancer therapy, CT, PET, MRI, and other diagnostic imaging devices, research, and teaching. Pathways into a career in medical physics require an advanced degree in medical physics, physics, engineering, or closely related field, plus clinical training in one or more medical physics specialties (radiation therapy physics, imaging physics, or radiation safety). Most clinically based medical physicists also obtain certification from the American Board of Radiology, and some states require licensure as well.

  5. New cholesterol guidelines for the management of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk: a comparison of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association cholesterol guidelines with the 2014 National Lipid Association recommendations for patient-centered management of dyslipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhyaru, Bhavin B; Jacobson, Terry A

    2015-05-01

    This review discusses the 2013 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) Guideline on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Risk in Adults and compares it with the 2014 National Lipid Association (NLA) Recommendations for Patient-Centered Management of Dyslipidemia. The review discusses some of the distinctions between the guidelines, including how to determine a patient's atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk, the role of lipoprotein treatment targets, the importance of moderate- and high-intensity statin therapy, and the use of nonstatin therapy in light of the IMProved Reduction of Outcomes: Vytorin Efficacy International Trial (IMPROVE-IT) trial.

  6. Association Study of Candidate Gene Polymorphisms and Obesity in a Young Mexican-American Population from South Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran-Gonzalez, Jorge; Ortiz, Ixiu; Gonzales, Enrique; Ruiz, Nicole; Ortiz, Manti; Gonzalez, Arthur; Sanchez, Edna K.; Curet, Eugenia; Fisher-Hoch, Susan; Rentfro, Anne; Qu, Huiqi; Nair, Saraswathy

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Obesity is increasingly a health problem and a risk factor for diabetes in young Mexican-American populations. Genetic association studies in older, mostly non-Hispanic populations have reported that polymorphisms in the candidate genes HSD11B1, CRP, ADIPOQ, PPARG, ANKK1, ABCC8 and SERPINF1 are associated with obesity or diabetes. We analyzed the polymorphisms rs846910, rs1205, rs1501299, rs1801282, rs1800497, rs757110 and rs1136287in these candidate genes, for association with obesity and metabolic traits in a young Mexican-American population from south Texas. Methods Genotyping of the seven common SNPs were performed by allelic discrimination assays in 448 unrelated Mexican Americans (median age = 16 years) from south Texas. χ2 tests and regression analyses using additive models were used for genetic association analyses adjusting for covariates; p values were corrected for multiple testing by permutation analyses. Results rs1800497 (ANKK1) shows association with waist circumference (p = 0.009) and retains the association (p = 0.03) after permutation testing. Analysis of metabolic quantitative traits shows that rs846910 (HSD11B1) was associated with HOMA-IR (p = 0.04) and triglycerides (p = 0.03), and rs1205 (CRP) with HOMA-IR (p = 0.03) and fasting glucose levels (p = 0.007). However, the quantitative traits associations are not maintained after permutation analysis. None of the other SNPs in this study showed associations with obesity or metabolic traits in this young Mexican-American population. Conclusions We report a potential association between rs1800497 (linked to changes in brain dopamine receptor levels) and central obesity in a young Mexican-American population. PMID:22056417

  7. Association between HLA-C*04 and American cutaneous leishmaniasis in endemic region of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribas-Silva, R C; Ribas, A D; Ferreira, E C; Silveira, T G V; Borelli, S D

    2015-11-23

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infectious disease with global repercussions. American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is endemic in southern Brazil and its pathogenesis varies according to parasite species, immune response, and host genetics. In terms of immunogenetics, many host genes, including HLA (human leukocyte antigen), could be involved in susceptibility to and protection against ACL. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to investigate the association between HLA class I genes (HLA-A, -B, and -C) and ACL in an endemic region of southern Brazil. The allele frequencies of 186 patients diagnosed with ACL and 278 healthy individuals were compared. HLA class I (HLA-A, -B, and -C) typing was carried out by PCR-SSO using Luminex technology. The results revealed an association between the HLA-C*04 allele and the patient study group, in which it appeared more frequently than in the control group [21.5 vs 13.49% (P = 0.0016 and Pc = 0.0258; OR = 1.7560; 95%CI = 1.2227-2.5240)], thereby suggesting an increased susceptibility to ACL. Additional allelic groups such as HLA-A*02, HLA-B*35, HLA-B*45, HLA-C*01, and HLA-C*15 were also implicated; however, further investigation is necessary to confirm their association with ACL. Therefore, the results obtained in this study demonstrate the involvement of HLA class I genes in the susceptibility or resistance to ACL, with significant association between HLA-C*04 and ACL susceptibility.

  8. Statistics in the 21st century

    CERN Document Server

    Wells, Martin T; Wells, Martin T

    2001-01-01

    Exactly what is the state of the art in statistics as we move forward into the 21st century? What promises, what trends does its future hold? Through the reflections of 70 of the world's leading statistical methodologists, researchers, theorists, and practitioners, Statistics in the 21st Century answers those questions. Originally published in the Journal of the American Statistical Association, this collection of vignettes examines our statistical past, comments on our present, and speculates on our future. Although the coverage is broad and the topics diverse, it reveals the essential intell

  9. American Dietetic Association's Standardized Nutrition Language: Project logic model and current status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Melinda; Myers, Esther; Charney, Pam; Escott-Stump, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Standardized terminology and digital sources of evidence are essential for evidence-based practice. Dieticians desire concise and consistent documentation of nutrition diagnoses, interventions and outcomes that will be fit for electronic health records. Building on more than 5 years of work to generate the Nutrition Care Process and Model as a road map to quality nutrition care and outcomes, and recognizing existing standardized languages serving other health professions, a task force of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) has begun to develop and disseminate standardized nutrition language. This paper will describe the group's working logic model, the Nutrition Care Process, and the current status of the nutrition language with comparisons to nursing process and terminology.

  10. Handle with Care: the American Nurses Association's campaign to address work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A B

    2006-01-01

    In response to the significant number and severity of work-related back injuries and other musculoskeletal disorders among nurses, the American Nurses Association (ANA) has launched the Handle With Care(R) campaign. The campaign seeks to build a health care industry-wide effort to prevent back and other musculoskeletal injuries. This is being done through developing partnerships and coalitions, education and training, increasing use of assistive equipment and patient-handling devices, reshaping nursing education to incorporate safe patient handling, and pursuing federal and state ergonomics policy by highlighting technology-oriented safe-patient handling benefits for patients and nurses. In the absence of ergonomics regulations at national or state levels that protect health care workers, ANA has taken on alternative approaches to encourage a movement to control ergonomic hazards in the health care workplace and prevent back injuries among the nation's nursing workforce.

  11. Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC): 50 Years of History and Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccabe, Andrew T; Crawford, Lester; Heider, Lawrence E; Hooper, Billy; Mann, Curt J; Pappaioanou, Marguerite

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) is to advance the quality of academic veterinary medicine. Founded in 1966 by the 18 US colleges of veterinary medicine and 3 Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine then in existence, the AAVMC is celebrating 50 years of public service. Initially, the AAVMC comprised the Council of Deans, the Council of Educators, and the Council of Chairs. In 1984, the tri-cameral structure was abandoned and a new governing structure with a board of directors was created. In 1997, the AAVMC was incorporated in Washington, DC and a common application service was created. Matters such as workforce issues and the cost of veterinary medical education have persisted for decades. The AAVMC is a champion of diversity in the veterinary profession and a strong advocate for One Health. The AAVMC has adopted a global perspective as more international colleges of veterinary medicine have earned COE accreditation and become members.

  12. Introducing DVM: DiVersity Matters (an Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges Initiative).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Lisa M

    2007-01-01

    Now more than ever, colleges of veterinary medicine (CVMs) are challenged to improve the educational experience, build environments that support long-term student and faculty success, and create a diverse and competitive workforce. Additionally, the nation's fast-evolving racial and ethnic demographics demand that the veterinary medical profession be responsive to the emerging needs of this changing population. In March 2005, during the 15th Iverson Bell Symposium, the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) unveiled its DiVersity Matters (DVM) initiative, designed to bring the CVMs closer to achieving these goals. Several key objectives of the initiative and their possible long-term significance to success of the DiVersity Matters initiative are explored here, and CVMs are encouraged to expand efforts to increase racial and ethnic diversity in academic veterinary medicine.

  13. American Burn Association consensus conference to define sepsis and infection in burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhalgh, David G; Saffle, Jeffrey R; Holmes, James H; Gamelli, Richard L; Palmieri, Tina L; Horton, Jureta W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Traber, Daniel L; Mozingo, David W; Deitch, Edwin A; Goodwin, Cleon W; Herndon, David N; Gallagher, James J; Sanford, Art P; Jeng, James C; Ahrenholz, David H; Neely, Alice N; O'Mara, Michael S; Wolf, Steven E; Purdue, Gary F; Garner, Warren L; Yowler, Charles J; Latenser, Barbara A

    2007-01-01

    Because of their extensive wounds, burn patients are chronically exposed to inflammatory mediators. Thus, burn patients, by definition, already have "systemic inflammatory response syndrome." Current definitions for sepsis and infection have many criteria (fever, tachycardia, tachypnea, leukocytosis) that are routinely found in patients with extensive burns, making these current definitions less applicable to the burn population. Experts in burn care and research, all members of the American Burn Association, were asked to review the literature and prepare a potential definition on one topic related to sepsis or infection in burn patients. On January 20, 2007, the participants met in Tucson, Arizona to develop consensus for these definitions. After review of the definitions, a summary of the proceedings was prepared. The goal of the consensus conference was to develop and publish standardized definitions for sepsis and infection-related diagnoses in the burn population. Standardized definitions will improve the capability of performing more meaningful multicenter trials among burn centers.

  14. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2013, Dallas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimori, Naoki; Kinugawa, Shintaro; Yamada, Satoshi; Yokoshiki, Hisashi; Mitsuyama, Hirofumi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions were held in Dallas on November 16-20, 2013. The meeting is one of the most leading conferences of cardiology in the world, with over 18,000 professional attendees from more than 105 countries. There were 315 invited sessions and 443 abstract sessions, comprising more than 5,000 presentations. The sessions were expanded to 26 program tracks, which included and integrated basic, translational, clinical, and population science. In the series of late-breaking sessions, updates of results from 20 clinical trials were disclosed. Japanese scientists submitted the second most abstracts to the Scientific Sessions in 2013. We appreciate the significant contribution to the sessions by Japanese cardiologists as well as the Japanese Circulation Society.

  15. The Revised 2016 Korean Thyroid Association Guidelines for Thyroid Nodules and Cancers: Differences from the 2015 American Thyroid Association Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Increased detection of thyroid nodules using high-resolution ultrasonography has resulted in a world-wide increase in the incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Despite the steep increase in its incidence, the age-standardized mortality rate of thyroid cancer has remained stable, which leads toward a trend of more conservative treatment. The latest American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines for thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer revised in 2015 suggested that fine needle aspiration biopsy should be performed for thyroid nodules larger than 1 cm and lobectomy might be sufficient for 1 to 4 cm intrathyroidal DTC. In addition, active surveillance instead of immediate surgical treatment was also recommended as a treatment option for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma based on the results of a few observational studies from Japan. The Korean Thyroid Association (KTA) has organized a task force team to develop revised guidelines for thyroid nodules and DTC after an extensive review of articles and intense discussion on whether we should accept the changes in the 2015 ATA guidelines. This paper introduces and discusses the updated major issues and differences in the ATA and the KTA guidelines. PMID:27704738

  16. Juan Comas's summary history of the American association of physical anthropologists (1928-1968).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Marta P; Little, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    This translation of Juan Comas's Summary History of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists was originally published in Spanish by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico, in 1969 (Departamento de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Publication 22). Physical anthropologists from North America and members of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists owe Juan Comas a debt of gratitude for having labored to produce this Summary History of the AAPA. There is much useful and interesting material in this document: extensive endnotes that are helpful to the historian of the profession; an appendix of the Journal issues where the proceedings of annual meetings can be found; a detailed listing of contributors of papers to annual meetings from 1930-1968; a warm acknowledgment and history of the contributions of the Wenner-Gren Foundation to biological anthropology; a history of the Yearbook of Physical Anthropology; and comments on the short-lived PA Newsletter. In addition, there are appendices with the founding AAPA Constitution and By-Laws from 1930 and as they existed in 1968. All of this synoptic information saves the reader with interests in the history of the AAPA considerable effort, especially when few university and college libraries have the full (old and new) series of the AJPA on their shelves. We have tried to provide a translation of Comas's history that is faithful to the original Spanish-language publication. In a few cases, we shortened sentences and applied a slightly more modern usage than was popular in the late 1960s.

  17. Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Children: Focus on the American Thyroid Association Pediatric Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Marguerite T; Eslamy, Hedieh; Mankoff, David

    2016-03-01

    First introduced in 1946, radioactive iodine (I-131) produces short-range beta radiation with a half-life of 8 days. The physical properties of I-131 combined with the high degree of uptake in the differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) led to the use of I-131 as a therapeutic agent for DTC in adults. There are two indications for the potential use of I-131 therapy in pediatric thyroid disorders: nonsurgical treatment of hyperthyroidism owing to Graves' disease and the treatment of children with intermediate- and high-risk DTC. However, children are not just miniature adults. Not only are children and the pediatric thyroid gland more sensitive to radiation than adults but also the biologic behavior of DTC differs between children and adults as well. As opposed to adults, children with DTC typically present with advanced disease at diagnosis; yet, they respond rapidly to therapy and have an excellent prognosis that is significantly better than that in adult counterparts with advanced disease. Unfortunately, there are also higher rates of local and distant disease recurrence in children with DTC compared with adults, mandating lifelong surveillance. Further, children have a longer life expectancy during which the adverse effects of I-131 therapy may become manifest. Recognizing the differences between adults and children with DTC, the American Thyroid Association commissioned a task force of experts who developed and recently published a guideline to address the unique issues related to the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in children. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatment, therapy-related effects, and suggestions for surveillance in children with DTC, focusing not only on the differences between adults and children with this disease but also on the latest recommendations from the inaugural pediatric management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association.

  18. A hexane fraction of American ginseng suppresses mouse colitis and associated colon cancer: anti-inflammatory and proapoptotic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poudyal, Deepak; Le, Phuong Mai; Davis, Tia; Hofseth, Anne B; Chumanevich, Alena; Chumanevich, Alexander A; Wargovich, Michael J; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Windust, Anthony; Hofseth, Lorne J

    2012-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition associated with a high colon cancer risk. We have previously reported that American ginseng extract significantly reduced the inflammatory parameters of chemically induced colitis. The aim of this study was to further delineate the components of American ginseng that suppress colitis and prevent colon cancer. Among five different fractions of American ginseng (butanol, hexane, ethylacetate, dichloromethane, and water), a hexane fraction has particularly potent antioxidant and proapoptotic properties. The effects of this fraction were shown in a mouse macrophage cell line (ANA-1 cells), in a human lymphoblastoid cell line (TK6), and in an ex vivo model (CD4(+)/CD25(-) primary effector T cells). A key in vivo finding was that compared with the whole American ginseng extract, the hexane fraction of American ginseng was more potent in treating colitis in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) mouse model, as well as suppressing azoxymethane/DSS-induced colon cancer. Furthermore, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) labeling of inflammatory cells within the colonic mesenteric lymph nodes was elevated in mice consuming DSS + the hexane fraction of American ginseng. Results are consistent with our in vitro data and with the hypothesis that the hexane fraction of American ginseng has anti-inflammatory properties and drives inflammatory cell apoptosis in vivo, providing a mechanism by which this fraction protects from colitis in this DSS mouse model. This study moves us closer to understanding the molecular components of American ginseng that suppress colitis and prevent colon cancer associated with colitis.

  19. The toll of the gridiron: damage-associated molecular patterns and hypertension in American football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Cameron G; Webb, R Clinton

    2016-01-01

    American football has unequivocally been linked to elevations in blood pressure and hypertension, especially in linemen. However, the mechanisms of this increase cannot be attributed solely to increased body weight and associated cardiometabolic risk factors (e.g.,dyslipidemia or hyperglycemia). Therefore, understanding the etiology of football-associated hypertension is essential for improving the quality of life in this mostly young population, as well as for lowering the potential for chronic disease in the future. We propose that inflammatogenic damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) released into the circulation from football-induced musculoskeletal trauma activate pattern-recognition receptors of the innate immune system-specifically, high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) and mitochondrial (mt)DNA which activate Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and -9, respectively. Previously, we observed that circulating levels of these 2 DAMPs are increased in hypertension, and activation of TLR4 and -9 causes endothelial dysfunction and hypertension. Therefore, our novel hypothesis is that musculoskeletal injury from repeated hits in football players, particularly in linemen, leads to elevated circulating HMGB1 and mtDNA to activate TLRs on endothelial cells leading to impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased vascular tone, and hypertension.

  20. Association of Long Runs of Homozygosity With Alzheimer Disease Among African American Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Mahdi; Reitz, Christiane; Cheng, Rong; Vardarajan, Badri Narayan; Jun, Gyungah; Sato, Christine; Naj, Adam; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Wang, Li-San; Valladares, Otto; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Larson, Eric B.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Evans, Denis; De Jager, Philip L.; Crane, Paul K.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Murrell, Jill R.; Raj, Towfique; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Logue, Mark; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Green, Robert C.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Cantwell, Laura B.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Go, Rodney C. P.; Griffith, Patrick A.; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Lopez, Oscar L.; Bennett, David A.; Hendrie, Hugh; Hall, Kathleen S.; Goate, Alison M.; Byrd, Goldie S.; Kukull, Walter A.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Lee, Joseph H.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Mayeux, Richard; Rogaeva, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Mutations in known causal Alzheimer disease (AD) genes account for only 1% to 3% of patients and almost all are dominantly inherited. Recessive inheritance of complex phenotypes can be linked to long (>1-megabase [Mb]) runs of homozygosity (ROHs) detectable by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between ROHs and AD in an African American population known to have a risk for AD up to 3 times higher than white individuals. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Case-control study of a large African American data set previously genotyped on different genome-wide SNP arrays conducted from December 2013 to January 2015. Global and locus-based ROH measurements were analyzed using raw or imputed genotype data. We studied the raw genotypes from 2 case-control subsets grouped based on SNP array: Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium data set (871 cases and 1620 control individuals) and Chicago Health and Aging Project–Indianapolis Ibadan Dementia Study data set (279 cases and 1367 control individuals). We then examined the entire data set using imputed genotypes from 1917 cases and 3858 control individuals. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The ROHs larger than 1 Mb, 2 Mb, or 3 Mb were investigated separately for global burden evaluation, consensus regions, and gene-based analyses. RESULTS The African American cohort had a low degree of inbreeding (F ~ 0.006). In the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium data set, we detected a significantly higher proportion of cases with ROHs greater than 2 Mb (P = .004) or greater than 3 Mb (P = .02), as well as a significant 114-kilobase consensus region on chr4q31.3 (empirical P value 2 = .04; ROHs >2 Mb). In the Chicago Health and Aging Project–Indianapolis Ibadan Dementia Study data set, we identified a significant 202-kilobase consensus region on Chr15q24.1 (empirical P value 2 = .02; ROHs >1 Mb) and a cluster of 13 significant genes on Chr3p21.31 (empirical P value 2 = .03

  1. A PLSPM-based test statistic for detecting gene-gene co-association in genome-wide association study with case-control design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoshuai; Yang, Xiaowei; Yuan, Zhongshang; Liu, Yanxun; Li, Fangyu; Peng, Bin; Zhu, Dianwen; Zhao, Jinghua; Xue, Fuzhong

    2013-01-01

    For genome-wide association data analysis, two genes in any pathway, two SNPs in the two linked gene regions respectively or in the two linked exons respectively within one gene are often correlated with each other. We therefore proposed the concept of gene-gene co-association, which refers to the effects not only due to the traditional interaction under nearly independent condition but the correlation between two genes. Furthermore, we constructed a novel statistic for detecting gene-gene co-association based on Partial Least Squares Path Modeling (PLSPM). Through simulation, the relationship between traditional interaction and co-association was highlighted under three different types of co-association. Both simulation and real data analysis demonstrated that the proposed PLSPM-based statistic has better performance than single SNP-based logistic model, PCA-based logistic model, and other gene-based methods.

  2. Increased risk of cancer mortality associated with cadmium exposures in older Americans with low zinc intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Caffrey, James L; Lin, Jou-Wei; Bayliss, David; Faramawi, Mohammed F; Bateson, Thomas F; Sonawane, Babasaheb

    2013-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) exposure has been associated with increased cancer risk, and zinc (Zn) appears to reduce that risk. However, little is known about the combined influence of Cd and Zn on cancer risk. The aim of this study was to examine relationships between Cd exposure, Zn intake, and cancer mortality risks. The analyses used 5204 subjects aged 50 yr or older from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III, 1988-1994) and the mortality follow-up through December 31, 2006. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test associations. In total, 569 cancer deaths were recorded during an average follow-up of 12.4 yr, including 155 from lung, 61 from prostate, and 26 from breast cancer. A positive association between Cd and cancer mortality risk was identified for both genders. Despite limited cause-specific deaths, the increased risk associated with Cd was significant for lung cancer in men. All-cause cancer mortality risk was significantly elevated among women with Zn intakes below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) compared with women who met the RDA. The effect of low dietary Zn was not observed in men. Similar trends for prostate and breast cancer deaths were not significant. There was a significant inverse association between cancer deaths and the Zn-to-Cd ratio for both genders. Cd exposure is an important independent risk factor of cancer mortality in older Americans and the risk appears exaggerated in those with inadequate dietary Zn. Additional studies are required to elucidate the mechanism(s) by which Zn participates in the carcinogenic influence of Cd.

  3. The Application of Strength of Association Statistics to the Item Analysis of an In-Training Examination in Diagnostic Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, James J.; McCormick, Janet

    1986-01-01

    Using item responses from an in-training examination in diagnostic radiology, the application of a strength of association statistic to the general problem of item analysis is illustrated. Criteria for item selection, general issues of reliability, and error of measurement are discussed. (Author/LMO)

  4. New Variant of the Universal Constants in the Perturbed Chain-Statistical Associating Fluid Theory Equation of State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Xiaodong; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    The Perturbed Chain-Statistical Associating Fluid Theory Equation of State (PC-SAFT EOS) has been successfully applied to model phase behavior of various types of systems, while it is also well-known that the PC-SAFT EOS has difficulties in describing some second-order derivative properties. In t...

  5. Alcohol consumption associated with collegiate American football pre-game festivities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Lisa J; Ahmedani, Brian K; Barondess, David A; Bohnert, Kipling M; Gold, Mark S

    2011-07-01

    Internationally, sporting events represent a specific context in which heavy episodic drinking is common. The current study assessed determinants of heavy episodic drinking among tailgaters (i.e., individuals engaging in pre-game social festivities) prior to American football games at two large universities. A total of 466 individuals at two universities completed a short interview and provided a breathalyzer sample to estimate breath alcohol content (BrAC) during the tailgating window (150min prior to and 10min after the start of the game). The plurality of participants, 48.5% at the southeastern university (School1) and 58.8% at the midwestern university (School2), engaged in heavy episodic drinking. Only 54 individuals (11.6%) from the combined sample at both universities abstained from alcohol (confirmed via BrAC). In total, 40.2% of participants at School1 and 31.9% at School2 produced breath samples over the legal limit for driving (i.e., BrAC=0.08 or higher). In site-specific regression analyses, younger ages, males, and non-students at School1, and younger ages and non-game attendance at School2 were associated with self-reported heavy episodic drinking and higher levels of estimated BrAC (pstudents and non-students in this sample, public health interventions should be implemented both on- and off-campus to promote safety and to discourage heavy episodic drinking at American football games and other high-profile sporting events.

  6. Health insurance and household income associated with mammography utilization among American women, 2000-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Da-hai; ZHANG Zhi-ruo; RAO Ke-qin

    2011-01-01

    Background National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) has provided free or low-costmammograms to low-income or no health insurance women in all of the states of the United States (US) since 1997.The objective of this study was to understand whether health insurance and annual household income impacted the mammography utilization since the implementation of NBCCEDP,in order to evaluate how the implementation of NBCCEDP impacted mammography utilization among American women.Methods Data were from the database of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) of the CDC in US.Mammography utilization was measured by whether the American woman aged 40 to 64 years had the mammography within the last two years.The chi square test and multivariate Logistic regression were used to evaluate the associations between mammography utilization and health insurance,annual household income,and other factors for any given year.Results From 2000 to 2008,the rate of mammography utilization among participants had a steady decrease on the whole from 86.7% to 83.8%.The results showed that the mammography utilization correlated significantly with health insurance and annual household income for any given year.The results also showed that compared with participants who were uninsured,those who were insured had a greater times higher rate of mammography in 2008 than any other year from 2000 to 2008,and compared with participants whose annual household income was below $15 000,those whose annual household income was above $50 000 had a greater times higher rate of mammography in 2008 than in 2004 and 2006.Conclusions Health insurance and annual household income impacted the mammography utilization for any given year from 2000 to 2008,and the implementation of NBCCEDP has not achieved its original goal on breast cancer screening.

  7. Meta-analysis of gene-level associations for rare variants based on single-variant statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi-Juan; Berndt, Sonja I; Gustafsson, Stefan; Ganna, Andrea; Hirschhorn, Joel; North, Kari E; Ingelsson, Erik; Lin, Dan-Yu

    2013-08-08

    Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) has led to the discoveries of many common variants associated with complex human diseases. There is a growing recognition that identifying "causal" rare variants also requires large-scale meta-analysis. The fact that association tests with rare variants are performed at the gene level rather than at the variant level poses unprecedented challenges in the meta-analysis. First, different studies may adopt different gene-level tests, so the results are not compatible. Second, gene-level tests require multivariate statistics (i.e., components of the test statistic and their covariance matrix), which are difficult to obtain. To overcome these challenges, we propose to perform gene-level tests for rare variants by combining the results of single-variant analysis (i.e., p values of association tests and effect estimates) from participating studies. This simple strategy is possible because of an insight that multivariate statistics can be recovered from single-variant statistics, together with the correlation matrix of the single-variant test statistics, which can be estimated from one of the participating studies or from a publicly available database. We show both theoretically and numerically that the proposed meta-analysis approach provides accurate control of the type I error and is as powerful as joint analysis of individual participant data. This approach accommodates any disease phenotype and any study design and produces all commonly used gene-level tests. An application to the GWAS summary results of the Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT) consortium reveals rare and low-frequency variants associated with human height. The relevant software is freely available.

  8. Significant Association of Urinary Toxic Metals and Autism-Related Symptoms—A Nonlinear Statistical Analysis with Cross Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, James; Kruger, Uwe; Geis, Elizabeth; Gehn, Eva; Fimbres, Valeria; Pollard, Elena; Mitchell, Jessica; Ingram, Julie; Hellmers, Robert; Quig, David; Hahn, Juergen

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A number of previous studies examined a possible association of toxic metals and autism, and over half of those studies suggest that toxic metal levels are different in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). Additionally, several studies found that those levels correlate with the severity of ASD. Methods In order to further investigate these points, this paper performs the most detailed statistical analysis to date of a data set in this field. First morning urine samples were collected from 67 children and adults with ASD and 50 neurotypical controls of similar age and gender. The samples were analyzed to determine the levels of 10 urinary toxic metals (UTM). Autism-related symptoms were assessed with eleven behavioral measures. Statistical analysis was used to distinguish participants on the ASD spectrum and neurotypical participants based upon the UTM data alone. The analysis also included examining the association of autism severity with toxic metal excretion data using linear and nonlinear analysis. “Leave-one-out” cross-validation was used to ensure statistical independence of results. Results and Discussion Average excretion levels of several toxic metals (lead, tin, thallium, antimony) were significantly higher in the ASD group. However, ASD classification using univariate statistics proved difficult due to large variability, but nonlinear multivariate statistical analysis significantly improved ASD classification with Type I/II errors of 15% and 18%, respectively. These results clearly indicate that the urinary toxic metal excretion profiles of participants in the ASD group were significantly different from those of the neurotypical participants. Similarly, nonlinear methods determined a significantly stronger association between the behavioral measures and toxic metal excretion. The association was strongest for the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (including subscales on Irritability, Stereotypy, Hyperactivity, and Inappropriate

  9. Association of primary open-angle glaucoma with mitochondrial variants and haplogroups common in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiseva, Harini V.; Trachtman, Benjamin; Bowman, Anita S.; Sagaser, Anna; Sankar, Prithvi; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Lehman, Amanda; Addis, Victoria; O'Brien, Joan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the population frequencies of all common mitochondrial variants and ancestral haplogroups among 1,999 subjects recruited for the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) Study, including 1,217 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases and 782 controls, and to identify ancestral subpopulations and mitochondrial mutations as potential risk factors for POAG susceptibility. Methods Subject classification by characteristic glaucomatous optic nerve findings and corresponding visual field defects, as defined by enrolling glaucoma specialists, stereo disc photography, phlebotomy, extraction of total DNA from peripheral blood or saliva, DNA quantification and normalization, PCR amplification of whole mitochondrial genomes, Ion Torrent deep semiconductor DNA sequencing on DNA pools (“Pool-seq”), Sanger sequencing of 3,479 individual mitochondrial DNAs, and bioinformatic analysis. Results The distribution of common African haplogroups within the POAAGG study population was broadly similar to prior surveys of African Americans. However, the POAG case population was found to be enriched in L1c2 haplogroups, which are defined in part by missense mutations m.6150G>A (Val83Ile, odds ratio [OR] 1.8, p=0.01), m.6253C>T (Met117Thr, rs200165736, OR 1.6, p=0.04), and m.6480G>A (Val193Ile, rs199476128, OR 4.6, p=0.04) in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene and by a variant, m.2220A>G (OR 2.0, p=0.01), in MT-RNR2, which encodes the mitochondrial ribosomal 16s RNA gene. L2 haplogroups were predicted to be overrepresented in the POAG case population by Pool-seq, and the difference was confirmed to be significant with Sanger sequencing, that targeted the L2-associated variants m.2416T>C (rs28358580, OR 1.2, p=0.02) and m.2332C>T (OR 1.2, p=.02) in MT-RNR2. Another variant within MT-RNR2, m.3010G>A (rs3928306), previously implicated in sensitivity to the optic neuropathy-associated antibiotic linezolid, and arising on D4 and J1

  10. The association of individual and neighborhood social cohesion, stressors, and crime on smoking status among African-American women in southeastern US subsidized housing neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jeannette O; Mueller, Martina; Newman, Susan D; Magwood, Gayenell; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; White, Kellee; Tingen, Martha S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between individual and neighborhood social contextual factors and smoking prevalence among African-American women in subsidized neighborhoods. We randomly sampled 663 adult women in 17 subsidized neighborhoods in two Southeastern US states. The smoking prevalence among participants was 37.6%, with an estimated neighborhood household prevalence ranging from 30 to 68%. Smokers were more likely to be older, have lower incomes, have lower BMI, and live with other smokers. Women with high social cohesion were less likely to smoke, although living in neighborhoods with higher social cohesion was not associated with smoking prevalence. Women with higher social cohesion were more likely to be older and had lived in the neighborhood longer. Women with high stress (related to violence and disorder) and who lived in neighborhoods with higher stress were more likely to smoke. Younger women were more likely to have higher stress than older women. There were no statistically significant associations with objective neighborhood crime data in any model. This is the first study to examine both individual and neighborhood social contextual correlates among African-American women in subsidized neighborhoods. This study extends findings about smoking behaviors and neighborhood social contexts in this high-risk, urban population. Future research is needed to explore age and residential stability differences and perceptions of social cohesion, neighborhood disorder, and perceived violence in subsidized housing. Further research is also warranted on African-American women, subsidized housing, smoking, social context, health disparities' effective strategies to address these individual and contextual factors to better inform future ecological-based multilevel prevention, and cessation intervention strategies.

