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Sample records for american sign language

  1. American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Info » Voice, Speech, and Language American Sign Language On this page: What is American Sign Language? ... signs "I love you." What is American Sign Language? American Sign Language (ASL) is a complete, complex ...

  2. American Sign Language Curricula: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Russell S.

    2010-01-01

    There is an exponential growth in the number of schools that offer American Sign Language (ASL) for foreign language credit and the different ASL curricula that were published. This study analyzes different curricula in its assumptions regarding language, learning, and teaching of second languages. It is found that curricula vary in their…

  3. Phonological Awareness for American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corina, David P.; Hafer, Sarah; Welch, Kearnan

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of phonological awareness (PA) as it relates to the processing of American Sign Language (ASL). We present data from a recently developed test of PA for ASL and examine whether sign language experience impacts the use of metalinguistic routines necessary for completion of our task. Our data show that deaf signers…

  4. Adaptation of a Vocabulary Test from British Sign Language to American Sign Language

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    Mann, Wolfgang; Roy, Penny; Morgan, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the adaptation process of a vocabulary knowledge test for British Sign Language (BSL) into American Sign Language (ASL) and presents results from the first round of pilot testing with 20 deaf native ASL signers. The web-based test assesses the strength of deaf children's vocabulary knowledge by means of different mappings of…

  5. New Perspectives on the History of American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Emily; Delaporte, Yves

    2011-01-01

    Examinations of the etymology of American Sign Language have typically involved superficial analyses of signs as they exist over a short period of time. While it is widely known that ASL is related to French Sign Language, there has yet to be a comprehensive study of this historic relationship between their lexicons. This article presents…

  6. American Sign Language: Acceptance at the University Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katrina R.

    2008-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) is a visual-gestural language identified as the first or natural language of many persons who are deaf in the United States. For over 200 years, it has been the focal point of a heated controversy regarding optimal teaching methodologies for deaf children in the American elementary and secondary educational systems.…

  7. Statistical Sign Language Machine Translation: from English written text to American Sign Language Gloss

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    Othman, Achraf

    2011-01-01

    This works aims to design a statistical machine translation from English text to American Sign Language (ASL). The system is based on Moses tool with some modifications and the results are synthesized through a 3D avatar for interpretation. First, we translate the input text to gloss, a written form of ASL. Second, we pass the output to the WebSign Plug-in to play the sign. Contributions of this work are the use of a new couple of language English/ASL and an improvement of statistical machine translation based on string matching thanks to Jaro-distance.

  8. American Sign Language Comprehension Test: A Tool for Sign Language Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Peter C.; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Riddle, Wanda; Kurz, Kim B.; Emmorey, Karen; Contreras, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    The American Sign Language Comprehension Test (ASL-CT) is a 30-item multiple-choice test that measures ASL receptive skills and is administered through a website. This article describes the development and psychometric properties of the test based on a sample of 80 college students including deaf native signers, hearing native signers, deaf…

  9. Ideological Barriers to American Sign Language: Unpacking Linguistic Resistance

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    Reagan, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the debate about the status of American Sign Language (ASL) as an example of ideological beliefs that impact linguistic judgments and policies. It also discusses the major challenges to the status of ASL with respect to formal legislative recognition, its utility as a medium of instruction, and its status as a legitimate…

  10. A Functional Description of SELF in American Sign Language

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    Wilkinson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    Past studies have identified the function of SELF as a canonical reflexive pronoun in American Sign Language (ASL). This study examines the use of SELF with fifteen hours of naturalistic ASL discourse framed by the cognitive-functionalist approach. The analysis reveals that the category of SELF is expressed in three phonological forms and exhibits…

  11. The Multimedia Dictionary of American Sign Language: Learning Lessons About Language, Technology, and Business.

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    Wilcox, Sherman

    2003-01-01

    Reports on the the Multimedia Dictionary of American Sign language, which was was conceived in he late 1980s as a melding of the pioneering work in American Sign language lexicography that had been carried out decades earlier and the newly emerging computer technologies that were integrating use of graphical user-interface designs, rapidly…

  12. Neural Language Processing in Adolescent First-Language Learners: Longitudinal Case Studies in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferjan Ramirez, Naja; Leonard, Matthew K; Davenport, Tristan S; Torres, Christina; Halgren, Eric; Mayberry, Rachel I

    2016-03-01

    One key question in neurolinguistics is the extent to which the neural processing system for language requires linguistic experience during early life to develop fully. We conducted a longitudinal anatomically constrained magnetoencephalography (aMEG) analysis of lexico-semantic processing in 2 deaf adolescents who had no sustained language input until 14 years of age, when they became fully immersed in American Sign Language. After 2 to 3 years of language, the adolescents' neural responses to signed words were highly atypical, localizing mainly to right dorsal frontoparietal regions and often responding more strongly to semantically primed words (Ferjan Ramirez N, Leonard MK, Torres C, Hatrak M, Halgren E, Mayberry RI. 2014. Neural language processing in adolescent first-language learners. Cereb Cortex. 24 (10): 2772-2783). Here, we show that after an additional 15 months of language experience, the adolescents' neural responses remained atypical in terms of polarity. While their responses to less familiar signed words still showed atypical localization patterns, the localization of responses to highly familiar signed words became more concentrated in the left perisylvian language network. Our findings suggest that the timing of language experience affects the organization of neural language processing; however, even in adolescence, language representation in the human brain continues to evolve with experience. PMID:25410427

  13. Reproducing American Sign Language Sentences: Cognitive Scaffolding in Working Memory

    OpenAIRE

    TedSupalla; PeterHauser; DaphneBavelier

    2014-01-01

    The American Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (ASL-SRT) requires the precise reproduction of a series of ASL sentences increasing in complexity and length. Error analyses of such tasks provides insight into working memory and scaffolding processes. Data was collected from three groups expected to differ in fluency: deaf children, deaf adults and hearing adults, all users of ASL. Quantitative (correct/incorrect recall) and qualitative error analyses were performed. Percent correct on ...

  14. Grammar, Gesture, and Meaning in American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddell, Scott K.

    In sign languages of the Deaf, now recognized as fully legitimate human languages, some signs can meaningfully point toward things or can be meaningfully placed in the space ahead of the signer. Such spatial uses of sign are an obligatory part of fluent grammatical signing. There is no parallel for this in vocally produced languages. This book…

  15. Languages Are More than Words: Spanish and American Sign Language in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Judy; Torres-Crespo, Marisel N.

    2015-01-01

    Capitalizing on preschoolers' inherent enthusiasm and capacity for learning, the authors developed and implemented a dual-language program to enable young children to experience diversity and multiculturalism by learning two new languages: Spanish and American Sign Language. Details of the curriculum, findings, and strategies are shared.

  16. Effects of Iconicity and Semantic Relatedness on Lexical Access in American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosworth, Rain G.; Emmorey, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Iconicity is a property that pervades the lexicon of many sign languages, including American Sign Language (ASL). Iconic signs exhibit a motivated, nonarbitrary mapping between the form of the sign and its meaning. We investigated whether iconicity enhances semantic priming effects for ASL and whether iconic signs are recognized more quickly than…

  17. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE (ASL AND BRITISH SIGN LANGUAGE (BSL

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    Zora JACHOVA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In the communication of deaf people between them­selves and hearing people there are three ba­sic as­pects of interaction: gesture, finger signs and writing. The gesture is a conditionally agreed manner of communication with the help of the hands followed by face and body mimic. The ges­ture and the move­ments pre-exist the speech and they had the purpose to mark something, and later to emphasize the speech expression.Stokoe was the first linguist that realised that the signs are not a whole that can not be analysed. He analysed signs in insignificant parts that he called “chemeres”, and many linguists today call them pho­nemes. He created three main phoneme catego­ries: hand position, location and movement.Sign languages as spoken languages have back­ground from the distant past. They developed par­allel with the development of spoken language and undertook many historical changes. Therefore, to­day they do not represent a replacement of the spoken language, but are languages themselves in the real sense of the word.Although the structures of the English language used in USA and in Great Britain is the same, still their sign languages-ASL and BSL are different.

  18. Frequency of Occurrence and Information Entropy of American Sign Language

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    Chong, Andrew; Poor, H Vincent

    2009-01-01

    American Sign Language (ASL) uses a series of hand based gestures as a replacement for words to allow the deaf to communicate. Previous work has shown that although it takes longer to make signs than to say the equivalent words, on average sentences can be completed in about the same time. This leaves unresolved, however, precisely why that should be the case. This paper reports a determination of the empirical entropy and redundancy in the set of handshapes of ASL. In this context, the entropy refers to the average information content in a unit of data. It is found that the handshapes, as fundamental units of ASL, are less redundant than phonemes, the equivalent fundamental units of spoken English, and that their entropy is much closer to the maximum possible information content. This explains why the slower signs can produce sentences in the same time as speaking; the low redundancy compensates for the slow rate of sign production. In addition to this precise quantification, this work is also novel in its a...

  19. Second Language Acquisition across Modalities: Production Variability in Adult L2 Learners of American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Allison I.; Loucks, Torrey M. J.; Quinto-Pozos, David; Dye, Matthew W. G.

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine production variability in American Sign Language (ASL) in order to gain insight into the development of motor control in a language produced in another modality. Production variability was characterized through the spatiotemporal index (STI), which represents production stability in whole utterances and is a…

  20. Deaf Students' Receptive and Expressive American Sign Language Skills: Comparisons and Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents receptive and expressive American Sign Language skills of 85 students, 6 through 22 years of age at a residential school for the deaf using the American Sign Language Receptive Skills Test and the Ozcaliskan Motion Stimuli. Results are presented by ages and indicate that students' receptive skills increased with age and…

  1. Language Interdependence between American Sign Language and English: A Review of Empirical Studies

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    Rusher, Melissa Ausbrooks

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a contemporary definition of American Sign Language/English bilingual education (AEBE) and outlines an essential theoretical framework. Included is a history and evolution of the methodology. The author also summarizes the general findings of twenty-six (26) empirical studies conducted in the United States that directly or…

  2. Reproducing American Sign Language Sentences: Cognitive Scaffolding in Working Memory

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    TedSupalla

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The American Sign Language Sentence Reproduction Test (ASL-SRT requires the precise reproduction of a series of ASL sentences increasing in complexity and length. Error analyses of such tasks provides insight into working memory and scaffolding processes. Data was collected from three groups expected to differ in fluency: deaf children, deaf adults and hearing adults, all users of ASL. Quantitative (correct/incorrect recall and qualitative error analyses were performed. Percent correct on the reproduction task supports its sensitivity to fluency as test performance clearly differed across the three groups studied. A linguistic analysis of errors further documented differing strategies and bias across groups. Subjects’ recall projected the affordance and constraints of deep linguistic representations to differing degrees, with subjects resorting to alternate processing strategies in the absence of linguistic knowledge. A qualitative error analysis allows us to capture generalizations about the relationship between error pattern and the cognitive scaffolding, which governs the sentence reproduction process. Highly fluent signers and less-fluent signers share common chokepoints on particular words in sentences. However, they diverge in heuristic strategy. Fluent signers, when they make an error, tend to preserve semantic details while altering morpho-syntactic domains. They produce syntactically correct sentences with equivalent meaning to the to-be-reproduced one, but these are not verbatim reproductions of the original sentence. In contrast, less-fluent signers tend to use a more linear strategy, preserving lexical status and word ordering while omitting local inflections, and occasionally resorting to visuo-motoric imitation. Thus, whereas fluent signers readily use top-down scaffolding in their working memory, less fluent signers fail to do so. Implications for current models of working memory across spoken and signed modalities are

  3. Health websites: accessibility and usability for American sign language users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; Naturale, Joan; Paludneviciene, Raylene; Smith, Scott R; Werfel, Emily; Doolittle, Richard; Jacobs, Stephen; DeCaro, James

    2015-01-01

    To date, there have been efforts toward creating better health information access for Deaf American Sign Language (ASL) users. However, the usability of websites with access to health information in ASL has not been evaluated. Our article focuses on the usability of four health websites that include ASL videos. We seek to obtain ASL users' perspectives on the navigation of these ASL-accessible websites, finding the health information that they needed, and perceived ease of understanding ASL video content. ASL users (n = 32) were instructed to find specific information on four ASL-accessible websites, and answered questions related to (a) navigation to find the task, (b) website usability, and (c) ease of understanding ASL video content for each of the four websites. Participants also gave feedback on what they would like to see in an ASL health library website, including the benefit of added captioning and/or signer model to medical illustration of health videos. Participants who had lower health literacy had greater difficulty in finding information on ASL-accessible health websites. This article also describes the participants' preferences for an ideal ASL-accessible health website, and concludes with a discussion on the role of accessible websites in promoting health literacy in ASL users. PMID:24901350

  4. A Computerized Lexicon of American Sign Language: The "DASL" in FORTRAN.

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    Teuber, Hartmut; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes a method for organizing, storing, and retrieving lexical data from computerized files of American Sign Language. The results of sample searches of the dictionary files are presented with a discussion of how these files and applications might be expanded. The lexicon is useful for researchers and teachers of sign languages. (Author/PJM)

  5. Gesture in Multiparty Interaction: A Study of Embodied Discourse in Spoken English and American Sign Language

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    Shaw, Emily P.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is an examination of gesture in two game nights: one in spoken English between four hearing friends and another in American Sign Language between four Deaf friends. Analyses of gesture have shown there exists a complex integration of manual gestures with speech. Analyses of sign language have implicated the body as a medium…

  6. Poetic Cohesion in American Sign Language: Valli's "Snowflake"& Coleridge's "Frost at Midnight."

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    Ormsby, Alec

    1995-01-01

    Focuses on original poetic composition in American Sign Language (ASL). The development of a documented body of poetry in ASL and of a framework for poetic usage has demonstrated that the limitations of gestural sign systems are inherent in the cultural development of the deaf and has affirmed the legitimacy of the deaf community and its language.…

  7. How Deaf American Sign Language/English Bilingual Children Become Proficient Readers: An Emic Perspective

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    Mounty, Judith L.; Pucci, Concetta T.; Harmon, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    A primary tenet underlying American Sign Language/English bilingual education for deaf students is that early access to a visual language, developed in conjunction with language planning principles, provides a foundation for literacy in English. The goal of this study is to obtain an emic perspective on bilingual deaf readers transitioning from…

  8. To Master Self-Revision in American Sign Language and English : Gateway to Bilingual Competence

    OpenAIRE

    Herbold, Tenaya Ann

    2015-01-01

    Self-revision and language play as language development tools has made its appearance throughout English instruction, with research and curricula designed to enhance language use. In Bilingual Education, however, these tools are not often utilized, and the lack of research or curriculum available perpetuates this. My curriculum focuses on utilizing self-revision and language play in both English and American Sign Language, concentrating on developing equivalent meanings. Students discovered t...

  9. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE STRUCTURE OF THE AMERICAN AND MACEDONIAN SIGN LANGUAGE

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    Aleksandra KAROVSKA RISTOVSKA

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aleksandra Karovska Ristovska, M.A. in special education and rehabilitation sciences, defended her doctoral thesis on 9 of March 2014 at the Institute of Special Education and Rehabilitation, Faculty of Philosophy, University “Ss. Cyril and Methodius”- Skopje in front of the commission composed of: Prof. Zora Jachova, PhD; Prof. Jasmina Kovachevikj, PhD; Prof. Ljudmil Spasov, PhD; Prof. Goran Ajdinski, PhD; Prof. Daniela Dimitrova Radojicikj, PhD. The Macedonian Sign Language is a natural language, used by the community of Deaf in the Republic of Macedonia. This doctoral paper aimed towards the analyses of the characteristics of the Macedonian Sign Language: its phonology, morphology and syntax as well as towards the comparison of the Macedonian and the American Sign Language. William Stokoe was the first one who in the 1960’s started the research of the American Sign Language. He set the base of the linguistic research in sign languages. The analysis of the signs in the Macedonian Sign Language was made according Stokoe’s parameters: location, hand shape and movement. Lexicostatistics showed that MSL and ASL belong to a different language family. Beside this fact, they share some iconic signs, whose presence can be attributed to the phenomena of lexical borrowings. Phonologically, in ASL and MSL, if we make a change of one of Stokoe’s categories, the meaning of the word changes as well. Non-manual signs which are grammatical markers in sign languages are identical in ASL and MSL. The production of compounds and the production of plural forms are identical in both sign languages. The inflection of verbs is also identical. The research showed that the most common order of words in ASL and MSL is the SVO order (subject-verb-object, while the SOV and OVS order can seldom be met. Questions and negative sentences are produced identically in ASL and MSL.

  10. First-language acquisition after childhood differs from second-language acquisition: the case of American Sign Language.

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    Mayberry, R I

    1993-12-01

    This study determined whether the long-range outcome of first-language acquisition, when the learning begins after early childhood, is similar to that of second-language acquisition. Subjects were 36 deaf adults who had contrasting histories of spoken and sign language acquisition. Twenty-seven subjects were born deaf and began to acquire American Sign Language (ASL) as a first language at ages ranging from infancy to late childhood. Nine other subjects were born with normal hearing, which they lost in late childhood; they subsequently acquired ASL as a second language (because they had acquired spoken English as a first language in early childhood). ASL sentence processing was measured by recall of long and complex sentences and short-term memory for signed digits. Subjects who acquired ASL as a second language after childhood outperformed those who acquired it as a first language at exactly the same age. In addition, the performance of the subjects who acquired ASL as a first language declined in association with increasing age of acquisition. Effects were most apparent for sentence processing skills related to lexical identification, grammatical acceptability, and memory for sentence meaning. No effects were found for skills related to fine-motor production and pattern segmentation. PMID:8114493

  11. Impacts of Visual Sonority and Handshape Markedness on Second Language Learning of American Sign Language

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    Williams, Joshua T.; Newman, Sharlene D.

    2016-01-01

    The roles of visual sonority and handshape markedness in sign language acquisition and production were investigated. In Experiment 1, learners were taught sign-nonobject correspondences that varied in sign movement sonority and handshape markedness. Results from a sign-picture matching task revealed that high sonority signs were more accurately…

  12. Dissociating Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Gesture Processing: Electrophysiological Evidence from American Sign Language

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    Grosvald, Michael; Gutierrez, Eva; Hafer, Sarah; Corina, David

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental advance in our understanding of human language would come from a detailed account of how non-linguistic and linguistic manual actions are differentiated in real time by language users. To explore this issue, we targeted the N400, an ERP component known to be sensitive to semantic context. Deaf signers saw 120 American Sign Language…

  13. Impacts of Visual Sonority and Handshape Markedness on Second Language Learning of American Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua T; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-04-01

    The roles of visual sonority and handshape markedness in sign language acquisition and production were investigated. In Experiment 1, learners were taught sign-nonobject correspondences that varied in sign movement sonority and handshape markedness. Results from a sign-picture matching task revealed that high sonority signs were more accurately matched, especially when the sign contained a marked handshape. In Experiment 2, learners produced these familiar signs in addition to novel signs, which differed based on sonority and markedness. Results from a key-release reaction time reproduction task showed that learners tended to produce high sonority signs much more quickly than low sonority signs, especially when the sign contained an unmarked handshape. This effect was only present in familiar signs. Sign production accuracy rates revealed that high sonority signs were more accurate than low sonority signs. Similarly, signs with unmarked handshapes were produced more accurately than those with marked handshapes. Together, results from Experiments 1 and 2 suggested that signs that contain high sonority movements are more easily processed, both perceptually and productively, and handshape markedness plays a differential role in perception and production. PMID:26644551

  14. Longitudinal Receptive American Sign Language Skills across a Diverse Deaf Student Body

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    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    This article presents results of a longitudinal study of receptive American Sign Language (ASL) skills for a large portion of the student body at a residential school for the deaf across four consecutive years. Scores were analyzed by age, gender, parental hearing status, years attending the residential school, and presence of a disability (i.e.,…

  15. A Particle of Indefiniteness in American Sign Language

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    Carol Neidle

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe here the characteristics of a very frequently-occurring ASL indefinite focus particle, which has not previously been recognized as such. We show here that, despite its similarity to the question sign "WHAT", the particle is distinct from that sign in terms of articulation, function, and distribution. The particle serves to express "uncertainty" in various ways, which can be formalized semantically in terms of a domain-widening effect of the same sort as that proposed for English "any" by Kadmon & Landman (1993. Its function is to widen the domain of possibilities under consideration from the typical to include the non-typical as well, along a dimension appropriate in the context.