  11. Mechanistic insight into the ability of American ginseng to suppress colon cancer associated with colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xiangli; Jin, Yu; Poudyal, Deepak; Chumanevich, Alexander A; Davis, Tia; Windust, Anthony; Hofseth, Anne; Wu, Wensong; Habiger, Joshua; Pena, Edsel; Wood, Patricia; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S; Hofseth, Lorne

    2010-10-01

    We have recently shown that American ginseng (AG) prevents and treats mouse colitis. Because both mice and humans with chronic colitis have a high colon cancer risk, we tested the hypothesis that AG can be used to prevent colitis-driven colon cancer. Using the azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of ulcerative colitis, we show that AG can suppress colon cancer associated with colitis. To explore the molecular mechanisms of the anticancer effects of AG, we also carried out antibody array experiments on colon cells isolated at a precancerous stage. We found there were 82 protein end points that were either significantly higher (41 proteins) or significantly lower (41 proteins) in the AOM + DSS group compared with the AOM-alone (control) group. In contrast, there were only 19 protein end points that were either significantly higher (10 proteins) or significantly lower (9 proteins) in the AOM + DSS + AG group compared with the AOM-alone (control) group. Overall, these results suggest that AG keeps the colon environment in metabolic equilibrium when mice are treated with AOM + DSS and gives insight into the mechanisms by which AG protects from colon cancer associated with colitis.

  12. When in Rome: factors associated with changes in drinking behavior among American college students studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2010-09-01

    Study abroad programs have the potential to promote cultural, experiential, and personal development for escalating numbers of American college students each year. Despite reports that study abroad students may be at particular risk for increased and problematic alcohol use, there is limited empirical documentation of this risk. Thus, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the factors associated with changes in alcohol use among college students studying in foreign countries. A sample of 177 students completed measures of demographics, drinking behavior, and perceived peer drinking behavior 1 month before departure and 1-month postreturn from study abroad trips. Analyses revealed that participants more than doubled their drinking during study abroad trips and those who drank at heavier levels while abroad returned home drinking at significantly elevated levels. This pattern of increased use while abroad was moderated by several factors, with participants studying abroad in Europe (e.g., Italy, France) and Oceania (e.g., Australia, New Zealand), those under the age of 21, those with higher intentions of drinking while abroad, and those with higher drinking perceptions of other study abroad students in their host country increased their alcohol consumption to a greater extent than other participants. Results suggest drinking while abroad is a concern warranting further investigation, especially regarding how changes in drinking may contribute to the experience of alcohol-related consequences abroad. Continued identification of the risk factors associated with increased drinking can help inform targeted predeparture preventive interventions with these students.

  13. Bacterial communities associated with healthy and Acropora white syndrome-affected corals from American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bryan; Aeby, Greta S.; Work, Thierry M.; Bourne, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Acropora white syndrome (AWS) is characterized by rapid tissue loss revealing the white underlying skeleton and affects corals worldwide; however, reports of causal agents are conflicting. Samples were collected from healthy and diseased corals and seawater around American Samoa and bacteria associated with AWS characterized using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, from coral mucus and tissue slurries, respectively. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from coral tissue were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, and Jaccard's distances calculated between the clone libraries showed that those from diseased corals were more similar to each other than to those from healthy corals. 16S rRNA genes from 78 culturable coral mucus isolates also revealed a distinct partitioning of bacterial genera into healthy and diseased corals. Isolates identified as Vibrionaceae were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing, revealing that whilst several Vibrio spp. were found to be associated with AWS lesions, a recently described species, Vibrio owensii, was prevalent amongst cultured Vibrio isolates. Unaffected tissues from corals with AWS had a different microbiota than normal Acropora as found by others. Determining whether a microbial shift occurs prior to disease outbreaks will be a useful avenue of pursuit and could be helpful in detecting prodromal signs of coral disease prior to manifestation of lesions.

  14. Darkness’s descent on the American Anthropological Association. A cautionary tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreger, Alice

    2011-09-01

    In September 2000, the self-styled “anthropological journalist” Patrick Tierney began to make public his work claiming that the Yanomamö people of South America had been actively—indeed brutally—harmed by the sociobiological anthropologist Napoleon Chagnon and the geneticist-physician James Neel. Following a florid summary of Tierney’s claims by the anthropologists Terence Turner and Leslie Sponsel, the American Anthropological Association (AAA) saw fit to take Tierney’s claims seriously by conducting a major investigation into the matter. This paper focuses on the AAA’s problematic actions in this case but also provides previously unpublished information on Tierney’s falsehoods. The work presented is based on a year of research by a historian of medicine and science. The author intends the work to function as a cautionary tale to scholarly associations, which have the challenging duty of protecting scholarship and scholars from baseless and sensationalistic charges in the era of the Internet and twenty-four-hour news cycles.

  15. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2012, Los Angeles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Jun

    2013-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions were held for the first time in Los Angeles in 2012, with the most up-to-date basic and clinical science in the field presented and heard by physicians, research scientists, students, and paramedical personnel from 100 countries. Japan accounted for the second highest number of submitted abstracts and the Japanese Circulation Society actively contributed to the success of the AHA Scientific Sessions this year. The Late-Breaking Clinical Trial sessions comprised 27 clinical studies presented in the main hall. The FREEDOM study revealed the superiority of using a coronary artery bypass graft for diabetic multivessel coronary artery diseases over percutaneous coronary intervention using a drug-eluting stent. A new peptide hormone, serelaxin, improved dyspnea in heart failure patients and significantly reduced mortality rates according to the RELAX-AHF study. In the basic sciences, primary necrosis in mitochondria was the hot topic, while genetics, including genome-wide association studies, and epigenetics were strong features of the basic and clinical cardiovascular (CV) science. It was also clear that regenerative medicine is now part of mainstream CV research, with several clinical trials underway and many basic research projects ongoing around the world. Induced pluripotent stem cells in particular have the potential to change CV medicine, and will underpin the next era of regenerative medicine and personal therapies for heart diseases.

  16. Association testing for next-generation sequencing data using score statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skotte, Line; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Albrechtsen, Anders

    2012-01-01

    of genotype calls into account have been proposed; most require numerical optimization which for large-scale data is not always computationally feasible. We show that using a score statistic for the joint likelihood of observed phenotypes and observed sequencing data provides an attractive approach...... computationally feasible due to the use of score statistics. As part of the joint likelihood, we model the distribution of the phenotypes using a generalized linear model framework, which works for both quantitative and discrete phenotypes. Thus, the method presented here is applicable to case-control studies...

  17. A genome-wide association study of serum uric acid in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Norman P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uric acid is the primary byproduct of purine metabolism. Hyperuricemia is associated with body mass index (BMI, sex, and multiple complex diseases including gout, hypertension (HTN, renal disease, and type 2 diabetes (T2D. Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS in individuals of European ancestry (EA have reported associations between serum uric acid levels (SUAL and specific genomic loci. The purposes of this study were: 1 to replicate major signals reported in EA populations; and 2 to use the weak LD pattern in African ancestry population to better localize (fine-map reported loci and 3 to explore the identification of novel findings cognizant of the moderate sample size. Methods African American (AA participants (n = 1,017 from the Howard University Family Study were included in this study. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix® Genome-wide Human SNP Array 6.0. Imputation was performed using MACH and the HapMap reference panels for CEU and YRI. A total of 2,400,542 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were assessed for association with serum uric acid under the additive genetic model with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, glomerular filtration rate, HTN, T2D, and the top two principal components identified in the assessment of admixture and population stratification. Results Four variants in the gene SLC2A9 achieved genome-wide significance for association with SUAL (p-values ranging from 8.88 × 10-9 to 1.38 × 10-9. Fine-mapping of the SLC2A9 signals identified a 263 kb interval of linkage disequilibrium in the HapMap CEU sample. This interval was reduced to 37 kb in our AA and the HapMap YRI samples. Conclusions The most strongly associated locus for SUAL in EA populations was also the most strongly associated locus in this AA sample. This finding provides evidence for the role of SLC2A9 in uric acid metabolism across human populations. Additionally, our findings demonstrate the utility of following-up EA

  18. Advancing Multicultural and Diversity Competence in Art Therapy: American Art Therapy Association Multicultural Committee 1990-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potash, Jordan S.; Doby-Copeland, Cheryl; Stepney, Stella A.; Washington, Brittney N.; Vance, Lindsey D.; Short, Gwendolyn M.; Boston, Charlotte G.; Ballbé ter Maat, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    For 25 years the Multicultural Committee of the American Art Therapy Association has provided education, networking, and mentoring activities for all art therapists, as well as support for art therapists of color. The formation of the committee demonstrates increasing cultural competence within the profession, and its continuation promises future…

  19. Molecular phylogeny, diversity and bioprospecting of endophytic fungi associated with wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 ...

  20. Teaching the Principles of Economics: Reconciling the Canon of the American Economics Association to Catholic Social Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The American Economics Association, through its Committee on Economic Education, has worked since 1950 to develop a set of standards for what is taught in introductory economics courses. The result is the Test for Understanding in College Economics. The TUCE has come to define a canon of expectations for students in college business schools. Some…

  1. The Effects of the Physical Features Associated with Albinism on the Self-Esteem of African American Youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Moniqueka E.

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the effects of the physical features associated with albinism on three groups of African American youths (ages 14-19) with albinism: those with no disabilities, those with visual impairments, and those with oculocutaneous albinism. No significant differences in self-esteem were found among the three groups. (Contains…

  2. Design and Validation of a Rubric to Assess the Use of American Psychological Association Style in Scientific Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merma Molina, Gladys; Peña Alfaro, Hilda; Peña Alfaro González, Silvia Rosa

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the "American Psychological Association" (APA). The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific…

  3. The American Medical Association Older Driver Curriculum for Health Professionals: Changes in Trainee Confidence, Attitudes, and Practice Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuser, Thomas M.; Carr, David B.; Irmiter, Cheryl; Schwartzberg, Joanne G.; Ulfarsson, Gudmundur F.

    2010-01-01

    Few gerontology and geriatrics professionals receive training in driver fitness evaluation, state reporting of unfit drivers, or transportation mobility planning yet are often asked to address these concerns in the provision of care to older adults. The American Medical Association (AMA) developed an evidence-based, multi-media Curriculum to…

  4. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-01-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to…

  5. Does Evidence Support the American Heart Association's Recommendation to Screen Patients for Depression in Cardiovascular Care? An Updated Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thombs, Brett D.; Roseman, Michelle; Coyne, James C.; de Jonge, Peter; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Arthurs, Erin; Levis, Brooke; Ziegelstein, Roy C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To systematically review evidence on depression screening in coronary heart disease (CHD) by assessing the (1) accuracy of screening tools; (2) effectiveness of treatment; and (3) effect of screening on depression outcomes. Background: A 2008 American Heart Association (AHA) Science Advi

  6. Legacy of Leadership: Profiles of the Presidents of the American Association of Community Colleges, 1958-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luskin, Bernard J., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    More than 50 years ago, two men on a train made a stop at W.K. Kellogg Foundation, to share their vision for community colleges. Thus began a partnership that has advanced the community college mission by supporting the visionary leaders at the helm of American Association of Community Colleges from 1958 to 2010. In April 2011, W.K. Kellogg and…

  7. School Public Relations and the Principalship: An Interview with Mark Bielang, President of American Association of School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    From returning phone calls to traversing the political landscape to building trust, American Association of School Administrators (AASA) president Mark Bielang covers a lot of territory as he describes the public relations challenges confronting today's school administrators. Having just concluded his term as AASA president, Mr. Bielang has served…

  8. Counselor Education Student Perceptions of the American Counseling Association Ethical Code as It Pertains to the Use of Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Tanner A.

    2012-01-01

    Student use of online social networks has increased exponentially in the past five years. Facebook is one of the largest and most utilized by students. Many counseling students use Facebook on a regular basis to keep in touch with friends, family, and acquaintances. (Lenhart & Madden, 2007). Current American Counseling Association (ACA)…

  9. A Method for Gene-Based Pathway Analysis Using Genomewide Association Study Summary Statistics Reveals Nine New Type 1 Diabetes Associations

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This is the final version. It was first published by Wiley at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/gepi.21853/abstract. Pathway analysis can complement point-wise single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis in exploring genomewide association study (GWAS) data to identify specific disease-associated genes that can be candidate causal genes. We propose a straightforward methodology that can be used for conducting a gene-based pathway analysis using summary GWAS statistics in combina...

  10. Determination of statistically based design limits associated with engineering models. (LWBR Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginsburg, H.

    1980-02-01

    This report provides a usable reference of methods and procedures for the construction of both one-sided and two-sided ..gamma../P statistical tolerance limits for design application to both linear and nonlinear models in any number of variables.

  11. Nature and statistical properties of quasar associated absorption systems in the XQ-100 Legacy Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perrotta, Serena; D'Odorico, Valentina; Prochaska, J. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    We statistically study the physical properties of a sample of narrow absorption line (NAL) systems looking for empirical evidences to distinguish between intrinsic and intervening NALs without taking into account any a priori definition or velocity cut-off. We analyze the spectra of 100 quasars w...

  12. Prospective associations of coronary heart disease loci in African Americans using the MetaboChip: the PAGE study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Franceschini

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in African Americans. However, there is a paucity of studies assessing genetic determinants of CHD in African Americans. We examined the association of published variants in CHD loci with incident CHD, attempted to fine map these loci, and characterize novel variants influencing CHD risk in African Americans.Up to 8,201 African Americans (including 546 first CHD events were genotyped using the MetaboChip array in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and Women's Health Initiative (WHI. We tested associations using Cox proportional hazard models in sex- and study-stratified analyses and combined results using meta-analysis. Among 44 validated CHD loci available in the array, we replicated and fine-mapped the SORT1 locus, and showed same direction of effects as reported in studies of individuals of European ancestry for SNPs in 22 additional published loci. We also identified a SNP achieving array wide significance (MYC: rs2070583, allele frequency 0.02, P = 8.1 × 10(-8, but the association did not replicate in an additional 8,059 African Americans (577 events from the WHI, HealthABC and GeneSTAR studies, and in a meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies of European ancestry (24,024 individuals including 1,570 cases of MI and 2,406 cases of CHD from the CHARGE Consortium.Our findings suggest that some CHD loci previously identified in individuals of European ancestry may be relevant to incident CHD in African Americans.

  13. Associations with E-cigarette use among Asian American and Pacific Islander young adults in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglalang, Dale Dagar; Brown-Johnson, Cati; Prochaska, Judith J

    2016-12-01

    With attention to the rapidly growing market of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/e-cigarettes) and the fastest growing US ethnic minority group, the current study explored associations between awareness, perceived risks, and use of ENDS among Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) young adults. AAPI young adults (ages 18-25) in California were recruited via social media, college classes, listservs for AAPI-serving non-profits, and snowball sampling to complete an anonymous survey between 2014 and 2015. The sample (N = 501) was 57% women, 15% LGBTQIA; with a mean age of 21; 26% foreign-born; identifying as Filipino (29%), Chinese (24%), Vietnamese (14%), mixed-AAPI heritage (13%), or 21% other. Nearly half the sample (44%) reported ever ENDS use; 11% were current users. Current ENDS use was twofold greater for: Filipino and Vietnamese compared to Chinese respondents; men versus women; LGBTQIA-identified respondents; those vocationally trained; and employed. Awareness of ENDS from peers/friends was most common and was associated with ever though not current ENDS use. Most respondents perceived ENDS as harmful (62%); low compared to high risk perception was associated with a three-fold greater likelihood of ever use and six-fold greater likelihood of current use. Popular flavors were fruit (49%, e.g., lychee, taro) and candy/sweets (26%). Current users viewed ENDS as a healthier alternative or quit aid for conventional cigarettes (42%); recreation/social use (33%) also was common. Findings indicate ENDS visibility among AAPI young adults in California with affinity for flavors and many engaging in trial and current use for harm reduction and recreational/social aims.

  14. Association of Job Insecurity with Health Risk Factors and Poorer Health in American Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H

    2017-04-01

    Perceived job insecurity and health risk factors have not been well studied in the United States (US) workforce. The purpose of this study was to assess the association of specific health risk factors and morbidities with perceived job insecurity in a large national random sample of working adults in the US. The National Health Interview Survey data were analyzed for this study. We computed the prevalence of perceived job insecurity by demographic characteristics and tested the relative association between perceived job insecurity and selected health risk factors using logistic regression analysis with adjusted odds ratios (AORs). A total of 17,441 working adults were included in the study: 75 % Whites, 51.5 % females, 73.3 % worked for a private company, and 82.6 % were 25-64 years of age. One in three (33 %) workers perceived their job to be insecure. Those who reported job insecurity had significantly higher odds of: being obese, sleeping less than 6 h/day, smoking every day, having work loss days >2 weeks, and worsening of general health in the past year. Job insecure individuals had a likelihood of serious mental illness within the past 30 days almost five times higher than those who were not job insecure. In addition, job insecure individuals were significantly more likely to report pain conditions (i.e. headaches, neck pain, and low back pain), and lifetime histories of having ulcers, diabetes, hypertension, angina pectoris, and coronary heart diseases. Job insecurity is associated with poor health and health risk behaviors in American adults. Potential interventions to address job insecurity and improve the health and well-being of working adults have been discussed based on study findings.

  15. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCAA, ROBERT

    2014-01-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70th anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world’s largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world’s population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  16. Thanks to 70 years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site www.ipums.org/international.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCAA, Robert

    2013-06-01

    Seventy years of Inter American Statistical cooperation, symbolized by the 70(th) anniversary of Estadística, made possible the construction of IPUMS-International, the world's largest integrated census microdata dissemination site, www.ipums.org/international. Currently, the site offers access to 238 samples totaling over 540 million person records representing 74 countries. The Americas, which account for only about one-seventh of the world's population, amount to over one-third (36%) of the person records in the IPUMS-International database. Likewise, 35% of the citations in the IPUMS-International bibliography are for studies focused on Latin America, with about half of these analyzing a single Latin American country. This article discusses salient features of the IPUMS integration methods and system. National Statistical Institutes that have not yet entrusted 2010 census microdata to the initiative are invited to do so. Researchers and teachers are invited to use the data freely in analysis and teaching. Setenta años de cooperación estadística inter-Americana, simbolizada por el 70 aniversario de la revista Estadística, han hecho posible la construcción de IPUMS-internacional, la base en línea de microdatos censales harmonizados más grande del mundo, www.ipums.org/international. Actualmente, IPUMS proporciona acceso a 238 muestras con más de 540 millones de registros individuales de 74 países. Las Américas, que albergan una séptima parte de la población mundial, representan más de un tercio (36%) de todos los registros individuales en la base de datos IPUMS-internacional. Asimismo, el 35% de todas las referencias en la bibliografía de IPUMS son de estudios realizados sobre América Latina, la mitad de éstas basadas en un sólo país de la región. Este artículo presenta las principales características del sistema de integración y difusión de datos de IPUMS. Los Institutos Nacionales de Estadísticas que todavía no ha entregado la muestra

  17. Pautas para citar textos y hacer listas de referencias según las normas de la American Psichological Association (APA)

    OpenAIRE

    Ossa, Marcela

    2003-01-01

    La escritura de documentos, artículos, ensayos etc. implica seguir cuidadosamente algunas normas. La Revista EMA se guía para la edición de sus artículos por las normas de la American Psychological Association (APA). El presente documento tiene como objeto dar a conocer algunas de estas normas de tal modo que quien envíe un artículo para su publicación las utilice. Encontrarán algunas pautas para citar textos y hacer listas de referencias según las normas de la American Psychological Associat...

  18. Cumulative fade statistics and prediction methods associated with the COMSTAR beacon signal at 28.56 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhirsh, J.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents cumulative fade statistics for the period April 1977 to March 1978 and reviews the rain attenuation predictive efforts using radar and disdrometer data for the summer of 1977. Attention is given to the receiving and radar systems as well as the disdrometer-raingage system. Discussion of the fade statistics covers the yearly, monthly and time of day statistics. Consideration is given to measured and predicted attenuation events, measured and predicted probability distributions as well as an empirical calibration adjustment. It is noted that in spite of many reasons for noncorrelation, the radar results do correlate well. Finally, it is concluded that the results demonstrate the utility of using radar coupled with disdrometer measurements for predicting individual fade events as well as long term fade distributions associated with satellite communications through rain.

  19. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, H; Papini, E; Paschke, R;

    2010-01-01

    American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules are systematically developed statements to assist health care professionals in medical...... decision making for specific clinical conditions. Most of the content herein is based on literature reviews. In areas of uncertainty, professional judgment was applied. These guidelines are a working document that reflects the state of the field at the time of publication. Because rapid changes...

  20. Statistics and Classification of the Microwave Zebra Patterns Associated with Solar Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Baolin; Zhang, Yin; Meszarosova, H; Karlicky, M

    2013-01-01

    The microwave zebra pattern (ZP) is the most interesting, intriguing, and complex spectral structure frequently observed in solar flares. A comprehensive statistical study will certainly help us to understand the formation mechanism, which is not exactly clear now. This work presents a comprehensive statistical analysis on a big sample with 202 ZP events collected from observations at the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou and the Ondrejov Radiospectrograph in Czech Republic at frequencies of 1.00 - 7.60 GHz during 2000 - 2013. After investigating the parameter properties of ZPs, such as the occurrence in flare phase, frequency range, polarization degree, duration, etc., we find that the variation of zebra stripe frequency separation with respect to frequency is the best indicator for a physical classification of ZPs. Microwave ZPs can be classified into 3 types: equidistant ZP, variable-distant ZP, and growing-distant ZP, possibly corresponding to mechanisms of Bernstein wave model, whistl...

  1. 2013 AHA/ACC guideline on lifestyle management to reduce cardiovascular risk: A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goals of the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA) are to prevent cardiovascular (CV) diseases, improve the management of people who have these diseases through professional education and research, and develop guidelines, standards and policies that promot...

  2. Statistical Association Criteria in Forensic Psychiatry–A criminological evaluation of casuistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, V; Buda, O; Popescu, I; Trandafir, MS

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Identification of potential shared primary psychoprophylaxis and crime prevention is measured by analyzing the rate of commitments for patients–subjects to forensic examination. Material and method. The statistic trial is a retrospective, document–based study. The statistical lot consists of 770 initial examination reports performed and completed during the whole year 2007, primarily analyzed in order to summarize the data within the National Institute of Forensic Medicine, Bucharest, Romania (INML), with one of the group variables being ‘particularities of the psychiatric patient history’, containing the items ‘forensic onset’, ‘commitments within the last year prior to the examination’ and ‘absence of commitments within the last year prior to the examination’. The method used was the Kendall bivariate correlation. For this study, the authors separately analyze only the two items regarding commitments by other correlation alternatives and by modern, elaborate statistical analyses, i.e. recording of the standard case study variables, Kendall bivariate correlation, cross tabulation, factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis. Results. The results are varied, from theoretically presumed clinical nosography (such as schizophrenia or manic depression), to non–presumed (conduct disorders) or unexpected behavioral acts, and therefore difficult to interpret. Conclusions. One took into consideration the features of the batch as well as the results of the previous standard correlation of the whole statistical lot. The authors emphasize the role of medical security measures that are actually applied in the therapeutic management in general and in risk and second offence management in particular, as well as the role of forensic psychiatric examinations in the detection of certain aspects related to the monitoring of mental patients. PMID:21505571

  3. Symptoms of Anxiety and Associated Risk and Protective Factors in Young Asian American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Keng-Yen; Cheng, Sabrina; Calzada, Esther; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the most prevalent mental health problems in young children but there has been a dearth of studies focusing on Asian American children. This study examines the patterns and the predictors of childhood anxiety and related symptoms in young children in a diverse Asian American (ASA) sample (n = 101). Findings indicate that ASA…

  4. Statistics and classification of the microwave zebra patterns associated with solar flares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Baolin; Tan, Chengming; Zhang, Yin [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Mészárosová, H.; Karlický, M., E-mail: bltan@nao.cas.cn [Astronomical Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Ondrejov 15165 (Czech Republic)

    2014-01-10

    The microwave zebra pattern (ZP) is the most interesting, intriguing, and complex spectral structure frequently observed in solar flares. A comprehensive statistical study will certainly help us to understand the formation mechanism, which is not exactly clear now. This work presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of a big sample with 202 ZP events collected from observations at the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometer at Huairou and the Ondŕejov Radiospectrograph in the Czech Republic at frequencies of 1.00-7.60 GHz from 2000 to 2013. After investigating the parameter properties of ZPs, such as the occurrence in flare phase, frequency range, polarization degree, duration, etc., we find that the variation of zebra stripe frequency separation with respect to frequency is the best indicator for a physical classification of ZPs. Microwave ZPs can be classified into three types: equidistant ZPs, variable-distant ZPs, and growing-distant ZPs, possibly corresponding to mechanisms of the Bernstein wave model, whistler wave model, and double plasma resonance model, respectively. This statistical classification may help us to clarify the controversies between the existing various theoretical models and understand the physical processes in the source regions.

  5. Association of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) population density with climate variables in Montes Claros, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; França-Silva, João Carlos; Rocha, Marilia Fonseca; Barata, Ricardo Andrade; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2009-12-01

    In the present paper, we evaluate the relationship between climate variables and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Montes Claros, an area of active transmission of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) in Brazil. Entomological captures were performed in 10 selected districts of the city, between September 2002-August 2003. A total of 773 specimens of L. longipalpiswere captured in the period and the population density could be associated with local climate variables (cumulative rainfall, average temperature and relative humidity) through a mathematical linear model with a determination coefficient (Rsqr) of 0.752. Although based on an oversimplified statistical analysis, as far as the vector is concerned, this approach showed to be potentially useful as a starting point to guide control measures for AVL in Montes Claros.

  6. Association of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae population density with climate variables in Montes Claros, an area of American visceral leishmaniasis transmission in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika Monteiro Michalsky

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we evaluate the relationship between climate variables and population density of Lutzomyia longipalpis in Montes Claros, an area of active transmission of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL in Brazil. Entomological captures were performed in 10 selected districts of the city, between September 2002-August 2003. A total of 773 specimens of L. longipalpiswere captured in the period and the population density could be associated with local climate variables (cumulative rainfall, average temperature and relative humidity through a mathematical linear model with a determination coefficient (Rsqr of 0.752. Although based on an oversimplified statistical analysis, as far as the vector is concerned, this approach showed to be potentially useful as a starting point to guide control measures for AVL in Montes Claros.

  7. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed.

  8. A combined genome-wide linkage and association approach to find susceptibility loci for platelet function phenotypes in European American and African American families with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Alexander F

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inability of aspirin (ASA to adequately suppress platelet aggregation is associated with future risk of coronary artery disease (CAD. Heritability studies of agonist-induced platelet function phenotypes suggest that genetic variation may be responsible for ASA responsiveness. In this study, we leverage independent information from genome-wide linkage and association data to determine loci controlling platelet phenotypes before and after treatment with ASA. Methods Clinical data on 37 agonist-induced platelet function phenotypes were evaluated before and after a 2-week trial of ASA (81 mg/day in 1231 European American and 846 African American healthy subjects with a family history of premature CAD. Principal component analysis was performed to minimize the number of independent factors underlying the covariance of these various phenotypes. Multi-point sib-pair based linkage analysis was performed using a microsatellite marker set, and single-SNP association tests were performed using markers from the Illumina 1 M genotyping chip from deCODE Genetics, Inc. All analyses were performed separately within each ethnic group. Results Several genomic regions appear to be linked to ASA response factors: a 10 cM region in African Americans on chromosome 5q11.2 had several STRs with suggestive (p-value -4 and significant (p-value -5 linkage to post aspirin platelet response to ADP, and ten additional factors had suggestive evidence for linkage (p-value -4 to thirteen genomic regions. All but one of these factors were aspirin response variables. While the strength of genome-wide SNP association signals for factors showing evidence for linkage is limited, especially at the strict thresholds of genome-wide criteria (N = 9 SNPs for 11 factors, more signals were considered significant when the association signal was weighted by evidence for linkage (N = 30 SNPs. Conclusions Our study supports the hypothesis that platelet phenotypes in

  9. The American Association of Variable Star Observers: Serving the Research Community in 2010 and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, Matthew R.; Henden, A. A.; Davis, K.; Kinne, R.; Watson, C.; Saladyga, M.; Waagen, E.; Beck, S.; Menali, G.; Price, A.; Turner, R.

    2010-05-01

    The American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) holds the largest single online database of variable star data in the world, collected from thousands of amateur and professional observers during the past century. One of our core missions is to preserve and distribute these data to the research community in service to the science of variable star astronomy. But as an organization, the AAVSO is much more than a data archive. Our services to the research community include: monitoring for and announcement of major astronomical events like novae and supernovae; organization and management of observing campaigns; support for satellite and other TOO observing programs by the professional community; creation of comparison star sequences and generation of charts for the observer community; and observational and other support for the amateur, professional, and educator communities in all things related to variable stars. As we begin a new century of variable star astronomy we invite you to take advantage of the services the AAVSO can provide, and to become a part of our organization yourselves. In this poster, we highlight some of the most important services the AAVSO can provide to the professional research community, as well as suggest ways in which your research may be enhanced with support from the AAVSO.

  10. Evaluation of retention protocols among members of the American Association of Orthodontists in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Michael C.; Kluemper, George Thomas; Hartsfield, James K.; Fardo, David; Nash, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little research has been conducted to evaluate protocols and trends in orthodontic retention. The purpose of this study was to identify the general retention protocols used by orthodontists in the United States. Additionally, our goal was to identify trends in these orthodontic retention protocols by evaluating how they have changed over the past 5 years and how they might continue to change in the next 5 years. Methods The study was conducted via a 36-question electronic survey (REDCap, Nashville, Tenn) with branching logic on certain questions. The survey was sent to all 9143 practicing members of the American Association of Orthodontists in the United States, and 1632 (18%) responded. Results and Conclusions Mean retention protocols of the surveyed population showed predominant use of Hawley or vacuum-formed retainers in the maxillary arch and fixed retention in the mandibular arch. For both arches, there is a current shift away from Hawley retainers and toward vacuum-formed retainers and fixed retention. Respondents who extract fewer teeth reported increased use of fixed retention in the maxillary (P = 0.041) and mandibular (P = 0.003) arches. Respondents who extract fewer teeth and use removable retainers were more likely to tell their patients to wear their retainers at night for the rest of their lives (P = 1.63 × 10−6). PMID:21967939

  11. Developmental effects of Arochlor 1242 in American kestrels and associated hormone concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, J.B.; Henry, P.F.P.; Rattner, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recently, diverse field and experimental studies have been brought together to suggest that abnormal sexual and reproductive development in wildlife might be caused by the endocrine-like activity of pollutants acting on embryos. For example, hormonal and gonadal anomalies in juvenile alligators from Florida are associated with exposure to DDT and dicofol, experimental work on laboratory rodents has identified estrogenic and androgenic properties of several pollutants, including polychlorinated biphenyls, and injection of gull eggs with metabolites of DDT produces intersex gonads in the male hatchlings. Very little evidence is available for birds that demonstrates a deficit in reproductive capability by this mechanism. Our breeding and egg-injection studies are investigating the potential of Aroclor 1242 and hydroxylated PCB congener 30, both with known estrogenic activity, to alter the course of embryonic development of reproductive structures and to affect later reproductive function in American kestrels. Findings from young birds whose parents were exposed indicated that gonadal morphology appeared consistent with the genetic sex of exposed birds; testes of exposed birds showed no difference in size or symmetry when compared to controls. Histological preparations showed very little intersexuality of male testes; females had ovaries that were indistinguishable from controls. Female hatchlings tended to show increased androgen and decreased estrogen in their serum with greater dose of Aroclor; females hatchlings that resulted from injected eggs showed an opposite trend. Analyses in progress include LHRH and catecholamine concentrations in the brain.

  12. The Rashomon effect: another view of medicine, religion, and the American Medical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crigger, B J

    2014-12-01

    What is the story of medicine and religion at the American Medical Association (AMA)? Where did the Department of Medicine and Religion originate? What did the program accomplish? Why was it all but completely discontinued after scarcely a decade? The surviving records support more than one interpretation. Exploring the broader organizational context helps tell a richer story.In this issue of Academic Medicine, Daniel Kim and colleagues open a window on a fascinating bit of history: that of the AMA's formal experience with religion and medicine during the 1960s and early 1970s; however, reconstructing the story of a program from documentary records is always something of an uncertain proposition. Equally important is taking account of such factors as the role of the AMA's House of Delegates in policy making, of state and county medical societies in carrying out program activities, and of the influence of charismatic individuals on decisions regarding programs and activities. Before the medical community decides what lesson(s) to draw from the story of the AMA's Department of Medicine and Religion, it should try to understand that story as completely as possible.As Kim et al note, the available materials leave out much that historians might wish to know. Records preserve the substance of decisions taken, but are largely silent about the reasoning behind those decisions. Relevant information is scattered through multiple record systems, making it difficult to find. Inevitably, historians have to read between the lines.

  13. Absolute pitch among students in an American music conservatory: association with tone language fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Diana; Dooley, Kevin; Henthorn, Trevor; Head, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to name a musical note in the absence of a reference note, is extremely rare in the U.S. and Europe, and its genesis is unclear. The prevalence of AP was examined among students in an American music conservatory as a function of age of onset of musical training, ethnicity, and fluency in speaking a tone language. Taking those of East Asian ethnicity, the performance level on a test of AP was significantly higher among those who spoke a tone language very fluently compared with those who spoke a tone language fairly fluently and also compared with those who were not fluent in speaking a tone language. The performance level of this last group did not differ significantly from that of Caucasian students who spoke only nontone language. Early onset of musical training was associated with enhanced performance, but this did not interact with the effect of language. Further analyses showed that the results could not be explained by country of early music education. The findings support the hypothesis that the acquisition of AP by tone language speakers involves the same process as occurs in the acquisition of a second tone language.

  14. Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains.

  15. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008.

  16. Should title lengths really adhere to the American Psychological Association's twelve word limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Robert M; Dillner, Kari M

    2016-04-01

    The publication manual for the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that title lengths do not exceed 12 words, yet journals do not prevent longer titles. Here, we examined title lengths in APA journals to see how many exceeded the APA's suggested limit. First, we conducted a systematic analysis of 235 articles in the current issues of 23 APA journals. A total of 52% of titles were more than 12 words long. Second, we examined articles from APA journals that were at least 50 years old to examine whether title lengths have changed over time. Our results suggested that the average title lengths have indeed increased with time. One of 2 courses should be taken. Perhaps science is becoming more complex that longer titles are needed in order to convey the primary message to the reader. If this is the case, then the APA's word limit should be increased. On the other hand, however, maybe editor and reviewers should try to enforce the current word limit to force writers to be succinct. Either way, editors should make their preferences clear so that the trend for longer titles does not continue unchecked.

  17. TRPV4 associates environmental temperature and sex determination in the American alligator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsu, Ryohei; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Kohno, Satomi; Saito, Shigeru; Lowers, Russell H; Ogino, Yukiko; Fukuta, Naomi; Katsu, Yoshinao; Ohta, Yasuhiko; Tominaga, Makoto; Guillette, Louis J; Iguchi, Taisen

    2015-12-18

    Temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), commonly found among reptiles, is a sex determination mode in which the incubation temperature during a critical temperature sensitive period (TSP) determines sexual fate of the individual rather than the individual's genotypic background. In the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis), eggs incubated during the TSP at 33 °C (male producing temperature: MPT) yields male offspring, whereas incubation temperatures below 30 °C (female producing temperature: FPT) lead to female offspring. However, many of the details of the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive, and the molecular link between environmental temperature and sex determination pathway is yet to be elucidated. Here we show the alligator TRPV4 ortholog (AmTRPV4) to be activated at temperatures proximate to the TSD-related temperature in alligators, and using pharmacological exposure, we show that AmTRPV4 channel activity affects gene expression patterns associated with male differentiation. This is the first experimental demonstration of a link between a well-described thermo-sensory mechanism, TRPV4 channel, and its potential role in regulation of TSD in vertebrates, shedding unique new light on the elusive TSD molecular mechanism.

  18. Report of the American Heart Association (AHA) Scientific Sessions 2015, Orlando.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizawa, Yoshiyasu; Kimura, Mai; Kohno, Takashi; Fujita, Jun; Fukuda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    The American Heart Association Scientific Sessions were held in Orlando on November 7-15, 2015. The meeting attracted more than 18,000 participants, including physicians, research scientists, students, and paramedical personnel, from more than 100 countries. Sessions over the 5 days included a comprehensive and unparalleled education delivered via more than 5,000 presentations, with 1,000 invited faculty members and 4,000 abstract presentations from the world leaders in cardiovascular disease. It also displayed the newest cardiovascular technology and resources by more than 200 exhibitors. There were 19 trials scheduled in 6 late-breaking clinical trial sessions. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) aimed to determine the most appropriate targets for the systolic blood pressure among persons without diabetes. A total of 9,361 persons with systolic blood pressure of ≥130 mmHg and an increased cardiovascular risk, but without diabetes, were randomly assigned to a target systolic blood pressure of <120 mmHg (intensive treatment) or a target of <140 mmHg (standard treatment). A significantly lower rate of the primary composite outcome and all-cause mortality in the intensive-treatment group than in the standard-treatment group was observed. Summaries and overviews of the late-breaking trials, clinical science special report sessions, and sessions to which members of the Japanese Circulation Society contributed are presented.

  19. Report on the American Association of Medical Physics Undergraduate Fellowship Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilowitz, Jennifer B; Avery, Stephen; Gueye, Paul; Sandison, George A

    2013-01-07

    The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) sponsors two summer undergraduate research programs to attract top performing undergraduate students into graduate studies in medical physics: the Summer Undergraduate Fellowship Program (SUFP) and the Minority Undergraduate Summer Experience (MUSE). Undergraduate research experience (URE) is an effective tool to encourage students to pursue graduate degrees. The SUFP and MUSE are the only medical physics URE programs. From 2001 to 2012, 148 fellowships have been awarded and a total of $608,000 has been dispersed to fellows. This paper reports on the history, participation, and status of the programs. A review of surveys of past fellows is presented. Overall, the fellows and mentors are very satisfied with the program. The efficacy of the programs is assessed by four metrics: entry into a medical physics graduate program, board certification, publications, and AAPM involvement. Sixty-five percent of past fellow respondents decided to pursue a graduate degree in medical physics as a result of their participation in the program. Seventy percent of respondents are currently involved in some educational or professional aspect of medical physics. Suggestions for future enhancements to better track and maintain contact with past fellows, expand funding sources, and potentially combine the programs are presented.

  20. Prosperity Games prototyping with the American Electronics Association, March 8--9, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, M.; VanDevender, J.P.

    1994-08-01

    Prosperity Games are an outgrowth and adaptation of move/countermove and seminar War Games. Prosperity Games are simulations that explore complex issues in a variety of areas including economics, politics, sociology, environment, education and research. These issues can be examined from a variety of perspectives ranging from a global, macroeconomic and geopolitical viewpoint down to the details of customer/supplier/market interactions in specific industries. All Prosperity Games are unique in that both the game format and the player contributions vary from game to game. This report documents the Prosperity Game conducted under the sponsorship of the American Electronics Association in conjunction with the Electronics Subcommittee of the Civilian Industrial Technology Committee of the National Science and Technology Council. Players were drawn from government, national laboratories, and universities, as well as from the electronics industry. The game explored policy changes that could enhance US competitiveness in the manufacturing of consumer electronics. Two teams simulated a presidentially appointed commission comprised of high-level representatives from government, industry, universities and national laboratories. A single team represented the foreign equivalent of this commission, formed to develop counter strategies for any changes in US policies. The deliberations and recommendations of these teams provide valuable insights as to the views of this diverse group of decision makers concerning policy changes, foreign competition, and the development, delivery and commercialization of new technologies.

  1. Position of the American Dietetic Association: integration of medical nutrition therapy and pharmacotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-10-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the application of medical nutrition therapy (MNT) and lifestyle counseling as a part of the Nutrition Care Process is an integral component of the medical treatment for management of specific disease states and conditions and should be the initial step in the management of these situations. If optimal control cannot be achieved with MNT alone and concurrent pharmacotherapy is required, then The Association promotes a team approach to care for clients receiving concurrent MNT and pharmacotherapy and encourages active collaboration among dietetics professionals and other members of the health care team. There are a number of medical conditions, many of them chronic, that will respond to MNT and, therefore, MNT should be the first intervention for these conditions. In addition to being a vital element of the optimal management and control of these conditions, MNT is also a cost-effective method of management. However, because of the long-term nature of these conditions, concurrent pharmacotherapy may become necessary to achieve or maintain optimal control. In cases where this is necessary, MNT should continue to be an integral component of the therapy because it may complement or enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of pharmacotherapy, thereby reducing or eliminating the need for multiple medications. The utilization of a coordinated multidisciplinary team approach is critical to the success of the concurrent use of MNT and pharmacotherapy because of the long-term duration of the treatments, the necessity of monitoring compliance and effectiveness, and the likelihood of multiple medication-nutrient interactions.

  2. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Weaver

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD, including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of left and pulmonary vascular function in African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS: left ventricular ejection fraction, E-wave velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, left atrial diameter index, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. We examined these associations using multivariable linear or logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 4866 participants at study enrollment, 106 lived <150 m, 159 lived 150–299 m, 1161 lived 300–999 m, and 3440 lived ≥1000 m from a major roadway. We did not observe any associations between residential distance to major roads and these markers of cardiac function. Results were similar with additional adjustment for diabetes and hypertension, when considering varying definitions of major roadways, or when limiting analyses to those free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. Overall, we observed little evidence that residential proximity to major roads was associated with cardiac function among African Americans.

  3. Statistical Viewer: a tool to upload and integrate linkage and association data as plots displayed within the Ensembl genome browser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauser Elizabeth R

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To facilitate efficient selection and the prioritization of candidate complex disease susceptibility genes for association analysis, increasingly comprehensive annotation tools are essential to integrate, visualize and analyze vast quantities of disparate data generated by genomic screens, public human genome sequence annotation and ancillary biological databases. We have developed a plug-in package for Ensembl called "Statistical Viewer" that facilitates the analysis of genomic features and annotation in the regions of interest defined by linkage analysis. Results Statistical Viewer is an add-on package to the open-source Ensembl Genome Browser and Annotation System that displays disease study-specific linkage and/or association data as 2 dimensional plots in new panels in the context of Ensembl's Contig View and Cyto View pages. An enhanced upload server facilitates the upload of statistical data, as well as additional feature annotation to be displayed in DAS tracts, in the form of Excel Files. The Statistical View panel, drawn directly under the ideogram, illustrates lod score values for markers from a study of interest that are plotted against their position in base pairs. A module called "Get Map" easily converts the genetic locations of markers to genomic coordinates. The graph is placed under the corresponding ideogram features a synchronized vertical sliding selection box that is seamlessly integrated into Ensembl's Contig- and Cyto- View pages to choose the region to be displayed in Ensembl's "Overview" and "Detailed View" panels. To resolve Association and Fine mapping data plots, a "Detailed Statistic View" plot corresponding to the "Detailed View" may be displayed underneath. Conclusion Features mapping to regions of linkage are accentuated when Statistic View is used in conjunction with the Distributed Annotation System (DAS to display supplemental laboratory information such as differentially expressed disease

  4. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): the association between acculturation, birthplace and alcohol consumption across Hispanic national groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeth, Patrice A C; Caetano, Raul; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2012-09-01

    Acculturation to U.S. society has been associated with an increase in drinking and binge drinking among Hispanics. This paper examines the association between acculturation and three drinking-related outcomes: average number of drinks consumed, binge drinking, and drinking 12 drinks or more in a single day in four major Hispanic national groups. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey used a multistage cluster sample design to interview 5224 adult Hispanics (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The four national groups interviewed were: Puerto Ricans, Cuban Americans, Mexican Americans, and South/Central Americans. The survey response rate was 76%. Data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Multivariate analysis did not show an association between acculturation and volume of drinking, binge drinking, or drinking 12 or more drinks in a single day among men. Acculturation stress, however, was associated with drinking 12 or more in a day among men. Among women, high acculturation was associated with a higher volume of drinking, and it also interacted with national group to increase the likelihood of binge drinking. Acculturation does not have a homogeneous effect on drinking across gender and Hispanic national groups. The results confirm that acculturation has a more consistent association with increased drinking and binge drinking among women than among men. The effect of acculturation is therefore gender-specific. This heterogeneity across Hispanic national groups must be considered in future research, treatment, and prevention efforts.

  5. Shocking Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dave

    2009-01-01

    On a Friday night in 2000, high school football player Josh Miller collapsed as he ran off the field. Several minutes later, the 15-year-old was dead from sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). This is not an uncommon scenario in school athletics. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), SCA is the leading cause of death in young athletes and…

  6. Religious Participation is Associated with Increases in Religious Social Support in a National Longitudinal Study of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Daisy; Holt, Cheryl L; Hosack, Dominic P; Huang, Jin; Clark, Eddie M

    2016-08-01

    This study reports on the association between religious beliefs and behaviors and the change in both general and religious social support using two waves of data from a national sample of African Americans. The Religion and Health in African Americans (RHIAA) study is a longitudinal telephone survey designed to examine relationships between various aspects of religious involvement and psychosocial factors over time. RHIAA participants were 3173 African American men (1281) and women (1892). A total of 1251 men (456) and women (795) participated in wave 2 of data collection. Baseline religious behaviors were associated with increased overall religious social support from baseline to wave 2 (p social support from baseline to wave 2 in each of the following religious social support subscales: emotional support received (p negative interaction (p social support. African Americans who are active in faith communities showed increases in all types of religious social support, even the negative aspects, over a relatively modest longitudinal study period. This illustrates the strength of the church as a social network and the role that it plays in people's lives.

  7. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Robert D; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Pope, C Arden; Brook, Jeffrey R; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Holguin, Fernando; Hong, Yuling; Luepker, Russell V; Mittleman, Murray A; Peters, Annette; Siscovick, David; Smith, Sidney C; Whitsel, Laurie; Kaufman, Joel D

    2010-06-01

    In 2004, the first American Heart Association scientific statement on "Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease" concluded that exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. In the interim, numerous studies have expanded our understanding of this association and further elucidated the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved. The main objective of this updated American Heart Association scientific statement is to provide a comprehensive review of the new evidence linking PM exposure with cardiovascular disease, with a specific focus on highlighting the clinical implications for researchers and healthcare providers. The writing group also sought to provide expert consensus opinions on many aspects of the current state of science and updated suggestions for areas of future research. On the basis of the findings of this review, several new conclusions were reached, including the following: Exposure to PM American Heart Association scientific statement was published. Finally, PM(2.5) exposure is deemed a modifiable factor that contributes to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  8. Cultural Dysthymia: An Unrecognized Disorder among African Americans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vontress, Clemmont E.; Woodland, Calvin E.; Epp, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    Many African Americans experience low-grade depression, referred to as dysthymia in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). After more than 250 years of enslavement, prejudice, and discrimination, dysthymia is reflected in chronic low-grade sadness, anger, hostility,…

  9. Allergy associations with the adult fecal microbiota: Analysis of the American Gut Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Hua

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation: American adults with allergies, especially to nuts and seasonal pollen, have low diversity, reduced Clostridiales, and increased Bacteroidales in their gut microbiota. This dysbiosis might be targeted to improve treatment or prevention of allergy.

  10. American Diabetes Association and JDRF Research Symposium: Diabetes and the Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenkovich, Clay F; Danska, Jayne; Darsow, Tamara; Dunne, Jessica L; Huttenhower, Curtis; Insel, Richard A; McElvaine, Allison T; Ratner, Robert E; Shuldiner, Alan R; Blaser, Martin J

    2015-12-01

    From 27-29 October 2014, more than 100 people gathered in Chicago, IL, to participate in a research symposium titled "Diabetes and the Microbiome," jointly sponsored by the American Diabetes Association and JDRF. The conference brought together international scholars and trainees from multiple disciplines, including microbiology, bioinformatics, endocrinology, metabolism, and immunology, to share the current understanding of host-microbe interactions and their influences on diabetes and metabolism. Notably, this gathering was the first to assemble specialists with distinct expertise in type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, immunology, and microbiology with the goal of discussing and defining potential pathophysiologies linking the microbiome and diabetes. In addition to reviewing existing evidence in the field, speakers presented their own original research to provide a comprehensive view of the current understanding of the topics under discussion.Presentations and discussions throughout the conference reflected a number of important concepts. The microbiota in any host represent a complex ecosystem with a high degree of interindividual variability. Different microbial communities, comprising bacteria, archaea, viruses, and fungi, occupy separate niches in and on the human body. Individually and collectively, these microbes provide benefits to the host-including nutrient harvest from food and protection against pathogens. They are dynamically regulated by both host genes and the environment, and they critically influence both physiology and lifelong health. The objective of the symposium was to discuss the relationship between the host and the microbiome-the combination of microbiota and their biomolecular environment and ecology-specifically with regard to metabolic and immunological systems and to define the critical research needed to understand and potentially target the microbiome in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. In this report, we present meeting

  11. Position of the American Dietetic Association: health implications of dietary fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L

    2008-10-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public should consume adequate amounts of dietary fiber from a variety of plant foods. Populations that consume more dietary fiber have less chronic disease. In addition, intake of dietary fiber has beneficial effects on risk factors for developing several chronic diseases. Dietary Reference Intakes recommend consumption of 14 g dietary fiber per 1,000 kcal, or 25 g for adult women and 38 g for adult men, based on epidemiologic studies showing protection against cardiovascular disease. Appropriate kinds and amounts of dietary fiber for children, the critically ill, and the very old are unknown. The Dietary Reference Intakes for fiber are based on recommended energy intake, not clinical fiber studies. Usual intake of dietary fiber in the United States is only 15 g/day. Although solubility of fiber was thought to determine physiological effect, more recent studies suggest other properties of fiber, perhaps fermentability or viscosity are important parameters. High-fiber diets provide bulk, are more satiating, and have been linked to lower body weights. Evidence that fiber decreases cancer is mixed and further research is needed. Healthy children and adults can achieve adequate dietary fiber intakes by increasing variety in daily food patterns. Dietary messages to increase consumption of high-fiber foods such as whole grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables should be broadly supported by food and nutrition professionals. Consumers are also turning to fiber supplements and bulk laxatives as additional fiber sources. Few fiber supplements have been studied for physiological effectiveness, so the best advice is to consume fiber in foods. Look for physiological studies of effectiveness before selecting functional fibers in dietetics practice.

  12. Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Ancestry and Aggressive Prostate Cancer among African Americans and European Americans in PCaP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Steck

    Full Text Available African Americans (AAs have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OHD3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs.Plasma 25(OHD3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP classified as having either 'high' or 'low' aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OHD3.AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95% had the lowest mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT 3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26-3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT 3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05-0.70 among men with high calcium intake. Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null.Among AAs, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OHD3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study.

  13. Differences in childhood physical abuse reporting and the association between CPA and alcohol use disorder in European American and African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Kimberly B; Grant, Julia D; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E

    2016-06-01

    The goal of the current study was to examine whether the magnitude of the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and alcohol use disorder (AUD) varies by type of CPA assessment and race of the respondents. Data are from the Missouri adolescent female twins study and the Missouri family study (N = 4508) where 21.2% identified as African American (AA) and 78.8% as European American (EA); mean age = 23.8. Data were collected using a structured comprehensive interview which assessed CPA experiences using behavioral questions about specific abusive behaviors and trauma checklist items. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted, adjusting for additional risk factors associated with AUD, including co-occurring psychiatric disorders (defined as time-varying) and parental alcohol misuse. Overall, CPA reporting patterns were highly correlated (tetrachoric ρ = 0.73); although, only 25.8% of women who endorsed behaviorally defined CPA also endorsed checklist items whereas 72.2% of women who endorsed checklist items also endorsed behavioral questions. Racial disparities were evident, with behaviorally defined CPA increasing the hazard for AUD in EA but not AA women. Additional racial disparities in the risk for AUD were observed: increased hazard for AUD were associated with major depressive disorder in AA, and cannabis dependence and paternal alcohol problems in EA, women. Results demonstrate the relevance of the type of CPA measure in assessing CPA in studies of alcohol-related problems-behavioral items may be more inclusive of CPA exposure and more predictive of AUD- and highlight racial distinctions of AUD etiology in women. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. HIV-Related Sexual Risk among African American Men Preceding Incarceration: Associations with Support from Significant Others, Family, and Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coatsworth, Ashley M; Scheidell, Joy D; Wohl, David A; Whitehead, Nicole E; Golin, Carol E; Judon-Monk, Selena; Khan, Maria R

    2017-02-01

    We evaluated the association between social support received from significant others, family, and friends and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors among African American men involved in the criminal justice system. Project DISRUPT is a cohort study among African American men released from prison in North Carolina (N = 189). During the baseline (in-prison) survey, we assessed the amount of support men perceived they had received from significant others, family, and friends. We measured associations between low support from each source (well-being during community re-entry, while supporting and strengthening relationships with a significant other in particular may help reduce sex risk. Studies should evaluate the protective effects of distinct support sources to avoid masking effects of support and to best understand the influence of social support on health.

  15. GWAS in a box: statistical and visual analytics of structured associations via GenAMap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Xing

    Full Text Available With the continuous improvement in genotyping and molecular phenotyping technology and the decreasing typing cost, it is expected that in a few years, more and more clinical studies of complex diseases will recruit thousands of individuals for pan-omic genetic association analyses. Hence, there is a great need for algorithms and software tools that could scale up to the whole omic level, integrate different omic data, leverage rich structure information, and be easily accessible to non-technical users. We present GenAMap, an interactive analytics software platform that 1 automates the execution of principled machine learning methods that detect genome- and phenome-wide associations among genotypes, gene expression data, and clinical or other macroscopic traits, and 2 provides new visualization tools specifically designed to aid in the exploration of association mapping results. Algorithmically, GenAMap is based on a new paradigm for GWAS and PheWAS analysis, termed structured association mapping, which leverages various structures in the omic data. We demonstrate the function of GenAMap via a case study of the Brem and Kruglyak yeast dataset, and then apply it on a comprehensive eQTL analysis of the NIH heterogeneous stock mice dataset and report some interesting findings. GenAMap is available from http://sailing.cs.cmu.edu/genamap.

  16. GWAS in a box: statistical and visual analytics of structured associations via GenAMap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Eric P; Curtis, Ross E; Schoenherr, Georg; Lee, Seunghak; Yin, Junming; Puniyani, Kriti; Wu, Wei; Kinnaird, Peter

    2014-01-01

    With the continuous improvement in genotyping and molecular phenotyping technology and the decreasing typing cost, it is expected that in a few years, more and more clinical studies of complex diseases will recruit thousands of individuals for pan-omic genetic association analyses. Hence, there is a great need for algorithms and software tools that could scale up to the whole omic level, integrate different omic data, leverage rich structure information, and be easily accessible to non-technical users. We present GenAMap, an interactive analytics software platform that 1) automates the execution of principled machine learning methods that detect genome- and phenome-wide associations among genotypes, gene expression data, and clinical or other macroscopic traits, and 2) provides new visualization tools specifically designed to aid in the exploration of association mapping results. Algorithmically, GenAMap is based on a new paradigm for GWAS and PheWAS analysis, termed structured association mapping, which leverages various structures in the omic data. We demonstrate the function of GenAMap via a case study of the Brem and Kruglyak yeast dataset, and then apply it on a comprehensive eQTL analysis of the NIH heterogeneous stock mice dataset and report some interesting findings. GenAMap is available from http://sailing.cs.cmu.edu/genamap.

  17. Understanding the Sampling Distribution and Its Use in Testing Statistical Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breunig, Nancy A.

    Despite the increasing criticism of statistical significance testing by researchers, particularly in the publication of the 1994 American Psychological Association's style manual, statistical significance test results are still popular in journal articles. For this reason, it remains important to understand the logic of inferential statistics. A…

  18. Associations between dietary habits and body mass index with gut microbiota composition and fecal water genotoxicity: an observational study in African American and Caucasian American volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rashmi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans (AA suffer from an increased incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer (CRC. Environmental exposures including dietary habits likely contribute to a high burden of CRC, however, data on the dietary habits of AA is sparse. Diet might change the composition and the activities of the intestinal microbiota, in turn affecting fecal genotoxicity/mutagenicity that is thought to be associated with carcinogenesis. Methods We assessed dietary habits by food frequency questionnaire and by food records in 52 AA and 46 CA residents of the Eastern Shore of MD. Fecal microbiota composition was determined using 16S rRNA based methods and fecal genotoxicity measured using the Comet assay. Results AA reported an increased intake of heterocyclic amines and a decreased dietary intake of vitamins including vitamin D (p Conclusion Dietary habits of African Americans, including increased HCA intake and decreased vitamin D intake might at least partially contribute to CRC through modifications of gut microbiota composition that result in changes of the intestinal milieu.

  19. Position of the American Dietetic Association, American Society for Nutrition, and Society for Nutrition Education: Food and nutrition programs for community-residing older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Barbara J; Wellman, Nancy S; Russell, Carlene

    2010-03-01

    Given the federal cost-containment policy to rebalance long-term care away from nursing homes to home- and community-based services, it is the position of the American Dietetic Association, the American Society for Nutrition, and the Society for Nutrition Education that all older adults should have access to food and nutrition programs that ensure the availability of safe, adequate food to promote optimal nutritional status. Appropriate food and nutrition programs include adequately funded food assistance and meal programs, nutrition education, screening, assessment, counseling, therapy, monitoring, evaluation, and outcomes documentation to ensure more healthful aging. The growing number of older adults, the health care focus on prevention, and the global economic situation accentuate the fundamental need for these programs. Yet far too often food and nutrition programs are disregarded or taken for granted. Growing older generally increases nutritional risk. Illnesses and chronic diseases; physical, cognitive, and social challenges; racial, ethnic, and linguistic differences; and low socioeconomic status can further complicate a situation. The beneficial effects of nutrition for health promotion, risk reduction, and disease management need emphasis. Although many older adults are enjoying longer and more healthful lives in their own homes, others, especially those with health disparities and poor nutritional status, would benefit from greater access to food and nutrition programs and services. Food and nutrition practitioners can play a major role in promoting universal access and integrating food and nutrition programs and nutrition services into home- and community-based services.

  20. Comparison of the Adherence to the American Diabetes Association Guidelines of Diabetes Care in Primary Care and Subspecialty Clinics

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a major public health problem with significant morbidity and mortality. Evidence based guidelines have been proposed to reduce the micro and macrovascular complications, but studies have shown that these goals are not being met. We sought to compare the adherence to the American Diabetes Association guidelines for measurement and control of glycohemoglobin (A1c), blood pressure (BP), lipids (LDL) and microalbuminuria (MA) by subspecialty and primary care clinic...

  1. A Code of Professional Ethical Conduct for the American Medical Informatics Association: An AMIA Board of Directors Approved White Paper

    OpenAIRE

    Hurdle, John F.; Adams, Samantha; Brokel, Jane; Chang, Betty; Embi, Peter; Petersen, Carolyn; Terrazas, Enrique; Winkelstein, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The AMIA Board of Directors has decided to periodically publish AMIA’s Code of Professional Ethical Conduct for its members in the Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. The Code also will be available on the AMIA Web site at www.amia.org as it continues to evolve in response to feedback from the AMIA membership. The AMIA Board acknowledges the continuing work and dedication of the AMIA Ethics Committee. AMIA is the copyright holder of this work.

  2. Association between Acculturation and Binge Drinking among Asian-Americans: Results from the California Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monideepa B. Becerra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Evaluate the association between acculturation and binge drinking among six Asian-American subgroups. Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of public access adult portion of 2007, 2009, and 2011/2012 California Health Interview Survey data was conducted. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were utilized with any binge drinking in the past year as the outcome variable and language spoken at home and time in USA as proxy measures of acculturation. Results. A total of 1,631 Asian-Americans (N=665,195 were identified as binge drinkers. Binge drinking was positively associated with being first generation South Asian (OR=3.05, 95% CI=1.55, 5.98 and monolingual (English only Vietnamese (OR=3.00; 95% CI=1.58, 5.70, especially among females. Other factors associated with increased binge drinking were being female (Chinese only, not being current married (South Asian only, and being an ever smoker (all subgroups except South Asians. Conclusion. First generation South Asians and linguistically acculturated Vietnamese, especially females, are at an increased risk of binge drinking. Future studies and preventive measures should address the cultural basis of such health risk behaviors among Asian-American adults.

  3. Validation of statistical models for estimating hospitalization associated with influenza and other respiratory viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reliable estimates of disease burden associated with respiratory viruses are keys to deployment of preventive strategies such as vaccination and resource allocation. Such estimates are particularly needed in tropical and subtropical regions where some methods commonly used in temperate regions are not applicable. While a number of alternative approaches to assess the influenza associated disease burden have been recently reported, none of these models have been validated with virologically confirmed data. Even fewer methods have been developed for other common respiratory viruses such as respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, parainfluenza and adenovirus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We had recently conducted a prospective population-based study of virologically confirmed hospitalization for acute respiratory illnesses in persons <18 years residing in Hong Kong Island. Here we used this dataset to validate two commonly used models for estimation of influenza disease burden, namely the rate difference model and Poisson regression model, and also explored the applicability of these models to estimate the disease burden of other respiratory viruses. The Poisson regression models with different link functions all yielded estimates well correlated with the virologically confirmed influenza associated hospitalization, especially in children older than two years. The disease burden estimates for RSV, parainfluenza and adenovirus were less reliable with wide confidence intervals. The rate difference model was not applicable to RSV, parainfluenza and adenovirus and grossly underestimated the true burden of influenza associated hospitalization. CONCLUSION: The Poisson regression model generally produced satisfactory estimates in calculating the disease burden of respiratory viruses in a subtropical region such as Hong Kong.

  4. Structural and sociocultural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American women in Alabama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michelle; Moneyham, Linda; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Chamot, Eric; Scarinci, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    African American women have disproportionately high prevalence rates of HIV and cervical cancer. HIV-infected women are significantly less likely to obtain recommended cervical cancer screenings than HIV-uninfected women. The purpose of this study was to examine sociocultural and structural factors associated with cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected African American in Alabama. The PEN-3 Model and the Health Belief Model were used as theoretical frameworks. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty HIV-infected African American women to identify perceptions, enablers, and nurturers, perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, and perceived benefits related to cervical cancer and screening. The most common positive perceptions, enablers, and nurturers that contributed to cervical cancer screening included internal motivation and awareness of the importance of HIV-infected women getting Pap tests due to their weakened immune system. Negative perceptions, enablers, and nurturers included lack of knowledge about cervical cancer and screening, and lack of perceived susceptibility to cervical cancer. The results of this study can be used to guide the development of culturally relevant cervical cancer and screening education interventions aimed at increasing cervical cancer screening adherence among HIV-infected African American women.