  16. The Effects of Electronic Communication on American Sign Language

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    Schneider, Erin; Kozak, L. Viola; Santiago, Roberto; Stephen, Anika

    2012-01-01

    Technological and language innovation often flow in concert with one another. Casual observation by researchers has shown that electronic communication memes, in the form of abbreviations, have found their way into spoken English. This study focuses on the current use of electronic modes of communication, such as cell smartphones, and e-mail, and…

  17. Language and Literacy Acquisition through Parental Mediation in American Sign Language

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    Bailes, Cynthia Neese; Erting, Lynne C.; Thumann-Prezioso, Carlene; Erting, Carol J.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal case study examined the language and literacy acquisition of a Deaf child as mediated by her signing Deaf parents during her first three years of life. Results indicate that the parents' interactions with their child were guided by linguistic and cultural knowledge that produced an intuitive use of child-directed signing (CDSi)…

  18. Response bias reveals enhanced attention to inferior visual field in signers of American Sign Language.

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    Dye, Matthew W G; Seymour, Jenessa L; Hauser, Peter C

    2016-04-01

    Deafness results in cross-modal plasticity, whereby visual functions are altered as a consequence of a lack of hearing. Here, we present a reanalysis of data originally reported by Dye et al. (PLoS One 4(5):e5640, 2009) with the aim of testing additional hypotheses concerning the spatial redistribution of visual attention due to deafness and the use of a visuogestural language (American Sign Language). By looking at the spatial distribution of errors made by deaf and hearing participants performing a visuospatial selective attention task, we sought to determine whether there was evidence for (1) a shift in the hemispheric lateralization of visual selective function as a result of deafness, and (2) a shift toward attending to the inferior visual field in users of a signed language. While no evidence was found for or against a shift in lateralization of visual selective attention as a result of deafness, a shift in the allocation of attention from the superior toward the inferior visual field was inferred in native signers of American Sign Language, possibly reflecting an adaptation to the perceptual demands imposed by a visuogestural language. PMID:26708522

  19. Sign Language Interpreters' Training

    OpenAIRE

    Andriakopoulou, Eirini; Bouras, Christos; Giannaka, Eri

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, the evolution of technology and the increasing use of computers gave the opportunity for developing new methods of education of deaf individuals and sign language interpreters. The e-learning environments that have been developed for the education of sign language provide web-based courses, designed to effectively teach to anyone the Sign Language. Recognizing the difficulties and barriers of sign language training as well as the importance of sign language interpreters for the comm...

  20. Automatic sign language identification

    OpenAIRE

    Gebre, B.G.; Wittenburg, P.; Heskes, T.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a Random-Forest based sign language identification system. The system uses low-level visual features and is based on the hypothesis that sign languages have varying distributions of phonemes (hand-shapes, locations and movements). We evaluated the system on two sign languages -- British SL and Greek SL, both taken from a publicly available corpus, called Dicta Sign Corpus. Achieved average F1 scores are about 95% - indicating that sign languages can be identified with high accuracy...

  1. Chasing ancestors: searching for the roots of American Sign Language in the Kentish Weald, 1620-1851

    OpenAIRE

    Kitzel, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    Late twentieth-century discourses regarding deaf people and sign language provide the theoretical background for investigating early modern families with hereditary deafness within the Kentish Weald. The first of its kind, this thesis described the methods used to ascertain the presence of sufficient numbers of networked deaf people to maintain natural sign language. A source-driven work, it began with two data sources - a list generated by previous American genealogical research of the f...

  2. Recognition of American Sign Language (ASL) Classifiers in a Planetarium Using a Head-Mounted Display

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    Hintz, Eric G.; Jones, Michael; Lawler, Jeannette; Bench, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    A traditional accommodation for the deaf or hard-of-hearing in a planetarium show is some type of captioning system or a signer on the floor. Both of these have significant drawbacks given the nature of a planetarium show. Young audience members who are deaf likely don't have the reading skills needed to make a captioning system effective. A signer on the floor requires light which can then splash onto the dome. We have examined the potential of using a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) to provide an American Sign Language (ASL) translation. Our preliminary test used a canned planetarium show with a pre-recorded sound track. Since many astronomical objects don't have official ASL signs, the signer had to use classifiers to describe the different objects. Since these are not official signs, these classifiers provided a way to test to see if students were picking up the information using the HMD.We will present results that demonstrate that the use of HMDs is at least as effective as projecting a signer on the dome. This also showed that the HMD could provide the necessary accommodation for students for whom captioning was ineffective. We will also discuss the current effort to provide a live signer without the light splash effect and our early results on teaching effectiveness with HMDs.This work is partially supported by funding from the National Science Foundation grant IIS-1124548 and the Sorenson Foundation.

  3. Longitudinal Receptive American Sign Language Skills Across a Diverse Deaf Student Body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal-Alvarez, Jennifer S

    2016-04-01

    This article presents results of a longitudinal study of receptive American Sign Language (ASL) skills for a large portion of the student body at a residential school for the deaf across four consecutive years. Scores were analyzed by age, gender, parental hearing status, years attending the residential school, and presence of a disability (i.e., deaf with a disability). Years 1 through 4 included the ASL Receptive Skills Test (ASL-RST); Years 2 through 4 also included the Receptive Test of ASL (RT-ASL). Student performance for both measures positively correlated with age; deaf students with deaf parents scored higher than their same-age peers with hearing parents in some instances but not others; and those with a documented disability tended to score lower than their peers without disabilities. These results provide longitudinal findings across a diverse segment of the deaf/hard of hearing residential school population. PMID:26864689

  4. SIGN LANGUAGE CONVERTER

    OpenAIRE

    Taner Arsan; Oğuz Ülgen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to design a convenient system that is helpful for the people who have hearing difficulties and in general who use very simple and effective method; sign language. This system can be used for converting sign language to voice and also voice to sign language. A motion capture system is used for sign language conversion and a voice recognition system for voice conversion. It captures the signs and dictates on the screen as writing. It also captures the voice ...

  5. Standardization of Sign Languages

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    Adam, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the years attempts have been made to standardize sign languages. This form of language planning has been tackled by a variety of agents, most notably teachers of Deaf students, social workers, government agencies, and occasionally groups of Deaf people themselves. Their efforts have most often involved the development of sign language books…

  6. Reading books with young deaf children: strategies for mediating between American Sign Language and English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Research on shared reading has shown positive results on children's literacy development in general and for deaf children specifically; however, reading techniques might differ between these two populations. Families with deaf children, especially those with deaf parents, often capitalize on their children's visual attributes rather than primarily auditory cues. These techniques are believed to provide a foundation for their deaf children's literacy skills. This study examined 10 deaf mother/deaf child dyads with children between 3 and 5 years of age. Dyads were videotaped in their homes on at least two occasions reading books that were provided by the researcher. Descriptive analysis showed specifically how deaf mothers mediate between the two languages, American Sign Language (ASL) and English, while reading. These techniques can be replicated and taught to all parents of deaf children so that they can engage in more effective shared reading activities. Research has shown that shared reading, or the interaction of a parent and child with a book, is an effective way to promote language and literacy, vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, and metalinguistic awareness (Snow, 1983), making it critical for educators to promote shared reading activities at home between parent and child. Not all parents read to their children in the same way. For example, parents of deaf children may present the information in the book differently due to the fact that signed languages are visual rather than spoken. In this vein, we can learn more about what specific connections deaf parents make to the English print. Exploring strategies deaf mothers may use to link the English print through the use of ASL will provide educators with additional tools when working with all parents of deaf children. This article will include a review of the literature on the benefits of shared reading activities for all children, the relationship between ASL and English skill development, and the techniques

  7. Quality versus intelligibility: studying human preferences for American Sign Language video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaramello, Frank M.; Hemami, Sheila S.

    2011-03-01

    Real-time videoconferencing using cellular devices provides natural communication to the Deaf community. For this application, compressed American Sign Language (ASL) video must be evaluated in terms of the intelligibility of the conversation and not in terms of the overall aesthetic quality of the video. This work presents a paired comparison experiment to determine the subjective preferences of ASL users in terms of the trade-off between intelligibility and quality when varying the proportion of the bitrate allocated explicitly to the regions of the video containing the signer. A rate-distortion optimization technique, which jointly optimizes a quality criteria and an intelligibility criteria according to a user-specified parameter, generates test video pairs for the subjective experiment. Experimental results suggest that at sufficiently high bitrates, all users prefer videos in which the non-signer regions in the video are encoded with some nominal rate. As the total encoding bitrate decreases, users generally prefer video in which a greater proportion of the rate is allocated to the signer. The specific operating points preferred in the quality-intelligibility trade-off vary with the demographics of the users.

  8. Robust Real-Time and Rotation-Invariant American Sign Language Alphabet Recognition Using Range Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahamy, H.; Lichti, D.

    2012-07-01

    The automatic interpretation of human gestures can be used for a natural interaction with computers without the use of mechanical devices such as keyboards and mice. The recognition of hand postures have been studied for many years. However, most of the literature in this area has considered 2D images which cannot provide a full description of the hand gestures. In addition, a rotation-invariant identification remains an unsolved problem even with the use of 2D images. The objective of the current study is to design a rotation-invariant recognition process while using a 3D signature for classifying hand postures. An heuristic and voxelbased signature has been designed and implemented. The tracking of the hand motion is achieved with the Kalman filter. A unique training image per posture is used in the supervised classification. The designed recognition process and the tracking procedure have been successfully evaluated. This study has demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed rotation invariant 3D hand posture signature which leads to 98.24% recognition rate after testing 12723 samples of 12 gestures taken from the alphabet of the American Sign Language.

  9. The ATIS sign language corpus

    OpenAIRE

    Bungeroth, Jan; Stein, Daniel; Dreuw, Philippe; Ney, Hermann; Morrissey, Sara; Way, Andy; van Zijl, Lynette

    2008-01-01

    Systems that automatically process sign language rely on appropriate data. We therefore present the ATIS sign language corpus that is based on the domain of air travel information. It is available for five languages, English, German, Irish sign language, German sign language and South African sign language. The corpus can be used for different tasks like automatic statistical translation and automatic sign language recognition and it allows the specific modelling of spatial references in sign...

  10. Sign Language Tutoring Tool

    CERN Document Server

    Aran, Oya; Benoit, Alexandre; Carrillo, Ana Huerta; Fanard, François-Xavier; Campr, Pavel; Akarun, Lale; Caplier, Alice; Rombaut, Michele; Sankur, Bulent

    2008-01-01

    In this project, we have developed a sign language tutor that lets users learn isolated signs by watching recorded videos and by trying the same signs. The system records the user's video and analyses it. If the sign is recognized, both verbal and animated feedback is given to the user. The system is able to recognize complex signs that involve both hand gestures and head movements and expressions. Our performance tests yield a 99% recognition rate on signs involving only manual gestures and 85% recognition rate on signs that involve both manual and non manual components, such as head movement and facial expressions.

  11. American Sign Language Syntactic and Narrative Comprehension in Skilled and Less Skilled Readers: Bilingual and Bimodal Evidence for the Linguistic Basis of Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Charlene; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that syntactic and narrative comprehension of a natural sign language can serve as the linguistic basis for skilled reading. Thirty-one adults who were deaf from birth and used American Sign Language (ASL) were classified as skilled or less skilled readers using an eighth-grade criterion. Proficiency with ASL syntax, and…

  12. Designing an American Sign Language Avatar for Learning Computer Science Concepts for Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students and Deaf Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Stefan; Osborne, Lawrence; Smith, Zanthia

    2013-01-01

    The current learning process of Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D/HH) students taking Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses needs, in general, a sign interpreter for the translation of English text into American Sign Language (ASL) signs. This method is at best impractical due to the lack of availability of a specialized sign…

  13. Inuit Sign Language: a contribution to sign language typology

    OpenAIRE

    Schuit, J.; Baker, A.; Pfau, R.

    2011-01-01

    Sign language typology is a fairly new research field and typological classifications have yet to be established. For spoken languages, these classifications are generally based on typological parameters; it would thus be desirable to establish these for sign languages. In this paper, different typological aspects of sign languages are described. With respect to their potential contribution towards a typological classification, data from Inuit Sign Language regarding verb agreement and classi...

  14. Sign Language Web Pages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fels, Deborah I.; Richards, Jan; Hardman, Jim; Lee, Daniel G.

    2006-01-01

    The World Wide Web has changed the way people interact. It has also become an important equalizer of information access for many social sectors. However, for many people, including some sign language users, Web accessing can be difficult. For some, it not only presents another barrier to overcome but has left them without cultural equality. The…

  15. The Cross-Linguistic Study of Sign Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Susan

    2003-01-01

    Limiting ourselves to the study of only one sign language can be dangerous linguistically as well as politically. The study and comparison of sign languages around the world can give us insights into how language is structured, how the channel of communication affects language structure, and what is possible in the signing modality. Data from American Sign Language, NihonSyuwa, and Chinese Sign Language are discussed to illustrate these points.

  16. Sign language perception research for improving automatic sign language recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ten Holt, G.A.; Arendsen, J.; De Ridder, H.; Van Doorn, A.J.; Reinders, M.J.T.; Hendriks, E.A.

    2009-01-01

    Current automatic sign language recognition (ASLR) seldom uses perceptual knowledge about the recognition of sign language. Using such knowledge can improve ASLR because it can give an indication which elements or phases of a sign are important for its meaning. Also, the current generation of data-driven ASLR methods has shortcomings which may not be solvable without the use of knowledge on human sign language processing. Handling variation in the precise execution of signs is an example of s...

  17. Sign Language Comprehension: The Case of Spanish Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Ortiz, I. R.

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to answer the question, how much of Spanish Sign Language interpreting deaf individuals really understand. Study sampling included 36 deaf people (deafness ranging from severe to profound; variety depending on the age at which they learned sign language) and 36 hearing people who had good knowledge of sign language (most were…

  18. Planning Sign Languages: Promoting Hearing Hegemony? Conceptualizing Sign Language Standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Hanna

    2009-01-01

    In light of the absence of a codified standard variety in British Sign Language and German Sign Language ("Deutsche Gebardensprache") there have been repeated calls for the standardization of both languages primarily from outside the Deaf community. The paper is based on a recent grounded theory study which explored perspectives on sign language…

  19. Issues in Sign Language Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zwitserlood, Inge; Kristoffersen, Jette Hedegaard; Troelsgård, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    ge lexicography has thus far been a relatively obscure area in the world of lexicography. Therefore, this article will contain background information on signed languages and the communities in which they are used, on the lexicography of sign languages, the situation in the Netherlands as well as a...... review of a sign language dictionary that has recently been published in the Netherlands...

  20. Mobile Sign Language Learning Outside the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kimberly A.; Starner, Thad

    2012-01-01

    The majority of deaf children in the United States are born to hearing parents with limited prior exposure to American Sign Language (ASL). Our research involves creating and validating a mobile language tool called SMARTSign. The goal is to help hearing parents learn ASL in a way that fits seamlessly into their daily routine. (Contains 3 figures.)

  1. Sign Languages of the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This handbook provides information on some 38 sign languages, including basic facts about each of the languages, structural aspects, history and culture of the Deaf communities, and history of research. The papers are all original, and each has been specifically written for the volume by an expert...... or team of experts in the particular sign language, at the invitation of the editors. Thirty-eight different deaf sign languages and alternate sign languages from every continent are represented, and over seventy international deaf and hearing scholars have contributed to the volume....

  2. Kinship in Mongolian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geer, Leah

    2011-01-01

    Information and research on Mongolian Sign Language is scant. To date, only one dictionary is available in the United States (Badnaa and Boll 1995), and even that dictionary presents only a subset of the signs employed in Mongolia. The present study describes the kinship system used in Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) based on data elicited from…

  3. SIGN LANGUAGE RECOGNITION USING THINNING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Omkar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years many approaches have been made that uses computer vision algorithms to interpret sign language. This endeavour is yet another approach to accomplish interpretation of human hand gestures. The first step of this work is background subtraction which achieved by the Euclidean distance threshold method. Thinning algorithm is then applied to obtain a thinned image of the human hand for further analysis. The different feature points which include terminating points and curved edges are extracted for the recognition of the different signs. The input for the project is taken from video data of a human hand gesturing all the signs of the American Sign Language.

  4. Arabic Sign Language: A Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Fattah, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Sign language in the Arab World has been recently recognized and documented. Many efforts have been made to establish the sign language used in individual countries, including Jordan, Egypt, Libya, and the Gulf States, by trying to standardize the language and spread it among members of the Deaf community and those concerned. Such efforts produced…

  5. Thinking through ethics : the processes of ethical decision-making by novice and expert American sign language interpreters

    OpenAIRE

    Mendoza, Mary Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    In the course of their work, sign language interpreters are faced with ethical dilemmas that require prioritizing competing moral beliefs and views on professional practice. There are several decision-making models, however, little research has been done on how sign language interpreters learn to identify and make ethical decisions. Through surveys and interviews on ethical decision-making, this study investigates how expert and novice interpreters discuss their ethical decision-making proces...

  6. Sign language for telemanipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pook, Polly K.; Ballard, Dana H.

    1995-12-01

    Literal teleoperation doesn't work very well. Limited bandwidth, long latencies, non- anthropomorphic mappings all make the effort of teleoperation tedious at best and ineffective at worst. Instead, users of teleoperated and semi-autonomous systems want their robots to `just do it for them,' without sacrificing the operator's intent. Our goal is to maximize human strategic control in teleoperator assisted robotics. In our teleassisted regime, the human operator provides high-level contexts for low-level autonomous robot behaviors. The operator wears an EXOS hand master to communicate via a natural sign language, such as pointing to objects and adopting a grasp preshape. Each sign indicates intention: e.g., reaching or grasping; and, where applicable, a spatial context: e.g., the pointing axis or preshape frame. The robot, a Utah/MIT hand on a Puma arm, acts under local servo control within the proscribed contexts. This paper extends earlier work [Pook & Ballard 1994a] by adding remote visual sensors to the teleassistance repertoire. To view the robot site, the operator wears a virtual research helmet that is coupled to binocular cameras mounted on a second Puma 760. The combined hand-head sensors allows teleassistance to be performed remotely. The example task is to open a door. We also demonstrate the flexibility of the teleassistance model by bootstrapping a `pick and place' task from the door opening task.

  7. Towards Real-Time and Rotation-Invariant American Sign Language Alphabet Recognition Using a Range Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek D. Lichti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The automatic interpretation of human gestures can be used for a natural interaction with computers while getting rid of mechanical devices such as keyboards and mice. In order to achieve this objective, the recognition of hand postures has been studied for many years. However, most of the literature in this area has considered 2D images which cannot provide a full description of the hand gestures. In addition, a rotation-invariant identification remains an unsolved problem, even with the use of 2D images. The objective of the current study was to design a rotation-invariant recognition process while using a 3D signature for classifying hand postures. A heuristic and voxel-based signature has been designed and implemented. The tracking of the hand motion is achieved with the Kalman filter. A unique training image per posture is used in the supervised classification. The designed recognition process, the tracking procedure and the segmentation algorithm have been successfully evaluated. This study has demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed rotation invariant 3D hand posture signature which leads to 93.88% recognition rate after testing 14,732 samples of 12 postures taken from the alphabet of the American Sign Language.

  8. Intimate Partner Violence Reported by Two Samples of Deaf Adults via a Computerized American Sign Language Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Pollard, Robert Q.; Sutter, Erika; Cerulli, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    A computerized sign language survey was administered to two large samples of deaf adults. Six questions regarding intimate partner violence (IPV) were included, querying lifetime and past-year experiences of emotional abuse, physical abuse, and forced sex. Comparison data were available from a telephone survey of local households. Deaf respondents reported high rates of emotional abuse and much higher rates of forced sex than general population respondents. Physical abuse rates were comparabl...

  9. Automated Sign Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.J.; Janssen, J.B.

    2014-01-01

    This report provides an overview of a Proof-of-Concept for a signing avatar service. The Proof of Concept was created by TNO in an assignment from the Research and Development department of the Directorate Distribution and Broadcasting of the Netherlands Public Broadcasting Organisation (Directie Di

  10. Lexical Frequency in Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Measures of lexical frequency presuppose the existence of corpora, but true machine-readable corpora of sign languages (SLs) are only now being created. Lexical frequency ratings for SLs are needed because there has been a heavy reliance on the interpretation of results of psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic experiments in the SL research…

  11. Numeral Incorporation in Japanese Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktejik, Mish

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the morphological process of numeral incorporation in Japanese Sign Language. Numeral incorporation is defined and the available research on numeral incorporation in signed language is discussed. The numeral signs in Japanese Sign Language are then introduced and followed by an explanation of the numeral morphemes which are…

  12. The Legal Recognition of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an analytical overview of the different types of explicit legal recognition of sign languages. Five categories are distinguished: constitutional recognition, recognition by means of general language legislation, recognition by means of a sign language law or act, recognition by means of a sign language law or act including…

  13. On the System of Person-Denoting Signs in Estonian Sign Language: Estonian Name Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paales, Liina

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses Estonian personal name signs. According to study there are four personal name sign categories in Estonian Sign Language: (1) arbitrary name signs; (2) descriptive name signs; (3) initialized-descriptive name signs; (4) loan/borrowed name signs. Mostly there are represented descriptive and borrowed personal name signs among…

  14. Multimedia Dictionary and Synthesis of Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Solina, Franc; Krapež, Slavko; Jaklič, Aleš; Komac, Vito

    2001-01-01

    We developed a multimedia dictionary of the Slovenian Sign Language (SSL) which consists of words, illustrations and video clips. We describe the structure of the dictionary and give examples of its user interface. Based on our sign language dictionary, we developed a method of synthesizing the sign language by intelligent joining of video clips, which makes possible a translation of written texts or, in connection with a speech recognition system, of spoken words to the sign language.