  5. To Be or Not to Be Associated: Power study of four statistical modeling approaches to identify parasite associations in cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise eVaumourin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies are reporting simultaneous infections by parasites in many different hosts. The detection of whether these parasites are significantly associated is important in medicine and epidemiology. Numerous approaches to detect associations are available, but only a few provide statistical tests. Furthermore, they generally test for an overall detection of association and do not identify which parasite is associated with which other one. Here, we developed a new approach, the association screening approach, to detect the overall and the detail of multi-parasite associations. We studied the power of this new approach and of three other known ones (i.e. the generalized chi-square, the network and the multinomial GLM approaches to identify parasite associations either due to parasite interactions or to confounding factors. We applied these four approaches to detect associations within two populations of multi-infected hosts: 1 rodents infected with Bartonella sp., Babesia microti and Anaplasma phagocytophilum and 2 bovine population infected with Theileria sp. and Babesia sp.. We found that the best power is obtained with the screening model and the generalized chi-square test. The differentiation between associations, which are due to confounding factors and parasite interactions was not possible. The screening approach significantly identified associations between Bartonella doshiae and B. microti, and between T. parva, T. mutans and T. velifera. Thus, the screening approach was relevant to test the overall presence of parasite associations and identify the parasite combinations that are significantly over- or under-represented. Unravelling whether the associations are due to real biological interactions or confounding factors should be further investigated. Nevertheless, in the age of genomics and the advent of new technologies, it is a considerable asset to speed up researches focusing on the mechanisms driving interactions

  6. Forensic analysis of Salvia divinorum using multivariate statistical procedures. Part II: association of adulterated samples to S. divinorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard, Melissa A Bodnar; McGuffin, Victoria L; Smith, Ruth Waddell

    2012-01-01

    Salvia divinorum is a plant material that is of forensic interest due to the hallucinogenic nature of the active ingredient, salvinorin A. In this study, S. divinorum was extracted and spiked onto four different plant materials (S. divinorum, Salvia officinalis, Cannabis sativa, and Nicotiana tabacum) to simulate an adulterated sample that might be encountered in a forensic laboratory. The adulterated samples were extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the resulting total ion chromatograms were subjected to a series of pretreatment procedures that were used to minimize non-chemical sources of variance in the data set. The data were then analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) to investigate association of the adulterated extracts to unadulterated S. divinorum. While association was possible based on visual assessment of the PCA scores plot, additional procedures including Euclidean distance measurement, hierarchical cluster analysis, Student's t tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and Pearson product moment correlation were also applied to the PCA scores to provide a statistical evaluation of the association observed. The advantages and limitations of each statistical procedure in a forensic context were compared and are presented herein.

  7. Validation of the MEDFICTS dietary questionnaire: A clinical tool to assess adherence to American Heart Association dietary fat intake guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindeman Jody

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary assessment tools are often too long, difficult to quantify, expensive to process, and largely used for research purposes. A rapid and accurate assessment of dietary fat intake is critically important in clinical decision-making regarding dietary advice for coronary risk reduction. We assessed the validity of the MEDFICTS (MF questionnaire, a brief instrument developed to assess fat intake according to the American Heart Association (AHA dietary "steps". Methods We surveyed 164 active-duty US Army personnel without known coronary artery disease at their intake interview for a primary prevention cardiac intervention trial using the Block food frequency (FFQ and MF questionnaires. Both surveys were completed on the same intake visit and independently scored. Correlations between each tools' assessment of fat intake, the agreement in AHA step categorization of dietary quality with each tool, and the test characteristics of the MF using the FFQ as the gold standard were assessed. Results Subjects consumed a mean of 36.0 ± 13.0% of their total calories as fat, which included saturated fat consumption of 13.0 ± 0.4%. The majority of subjects (125/164; 76.2% had a high fat (worse than AHA Step 1 diet. There were significant correlations between the MF and the FFQ for the intake of total fat (r = 0.52, P 70 [high fat diet] was negligible (kappa statistic = 0.036. The MF was accurate at the extremes of fat intake, but could not reliably identify the 3 AHA dietary classifications. Alternative MF cutpoints of 50 (high fat diet were highly sensitive (96%, but had low specificity (46% for a high fat diet. ROC curve analysis identified that a MF score cutoff of 38 provided optimal sensitivity 75% and specificity 72%, and had modest agreement (kappa = 0.39, P Conclusions The MEDFICTS questionnaire is most suitable as a tool to identify high fat diets, rather than discriminate AHA Step 1 and Step 2 diets. Currently recommended

  8. Evaluation of the truncated perturbed chain-polar statistical associating fluid theory for complex mixture fluid phase equilibria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakatsani, Eirini; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Economou, Ioannis

    2006-01-01

    Perturbed chain-statistical associating fluid theory (PC-SAFT) was extended rigorously to polar fluids based on the theory of Stell and co-workers [Mol. Phys. 1977, 33, 987]. The new PC-PSAFT was simplified to truncated PC-PSAFT (tPC-PSAFT) so that it can be practical for real polar fluid thermod...... pressures are calculated. Comparisons against PC-SAFT calculations are made. It is shown that tPC-PSAFT is an accurate model for polar fluid mixture phase equilibria....

  9. Radiologic history exhibit: the American Association for Women Radiologists (AAWR): 25 years of promoting women in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angtuaco, Teresita L; Macura, Katarzyna J; Lewicki, Ann M; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Rumack, Carol M

    2008-01-01

    On the 25th anniversary of the American Association for Women Radiologists (AAWR), the association's accomplishments in promoting the careers of women radiologists were reviewed. Programs that feature opportunities for women to balance their careers and their personal lives have contributed greatly to promoting networking opportunities at national meetings. Highlights of women's accomplishments in national radiology organizations underline how far women have advanced in the specialty. Future initiatives for the organization center on increasing women's involvement in recruiting and mentoring other women in radiology.

  10. Position statement. Restructuring, work redesign, and the job and career security of registered nurses. American Nurses Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The American Nurses Association (ANA) is committed to safeguarding the public, protecting and advancing the careers of professional nurses, supporting individual and collective efforts by registered nurses to protect their clients and enhancing the professional development and job security of registered nurses. As the nation's health care system is restructured, ANA is actively engaged in initiatives to strengthen the economic and general welfare of registered nurses, the safety and care for the public, and, in partnership with the state nurses associations (SNAs), oppose efforts to replace registered nurses with inappropriate substitutes.

  11. Travel for the 2004 American Statistical Association Biannual Radiation Meeting: "Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, David J.

    2009-07-21

    The 16th ASA Conference on Radiation and Health, held June 27-30, 2004 in Beaver Creek, CO, offered a unique forum for discussing research related to the effects of radiation exposures on human health in a multidisciplinary setting. The Conference furnishes investigators in health related disciplines the opportunity to learn about new quantitative approaches to their problems and furnishes statisticians the opportunity to learn about new applications for their discipline. The Conference was attended by about 60 scientists including statisticians, epidemiologists, biologists and physicists interested in radiation research. For the first time, ten recipients of Young Investigator Awards participated in the conference. The Conference began with a debate on the question: “Do radiation doses below 1 cGy increase cancer risks?” The keynote speaker was Dr. Martin Lavin, who gave a banquet presentation on the timely topic “How important is ATM?” The focus of the 2004 Conference on Radiation and Health was Radiation in Realistic Environments: Interactions Between Radiation and Other Risk Modifiers. The sessions of the conference included: Radiation, Smoking, and Lung Cancer Interactions of Radiation with Genetic Factors: ATM Radiation, Genetics, and Epigenetics Radiotherapeutic Interactions The Conference on Radiation and Health is held bi-annually, and participants are looking forward to the 17th conference to be held in 2006.

  12. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, Hossein; Papini, Enrico; Paschke, Ralf;

    2010-01-01

    American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules are systematically developed statements to assist health care professionals in medical...... decision making for specific clinical conditions. Most of the content herein is based on literature reviews. In areas of uncertainty, professional judgment was applied.These guidelines are a working document that reflects the state of the field at the time of publication. Because rapid changes in this area...

  13. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of thyroid Nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, Hossein; Papini, Enrico; Paschke, Ralf;

    2010-01-01

    American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules are systematically developed statements to assist health care professionals in medical...... decision making for specific clinical conditions. Most of the content herein is based on literature reviews. In areas of uncertainty, professional judgment was applied.These guidelines are a working document that reflects the state of the field at the time of publication. Because rapid changes in this area...

  14. Statistical mechanics of consciousness: Maximization of information content of network is associated with conscious awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara Erra, R; Mateos, D M; Wennberg, R; Perez Velazquez, J L

    2016-11-01

    It is said that complexity lies between order and disorder. In the case of brain activity and physiology in general, complexity issues are being considered with increased emphasis. We sought to identify features of brain organization that are optimal for sensory processing, and that may guide the emergence of cognition and consciousness, by analyzing neurophysiological recordings in conscious and unconscious states. We find a surprisingly simple result: Normal wakeful states are characterized by the greatest number of possible configurations of interactions between brain networks, representing highest entropy values. Therefore, the information content is larger in the network associated to conscious states, suggesting that consciousness could be the result of an optimization of information processing. These findings help to guide in a more formal sense inquiry into how consciousness arises from the organization of matter.

  15. Application of multivariate statistics to vestibular testing: discriminating between Meniere's disease and migraine associated dizziness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitri, P. S.; Wall, C. 3rd; Oas, J. G.; Rauch, S. D.

    2001-01-01

    Meniere's disease (MD) and migraine associated dizziness (MAD) are two disorders that can have similar symptomatologies, but differ vastly in treatment. Vestibular testing is sometimes used to help differentiate between these disorders, but the inefficiency of a human interpreter analyzing a multitude of variables independently decreases its utility. Our hypothesis was that we could objectively discriminate between patients with MD and those with MAD using select variables from the vestibular test battery. Sinusoidal harmonic acceleration test variables were reduced to three vestibulo-ocular reflex physiologic parameters: gain, time constant, and asymmetry. A combination of these parameters plus a measurement of reduced vestibular response from caloric testing allowed us to achieve a joint classification rate of 91%, independent quadratic classification algorithm. Data from posturography were not useful for this type of differentiation. Overall, our classification function can be used as an unbiased assistant to discriminate between MD and MAD and gave us insight into the pathophysiologic differences between the two disorders.

  16. Summary recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. American Medical Informatics Association, The Computer-based Patient Record Institute, The Medical Library Association, The Association of Academic Health Science Libraries, The American Health Information Management Association, and The American Nurses Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R A; Gardner, R M

    1997-11-01

    Clinical software systems are becoming ubiquitous. A growing literature documents how these systems can improve health care delivery, but concerns about patient safety must now be formally addressed. In 1996, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) called for discussions on regulation of software programs as medical devices. In response, a consortium of organizations dedicated to improving health care through information technology developed recommendations for the responsible regulation and monitoring of clinical software systems by users, vendors, and regulatory agencies. These recommendations were revised and approved by the American Medical informatics Association Public Policy Committee and Board. Other organizations reviewed, modified, and approved the recommendations, and the Boards of Directors of most of the organizations in the consortium endorsed the guidelines. The consortium proposes four categories of clinical system risk and four classes of monitoring and regulatory action that can be applied on the basis of the risk level. The consortium recommends that most clinical software systems be supervised locally and that developers of health care information systems adopt a code of good business practices. Budgetary and other constraints limit the type and number of systems that the FDA can regulate effectively; therefore, the FDA should exempt most clinical software systems and focus on systems that pose high clinical risk and provide limited opportunity for competent human intervention.

  17. Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada that appropriately planned vegetarian diets are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Approximately 2.5% of adults in the United States and 4% of adults in Canada follow vegetarian diets. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat, fish, or fowl. Interest in vegetarianism appears to be increasing, with many restaurants and college foodservices offering vegetarian meals routinely. Substantial growth in sales of foods attractive to vegetarians has occurred and these foods appear in many supermarkets. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, iron, zinc, calcium, vitamin D, riboflavin, vitamin B-12, vitamin A, n-3 fatty acids, and iodine. A vegetarian, including vegan, diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, use of fortified foods or supplements can be helpful in meeting recommendations for individual nutrients. Well-planned vegan and other types of vegetarian diets are appropriate for all stages of the life-cycle including during pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence. Vegetarian diets offer a number of nutritional benefits including lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol, and animal protein as well as higher levels of carbohydrates, fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate, antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, and phytochemicals. Vegetarians have been reported to have lower body mass indices than non-vegetarians, as well as lower rates of death from ischemic heart disease, lower blood cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and prostate and colon cancer. While a number of federally funded and institutional feeding programs can accommodate vegetarians, few have foods suitable for vegans at this time. Because

  18. Tobacco and cancer: an American Association for Cancer Research policy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Herbst, Roy S; Land, Stephanie R; Leischow, Scott J; Shields, Peter G

    2010-05-01

    The evidence against tobacco use is clear, incontrovertible, and convincing; so is the need for urgent and immediate action to stem the global tide of tobacco-related death and suffering and to improve public health. The American Association for Cancer Research makes an unequivocal call to all who are concerned about public health to take the following immediate steps:Increase the investment in tobacco-related research, commensurate with the enormous toll that tobacco use takes on human health, to provide the scientific evidence to drive the development of effective policies and treatments necessary to dramatically reduce tobacco use and attendant disease. Develop new evidence-based strategies to more effectively prevent the initiation of tobacco use, especially for youth and young adults. Promote the further development of evidence-based treatments for tobacco cessation, including individualized therapies, and ensure coverage of and access to evidence-based behavioral and pharmacological treatments. Develop evidence-based strategies for more effective public communication to prevent, reduce, and eliminate tobacco use and to guide health policies and clinical practice. Develop effective, evidence-based policies to reduce disparities across the tobacco continuum among social groups and developed and developing nations. Implement to the fullest extent existing evidence-based, systems-wide tobacco control programs to prevent initiation and foster cessation. Adapt and implement appropriate approaches to reduce the growing burden of tobacco use in the developing world. Enhance and coordinate surveillance efforts, both in the United States and globally, to monitor tobacco products, tobacco use, and tobacco-related disease, including tobacco use in oncology clinical trials. Establish a comprehensive, science-based regulatory framework to evaluate tobacco products and manufacturers' claims. Promote research that addresses the following: the potential harms of current and

  19. Changes in size and trends of North American sea duck populations associated with North Pacific oceanic regime shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.

    2013-01-01

    Broad-scale multi-species declines in populations of North American sea ducks for unknown reasons is cause for management concern. Oceanic regime shifts have been associated with rapid changes in ecosystem structure of the North Pacific and Bering Sea. However, relatively little is known about potential effects of these changes in oceanic conditions on marine bird populations at broad scales. I examined changes in North American breeding populations of sea ducks from 1957 to 2011 in relation to potential oceanic regime shifts in the North Pacific in 1977, 1989, and 1998. There was strong support for population-level effects of regime shifts in 1977 and 1989, but little support for an effect of the 1998 shift. The continental-level effects of these regime shifts differed across species groups and time. Based on patterns of sea duck population dynamics associated with regime shifts, it is unclear if the mechanism of change relates to survival or reproduction. Results of this analysis support the hypothesis that population size and trends of North American sea ducks are strongly influenced by oceanic conditions. The perceived population declines appear to have halted >20 years ago, and populations have been relatively stable or increasing since that time. Given these results, we should reasonably expect dramatic changes in sea duck population status and trends with future oceanic regime shifts.

  20. The Role of Statistics in Business and Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Gerald J

    2011-01-01

    An insightful guide to the use of statistics for solving key problems in modern-day business and industry This book has been awarded the Technometrics Ziegel Prize for the best book reviewed by the journal in 2010. Technometrics is a journal of statistics for the physical, chemical and engineering sciences, published jointly by the American Society for Quality and the American Statistical Association. Criteria for the award include that the book brings together in one volume a body of material previously only available in scattered research articles and having the potential to significantly im

  1. Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Silent Cerebrovascular Disease : A Scientific Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Eric E; Saposnik, Gustavo; Biessels, Geert Jan; Doubal, Fergus N; Fornage, Myriam; Gorelick, Philip B; Greenberg, Steven M; Higashida, Randall T; Kasner, Scott E; Seshadri, Sudha

    2017-01-01

    Two decades of epidemiological research shows that silent cerebrovascular disease is common and is associated with future risk for stroke and dementia. It is the most common incidental finding on brain scans. To summarize evidence on the diagnosis and management of silent cerebrovascular disease to

  2. EXPLAINING THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN GENDER AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG AMERICAN INDIAN ADOLESCENTS: AN APPLICATION OF POWER-CONTROL THEORY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Eitle, David

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluates the utility of Hagan's power-control theory for explaining substance use behaviors for a sample of American Indian adolescent males and females. Consistent with the theory, we found that patriarchal family form and the affective bond between father and daughter were significant predictors of female substance use behaviors. Compared to results from an analysis of non-Hispanic whites, these results reveal the importance of testing generalist explanations of deviant behavior across racial and ethnic groups. Our findings encourage a more in depth consideration of the gendered nature of work, it's association with socialization and control in American Indian families, and it's impact on gender differences in substance use and delinquent behaviors.

  3. Statistical study of the GNSS phase scintillation associated with two types of auroral blobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yaqi; Moen, Jøran I.; Miloch, Wojciech J.; Clausen, Lasse B. N.; Oksavik, Kjellmar

    2016-05-01

    This study surveys space weather effects on GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) signals in the nighttime auroral and polar cap ionosphere using scintillation receivers, all-sky imagers, and the European Incoherent Scatter Svalbard radar. We differentiate between two types of auroral blobs: blob type 1 (BT 1) which is formed when islands of high-density F region plasma (polar cap patches) enter the nightside auroral oval, and blob type 2 (BT 2) which are generated locally in the auroral oval by intense particle precipitation. For BT 1 blobs we have studied 41.4 h of data between November 2010 and February 2014. We find that BT 1 blobs have significantly higher scintillation levels than their corresponding polar cap patch; however, there is no clear relationship between the scintillation levels of the preexisting polar cap patch and the resulting BT 1 blob. For BT 2 blobs we find that they are associated with much weaker scintillations than BT 1 blobs, based on 20 h of data. Compared to patches and BT 2 blobs, the significantly higher scintillation level for BT 1 blobs implies that auroral dynamics plays an important role in structuring of BT 1 blobs.

  4. Associations of Future Expectations, Negative Friends, and Academic Achievement in High-Achieving African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael; Corprew, Charles S., III; Becker, Jonathan E.

    2009-01-01

    The relations of future expectations (general and academic) to academic outcomes were examined in a sample of 129 African American high-achieving adolescents (majority female participants, n = 92). This study was interested in the multidimensional nature of future expectations. Results from the study confirm the hypothesis that academic future…

  5. Association of Acculturative Stress, Islamic Practices, and Internalizing Symptoms among Arab American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N.; Pham, Andy V.; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara M.; Yosai, Erin R.

    2016-01-01

    Although the numbers of Arab American immigrant youth in schools is increasing, there is little understanding of their mental health and the sociocultural factors that might influence it. This study examined the relationship between 2 sociocultural factors (i.e., acculturative stress and religious practices) and internalizing symptoms in first-…

  6. Longitudinal Association between Childhood Impulsivity and Bulimic Symptoms in African American Adolescent Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodell, Lindsay P.; Joiner, Thomas E.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using a longitudinal design, the authors of this study examined the relationship between externalizing problems and impulsivity in early childhood and symptoms of disordered eating in late adolescence. Method: Participants were urban, African American first-grade girls (N = 119) and their parents who were participating in a longitudinal…

  7. Risk and Protective Factors Associated with Gang Involvement among Urban African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita; Pack, Robert; Harris, Carole; Cottrell, Lesley; Burns, James

    2002-01-01

    Analyzed data about urban African American youth to explore whether differences in exposure to violence, resilience, and distress symptoms between gang members and nonmembers resulted from risk behaviors in which youths participated or from gang membership itself. Results indicated that gang membership itself related to increased risk and…

  8. Combining Multiple Hypothesis Testing with Machine Learning Increases the Statistical Power of Genome-wide Association Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieth, Bettina; Kloft, Marius; Rodríguez, Juan Antonio; Sonnenburg, Sören; Vobruba, Robin; Morcillo-Suárez, Carlos; Farré, Xavier; Marigorta, Urko M.; Fehr, Ernst; Dickhaus, Thorsten; Blanchard, Gilles; Schunk, Daniel; Navarro, Arcadi; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2016-11-01

    The standard approach to the analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) is based on testing each position in the genome individually for statistical significance of its association with the phenotype under investigation. To improve the analysis of GWAS, we propose a combination of machine learning and statistical testing that takes correlation structures within the set of SNPs under investigation in a mathematically well-controlled manner into account. The novel two-step algorithm, COMBI, first trains a support vector machine to determine a subset of candidate SNPs and then performs hypothesis tests for these SNPs together with an adequate threshold correction. Applying COMBI to data from a WTCCC study (2007) and measuring performance as replication by independent GWAS published within the 2008-2015 period, we show that our method outperforms ordinary raw p-value thresholding as well as other state-of-the-art methods. COMBI presents higher power and precision than the examined alternatives while yielding fewer false (i.e. non-replicated) and more true (i.e. replicated) discoveries when its results are validated on later GWAS studies. More than 80% of the discoveries made by COMBI upon WTCCC data have been validated by independent studies. Implementations of the COMBI method are available as a part of the GWASpi toolbox 2.0.

  9. Teaching statistics to nursing students: an expert panel consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Matthew J; Eckardt, Patricia; Higgins, Melinda; Kim, MyoungJin; Schmiege, Sarah J

    2013-06-01

    Statistics education is a necessary element of nursing education, and its inclusion is recommended in the American Association of Colleges of Nursing guidelines for nurse training at all levels. This article presents a cohesive summary of an expert panel discussion, "Teaching Statistics to Nursing Students," held at the 2012 Joint Statistical Meetings. All panelists were statistics experts, had extensive teaching and consulting experience, and held faculty appointments in a U.S.-based nursing college or school. The panel discussed degree-specific curriculum requirements, course content, how to ensure nursing students understand the relevance of statistics, approaches to integrating statistics consulting knowledge, experience with classroom instruction, use of knowledge from the statistics education research field to make improvements in statistics education for nursing students, and classroom pedagogy and instruction on the use of statistical software. Panelists also discussed the need for evidence to make data-informed decisions about statistics education and training for nurses.

  10. A genome-wide association scan in admixed Latin Americans identifies loci influencing facial and scalp hair features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Kaustubh; Fontanil, Tania; Cal, Santiago; Mendoza-Revilla, Javier; Fuentes-Guajardo, Macarena; Chacón-Duque, Juan-Camilo; Al-Saadi, Farah; Johansson, Jeanette A; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Barquera Lozano, Rodrigo; Macín Pérez, Gastón; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C; Hurtado, Malena; Villegas, Valeria; Granja, Vanessa; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Gonzalez-José, Rolando; Headon, Denis; López-Otín, Carlos; Tobin, Desmond J; Balding, David; Ruiz-Linares, Andrés

    2016-03-01

    We report a genome-wide association scan in over 6,000 Latin Americans for features of scalp hair (shape, colour, greying, balding) and facial hair (beard thickness, monobrow, eyebrow thickness). We found 18 signals of association reaching genome-wide significance (P values 5 × 10(-8) to 3 × 10(-119)), including 10 novel associations. These include novel loci for scalp hair shape and balding, and the first reported loci for hair greying, monobrow, eyebrow and beard thickness. A newly identified locus influencing hair shape includes a Q30R substitution in the Protease Serine S1 family member 53 (PRSS53). We demonstrate that this enzyme is highly expressed in the hair follicle, especially the inner root sheath, and that the Q30R substitution affects enzyme processing and secretion. The genome regions associated with hair features are enriched for signals of selection, consistent with proposals regarding the evolution of human hair.

  11. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in African Americans provides insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ng, Maggie C Y; Shriner, Daniel; Chen, Brian H

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more prevalent in African Americans than in Europeans. However, little is known about the genetic risk in African Americans despite the recent identification of more than 70 T2D loci primarily by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry....... In order to investigate the genetic architecture of T2D in African Americans, the MEta-analysis of type 2 DIabetes in African Americans (MEDIA) Consortium examined 17 GWAS on T2D comprising 8,284 cases and 15,543 controls in African Americans in stage 1 analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs...... × 10(-8), odds ratio (OR)  = 1.09 to 1.36). Fine-mapping revealed that 88 of 158 previously identified T2D or glucose homeostasis loci demonstrated nominal to highly significant association (2.2 × 10(-23)

  12. Application of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Guideline to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys from 1998 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Shin; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Kyoung Min; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Jang, Hak Chul; Park, Kyong Soo

    2017-01-01

    Background The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline for the treatment of blood cholesterol recommends statin therapy for individuals at high risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). The aim of this study was to investigate serial trends in the percentages of Korean adults considered eligible for statin therapy according to the new ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline. Methods Data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) I (1998, n=7,698), II (2001, n=5,654), III (2005, n=5,269), IV (2007 to 2009, n=15,727), and V (2010 to 2012, n=16,304), which used a stratified, multistage, probability sampling design, were used as representative of the entire Korean population. Results The percentage of adults eligible for statin therapy according to the ACC/AHA cholesterol guideline increased with time: 17.0%, 19.0%, 20.8%, 20.2%, and 22.0% in KNHANES I, II, III, IV, and V, respectively (P=0.022). The prevalence of ASCVD was 1.4% in KNHANES I and increased to 3.3% in KNHANES V. The percentage of diabetic patients aged 40 to 75 years with a low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels of 70 to 189 mg/dL increased from 4.8% in KNHANES I to 6.1% in KNHANES V. People with an estimated 10-year ASCVD risk ≥7.5% and aged 40 to 75 years accounted for the largest percentage among the four statin benefit groups: 9.1% in KNHANES I and 11.0% in KNHANES V. Conclusion Application of the 2013 ACC/AHA guideline has found that the percentage of Korean adults in the statin benefit groups has increased over the past 15 years. PMID:28029013

  13. Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Eva; Fernandes, Susan M; Landzberg, Michael J; Moons, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Although different guidelines on adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) care advocate for lifetime cardiac follow-up, a critical appraisal of the guideline implementation is lacking. We investigated the implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association 2008 guidelines for ACHD follow-up by investigating the type of health care professional, care setting, and frequency of outpatient visits in young adults with CHD. Furthermore, correlates for care in line with the recommendations or untraceability were investigated. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted, including 306 patients with CHD who had a documented outpatient visit at pediatric cardiology before age 18 years. In all, 210 patients (68.6%) were in cardiac follow-up; 20 (6.5%) withdrew from follow-up and 76 (24.9%) were untraceable. Overall, 198 patients were followed up in tertiary care, 1/4 (n = 52) of which were seen at a formalized ACHD care program and 3/4 (n = 146) remained at pediatric cardiology. Of those followed in formalized ACHD and pediatric cardiology care, the recommended frequency was implemented in 94.2% and 89%, respectively (p = 0.412). No predictors for the implementation of the guidelines were identified. Risk factors for becoming untraceable were none or lower number of heart surgeries, health insurance issues, and nonwhite ethnicity. In conclusion, a significant number of adults continue to be cared for by pediatric cardiologists, indicating that transfer to adult-oriented care was not standard practice. Frequency of follow-up for most patients was in line with the ACC/AHA 2008 guidelines. A considerable proportion of young adults were untraceable in the system, which makes them vulnerable for discontinuation of care.

  14. Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Ancestry and Aggressive Prostate Cancer among African Americans and European Americans in PCaP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Susan E.; Arab, Lenore; Zhang, Hongmei; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Johnson, Candace S.; Mohler, James L.; Smith, Gary J.; Su, Joseph L.; Trump, Donald L.; Woloszynska-Read, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans (AAs) have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP) aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OH)D3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs). Methods Plasma 25(OH)D3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry) in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP) classified as having either ‘high’ or ‘low’ aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OH)D3. Results AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95%) had the lowest mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26–3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05–0.70 among men with high calcium intake). Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null. Conclusions Among AAs, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study. PMID:25919866

  15. Renal and cardiovascular morbidities associated with APOL1 among African American and Non-African American children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Woroniecki

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: African American (AA children with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS have later onset disease that progresses more rapidly than in non-AA children. It is unclear how APOL1 genotypes contribute to kidney disease risk, progression and cardiovascular morbidity in children. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We examined the prevalence of APOL1 genotypes and associated cardiovascular phenotypes among children with FSGS in the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD study; an ongoing multicenter prospective cohort study of children aged 1-16 years with mild to moderate kidney disease.Results: A total of 140 AA children in the CKiD study were genotyped. HR APOL1 genotypes were present in 24% of AA children (33/140 and were associated with FSGS, p 3 mg/L (33% vs. 15%, p=0.12 and obesity (48% vs. 19%, p=0.01. There were no differences in glomerular filtration rate, hemoglobin, iPTH, or calcium-phosphate product. Conclusions: AA children with HR APOL1 genotype and FSGS have increase prevalence of obesity and LVH despite a later age of FSGS onset, while adjusting for socioeconomic status. Treatment of obesity may be an important component of CKD and LVH management in this population.

  16. Association of the BANK1 R61H variant with systemic lupus erythematosus in Americans of European and African ancestry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struan FA Grant

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Struan FA Grant1,2,3, Michelle Petri4, Jonathan P Bradfield1, Cecilia E Kim1, Erin Santa1, Kiran Annaiah1, Edward C Frackelton1, Joseph T Glessner1, F George Otieno1, Julie L Shaner1, Ryan M Smith1, Andrew W Eckert1, Rosetta M Chiavacci1, Marcin Imielinski1, Kathleen E Sullivan5, Hakon Hakonarson1,2,31Center for Applied Genomics, Abramson Research Center, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Pediatrics and Division of Human Genetics, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Division of Rheumatology, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Division of Allergy and Immunology, Abramson Research Center, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Recently an association was demonstrated between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs10516487, within the B-cell gene BANK1 and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE as a consequence of a genome wide association study of this disease in European and Argentinean populations. In a bid for replication, we examined the effects of the R61H non-synonymous variant with respect to SLE in our genotyped American cohorts of European and African ancestry. Utilizing data from our ongoing genome-wide association study in our cohort of 178 Caucasian SLE cases and 1808 Caucasian population-based controls plus 148 African American (AA SLE cases and 1894 AA population-based controls we investigated the association of the previously described non-synonymous SNP at the BANK1 locus with the disease in the two ethnicities separately. Using a Fisher’s exact test, the minor allele frequency (MAF of rs10516487 in the Caucasian cases was 22.6% while it was 31.2% in Caucasian controls, yielding a protective odds ratio (OR of 0.64 (95% CI 0.49–0.85; one-sided p = 7.07 × 10−4. Furthermore, the MAF of rs10516487 in the

  17. Using GAISE and NCTM Standards as Frameworks for Teaching Probability and Statistics to Pre-Service Elementary and Middle School Mathematics Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Mary Louise

    2010-01-01

    Statistics education has become an increasingly important component of the mathematics education of today's citizens. In part to address the call for a more statistically literate citizenship, The "Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE)" were developed in 2005 by the American Statistical Association. These…

  18. Self-reported asthma in Chaldeans, Arabs, and African Americans: factors associated with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Hikmet; Raymond, Delbert; Fakhouri, Monty; Templin, Thomas; Khoury, Radwan; Fakhouri, Haifa; Arnetz, Bengt B

    2011-06-01

    Although the prevalence of asthma is increasing worldwide, there are striking, and largely unexplained differences across various racial and ethnic groups. The current study looks at the prevalence of asthma and risk factors between Chaldeans, Arabs, and African Americans. We used Health Assessment Survey data representing 3,136 respondents. Prevalence across the three ethnic groups were compared using unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios, accounting for multiple risk factors. There were significant socio-demographic differences across all ethnic groups. Asthma prevalence was significantly lower in Arabs (9.4%) and Chaldeans (5.4%) than in Non-Middle Eastern Whites (14.4%). African American prevalence was 14.4%. The significantly lower prevalence of asthma among Chaldean and Arabs, as compared to African Americans, were not explained by traditional risk factors included in our models. We therefore, suggest that future studies should explore the possible role of ethnic-specific differences in gene × environmental interactions in the precipitation and/or exacerbation of asthma.

  19. Genome-wide association analysis confirms and extends the association of SLC2A9 with serum uric acid levels to Mexican Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Saroja eVoruganti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Increased serum uric acid (SUA is a risk factor for gout and renal and cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic factors that affect the variation in SUA in 632 Mexican Americans participants of the San Antonio Family Heart Study (SAFHS. A genome-wide association analysis was performed using the Illumina Human Hap 550K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP microarray. We used a linear regression-based association test under an additive model of allelic effect, while accounting for non-independence among family members via a kinship variance component. All analyses were performed in the software package SOLAR. SNPs rs6832439, rs13131257 and rs737267 in solute carrier protein 2 family, member 9 (SLC2A9 were associated with SUA at genome-wide significance (p <1.3×10-7. The minor alleles of these SNPs had frequencies of 36.2%, 36.2%, and 38.2 %, respectively, and were associated with decreasing SUA levels. All of these SNPs were located in introns 3-7 of SLC2A9, the location of the previously reported associations in European populations. When analyzed for association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors, conditional on SLC2A9 SNPs strongly associated with SUA, significant associations were found for SLC2A9 SNPs with BMI, body weight and waist circumference (p < 1.4 x 10-3 and suggestive associations with albumin-creatinine ratio and total antioxidant status. The SLC2A9 gene encodes an urate transporter that has considerable influence on variation in SUA. In addition to the primary association locus, suggestive evidence (p<1.9×10-6 for joint linkage/association was found at a previously-reported urate quantitative trait locus (Logarithm of odds score = 3.6 on 3p26.3. In summary, our GWAS extends and confirms the association of SLC2A9 with SUA for the first time in a Mexican American cohort and also shows for the first time its association with cardiovascular-renal disease risk factors.

  20. Optimizing resources for the surgical care of children: an American Pediatric Surgical Association Outcomes and Clinical Trials Committee consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Adam B; Dasgupta, Roshni; Chen, Li Ern; Blakely, Martin L; Islam, Saleem; Downard, Cynthia D; Rangel, Shawn J; St Peter, Shawn D; Calkins, Casey M; Arca, Marjorie J; Barnhart, Douglas C; Saito, Jacqueline M; Oldham, Keith T; Abdullah, Fizan

    2014-05-01

    The United States' healthcare system is facing unprecedented pressures: the healthcare cost curve is not sustainable while the bar of standards and expectations for the quality of care continues to rise. Systems committed to the surgical treatment of children will likely require changes and reorganization. Regardless of these mounting pressures, hospitals must remain focused on providing the best possible care to each child at every encounter. Available clinical expertise and hospital resources should be optimized to match the complexity of the treated condition. Although precise criteria are lacking, there is a growing consensus that the optimal combination of clinical experience and hospital resources must be defined, and efforts toward this goal have been supported by the Regents of the American College of Surgeons, the members of the American Pediatric Surgical Association, and the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia (SPA) Board of Directors. The topic of optimizing outcomes and the discussion of the concepts involved have unfortunately become divisive. Our goals, therefore, are 1) to provide a review of the literature that can provide context for the discussion of regionalization, volume, and optimal resources and promote mutual understanding of these important terms, 2) to review the evidence that has been published to date in pediatric surgery associated with regionalization, volume, and resource, 3) to focus on a specific resource (anesthesia), and the association that this may have with outcomes, and 4) to provide a framework for future research and policy efforts.

  1. Gender differences in the association of visceral and subcutaneous adiposity with adiponectin in African Americans: the Jackson Heart Study

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    Bidulescu Aurelian

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin, paradoxically reduced in obesity and with lower levels in African Americans (AA, modulates several cardiometabolic risk factors. Because abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT, known to be reduced in AA, and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT compartments may confer differential metabolic risk profiles, we investigated the associations of VAT and SAT with serum adiponectin, separately by gender, with the hypothesis that VAT is more strongly inversely associated with adiponectin than SAT. Methods Participants from the Jackson Heart Study, an ongoing cohort of AA (n = 2,799; 64% women; mean age, 55 ± 11 years underwent computer tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes, and had stored serum specimens analyzed for adiponectin levels. These levels were examined by gender in relation to increments of VAT and SAT. Results Compared to women, men had significantly lower mean levels of adiponectin (3.9 ± 3.0 μg/mL vs. 6.0 ± 4.4 μg/mL; p 3 vs. 2,668 ± 968 cm3; p 3 vs. 801 ± 363 cm3; p  Conclusion In African Americans, abdominal visceral adipose tissue had an inverse association with serum adiponectin concentrations only among women. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue appeared as a protective fat depot in men.

  2. American Association of Orthodontists Foundation Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection: Overview of a powerful tool for orthodontic research and teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Sheldon; Curry, Sean

    2015-08-01

    This article reports on the current status of the American Association of Orthodontists Foundation (AAOF) Craniofacial Growth Legacy Collection--an AAOF-supported multi-institutional project that uses the Internet and cloud computing to collect and share craniofacial images and data for orthodontic research and education. The project gives investigators and clinicians all over the world online access to longitudinal information on craniofacial development in untreated children with malocclusions of various types. It also is a unique source of control samples for testing the validity of consensually accepted beliefs about the effects of orthodontic treatment or of failure to treat.

  3. The association between stress, coping, and sexual risk behaviors over 24 months among African-American female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulland, Erin N; Brown, Jennifer L; Swartzendruber, Andrea L; Sales, Jessica M; Rose, Eve S; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2015-01-01

    Heightened psychosocial stress coupled with maladaptive coping may be associated with greater sexual risk engagement. This study examined the association between stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of sexual risk behavior engagement over 24 months among African-American adolescent females (N = 701; M = 17.6 years) enrolled in an STI/HIV risk-reduction intervention program. Participants completed audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) measures of global stress, interpersonal stress, coping strategy use, and sexual behaviors prior to intervention participation. Follow-up ACASI assessments were conducted at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-intervention. Generalized estimated equation models examined associations between baseline stress levels and coping strategy use as predictors of condom use (past 90 days, last sex) and multiple partners during follow-up. Global stress and individual coping strategy usage were not associated with differences in condom use. Higher interpersonal stress was associated with lower proportion condom use (p = .018), inconsistent condom use (p = .011), and not using a condom at last sex (p = .002). There were no significant associations between stress levels, coping strategy use, and multiple partners. Future research should explore mechanisms that may underlie the association between elevated interpersonal stress and decreased condom use among this population.

  4. The Reception of American Literature in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djockoua, Manyaka Toko

    2014-01-01

    In Cameroon, popular belief associates American literature with its country's economic and political greatness. Yet, if millions of Cameroonians show a growing enthusiasm for a visit to the US, just a few are interested in learning its literature. Using theories on the reading and teaching of literature, statistical data based on a questionnaire,…

  5. A novel genome-information content-based statistic for genome-wide association analysis designed for next-generation sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Li; Zhu, Yun; Xiong, Momiao

    2012-06-01

    The genome-wide association studies (GWAS) designed for next-generation sequencing data involve testing association of genomic variants, including common, low frequency, and rare variants. The current strategies for association studies are well developed for identifying association of common variants with the common diseases, but may be ill-suited when large amounts of allelic heterogeneity are present in sequence data. Recently, group tests that analyze their collective frequency differences between cases and controls shift the current variant-by-variant analysis paradigm for GWAS of common variants to the collective test of multiple variants in the association analysis of rare variants. However, group tests ignore differences in genetic effects among SNPs at different genomic locations. As an alternative to group tests, we developed a novel genome-information content-based statistics for testing association of the entire allele frequency spectrum of genomic variation with the diseases. To evaluate the performance of the proposed statistics, we use large-scale simulations based on whole genome low coverage pilot data in the 1000 Genomes Project to calculate the type 1 error rates and power of seven alternative statistics: a genome-information content-based statistic, the generalized T(2), collapsing method, multivariate and collapsing (CMC) method, individual χ(2) test, weighted-sum statistic, and variable threshold statistic. Finally, we apply the seven statistics to published resequencing dataset from ANGPTL3, ANGPTL4, ANGPTL5, and ANGPTL6 genes in the Dallas Heart Study. We report that the genome-information content-based statistic has significantly improved type 1 error rates and higher power than the other six statistics in both simulated and empirical datasets.

  6. Associations between Intake of Folate, Methionine, and Vitamins B-12, B-6 and Prostate Cancer Risk in American Veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana C. Vidal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer (PC is the second leading cause of cancer death in men. Recent reports suggest that excess of nutrients involved in the one-carbon metabolism pathway increases PC risk; however, empirical data are lacking. Veteran American men (272 controls and 144 PC cases who attended the Durham Veteran American Medical Center between 2004–2009 were enrolled into a case-control study. Intake of folate, vitamin B12, B6, and methionine were measured using a food frequency questionnaire. Regression models were used to evaluate the association among one-carbon cycle nutrients, MTHFR genetic variants, and prostate cancer. Higher dietary methionine intake was associated with PC risk (OR = 2.1; 95%CI 1.1–3.9 The risk was most pronounced in men with Gleason sum <7 (OR = 2.75; 95%CI 1.32– 5.73. The association of higher methionine intake and PC risk was only apparent in men who carried at least one MTHFR A1298C allele (OR =6.7; 95%CI = 1.6–27.8, compared to MTHFR A1298A noncarrier men (OR =0.9; 95%CI = 0.24–3.92 (p-interaction =0.045. There was no evidence for associations between B vitamins (folate, B12, and B6 and PC risk. Our results suggest that carrying the MTHFR A1298C variants modifies the association between high methionine intake and PC risk. Larger studies are required to validate these findings.

  7. Genome-wide association study of alcohol dependence: significant findings in African- and European-Americans including novel risk loci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelernter, J; Kranzler, HR; Sherva, R; Almasy, L; Koesterer, R; Smith, AH; Anton, R; Preuss, UW; Ridinger, M; Rujescu, D; Wodarz, N; Zill, P; Zhao, H; Farrer, LA

    2014-01-01

    We report a GWAS of alcohol dependence (AD) in European-American (EA) and African-American (AA) populations, with replication in independent samples of EAs, AAs and Germans. Our sample for discovery and replication was 16 087 subjects, the largest sample for AD GWAS to date. Numerous genome-wide significant (GWS) associations were identified, many novel. Most associations were population specific, but in several cases were GWS in EAs and AAs for different SNPs at the same locus, showing biological convergence across populations. We confirmed well-known risk loci mapped to alcohol-metabolizing enzyme genes, notably ADH1B (EAs: Arg48His, P = 1.17 × 10−31; AAs: Arg369Cys, P = 6.33 × 10−17) and ADH1C in AAs (Thr151Thr, P = 4.94 × 10−10), and identified novel risk loci mapping to the ADH gene cluster on chromosome 4 and extending centromerically beyond it to include GWS associations at LOC100507053 in AAs (P = 2.63 × 10−11), PDLIM5 in EAs (P = 2.01 × 10−8), and METAP in AAs (P = 3.35 × 10−8). We also identified a novel GWS association (1.17 × 10−10) mapped to chromosome 2 at rs1437396, between MTIF2 and CCDC88A, across all of the EA and AA cohorts, with supportive gene expression evidence, and population-specific GWS for markers on chromosomes 5, 9 and 19. Several of the novel associations implicate direct involvement of, or interaction with, genes previously identified as schizophrenia risk loci. Confirmation of known AD risk loci supports the overall validity of the study; the novel loci are worthy of genetic and biological follow-up. The findings support a convergence of risk genes (but not necessarily risk alleles) between populations, and, to a lesser extent, between psychiatric traits. PMID:24166409

  8. Results of the application of the American Diabetes Association guidelines regarding tobacco dependency in subjects with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albareda, Mercè; Sánchez, Lucinda; González, Joana; Viguera, Jaume; Mestrón, Antonio; Vernet, Angels; Vila, Lluís

    2009-09-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the stages of change for cessation in smoking after the application of American Diabetes Association recommendations in diabetic patients who smoke. This longitudinal descriptive study involved smokers with diabetes mellitus (DM) who were attended for their DM between September 2003 and December 2006. Intervention used was dependent on the stage of change for cessation (according to Prochaska and Di Clemente). For precontemplation subjects, a brief session was carried out where information regarding the risks of smoking in conjunction with DM was given. Patients at the contemplation stage of smoking cessation were offered the chance to participate in a cessation program. Later evaluation was carried out after a follow-up of more than 6 months. Seven hundred thirty-three subjects with DM were evaluated, including 156 smokers (21.28%): 103 (66.02%) in the precontemplation stage, 25 (16.02%) in the contemplation stage, 12 (7.69%) in the preparation stage, 12 (7.69%) in the action stage, and 4 (2.56%) in the maintenance stage. By the last follow-up, 65 (41.6%) subjects had quit smoking (36 ex-smokers), of whom 20 (30.77%) had subsequently relapsed. The use of the American Diabetes Association recommendations for the treatment of tobacco dependence in diabetes treatment results in an increased change of smoking cessation stages in subjects with DM as well as a higher overall percentage in abstinence.

  9. The business of ethics: gender, medicine, and the professional codification of the American Physiotherapy Association, 1918-1935.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linker, Beth

    2005-07-01

    The history of codes of ethics in health care has almost exclusively been told as a story of how medical doctors developed their own professional principles of conduct. Yet telling the history of medical ethics solely from the physicians' perspective neglects not only the numerous allied health care workers who developed their own codes of ethics in tandem with the medical profession, but also the role that gender played in the writing of such professional creeds. By focusing on the predominantly female organization of the American Physiotherapy Association (APA) and its 1935 "Code of Ethics and Discipline," I demonstrate how these women used their creed to at once curry favor from and challenge the authority of the medical profession. Through their Code, APA therapists engaged in a dynamic dialogue with the male physicians of the American Medical Association (AMA) in the name of professional survival. I conclude that, contrary to historians and philosophers who contend that professional women have historically operated under a gender-specific ethic of care, the physiotherapists avoided rhetoric construed as feminine and instead created a "business-like" creed in which they spoke solely about their relationship with physicians and remained silent on the matter of patient care.

  10. Cardiovascular Health Promotion in Children: Challenges and Opportunities for 2020 and Beyond: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberger, Julia; Daniels, Stephen R; Hagberg, Nancy; Isasi, Carmen R; Kelly, Aaron S; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Pate, Russell R; Pratt, Charlotte; Shay, Christina M; Towbin, Jeffrey A; Urbina, Elaine; Van Horn, Linda V; Zachariah, Justin P

    2016-09-20

    This document provides a pediatric-focused companion to "Defining and Setting National Goals for Cardiovascular Health Promotion and Disease Reduction: The American Heart Association's Strategic Impact Goal Through 2020 and Beyond," focused on cardiovascular health promotion and disease reduction in adults and children. The principles detailed in the document reflect the American Heart Association's new dynamic and proactive goal to promote cardiovascular health throughout the life course. The primary focus is on adult cardiovascular health and disease prevention, but critical to achievement of this goal is maintenance of ideal cardiovascular health from birth through childhood to young adulthood and beyond. Emphasis is placed on the fundamental principles and metrics that define cardiovascular health in children for the clinical or research setting, and a balanced and critical appraisal of the strengths and weaknesses of the cardiovascular health construct in children and adolescents is provided. Specifically, this document discusses 2 important factors: the promotion of ideal cardiovascular health in all children and the improvement of cardiovascular health metric scores in children currently classified as having poor or intermediate cardiovascular health. Other topics include the current status of cardiovascular health in US children, opportunities for the refinement of health metrics, improvement of health metric scores, and possibilities for promoting ideal cardiovascular health. Importantly, concerns about the suitability of using single thresholds to identify elevated cardiovascular risk throughout the childhood years and the limits of our current knowledge are noted, and suggestions for future directions and research are provided.

  11. A novel genomic alteration of LSAMP associates with aggressive prostate cancer in African American men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyorgy Petrovics

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of cancer genomes in global context is of great interest in light of changing ethnic distribution of the world population. We focused our study on men of African ancestry because of their disproportionately higher rate of prostate cancer (CaP incidence and mortality. We present a systematic whole genome analyses, revealing alterations that differentiate African American (AA and Caucasian American (CA CaP genomes. We discovered a recurrent deletion on chromosome 3q13.31 centering on the LSAMP locus that was prevalent in tumors from AA men (cumulative analyses of 435 patients: whole genome sequence, 14; FISH evaluations, 101; and SNP array, 320 patients. Notably, carriers of this deletion experienced more rapid disease progression. In contrast, PTEN and ERG common driver alterations in CaP were significantly lower in AA prostate tumors compared to prostate tumors from CA. Moreover, the frequency of inter-chromosomal rearrangements was significantly higher in AA than CA tumors. These findings reveal differentially distributed somatic mutations in CaP across ancestral groups, which have implications for precision medicine strategies.

  12. The Effect of Public and Private Decisions on University Governance on the Transnational Relations of American-Associated Universities in the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Bertelsen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the effect of public and private decisions on university governance on how historic and current American-associated universities in the Middle East have and continue to connect as transnational actors with a multitude of public, private and civil society actors in American society. These universities are the classic missionary universities in Beirut and Cairo (the American University of Beirut, Lebanese American University and the American University in Cairo as well as the many branch campuses and new universities with American accreditation or partnership which have appeared especially in the Gulf States. The ability of these universities to engage with actors in American society and the Middle Eastern host society is explained by their model of governance highlighting public and private decisions on primarily owner-ship structure and non- or for-profit status. Affiliated, non-profit status explains academic reputation, while proprietary, for-profit status is detrimental. Academic reputation is the basis of the relationships these universities maintain with American private, public and civil society actors.

  13. British American Tobacco ghost-wrote reports on tobacco advertising bans by the International Advertising Association and J J Boddewyn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R M

    2008-06-01

    In 1983 and 1986, the International Advertising Association (IAA) published an original version and then a revision of a report entitled "Tobacco Advertising Bans and Consumption in 16 Countries," which were edited by J J Boddewyn, a marketing professor. The reports concluded that tobacco advertising bans have not been accompanied by any significant reduction in tobacco consumption. Opponents of tobacco advertising restrictions trumpeted the IAA reports in print materials, media communications and legislative hearings during the 1980s and beyond. A new analysis of tobacco industry documents and transcripts of tobacco litigation testimony reveals that British American Tobacco ghost-wrote the IAA reports and that the Tobacco Institute (the trade association then representing the major US cigarette manufacturers) helped to arrange for Boddewyn to present the findings to the US Congress and the media. Further research on tobacco industry documents and tobacco litigation transcripts should assess whether tobacco industry sources were responsible for ghost-writing other studies favourable to the industry.

  14. Genome-wide association study of coronary heart disease and its risk factors in 8,090 African Americans: the NHLBI CARe Project.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Lettre

    Full Text Available Coronary heart disease (CHD is the leading cause of mortality in African Americans. To identify common genetic polymorphisms associated with CHD and its risk factors (LDL- and HDL-cholesterol (LDL-C and HDL-C, hypertension, smoking, and type-2 diabetes in individuals of African ancestry, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS in 8,090 African Americans from five population-based cohorts. We replicated 17 loci previously associated with CHD or its risk factors in Caucasians. For five of these regions (CHD: CDKN2A/CDKN2B; HDL-C: FADS1-3, PLTP, LPL, and ABCA1, we could leverage the distinct linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns in African Americans to identify DNA polymorphisms more strongly associated with the phenotypes than the previously reported index SNPs found in Caucasian populations. We also developed a new approach for association testing in admixed populations that uses allelic and local ancestry variation. Using this method, we discovered several loci that would have been missed using the basic allelic and global ancestry information only. Our conclusions suggest that no major loci uniquely explain the high prevalence of CHD in African Americans. Our project has developed resources and methods that address both admixture- and SNP-association to maximize power for genetic discovery in even larger African-American consortia.

  15. Trajectories of psychopathology and risky behaviors associated with childhood abuse and neglect in low-income urban African American girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Helen W; Samuelson, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, Anna H; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-07-01

    The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago, IL and followed over six waves of data collection (T1-T6) reflecting early (mean age 14) to late (mean age 17) adolescence. Child abuse and neglect history was determined from adolescent and caregiver reports. Latent curve modeling examined patterns of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, sexual experience, and risky sexual behavior reported by girls and associations with reported child abuse and neglect. Overall, these trajectories indicated a decrease in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, stability of drug and alcohol use, and an increase in sexual experience and risky sexual behaviors over time. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased internalizing symptoms and sexual experience at baseline and with externalizing symptoms and risky sexual behavior both at baseline and the final point. Child abuse and neglect was not significantly associated with alcohol or drug use. This study adds to the literature on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect by demonstrating patterns of psychopathology and risky behavior that persist over time in a high-risk group of girls with self or parent reported histories of abuse and neglect. Interventions that address externalizing problems and health risk behaviors may be of particular importance for this population.

  16. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Ameri...

  17. Most Americans Do Not Believe That There Is An Association Between Health Care Prices And Quality Of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kathryn A; Schleifer, David; Hagelskamp, Carolin

    2016-04-01

    Many organizations are developing health care price information tools for consumers. However, consumers may avoid low-price care if they perceive price to be associated with quality. We conducted a nationally representative survey to examine whether consumers perceive that price and quality are associated and whether the way in which questions are framed affects consumers' responses. Most Americans (58-71 percent, depending on question framing) did not think that price and quality are associated, but a substantial minority did perceive an association (21-24 percent) or were unsure whether there was one (8-16 percent). Responses to questions framed in terms of high price and high quality differed from responses to questions framed in terms of low price and low quality. People who had compared prices were more likely than those who had not compared prices to perceive that price and quality were associated. We explore implications of these findings, including how behavioral economics can inform approaches to helping consumers use price and quality information.

  18. Older Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders with Activities of Daily Living (ADL Limitations: Immigration and Other Factors Associated with Institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esme Fuller-Thomson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study determined the national prevalence and profile of Asian Americans with Activities of Daily Living (ADL limitations and identified factors associated with institutionalization. Data were obtained from 2006 American Community Survey, which replaced the long-form of the US Census. The data are nationally representative of both institutionalized and community-dwelling older adults. Respondents were Vietnamese (n = 203, Korean (n = 131, Japanese (n = 193, Filipino (n = 309, Asian Indian (n = 169, Chinese (n = 404, Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (n = 54, and non-Hispanic whites (n = 55,040 aged 55 and over who all had ADL limitations. The prevalence of institutionalized among those with ADL limitations varies substantially from 4.7% of Asian Indians to 18.8% of Korean Americans with ADL limitations. Every AAPI group had a lower prevalence of institutionalization than disabled Non-Hispanic whites older adults (23.8% (p < 0.001. After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, Asian Indians, Vietnamese, Japanese, Filipino, and Chinese had significantly lower odds of institutionalization than non-Hispanic whites (OR = 0.29, 0.31, 0.58, 0.51, 0.70, respectively. When the sample was restricted to AAPIs, the odds of institutionalization were higher among those who were older, unmarried, cognitively impaired and those who spoke English at home. This variation suggests that aggregating data across the AAPI groups obscures meaningful differences among these subpopulations and substantial inter-group differences may have important implications in the long-term care setting.

  19. Looking Back at One Hundred Years of the Association of American Colleges and Universities: An Interview with Presidents John W. Chandler, Paula P. Brownlee, and Carol Geary Schneider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritelli, David

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an interview with two former and the current president of the Association of American Colleges and Universities: John W. Chandler, Paula P. Brownlee, and Carol Geary Schneider. John W. Chandler was president of the association from 1985 to 1990, Paula P. Brownlee was president from 1990 to 1998, and Carol Geary…

  20. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  1. Longitudinal association between toenail zinc levels and the incidence of diabetes among American young adults: The CARDIA Trace Element Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Suk; Xun, Pengcheng; Li, Jing; Morris, Steve J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; He, Ka

    2016-03-16

    Data on primary prevention of zinc status and diabetes risk are sparse and inconsistent. Of note, the previous studies measured either dietary zinc intake with questionnaire or zinc status in serum or hair. Toenail zinc levels are reliable biomarkers of a relatively long-term exposure. A total of 3,960 American young adults, aged 20-32 years, free of diabetes at baseline in 1987 when toenail clippings were collected, were examined for incident diabetes through 2010. Toenail zinc levels were measured with an inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectroscopy method. Incident diabetes cases were identified by fasting or non-fasting plasma glucose levels, oral glucose tolerance tests, hemoglobin A1C levels, and/or antidiabetic medications. During the 23-year follow-up, 418 incident diabetes occurred. After adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, study center, body mass index, education, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, family history of diabetes, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and other dietary and non-dietary potential confounders, the hazard ratio of incident diabetes comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of toenail zinc levels was 1.21 (95% CI: 0.90-1.63; Ptrend = 0.20). Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that zinc status is inversely and longitudinally associated with the incidence of diabetes in American young adults.

  2. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.

  3. Analysis of surface segregation in polymer mixtures: A combination of mean field and statistical associated fluid theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Jaroslaw; Croce, Salvatore; Chakrabarti, Buddhapriya; Tasche, Jos

    The surface segregation in polymer mixtures remains a challenging problem for both academic exploration as well as industrial applications. Despite its ubiquity and several theoretical attempts a good agreement between computed and experimentally observed profiles has not yet been achieved. A simple theoretical model proposed in this context by Schmidt and Binder combines Flory-Huggins free energy of mixing with the square gradient theory of wetting of a wall by fluid. While the theory gives us a qualitative understanding of the surface induced segregation and the surface enrichment it lacks the quantitative comparison with the experiment. The statistical associating fluid theory (SAFT) allows us to calculate accurate free energy for a real polymeric materials. In an earlier work we had shown that increasing the bulk modulus of a polymer matrix through which small molecules migrate to the free surface causes reduction in the surface migrant fraction using Schmidt-Binder and self-consistent field theories. In this work we validate this idea by combining mean field theories and SAFT to identify parameter ranges where such an effect should be observable. Department of Molecular Physics, Łódź University of Technology, Żeromskiego 116, 90-924 Łódź, Poland.

  4. Associating fuzzy logic, neural networks and multivariable statistic methodologies in the automatic identification of oil reservoir lithologies through well logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasquilla, Abel [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro (UENF), Macae, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Engenharia e Exploracao de Petroleo]. E-mail: abel@lenep.uenf.br; Silva, Jadir da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Geologia; Flexa, Roosevelt [Baker Hughes do Brasil Ltda, Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In this article, we present a new approach to the automatic identification of lithologies using only well log data, which associates fuzzy logic, neural networks and multivariable statistic methods. Firstly, we chose well log data that represents lithological types, as gamma rays (GR) and density (RHOB), and, immediately, we applied a fuzzy logic algorithm to determine optimal number of clusters. In the following step, a competitive neural network is developed, based on Kohonen's learning rule, where the input layer is composed of two neurons, which represent the same number of used logs. On the other hand, the competitive layer is composed by several neurons, which have the same number of clusters as determined by the fuzzy logic algorithm. Finally, some data bank elements of the lithological types are selected at random to be the discriminate variables, which correspond to the input data of the multigroup discriminate analysis program. In this form, with the application of this methodology, the lithological types were automatically identified throughout the a well of the Namorado Oil Field, Campos Basin, which presented some difficulty in the results, mainly because of geological complexity of this field. (author)

  5. Statistical and Ontological Analysis of Adverse Events Associated with Monovalent and Combination Vaccines against Hepatitis A and B Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jiangan; Zhao, Lili; Zhou, Shangbo; He, Yongqun

    2016-01-01

    Vaccinations often induce various adverse events (AEs), and sometimes serious AEs (SAEs). While many vaccines are used in combination, the effects of vaccine-vaccine interactions (VVIs) on vaccine AEs are rarely studied. In this study, AE profiles induced by hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix), hepatitis B vaccine (Engerix-B), and hepatitis A and B combination vaccine (Twinrix) were studied using the VAERS data. From May 2001 to January 2015, VAERS recorded 941, 3,885, and 1,624 AE case reports where patients aged at least 18 years old were vaccinated with only Havrix, Engerix-B, and Twinrix, respectively. Using these data, our statistical analysis identified 46, 69, and 82 AEs significantly associated with Havrix, Engerix-B, and Twinrix, respectively. Based on the Ontology of Adverse Events (OAE) hierarchical classification, these AEs were enriched in the AEs related to behavioral and neurological conditions, immune system, and investigation results. Twenty-nine AEs were classified as SAEs and mainly related to immune conditions. Using a logistic regression model accompanied with MCMC sampling, 13 AEs (e.g., hepatosplenomegaly) were identified to result from VVI synergistic effects. Classifications of these 13 AEs using OAE and MedDRA hierarchies confirmed the advantages of the OAE-based method over MedDRA in AE term hierarchical analysis. PMID:27694888

  6. Associations of Adiponectin with Adiposity, Insulin Sensitivity, and Diet in Young, Healthy, Mexican Americans and Non-Latino White Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio I. Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low circulating adiponectin levels may contribute to higher diabetes risk among Mexican Americans (MA compared to non-Latino whites (NLW. Our objective was to determine if among young healthy adult MAs have lower adiponectin than NLWs, independent of differences in adiposity. In addition, we explored associations between adiponectin and diet. This was an observational, cross-sectional study of healthy MA and NLW adults living in Colorado (U.S.A.. We measured plasma total adiponectin, adiposity (BMI, and visceral adipose tissue, insulin sensitivity (IVGTT, and self-reported dietary intake in 43 MA and NLW adults. Mean adiponectin levels were 40% lower among MA than NLW (5.8 ± 3.3 vs. 10.7 ± 4.2 µg/mL, p = 0.0003, and this difference persisted after controlling for age, sex, BMI, and visceral adiposity. Lower adiponectin in MA was associated with lower insulin sensitivity (R2 = 0.42, p < 0.01. Lower adiponectin was also associated with higher dietary glycemic index, lower intake of vegetables, higher intake of trans fat, and higher intake of grains. Our findings confirm that ethnic differences in adiponectin reflect differences in insulin sensitivity, but suggest that these are not due to differences in adiposity. Observed associations between adiponectin and diet support the need for future studies exploring the regulation of adiponectin by diet and other environmental factors.