  15. Sign Language Planning: Pragmatism, Pessimism and Principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Graham H.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the present collection of sign language planning studies. Contextualising the analyses against the backdrop of core issues in the theory of language planning and the evolution of applied sign linguistics, it is argued that--while the sociolinguistic circumstances of signed languages worldwide can, in many respects, be…

  16. Dictionaries of African Sign Languages: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaling, Constanze H.

    2012-01-01

    This article gives an overview of dictionaries of African sign languages that have been published to date most of which have not been widely distributed. After an introduction into the field of sign language lexicography and a discussion of some of the obstacles that authors of sign language dictionaries face in general, I will show problems…

  17. Eye Gaze in Creative Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Michiko; Mesch, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the role of eye gaze in creative sign language. Because eye gaze conveys various types of linguistic and poetic information, it is an intrinsic part of sign language linguistics in general and of creative signing in particular. We discuss various functions of eye gaze in poetic signing and propose a classification of gaze…

  18. The grammaticalization of gestures in sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van Loon; R. Pfau; M. Steinbach

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on grammaticalization in sign languages have shown that, for the most part, the grammaticalization paths identified in sign languages parallel those previously described for spoken languages. Hence, the general principles of grammaticalization do not depend on the modality of language

  19. Language Policy and Planning: The Case of Italian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraci, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Italian Sign Language (LIS) is the name of the language used by the Italian Deaf community. The acronym LIS derives from Lingua italiana dei segni ("Italian language of signs"), although nowadays Italians refers to LIS as Lingua dei segni italiana, reflecting the more appropriate phrasing "Italian sign language." Historically, Italy's linguistic…

  20. Phonological processing of German sign language

    OpenAIRE

    Benner, Uta E.

    2012-01-01

    The need for communication is an essential part of being human. Influenced by a set of environmental factors, different languages have emerged in different cultures. Besides the language differences however, there are also differences in modality. There are spoken languages using the verbal-auditory channel and signed languages relying on the manual-visual channel. Signed languages are natural languages and therefore able to serve as a communication medium. They have the same power of express...

  1. Phonological reduplication in sign language: rules rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris eBerent

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Productivity—the hallmark of linguistic competence—is typically attributed to algebraic rules that support broad generalizations. Past research on spoken language has documented such generalizations in both adults and infants. But whether algebraic rules form part of the linguistic competence of signers remains unknown. To address this question, here we gauge the generalization afforded by American Sign Language (ASL. As a case study, we examine reduplication (X→XX—a rule that, inter alia, generates ASL nouns from verbs. If signers encode this rule, then they should freely extend it to novel syllables, including ones with features that are unattested in ASL. And since reduplicated disyllables are preferred in ASL, such rule should favor novel reduplicated signs. Novel reduplicated signs should thus be preferred to nonreduplicative controls (in rating, and consequently, such stimuli should also be harder to classify as nonsigns (in the lexical decision task. The results of four experiments support this prediction. These findings suggest that the phonological knowledge of signers includes powerful algebraic rules. The convergence between these conclusions and previous evidence for phonological rules in spoken language suggests that the architecture of the phonological mind is partly amodal.

  2. The Use of Sign Language Pronouns by Native-Signing Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Aaron; Meier, Richard P.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-01-01

    We report the first study on pronoun use by an under-studied research population, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to American Sign Language from birth by their deaf parents. Personal pronouns cause difficulties for hearing children with ASD, who sometimes reverse or avoid them. Unlike speech pronouns, sign pronouns are…

  3. The Use of Sign Language Pronouns by Native-Signing Children with Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Aaron; Meier, Richard P; Tager-Flusberg, Helen

    2015-07-01

    We report the first study on pronoun use by an under-studied research population, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) exposed to American Sign Language from birth by their deaf parents. Personal pronouns cause difficulties for hearing children with ASD, who sometimes reverse or avoid them. Unlike speech pronouns, sign pronouns are indexical points to self and other. Despite this transparency, we find evidence from an elicitation task and parental report that signing children with ASD avoid sign pronouns in favor of names. An analysis of spontaneous usage showed that all children demonstrated the ability to point, but only children with better-developed sign language produced pronouns. Differences in language abilities and self-representation may explain these phenomena in sign and speech. PMID:25643865

  4. Language impairments in sign language: breakthroughs and puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, G.; Herman, R.; Woll, B.

    2007-01-01

    Short Report. Background: Specific Language Impairment (SLI) has previously solely been documented for children acquiring spoken languages despite informal reports of deaf children with possible sign language disorder. Aims: This research evaluates current theories of SLI in light of cases of sign language impairment. Current explanations for SLI include deficits in processing the acoustic signal, phonological short-term memory and grammatical computation. Methods:...

  5. Interrogative constructions in Danish Sign Language (DSL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Julie

    question words can vary, though they usually appear sentence finally. The nonmanual signals include specific facial expressions, head posture and mouthing. Some of the features are shared with other sign languages. Furthermore, although it has not been investigated in detail it seems that the nonmanual...... understanding of the linguistic variation and similarities existing not only among sign languages but among languages in general....... languages and the theoretical conclusions about how language works have primarily been based on studies of spoken languages. I believe that the study of DSL can provide additional and valuable insight into the possible structures of human language. Furthermore, this study will contribute to the...

  6. Speech Translation into Pakistan Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Haseeb, Ahmed Abdul; Ilyas, Asim

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Context: Communication is a primary human need and language is the medium for this. Most people have the ability to listen and speak and they use different languages like Swedish, Urdu and English etc. to communicate. Hearing impaired people use signs to communicate. Pakistan Sign Language (PSL) is the preferred language of the deaf in Pakistan. Currently, human PSL interpreters are required to facilitate communication between the deaf and hearing; they are not always available, whic...

  7. Signed Language Working Memory Capacity of Signed Language Interpreters and Deaf Signers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jihong; Napier, Jemina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of hearing status and age of signed language acquisition on signed language working memory capacity. Professional Auslan (Australian sign language)/English interpreters (hearing native signers and hearing nonnative signers) and deaf Auslan signers (deaf native signers and deaf nonnative signers) completed an…

  8. Research Ethics in Sign Language Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Raychelle; Holmes, Heidi M.; Mertens, Donna M.

    2009-01-01

    Codes of ethics exist for most professional associations whose members do research on, for, or with sign language communities. However, these ethical codes are silent regarding the need to frame research ethics from a cultural standpoint, an issue of particular salience for sign language communities. Scholars who write from the perspective of…

  9. Numeral Variation in New Zealand Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, David; McKee, Rachel; Major, George

    2011-01-01

    Lexical variation abounds in New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) and is commonly associated with the introduction of the Australasian Signed English lexicon into Deaf education in 1979, before NZSL was acknowledged as a language. Evidence from dictionaries of NZSL collated between 1986 and 1997 reveal many coexisting variants for the numbers from one…

  10. Historical Development of Hong Kong Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Felix; Lo, Connie; Lo, Lisa; Chu, Kenny

    2013-01-01

    This article traces the origins of Hong Kong Sign Language (hereafter HKSL) and its subsequent development in relation to the establishment of Deaf education in Hong Kong after World War II. We begin with a detailed description of the history of Deaf education with a particular focus on the role of sign language in such development. We then…

  11. The Uniformity and Diversity of Language: Evidence from Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from sign language strongly supports three positions: (1) language is a coherent system with universal properties; (2) sign languages diverge from spoken languages in some aspects of their structure; and (3) domain-external factors can be identified that account for some crucial aspects of language structure -- uniform and diverse -- in both modalities. Assuming that any of these positions excludes the others defeats the purpose of the enterprise. PMID:21076645

  12. A tour in sign language

    CERN Multimedia

    François Briard

    2016-01-01

    In early May, CERN welcomed a group of deaf children for a tour of Microcosm and a Fun with Physics demonstration.   On 4 May, around ten children from the Centre pour enfants sourds de Montbrillant (Montbrillant Centre for Deaf Children), a public school funded by the Office médico-pédagogique du canton de Genève, took a guided tour of the Microcosm exhibition and were treated to a Fun with Physics demonstration. The tour guides’ explanations were interpreted into sign language in real time by a professional interpreter who accompanied the children, and the pace and content were adapted to maximise the interaction with the children. This visit demonstrates CERN’s commitment to remaining as widely accessible as possible. To this end, most of CERN’s visit sites offer reduced-mobility access. In the past few months, CERN has also welcomed children suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum (a genetic disorder causing extreme sensiti...

  13. Language Emergence: Clues from a New Bedouin Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Senghas, Ann

    2005-01-01

    A sign language has emerged among three generations of deaf people and their families in a Bedouin community in the Negev desert. This newly reported case sheds light on the minimal environmental social factors required to generate a language.

  14. A REVIEW ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDONESIAN SIGN LANGUAGE RECOGNITION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutarman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sign language is mainly employed by hearing-impaired people to communicate with each other. However, communication with normal people is a major handicap for them since normal people do not understand their sign language. Sign language recognition is needed for realizing a human oriented interactive system that can perform an interaction like normal communication. Sign language recognition basically uses two approaches: (1 computer vision-based gesture recognition, in which a camera is used as input and videos are captured in the form of video files stored before being processed using image processing; (2 approach based on sensor data, which is done by using a series of sensors that are integrated with gloves to get the motion features finger grooves and hand movements. Different of sign languages exist around the world, each with its own vocabulary and gestures. Some examples are American Sign Language (ASL, Chinese Sign Language (CSL, British Sign Language (BSL, Indonesian Sign Language (ISL and so on. The structure of Indonesian Sign Language (ISL is different from the sign language of other countries, in that words can be formed from the prefix and or suffix. In order to improve recognition accuracy, researchers use methods, such as the hidden Markov model, artificial neural networks and dynamic time warping. Effective algorithms for segmentation, matching the classification and pattern recognition have evolved. The main objective of this study is to review the sign language recognition methods in order to choose the best method for developing the Indonesian sign language recognition system.

  15. The Relationship among Beginning and Advanced American Sign Language Students and Credentialed Interpreters across Two Domains of Visual Imagery: Vividness and Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Linda K.

    2010-01-01

    Given the visual-gestural nature of ASL it is reasonable to assume that visualization abilities may be one predictor of aptitude for learning ASL. This study tested a hypothesis that visualization abilities are a foundational aptitude for learning a signed language and that measurements of these skills will increase as students progress from…

  16. Arabic Alphabet and Numbers Sign Language Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Zaki Abdo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an Arabic Alphabet and Numbers Sign Language Recognition (ArANSLR. It facilitates the communication between the deaf and normal people by recognizing the alphabet and numbers signs of Arabic sign language to text or speech. To achieve this target, the system able to visually recognize gestures from hand image input. The proposed algorithm uses hand geometry and the different shape of a hand in each sign for classifying letters shape by using Hidden Markov Model (HMM. Experiments on real-world datasets showed that the proposed algorithm for Arabic alphabet and numbers sign language recognition is suitability and reliability compared with other competitive algorithms. The experiment results show that the increasing of the gesture recognition rate depends on the increasing of the number of zones by dividing the rectangle surrounding the hand.

  17. Exploring Power & Ethnocentrism in Sign language Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leneham, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    This article demonstrates that theories intended to prevent ethnocentric influence for one pair of languages may, in fact, be the catalyst for the phenomenon it purports to prevent in another pair. While it explores the issue in relation to sign language translation, the article raises the question of whether the findings can be extrapolated to…

  18. Sign Language Studies with Chimpanzees and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cantfort, Thomas E.; Rimpau, James B.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews methodologies of sign language studies with chimpanzees and compares major findings of those studies with studies of human children. Considers relevance of input conditions for language acquisition, evidence used to demonstrate linguistic achievements, and application of rigorous testing procedures in developmental psycholinguistics.…

  19. LSE-Sign: A lexical database for Spanish Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Costello, Brendan; Baus, Cristina; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    The LSE-Sign database is a free online tool for selecting Spanish Sign Language stimulus materials to be used in experiments. It contains 2,400 individual signs taken from a recent standardized LSE dictionary, and a further 2,700 related nonsigns. Each entry is coded for a wide range of grammatical, phonological, and articulatory information, including handshape, location, movement, and non-manual elements. The database is accessible via a graphically based search facility which is highly flexible both in terms of the search options available and the way the results are displayed. LSE-Sign is available at the following website: http://www.bcbl.eu/databases/lse/. PMID:25630312

  20. Approaching Sign Language Test Construction: Adaptation of the German Sign Language Receptive Skills Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    There is a current need for reliable and valid test instruments in different countries in order to monitor deaf children's sign language acquisition. However, very few tests are commercially available that offer strong evidence for their psychometric properties. A German Sign Language (DGS) test focusing on linguistic structures that are acquired…

  1. SVM Based Recognition of Facial Expressions Used In Indian Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Daleesha M Viswanathan; Sumam Mary Idicula

    2015-01-01

    In sign language systems, facial expressions are an intrinsic component that usually accompanies hand gestures. The facial expressions would modify or change the meaning of hand gesture into a statement, a question or improve the meaning and understanding of hand gestures. The scientific literature available in Indian Sign Language (ISL) on facial expression recognition is scanty. Contrary to American Sign Language (ASL), head movements are less conspicuous in ISL and the answers to questions...

  2. Raising the Profile of Sign Language Teachers in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    De Weerdt, Danny; Salonen, Juhana; Liikamaa, Arttu

    2016-01-01

    Sign language teaching in Finland has a long history. In contrast, sign language teacher training programs and research into the sign languages of Finland both know a short history. Due to this contrast, the field of sign language teaching nowadays can be seen as the ‘Wild West’. Till today, teachers from different backgrounds do teach sign language. We do not have a clear picture of what knowledge or competencies are expected from these teachers. In this article we would like ...

  3. Sign Language Lexicography in the early 21st century and a recently published dictionary of Sign Language of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Zwitserlood, I.

    2010-01-01

    Sign language lexicography has thus far been a relatively obscure area in the world of lexicography. Therefore, this article will contain background information on signed languages and the communities in which they are used, on the lexicography of sign languages, the situation in the Netherlands as well as a review of a sign language dictionary that has recently been published in the Netherlands.

  4. Sign Language Benefits Tibetan Deaf-mutes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUO QIONG; SUN WENZHEN

    2007-01-01

    @@ There are in Tibet Autonomous Region 190,000 disabled persons,including more than 30,000 who are deaf-mutes or are hearing impaired.In the Tibetan language,a word is often expressed with different signs.This poses a serious handicap for communication and exchanges among Tibetan deaf-mutes and their effort to participate in social activities.The ongoing research and development of a Tibetan sign language is expected to get rid of that handicap and allow Tibetan deaf-mutes to lead a normal life.

  5. Language Policies in Uruguay and Uruguayan Sign Language (LSU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behares, Luis Ernesto; Brovetto, Claudia; Crespi, Leonardo Peluso

    2012-01-01

    In the first part of this article the authors consider the policies that apply to Uruguayan Sign Language (Lengua de Senas Uruguaya; hereafter LSU) and the Uruguayan Deaf community within the general framework of language policies in Uruguay. By analyzing them succinctly and as a whole, the authors then explain twenty-first-century innovations.…

  6. 认知视角下的美国手语象似性隐喻特征探究%A Study on the Iconic Metaphors in American Sign Language from a Cognitive Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白彬; 国华; 周聪聪

    2013-01-01

      隐喻不仅是一种语言现象,更是人类对世界的一种认知方式。它是人类将对某一事物的理解和认识映射到另一种事物上,通过相似点和象似性将两种事物联系起来,用产生的隐喻意义来理解另一种事物。手语作为一种特殊的人类语言,在表达时也体现出了隐喻现象。聋人可以通过隐喻将一些抽象的事物用手势表达出具体的含义,丰富并扩大手语的交流。从认知语言学的角度对美国手语进行研究,分析美国手语的隐喻现象及其特征,探究美国手语隐喻表达区别于有声语言隐喻表达的独有特点,即象似性和隐喻性相结合产生的双映射隐喻表达特征,旨在通过对美国手语的认知隐喻分析和研究,以促进在认知领域下对美国手语更为深入地研究和探索。%Metaphor is not only a language phenomenon ,but also a cognitive way for human beings to learn the world .It’s a way we understand things in the world by connecting similar points ironically .As a spe‐cial human language ,sign language also demonstrates such a phenomenon of metaphor .Deaf people can explain some abstract things through metaphors by hands to express specific meanings .It enriches and ex‐pands the communication of sign language .By studying American Sign Language from a cognitive perspec‐tive ,this essay concludes that there is an outstanding unique feature in American Sign Language —double mapping metaphor ,which is a special way of expressing people’s understanding of the world through the combination of metaphors and iconicity ,and this is different from the way used in speech languages .The study aims to promote a deeper research of American Sign Language as one special form of human langua‐ges in cognitive field by this cognitive study of mataphors in American Sign Language .

  7. The Sign Language Situation in Mali

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyst, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This article gives a first overview of the sign language situation in Mali and its capital, Bamako, located in the West African Sahel. Mali is a highly multilingual country with a significant incidence of deafness, for which meningitis appears to be the main cause, coupled with limited access to adequate health care. In comparison to neighboring…

  8. A Sign Language Screen Reader for Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghoul, Oussama; Jemni, Mohamed

    Screen reader technology has appeared first to allow blind and people with reading difficulties to use computer and to access to the digital information. Until now, this technology is exploited mainly to help blind community. During our work with deaf people, we noticed that a screen reader can facilitate the manipulation of computers and the reading of textual information. In this paper, we propose a novel screen reader dedicated to deaf. The output of the reader is a visual translation of the text to sign language. The screen reader is composed by two essential modules: the first one is designed to capture the activities of users (mouse and keyboard events). For this purpose, we adopted Microsoft MSAA application programming interfaces. The second module, which is in classical screen readers a text to speech engine (TTS), is replaced by a novel text to sign (TTSign) engine. This module converts text into sign language animation based on avatar technology.

  9. A Stronger Reason for the Right to Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Is the right to sign language only the right to a minority language? Holding a capability (not a disability) approach, and building on the psycholinguistic literature on sign language acquisition, I make the point that this right is of a stronger nature, since only sign languages can guarantee that each deaf child will properly develop the…

  10. Bimodal bilingualism as multisensory training?: Evidence for improved audiovisual speech perception after sign language exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua T; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to characterize effects of learning a sign language on the processing of a spoken language. Specifically, audiovisual phoneme comprehension was assessed before and after 13 weeks of sign language exposure. L2 ASL learners performed this task in the fMRI scanner. Results indicated that L2 American Sign Language (ASL) learners' behavioral classification of the speech sounds improved with time compared to hearing nonsigners. Results indicated increased activation in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) after sign language exposure, which suggests concomitant increased phonological processing of speech. A multiple regression analysis indicated that learner's rating on co-sign speech use and lipreading ability was correlated with SMG activation. This pattern of results indicates that the increased use of mouthing and possibly lipreading during sign language acquisition may concurrently improve audiovisual speech processing in budding hearing bimodal bilinguals. PMID:26740404

  11. SIGN LANGUAGE IN ASTRONOMY AND SPACE SCIENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Cova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Teaching science to school children with hearing de ciency and impairment can be a rewarding and valuable experience for both teacher and student, and necessary to society as a whole in order to reduce the discriminative policies in the formal educational system. The one most important obstacle to the teaching of science to students with hearing de ciency and impairments is the lack of vocabulary in sign language to express the precise concepts encountered in scienti c endeavor. In a collaborative project between Centro de Investigaciones de Astronom a \\Francisco J. Duarte" (CIDA, Universidad Pedag gica Experimental Libertador-Instituto Pedag gico de Matur n (UPEL-IPM and Unidad Educativa Especial Bolivariana de Matur n (UEEBM initiated in 2006, we have attempted to ll this gap by developing signs for astronomy and space sciences terminology. During two three-day workshops carried out at CIDA in M rida in July 2006 and UPEL-IPM in Matur n in March 2007 a total of 112 concepts of astronomy and space sciences were coined in sign language using an interactive method which we describe in the text. The immediate goal of the project is to incorporate these terms into Venezuelan Sign Language (LSV.

  12. Sign Language in Astronomy and Space Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cova, J.; Movilio, V.; Gómez, Y.; Gutiérrez, F.; García, R.; Moreno, H.; González, F.; Díaz, J.; Villarroel, C.; Abreu, E.; Aparicio, D.; Cárdenas, J.; Casneiro, L.; Castillo, N.; Contreras, D.; La Verde, N.; Maita, M.; Martínez, A.; Villahermosa, J.; Quintero, A.

    2009-05-01

    Teaching science to school children with hearing deficiency and impairment can be a rewarding and valuable experience for both teacher and student, and necessary to society as a whole in order to reduce the discriminative policies in the formal educational system. The one most important obstacle to the teaching of science to students with hearing deficiency and impairments is the lack of vocabulary in sign language to express the precise concepts encountered in scientific endeavor. In a collaborative project between Centro de Investigaciones de Astronomía ``Francisco J. Duarte'' (CIDA), Universidad Pedagógica Experimental Libertador-Instituto Pedagógico de Maturín (UPEL-IPM) and Unidad Educativa Especial Bolivariana de Maturín (UEEBM) initiated in 2006, we have attempted to fill this gap by developing signs for astronomy and space sciences terminology. During two three-day workshops carried out at CIDA in Mérida in July 2006 and UPEL-IPM in Maturín in March 2007 a total of 112 concepts of astronomy and space sciences were coined in sign language using an interactive method which we describe in the text. The immediate goal of the project is to incorporate these terms into Venezuelan Sign Language (LSV).

  13. Sign language interpreter quality: the perspective of deaf sign language users in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    de Wit, Maya; Sluis, Irma

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the quality of sign language interpreters in the Netherlands from a deaf user perspective. Deaf sign language users select an interpreter according to situational factors, the interpreter’s professional skills and norms. The choice for a specific interpreter is based on a set of individual quality criteria. Results of the study indicate that consumers firstly aim to select an interpreter who will render a faithful and understandable interpretation. Further r...

  14. On the syntax of spatial adpositions in sign languages

    OpenAIRE

    Pfau, R.; Aboh, E.O.