  7. Intrapersonal and community factors associated with prostate cancer screening among African-American males in the US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickey SL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sabrina L Dickey,1 Eileen Cormier,1 James Whyte IV,1 Penny A Ralston2 1College of Nursing, 2Center on Better Health and Life for Underserved Populations, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA Purpose: The purpose of this research was to examine intrapersonal and community factors associated with prostate cancer screening (PCS among African-American (AA males of ≥40 years from a nationally representative data set in the US. The theory of planned behavior was utilized as the theoretical framework. Patients and methods: A cross-sectional secondary analysis employed data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in the US. The sample consisted of 377 AA males. The primary outcome variables were two PCS tests, the digital rectal exam (DRE and the prostate-specific antigen test. Logistic regression models were developed to test for associations between the PCS tests and the factors of interest. Results: The factors of age, education, and access to a health care facility were associated with AA males receiving the DRE. The age group of 40–49 years was least likely to receive the DRE when compared to the age group of ≥70 years. Similarly AA males without a college degree were also least likely to receive the DRE when compared to AA males with a college degree. AA males with access to health care were more likely than those without access to receive the DRE. Age <70 years along with church attendance was associated with AA males receiving the prostate-specific antigen test. Conclusion: Differences were present for significant associations among intrapersonal and community variables and the two PCS exams. A culturally sensitive approach is necessary for understanding factors associated with PCS among AA males, which is central to designing and appropriately targeting public health interventions to decrease the health disparity of prostate cancer among this high-risk population. Keywords: prostate cancer screening

  8. APA's Learning Objectives for Research Methods and Statistics in Practice: A Multimethod Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomcho, Thomas J.; Rice, Diana; Foels, Rob; Folmsbee, Leah; Vladescu, Jason; Lissman, Rachel; Matulewicz, Ryan; Bopp, Kara

    2009-01-01

    Research methods and statistics courses constitute a core undergraduate psychology requirement. We analyzed course syllabi and faculty self-reported coverage of both research methods and statistics course learning objectives to assess the concordance with APA's learning objectives (American Psychological Association, 2007). We obtained a sample of…

  9. Teaching Statistics in APA-Accredited Doctoral Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology: A Syllabi Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, Anna S.; Ripley, Jennifer S.; Hook, Joshua; Erspamer, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Although statistical methods and research design are crucial areas of competency for psychologists, few studies explore how statistics are taught across doctoral programs in psychology in the United States. The present study examined 153 American Psychological Association-accredited doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology and aimed…

  10. Replication of the LINGO1 gene association with essential tremor in a North American population

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Lorraine N.; Park, Naeun; Kisselev, Sergey; Rios, Eileen; Lee, Joseph H.; Louis, Elan D.

    2010-01-01

    A marker in the LINGO1 gene, rs9652490, showing significant genome-wide association with essential tremor (ET), was recently reported in an Icelandic population. To replicate this association in an independent population from North America, we genotyped 15 SNPs in the LINGO1 gene in 257 Caucasian ET cases (‘definite,' ‘probable' or ‘possible') and 265 controls enrolled in an epidemiological study at Columbia University. We observed a marginally significant association with allele G of the mar...

  11. Relative dental maturity and associated skeletal maturity in prehistoric native Americans of the Ohio valley area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciulli, Paul W

    2007-04-01

    Estimation of age-at-death of subadults in prehistoric skeletal samples based on modern reference standards rests on a number of assumptions of which many are untestable. If these assumptions are not met error of unknown magnitude and direction will be introduced to the subadult age estimates. This situation suggests that an independent estimate or estimates of age-related features, free of most of the assumptions made when using modern reference standards may be useful supplements in evaluating the age of subadults in prehistoric samples. The present study provides an internally consistent, population-specific measure of maturity for prehistoric Ohio valley Native Americans based on the seriation of dental development that may be used as a supplement to age-estimation. The developing dentition of 581 subadults from eight Ohio valley prehistoric-protohistoric groups was seriated within and among individuals resulting in a sequence of tooth development and a sequence of individuals from least to most mature. Dental maturity stages or sorting categories were then defined based on exclusive, easily observable, and highly repeatable tooth-formation stages. Tooth eruption (into occlusion), bone lengths, and fusion of skeletal elements are summarized by dental maturity stage. This procedure provides maturity estimates for skeletal features ordered by dental maturity stages derived from the same sample thus making explicit the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity.

  12. A Review of Child Psychiatric Epidemiology With Special Reference to American Indian and Alaska Native Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Ben Ezra; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Places the limited knowledge of the psychological problems of American Indian and Alaska Native children in context of general child psychiatric epidemiology, using the taxonomy of the American Psychiatric Association's third "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual." Available from: White Cloud Center, Gaines Hall UOHSC, 840 Southwest Gaines…

  13. Genetic associations with obstructive sleep apnea traits in Hispanic/Latino Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obstructive sleep apnea is a common disorder associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and premature mortality. Although there is strong clinical and epidemiologic evidence supporting the importance of genetic factors in influencing obstructive sleep apnea, its genetic bas...

  14. Safety of American Heart Association-recommended minimum exercise for desmosomal mutation carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sawant, Abhishek C; Te Riele, Anneline S J M; Tichnell, Crystal; Murray, Brittney; Bhonsale, Aditya; Tandri, Harikrishna; Judge, Daniel P; Calkins, Hugh; James, Cynthia A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endurance exercise is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C). Exercise recommendations for family members remain undetermined. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were to determine if (1) endurance exercise (

  15. 2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease during Pregnancy and the Postpartum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexander, Erik K; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Brent, Gregory A

    2017-01-01

    autoantibodies and pregnancy complications, thyroid considerations in infertile women, hypothyroidism in pregnancy, thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy, thyroid nodules and cancer in pregnant women, fetal and neonatal considerations, thyroid disease and lactation, screening for thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy......BACKGROUND: Thyroid disease in pregnancy is a common clinical problem. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were first published in 2011, significant clinical and scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines...... is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease in women during pregnancy, preconception and the postpartum period. METHODS: The specific clinical questions addressed in these guidelines were based...

  16. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons position paper on medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw--2014 update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Salvatore L; Dodson, Thomas B; Fantasia, John; Goodday, Reginald; Aghaloo, Tara; Mehrotra, Bhoomi; O'Ryan, Felice

    2014-10-01

    Strategies for management of patients with, or at risk for, medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) were set forth in the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS) position papers in 2007 and 2009. The position papers were developed by a special committee appointed by the board and composed of clinicians with extensive experience in caring for these patients and basic science researchers. The knowledge base and experience in addressing MRONJ has expanded, necessitating modifications and refinements to the previous position paper. This special committee met in September 2013 to appraise the current literature and revise the guidelines as indicated to reflect current knowledge in this field. This update contains revisions to diagnosis, staging, and management strategies and highlights current research status. The AAOMS considers it vitally important that this information be disseminated to other relevant health care professionals and organizations.

  17. Emotion socialization, child emotion understanding and regulation, and adjustment in urban African American families: differential associations across child gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jera Nelson; Kliewer, Wendy; Garner, Pamela W

    2009-01-01

    The prospective relation of maternal emotion philosophy to children's emotion understanding and regulation and positive and negative adjustment was investigated. Sixty-nine African American youth (50% male; M age = 11.29 years) and their maternal caregivers living in high violence areas of a midsized city participated in this interview study. Caregivers' meta-emotion philosophy predicted child emotion understanding and emotion regulation, which also were associated with Time 2 grades, internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and social skills after controlling for Time 1 adjustment. Emotional understanding mediated the relationship between caregivers' emotional socialization and boys' internalizing behaviors and between caregivers' emotional socialization and girls' social skills. In addition, emotion regulation mediated the relationships between emotional socialization and all four outcomes for boys. Implications for future work on emotion socialization and clinical intervention, particularly related to emotion regulation, are discussed.

  18. The American Dental Association's Center for Evidence-Based Dentistry: a critical resource for 21st century dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Jeske, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Through its website (http:// www.ada.org/prof/resources/ebd/index.asp), the American Dental Association's Center for Evidence-Based Dentistry offers dental health professionals access to systematic reviews of oral health-related research findings, as well as Clinical Recommendations, which summarize large bodies of scientific evidence in the form of practice recommendations, e.g., the use of professionally-applied topical fluoride and pit-and-fissure sealants. Another feature of the site of great practical importance to the practicing dentist is the Critical Summary, which is a concise review of an individual systematic review's methodology and findings, as well as the importance and context of the outcomes, and the strengths and weaknesses of the systematic review and its implications for dental practice.

  19. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: implications for social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-04-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to produce the "Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases" to promote the exceptional competence and diligence required when the consequence is life or death. This article summarizes the "Supplementary Guidelines," with implications for social work practice--that is, professional responsibility, competence, interviewing skill, knowledge of behavioral and mental impairment, records review, life history compilation, data interpretation, witness support, law-related knowledge, and testimony. The social work, which is scrutinized in a court of law, requires cultural competence, diverse oral and written communication skills, diligence, and the highest ethical standards.

  20. Management of Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody Euthyroid Women in Pregnancy: Comparison of the American Thyroid Association and the Endocrine Society Guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Mehran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of thyroid autoantibodies is relatively high in women of childbearing age. There is evidence that positive thyroperoxidase antibody even in euthyroid women may increase the risk of spontaneous and recurrent pregnancy loss and preterm delivery. However, the evidence is not enough to justify recommendation on the screening of pregnant women for thyroid autoantibodies or LT4 supplementation for reducing maternal or fetal complications. In this paper we reviewed the related evidence and compared the new guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and Endocrine Society with respect to the screening and management of positive thyroperoxidase antibody in euthyroid pregnant women. As there was no major contradiction or disagreement between the two guidelines, either one of two guidelines may be used by clinicians for the appropriate management of thyroid autoimmunity during pregnancy.

  1. Design and Validation of a Rubric to Assess the Use of American Psychological Association Style in scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Merma Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the American Psychological Association (APA. The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific article is coherent with these rules. Overall, the rubric will concentrate on General Aspects of the article and on the Citation System. To do this, 10 articles that were published within 2012-2016 and included in the Journal Citation Report will be analyzed using technical expertise. After doing 5 pilot studies, the results showed the validity and the reliability of the instrument. Furthermore, the process showed the evidence of the possibilities of the rubric to contribute to uniform criteria that can be used as a didactic tool in different scenarios.

  2. Establishing competency in the use of North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, Nursing Outcomes Classification, and Nursing Interventions Classification terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Gail; Falan, Sharie; Heath, Crystal; Treder, Marcy

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate a 16-hour intervention designed to build clinician competency in the use of North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA), Nursing Outcome Classification (NOC), and Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) (hereinafter: N3) among nurses with limited N3 knowledge. Each of 19 pairs of nurses independently selected N3 terms and rated the outcomes applicable to an actual patient for a specified time. A pair-through discussion then created a single consensus patient profile of the applicable terms. Before discussion, pairs agreed on 46% of the NANDA diagnoses, 30% of the NOC outcomes, and 20% of the NIC interventions selected. Eighty-nine percent of NOC label pair ratings were within 1 point. Building competency in N3 requires consistent use in written and oral communication with peers across time. Inter-rater reliabilities (IRRs) for NOC label ratings support previous findings.

  3. Writing an article for a geriatrics journal: guidelines from the Journal of the American Medical Directors Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger-Rapport, Barbara J; Gammack, Julie; Thomas, David R

    2008-01-01

    The ability to translate clinical research findings or a critical analysis into a publication is essential to disseminate new knowledge, advance the field, and influence patient care. Complete coverage of article preparation and style can be found in texts such as the AMA Manual of Style. Additionally, all major publications provide organizational and content instruction in a "Guideline for Authors" document. This article provides structured information regarding editorial expectations for a medical publication, focusing on the geriatric submission. For the Journal of the American Medical Directors Association (JAMDA), manuscripts should be applicable to, if not focused on, issues related to long-term care. The editors of JAMDA are committed to assisting authors in developing ideas for manuscripts, structuring the article and providing thoughtful reviewer comment to assist in revising the document.

  4. Skin cancer education among massage therapists: a survey at the 2010 meeting of the American Massage Therapy Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Shannon M; Louie-Gao, Qiong; Hession, Meghan L; Bailey, Elizabeth; Geller, Alan C; Cummins, Deborah

    2013-03-01

    Massage therapists encounter skin on a daily basis and have a unique opportunity to recognize potential skin cancers. The purpose of this study was to describe the skin cancer education provided to massage therapists and to assess their comfort regarding identification and communication of suspicious lesions. An observational retrospective survey study was conducted at the 2010 American Massage Therapy Association Meeting. Sixty percent reported receiving skin cancer education during and 25% reported receiving skin cancer education after training. Massage therapists who examine their own skin are more likely to be comfortable with recognizing a suspicious lesion and are more likely to examine their client's skin. Greater number of clients treated per year and greater frequency of client skin examinations were predictors of increased comfort level with recognizing a suspicious lesion. Massage therapists are more comfortable discussing than identifying a potential skin cancer. Massage therapists may be able to serve an important role in the early detection of skin cancer.

  5. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with anaemia among African Americans in a US cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Ellen M; Alvarez, Jessica A; Martin, Greg S; Zughaier, Susu M; Ziegler, Thomas R; Tangpricha, Vin

    2015-06-14

    Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in the US population and is associated with numerous diseases, including those characterised by inflammatory processes. We aimed to investigate the link between vitamin D status and anaemia, hypothesising that lower vitamin D status would be associated with increased odds of anaemia, particularly anaemia with inflammation. A secondary aim was to examine the effects of race in the association between vitamin D status and anaemia. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis in a cohort of generally healthy adults in Atlanta, GA (n 638). Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between vitamin D status and anaemia. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) anaemia in bivariate analysis (OR 2·64, 95% CI 1·43, 4·86). There was significant effect modification by race (P= 0·003), such that blacks with 25(OH)D anaemia (OR 6·42, 95% CI 1·88, 21·99), v. blacks with 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l, controlling for potential confounders; this association was not apparent in whites. When categorised by subtype of anaemia, blacks with 25(OH)D anaemia with inflammation than blacks with serum 25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/l (OR 8·42, 95% CI 1·96, 36·23); there was no association with anaemia without inflammation. In conclusion, serum 25(OH)D anaemia, particularly anaemia with inflammation, among blacks in a generally healthy adult US cohort.

  6. Gender and the association of smoking with sleep quantity and quality in American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehari, Alem; Weir, Nargues A; Gillum, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    Smoking and gender are known risk factors for sleep disorders. Studies of samples from Norway and Japan have suggested stronger associations between smoking and disrupted sleep in women; therefore, we examined, gender differences in the association in the U.S. population. We analyzed data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We examined the associations between smoking and self-reported measures of sleep disorders (i.e., snoring, short sleep, long sleep, poor sleep, and health care provider diagnosis of sleep disordered breathing) using multivariate logistic regression with odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) as measures of association. We also assessed whether the associations varied by gender using a gender x smoking interaction term. Compared to never smokers, current smokers had significantly higher odds of self-reported snoring (OR = 2.0; 95% CI = 1.56-2.56), short sleep (OR 1.68; 95% CI = 1.35-2.10) and poor sleep (OR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.09-1.74). A dose-response relationship was observed between the amount smoked and sleep symptoms. In multivariate analyses, no significant gender x smoking interaction was observed for snoring, short sleep or poor sleep. Current smoking was independently associated with increased odds of snoring, short sleep, and poor sleep in women and men among U.S. adults.

  7. Dietary patterns are associated with incident stroke and contribute to excess risk of stroke in Black Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Suzanne E; Gutiérrez, Orlando M.; Newby, PK; Howard, George; Howard, Virginia J; Locher, Julie L; Kissela, Brett M; Shikany, James M

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Black Americans and residents of the Southeastern United States, are at increased risk of stroke. Diet is one of many potential factors proposed that might explain these racial and regional disparities. Methods Between 2003–2007, the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohort study enrolled 30,239 black and white Americans aged 45 years or older. Dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis and foods from food frequency data. Incident strokes were adjudicated using medical records by a team of physicians. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine risk of stroke. Results Over 5.7 years, 490 incident strokes were observed. In a multivariable-adjusted analysis, greater adherence to the Plant-based pattern was associated with lower stroke risk (HR=0.71; 95% CI=0.56–0.91; ptrend=0.005). This association was attenuated after addition of income, education, total energy intake, smoking, and sedentary behavior. Participants with a higher adherence to the Southern pattern experienced a 39% increased risk of stroke (HR=1.39; 95% CI=1.05, 1.84), with a significant (p = 0.009) trend across quartiles. Including Southern pattern in the model mediated the black-white risk of stroke by 63%. Conclusions These data suggest that adherence to a Southern style diet may increase the risk of stroke while adherence to a more plant-based diet may reduce stroke risk. Given the consistency of finding a dietary impact on stroke risk across studies, discussing nutrition patterns during risk screening may be an important step in reducing stroke. PMID:24159061

  8. Race differences in the association of oxidative stress with insulin sensitivity in African- and European-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Gordon; Alvarez, Jessica A; Ellis, Amy C; Granger, Wesley M; Ovalle, Fernando; Man, Chiara Dalla; Cobelli, Claudio; Gower, Barbara A

    2012-05-01

    Excessive metabolism of glucose and/or fatty acids may impair insulin signaling by increasing oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to examine the association between insulin sensitivity and protein carbonyls, a systemic marker of oxidative stress, in healthy, nondiabetic women, and to determine if the relationship differed with race. Subjects were 25 African-Americans (AA, BMI 28.4 ± 6.2 kg/m(2), range 18.8-42.6 kg/m(2); age 33.1 ± 13.5 years, range 18-58 years) and 28 European-Americans (EA, BMI 26.2 ± 5.9 kg/m(2), range 18.7-48.4 kg/m(2); age 31.6 ± 12.4 years, range 19-58 years). Insulin sensitivity was determined using an intravenous glucose tolerance test incorporating [6,6-(2)H(2)]-glucose, and a two-compartment mathematical model. Multiple linear regression results indicated that insulin sensitivity was inversely associated with protein carbonyls in AA (standardized regression coefficient -0.47, P < 0.05) but not EA (0.01, P = 0.945), after adjusting for %body fat. In contrast, %body fat was significantly and positively associated with insulin sensitivity in EA (-0.54, P < 0.01) but not AA (-0.24, P = 0.196). Protein carbonyls were associated with free fatty acids (FFA) in AA (r = 0.58, P < 0.01) but not EA (r = -0.11, P = 0.59). When subjects were divided based on median levels of fasting glucose and FFA, those with higher glucose/FFA concentrations had a significantly greater concentration of circulating protein carbonyls compared to those with lower glucose/FFA concentrations (P < 0.05). These results suggest that oxidative stress independently contributes to insulin sensitivity among AA women. Further, this association in AA may be mediated by circulating FFA and/or glucose.

  9. Gene-specific DNA methylation association with serum levels of C-reactive protein in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan V; Lazarus, Alicia; Smith, Jennifer A; Chuang, Yu-Hsuan; Zhao, Wei; Turner, Stephen T; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2013-01-01

    A more thorough understanding of the differences in DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles in populations may hold promise for identifying molecular mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to human diseases. Inflammation is a key molecular mechanism underlying several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, and it affects DNAm profile on both global and locus-specific levels. To understand the impact of inflammation on the DNAm of the human genome, we investigated DNAm profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes from 966 African American participants in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA) study. By testing the association of DNAm sites on CpG islands of over 14,000 genes with C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker of cardiovascular disease, we identified 257 DNAm sites in 240 genes significantly associated with serum levels of CRP adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and smoking status, and corrected for multiple testing. Of the significantly associated DNAm sites, 80.5% were hypomethylated with higher CRP levels. The most significant Gene Ontology terms enriched in the genes associated with the CRP levels were immune system process, immune response, defense response, response to stimulus, and response to stress, which are all linked to the functions of leukocytes. While the CRP-associated DNAm may be cell-type specific, understanding the DNAm association with CRP in peripheral blood leukocytes of multi-ethnic populations can assist in unveiling the molecular mechanism of how the process of inflammation affects the risks of developing common disease through epigenetic modifications.

  10. Gene-specific DNA methylation association with serum levels of C-reactive protein in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan V Sun

    Full Text Available A more thorough understanding of the differences in DNA methylation (DNAm profiles in populations may hold promise for identifying molecular mechanisms through which genetic and environmental factors jointly contribute to human diseases. Inflammation is a key molecular mechanism underlying several chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease, and it affects DNAm profile on both global and locus-specific levels. To understand the impact of inflammation on the DNAm of the human genome, we investigated DNAm profiles of peripheral blood leukocytes from 966 African American participants in the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study. By testing the association of DNAm sites on CpG islands of over 14,000 genes with C-reactive protein (CRP, an inflammatory biomarker of cardiovascular disease, we identified 257 DNAm sites in 240 genes significantly associated with serum levels of CRP adjusted for age, sex, body mass index and smoking status, and corrected for multiple testing. Of the significantly associated DNAm sites, 80.5% were hypomethylated with higher CRP levels. The most significant Gene Ontology terms enriched in the genes associated with the CRP levels were immune system process, immune response, defense response, response to stimulus, and response to stress, which are all linked to the functions of leukocytes. While the CRP-associated DNAm may be cell-type specific, understanding the DNAm association with CRP in peripheral blood leukocytes of multi-ethnic populations can assist in unveiling the molecular mechanism of how the process of inflammation affects the risks of developing common disease through epigenetic modifications.

  11. Explorations in statistics: statistical facets of reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2016-06-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This eleventh installment of Explorations in Statistics explores statistical facets of reproducibility. If we obtain an experimental result that is scientifically meaningful and statistically unusual, we would like to know that our result reflects a general biological phenomenon that another researcher could reproduce if (s)he repeated our experiment. But more often than not, we may learn this researcher cannot replicate our result. The National Institutes of Health and the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology have created training modules and outlined strategies to help improve the reproducibility of research. These particular approaches are necessary, but they are not sufficient. The principles of hypothesis testing and estimation are inherent to the notion of reproducibility in science. If we want to improve the reproducibility of our research, then we need to rethink how we apply fundamental concepts of statistics to our science.

  12. Obesity, diabetes, and exercise associated with sleep-related complaints in the American population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A.; Patel, Nirav P.; Perlis, Michael L.; Gehrman, Philip R.; Xie, Dawei; Sha, Daohang; Pigeon, Wilfred R.; Teff, Karen; Weaver, Terri; Gooneratne, Nalaka S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Previous studies have demonstrated relationships between sleep and both obesity and diabetes. Additionally, exercise may improve sleep and daytime function, in addition to weight and metabolic function. The present study extends these findings by examining how general sleep-related complaints are associated with body mass index (BMI), diabetes diagnosis, and exercise in a large, nationally representative sample. Subject and methods Participants were respondents to the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Sleep complaint (SC) was measured with “Over the last 2 weeks, how many days have you had trouble falling asleep or staying asleep or sleeping too much?” Daytime complaint (DC) was measured with “Over the last 2 weeks, how many days have you felt tired or had little energy?” Responses were dichotomized, with ≥6 days indicating complaint. Covariates included age, race/ethnicity, income, and education. Results Being overweight was associated with DC in women only. Obesity was significantly associated with SC and DC in women, and DC in men. Diabetes was associated with SC and DC in both genders. Any exercise in the past 30 days did not attenuate any BMI or diabetes relationships, but was independently associated with a decrease in SC and DC in both men and women. Conclusion These results suggest that for both men and women diabetes is a significant predictor of sleep and daytime complaints, and there is a relationship between obesity and sleep and complaints for women to a greater extent than men. Finally, exercise was associated with much fewer sleep and daytime complaints in both genders. PMID:22791935

  13. Introducing 3D U-statistic method for separating anomaly from background in exploration geochemical data with associated software development

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Seyyed Saeed Ghannadpour; Ardeshir Hezarkhani

    2016-03-01

    The U-statistic method is one of the most important structural methods to separate the anomaly from the background. It considers the location of samples and carries out the statistical analysis of the data without judging from a geochemical point of view and tries to separate subpopulations and determine anomalous areas. In the present study, to use U-statistic method in three-dimensional (3D) condition, U-statistic is applied on the grade of two ideal test examples, by considering sample Z values (elevation). So far, this is the first time that this method has been applied on a 3D condition. To evaluate the performance of 3D U-statistic method and in order to compare U-statistic with one non-structural method, the method of threshold assessment based on median and standard deviation (MSD method) is applied on the twoexample tests. Results show that the samples indicated by U-statistic method as anomalous are more regular and involve less dispersion than those indicated by the MSD method. So that, according to the location of anomalous samples, denser areas of them can be determined as promising zones. Moreover,results show that at a threshold of U = 0, the total error of misclassification for U-statistic method is much smaller than the total error of criteria of $\\bar{x} + n \\times s$. Finally, 3D model of two test examples for separating anomaly from background using 3D U-statistic method is provided. The source code for a software program, which was developed in the MATLAB programming language in order to perform the calculations of the 3D U-spatial statistic method, is additionally provided. This software is compatible with all the geochemical varieties and can be used in similar exploration projects.

  14. Introducing 3D U-statistic method for separating anomaly from background in exploration geochemical data with associated software development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannadpour, Seyyed Saeed; Hezarkhani, Ardeshir

    2016-03-01

    The U-statistic method is one of the most important structural methods to separate the anomaly from the background. It considers the location of samples and carries out the statistical analysis of the data without judging from a geochemical point of view and tries to separate subpopulations and determine anomalous areas. In the present study, to use U-statistic method in three-dimensional (3D) condition, U-statistic is applied on the grade of two ideal test examples, by considering sample Z values (elevation). So far, this is the first time that this method has been applied on a 3D condition. To evaluate the performance of 3D U-statistic method and in order to compare U-statistic with one non-structural method, the method of threshold assessment based on median and standard deviation (MSD method) is applied on the two example tests. Results show that the samples indicated by U-statistic method as anomalous are more regular and involve less dispersion than those indicated by the MSD method. So that, according to the location of anomalous samples, denser areas of them can be determined as promising zones. Moreover, results show that at a threshold of U = 0, the total error of misclassification for U-statistic method is much smaller than the total error of criteria of bar {x}+n× s. Finally, 3D model of two test examples for separating anomaly from background using 3D U-statistic method is provided. The source code for a software program, which was developed in the MATLAB programming language in order to perform the calculations of the 3D U-spatial statistic method, is additionally provided. This software is compatible with all the geochemical varieties and can be used in similar exploration projects.

  15. Semiclassical approach to model quantum fluids using the statistical associating fluid theory for systems with potentials of variable range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejos, Víctor M.; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro

    2012-05-01

    Thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids are described using an extended version of the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range (SAFT-VR) that takes into account quantum corrections to the Helmholtz free energy A, based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We present the theoretical background of this approach (SAFT-VRQ), considering two different cases depending on the continuous or discontinuous nature of the particles pair interaction. For the case of continuous potentials, we demonstrate that the standard Wigner-Kirkwood theory for quantum fluids can be derived from the de Broglie-Bohm formalism for quantum mechanics that can be incorporated within the Barker and Henderson perturbation theory for liquids in a straightforward way. When the particles interact via a discontinuous pair potential, the SAFT-VR method can be combined with the perturbation theory developed by Singh and Sinha [J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3645 (1977); Singh and Sinha J. Chem. Phys. 68, 562 (1978)]. We present an analytical expression for the first-order quantum perturbation term for a square-well potential, and the theory is applied to model thermodynamic properties of hydrogen, deuterium, neon, and helium-4. Vapor-liquid equilibrium, liquid and vapor densities, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficients and inversion curves are predicted accurately with respect to experimental data. We find that quantum corrections are important for the global behavior of properties of these fluids and not only for the low-temperature regime. Predictions obtained for hydrogen compare very favorably with respect to cubic equations of state.

  16. Semiclassical approach to model quantum fluids using the statistical associating fluid theory for systems with potentials of variable range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejos, Víctor M; Gil-Villegas, Alejandro

    2012-05-14

    Thermodynamic properties of quantum fluids are described using an extended version of the statistical associating fluid theory for potentials of variable range (SAFT-VR) that takes into account quantum corrections to the Helmholtz free energy A, based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. We present the theoretical background of this approach (SAFT-VRQ), considering two different cases depending on the continuous or discontinuous nature of the particles pair interaction. For the case of continuous potentials, we demonstrate that the standard Wigner-Kirkwood theory for quantum fluids can be derived from the de Broglie-Bohm formalism for quantum mechanics that can be incorporated within the Barker and Henderson perturbation theory for liquids in a straightforward way. When the particles interact via a discontinuous pair potential, the SAFT-VR method can be combined with the perturbation theory developed by Singh and Sinha [J. Chem. Phys. 67, 3645 (1977); and ibid. 68, 562 (1978)]. We present an analytical expression for the first-order quantum perturbation term for a square-well potential, and the theory is applied to model thermodynamic properties of hydrogen, deuterium, neon, and helium-4. Vapor-liquid equilibrium, liquid and vapor densities, isochoric and isobaric heat capacities, Joule-Thomson coefficients and inversion curves are predicted accurately with respect to experimental data. We find that quantum corrections are important for the global behavior of properties of these fluids and not only for the low-temperature regime. Predictions obtained for hydrogen compare very favorably with respect to cubic equations of state.

  17. Risk of Dementia Associated with Elevated Plasma Homocysteine in a Latin American Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inara J. Chacón

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between total homocysteine (tHcy and dementia risk remains controversial, as the association varies among populations and dementia subtypes. We studied a Venezuelan population that has high prevalence of both elevated tHcy and dementia. We tested the hypotheses that (1 elevated tHcy is associated with increased dementia risk, (2 the risk is greater for vascular dementia (VaD than for Alzheimer's disease (AD, and (3 a history of stroke may partly explain this association. 2100 participants (≥55 years old of the Maracaibo Aging Study underwent standardized neurological, neuropsychiatric, and cardiovascular assessments. Elevated tHcy was significantly associated with dementia, primarily VaD. When history of stroke and other confounding factors were taken into account, elevated tHcy remained a significant risk factor in older (>66 years, but not in younger (55–66 years subjects. Ongoing studies of this population may provide insight into the mechanism by which tHcy increases risk for dementia.

  18. 77 FR 35317 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association... a food additive petition (FAP 2A4796) has been jointly filed by Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida... petition. SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing that Gruma Corporation,...

  19. 78 FR 19303 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... pieces of cinder. In the Federal Register (66 FR 32846-32847, June 18, 2001), paragraph number 12 is... Federal Register (66 FR 32846-32847, June 18, 2001). A reassessment of the inventory during tribal... group identity with the human remains and associated funerary objects. In the Federal Register (66...

  20. Shorter men live longer: association of height with longevity and FOXO3 genotype in American men of Japanese ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qimei He

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the relation between height, FOXO3 genotype and age of death in humans. METHODS: Observational study of 8,003 American men of Japanese ancestry from the Honolulu Heart Program/Honolulu-Asia Aging Study (HHP/HAAS, a genetically and culturally homogeneous cohort followed for over 40 years. A Cox regression model with age as the time scale, stratified by year of birth, was used to estimate the effect of baseline height on mortality during follow-up. An analysis of height and longevity-associated variants of the key regulatory gene in the insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS pathway, FOXO3, was performed in a HHP-HAAS subpopulation. A study of fasting insulin level and height was conducted in another HHP-HAAS subpopulation. RESULTS: A positive association was found between baseline height and all-cause mortality (RR = 1.007; 95% CI 1.003-1.011; P = 0.002 over the follow-up period. Adjustments for possible confounding variables reduced this association only slightly (RR = 1.006; 95% CI 1.002-1.010; P = 0.007. In addition, height was positively associated with all cancer mortality and mortality from cancer unrelated to smoking. A Cox regression model with time-dependent covariates showed that relative risk for baseline height on mortality increased as the population aged. Comparison of genotypes of a longevity-associated single nucleotide polymorphism in FOXO3 showed that the longevity allele was inversely associated with height. This finding was consistent with prior findings in model organisms of aging. Height was also positively associated with fasting blood insulin level, a risk factor for mortality. Regression analysis of fasting insulin level (mIU/L on height (cm adjusting for the age both data were collected yielded a regression coefficient of 0.26 (95% CI 0.10-0.42; P = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Height in mid-life is positively associated with mortality, with shorter stature predicting longer lifespan. Height was, moreover

  1. Associations of Toll-Like Receptor and β-Defensin Polymorphisms with Measures of Periodontal Disease (PD) in HIV+ North American Adults: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Catherine M.; Weinberg, Aaron; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Vernon, Lance T.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor (TLR) and β-defensin (DEFB) genes have been recognized as potential genetic factors that can influence susceptibility to and severity of periodontal diseases (PD). However, data regarding associations between these polymorphisms and PD are still scarce in North American populations, and are not available in HIV+ North American populations. In this exploratory study, we analyzed samples from HIV+ adults (n = 115), who received primary HIV care at 3 local outpatient HIV clinics and were monitored for PD status. We genotyped a total of 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 8 TLR genes and copy number variation (CNV) in DEFB4/103A. We performed regression analyses for levels of 3 periodontopathogens in subgingival dental plaques (Porphyromonas gingivalis [Pg], Treponema denticola [Td], and Tannerella forsythia [Tf]) and 3 clinical measures of PD (periodontal probing depth [PPD], gingival recession [REC], and bleeding on probing [BOP]). In all subjects combined, 2 SNPs in TLR1 were significantly associated with Td, and one SNP in TLR2 was significantly associated with BOP. One of the 2 SNPs in TLR1 was significantly associated with Td in Caucasians. In addition, another SNP in TLR1 and a SNP in TLR6 were also significantly associated with Td and Pg, respectively, in Caucasians. All 3 periodontopathogen levels were significantly associated with PPD and BOP, but none was associated with REC. Instrumental variable analysis showed that 8 SNPs in 6 TLR genes were significantly associated with the 3 periodontopathogen levels. However, associations between the 3 periodontopathogen levels and PPD or BOP were not driven by associations with these identified SNPs. No association was found between DEFB4/103A CNV and any periodontopathogen level or clinical measure in all samples, Caucasians, or African Americans. Our exploratory study suggests a role of TLR polymorphisms, particularly TLR1 and TLR6 polymorphisms, in PD in HIV+ North

  2. Association of organophosphate pesticide exposure and paraoxonase with birth outcome in Mexican-American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim G Harley

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic studies suggest that maternal organophosphorus (OP pesticide exposure is associated with poorer fetal growth, but findings are inconsistent. We explored whether paraoxonase (PON1, a key enzyme involved in detoxification of OPs, could be an effect modifier in this association. METHODS: The study population included 470 pregnant women enrolled in the CHAMACOS Study, a longitudinal cohort study of mothers and children living in an agricultural region of California. We analyzed urine samples collected from mothers twice during pregnancy for dialkyl phosphate (DAP metabolites of OP pesticides. We analyzed maternal and fetal (cord blood samples for PON1 genotype (PON1(192 and PON1(-108 and enzyme activity (paraoxonase and arylesterase. Infant birth weight, head circumference, and gestational age were obtained from medical records. RESULTS: Infants' PON1 genotype and activity were associated with birth outcome, but mothers' were not. Infants with the susceptible PON1(-108TT genotype had shorter gestational age (β = -0.5 weeks, 95% Confidence Interval (CI: -0.9, 0.0 and smaller head circumference (β = -0.4 cm, 95% CI: -0.7, 0.0 than those with the PON1(-108CC genotype. Infants' arylesterase and paraoxonase activity were positively associated with gestational age. There was some evidence of effect modification with DAPs: maternal DAP concentrations were associated with shorter gestational age only among infants of the susceptible PON1(-108TT genotype (p-value(interaction = 0.09. However, maternal DAP concentrations were associated with larger birth weight (p-value(interaction = 0.06 and head circumference (p-value(interaction<0.01 in infants with non-susceptible genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Infants whose PON1 genotype and enzyme activity levels suggested that they might be more susceptible to the effects of OP pesticide exposure had decreased fetal growth and length of gestation. PON1 may be another factor

  3. Injury Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certification Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury ...

  4. Pulmonary Rehabilitation Exercise Prescription in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Review of Selected Guidelines: AN OFFICIAL STATEMENT FROM THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND PULMONARY REHABILITATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Chris; Bayles, Madeline Paternostro; Hamm, Larry F; Hill, Kylie; Holland, Anne; Limberg, Trina M; Spruit, Martijn A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with disabling dyspnea, skeletal muscle dysfunction, and significant morbidity and mortality. Current guidelines recommend pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) to improve dyspnea, functional capacity, and quality of life. Translating exercise science into safe and effective exercise training requires interpretation and use of multiple guidelines and recommendations. The purpose of this statement is to summarize for clinicians 3 current chronic obstructive pulmonary disease guidelines for exercise that may be used to develop exercise prescriptions in the PR setting. The 3 guidelines have been published by the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society, and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. In addition to summarizing these 3 guidelines, this statement describes clinical applications, explores areas of uncertainty, and suggests strategies for providing effective exercise training, given the diversity of guidelines and patient complexity.

  5. The Association of Form of Gambling with Problem Gambling Among American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Welte, John W.; Barnes, Grace M.; Tidwell, Marie-Cecile O.; Hoffman, Joseph H.

    2009-01-01

    A random telephone survey was conducted with 2274 U.S. residents aged 14-21. Analyses were performed to assess the relationship between the specific gambling games played and the extent of problem gambling symptoms. The forms of gambling that were most associated with gambling problems were card games, casino gambling, “other” gambling on routine activities, and betting on games of skill such as basketball, pool, or golf. The form of gambling which made the largest contribution to gambling pr...

  6. Global DNA methylation loss associated with mercury contamination and aging in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsen, Frances M.; Benjamin B Parrott; Bowden, John A.; Kassim, Brittany L.; Somerville, Stephen E.; Bryan, Teresa A.; Bryan, Colleen E.; Lange, Ted R.; Delaney, J. Patrick; Brunell, Arnold M.; Long, Stephen E.; Guillette, Louis J

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is a widespread environmental contaminant with exposures eliciting a well-documented catalog of adverse effects. Yet, knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms by which mercury exposures are translated into biological effects remains incomplete. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is sensitive to environmental cues, and alterations in DNA methylation at the global level are associated with a variety of diseases. Using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...

  7. American Visceral Leishmaniasis: Factors Associated with Lethality in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Madalosso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To identify factors associated with death in visceral leishmaniasis (VL cases. Patients and Methodology. We evaluated prognostic factors for death from VL in São Paulo state, Brazil, from 1999 to 2005. A prognostic study nested in a clinical cohort was carried out by data analysis of 376 medical files. A comparison between VL fatal cases and survivors was performed for clinical, laboratory, and biological features. Association between variables and death was assessed by univariate analysis, and the multiple logistic regression model was used to determine adjusted odds ratio for death, controlling confounding factors. Results. Data analysis identified 53 fatal cases out of 376 patients, between 1999 and 2005 in São Paulo state. Lethality was 14.1% (53/376, being higher in patients older than fifty years. The main causes of death were sepsis, bleeding, liver failure, and cardiotoxicity due to treatment. Variables significantly associated with death were severe anemia, bleeding, heart failure, jaundice, diarrhea, fever for more than sixty days, age older than fifty years, and antibiotic use. Conclusion. Educational health measures are needed for the general population and continuing education programs for health professionals working in the affected areas with the purpose of identifying and treating early cases, thus preventing the disease evolution towards death.

  8. Association of the C8orf13-BLK Region with Systemic Sclerosis in North-American and European Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourh, Pravitt; Agarwal, Sandeep K; Martin, Ezequiel; Divecha, Dipal; Rueda, Blanca; Bunting, Haley; Assassi, Shervin; Paz, Gene; Shete, Sanjay; McNearney, Terry; Draeger, Hilda; Reveille, John D; Radstake, T.R.D.J.; Simeon, Carmen P.; Rodriguez, Luis; Vicente, Esther; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Mayes, Maureen D.; Tann, Filemon K.; Martin, Javier; Arnett, Frank C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Genetic studies in the systemic sclerosis (SSc), an autoimmune disease that clinically manifests with dermal and internal organ fibrosis and small vessel vasculopathy, have identified multiple susceptibility genes including HLA-class II, PTPN22, IRF5, and STAT4 which have also been associated with other autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). These data suggest that there are common autoimmune disease susceptibility genes. The current report sought to determine if polymorphisms in the C8orf13-BLK region (chromosome 8p23.1-B lymphoid tyrosine kinase), which is associated with SLE, are associated also with SSc. Methods Two variants in the C8orf13-BLK region (rs13277113 & rs2736340) were tested for association with 1050 SSc cases and 694 controls of North Americans of European descent and replicated in a second series 589 SSc cases and 722 controls from Spain. Results The “T” allele at rs2736340 variant was associated with SSc in both the U.S. and Spanish case-control series (P=6.8×10−5, OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.1–1.4). The “A” allele at rs13277113 variant was associated with SSc in the U.S. series only (P=3.6×10−4, OR 1.32, 95%CI 1.1–1.6) and was significant in the combined analyses of the two series (P=2.0×10−3; OR 1.20, 95%CI 1.1–1.3). Both variants demonstrated an association with the anti-centromere antibody (P=2.2×10−6 and P=5.5×10−4, respectively) and limited SSc (P=3.3×10−5 and P=2.9×10−3, respectively) in the combined analysis. Peripheral blood gene expression profiles suggest that B-cell receptor and NFκB signaling are dysregulated based on the risk haplotype of these variants. Conclusion We identify and replicate the association of the C8orf13-BLK region as a novel susceptibility factor for SSc, placing it in the category of common autoimmune disease susceptibility genes. PMID:19796918

  9. Contributions to statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Mahalanobis, P C

    1965-01-01

    Contributions to Statistics focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in statistics. The book is presented to Professor P. C. Mahalanobis on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The selection first offers information on the recovery of ancillary information and combinatorial properties of partially balanced designs and association schemes. Discussions focus on combinatorial applications of the algebra of association matrices, sample size analogy, association matrices and the algebra of association schemes, and conceptual statistical experiments. The book then examines latt

  10. French antecedents of "contemporary" concepts in the American Psychiatric Association's classification of bipolar (mood) disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haustgen, Thierry; Akiskal, Hagop

    2006-12-01

    , thereby foreshadowing (much before the work of such Germanophone authors as Leonhard [Leonhard, K., 1957 (1979 tr). Aufteilung der endogenen Psychosen und ihre differenzierte Atiologie. Berlin: Akademie-Verlag; English transl. by R. Berman, Irvington, New York] and Angst [Angst, J., 1966. Zur Atiologie and Nosologie endogener depressiver Psychosen. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, New York]) the DSM-IV dichotomy of depressive (unipolar)/bipolar disorders (UP-BP dichotomy). It is further noteworthy that Falret [Falret, J.-P., 1854. De la folie circulaire ou forme de maladie mentale caracterisée par l'alternative régulière de la manie et de la mélancolie, Bull. Acad. Méd. XIX, 382-400] had hinted at the possibility that short hypomanic episodes at the tail end of depressive episodes in ambulatory patients represented formes frustes of circular insanity, thereby anticipating the latest developments in bipolarity - what today is considered the softer end of the bipolar spectrum. The UP-BP dichotomy and the bipolar spectrum today are the two main competing nosologic conceptual frames for mood disorders in both American and European psychiatry - and world psychiatry at large.

  11. Genome-wide association study of white blood cell count in 16,388 African Americans: the continental origins and genetic epidemiology network (COGENT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander P Reiner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Total white blood cell (WBC and neutrophil counts are lower among individuals of African descent due to the common African-derived "null" variant of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC gene. Additional common genetic polymorphisms were recently associated with total WBC and WBC sub-type levels in European and Japanese populations. No additional loci that account for WBC variability have been identified in African Americans. In order to address this, we performed a large genome-wide association study (GWAS of total WBC and cell subtype counts in 16,388 African-American participants from 7 population-based cohorts available in the Continental Origins and Genetic Epidemiology Network. In addition to the DARC locus on chromosome 1q23, we identified two other regions (chromosomes 4q13 and 16q22 associated with WBC in African Americans (P<2.5×10(-8. The lead SNP (rs9131 on chromosome 4q13 is located in the CXCL2 gene, which encodes a chemotactic cytokine for polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Independent evidence of the novel CXCL2 association with WBC was present in 3,551 Hispanic Americans, 14,767 Japanese, and 19,509 European Americans. The index SNP (rs12149261 on chromosome 16q22 associated with WBC count is located in a large inter-chromosomal segmental duplication encompassing part of the hydrocephalus inducing homolog (HYDIN gene. We demonstrate that the chromosome 16q22 association finding is most likely due to a genotyping artifact as a consequence of sequence similarity between duplicated regions on chromosomes 16q22 and 1q21. Among the WBC loci recently identified in European or Japanese populations, replication was observed in our African-American meta-analysis for rs445 of CDK6 on chromosome 7q21 and rs4065321 of PSMD3-CSF3 region on chromosome 17q21. In summary, the CXCL2, CDK6, and PSMD3-CSF3 regions are associated with WBC count in African American and other populations. We also demonstrate that large inter

  12. The American Psychological Association Task Force assessment of violent video games: Science in the service of public interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvert, Sandra L; Appelbaum, Mark; Dodge, Kenneth A; Graham, Sandra; Nagayama Hall, Gordon C; Hamby, Sherry; Fasig-Caldwell, Lauren G; Citkowicz, Martyna; Galloway, Daniel P; Hedges, Larry V

    2017-01-01

    A task force of experts was convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) to update the knowledge and policy about the impact of violent video game use on potential adverse outcomes. This APA Task Force on Media Violence examined the existing literature, including the meta-analyses in the field, since the last APA report on media violence in 2005. Because the most recent meta-analyses were published in 2010 and reflected work through 2009, the task force conducted a search of the published studies from 2009-2013. These recently published articles were scored and assessed by a systematic evidentiary review, followed by a meta-analysis of the high utility studies, as documented in the evidentiary review. Consistent with the literature that we reviewed, we found that violent video game exposure was associated with: an increased composite aggression score; increased aggressive behavior; increased aggressive cognitions; increased aggressive affect, increased desensitization, and decreased empathy; and increased physiological arousal. The size of the effects was similar to that in prior meta-analyses, suggesting a stable result. Our task force concluded that violent video game use is a risk factor for adverse outcomes, but found insufficient studies to examine any potential link between violent video game use and delinquency or criminal behavior. Our technical report is the basis of this article. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. School factors associated with socio-emotional development in Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murillo, F.Javier

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of an international research that intends to identify key factors associated with school and classroom socio-emotional achievement of Primary Education Students in Latin America countries. This Multilevel Study has been conducted with 4 analysis levels; we studied 5,603 students from 248 classrooms from 98 schools in 9 countries. We worked with 4 product socio-affective variables (self-concept, academic behaviour, social interaction and satisfaction with the school. The results showed a series of classroom and school factors that explain the socio-emotional development, consistent with those found in research on school effectiveness to cognitive factors.

  14. Drugs That May Cause or Exacerbate Heart Failure: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Robert L; O'Bryant, Cindy L; Cheng, Davy; Dow, Tristan J; Ky, Bonnie; Stein, C Michael; Spencer, Anne P; Trupp, Robin J; Lindenfeld, JoAnn

    2016-08-01

    Heart failure is a common, costly, and debilitating syndrome that is associated with a highly complex drug regimen, a large number of comorbidities, and a large and often disparate number of healthcare providers. All of these factors conspire to increase the risk of heart failure exacerbation by direct myocardial toxicity, drug-drug interactions, or both. This scientific statement is designed to serve as a comprehensive and accessible source of drugs that may cause or exacerbate heart failure to assist healthcare providers in improving the quality of care for these patients.

  15. Probabilities of future VEI ≥ 2 eruptions at the Central American Volcanic Arc: a statistical perspective based on the past centuries' eruption record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzierma, Yvonne; Wehrmann, Heidi

    2014-10-01

    A probabilistic eruption forecast is provided for seven historically active volcanoes along the Central American Volcanic Arc (CAVA), as a pivotal empirical contribution to multi-disciplinary volcanic hazards assessment. The eruption probabilities are determined with a Kaplan-Meier estimator of survival functions, and parametric time series models are applied to describe the historical eruption records. Aside from the volcanoes that are currently in a state of eruptive activity (Santa María, Fuego, and Arenal), the highest probabilities for eruptions of VEI ≥ 2 occur at Concepción and Cerro Negro in Nicaragua, which are likely to erupt to 70-85 % within the next 10 years. Poás and Irazú in Costa Rica show a medium to high eruption probability, followed by San Miguel (El Salvador), Rincón de la Vieja (Costa Rica), and Izalco (El Salvador; 24 % within the next 10 years).

  16. Cosmic Statistics of Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Szapudi, I.; Colombi, S.; Bernardeau, F.

    1999-01-01

    The errors on statistics measured in finite galaxy catalogs are exhaustively investigated. The theory of errors on factorial moments by Szapudi & Colombi (1996) is applied to cumulants via a series expansion method. All results are subsequently extended to the weakly non-linear regime. Together with previous investigations this yields an analytic theory of the errors for moments and connected moments of counts in cells from highly nonlinear to weakly nonlinear scales. The final analytic formu...

  17. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: FULL REPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2 part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents the contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on published data through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2 part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on CVD; and finally, (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the full report of part 1.

  18. Lipids and bariatric procedures part 1 of 2: Scientific statement from the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and Obesity Medicine Association: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Jones, Peter H; Jacobson, Terry A; Cohen, David E; Orringer, Carl E; Kothari, Shanu; Azagury, Dan E; Morton, John; Nguyen, Ninh T; Westman, Eric C; Horn, Deborah B; Scinta, Wendy; Primack, Craig

    2016-01-01

    Bariatric procedures often improve lipid levels in patients with obesity. This 2-part scientific statement examines the potential lipid benefits of bariatric procedures and represents contributions from authors representing the National Lipid Association, American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and the Obesity Medicine Association. The foundation for this scientific statement was based on data published through June 2015. Part 1 of this 2-part scientific statement provides an overview of: (1) adipose tissue, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (2) bariatric procedures, cholesterol metabolism, and lipids; (3) endocrine factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (4) immune factors relevant to lipid influx, synthesis, metabolism, and efflux; (5) bariatric procedures, bile acid metabolism, and lipids; and (6) bariatric procedures, intestinal microbiota, and lipids, with specific emphasis on how the alterations in the microbiome by bariatric procedures influence obesity, bile acids, and inflammation, which in turn, may all affect lipid levels. Included in part 2 of this comprehensive scientific statement will be a review of: (1) the importance of nutrients (fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) and their absorption on lipid levels; (2) the effects of bariatric procedures on gut hormones and lipid levels; (3) the effects of bariatric procedures on nonlipid cardiovascular disease risk factors; (4) the effects of bariatric procedures on lipid levels; (5) effects of bariatric procedures on cardiovascular disease; and finally (6) the potential lipid effects of vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies that may occur after bariatric procedures. This document represents the executive summary of part 1.

  19. Fibroblasts express OvHV-2 capsid protein in vasculitis lesions of American bison (Bison bison) with experimental sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever (SA-MCF) caused by ovine herpesvirus-2 (OvHV-2), a '-herpesvirus, is an often fatal disease characterized by lymphoproliferation, vasculitis, and mucosal ulceration in American bison (Bison bison), cattle (Bos taurus), and other clinically susceptible speci...

  20. The Final Report on the Tarrant County Junior College Phase of the Social Science Demonstration Project Sponsored by the American Association of Junior Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Robert M.

    An account of Tarrant Count Junior College's participation in the American Association of Junior Colleges' Social Science Demonstration Project was presented. The purpose of the project was to involve introductory sociology students in the use of the community as a laboratory to enliven the teaching-learning experience and develop in students a…

  1. Twelve Years of Acoustical Research. American School Band Directors' Association, Research Committee Reports for the 17th Annual Convention, Hot Springs, Arkansas, 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American School Band Directors Association, Newark, OH.

    The guide, one in a series of committee reports relating to school band performance, organization, and equipment needs, discusses acoustical problems inherent to the clarinet. The report is presented in five sections. Section I summarizes findings of an American School Band Directors' Association (ASBDA) clarinet testing committee. A major finding…

  2. Neuroantibodies (NAB) in African-American Children with Heavy Metal Exposures are Associated with Cytokine and Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) Polymorphisms (SNP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polymorphisms in cytokine and HLA genes are associated with allergies, autoimmunity and neurodegeneration (ND). Samples from 131 African-American children (71 males; 60 females) in the Mechanistic Indicators of Childhood Asthma (MICA) study were used to determine SNPs of IL-4, IL...

  3. A summary of the update on cardiovascular implantable electronic device infections and their management A scientific statement from the American Heart Association

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baddour, Larry M.; Epstein, Andrew E.; Erickson, Christopher C.; Knight, Bradley P.; Levison, Matthew E.; Lockhart, Peter B.; Masoudi, Frederick A.; Okum, Eric J.; Wilson, Walter R.; Beerman, Lee B.; Bolger, Ann F.; Estes, N. A. Mark; Gewitz, Michael; Newburger, Jane W.; Schron, Eleanor B.; Taubert, Kathryn A.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this statement is to update the recommendations by the American Heart Association (AHA) for cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infections and their management, which were last published in 2003. Methods and Results. The AHA commissioned this scientific sta

  4. Selected Papers from the 1990 Meeting of the American Journalism Historians' Association (Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, October 2-7, 1990): Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journalism Historians' Association.

    The following 11 papers, on a variety of topics, were given at the 1990 meeting of the American Journalism Historians' Association: (1) "They Hang Editors Don't They?: Free Speech and Free Press Issues in the Haymarket Case, 1886" (Nathaniel Hong); (2) "G. K. Chesterton and the British Press, 1911-1933" (Dean Rapp); (3) "Trial by Newspaper in…

  5. Dating Violence Perpetration and/or Victimization and Associated Sexual Risk Behaviors among a Sample of Inner-City African American and Hispanic Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…

  6. Towards creating an inclusive community of researchers: the first three years of the North American association for environmental education research symposium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyers, R.B.; Brody, M.; Dillon, J.; Hart, P.; Krasny, M.; Monroe, M.; Russell, J.; Wals, A.E.J.

    2007-01-01

    This article uses a series of interlinked, personal vignettes to discuss the first three years of the North American Association for Environmental Education research symposium, from the perspectives of the key organizers. Seven challenges in the field of environmental education research are identifi

  7. Towards Creating an Inclusive Community of Researchers: The First Three Years of the North American Association for Environmental Education Research Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Ronald B.; Brody, Michael; Dillon, Justin; Hart, Paul; Krasny, Marianne; Monroe, Martha; Russell, Constance; Wals, Arjen

    2007-01-01

    This article uses a series of interlinked, personal vignettes to discuss the first three years of the North American Association for Environmental Education research symposium, from the perspectives of the key organizers. Seven challenges in the field of environmental education research are identified in a recent historical context, and we…

  8. The 2nd Convention of Chinese/American Association for Poetry and Poetics & International Symposium on Literatures in English(June 15-16,2013)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    In order to further promote literary scholarship and international academic exchange,the University of Pennsylvania-based Chinese/American Association for Poetry and Poetics(CAAP)will collaborate with the School of Foreign Languages and School of Humanities of Central China Normal University, Foreign Literature Studies,

  9. ACC/AATS/AHA/ASE/ASNC/SCAI/SCCT/STS 2016 Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes : A Report of the American College of Cardiology Appropriate Use Criteria Task Force, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, American Heart Association, American Society of Echocardiography, American Society of Nuclear Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography, and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manesh R; Calhoon, John H; Dehmer, Gregory J; Grantham, James Aaron; Maddox, Thomas M; Maron, David J; Smith, Peter K

    2017-03-06

    The American College of Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and American Association for Thoracic Surgery, along with key specialty and subspecialty societies, have completed a 2-part revision of the appropriate use criteria (AUC) for coronary revascularization. In prior coronary revascularization AUC documents, indications for revascularization in acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and stable ischemic heart disease were combined into 1 document. To address the expanding clinical indications for coronary revascularization, and in an effort to align the subject matter with the most current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines, the new AUC for coronary artery revascularization were separated into 2 documents addressing ACS and stable ischemic heart disease individually. This document presents the AUC for ACS. Clinical scenarios were developed to mimic patient presentations encountered in everyday practice and included information on symptom status, presence of clinical instability or ongoing ischemic symptoms, prior reperfusion therapy, risk level as assessed by noninvasive testing, fractional flow reserve testing, and coronary anatomy. This update provides a reassessment of clinical scenarios that the writing group felt to be affected by significant changes in the medical literature or gaps from prior criteria. The methodology used in this update is similar to the initial document but employs the recent modifications in the methods for developing AUC, most notably, alterations in the nomenclature for appropriate use categorization. A separate, independent rating panel scored the clinical scenarios on a scale of 1 to 9. Scores of 7 to 9 indicate that revascularization is considered appropriate for the clinical scenario presented. Scores of 1 to 3 indicate that revascularization is considered rarely appropriate for the clinical scenario, whereas scores in the mid-range (4 to 6

  10. Phase equilibrium of liquid mixtures: Experimental and modeled data using statistical associating fluid theory for potential of variable range approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, Beatriz; Bandrés, Isabel; Carmen López, M.; Lafuente, Carlos; Galindo, Amparo

    2007-10-01

    A study of the phase equilibrium (experimental and modeled) of mixtures formed by a cyclic ether and haloalkanes has been derived. Experimental data for the isothermal vapor liquid equilibrium of mixtures formed by tetrahydrofuran and tetrahydropyran and isomeric chlorobutanes at temperatures of 298.15, 313.15, and 328.15K are presented. Experimental results have been discussed in terms of both molecular characteristics of pure compounds and potential intermolecular interaction between them using thermodynamic information of the mixtures obtained earlier. The statistical associating fluid theory for potential of variable range (SAFT-VR) approach together with standard combining rules without adjustable parameters has been used to model the phase equilibrium. Good agreement between experiment and the prediction is found with such a model. Mean absolute deviations for pressures are of the order of 1kPa, while less than 0.013mole fraction for vapor phase compositions. In order to improve the results obtained, a new modeling has been carried out by introducing a unique transferable parameter kij, which modifies the strength of the dispersion interaction between unlike components in the mixtures, and is valid for all the studied mixtures being not temperature or pressure dependent. This parameter together with the SAFT-VR approach provides a description of the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the mixtures that is in excellent agreement with the experimental data for most cases. The absolute deviations are of the order of 0.005mole fraction for vapor phase compositions and less than 0.3kPa for pressure, excepting for mixtures containing 2-chloro-2-methylpropane which deviations for pressure are larger. Results obtained in this work in the modeling of the phase equilibrium with the SAFT-VR equation of state have been compared to the ones obtained in a previous study when the approach was used to model similar mixtures with clear differences in the thermodynamic behavior. We

  11. Group contribution methodology based on the statistical associating fluid theory for heteronuclear molecules formed from Mie segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Vasileios; Lafitte, Thomas; Avendaño, Carlos; Adjiman, Claire S; Jackson, George; Müller, Erich A; Galindo, Amparo

    2014-02-07

    A generalization of the recent version of the statistical associating fluid theory for variable range Mie potentials [Lafitte et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 154504 (2013)] is formulated within the framework of a group contribution approach (SAFT-γ Mie). Molecules are represented as comprising distinct functional (chemical) groups based on a fused heteronuclear molecular model, where the interactions between segments are described with the Mie (generalized Lennard-Jonesium) potential of variable attractive and repulsive range. A key feature of the new theory is the accurate description of the monomeric group-group interactions by application of a high-temperature perturbation expansion up to third order. The capabilities of the SAFT-γ Mie approach are exemplified by studying the thermodynamic properties of two chemical families, the n-alkanes and the n-alkyl esters, by developing parameters for the methyl, methylene, and carboxylate functional groups (CH3, CH2, and COO). The approach is shown to describe accurately the fluid-phase behavior of the compounds considered with absolute average deviations of 1.20% and 0.42% for the vapor pressure and saturated liquid density, respectively, which represents a clear improvement over other existing SAFT-based group contribution approaches. The use of Mie potentials to describe the group-group interaction is shown to allow accurate simultaneous descriptions of the fluid-phase behavior and second-order thermodynamic derivative properties of the pure fluids based on a single set of group parameters. Furthermore, the application of the perturbation expansion to third order for the description of the reference monomeric fluid improves the predictions of the theory for the fluid-phase behavior of pure components in the near-critical region. The predictive capabilities of the approach stem from its formulation within a group-contribution formalism: predictions of the fluid-phase behavior and thermodynamic derivative properties of

  12. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in African Americans provides insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie C Y Ng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D is more prevalent in African Americans than in Europeans. However, little is known about the genetic risk in African Americans despite the recent identification of more than 70 T2D loci primarily by genome-wide association studies (GWAS in individuals of European ancestry. In order to investigate the genetic architecture of T2D in African Americans, the MEta-analysis of type 2 DIabetes in African Americans (MEDIA Consortium examined 17 GWAS on T2D comprising 8,284 cases and 15,543 controls in African Americans in stage 1 analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs association analysis was conducted in each study under the additive model after adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components. Meta-analysis of approximately 2.6 million genotyped and imputed SNPs in all studies was conducted using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effect model. Replications were performed to follow up 21 loci in up to 6,061 cases and 5,483 controls in African Americans, and 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls of European ancestry. We identified three known loci (TCF7L2, HMGA2 and KCNQ1 and two novel loci (HLA-B and INS-IGF2 at genome-wide significance (4.15 × 10(-94association (2.2 × 10(-23 < locus-wide P<0.05. These novel and previously identified loci yielded a sibling relative risk of 1.19, explaining 17.5% of the phenotypic variance of T2D on the liability scale in African Americans. Overall, this study identified two novel susceptibility loci for T2D in African Americans. A substantial number of previously reported loci are transferable to African Americans after accounting for linkage disequilibrium, enabling fine mapping of causal variants in trans-ethnic meta-analysis studies.

  13. Exploring the bacterial microbiota associated with native South American species of Aphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneodo, J D; Ortego, J

    2014-06-01

    Aphids harbor a variety of bacterial endosymbionts, including the obligate symbiont Buchnera aphidicola and diverse facultative symbionts. The former supplies its host with essential amino acids. The latter are not indispensable for insect survival, but often improve their host's fitness. To date, the study of such associations was restricted to aphids of Holarctic origin. The bacterial microbiota of seven Aphis species from Argentina was investigated. The presence of B. aphidicola was assessed by specific PCR. Additional symbionts were identified through PCR with eubacterial universal primers, cloning, and sequencing of nearly complete 16S rRNA gene, intergenic spacer region, and partial 23S rRNA gene and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. Infection with B. aphidicola was confirmed in every species analyzed. The facultative symbiont Serratia symbiotica was detected in Aphis malalhuina Mier Durante, Nieto Nafría & Ortego, 2003, Aphis senecionicoides Blanchard, 1944, and Aphis schinifoliae Blanchard, 1939, while Hamiltonella defensa was identified in Aphis mendocina Mier Durante, Ortego & Nieto Nafría, 2006. Arsenophonus sp. was found infecting Aphis melosae Mier Durante & Ortego, 1999, and a new, undescribed Aphis sp. In Aphis danielae Remaudière, 1994, no facultative symbionts could be recorded. When analyzing the highly conserved 16S rRNA gene, the phylogenetic tree grouped the S. symbiotica, H. defensa, and Arsenophonus isolates into three well-defined clusters showing little variability among clones corresponding to the same aphid host species. This article reports for the first time the endosymbionts associated with aphids native to South America. Despite their geographic origin, the qualitative composition of their microbiota revealed no evident differences from that described for aphids in the Northern Hemisphere.