    2011-01-01

    In investigations of sign language grammar - phonology, morphology, and syntax - the impact of language modality on grammar is a recurrent issue. The term 'modality,' as used in this context, refers to the distinction between languages that are expressed and perceived in the oral-auditive modality (i.e. spoken languages) and those that are expressed and perceived in the gestural-visual modality (i.e. sign languages). Since the 1960s, an impressive body of research on various sign languages ha...

  15. Sign Language Recognition using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabaheta Djogic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available – Sign language plays a great role as communication media for people with hearing difficulties.In developed countries, systems are made for overcoming a problem in communication with deaf people. This encouraged us to develop a system for the Bosnian sign language since there is a need for such system. The work is done with the use of digital image processing methods providing a system that teaches a multilayer neural network using a back propagation algorithm. Images are processed by feature extraction methods, and by masking method the data set has been created. Training is done using cross validation method for better performance thus; an accuracy of 84% is achieved.

  16. SIGN LANGUAGE IN ASTRONOMY AND SPACE SCIENCES

    OpenAIRE

    J. Cova; V. Movilio; Y. Gómez; F. Gutiérrez; García, R.; Moreno, H.; F. González; Díaz, J.; C. VILLARROEL; Abreu, E.; D. Aparicio; Cárdenas, J; L. Casneiro; Castillo, N; Contreras, D.

    2009-01-01

    Teaching science to school children with hearing de ciency and impairment can be a rewarding and valuable experience for both teacher and student, and necessary to society as a whole in order to reduce the discriminative policies in the formal educational system. The one most important obstacle to the teaching of science to students with hearing de ciency and impairments is the lack of vocabulary in sign language to express the precise concepts encountered in scienti c endeavor. In a collabor...

  17. The emergence of temporal language in Nicaraguan Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocab, Annemarie; Senghas, Ann; Snedeker, Jesse

    2016-11-01

    Understanding what uniquely human properties account for the creation and transmission of language has been a central goal of cognitive science. Recently, the study of emerging sign languages, such as Nicaraguan Sign Language (NSL), has offered the opportunity to better understand how languages are created and the roles of the individual learner and the community of users. Here, we examined the emergence of two types of temporal language in NSL, comparing the linguistic devices for conveying temporal information among three sequential age cohorts of signers. Experiment 1 showed that while all three cohorts of signers could communicate about linearly ordered discrete events, only the second and third generations of signers successfully communicated information about events with more complex temporal structure. Experiment 2 showed that signers could discriminate between the types of temporal events in a nonverbal task. Finally, Experiment 3 investigated the ordinal use of numbers (e.g., first, second) in NSL signers, indicating that one strategy younger signers might have for accurately describing events in time might be to use ordinal numbers to mark each event. While the capacity for representing temporal concepts appears to be present in the human mind from the onset of language creation, the linguistic devices to convey temporality do not appear immediately. Evidently, temporal language emerges over generations of language transmission, as a product of individual minds interacting within a community of users. PMID:27591549

  18. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  19. Where do Features Come from? Evidence from Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy Sandler

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers sign language phonological features in the context of the basic question about the origin of features.  Based on earlier work by Stokoe (1960) and others, I show that signs are comprised of distinctive features which can be discretely listed and which are organized hierarchically (Sandler 1989).  In this way sign language feature systems are similar to those of spoken language.  However, the inventory of features, similar across sign languages, is necessarily completely di...

  20. Sign Language with Babies: What Difference Does It Make?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Susan Kubic

    2010-01-01

    Teaching sign language--to deaf or other children with special needs or to hearing children with hard-of-hearing family members--is not new. Teaching sign language to typically developing children has become increasingly popular since the publication of "Baby Signs"[R] (Goodwyn & Acredolo, 1996), now in its third edition. Attention to signing with…

  1. Rethinking Native American Language Revitalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Frederick

    2006-01-01

    As many linguists continue to work with and analyze First Nations/Native American languages, the consensus opinion usually direly predicts the loss of daily use for almost all of the extant Indigenous languages. Tremendous efforts are being expended for renewing, revitalizing, and restoring these languages to everyday use. The model upon which…

  2. Notation systems for reading and writing sign language

    OpenAIRE

    McCarty, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Without written forms, signed languages do not permit the type of textual record available to speakers of English and other written languages. Deaf signers have generally relied on the language of the dominant hearing culture for this purpose. Because of their visual-gestural modality, signed languages present a unique set of challenges for developing written forms. These issues are considered from a behavioral perspective, and two sign language notation systems, Stokoe Notation and Sutton Si...

  3. Pinky Extension as a Phonestheme in Mongolian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Christina

    2011-01-01

    Mongolian Sign Language (MSL) is a visual-gestural language that developed from multiple languages interacting as a result of both geographic proximity and political relations and of the natural development of a communication system by deaf community members. Similar to the phonological systems of other signed languages, MSL combines handshapes,…

  4. Notation Systems for Reading and Writing Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Amy L.

    2004-01-01

    Without written forms, signed languages do not permit the type of textual record available to speakers of English and other written languages. Deaf signers have generally relied on the language of the dominant hearing culture for this purpose. Because of their visual-gestural modality, signed languages present a unique set of challenges for…

  5. Adapting Tests of Sign Language Assessment for Other Sign Languages--A Review of Linguistic, Cultural, and Psychometric Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Mann, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Given the current lack of appropriate assessment tools for measuring deaf children's sign language skills, many test developers have used existing tests of other sign languages as templates to measure the sign language used by deaf people in their country. This article discusses factors that may influence the adaptation of assessment tests from…

  6. Facial expressions, emotions, and sign languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EevaAnitaElliott

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are used by humans to convey various types of meaning in various contexts. The range of meanings spans basic possibly innate socio-emotional concepts such as ‘surprise’ to complex and culture specific concepts such as ‘carelessly’. The range of contexts in which humans use facial expressions spans responses to events in the environment to particular linguistic constructions within sign languages. In this mini review we summarize findings on the use and acquisition of facial expressions by signers and present a unified account of the range of facial expressions used by positing three dimensions; semantic, iconic and compositional.

  7. 自然手语与文法手语的区别%A Brief Analysis of Differences Between Natural Sign Language and Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    由婧涵

    2014-01-01

    Natural sign language and Chinese sign language are the two common ways for deaf people to communicate with deaf people and the hearing people. In 1960, Dr. More, the authority of American linguistic history, drew a conclusion that sign language is a language of a linguistics. Since then sign language is studied as a language. This article discusses the differences between natural sign language and Chinese sign language from the following three aspects: the scope of application differences, the characteristic differences and the grammatical differences. In order to get the facilitate intuitive experience of grammatical differences, many examples are used in the article.%自然手语和文法手语是聋人间及聋人与听人间交流的两种普遍方式。自从1960年美国语言学权威史多基博士得出了手语是一门语言学意义上的语言的结论后,手语便作为语言来研究。文章从两者的适用范围差异、特点上的差异、语法的差异这三方面进行论述,在语法的差异上,例举实例,便于直观地体会二者在语法上的差异。

  8. Quantifiers and Variables: Insights from Sign Language (ASL and LSF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Schlenker

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In standard logical systems, quantifiers and variables are essential to express complex relations among objects. Natural language has expressions that have an analogous function: some noun phrases play the role of quantifiers (e.g. every man, and some pronouns play the role of variables (e.g. him, as in Every man likes people who admire him. Since the 1980’s, there has been a vibrant debate in linguistics about the way in which pronouns come to depend on their antecedents. According to one view, natural language is governed by a ‘dynamic’ logic which allows for dependencies that are far more flexible than those of standard (classical logic. According to a competing view, the treatment of variables in classical logic does not have to be fundamentally revised to be applied to natural language. While the debate centers around the nature of the formal links that connect pronouns to their antecedents, these links are not overtly expressed in spoken language, and the debate has remained open. In sign language, by contrast, the connection between pronouns and their antecedents is often made explicit by pointing. We argue that data from French and American Sign Language provide crucial evidence for the dynamic approach over one of its main classical competitors; and we explore further sign language data that can help choose among competing dynamic analyses.ReferencesBahan, B., Kegl, J., MacLaughlin, D. & Neidle, C. 1995. ‘Convergent Evidence for the Structure of Determiner Phrases in American Sign Language’. In L. Gabriele, D. Hardison & R. Westmoreland (eds. ‘FLSM VI, Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the Formal Linguistics Society of Mid-America, Volume Two’, 1–12. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Linguistics Club Publications.Brasoveanu, A. 2006. Structured Nominal and Modal Reference. Ph.D. thesis, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey.Brasoveanu, A. 2010. ‘Decomposing Modal Quantification’. Journal of Semantics

  9. Type of iconicity matters: Bias for action-based signs in sign language acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega, G; Sumer, B.; Ozyurek, A.

    2014-01-01

    Early studies investigating sign language acquisition claimed that signs whose structures are motivated by the form of their referent (iconic) are not favoured in language development. However, recent work has shown that the first signs in deaf children’s lexicon are iconic. In this paper we go a step further and ask whether different types of iconicity modulate learning sign-referent links. Results from a picture description task indicate that children and adults used signs with two possible...

  10. Opposite cerebral dominance for reading and sign language

    OpenAIRE

    Komakula, Sirisha. T.; Burr, Robert. B.; Lee, James N.; Anderson, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    We present a case of right hemispheric dominance for sign language but left hemispheric dominance for reading, in a left-handed deaf patient with epilepsy and left mesial temporal sclerosis. Atypical language laterality for ASL was determined by preoperative fMRI, and congruent with ASL modified WADA testing. We conclude that reading and sign language can have crossed dominance and preoperative fMRI evaluation of deaf patients should include both reading and sign language evaluations.

  11. A prototype Malayalam to Sign Language Automatic Translator

    OpenAIRE

    Joy, Jestin; Balakrishnan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    Sign language, which is a medium of communication for deaf people, uses manual communication and body language to convey meaning, as opposed to using sound. This paper presents a prototype Malayalam text to sign language translation system. The proposed system takes Malayalam text as input and generates corresponding Sign Language. Output animation is rendered using a computer generated model. This system will help to disseminate information to the deaf people in public utility places like ra...

  12. Language Vitalization through Language Documentation and Description in the Kosovar Sign Language Community

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, Karin

    2013-01-01

    This study on language vitalization and community empowerment in the Kosovar sign language community focuses on linguistic work taking place within the framework of a development co-operation project between two NGOs in Kosovo and Finland. The long-term objectives were to improve the status of Kosovar Sign Language (KosSL) and to guarantee the human (linguistic) rights of Deaf language users – for them to obtain access to society on an equal basis with other citizens. This was implemented...

  13. Sociolinguistic Variation and Change in British Sign Language Number Signs: Evidence of Leveling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Fenlon, Jordan; Rentelis, Ramas

    2015-01-01

    This article presents findings from the first major study to investigate lexical variation and change in British Sign Language (BSL) number signs. As part of the BSL Corpus Project, number sign variants were elicited from 249 deaf signers from eight sites throughout the UK. Age, school location, and language background were found to be significant…

  14. Constraints on Negative Prefixation in Polish Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Piotr Tomaszewski

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a negative prefix, NEG-, in Polish Sign Language (PJM) which appears to be indigenous to the language. This is of interest given the relative rarity of prefixes in sign languages. Prefixed PJM signs were analyzed on the basis of both a corpus of texts signed by 15 deaf PJM users who are either native or near-native signers, and material including a specified range of prefixed signs as demonstrated by native signers in dictionary form (i.e. signs produced...

  15. The Mechanics of Fingerspelling: Analyzing Ethiopian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Ethiopian Sign Language utilizes a fingerspelling system that represents Amharic orthography. Just as each character of the Amharic abugida encodes a consonant-vowel sound pair, each sign in the Ethiopian Sign Language fingerspelling system uses handshape to encode a base consonant, as well as a combination of timing, placement, and orientation to…

  16. Native American Languages: Subject Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joyce, Comp.

    This document is an eleven-page supplemental subject guide listing reference material that focuses on Native American languages that is not available in the Labriola National American Indian Data Center in the Arizona State University, Tempe (ASU) libraries. The guide is not comprehensive but offers a selective list of resources useful for…

  17. Linguistic Policies, Linguistic Planning, and Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ronice Muller

    2012-01-01

    This article explains the consolidation of Brazilian Sign Language in Brazil through a linguistic plan that arose from the Brazilian Sign Language Federal Law 10.436 of April 2002 and the subsequent Federal Decree 5695 of December 2005. Two concrete facts that emerged from this existing language plan are discussed: the implementation of bilingual…

  18. Equity in Education: Signed Language and the Courts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddon, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This article examines several legal cases in Canada, the USA, and Australia involving signed language in education for Deaf students. In all three contexts, signed language rights for Deaf students have been viewed from within a disability legislation framework that either does not extend to recognizing language rights in education or that…

  19. Topics and topic prominence in two sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Kimmelman

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe topic marking in Russian Sign Language (RSL) and Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT) and discuss whether these languages should be considered topic prominent. The formal markers of topics in RSL are sentence-initial position, a prosodic break following the topic, and non

  20. Visual Intonation in the Prosody of a Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachkovsky, Svetlana; Sandler, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    While visual signals that accompany spoken language serve to augment the communicative message, the same visual ingredients form the substance of the linguistic system in sign languages. This article provides an analysis of visual signals that comprise part of the intonational system of a sign language. The system is conveyed mainly by particular…

  1. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy

    2016-01-01

    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  2. Sentence Repetition in Deaf Children with Specific Language Impairment in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë; Mason, Kathryn; Rowley, Katherine; Herman, Rosalind; Atkinson, Joanna; Woll, Bencie; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) perform poorly on sentence repetition tasks across different spoken languages, but until now, this methodology has not been investigated in children who have SLI in a signed language. Users of a natural sign language encode different sentence meanings through their choice of signs and by altering…

  3. CONTEMPOPARY VIEWS TO SIGN LANGUAGE OF HEARING IMPAIRED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojka TATAREVA

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The place of the sign language in education of hearing impaired children in Denmark, USA and Sweden.Hearing impaired people ought to have a possibility of access to vital information, so they can move step by step, to live as useful members of society.Sign language is nonverbal communication which appears as a kind of compensation of the language lack, a means of development of that activity an opinion of unlimited human communicative nature.Mimic sign language in the system of education of hearing impaired children in Denmark, USA and Sweden take a primary place. The school with Hearing impaired children are bilingual. In the schools sign language is taken as a training language and it is available to every child.Contemporary views and practice tell us that teaching of hearing impaired children with sign language is more effective and more available.

  4. Other-initiated repair in Argentine Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Other-initiated repair is an essential interactional practice to secure mutual understanding in everyday interaction. This article presents evidence from a large conversational corpus of a sign language, showing that signers of Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or ‘LSA’), like users of spoken languages, use a systematic set of linguistic formats and practices to indicate troubles of signing, seeing and understanding. The general aim of this article is to provide a...

  5. Arabic Sign Language (ArSL) Recognition System Using HMM

    OpenAIRE

    Aliaa A. A. Youssif; Amal Elsayed Aboutabl; Heba Hamdy Ali

    2011-01-01

    Hand gestures enabling deaf people to communication during their daily lives rather than by speaking. A sign language is a language which, instead of using sound, uses visually transmitted gesture signs which simultaneously combine hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms, lip-patterns, body movements and facial expressions to express the speaker's thoughts. Recognizing and documenting Arabic sign language has only been paid attention to recently. There have been few attempts ...

  6. Perceptual categorization of handling handshapes in British Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Sehyr, Z. S.; Cormier, K.

    2015-01-01

    Sign languages like British Sign Language (BSL) include a type of partially lexicalized construction which depicts handling or manipulation of objects. Object sizes gradiently vary, yet it is unclear if handling handshapes depict object handling in a categorical or gradient manner. The study examines whether deaf BSL signers perceive handling handshapes continuously or categorically, compared with hearing non-signers, and how sign language experience affects perception of handshapes in these ...

  7. Language in motion: A framework for unifying spoken language, signed language, and gesture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherman Wilcox

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I describe a framework for unifying spoken language, signed language, and gesture. Called the language as motion framework, it relies on three broad theories: cognitive grammar, dynamic systems, and cognitive neuroscience. The foundational claim of the language in motion framework is that language and gesture are manifestations of a general human expressive ability which is grounded in embodied cognition and the need for mobile creatures to make sense of their environment.

  8. Synesthesia for manual alphabet letters and numeral signs in second-language users of signed languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Joanna; Lyons, Tanya; Eagleman, David; Woll, Bencie; Ward, Jamie

    2016-08-01

    Many synesthetes experience colors when viewing letters or digits. We document, for the first time, an analogous phenomenon among users of signed languages who showed color synesthesia for fingerspelled letters and signed numerals. Four synesthetes experienced colors when they viewed manual letters and numerals (in two cases, colors were subjectively projected on to the hands). There was a correspondence between the colors experienced for written graphemes and their manual counterparts, suggesting that the development of these two types of synesthesia is interdependent despite the fact that these systems are superficially distinct and rely on different perceptual recognition mechanisms in the brain. PMID:27351751

  9. Information and Signs: The Language of Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Semetsky

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial, philosophers and scientists were searching for a “machine code” of the so-called Mentalese language capable of processing information at the pre-verbal, pre-expressive level. In this paper I suggest that human languages are only secondary to the system of primitive extra-linguistic signs which are hardwired in humans and serve as tools for understanding selves and others; and creating meanings for the multiplicity of experiences. The combinatorial semantics of the Mentalese may find its unorthodox expression in the semiotic system of Tarot images, the latter serving as the ”keys” to the encoded proto-mental information. The paper uses some works in systems theory by Erich Jantsch and Erwin Laszlo and relates Tarot images to the archetypes of the field of collective unconscious posited by Carl Jung. Our subconscious beliefs, hopes, fears and desires, of which we may be unaware at the subjective level, do have an objective compositional structure that may be laid down in front of our eyes in the format of pictorial semiotics representing the universe of affects, thoughts, and actions. Constructing imaginative narratives based on the expressive “language” of Tarot images enables us to anticipate possible consequences and consider a range of future options. The thesis advanced in this paper is also supported by the concept of informational universe of contemporary cosmology.

  10. On the Conventionalization of Mouth Actions in Australian Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Trevor; van Roekel, Jane; Schembri, Adam

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the conventionalization of mouth actions in Australian Sign Language. Signed languages were once thought of as simply manual languages because the hands produce the signs which individually and in groups are the symbolic units most easily equated with the words, phrases and clauses of spoken languages. However, it has long been acknowledged that non-manual activity, such as movements of the body, head and the face play a very important role. In this context, mouth actions that occur while communicating in signed languages have posed a number of questions for linguists: are the silent mouthings of spoken language words simply borrowings from the respective majority community spoken language(s)? Are those mouth actions that are not silent mouthings of spoken words conventionalized linguistic units proper to each signed language, culturally linked semi-conventional gestural units shared by signers with members of the majority speaking community, or even gestures and expressions common to all humans? We use a corpus-based approach to gather evidence of the extent of the use of mouth actions in naturalistic Australian Sign Language-making comparisons with other signed languages where data is available--and the form/meaning pairings that these mouth actions instantiate. PMID:27089804

  11. Evaluating Effects of Language Recognition on Language Rights and the Vitality of New Zealand Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Rachel Locker; Manning, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Status planning through legislation made New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) an official language in 2006. But this strong symbolic action did not create resources or mechanisms to further the aims of the act. In this article we discuss the extent to which legal recognition and ensuing language-planning activities by state and community have affected…

  12. The nature of the semantic scale : evidence from sign language research

    OpenAIRE

    Zaremba, Kathryn Davidson

    2011-01-01

    A difficult learning problem for both children and artificial language learning systems is knowing what is intended to be conveyed based on what is literally said. For example, adults usually take "Some teas contain caffeine" to also convey that "Not all teas contain caffeine", an inference known as a scalar implicature. The present work investigates the role of language-specific knowledge in such inferences through three studies on scalar implicatures in American Sign Language (ASL). The fir...

  13. Input Processing at First Exposure to a Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Gerardo; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in learners' cognitive capacities to process a second language (L2) at first exposure to the target language. Evidence suggests that L2 learners are capable of processing novel words by exploiting phonological information from their first language (L1). Hearing adult learners of a sign language, however, cannot fall back…

  14. Signing Earth Science: Accommodations for Students Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing and Whose First Language Is Sign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, J.; Hurdich, J.

    2014-12-01

    TERC and Vcom3D used the SigningAvatar® accessibility software to research and develop a Signing Earth Science Dictionary (SESD) of approximately 750 standards-based Earth science terms for high school students who are deaf and hard of hearing and whose first language is sign. The partners also evaluated the extent to which use of the SESD furthers understanding of Earth science content, command of the language of Earth science, and the ability to study Earth science independently. Disseminated as a Web-based version and App, the SESD is intended to serve the ~36,000 grade 9-12 students who are deaf or hard of hearing and whose first language is sign, the majority of whom leave high school reading at the fifth grade or below. It is also intended for teachers and interpreters who interact with members of this population and professionals working with Earth science education programs during field trips, internships etc. The signed SESD terms have been incorporated into a Mobile Communication App (MCA). This App for Androids is intended to facilitate communication between English speakers and persons who communicate in American Sign Language (ASL) or Signed English. It can translate words, phrases, or whole sentences from written or spoken English to animated signing. It can also fingerspell proper names and other words for which there are no signs. For our presentation, we will demonstrate the interactive features of the SigningAvatar® accessibility software that support the three principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and have been incorporated into the SESD and MCA. Results from national field-tests will provide insight into the SESD's and MCA's potential applicability beyond grade 12 as accommodations that can be used for accessing the vocabulary deaf and hard of hearing students need for study of the geosciences and for facilitating communication about content. This work was funded in part by grants from NSF and the U.S. Department of Education.