  14. Fungal endophytes associated with three South American Myrtae (Myrtaceae) exhibit preferences in the colonization at leaf level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Aline B M; da Costa, Andre G F C; Raad, Lucélia V V; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles

    2014-03-01

    Fungal endophytes associated with Myrtaceae from Brazil and Argentina were isolated at three levels of nesting: leaf, individual host trees, and site collection. The alternating logistic regression (ALR) was used to model the data because it offers a computationally convenient method for fitting regression structures involving large clusters. The objectives of this study were to determine: (i) whether the colonization pattern is influenced by environmental variables, (ii) if there is some leaf part they prefer to colonize; (iii) if there is some fungal endophyte aggregation between hierarchical levels; (iv) what the distance effect is on the fungal association. The environmental variables were statistically significant only for Xylaria, i.e., when the elevation and water precipitation increase and the temperature decreases, the odds ratio of finding another fungal endophyte of that genus previously found increases. Sordariomycetes, Xylariales, and Xylaria exhibited leaf fragment preference to petiole and tip. Fungal endophytes showed association within leaf. The horizontal transmission mode and the dispersal limitation may explain this association at the leaf level. Moreover, our results suggest that when a fungal endophyte infects a leaf or host tree individual, the odds ratio of dispersal inside them is greater.

  15. Correlation of the American Urological Association symptom index with self-administered versions of the Madsen-Iversen, Boyarsky and Maine Medical Assessment Program symptom indexes. Measurement Committee of the American Urological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, M J; Fowler, F J; O'Leary, M P; Bruskewitz, R C; Holtgrewe, H L; Mebust, W K

    1992-11-01

    We correlated the American Urological Association (AUA) symptom index with other indexes that have been used to measure symptoms for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and compared their psychometric properties. A self-administered questionnaire that allowed derivation of AUA, Maine Medical Assessment Program, Madsen-Iversen and Boyarsky symptom scores was completed by 76 men with clinically defined BPH, 59 younger control subjects, and 27 men before and after prostatectomy. The scores from the 4 indexes were strongly correlated (r = 0.77 to 0.93). All 4 indexes had good internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities. All indexes were predictive of patient global ratings of the degree of bother from the urinary condition. The AUA index discriminated BPH patients from controls significantly better than the Maine Medical Assessment Program index, and equivalently to the Madsen-Iversen and Boyarsky indexes (despite having fewer items). All 4 indexes were responsive when BPH patients underwent prostatectomy, although the AUA and Madsen-Iversen indexes were significantly more sensitive.

  16. Efficacy and safety of iron sucrose for iron deficiency in patients with dialysis-associated anemia: North American clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charytan, C; Levin, N; Al-Saloum, M; Hafeez, T; Gagnon, S; Van Wyck, D B

    2001-02-01

    Iron sucrose has been used to provide intravenous (IV) iron therapy to patients outside the United States for more than 50 years. In a multicenter North American clinical trial, we determined the efficacy and safety of iron sucrose therapy in patients with dialysis-associated anemia, evidence of iron deficiency, and below-target hemoglobin (Hgb) levels despite epoetin therapy. Evidence of iron deficiency included a transferrin saturation (Tsat) less than 20% and ferritin level less than 300 ng/mL, and below-target Hgb levels included values less than 11.0 g/dL. We administered iron sucrose in 10 doses, each administered undiluted as 100 mg IV push over 5 minutes, without a prior test dose. We assessed efficacy by determining the subsequent change in Hgb, Tsat, and ferritin values. We assessed safety by recording blood pressure and adverse events after iron sucrose injection and comparing results with those for the same patients during an observation control period. Results showed a significant increase in Hgb level that was first evident after three doses of iron sucrose and persisted at least 5 weeks after the 10th dose. Tsat and ferritin levels also increased significantly and remained elevated. In 77 enrolled patients, including those with previous iron dextran sensitivity, other drug allergies, or concurrent angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use, we saw no serious adverse drug reactions and no change in intradialytic blood pressure associated with iron sucrose administration. We conclude that iron sucrose injection administered as 1,000 mg in 10 divided doses by IV push without a prior test dose is safe and effective for the treatment of iron deficiency in patients with dialysis-associated anemia.

  17. Grandmothers, fathers and depressive symptoms are associated with food insecurity among low income first-time African-American mothers in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, Barbara A.; Borja, Judith B.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2009-01-01

    African Americans experience household food insecurity—the limited availability of nutritionally adequate and safe food, or ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways—at three times the rate of non-Hispanic whites. Thirty percent of all African American children live in food insecurity households. The purpose of this study was to identify characteristics associated with household food insecurity among a high risk postpartum population. 206 low-income, African-American mother-infant dyads were recruited through WIC clinics. The six-item USDA food security scale was used to classify households as food secure, marginally food secure or food insecure. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the association between selected maternal/household characteristics and household food security status. Fifty-three percent of households were food secure, 34% were marginally food secure and 13% were food insecure. Maternal education less than college (Relative Risk Ratio = 0.46, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.22, 0.98) was inversely associated with marginal food security. Depressive symptoms (RRR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.16) and having the baby’s father in the household (RRR = 3.46, 95% CI: 1.22, 9.82) were associated with household food insecurity, while having a grandmother in the household (RRR = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.80) was inversely associated with experiencing household food insecurity. Findings from this study suggest that young low-income African American families with only one child are particularly susceptible to experiencing household food insecurity. Intergenerational support and transfer of knowledge may be a key protective attribute among low-income African American households. PMID:19465186

  18. Practice paper of the American Dietetic Association: using the Dietary Reference Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Suzanne P; Barr, Susan I

    2011-05-01

    The Dietary Reference Intakes, a set of nutrient reference standards developed for the United States and Canada by the Institute of Medicine, provide tools for dietary assessment and planning for individuals and groups. Because a distribution of requirements is provided for most nutrients, it is possible to estimate a probability of nutrient inadequacy for an individual's usual intake, and the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy among the intakes of a group of people. The availability of a Tolerable Upper Intake Level for many nutrients also allows an evaluation of the risk of excessive intakes. However, some of these new applications are complex, and their implementation would be facilitated by better training aids and improved computer software. These new tools would help registered dietitians become more familiar with the appropriate applications of the Dietary Reference Intakes in the Nutrition Care Process, and better recognize both the benefits and challenges associated with their use. Ultimately, use of more comprehensive methods of assessing and planning nutrient intakes has the potential to further enhance recognition of registered dietitians' essential roles in nutrition care.

  19. Environmental factors associated with American cutaneous leishmaniasis in a new Andean focus in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocampo, C. B.; Ferro, M. C.; Cadena, H.; Gongora, R.; Pérez, M.; Valderrama-Ardila, C. H.; Quinnell, R. J.; Alexander, N.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the environmental and ecological factors associated with Leishmania transmission and vector abundance in Chaparral, Tolima-Colombia. METHODS First, we compared the ecological characteristics, abundance of phlebotomies and potential reservoir hosts in the peridomestic environment (100 m radius) of randomly selected houses, between two townships with high and low cutaneous leishmaniasis incidence. Second, we examined peridomestic correlates of phlebotomine abundance in all 43 houses in the higher risk township. RESULTS The high transmission township had higher coverage of forest (23% vs. 8.4%) and shade coffee (30.7% vs. 11%), and less coffee monoculture (16.8% vs. 26.2%) and pasture (6.3% vs. 12.3%), compared to the low transmission township. Lutzomyia were more abundant in the high transmission township 2.5 vs. 0.2/trap/night. Lutzomyia longiflocosa was the most common species in both townships: 1021/1450 (70%) and 39/80 (49%). Numbers of potential wild mammal reservoirs were small, although four species were found to be infected with Leishmania (Viannia) spp. In the high transmission township, the overall peridomiciliary capture rate of L. longiflocosa was 1.5/trap/night, and the abundance was higher in houses located nearer to forest (ρ = −0.30, P = 0.05). CONCLUSION The findings are consistent with a domestic transmission cycle with the phlebotomies dependent on dense vegetation near the house. PMID:22882595

  20. Association study of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes identifies a novel lung cancer susceptibility locus near CHRNA1 in African-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Kyle M.; Christopher I Amos; Wenzlaff, Angela S.; Gorlov, Ivan P; Sison, Jennette D.; Wu, Xifeng; Spitz, Margaret R; Hansen, Helen M.; Lu, Emily Y.; Wei, Chongjuan; Zhang, Huifeng; Chen, Wei; Lloyd, Stacy M.; Frazier, Marsha L.; Paige M Bracci

    2012-01-01

    Studies in European and East Asian populations have identified lung cancer susceptibility loci in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes on chromosome 15q25.1 which also appear to influence smoking behaviors. We sought to determine if genetic variation in nAChR genes influences lung cancer susceptibly in African-Americans, and evaluated the association of these cancer susceptibility loci with smoking behavior. A total of 1308 African-Americans with lung cancer and 1241 African-America...

  1. Association of variants in the carnosine peptidase 1 gene (CNDP1) with diabetic nephropathy in American Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakkera, Harini A; Hanson, Robert L; Kobes, Sayuko; Millis, Meredith P; Nelson, Robert G; Knowler, William C; Distefano, Johanna K

    2011-06-01

    CNDP1 is located on 18q22.3, where linkage with diabetic nephropathy has been observed in several populations, including Pima Indians. However, evidence for association between CNDP1 alleles and diabetic nephropathy is equivocal and population-dependent. This study investigated CNDP1 as a candidate for diabetic kidney disease in Pima Indians. Nineteen tag single nucleotide polymorphisms spanning the CNDP1 locus were selected using genotype data from Chinese individuals in the HapMap resource along with 2 variants previously associated with diabetic nephropathy. All variants were genotyped in 3 different samples including a diabetic end-stage renal disease (ESRD) case-control study, a family-based study of diabetic individuals who participated in the linkage study for nephropathy, and a cohort of diabetic individuals in whom longitudinal measures of glomerular filtration rates (GFR) were performed. There was no statistically significant evidence for association with diabetic ESRD. However, nominal evidence for association was found in the family study, where markers rs12957330 (Odds ratio [OR]=0.29 per copy of G allele; p=0.04) and rs17817077 (OR=0.46 per copy of G allele; p=0.05) were associated with diabetic nephropathy. In addition, markers rs12964454, rs7244647, and rs7229005 were associated with changes in GFR (-8.5ml/min per copy of the G allele; p=0.04; 18.8ml/min per copy of the C allele; p=0.03; and -13.4ml/min per copy of the C allele; p=0.001, respectively). These findings provide nominal evidence supporting a role between CNDP1 variants and diabetic kidney disease.

  2. Analysis of SLC16A11 Variants in 12,811 American Indians: Genotype-Obesity Interaction for Type 2 Diabetes and an Association With RNASEK Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traurig, Michael; Hanson, Robert L; Marinelarena, Alejandra; Kobes, Sayuko; Piaggi, Paolo; Cole, Shelley; Curran, Joanne E; Blangero, John; Göring, Harald; Kumar, Satish; Nelson, Robert G; Howard, Barbara V; Knowler, William C; Baier, Leslie J; Bogardus, Clifton

    2016-02-01

    Genetic variants in SLC16A11 were recently reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes in Mexican and other Latin American populations. The diabetes risk haplotype had a frequency of 50% in Native Americans from Mexico but was rare in Europeans and Africans. In the current study, we analyzed SLC16A11 in 12,811 North American Indians and found that the diabetes risk haplotype, tagged by the rs75493593 A allele, was nominally associated with type 2 diabetes (P = 0.001, odds ratio 1.11). However, there was a strong interaction with BMI (P = 5.1 × 10(-7)) such that the diabetes association was stronger in leaner individuals. rs75493593 was also strongly associated with BMI in individuals with type 2 diabetes (P = 3.4 × 10(-15)) but not in individuals without diabetes (P = 0.77). Longitudinal analyses suggest that this is due, in part, to an association of the A allele with greater weight loss following diabetes onset (P = 0.02). Analyses of global gene expression data from adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and whole blood provide evidence that rs75493593 is associated with expression of the nearby RNASEK gene, suggesting that RNASEK expression may mediate the effect of genotype on diabetes.

  3. Associations of Fast Food Restaurant Availability With Dietary Intake and Weight Among African Americans in the Jackson Heart Study, 2000–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez Roux, Ana V.; Smith, Adam E.; Tucker, Katherine L.; Gore, Larry D.; Zhang, Lei; Wyatt, Sharon B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the associations of fast food restaurant (FFR) availability with dietary intake and weight among African Americans in the southeastern United States. Methods. We investigated cross-sectional associations of FFR availability with dietary intake and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in 4740 African American Jackson Heart Study participants (55.2 ±12.6 years, 63.3% women). We estimated FFR availability using circular buffers with differing radii centered at each participant's geocoded residential location. Results. We observed no consistent associations between FFR availability and BMI or waist circumference. Greater FFR availability was associated with higher energy intake among men and women younger than 55 years, even after adjustment for individual socioeconomic status. For each standard deviation increase in 5-mile FFR availability, the energy intake increased by 138 kilocalories (confidence interval [CI] = 70.53, 204.75) for men and 58 kilocalories (CI = 8.55, 105.97) for women. We observed similar associations for the 2-mile FFR availability, especially in men. FFR availability was also unexpectedly positively associated with total fiber intake. Conclusions. FFR availability may contribute to greater energy intake in younger African Americans who are also more likely to consume fast food. PMID:21551382

  4. Associations of the MCM6-rs3754686 proxy for milk intake in Mediterranean and American populations with cardiovascular biomarkers, disease and mortality: Mendelian randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caren E.; Coltell, Oscar; Sorlí, Jose V.; Estruch, Ramón; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Fitó, Montserrat; Arós, Fernando; Dashti, Hassan S.; Lai, Chao Q.; Miró, Leticia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Ros, Emilio; Aslibekyan, Stella; Hidalgo, Bertha; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Di, Chongzhi; Tucker, Katherine L.; Arnett, Donna K.; Ordovás, José M.; Corella, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Controversy persists on the association between dairy products, especially milk, and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Genetic proxies may improve dairy intake estimations, and clarify diet-disease relationships through Mendelian randomization. We meta-analytically (n ≤ 20,089) evaluated associations between a lactase persistence (LP) SNP, the minichromosome maintenance complex component 6 (MCM6)-rs3754686C>T (nonpersistence>persistence), dairy intake, and CVD biomarkers in American (Hispanics, African-American and Whites) and Mediterranean populations. Moreover, we analyzed longitudinal associations with milk, CVD and mortality in PREDIMED), a randomized Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) intervention trial (n = 7185). The MCM6-rs3754686/MCM6-rs309180 (as proxy), LP-allele (T) was strongly associated with higher milk intake, but inconsistently associated with glucose and lipids, and not associated with CVD or total mortality in the whole population. Heterogeneity analyses suggested some sex-specific associations. The T-allele was associated with higher CVD and mortality risk in women but not in men (P-sex interaction:0.005 and 0.032, respectively), mainly in the MedDiet group. However, milk intake was not associated with CVD biomarkers, CVD or mortality either generally or in sub-groups. Although MCM6-rs3754686 is a good milk intake proxy in these populations, attributing its associations with CVD and mortality in Mediterranean women to milk is unwarranted, as other factors limiting the assumption of causality in Mendelian randomization may exist. PMID:27624874

  5. Evidence for Association between SH2B1 Gene Variants and Glycated Hemoglobin in Nondiabetic European American Young Adults: The Add Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Leslie A; Graff, Mariaelisa; Lange, Ethan M; Young, Kristin L; Richardson, Andrea S; Mohlke, Karen L; North, Kari E; Harris, Kathleen M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-09-01

    Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is used to classify glycaemia and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Body mass index (BMI) is a predictor of HbA1c levels and T2D. We tested 43 established BMI and obesity loci for association with HbA1c in a nationally representative multiethnic sample of young adults from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health [Add Health: age 24-34 years; n = 5641 European Americans (EA); 1740 African Americans (AA); 1444 Hispanic Americans (HA)] without T2D, using two levels of covariate adjustment (Model 1: age, sex, smoking, and geographic region; Model 2: Model 1 covariates plus BMI). Bonferroni adjustment was made for 43 SNPs and we considered P young adults.

  6. The American Association of Occupational Health Nurses' Respiratory Protection Education Program and Resources Webkit for Occupational Health Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeii, Lisa; Byrd, Annette; Delclos, George L; Conway, Sadie H

    2016-12-01

    Organizations are required to adhere to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Respiratory Protection Standard (29 CFR 1910.134) if they have workers that wear a respirator on the job. They must also have an employee "suitably trained" to administer their program. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and its National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory have worked to champion the occupational health nurse in this role by collaborating with the American Association of Occupational Health Nurses to develop free, online respiratory protection training and resources (RPP Webkit). This article describes the development, content, and success of this training. To date, 724 participants have completed the training, 32.6% of whom lead their organization's respiratory protection program, 15.3% who indicated they will lead a program in the near future, and 52% who did not lead a program, but indicated that the training was relevant to their work. The majority "strongly agreed" the training was applicable to their work and it enhanced their professional expertise.

  7. Web services-based access to local clinical trial databases: a standards initiative of the Association of American Cancer Institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Douglas C; Evans, Richard M; Afrin, Lawrence B; DeTeresa, Richard M; Ko, Dave; Mitchell, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Electronic discovery of the clinical trials being performed at a specific research center is a challenging task, which presently requires manual review of the center's locally maintained databases or web pages of protocol listings. Near real-time automated discovery of available trials would increase the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical trial searching, and would facilitate the development of new services for information providers and consumers. Automated discovery efforts to date have been hindered by issues such as disparate database schemas, vocabularies, and insufficient standards for easy intersystem exchange of high-level data, but adequate infrastructure now exists that make possible the development of applications for near real-time automated discovery of trials. This paper describes the current state (design and implementation) of the Web Services Specification for Publication and Discovery of Clinical Trials as developed by the Technology Task Force of the Association of American Cancer Institutes. The paper then briefly discusses a prototype web service-based application that implements the specification. Directions for evolution of this specification are also discussed.

  8. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition intervention in the treatment of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition intervention, including nutritional counseling, by a registered dietitian (RD) is an essential component of the team treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders during assessment and treatment across the continuum of care. Diagnostic criteria for eating disorders provide important guidelines for identification and treatment. However, it is thought that a continuum of disordered eating may exist that ranges from persistent dieting to subthreshold conditions and then to defined eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Understanding the complexities of eating disorders, such as influencing factors, comorbid illness, medical and psychological complications, and boundary issues, is critical in the effective treatment of eating disorders. The nature of eating disorders requires a collaborative approach by an interdisciplinary team of psychological, nutritional, and medical specialists. The RD is an integral member of the treatment team and is uniquely qualified to provide medical nutrition therapy for the normalization of eating patterns and nutritional status. RDs provide nutritional counseling, recognize clinical signs related to eating disorders, and assist with medical monitoring while cognizant of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy that are cornerstones of eating disorder treatment. Specialized resources are available for RDs to advance their level of expertise in the field of eating disorders. Further efforts with evidenced-based research must continue for improved treatment outcomes related to eating disorders along with identification of effective primary and secondary interventions.

  9. Essentials of nutrition education in medical schools: a national consensus. American Medical Student Association's Nutrition Curriculum Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Medical students of the American Medical Student Association established the Nutrition Curriculum Project (NCP) with the goals of ensuring that adequate nutrition information be taught to medical students; ensuring that there be a framework for integration of nutrition topics at all levels of medical education; and formulating and disseminating essential information for nutrition assessment and management in clinical practice. As a first step, the NCP assembled a ten-member advisory board to develop a comprehensive list of nutrition topics deemed essential for the adequate training of physicians. The advisory board consisted of medical and nutrition educators, physicians, and clinical specialists representing major U.S. professional nutrition organizations. The NCP's director co-ordinated the decision-making process through its three iterations. Final accord on 92 topics was achieved with unanimous approval of the board in 1994. These topics, organized in five major categories, are offered as a guide to the reform of nutrition education and as the basis of a satisfactory nutrition curriculum.

  10. Report of the American Medical Student Association's Nutrition Curriculum Project. Essentials of nutrition education in medical schools: a national consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-05-01

    Medical students of the American Medical Student Association established the Nutrition Curriculum Project (NCP) with the goals of ensuring that adequate nutrition information be taught to medical students; ensuring that there be a framework for integration of nutrition topics at all levels of medical education; and formulating and disseminating essential information for nutrition assessment and management in clinical practice. As a first step, the NCP assembled a ten-member advisory board to develop a comprehensive list of nutrition topics deemed essential for the adequate training of physicians. The advisory board consisted of medical and nutrition educators, physicians, and clinical specialists representing major U.S. professional nutrition organizations. The NCP's director coordinated the decision-making process through its three iterations. Final accord on 92 topics was achieved with unanimous approval of the board in 1994. These topics, organized in five major categories, are offered as a guide to the reform of nutrition education and as the basis of a satisfactory nutrition curriculum.

  11. Expanding insurance coverage through tax credits, consumer choice, and market enhancements: the American Medical Association proposal for health insurance reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Donald J; Emmons, David W; Wozniak, Gregory D

    2004-05-12

    Recent reports showing an increase in the number of uninsured individuals in the United States have given heightened attention to increasing health insurance coverage. The American Medical Association (AMA) has proposed a system of tax credits for the purchase of individually owned health insurance and enhancements to individual and group health insurance markets as a means of expanding coverage. Individually owned insurance would enable people to maintain coverage without disruption to existing patient-physician relationships, regardless of changes in employers or in work status. The AMA's plan would empower individuals to choose their health plan and give patients and their physicians more control over health care choices. Employers could continue to offer employment-based coverage, but employees would not be limited to the health plans offered by their employer. With a tax credit large enough to make coverage affordable and the ability to choose their own coverage, consumers would dramatically transform the individual and group health insurance markets. Health insurers would respond to the demands of individual consumers and be more cautious about increasing premiums. Insurers would also tailor benefit packages and develop new forms of coverage to better match the preferences of individuals and families. The AMA supports the development of new health insurance markets through legislative and regulatory changes to foster a wider array of high-quality, affordable plans.

  12. The Culture and Development Index (CDI: Measuring Values and Attitudes Associated With Development In Selected Asian and Latin American Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph I. B. Gonzales

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing data gathered in five waves in the period 1981–2005 for up to 97 societies (most of which are independent countries, the World Values Survey Organization (WVSO identified two orthogonal factors, Traditional/Secular-Rational Values, and Survival/Self-Expression Values, that account for up to 70 percent of cross-cultural variation worldwide. However, one weakness of the two-factor construct is that it overlooks regional or local patterns in values and attitudes that may be vitally related to development. Alternatively, the Culture and Development Index (CDI and the closely related Culture and Corruption Index (CCI are constructed for selected South and Southeast Asian, Latin American, and East Asian countries to account for cross-cultural variation in terms of a different set of orthogonal factors, some of which are strongly associated with leading measures of development and of corruption. Both CDI and CCI reveal patterns of value and attitudinal change relevant to promoting development and to mitigating corruption.

  13. Assessing tobacco use by cancer patients and facilitating cessation: an American Association for Cancer Research policy statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toll, Benjamin A; Brandon, Thomas H; Gritz, Ellen R; Warren, Graham W; Herbst, Roy S

    2013-04-15

    When diagnosed with cancer, patients can immediately make a meaningful positive impact on their health by stopping their tobacco use. Scientific evidence clearly shows that tobacco use in patients with cancer leads to poorer outcomes. The specific biological processes driving tobacco consumption's interference in cancer therapy are the subject of continuing research, but the evidence is clear that tobacco use in patients with cancer leads to decreased treatment efficacy and safety, decreased survival, decreased quality of life, increased treatment-related toxicity, and increased risk of cancer recurrence and second primary tumors. Data suggest that tobacco cessation can improve outcomes and survival in patients with cancer, yet full execution of evidence-based cessation interventions is infrequent in oncology settings. Therefore, both improved provision of cessation assistance to all patients with cancer who use tobacco or have recently quit and further study of the deleterious effects of tobacco use and benefits of tobacco cessation on cancer progression and treatment are needed and recommended by the American Association for Cancer Research. Progress on both fronts begins with universal assessment and documentation of tobacco use as a standard of quality cancer care regardless of treatment setting and will be further facilitated through the development of reliable, valid, and standard measures of tobacco use, incorporation of evidence-based procedures into quality and accreditation procedures, and the development of appropriate training, clinical infrastructure, and incentives for delivery of tobacco cessation interventions.

  14. Novel predictors of sepsis outperform the American Burn Association sepsis criteria in the burn intensive care unit patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann-Salinas, Elizabeth A; Baun, Mara M; Meininger, Janet C; Murray, Clinton K; Aden, James K; Wolf, Steven E; Wade, Charles E

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and American Burn Association (ABA) criteria predict sepsis in the burn patient and develop a model representing the best combination of novel clinical sepsis predictors. A retrospective, case-controlled, within-patient comparison of burn patients admitted to a single intensive care unit from January 2005 to September 2010 was made. Blood culture results were paired with documented sepsis: positive-sick, negative-sick (collectively defined as sick), and negative-not sick. Data for all predictors were collected for the 72 hours before blood culture. Variables were evaluated using regression and area under the curve (AUC) analyses. Fifty-nine subjects represented 177 culture periods. SIRS criteria were not discriminative: 98% of the subjects met criteria. ABA sepsis criteria were different on the day before (P = .004). The six best-fit variables identified for the model included heart rate > 130 beats per min, mean arterial pressure 150 mg/dl. The model was significant in predicting positive-sick and sick, with an AUC of 0.775 (P burn patient.

  15. More than 10 million steps in the right direction: results from the first American Heart Association scientific sessions walking challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Robert A; Arena, Ross; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ciarochi, Amy; Croll, Elizabeth; Bloch, Kenneth D

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the Global Congress theme at the American Heart Association (AHA) Annual Scientific Sessions was Physical Activity (PA). As a key component of the Congress, iHealth working in collaboration with AHA provided a Bluetooth-enabled wireless PA and sleep tracker to up to 2,000 Scientific Sessions attendees. Approximately 1850 Scientific Sessions attendees registered for, received a PA tracker and participated in the Walking Challenge. More than 10 million steps were walked by participants (10,703,504) during the 2.5 days of the Walking Challenge. This translates into almost 6000 miles walked (5976.3 miles) and 656,716 calories burned by participants during the Challenge. The Global Congress of PA held at Scientific Sessions 2013 not only extensively reviewed the science of PA as a powerful/independent and, most importantly, modifiable cardiovascular risk factor, but it also provided evidence from a fun and entertaining challenge that PA as a risk behavior can be assessed and targeted. We just took 10 million steps in the right direction. Join us and make your steps count!

  16. Statistics of football dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, R S; Anteneodo, C

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by $q$-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.

  17. Meta-analysis of Gene-Level Associations for Rare Variants Based on Single-Variant Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Y.J.; Berndt, S.I.; Gustafsson, S.; Ganna, A.; Hirschhorn, J.; North, K.E.; Ingelsson, E.; Lin, D.Y.; Kiemeney, L.A.L.M.; Vermeulen, S.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) has led to the discoveries of many common variants associated with complex human diseases. There is a growing recognition that identifying "causal" rare variants also requires large-scale meta-analysis. The fact that association tests with rar

  18. The election of Sarah McNutt as the first woman member of the American Neurological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Stacy S; Goetz, Christopher G

    2002-07-09

    The authors investigated the early women physicians of the New York Infirmary for Women and Children and their role in shaping the career and accomplishments of their student and later colleague, Dr. Sarah J. McNutt. These influences eventually led McNutt to be inducted into the American Neurologic Association (ANA). McNutt was educated at the New York Infirmary for Women and Children by early women physicians including Drs. Elizabeth and Emily Blackwell and Mary Putnam Jacobi. McNutt worked to improve the educational opportunities for practicing physicians and nurses by developing postgraduate lectures and organizations. With her early colleagues she developed the New York Infirmary for Women and Children into a reputable hospital and woman's medical college. One of the consultants to the New York Infirmary for Women and Children was Royal W. Amidon, secretary of the ANA in 1883. McNutt's close association with the Clinical Society of the New York Post Graduate Medical School and Hospital brought her into direct contact with other prominent ANA members including C.L. Dana and W.A. Hammond. In 1884, McNutt was nominated by Amidon and Hammond as the first woman member to the ANA and was elected. Her ANA thesis was Double Infantile Spastic Hemiplegia. McNutt was elected into the ANA at a time when women physicians were first being recognized and included into mainstream medicine. Her historic election acknowledged her accomplishments and highlighted the proactive role of the early ANA in forging new medical policies in the United States.

  19. Anomalies of the South American summer monsoon associated with the 1997-99 El Niño-southern oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, K.-M.; Zhou, Jiayu

    2003-04-01

    We describe the rainfall and circulation anomalies of the South American summer monsoon (SASM) during December-January-February (DJF) of 1997-98 (El Niño) and 1998-99 (La Niña). The most pronounced rainfall signals in DJF 1997-98 include (a) excessive rainfall over northern Peru and Ecuador, (b) deficient rainfall over northern and central Brazil, and (c) above-normal rainfall over southeastern subtropical South America. The rainfall anomalies in (a) and (b) are associated with the excitation of an anomalous east-west overturning cell with rising motion and low-level westerlies over the equatorial eastern Pacific, coupled to sinking motion and low-level easterlies over northern Brazil. The easterlies turn sharply southeastward on encountering the steep topography of the Andes, enhancing the summertime low-level jet (LLJ) along the eastern foothills of the Andes near 15-20° S, possibly contributing to the increased rainfall in (c).During DJF 1997-98, the sea-surface temperature-induced warming spreads and expands over the entire tropical troposphere. The eastward expansion of a warm upper tropospheric geopotential and temperature ridge from the Niño-3 region, across subtropical South America to the southeast Atlantic, enhances warming over the Altiplano Plateau, hydrostatically strengthening the Bolivia high. Similar to previous warming events, the South Pacific high is weakened, and the South Atlantic high is strengthened. During DJF 1998-99, as cold water develops over the equatorial central Pacific, the SASM anomalies in the tropics are weaker and less organized and appear to be in transition to the opposite phase to those found in DJF 97-98. In the subtropics, notable features include a weakening of the LLJ, a rainfall pattern associated with a poleward shift of the South Atlantic convergence zone, and development of the Pacific-South America teleconnection pattern. Published in 2003 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Significant differences in fecal microbiota are associated with various stages of glucose tolerance in African American male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciubotaru, Irina; Green, Stefan J; Kukreja, Subhash; Barengolts, Elena

    2015-11-01

    The importance of gut microbiota in pathogenesis of diabetes remains unknown. This study investigated the relationship between microbiota and metabolic markers in African American men (AAM) with prediabetes and hypovitaminosis D. The study was ancillary to a randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation with weekly ergocalciferol (50,000 IU) conducted in AAM veterans over 12 months (D Intervention in Veterans Affairs). Glycemic groups (Gr) were characterized based on changes in oral glucose tolerance between baseline and exit. Subjects with stable normal glucose tolerance were assigned to Gr-1 and those with stable prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glucose) to Gr-2. Microbiota composition was analyzed in stool collected at the exit (n = 115) and compared between Gr-1 and Gr-2, as well as between the lowest and highest quartiles of dietary intake of energy and fat, hemoglobin A1c, and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) level. Differences between Gr-1 and Gr-2 included the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes and Bacteroidales/Clostridia ratios and differences in genera such as Ruminococcus and Dialister. Changes in specific taxa associated with the lowest and highest quartiles of 25(OH)D (eg, Ruminococcus, Roseburia, Blautia, Dorea) were clearly distinct from those of dietary intake (eg, Bacteroides, Bacteroides/Prevotella ratio) or A1c (eg, Faecalibacterium, Catenibacterium, Streptococcus). These findings suggest a novel interaction between microbiota and vitamin D and a role for microbiota in early stages of diabetes development. Although results suggest that specific taxa are associated with glycemic stability over time, a causative relationship between microbiota makeup and dysglycemia is still to be demonstrated.