  15. Constraints on Negative Prefixation in Polish Sign Language.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Tomaszewski

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to describe a negative prefix, NEG-, in Polish Sign Language (PJM which appears to be indigenous to the language. This is of interest given the relative rarity of prefixes in sign languages. Prefixed PJM signs were analyzed on the basis of both a corpus of texts signed by 15 deaf PJM users who are either native or near-native signers, and material including a specified range of prefixed signs as demonstrated by native signers in dictionary form (i.e. signs produced in isolation, not as part of phrases or sentences. In order to define the morphological rules behind prefixation on both the phonological and morphological levels, native PJM users were consulted for their expertise. The research results can enrich models for describing processes of grammaticalization in the context of the visual-gestural modality that forms the basis for sign language structure.

  16. Constraints on Negative Prefixation in Polish Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe a negative prefix, NEG-, in Polish Sign Language (PJM) which appears to be indigenous to the language. This is of interest given the relative rarity of prefixes in sign languages. Prefixed PJM signs were analyzed on the basis of both a corpus of texts signed by 15 deaf PJM users who are either native or near-native signers, and material including a specified range of prefixed signs as demonstrated by native signers in dictionary form (i.e. signs produced in isolation, not as part of phrases or sentences). In order to define the morphological rules behind prefixation on both the phonological and morphological levels, native PJM users were consulted for their expertise. The research results can enrich models for describing processes of grammaticalization in the context of the visual-gestural modality that forms the basis for sign language structure. PMID:26619066

  17. Sentence Repetition in Deaf Children with Specific Language Impairment in British Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, C.; Mason, K; Rowley, K; Herman, R.; Atkinson, J.; Woll, B.; Morgan, G.

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific language impairment (SLI) perform poorly on sentence repetition tasks across different spoken languages, but until now, this methodology has not been investigated in children who have SLI in a signed language. Users of a natural sign language encode different sentence meanings through their choice of signs and by altering the sequence and inflections of these signs. Grammatical information is expressed through movement and configurational changes of the hands and face. ...

  18. Identifying specific language impairment in deaf children acquiring British Sign Language: Implications for theory and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, K.; Rowley, K; Marshall, C. R.; Atkinson, J; Herman, R.; Woll, B.; Morgan, G

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first ever group study of specific language impairment (SLI) in users of sign language. A group of 50 children were referred to the study by teachers and speech and language therapists. Individuals who fitted pre-determined criteria for SLI were then systematically assessed. Here, we describe in detail the performance of 13 signing deaf children aged 5–14 years on normed tests of British Sign Language (BSL) sentence comprehension, repetition of nonsense signs, expressi...

  19. Signs of Resistance: Peer Learning of Sign Languages within "Oral" Schools for the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin-Jaffe, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the role of the Deaf child as peer educator. In schools where sign languages were banned, Deaf children became the educators of their Deaf peers in a number of contexts worldwide. This paper analyses how this peer education of sign language worked in context by drawing on two examples from boarding schools for the deaf in…

  20. The Birth and Rebirth of "Sign Language Studies"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David F.

    2012-01-01

    As most readers of this journal are aware, "Sign Language Studies" ("SLS") served for many years as effectively the only serious scholarly outlet for work in the nascent field of sign language linguistics. Now reaching its 40th anniversary, the journal was founded by William C. Stokoe and then edited by him for the first quarter century of its…

  1. The Bimodal Bilingual Brain: Effects of Sign Language Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Bimodal bilinguals are hearing individuals who know both a signed and a spoken language. Effects of bimodal bilingualism on behavior and brain organization are reviewed, and an fMRI investigation of the recognition of facial expressions by ASL-English bilinguals is reported. The fMRI results reveal separate effects of sign language and spoken…

  2. The Effect of New Technologies on Sign Language Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Ceil; Mirus, Gene; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Roessler, Nicholas James; Frost, Adam

    2013-01-01

    This paper first reviews the fairly established ways of collecting sign language data. It then discusses the new technologies available and their impact on sign language research, both in terms of how data is collected and what new kinds of data are emerging as a result of technology. New data collection methods and new kinds of data are…

  3. A New Evaluation Approach for Sign Language Machine Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Almohimeed, Abdulaziz; Wald, Mike; Damper, R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a new evaluation approach for sign language machine translation (SLMT). It aims to show a better correlation between its automatically generated scores and human judgements of translation accuracy. To show the correlation, an Arabic Sign Language (ArSL) corpus has been used for the evaluation experiments and the results obtained by various methods.

  4. Lexical access in Catalan Sign Language (LSC) production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Baus; E. Gutiérrez-Sigut; J. Quer; M. Carreiras

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the semantic and phonological levels in speech production are specific to spoken languages or universal across modalities. We examined semantic and phonological effects during Catalan Signed Language (LSC: Llengua de Signes Catalana) production using an adaptation of

  5. Meemul Tziij: An Indigenous Sign Language Complex of Mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree, Erich Fox

    2009-01-01

    This article examines sign languages that belong to a complex of indigenous sign languages in Mesoamerica that K'iche'an Maya people of Guatemala refer to collectively as Meemul Tziij. It explains the relationship between the Meemul Tziij variety of the Yukatek Maya village of Chican (state of Yucatan, Mexico) and the hitherto undescribed Meemul…

  6. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model

    OpenAIRE

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Ronnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cogniti...

  7. Imitation, sign language skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) model

    OpenAIRE

    Emil eHolmer; Mikael eHeimann; Mary eRudner

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cogniti...

  8. Sign Vocabulary in Deaf Toddlers Exposed to Sign Language since Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Pasquale; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Di Renzo, Alessio; Gulli, Tiziana; Volterra, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Lexical comprehension and production is directly evaluated for the first time in deaf signing children below the age of 3 years. A Picture Naming Task was administered to 8 deaf signing toddlers (aged 2-3 years) who were exposed to Sign Language since birth. Results were compared with data of hearing speaking controls. In both deaf and hearing…

  9. American Language Review, 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Ben, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    These eight journals include articles on such topics as the following: adult literacy; incorporating song lyrics and music into the English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) classroom; using poetry with adult ESL learners; reading "Time" and "Newsweek" in ESL classrooms; teaching intuitively; teacher-created materials; New England English; Internet…

  10. Failing American Indian Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    This article critically examines the mediating role of scholarly expectations and the unexpected in the management--and transcendence--of failure/success as these concepts relate to language revitalization. Deloria remarks that, "expectations tend to assume a status quo defined around failure, the result of some innate limitation on the part of…

  11. A dictionary of Astronomy for the French Sign Language (LSF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, Dominique; Abbou, Daniel; Chab, Nasro

    2011-06-01

    Since a few years, the french deaf communauty have access to astronomy at Paris-Meudon observatory through a specific teaching adapted from the French Sign Language (Langue des Signes Françcaise, LSF) including direct observations with the observatory telescopes. From this experience, an encyclopedic dictionary of astronomy The Hands in the Stars is now available, containing more than 200 astronomical concepts. Many of them did not existed in Sign Language and can be now fully expressed and explained.

  12. "You Want "What" on Your Pizza!?": Videophone and Video-Relay Service as Potential Influences on the Lexical Standardization of American Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette; Minor, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study examines whether the increased virtual "mobility" of ASL users via videophone and video-relay services is contributing to the standardization of ASL. In addition, language attitudes are identified and suggested to be influencing the perception of correct versus incorrect standard forms. ASL users around the country have their own…

  13. Sign Language to Speech Translation System Using PIC Microcontroller

    OpenAIRE

    Gunasekaran. K; Manikandan R

    2013-01-01

    The advancement in embedded system, provides a space to design and develop a sign language translator system to assist the dumb people. This paper mainly addresses to facilitate dumb person's lifestyle. Dumb people throughout the world use sign language to communicate with others, this is possible for those who has undergone special trainings. Common people also face difficult to understand the gesture language. To overcome these real time issues, this system is developed. Whenever the propos...

  14. Sign Language Conversational Interaction between Chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, Roger S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Systematic sampling was done of signing between five home-reared chimpanzees who had had 4-7 years of complete immersion in integrating their signing interaction into their nonverbal communication. Eight-eight percent of all signs reported fell into the social categories of reassurance, social interaction, and play. (SL)

  15. Australian Aboriginal Deaf People and Aboriginal Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Des

    2013-01-01

    Many Australian Aboriginal people use a sign language ("hand talk") that mirrors their local spoken language and is used both in culturally appropriate settings when speech is taboo or counterindicated and for community communication. The characteristics of these languages are described, and early European settlers' reports of deaf Aboriginal…

  16. Observations on Word Order in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprenger, Kristen; Mathur, Gaurav

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntactic level of the grammar of Saudi Arabian Sign Language by exploring some word orders that occur in personal narratives in the language. Word order is one of the main ways in which languages indicate the main syntactic roles of subjects, verbs, and objects; others are verbal agreement and nominal case morphology.…

  17. On the syntax of spatial adpositions in sign languages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pfau; E.O. Aboh

    2011-01-01

    In investigations of sign language grammar - phonology, morphology, and syntax - the impact of language modality on grammar is a recurrent issue. The term 'modality,' as used in this context, refers to the distinction between languages that are expressed and perceived in the oral-auditive modality (

  18. Algerian Jewish Sign language: its emergence and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Lanesman, Sara

    2016-01-01

    "This book is concerned with Algerian Jewish Sign Language (AJSL) and the Algerian Jewish Sign Language community. AJSL developed naturally in the Jewish quarter of Ghardaia, a town in the sub-Saharan part of Algeria. A high percentage of deaf people lived in this quarter, and because of that a sign language emerged, and was used by both deaf and hearing members of the community. Many members of the AJSL community migrated to Israel in the middle of the twentieth century, where they have cont...

  19. Legal Pathways to the Recognition of Sign Languages: A Comparison of the Catalan and Spanish Sign Language Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quer, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Despite being minority languages like many others, sign languages have traditionally remained absent from the agendas of policy makers and language planning and policies. In the past two decades, though, this situation has started to change at different paces and to different degrees in several countries. In this article, the author describes the…

  20. Your Case Will Now Be Heard: Sign Language Interpreters as Problematic Accommodations in Legal Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunson, Jeremy L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses data from open-ended, videotaped interviews with 12 deaf people to examine their experiences negotiating access during interactions with legal authorities. In every case, these deaf persons preferred an accommodation that involved the use of an American Sign Language interpreter, and in every case, these accommodations were…

  1. Static sign language recognition using 1D descriptors and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís, José F.; Toxqui, Carina; Padilla, Alfonso; Santiago, César

    2012-10-01

    A frame work for static sign language recognition using descriptors which represents 2D images in 1D data and artificial neural networks is presented in this work. The 1D descriptors were computed by two methods, first one consists in a correlation rotational operator.1 and second is based on contour analysis of hand shape. One of the main problems in sign language recognition is segmentation; most of papers report a special color in gloves or background for hand shape analysis. In order to avoid the use of gloves or special clothing, a thermal imaging camera was used to capture images. Static signs were picked up from 1 to 9 digits of American Sign Language, a multilayer perceptron reached 100% recognition with cross-validation.

  2. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  3. Sign language translation and interpreting studies: a new academic field?

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Henrique Rodrigues; Hanna Beer

    2015-01-01

    Considering that Brazilian researches on translation and interpreting from/into/between sign languages can be combined into what is known as Sign Language Translation and Interpreting Studies (SLTIS), we carry out a reflection on the emergence of this new academic field and its direct connection to Translation Studies (TS) and Interpreting Studies (IS). Hence, we shall present the interdependence and fundamental distinction between TS and IS, search for references in the interpreting and tran...

  4. Basic Color Terms in Estonian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman, Liivi; Sutrop, Urmas

    2011-01-01

    The article is written in the tradition of Brent Berlin and Paul Kay's theory of basic color terms. According to this theory there is a universal inventory of eleven basic color categories from which the basic color terms of any given language are always drawn. The number of basic color terms varies from 2 to 11 and in a language having a fully…

  5. Lexical access in sign language: A computational model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Kenney Caselli

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psycholinguistic theories have predominantly been built upon data from spoken language, which leaves open the question: How many of the conclusions truly reflect language-general principles as opposed to modality-specific ones? We take a step toward answering this question in the domain of lexical access in recognition by asking whether a single cognitive architecture might explain diverse behavioral patterns in signed and spoken language. Chen and Mirman (2012 presented a computational model of word processing that unified opposite effects of neighborhood density in speech production, perception, and written word recognition. Neighborhood density effects in sign language also vary depending on whether the neighbors share the same handshape or location. We present a spreading activation architecture that borrows the principles proposed by Chen and Mirman (2012, and show that if this architecture is elaborated to incorporate relatively minor facts about either 1 the time course of sign perception or 2 the frequency of sub-lexical units in sign languages, it produces data that match the experimental findings from sign languages. This work serves as a proof of concept that a single cognitive architecture could underlie both sign and word recognition.

  6. Turkish Sign Language Recognition Using Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakajan Kakayev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In past years, there were a lot of researches made in order to provide more accurate and comfortable interaction between human and machine. Developing a system which recognizes human gestures, is an important study to improve in teraction between human and machine. Sign language is a way of communication for hearing -impaired people which enables them to communicate among themselves and with other people around them. Sign language consists of hand gestures and facial expressions. During the pa st 20 years, researches were made to facilitate communication of hearing-impaired people with others. Sign language recognition systems are designed in v arious countries. This paper presents a sign language recognition system, which uses Kinect came ra to obtain skeletal model. Our aim was to recognize expressions, which are used widely in Turkish Sign Language (TSL. For that purpose we have selected 15 words/expressions rando mly (repeated 4 times each by 3 different signers which belong to Turkish Sign Language. We have used 180 records in total. Videos are recorded using Microsoft Kinect Camera and Nui Capt ure. Joint angles and joint positions have been used as features of gesture and achieved close to 100% recognition rates.

  7. Modality-specific processing precedes amodal linguistic processing during L2 sign language acquisition: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joshua T; Darcy, Isabelle; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    The present study tracked activation pattern differences in response to sign language processing by late hearing second language learners of American Sign Language. Learners were scanned before the start of their language courses. They were scanned again after their first semester of instruction and their second, for a total of 10 months of instruction. The study aimed to characterize modality-specific to modality-general processing throughout the acquisition of sign language. Results indicated that before the acquisition of sign language, neural substrates related to modality-specific processing were present. After approximately 45 h of instruction, the learners transitioned into processing signs on a phonological basis (e.g., supramarginal gyrus, putamen). After one more semester of input, learners transitioned once more to a lexico-semantic processing stage (e.g., left inferior frontal gyrus) at which language control mechanisms (e.g., left caudate, cingulate gyrus) were activated. During these transitional steps right hemispheric recruitment was observed, with increasing left-lateralization, which is similar to other native signers and L2 learners of spoken language; however, specialization for sign language processing with activation in the inferior parietal lobule (i.e., angular gyrus), even for late learners, was observed. As such, the present study is the first to track L2 acquisition of sign language learners in order to characterize modality-independent and modality-specific mechanisms for bilingual language processing. PMID:26720258

  8. Selected Lexical Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Lesa; Palmer, Jeffrey Levi; Reynolds, Wanette

    2012-01-01

    This combined paper will focus on the description of two selected lexical patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL): metaphor and metonymy in emotion-related signs (Young) and lexicalization patterns of objects and their derivational roots (Palmer and Reynolds). The over-arcing methodology used by both studies is detailed in Stephen and…

  9. An Intelligent Computer-Based System for Sign Language Tutoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchings, Tim; Khadragi, Ahmed; Saeb, Magdy

    2012-01-01

    A computer-based system for sign language tutoring has been developed using a low-cost data glove and a software application that processes the movement signals for signs in real-time and uses Pattern Matching techniques to decide if a trainee has closely replicated a teacher's recorded movements. The data glove provides 17 movement signals from…

  10. Ideologies and Attitudes toward Sign Languages: An Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krausneker, Verena

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes are complex and little research in the field of linguistics has focused on language attitudes. This article deals with attitudes toward sign languages and those who use them--attitudes that are influenced by ideological constructions. The article reviews five categories of such constructions and discusses examples in each one.

  11. On Selected Morphemes in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Carla; Schneider, Erin

    2012-01-01

    Following a year of study of Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL), we are documenting our findings to provide a grammatical sketch of the language. This paper represents one part of that endeavor and focuses on a description of selected morphemes, both manual and non-manual, that have appeared in the course of data collection. While some of the…

  12. Sign Language Planning in the Netherlands between 1980 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schermer, Trude

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses several aspects of language planning with respect to Sign Language of the Netherlands, or Nederlandse Gebarentaal (NGT). For nearly thirty years members of the Deaf community, the Dutch Deaf Council (Dovenschap) have been working together with researchers, several organizations in deaf education, and the organization of…

  13. Sign Languages: Contribution to Neurolinguistics from Cross-Modal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie

    2010-01-01

    Using sign language research as an example, we argue that both the cross-linguistic descriptive approach to data, advocated by Evans and Levinson (2009), as well as abstract (‘formal’) analyses are necessary steps towards the development of “neurolinguistic primitives” for investigating how human languages are instantiated in the brain. PMID:20953339

  14. Hierarchically Structured Non-Intrusive Sign Language Recognition. Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieren, Jorg; Zieren, Jorg; Kraiss, Karl-Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    This work presents a hierarchically structured approach at the nonintrusive recognition of sign language from a monocular frontal view. Robustness is achieved through sophisticated localization and tracking methods, including a combined EM/CAMSHIFT overlap resolution procedure and the parallel pursuit of multiple hypotheses about hands position and movement. This allows handling of ambiguities and automatically corrects tracking errors. A biomechanical skeleton model and dynamic motion prediction using Kalman filters represents high level knowledge. Classification is performed by Hidden Markov Models. 152 signs from German sign language were recognized with an accuracy of 97.6%.

  15. Discriminating Signs: Perceptual Precursors to Acquiring a Visual-Gestural Language

    OpenAIRE

    Wilbourn, Makeba Parramore; Casasola, Marianella

    2006-01-01

    We tested hearing six- and ten-month-olds’ ability to discriminate among three American Sign Language (ASL) parameters (location, handshape, and movement) as well as a grammatical marker (facial expression). ASL-naïve infants were habituated to a signer articulating a two-handed symmetrical sign in neutral space. During test, infants viewed novel two-handed signs that varied in only one parameter or in facial expression. Infants detected changes in the signer’s facial expression and in the lo...

  16. Astrological signs and personality in Kuwaitis and Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed; Lester, David

    2006-04-01

    Samples of Kuwaiti (N=460) and American (N=273) undergraduates responded to six personality questionnaires to assess optimism, pessimism, suicidal ideation, ego-grasping, death anxiety, general anxiety, and obssessive-compulsiveness. Each participant was assigned to the astrological sign associated with date of birth. One-way analyses of variance yielded nonsignificant F ratios for all the seven scales in both Kuwaiti and American samples, except for anxiety scores among Americans. It was concluded that there was little support for an association between astrological sun signs and scores on the present personality scales. PMID:16796119

  17. Symbiotic symbolization by hand and mouth in sign language*

    OpenAIRE

    SANDLER, WENDY

    2009-01-01

    Current conceptions of human language include a gestural component in the communicative event. However, determining how the linguistic and gestural signals are distinguished, how each is structured, and how they interact still poses a challenge for the construction of a comprehensive model of language. This study attempts to advance our understanding of these issues with evidence from sign language. The study adopts McNeill’s criteria for distinguishing gestures from the linguistically organi...

  18. Sign language translation and interpreting studies: a new academic field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henrique Rodrigues

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that Brazilian researches on translation and interpreting from/into/between sign languages can be combined into what is known as Sign Language Translation and Interpreting Studies (SLTIS, we carry out a reflection on the emergence of this new academic field and its direct connection to Translation Studies (TS and Interpreting Studies (IS. Hence, we shall present the interdependence and fundamental distinction between TS and IS, search for references in the interpreting and translation of sign languages in major TS and IS writings, and reflect on the SLTIS in Brazil. This reflection is based on sign language translation and interpreting research carried out in graduate school and on the four editions of the National Conference on Sign Language Translation and Interpreting Research. We have observed that while the SLTIS stand out for involving a visual-gestural language, they also maintain an undeniable and necessary link to their origins, since they have no existence beyond the TS and IS academic fields.

  19. Recognition of Indian Sign Language in Live Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Joyeeta; Das, Karen

    2013-05-01

    Sign Language Recognition has emerged as one of the important area of research in Computer Vision. The difficulty faced by the researchers is that the instances of signs vary with both motion and appearance. Thus, in this paper a novel approach for recognizing various alphabets of Indian Sign Language is proposed where continuous video sequences of the signs have been considered. The proposed system comprises of three stages: Preprocessing stage, Feature Extraction and Classification. Preprocessing stage includes skin filtering, histogram matching. Eigen values and Eigen Vectors were considered for feature extraction stage and finally Eigen value weighted Euclidean distance is used to recognize the sign. It deals with bare hands, thus allowing the user to interact with the system in natural way. We have considered 24 different alphabets in the video sequences and attained a success rate of 96.25%.

  20. Segment, Track, Extract, Recognize and Convert Sign Language Videos to Voice/Text

    OpenAIRE

    P.V.V.Kishore; P. Rajesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes various algorithms used to design a sign language recognition system. Sign language is the language used by deaf people to communicate among themselves and with normal people. We designed a real time sign language recognition system that can recognize gestures of sign language from videos under complex backgrounds. Segmenting and tracking of non-rigid hands and head of the signer in sign language videos is achieved by using active contour models. Active contour energy mi...

  1. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Certification Publications Events Advocacy Continuing Education Practice Management Research American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Making effective communication, a human ...

  2. On the System of Place Name Signs in Estonian Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liina Paales

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A place name sign is a linguistic-cultural marker that includes both memory and landscape. The author regards toponymic signs in Estonian Sign Language as representations of images held by the Estonian Deaf community: they reflect the geographical place, the period, the relationships of the Deaf community with hearing community, and the common and distinguishing features of the two cultures perceived by community's members. Name signs represent an element of signlore, which includes various types of creative linguistic play. There are stories hidden behind the place name signs that reveal the etymological origin of place name signs and reflect the community's memory. The purpose of this article is twofold. Firstly, it aims to introduce Estonian place name signs as Deaf signlore forms, analyse their structure and specify the main formation methods. Secondly, it interprets place-denoting signs in the light of understanding the foundations of Estonian Sign Language, Estonian Deaf education and education history, the traditions of local Deaf communities, and also of the cultural and local traditions of the dominant hearing communities. Both perspectives - linguistic and folkloristic - are represented in the current article.

  3. Rating the Vitality of Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford, J. Albert; Lewis, M. Paul; Simons, Gary F.

    2015-01-01

    The Expanded Graded Intergenerational Disruption Scale (EGIDS), developed by Lewis and Simons and based on work by Fishman, provides a means of rating "language vitality"--the level of development or endangerment--where "development" is understood as adding or preserving functions and "endangerment" as loss of…

  4. Arabic Sign Language (ArSL Recognition System Using HMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliaa A. A.Youssif

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Hand gestures enabling deaf people to communication during their daily lives rather than by speaking. A sign language is a language which, instead of using sound, uses visually transmitted gesture signs which simultaneously combine hand shapes, orientation and movement of the hands, arms, lip-patterns, body movements and facial expressions to express the speaker's thoughts. Recognizing and documenting Arabic sign language has only been paid attention to recently. There have been few attempts to develop recognition systems to allow deaf people to interact with the rest of society. This paper introduces an automatic Arabic sign language (ArSL recognition system based on the Hidden Markov Models (HMMs. A large set of samples has been used to recognize 20 isolated words from the Standard Arabic sign language. The proposed system is signer-independent. Experiments are conducted using real ArSL videos taken for deaf people in different clothes and with different skin colors. Our system achieves an overall recognition rate reaching up to 82.22%.

  5. Facilitating Exposure to Sign Languages of the World: The Case for Mobile Assisted Language Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Becky Sue

    2014-01-01

    Foreign sign language instruction is an important, but overlooked area of study. Thus the purpose of this paper was two-fold. First, the researcher sought to determine the level of knowledge and interest in foreign sign language among Deaf teenagers along with their learning preferences. Results from a survey indicated that over a third of the…

  6. Deficits in Narrative Abilities in Child British Sign Language Users with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Ros; Rowley, Katherine; Mason, Kathryn; Morgan, Gary

    2014-01-01

    This study details the first ever investigation of narrative skills in a group of 17 deaf signing children who have been diagnosed with disorders in their British Sign Language development compared with a control group of 17 deaf child signers matched for age, gender, education, quantity, and quality of language exposure and non-verbal…

  7. Pointing and Reference in Sign Language and Spoken Language: Anchoring vs. Identifying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberà, Gemma; Zwets, Martine

    2013-01-01

    In both signed and spoken languages, pointing serves to direct an addressee's attention to a particular entity. This entity may be either present or absent in the physical context of the conversation. In this article we focus on pointing directed to nonspeaker/nonaddressee referents in Sign Language of the Netherlands (Nederlandse Gebarentaal,…

  8. Training Literacy Skills through Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, Mary; Andin, Josefine; Rönnberg, Jerker; Heimann, Mikael; Hermansson, Anders; Nelson, Keith; Tjus, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    The literacy skills of deaf children generally lag behind those of their hearing peers. The mechanisms of reading in deaf individuals are only just beginning to be unraveled but it seems that native language skills play an important role. In this study 12 deaf pupils (six in grades 1-2 and six in grades 4-6) at a Swedish state primary school for…

  9. Imitation, sign language skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil eHolmer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU model (Rönnberg et al., 2013 pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1 we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2. Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at the T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills

  10. Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmer, Emil; Heimann, Mikael; Rudner, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Rönnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into

  11. Toward a Motor Theory of Sign Language Perception

    CERN Document Server

    Gibet, Sylvie; Duarte, Kyle

    2012-01-01

    Researches on signed languages still strongly dissociate lin- guistic issues related on phonological and phonetic aspects, and gesture studies for recognition and synthesis purposes. This paper focuses on the imbrication of motion and meaning for the analysis, synthesis and evaluation of sign language gestures. We discuss the relevance and interest of a motor theory of perception in sign language communication. According to this theory, we consider that linguistic knowledge is mapped on sensory-motor processes, and propose a methodology based on the principle of a synthesis-by-analysis approach, guided by an evaluation process that aims to validate some hypothesis and concepts of this theory. Examples from existing studies illustrate the di erent concepts and provide avenues for future work.

  12. Analysis on Public Signs from the Perspective of Language Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Yue

    2016-01-01

    For a long time, public signs have been the focus of many researchers and scholars. They probe into this kind of meaningful and special language from different perspectives by adopting theories from a large scale of areas. However, the researches were mostly limited in several hot fields, like linguistics, translation, culture or travelling. Nevertheless, in the year of 1965, Jacob Marschak(1965), an economic professor in the University of Los Angeles presented a theory, which turned the researchers' eyes to a brand new region, which is language economics. In the following paper, the author will combine the theory of cost and benefit with public signs. Two types of public signs will be particularly analysed using the theory of cost and benefit that belongs to language economics.

  13. Identifying Overlapping Language Communities: The Case of Chiriquí and Panamanian Signed Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Elizabeth S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I use a holographic metaphor to explain the identification of overlapping sign language communities in Panama. By visualizing Panama's complex signing communities as emitting community "hotspots" through social drama on multiple stages, I employ ethnographic methods to explore overlapping contours of Panama's sign language…

  14. From gesture to sign language: conventionalization of classifier constructions by adult hearing learners of British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë R; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    There has long been interest in why languages are shaped the way they are, and in the relationship between sign language and gesture. In sign languages, entity classifiers are handshapes that encode how objects move, how they are located relative to one another, and how multiple objects of the same type are distributed in space. Previous studies have shown that hearing adults who are asked to use only manual gestures to describe how objects move in space will use gestures that bear some similarities to classifiers. We investigated how accurately hearing adults, who had been learning British Sign Language (BSL) for 1-3 years, produce and comprehend classifiers in (static) locative and distributive constructions. In a production task, learners of BSL knew that they could use their hands to represent objects, but they had difficulty choosing the same, conventionalized, handshapes as native signers. They were, however, highly accurate at encoding location and orientation information. Learners therefore show the same pattern found in sign-naïve gesturers. In contrast, handshape, orientation, and location were comprehended with equal (high) accuracy, and testing a group of sign-naïve adults showed that they too were able to understand classifiers with higher than chance accuracy. We conclude that adult learners of BSL bring their visuo-spatial knowledge and gestural abilities to the tasks of understanding and producing constructions that contain entity classifiers. We speculate that investigating the time course of adult sign language acquisition might shed light on how gesture became (and, indeed, becomes) conventionalized during the genesis of sign languages. PMID:25329326

  15. Turkish Sign Language Recognition Using Hidden Markov Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kakajan Kakayev; Songül Albayrak

    2016-01-01

    In past years, there were a lot of researches made in order to provide more accurate and comfortable interaction between human and machine. Developing a system which recognizes human gestures, is an important study to improve in teraction between human and machine. Sign language is a way of communication for hearing -impaired people which enables them to communicate among themselves and with other people around them. Sign...

  16. Linguistic aspects of the development of computer sign language interpreters Russian language

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Davidovna Ganelina; Mikhail Gennadyevich Grif; Olga Оlegovna Korolkova

    2013-01-01

    The article is devoted to the actual direction of modern linguistics – describing the features of Russian sign language identified by the analysis of theoretical and empirical lexicographical sources, as well as in the process of communication with native «speakers» – people using Russian sign language as native language. Another purpose of the article is detecting and confirming the practical significance of such research – solving problems of social adaptation for hard of hearing people. Th...

  17. Comparing Action Gestures and Classifier Verbs of Motion: Evidence from Australian Sign Language, Taiwan Sign Language, and Nonsigners' Gestures without Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schembri, Adam; Jones, Caroline; Burnham, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Recent research into signed languages indicates that signs may share some properties with gesture, especially in the use of space in classifier constructions. A prediction of this proposal is that there will be similarities in the representation of motion events by sign-naive gesturers and by native signers of unrelated signed languages. This…

  18. Romanian Deaf Sign Languages Projects – an Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Florea BARBU; Ionut Adrian CHIRIAC

    2012-01-01

    In the last years, some foundations working with teams of willing teachers from Romania have developed projects involving Romanian deaf sing language, with the hope that his kind of projects will improve the integration of the persons with hearing disabilities in all the aspects of social life. The authors are making a review of the existing projects involving Romanian deaf sign languages from past and present, describing the progress made in the last years and suggesting possibilities for fu...

  19. The "SignOn"-Model for Teaching Written Language to Deaf People

    OpenAIRE

    Marlene Hilzensauer; Franz Dotter

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows a method of teaching written language to deaf people using sign language as the language of instruction. Written texts in the target language are combined with sign language videos which provide the users with various modes of translation (words/phrases/sentences). As examples, two EU projects for English for the Deaf are presented which feature English texts and translations into the national sign languages of all the partner countries plus signed grammar explanations and in...

  20. Sign Language Ability in Young Deaf Signers Predicts Comprehension of Written Sentences in English

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew, Kathy N.; Hoshooley, Jennifer; Joanisse, Marc F.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the robust correlation between American Sign Language (ASL) and English reading ability in 51 young deaf signers ages 7;3 to 19;0. Signers were divided into ‘skilled’ and ‘less-skilled’ signer groups based on their performance on three measures of ASL. We next assessed reading comprehension of four English sentence structures (actives, passives, pronouns, reflexive pronouns) using a sentence-to-picture-matching task. Of interest was the extent to which ASL proficiency provided...

  1. The benefits of sign language for deaf learners with language challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Badenhorst

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article argues the importance of allowing deaf children to acquire sign language from an early age. It demonstrates firstly that the critical/sensitive period hypothesis for language acquisition can be applied to specific language aspects of spoken language as well as sign languages (i.e. phonology, grammatical processing and syntax. This makes early diagnosis and early intervention of crucial importance. Moreover, research findings presented in this article demonstrate the advantage that sign language offers in the early years of a deaf child’s life by comparing the language development milestones of deaf learners exposed to sign language from birth to those of late-signers, orally trained deaf learners and hearing learners exposed to spoken language. The controversy over the best medium of instruction for deaf learners is briefly discussed, with emphasis placed on the possible value of bilingual-bicultural programmes to facilitate the development of deaf learners’ literacy skills. Finally, this paper concludes with a discussion of the implications/recommendations of sign language teaching and Deaf education in South Africa.

  2. Novel Approach to Use HU Moments with Image Processing Techniques for Real Time Sign Language Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Matheesha Fernando; Janaka Wijayanayake

    2015-01-01

    Sign language is the fundamental communication method among people who suffer from speech and hearing defects. The rest of the world doesn’t have a clear idea of sign language. “Sign Language Communicator” (SLC) is designed to solve the language barrier between the sign language users and the rest of the world. The main objective of this research is to provide a low cost affordable method of sign language interpretation. This system will also be very useful to the sign language learners as th...

  3. THE BENEFIT OF EARLY EXPOSURE TO SIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica PRIBANIKJ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnosis and intervention are now recognized as undeniable rights of deaf and hard-of-hearing children and their families. The deaf child’s family must have the opportunity to socialize with deaf children and deaf adults. The deaf child’s family must also have access to all the information on the general development of their child, and to special information on hearing impairment, communication options and linguistic development of the deaf child.The critical period hypothesis for language acquisition proposes that the outcome of language acquisition is not uniform over the lifespan but rather is best during early childhood. Individuals who learned sign language from birth performed better on linguistic and memory tasks than individuals who did not start learning sign language until after puberty. The old prejudice that the deaf child must learn the spoken language at a very young age, and that sign language can wait because it can be easily learned by any person at any age, cannot be maintained anymore.The cultural approach to deafness emphasizes three necessary components in the development of a deaf child: 1. stimulating early communication using natural sign language within the family and interacting with the Deaf community; 2. bilingual / bicultural education and 3. ensuring deaf persons’ rights to enjoy the services of high quality interpreters throughout their education from kindergarten to university. This new view of the phenomenology of deafness means that the environment needs to be changed in order to meet the deaf person’s needs, not the contrary.

  4. Thought, language origin, and the Saussurean concept of linguistic sign

    OpenAIRE

    Yeung, Hiu-lam.; 楊曉霖.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is an investigation of the relation between language and thought in terms of the Saussurean concept of linguistic sign. However, it is not an empirical study of the relation between language and thought and, therefore, not a study of the Whorfian problem of linguistic relativity, but rather a study of how we understand the nature of language and thought such that we think they are related in a certain way. This thesis is an investigation of the “metaphysical” picture that underli...

  5. The Relationship between Kenyan Sign Language and English Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aura, Lillie Josephine; Venville, Grady; Marais, Ida

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of an investigation into the relationship between Kenyan Sign Language (KSL) and English literacy skills. It is derived from research undertaken towards an MEd degree awarded by The University of Western Australia in 2011. The study employed a correlational survey strategy. Sixty upper primary deaf students from four…

  6. Using Signs to Facilitate Vocabulary in Children with Language Delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Susan Hendler; Battaglia, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore recommended practices in choosing and using key word signs (i.e., simple single-word gestures for communication) to facilitate first spoken words in hearing children with language delays. Developmental, theoretical, and empirical supports for this practice are discussed. Practical recommendations for…

  7. On Selected Phonological Patterns in Saudi Arabian Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Nozomi; Kozak, Viola

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on two selected phonological patterns that appear unique to Saudi Arabian Sign Language (SASL). For both sections of this paper, the overall methodology is the same as that discussed in Stephen and Mathur (this volume), with some additional modifications tailored to the specific studies discussed here, which will be expanded…

  8. Sign Language Recognition by Combining Statistical DTW and Independent Classification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenauer, J.F.; Hendriks,E.A; Reinders, M.J.T.

    2008-01-01

    To recognize speech, handwriting, or sign language, many hybrid approaches have been proposed that combine Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) or Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) with discriminative classifiers. However, all methods rely directly on the likelihood models of DTW/HMM. We hypothesize that time warpi

  9. Hand/Wrist Disorders among Sign Language Communicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Susan M.; Kress, Tyler A.; Hart, William M.

    2000-01-01

    A study assessed the frequency of self-reported hand/wrist problems among 184 sign-language communicators. Fifty-nine percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems, 26 percent reported experiencing hand/wrist problems severe enough to limit their ability to work, and 18 percent reported a medical diagnosis of wrist tendinitis, carpal tunnel…

  10. Word order in Russian Sign Language: an extended report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Kimmelman

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the results of an investigation of word order in Russian Sign Language (RSL) are presented. A small corpus (16 minutes) of narratives based on comic strips by 9 native signers was analyzed and a picture-description experiment (based on Volterra et al. 1984) was conducted with 6 native

  11. Sign Language to Speech Translation System Using PIC Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunasekaran. K

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The advancement in embedded system, provides a space to design and develop a sign language translator system to assist the dumb people. This paper mainly addresses to facilitate dumb person's lifestyle. Dumb people throughout the world use sign language to communicate with others, this is possible for those who has undergone special trainings. Common people also face difficult to understand the gesture language. To overcome these real time issues, this system is developed. Whenever the proposed system senses any sign language, it plays corresponding recorded voice. This reduces the communication gap between dumb and ordinary people. This proposed model consist of four modules, they are sensing unit, processing unit, voice storage unit and wireless communication unit. It is achieved by integrating flux sensor and APR9600 with PIC16F877A. The flux sensors are placed in gloves, which respond to gesture. By using suitable circuit response of the sensor is given to the microcontroller based on the response microcontroller plays the recorded voice using APR9600. A snapshot of the entire system, advantage over existing methods and simulation output of the process is discussed in this work. Thissystem offers high reliability and fast response. This method is more precise on hand movement and different languages can be installed without altering the code in PIC microcontroller.

  12. Phonological Development in Hearing Learners of a Sign Language: The Influence of Phonological Parameters, Sign Complexity, and Iconicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Gerardo; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The present study implemented a sign-repetition task at two points in time to hearing adult learners of British Sign Language and explored how each phonological parameter, sign complexity, and iconicity affected sign production over an 11-week (22-hour) instructional period. The results show that training improves articulation accuracy and that…

  13. The UN Convention of the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: A Pathway to Language Justice for Sign Language Peoples

    OpenAIRE

    Batterbury, Sarah C E

    2012-01-01

    Sign Language Peoples (SLPs) across the world have developed their own languages and visuo-gestural-tactile cultures embodying their collective sense of Deafhood (Ladd 2003). Despite this, most nation-states treat their respective SLPs as disabled individuals, favoring disability benefits, cochlear implants, and mainstream education over language policies fostering native sign languages. This paper argues that sign language policy is necessary for language justice. Based on interviews with SL...

  14. Children creating core properties of language: Evidence from an emerging sign language in Nicaragua

    OpenAIRE

    Senghas, A.; Kita, S; Ozyurek, A.

    2004-01-01

    A new sign language has been created by deaf Nicaraguans over the past 25 years, providing an opportunity to observe the inception of universal hallmarks of language. We found that in their initial creation of the language, children analyzed complex events into basic elements and sequenced these elements into hierarchically structured expressions according to principles not observed in gestures accompanying speech in the surrounding language. Successive cohorts of learners extended this proce...

  15. Development of Geography and Geology Terminology in British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meara, Rhian; Cameron, Audrey; Quinn, Gary; O'Neill, Rachel

    2016-04-01

    The BSL Glossary Project, run by the Scottish Sensory Centre at the University of Edinburgh focuses on developing scientific terminology in British Sign Language for use in the primary, secondary and tertiary education of deaf and hard of hearing students within the UK. Thus far, the project has developed 850 new signs and definitions covering Chemistry, Physics, Biology, Astronomy and Mathematics. The project has also translated examinations into BSL for students across Scotland. The current phase of the project has focused on developing terminology for Geography and Geology subjects. More than 189 new signs have been developed in these subjects including weather, rivers, maps, natural hazards and Geographical Information Systems. The signs were developed by a focus group with expertise in Geography and Geology, Chemistry, Ecology, BSL Linguistics and Deaf Education all of whom are deaf fluent BSL users.

  16. Neural systems supporting linguistic structure, linguistic experience, and symbolic communication in sign language and gesture

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Aaron J.; Supalla, Ted; Fernandez, Nina; Newport, Elissa L.; Bavelier, Daphne

    2015-01-01

    Although sign languages and nonlinguistic gesture use the same modalities, only sign languages have established vocabularies and follow grammatical principles. This is the first study (to our knowledge) to ask how the brain systems engaged by sign language differ from those used for nonlinguistic gesture matched in content, using appropriate visual controls. Signers engaged classic left-lateralized language centers when viewing both sign language and gesture; nonsigners showed activation only...

  17. Children creating language: how Nicaraguan sign language acquired a spatial grammar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senghas, A; Coppola, M

    2001-07-01

    It has long been postulated that language is not purely learned, but arises from an interaction between environmental exposure and innate abilities. The innate component becomes more evident in rare situations in which the environment is markedly impoverished. The present study investigated the language production of a generation of deaf Nicaraguans who had not been exposed to a developed language. We examined the changing use of early linguistic structures (specifically, spatial modulations) in a sign language that has emerged since the Nicaraguan group first came together: In tinder two decades, sequential cohorts of learners systematized the grammar of this new sign language. We examined whether the systematicity being added to the language stems from children or adults: our results indicate that such changes originate in children aged 10 and younger Thus, sequential cohorts of interacting young children collectively: possess the capacity not only to learn, but also to create, language. PMID:11476100

  18. Iconicity as a general property of language: evidence from spoken and signed languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GabriellaVigliocco

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Current views about language are dominated by the idea of arbitrary connections between linguistic form and meaning. However, if we look beyond the more familiar Indo-European languages and also include both spoken and signed language modalities, we find that motivated, iconic form-meaning mappings are, in fact, pervasive in language. In this paper, we review the different types of iconic mappings that characterize languages in both modalities, including the predominantly visually iconic mappings in signed languages. Having shown that iconic mapping are present across languages, we then proceed to review evidence showing that language users (signers and speakers exploit iconicity in language processing and language acquisition. While not discounting the presence and importance of arbitrariness in language, we put forward the idea that iconicity need also be recognized as a general property of language, which may serve the function of reducing the gap between linguistic form and conceptual representation to allow the language system to “hook up” to motor and perceptual experience.

  19. Language Justice for Sign Language Peoples: The UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterbury, Sarah C. E.

    2012-01-01

    Sign Language Peoples (SLPs) across the world have developed their own languages and visuo-gestural-tactile cultures embodying their collective sense of Deafhood (Ladd 2003). Despite this, most nation-states treat their respective SLPs as disabled individuals, favoring disability benefits, cochlear implants, and mainstream education over language…

  20. Framing constructed action in British Sign Language narratives

    OpenAIRE

    Cormier, K.; Smith, S; Zwets, M.

    2013-01-01

    Constructed action is a discourse strategy, used widely within sign languages, in which the signer uses his/her face, head, body, hands, and/or other non-manual cues to represent a referent's actions, utterances, thoughts, feelings and/or attitudes. It is generally assumed that framing constructed action (i.e. identification of the referent) typically consists of a preceding noun phrase, but that this is optional (or even infelicitous), if the referent is understood in context. The current st...

  1. Hand Gesture Spotting Using Sign Language through Computer Interfacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha S. Chourasia,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sign Language is the most natural and expressive way for the hearing impaired. A hybrid feature descriptor, which combines the advantages of SURF & Hu Moment Invariant methods, is used as a combined feature set to achieve a good recognition rate along with a low time complexity. To further increase the recognition rate and make the recognition system resilient to view-point variations, the concept of derived features from the available feature set is introduced. K-Nearest Neighbour (KNN and Support Vector Machine (SVM are used for hybrid classification of single signed letter. This paper presents a methodology which recognizes the Indian Sign Language (ISL and translates into a normal text. The methodology consists of three stages, namely a training phase, a testing phase and a recognition phase. Combinational parameters of Hu invariant moment and structural shape descriptors are created to form a new feature vector to recognize sign. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can successfully recognize hand gesture with 96% recognition rate.

  2. SVM Based Recognition of Facial Expressions Used In Indian Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daleesha M Viswanathan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In sign language systems, facial expressions are an intrinsic component that usually accompanies hand gestures. The facial expressions would modify or change the meaning of hand gesture into a statement, a question or improve the meaning and understanding of hand gestures. The scientific literature available in Indian Sign Language (ISL on facial expression recognition is scanty. Contrary to American Sign Language (ASL, head movements are less conspicuous in ISL and the answers to questions such as yes or no are signed by hand. Purpose of this paper is to present our work in recognizing facial expression changes in isolated ISL sentences. Facial gesture pattern results in the change of skin textures by forming wrinkles and furrows. Gabor wavelet method is well-known for capturing subtle textural changes on surfaces. Therefore, a unique approach was developed to model facial expression changes with Gabor wavelet parameters that were chosen from partitioned face areas. These parameters were incorporated with Euclidian distance measure. Multi class SVM classifier was used in this recognition system to identify facial expressions in an isolated facial expression sequences in ISL. An accuracy of 92.12 % was achieved by our proposed system.

  3. A REVIEW ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF INDONESIAN SIGN LANGUAGE RECOGNITION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Sutarman; Mazlina Abdul Majid; Jasni Mohamad Zain

    2013-01-01

    Sign language is mainly employed by hearing-impaired people to communicate with each other. However, communication with normal people is a major handicap for them since normal people do not understand their sign language. Sign language recognition is needed for realizing a human oriented interactive system that can perform an interaction like normal communication. Sign language recognition basically uses two approaches: (1) computer vision-based gesture recognition, in which a camera is used ...

  4. A Comparison of Comprehension Processes in Sign Language Interpreter Videos with or without Captions

    OpenAIRE

    Matjaž Debevc; Danijela Milošević; Ines Kožuh

    2015-01-01

    One important theme in captioning is whether the implementation of captions in individual sign language interpreter videos can positively affect viewers' comprehension when compared with sign language interpreter videos without captions. In our study, an experiment was conducted using four video clips with information about everyday events. Fifty-one deaf and hard of hearing sign language users alternately watched the sign language interpreter videos with, and without, captions. Afterwards, t...

  5. Medical Signbank as a Model for Sign Language Planning? A Review of Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Jemina; Major, George; Ferrara, Lindsay; Johnston, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews a sign language planning project conducted in Australia with deaf Auslan users. The Medical Signbank project utilised a cooperative language planning process to engage with the Deaf community and sign language interpreters to develop an online interactive resource of health-related signs, in order to address a gap in the health…

  6. Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Sign Language Test Development: Results of an International Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Sign language test development is a relatively new field within sign linguistics, motivated by the practical need for assessment instruments to evaluate language development in different groups of learners (L1, L2). Due to the lack of research on the structure and acquisition of many sign languages, developing an assessment instrument poses…

  7. Documenting, analysing, involving and informing : The case of the research project on expressing plurality in Flemish Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Heyerick, Isabelle; Vermeerbergen, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    This presentation concerns Flemish Sign Language (Vlaamse Gebarentaal or VGT), the signed language used in Flanders, the northern part of Belgium. We report on two related themes: 1. The cooperation and consultation between sign language teachers and sign language researchers; And, in part resulting from this, 2. The dissemination of research findings, especially with the aim to inform the sign language community. From the onset of linguistic research on Flemish Sign Language (i.e. from t...

  8. Language Shift, Death, and Maintenance of Native American Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janie Rees-Miller

    2002-01-01

    @@ When the first English settlers landed in Virginia and New England, they had come to a land that was certainly new for them but had been home to a multitude of Native American groups for thousands of years. It is estimated that at the time of first contact, there were some 300 Native languages spoken in North America and that perhaps 200 are still living languages today. Of these indigenous languages, it is estimated that 175 are still spoken in the United States, although only 20of these languages are being transmitted as a mother tongue to a new generation. In Alaska, for example, of 20 Native languages, only two are being transmitted to children in the home [20].Similarly, in Oklahoma, which is home to 40 distinct indigenous communities, only one has children who speak their ancestral language on a daily basis [23: 112]. The 66 languages of California and Washington State are virtually all moribund, being kept alive by only a few elders;when these elders die, proficient use of the languages will die too. Thus, the gloomy prediction is that within a generation there may be as few as 20 Native languages still spoken as living languages in the US, and even they may be threatened if the present trends of language shift continue [6].

  9. Overcoming the challenges of translating mental health instruments into sign languages

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Kathryn; Wright, Barry; Moore, Danielle; Ogden, Richard; Rogers, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is widely used in CAMHS, and has been translated into over sixty spoken languages. British Sign Language (BSL) is a visuo-gestural language, and the first language of up to 50,000 deaf people in the UK. Translating diagnostic tools into BSL is important to provide valid assessment of common mental health problems in Deaf signing young people. We report the process of translation from a written language (English) into a visual language (BSL) u...

  10. The "SignOn"-Model for Teaching Written Language to Deaf People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Hilzensauer

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows a method of teaching written language to deaf people using sign language as the language of instruction. Written texts in the target language are combined with sign language videos which provide the users with various modes of translation (words/phrases/sentences. As examples, two EU projects for English for the Deaf are presented which feature English texts and translations into the national sign languages of all the partner countries plus signed grammar explanations and interactive exercises. Both courses are web-based; the programs may be accessed free of charge via the respective homepages (without any download or log-in.

  11. Multimodal semantic quantity representations: further evidence from Korean Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank eDomahs

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Korean deaf signers performed a number comparison task on pairs of Arabic digits. In their RT profiles, the expected magnitude effect was systematically modified by properties of number signs in Korean Sign Language in a culture-specific way (not observed in hearing and deaf Germans or hearing Chinese. We conclude that finger-based quantity representations are automatically activated even in simple tasks with symbolic input although this may be irrelevant and even detrimental for task performance. These finger-based numerical representations are accessed in addition to another, more basic quantity system which is evidenced by the magnitude effect. In sum, these results are inconsistent with models assuming only one single amodal representation of numerical quantity.

  12. Research on American English Translation of Chinese Signs in Baoding from the Perspective of Cultural Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Nan Zhao; Ruixian Ma; Xiaomei Du

    2015-01-01

    This thesis aims at analyzing the American English translation of Chinese signs in Baoding from the perspective of cultural differences. The thesis researches on signs translation from a new angle by separating American English translation from British English translation and puts special emphasis on American English signs translation, which may be helpful to the standardization of signs translation in China. Through digging out the cultural differences from different thinking mode, value, an...

  13. Methodological and Theoretical Issues in the Adaptation of Sign Language Tests: An Example from the Adaptation of a Test to German Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Despite the current need for reliable and valid test instruments in different countries in order to monitor the sign language acquisition of deaf children, very few tests are commercially available that offer strong evidence for their psychometric properties. This mirrors the current state of affairs for many sign languages, where very little…

  14. Recognition of Arabic Sign Language Alphabet Using Polynomial Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaleh, Khaled; Al-Rousan, M.

    2005-12-01

    Building an accurate automatic sign language recognition system is of great importance in facilitating efficient communication with deaf people. In this paper, we propose the use of polynomial classifiers as a classification engine for the recognition of Arabic sign language (ArSL) alphabet. Polynomial classifiers have several advantages over other classifiers in that they do not require iterative training, and that they are highly computationally scalable with the number of classes. Based on polynomial classifiers, we have built an ArSL system and measured its performance using real ArSL data collected from deaf people. We show that the proposed system provides superior recognition results when compared with previously published results using ANFIS-based classification on the same dataset and feature extraction methodology. The comparison is shown in terms of the number of misclassified test patterns. The reduction in the rate of misclassified patterns was very significant. In particular, we have achieved a 36% reduction of misclassifications on the training data and 57% on the test data.

  15. Recognition of Arabic Sign Language Alphabet Using Polynomial Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Al-Rousan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Building an accurate automatic sign language recognition system is of great importance in facilitating efficient communication with deaf people. In this paper, we propose the use of polynomial classifiers as a classification engine for the recognition of Arabic sign language (ArSL alphabet. Polynomial classifiers have several advantages over other classifiers in that they do not require iterative training, and that they are highly computationally scalable with the number of classes. Based on polynomial classifiers, we have built an ArSL system and measured its performance using real ArSL data collected from deaf people. We show that the proposed system provides superior recognition results when compared with previously published results using ANFIS-based classification on the same dataset and feature extraction methodology. The comparison is shown in terms of the number of misclassified test patterns. The reduction in the rate of misclassified patterns was very significant. In particular, we have achieved a 36% reduction of misclassifications on the training data and 57% on the test data.

  16. The Influence of the visual modality on language structure and conventionalization: Insights from sign language and gesture

    OpenAIRE

    Perniss, P.; Ozyurek, A.; Morgan, G

    2015-01-01

    For humans, the ability to communicate and use language is instantiated not only in the vocal modality but also in the visual modality. The main examples of this are sign languages and (co-speech) gestures. Sign languages, the natural languages of Deaf communities, use systematic and conventionalized movements of the hands, face, and body for linguistic expression. Co-speech gestures, though non-linguistic, are produced in tight semantic and temporal integration with speech and constitute an ...

  17. Classifying hand configurations in Nederlandse Gebarentaal (Sign Language of the Netherlands)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitserlood, I.E.P.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigates the morphological and morphosyntactic characteristics of hand configurations in signs, particularly in Nederlandse Gebarentaal (NGT). The literature on sign languages in general acknowledges that hand configurations can function as morphemes, more specifically as classifiers

  18. Translation modalities applied to the interpretation in brazilian sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Nicoloso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article was developed from a chapter in a doctoral thesis from the first author, towards a specific focalized discussion, related to the practice of simultaneous interpretation in Brazilian Sign Language, based on translation modalities as proposed by Aubert (1998. The interpreted text is called “Discovering who we are”, extracted from the book Learning to see, by Sherman, Wilcox and Phyllis, and translated by Tarcisio de Arantes Leite. The interpretations were recorded in a media studio, with the official consent from the Ethics Committee for Research with Human Beings at the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil and the data was analyzed by means of the software ELAN. Results indicate that using a research method which considers translation modalities may contribute to obtain a clearer view regarding the similarities and differences between the selected linguistic pairs.

  19. Detecting cognitive impairment and dementia in Deaf people: The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, J; Denmark, T.; Marshall, J.; Mummery, C; Woll, B.

    2015-01-01

    To provide accurate diagnostic screening of deaf people who use signed communication, cognitive tests must be devised in signed languages with normative deaf samples. This article describes the development of the first screening test for the detection of cognitive impairment and dementia in deaf signers. The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test uses standardized video administration to screen cognition using signed, rather than spoken or written, instructions and a large norm-refere...

  20. Overcoming the challenges of translating mental health instruments into signed languages

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Kate; Wright, Barry; Collingridge Moore, Danielle; Ogden, Richard; Rogers, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) is widely used in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS), and has been translated into over sixty spoken languages. British Sign Language (BSL) is a visuo-gestural language, and the first language of between 50-100,000 Deaf people in the UK. Translating diagnostic tools into BSL is important to provide valid assessment of common mental health problems in Deaf signing young people. We report the process of translation from a writt...

  1. Towards a Sign Language Synthesizer: a Bridge to Communication Gap of the Hearing/Speech Impaired Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarif, H. A.; Akmeliawati, R.; Gunawan, T. S.; Shafie, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Sign language synthesizer is a method to visualize the sign language movement from the spoken language. The sign language (SL) is one of means used by HSI people to communicate to normal people. But, unfortunately the number of people, including the HSI people, who are familiar with sign language is very limited. These cause difficulties in the communication between the normal people and the HSI people. The sign language is not only hand movement but also the face expression. Those two elements have complimentary aspect each other. The hand movement will show the meaning of each signing and the face expression will show the emotion of a person. Generally, Sign language synthesizer will recognize the spoken language by using speech recognition, the grammatical process will involve context free grammar, and 3D synthesizer will take part by involving recorded avatar. This paper will analyze and compare the existing techniques of developing a sign language synthesizer, which leads to IIUM Sign Language Synthesizer.

  2. BASIC COLOUR TERMS IN FIVE FINNOUGRIC LANGUAGES AND ESTONIAN SIGN LANGUAGE: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Liivi Hollman; Mari Uusküla; Urmas Sutrop

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare five Finno-Ugric languages – Estonian,Finnish, Hungarian, Udmurt and Komi-Zyrian – and the Estonian Sign Language (unclassified) in different aspects: established basic colour terms, the proportion of basic colour terms and different colour terms in the collected word-corpora, the cognitive salience index values in the list task and the number of dominant colour tiles in the colour naming task. The data was collected, using the field method of Davies and Corbett, from...

  3. Sign Language Recognition with the Kinect Sensor Based on Conditional Random Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee-Deok Yang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sign language is a visual language used by deaf people. One difficulty of sign language recognition is that sign instances of vary in both motion and shape in three-dimensional (3D space. In this research, we use 3D depth information from hand motions, generated from Microsoft’s Kinect sensor and apply a hierarchical conditional random field (CRF that recognizes hand signs from the hand motions. The proposed method uses a hierarchical CRF to detect candidate segments of signs using hand motions, and then a BoostMap embedding method to verify the hand shapes of the segmented signs. Experiments demonstrated that the proposed method could recognize signs from signed sentence data at a rate of 90.4%.

  4. The Creagest Project: a Digitized and Annotated Corpus for French Sign Language (LSF) and Natural Gestural Languages

    OpenAIRE

    Balvet, Antonio; Courtin, Cyril; Boutet, Dominique; Cuxac, Christian; Fusellier-Souza, Ivani; Garcia, Brigitte; L'huillier, Marie Thérèse; Sallandre, Marie Anne

    2010-01-01

    International audience In this paper, we discuss the theoretical, sociolinguistic, methodological and technical objectives and issues of the French Creagest Project (2007-2012) in setting up, documenting and annotating a large corpus of adult and child French Sign Language (LSF) and of natural gestural language. The main objective of this ANR-funded research project is to set up a collaborative web-based platform for the study of semiogenesis in LSF (French Sign Language), i.e. the study o...

  5. The Relationship between Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Students' Japanese Sign Language and Japanese Language Proficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Iurascu, Mariela A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study represents an attempt at investigating the relationship between the Japanese Sign Language proficiency and the Japanese literacy skills of high school students who are deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH). A pilot test of Japanese Sign Language was designed and administered to 138 D/HH students. A validation analysis was carried out employing classical test theory methods, and test scores were compared to scores obtained by the same participants on a Japanese language and literac...

  6. Lexical Properties of Slovene Sign Language: A Corpus-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vintar, Špela

    2015-01-01

    Slovene Sign Language (SZJ) has as yet received little attention from linguists. This article presents some basic facts about SZJ, its history, current status, and a description of the Slovene Sign Language Corpus and Pilot Grammar (SIGNOR) project, which compiled and annotated a representative corpus of SZJ. Finally, selected quantitative data…

  7. Constructing an Online Test Framework, Using the Example of a Sign Language Receptive Skills Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Tobias; Herman, Rosalind; Woll, Bencie

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the features of an online test framework for a receptive skills test that has been adapted, based on a British template, into different sign languages. The online test includes features that meet the needs of the different sign language versions. Features such as usability of the test, automatic saving of scores, and score…

  8. Shared Thinking Processes with Four Deaf Poets: A Window on "the Creative" in "Creative Sign Language"

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Donna; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a new way of thinking about analyzing sign-language poetry. Rather than merely focusing on the product, the method involves observing the process of its creation. Recent years have witnessed increasing literary and linguistic analysis of sign-language poetry, with commentaries on texts and performances being set within and…

  9. Atypical speech and language development : a consensus study on clinical signs in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-Bochane, Margot I; Gerrits, Ellen; van der Schans, Cees P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Luinge, Margreet R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atypical speech and language development is one of the most common developmental difficulties in young children. However, which clinical signs characterize atypical speech-language development at what age is not clear. AIM: To achieve a national and valid consensus on clinical signs and

  10. A Procedure for Directing a Sign-Language Theatre Production for a Child Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Darlene Kaye

    This paper sets forth step-by-step procedures which novice sign-language theatre directors can use as a guide for their first sign-language theatre experiences. Since the procedures were developed during the production of a play for a mixed adult and child audience, it is assumed that the general guidelines set forth are applicable to a production…

  11. Regional Cerebral Blood Flow during Sign Language Perception: Deaf and Hearing Subjects with Deaf Parents Compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderfeldt, Birgitta; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined cerebral activation during sign language comprehension in six persons with deafness and nine hearing persons, all of whose parents were deaf. The group with deafness showed more activation than the hearing group in the right parieto-occipital region, indicating that they were more dependent on the spatial components in sign language than…

  12. Sign Language Use and the Appreciation of Diversity in Hearing Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This article is the result of a year-long study into the effects of sign language use on participation in one mainstream preschool setting. Observations and interviews were the primary data-collection tools used during this investigation. This article focuses on how the use of sign language in the classroom affected the learning community's…

  13. The Link between Form and Meaning in British Sign Language: Effects of Iconicity for Phonological Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robin L.; Vinson, David P.; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2010-01-01

    Signed languages exploit the visual/gestural modality to create iconic expression across a wide range of basic conceptual structures in which the phonetic resources of the language are built up into an analogue of a mental image (Taub, 2001). Previously, we demonstrated a processing advantage when iconic properties of signs were made salient in a…

  14. Pragmatic gestures at the gesture-sign interface. Nonmanuals and palm-up gestures among older Belgian French speakers and French Belgian Sign Language signers

    OpenAIRE

    Bolly, Catherine; Gabarro-Lopez, Silvia; Meurant, Laurence; Nonmanuals at the Gesture Sign Interface (NaGSI)

    2015-01-01

    It is now assumed that both speakers and signers use gestures in language interaction, as these units are an integral part of linguistic communication (Sweetser 2009). In order to compare spoken and signed communication, Vermeerbergen & Demey (2007) recommend confronting sign languages with speech in combination with gestures. It is also admitted that, in contrast with spoken languages (SpLs), sign languages (SLs) offer the unique property to grammaticalize both manual and nonmanual gestures ...

  15. Language Learning and Use by African American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Dolores E.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews recent investigations of the development of phonology, morphology, semantics, and pragmatics in the development of speech and language by African American children. Clinical implications are offered to aid the distinction between normal language development using features of African American English and language disorders.…

  16. An on-line, cloud-based Spanish-Spanish Sign Language translation system

    OpenAIRE

    Tejedor Noguerales, Javier; López-Colino, Fernando; Porta, Jordi; Colás, José

    2012-01-01

    An on-line Spanish-Spanish Sign Language (LSE) translation system is presented in which Spanish speech content is translated into LSE to provide Spanish deaf people access to speech information. It is cloud-based, built over a speech recognition module, a transfer-based machine translation module and a Sign Language synthesis module that employs an avatar to present the signed content.

  17. Impact of bilingual experiences on language inhibition ability:Evidence from English-Chinese unimodal and English-American sign language bimodal bilinguals%第二语言水平对双语者语言抑制能力的影响--来自英语-汉语单通道双语者和英语-美国手语双通道双语者的证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李恒; 曹宇

    2016-01-01

    -Chinese) and bimodal (English-American Sign Language) bilinguals with both low and high L2 proficiency. In Experiment 1 and 2, a homograph interference task was used to investigate bilingual advantage in conflict resolution during sentence processing. Participants were asked to read a sentence ending with a homograph (e.g.,He walked along the bank.) and then judge if a target word (e.g., RIVER or MONEY) matched the meaning of the sentence they just read. Although the target word (e.g., MONEY) is semantically related to one meaning of the homograph (bank: a financial institution), it is not the meaning supported by the sentence context (e.g.,He walked along) and, consequently, this alternative meaning must be suppressed in order to correctly respond “no”. Thus, a measure of homograph interference can be computed by comparing the mean RT for the target words semantically relevant to the sentences or not. Experiment 1 showed that the unimodal bilinguals with higher L2 (Chinese) proficiency outperformed the unimodal bilinguals with lower L2 proficiency and the monolinguals on the homograph interference task that required resolving conflict from competing alternative meanings. In addition, there was no difference between the unimodal bilinguals with lower L2 proficiency and the monolinguals. In Experiment 2, there was no performance difference in the homograph interference task between the bimodal bilinguals with higher L2 (American Sign Language) proficiency, the bimodal bilinguals with lower L2 proficiency and the monolinguals. Taken together, the results across the two experiments indicate that both L2 modality and L2 proficiency are mediating factors of bilingual advantage effect. According to the results of the two experiments, one possible explanation for this enhancement of language inhibitory ability in unimodal bilinguals is that the regular use of two languages requires a mechanism to select the target language and inhibit the non-target language—an experience that

  18. A Kinect-Based Sign Language Hand Gesture Recognition System for Hearing- and Speech-Impaired: A Pilot Study of Pakistani Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Zahid; Abbas, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    Sign language provides hearing and speech impaired individuals with an interface to communicate with other members of the society. Unfortunately, sign language is not understood by most of the common people. For this, a gadget based on image processing and pattern recognition can provide with a vital aid for detecting and translating sign language into a vocal language. This work presents a system for detecting and understanding the sign language gestures by a custom built software tool and later translating the gesture into a vocal language. For the purpose of recognizing a particular gesture, the system employs a Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) algorithm and an off-the-shelf software tool is employed for vocal language generation. Microsoft(®) Kinect is the primary tool used to capture video stream of a user. The proposed method is capable of successfully detecting gestures stored in the dictionary with an accuracy of 91%. The proposed system has the ability to define and add custom made gestures. Based on an experiment in which 10 individuals with impairments used the system to communicate with 5 people with no disability, 87% agreed that the system was useful. PMID:26132224

  19. A video coding system for sign language communication at low bit rates

    OpenAIRE

    Agrafiotis, D.; Canagarajah, CN; Bull, DR; Kyle, J; Seers, H; Dye, M

    2004-01-01

    The ability to communicate remotely through the use of video as promised by wireless networks and already practised over fixed networks, is for deaf people as important as voice telephony is for hearing people. Sign languages are visual-spatial languages and as such demand good image quality for interaction and understanding. In this paper, based on analysis of the viewer's perceptual behavior and the video content involved we propose a sign language video coding system using foveated process...

  20. Asian American Health - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Asian American Health URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/asianamericanhealth.html Other topics A-Z A B ...

  1. The Subsystem of Numerals in Catalan Sign Language: Description and Examples from a Psycholinguistic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Mariana; Tolchinsky, Liliana

    2004-01-01

    Linguistic descriptions of sign languages are important to the recognition of their linguistic status. These languages are an essential part of the cultural heritage of the communities that create and use them and vital in the education of deaf children. They are also the reference point in language acquisition studies. Ours is exploratory…

  2. Recognition of Signed and Spoken Language: Different Sensory Inputs, the Same Segmentation Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfanidou, Eleni; Adam, Robert; Morgan, Gary; McQueen, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Signed languages are articulated through simultaneous upper-body movements and are seen; spoken languages are articulated through sequential vocal-tract movements and are heard. But word recognition in both language modalities entails segmentation of a continuous input into discrete lexical units. According to the Possible Word Constraint (PWC),…

  3. American University Students : The Necessity of Foreign Languages

    OpenAIRE

    メンキン, スコット

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of 481 American university students’ current and desired foreign language ability as well as their opinions about the necessity of foreign language fluency in the United States. The study found that although almost half of the American university students did not speak a foreign language, an overwhelming majority would like to be able to speak one or more foreign languages. Employment considerations, personal growth(for example, traveling, learning more ...

  4. EMCC: Enhancement of Motion Chain Code for Arabic Sign Language Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Zaki Abdo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an algorithm for Arabic sign language recognition is proposed. The proposed algorithm facilitates the communication between deaf and non-deaf people. A possible way to achieve this goal is to enable computer systems to visually recognize hand gestures from images. In this context, a proposed criterion which is called Enhancement Motion Chain Code (EMCC that uses Hidden Markov Model (HMM on word level for Arabic sign language recognition (ArSLR is introduced. This paper focuses on recognizing Arabic sign language at word level used by the community of deaf people. Experiments on real-world datasets showed that the reliability and suitability of the proposed algorithm for Arabic sign language recognition. The experiment results introduce the gesture recognition error rate for a different sign is 1.2% compared to that of the competitive method.

  5. Robust Sign Language Recognition System Using ToF Depth Cameras

    CERN Document Server

    Zahedi, Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Sign language recognition is a difficult task, yet required for many applications in real-time speed. Using RGB cameras for recognition of sign languages is not very successful in practical situations and accurate 3D imaging requires expensive and complex instruments. With introduction of Time-of-Flight (ToF) depth cameras in recent years, it has become easier to scan the environment for accurate, yet fast depth images of the objects without the need of any extra calibrating object. In this paper, a robust system for sign language recognition using ToF depth cameras is presented for converting the recorded signs to a standard and portable XML sign language named SiGML for easy transferring and converting to real-time 3D virtual characters animations. Feature extraction using moments and classification using nearest neighbor classifier are used to track hand gestures and significant result of 100% is achieved for the proposed approach.

  6. A Kinect based sign language recognition system using spatio-temporal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memiş, Abbas; Albayrak, Songül

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a sign language recognition system that uses spatio-temporal features on RGB video images and depth maps for dynamic gestures of Turkish Sign Language. Proposed system uses motion differences and accumulation approach for temporal gesture analysis. Motion accumulation method, which is an effective method for temporal domain analysis of gestures, produces an accumulated motion image by combining differences of successive video frames. Then, 2D Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is applied to accumulated motion images and temporal domain features transformed into spatial domain. These processes are performed on both RGB images and depth maps separately. DCT coefficients that represent sign gestures are picked up via zigzag scanning and feature vectors are generated. In order to recognize sign gestures, K-Nearest Neighbor classifier with Manhattan distance is performed. Performance of the proposed sign language recognition system is evaluated on a sign database that contains 1002 isolated dynamic signs belongs to 111 words of Turkish Sign Language (TSL) in three different categories. Proposed sign language recognition system has promising success rates.

  7. Contributions of Sign Language Research to Gesture Understanding: What can Multimodal Computational Systems Learn from Sign Language Research

    OpenAIRE

    WILBUR, Ronnie B.; Malaia, Evguenia

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers neurological, formational and functional similarities between gestures and signed verb predicates. From analysis of verb sign movement, we offer suggestions for analyzing gestural movement (motion capture, kinematic analysis, trajectory internal structure). From analysis of verb sign distinctions, we offer suggestions for analyzing co-speech gesture functions.

  8. Anthropomorphism in Sign Languages: A Look at Poetry and Storytelling with a Focus on British Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton-Spence, Rachel; Napoli, Donna Jo

    2010-01-01

    The work presented here considers some linguistic methods used in sign anthropomorphism. We find a cline of signed anthropomorphism that depends on a number of factors, including the skills and intention of the signer, the animacy of the entities represented, the form of their bodies, and the form of vocabulary signs referring to those entities.…

  9. Deaf interpreter of brazilian signs language: the new field translation / interpretation and its cultural challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Regina e Souza Campello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is the result of research that deals with the new mode of translation / interpretation of sign language interpreters Deaf, observing the deaf norm (STONE, 2009 apud SOUZA, 2010. The translation and interpretation of the actor / translator and interpreter and finally a sign language sign language to another (SEGALA, 2010; SOUZA, 2010. Recently, this new field of translation emerged in the educational context of distance education. These activities Translation and interpretation have been performed by bilingual Deaf intermodal. Exactly as it represents a new field of study, this article presents its constitution.

  10. Designing Digital Solutions for Preserving Penan Sign Language: A Reflective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tariq Zaman; Yeo, Alvin W.; Geran Jengan

    2016-01-01

    Oroo’ is a language of nomadic Penans in the rainforests of Borneo and the only way of asynchronous communication between nomadic groups in the forest journey. Like many other indigenous languages, the Oroo’ language is also facing imminent extinction. In this paper, we present the research process and reflections of a multidisciplinary community-based research project on digitalizing and preserving the Oroo’ sign language. As a methodology for project activities, we are employing Participato...

  11. Motives and Outcomes of New Zealand Sign Language Legislation: A Comparative Study between New Zealand and Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reffell, Hayley; McKee, Rachel Locker

    2009-01-01

    The medicalized interpretation of deafness has until recently seen the rights and protections of sign language users embedded in disability law. Yet the rights and protections crucial to sign language users centre predominantly on matters of language access, maintenance and identity. Legislators, motivated by pressure from sign language…

  12. 手语翻译与聋人文化%Sign Language and Deaf Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏

    2014-01-01

    聋校课堂和媒体中出现的手语翻译多是对汉语的翻译,即使用的是文法手语,而现实的情况却是大多数的聋人对手语翻译的信息接收不畅。文章旨在论述手语翻译与聋人文化的关系,认为手语翻译是手语和汉语之间的信息转换,是两种文化的交流与碰撞。%Sign language interpretation is mainly the interpretation of Chinese in the classrooms of schools for the deaf and in the media. In spite of the use of grammatical sign language, in reality, most deaf people can not receive the information of sign language interpretation easily and smoothly. This paper discusses the relationship between sign language and deaf culture and holds that sign language interpretation is the information transfer between sign language and the Chinese language and the exchange and collision of two kinds of culture.

  13. Asian American Youth Language Use: Perspectives across Schools and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shalini

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies of Asian American youth language practices have presented compelling insights about the identities and migration experiences of young people of Asian descent. This article offers a detailed examination of the relationship between language use and select issues concerning Asian American youth, including social life, schooling,…

  14. African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

  15. Independent transmission of sign language interpreter in DVB: assessment of image compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatloukal, Petr; Bernas, Martin; Dvořák, LukáÅ.¡

    2015-02-01

    Sign language on television provides information to deaf that they cannot get from the audio content. If we consider the transmission of the sign language interpreter over an independent data stream, the aim is to ensure sufficient intelligibility and subjective image quality of the interpreter with minimum bit rate. The work deals with the ROI-based video compression of Czech sign language interpreter implemented to the x264 open source library. The results of this approach are verified in subjective tests with the deaf. They examine the intelligibility of sign language expressions containing minimal pairs for different levels of compression and various resolution of image with interpreter and evaluate the subjective quality of the final image for a good viewing experience.

  16. Detecting Cognitive Impairment and Dementia in Deaf People: The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Joanna; Denmark, Tanya; Marshall, Jane; Mummery, Cath; Woll, Bencie

    2015-11-01

    To provide accurate diagnostic screening of deaf people who use signed communication, cognitive tests must be devised in signed languages with normative deaf samples. This article describes the development of the first screening test for the detection of cognitive impairment and dementia in deaf signers. The British Sign Language Cognitive Screening Test uses standardized video administration to screen cognition using signed, rather than spoken or written, instructions and a large norm-referenced sample of 226 deaf older people. Percentiles are provided for clinical comparison. The tests showed good reliability, content validity, and correlation with age, intellectual ability, and education. Clinical discrimination was shown between the normative sample and 14 deaf patients with dementia. This innovative testing approach transforms the ability to detect dementia in deaf people, avoids the difficulties of using an interpreter, and enables culturally and linguistically sensitive assessment of deaf signers, with international potential for adaptation into other signed languages. PMID:26245349

  17. Lexicalisation and de-lexicalisation processes in sign languages: Comparing depicting constructions and viewpoint gestures

    OpenAIRE

    Cormier, K.; Quinto-Pozos, D.; Sevcikova, Z.; Schembri, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we compare so-called “classifier” constructions in signed languages (which we refer to as “depicting constructions”) with comparable iconic gestures produced by non-signers. We show clear correspondences between entity constructions and observer viewpoint gestures on the one hand, and handling constructions and character viewpoint gestures on the other. Such correspondences help account for both lexicalisation and de-lexicalisation processes in signed languages and how these pr...

  18. Preliminary findings of similarities and differences in the signed and spoken language of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Aaron

    2014-11-01

    Approximately 30% of hearing children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not acquire expressive language, and those who do often show impairments related to their social deficits, using language instrumentally rather than socially, with a poor understanding of pragmatics and a tendency toward repetitive content. Linguistic abnormalities can be clinically useful as diagnostic markers of ASD and as targets for intervention. Studies have begun to document how ASD manifests in children who are deaf for whom signed languages are the primary means of communication. Though the underlying disorder is presumed to be the same in children who are deaf and children who hear, the structures of signed and spoken languages differ in key ways. This article describes similarities and differences between the signed and spoken language acquisition of children on the spectrum. Similarities include echolalia, pronoun avoidance, neologisms, and the existence of minimally verbal children. Possible areas of divergence include pronoun reversal, palm reversal, and facial grammar. PMID:25321855

  19. Modality and meaning: Plurality of relations in German Sign Language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Pfau; M. Steinbach

    2015-01-01

    Numerous unrelated spoken languages, i.e. languages in the auditory-oral modality, have been shown to exhibit systematic polysemy in the domain of reciprocity. Cross-linguistically, reciprocal markers not only encode ‘true’ reciprocity, but are also commonly used to encode spatial and sociative (col

  20. The English-Language and Reading Achievement of a Cohort of Deaf Students Speaking and Signing Standard English: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Diane Corcoran; Luetke, Barbara; McLean, Meigan; Stryker, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Research suggests that English-language proficiency is critical if students who are deaf or hard of hearing (D/HH) are to read as their hearing peers. One explanation for the traditionally reported reading achievement plateau when students are D/HH is the inability to hear insalient English morphology. Signing Exact English can provide visual access to these features. The authors investigated the English morphological and syntactic abilities and reading achievement of elementary and middle school students at a school using simultaneously spoken and signed Standard American English facilitated by intentional listening, speech, and language strategies. A developmental trend (and no plateau) in language and reading achievement was detected; most participants demonstrated average or above-average English. Morphological awareness was prerequisite to high test scores; speech was not significantly correlated with achievement; language proficiency, measured by the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-4 (Semel, Wiig, & Secord, 2003), predicted reading achievement. PMID:27477041

  1. Deaf Children Attending Different School Environments: Sign Language Abilities and Theory of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasuolo, Elena; Valeri, Giovanni; Di Renzo, Alessio; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Volterra, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether full access to sign language as a medium for instruction could influence performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tasks. Three groups of Italian participants (age range: 6-14 years) participated in the study: Two groups of deaf signing children and one group of hearing-speaking children. The two groups of deaf…

  2. Music and Sign Language to Promote Infant and Toddler Communication and Enhance Parent-Child Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Cynthia; Memmott, Jenny; Meeker-Miller, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of using music and/or sign language to promote early communication in infants and toddlers (6-20 months) and to enhance parent-child interactions. Three groups used for this study were pairs of participants (care-giver(s) and child) assigned to each group: 1) Music Alone 2) Sign Language…

  3. EXTENSION OF HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL FOR RECOGNIZING LARGE VOCABULARY OF SIGN LANGUAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Jebali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Computers still have a long way to go before they can interact with users in a truly natural fashion. From a user’s perspective, the most natural way to interact with a computer would be through a speech and gesture interface. Although speech recognition has made significant advances in the past ten years, gesture recognition has been lagging behind. Sign Languages (SL are the most accomplished forms of gestural communication. Therefore, their automatic analysis is a real challenge, which is interestingly implied to their lexical and syntactic organization levels. Statements dealing with sign language occupy a significant interest in the Automatic Natural Language Processing (ANLP domain. In this work, we are dealing with sign language recognition, in particular of French Sign Language (FSL. FSL has its own specificities, such as the simultaneity of several parameters, the important role of the facial expression or movement and the use of space for the proper utterance organization. Unlike speech recognition, Frensh sign language (FSL events occur both sequentially and simultaneously. Thus, the computational processing of FSL is too complex than the spoken languages. We present a novel approach based on HMM to reduce the recognition complexity.

  4. The influence of the visual modality on language structure and conventionalization: insights from sign language and gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perniss, Pamela; Özyürek, Asli; Morgan, Gary

    2015-01-01

    For humans, the ability to communicate and use language is instantiated not only in the vocal modality but also in the visual modality. The main examples of this are sign languages and (co-speech) gestures. Sign languages, the natural languages of Deaf communities, use systematic and conventionalized movements of the hands, face, and body for linguistic expression. Co-speech gestures, though non-linguistic, are produced in tight semantic and temporal integration with speech and constitute an integral part of language together with speech. The articles in this issue explore and document how gestures and sign languages are similar or different and how communicative expression in the visual modality can change from being gestural to grammatical in nature through processes of conventionalization. As such, this issue contributes to our understanding of how the visual modality shapes language and the emergence of linguistic structure in newly developing systems. Studying the relationship between signs and gestures provides a new window onto the human ability to recruit multiple levels of representation (e.g., categorical, gradient, iconic, abstract) in the service of using or creating conventionalized communicative systems. PMID:25565249

  5. Unsilencing Voices: A Study of Zoo Signs and Their Language of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelberg, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Zoo signs are important for informal learning, but their effect on visitor perception of animals has been sparsely studied. Other studies have established the importance of informal learning in American society; this study discusses zoo signs in the context of such learning. Through the lens of Critical Theory framed by informal learning, and by…

  6. The Signs B [Image Omitted] and B-Bent [Image Omitted] in Israeli Sign Language According to the Theory of Phonology as Human Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuks, Orit; Tobin, Yishai

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is to examine which of the two factors: (1) the iconic-semiotic factor; or (2) the human-phonetic factor is more relevant in explaining the appearance and distribution of the hand shape B-bent in Israeli Sign Language (ISL). The B-bent shape has been the subject of much attention in sign language research…

  7. A Barking Dog That Never Bites? The British Sign Language (Scotland) Bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulder, Maartje

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and analyses the pathway to the British Sign Language (Scotland) Bill and the strategies used to reach it. Data collection has been done by means of interviews with key players, analysis of official documents, and participant observation. The article discusses the bill in relation to the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005…

  8. Role of sign language in intellectual and social development of deaf children: Review of foreign publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khokhlova A. Yu.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article provides an overview of foreign psychological publications concerning the sign language as a means of communication in deaf people. The article addresses the question of sing language's impact on cognitive development, efficiency and positive way of interacting with parents as well as academic achievement increase in deaf children.

  9. Consequences of the Now-or-Never bottleneck for signed versus spoken languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Signed and spoken languages emerge, change, are acquired, and are processed under distinct perceptual, motor, and memory constraints. Therefore, the Now-or-Never bottleneck has different ramifications for these languages, which are highlighted in this commentary. The extent to which typological differences in linguistic structure can be traced to processing differences provides unique evidence for the claim that structure is processing. PMID:27562833

  10. Role of sign language in intellectual and social development of deaf children: Review of foreign publications

    OpenAIRE

    Khokhlova A. Yu.

    2014-01-01

    The article provides an overview of foreign psychological publications concerning the sign language as a means of communication in deaf people. The article addresses the question of sing language's impact on cognitive development, efficiency and positive way of interacting with parents as well as academic achievement increase in deaf children.

  11. Distinctive Feature Extraction for Indian Sign Language (ISL) Gesture using Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Sandeep Baburao; Sinha, G. R.

    2016-07-01

    India, having less awareness towards the deaf and dumb peoples leads to increase the communication gap between deaf and hard hearing community. Sign language is commonly developed for deaf and hard hearing peoples to convey their message by generating the different sign pattern. The scale invariant feature transform was introduced by David Lowe to perform reliable matching between different images of the same object. This paper implements the various phases of scale invariant feature transform to extract the distinctive features from Indian sign language gestures. The experimental result shows the time constraint for each phase and the number of features extracted for 26 ISL gestures.

  12. Nearest neighbour classification of Indian sign language gestures using kinect camera

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Zafar Ahmed Ansari; Gaurav Harit

    2016-02-01

    People with speech disabilities communicate in sign language and therefore have trouble in mingling with the able-bodied. There is a need for an interpretation system which could act as a bridge between them and those who do not know their sign language. A functional unobtrusive Indian sign language recognition system was implemented and tested on real world data. A vocabulary of 140 symbols was collected using 18 subjects, totalling 5041 images. The vocabulary consisted mostly of two-handed signs which were drawn from a wide repertoire of words of technical and daily-use origins. The system was implemented using Microsoft Kinect which enables surrounding light conditions and object colour to have negligible effect on the efficiency of the system. The system proposes a method for a novel, low-cost and easy-to-use application, for Indian Sign Language recognition, using the Microsoft Kinect camera. In the fingerspelling category of our dataset, we achieved above 90% recognition rates for 13 signs and 100% recognition for 3 signs with overall 16 distinct alphabets (A, B, D, E, F, G, H, K, P, R, T, U, W, X, Y, Z) recognised with an average accuracy rate of 90.68%.

  13. On language acquisition in speech and sign:development drives combinatorial structure in both modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary eMorgan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Languages are composed of a conventionalized system of parts which allow speakers and signers to compose an infinite number of form-meaning mappings through phonological and morphological combinations. This level of linguistic organization distinguishes language from other communicative acts such as gestures. In contrast to signs, gestures are made up of meaning units that are mostly holistic. Children exposed to signed and spoken languages from early in life develop grammatical structure following similar rates and patterns. This is interesting, because signed languages are perceived and articulated in very different ways to their spoken counterparts with many signs displaying surface resemblances to gestures. The acquisition of forms and meanings in child signers and talkers might thus have been a different process. Yet in one sense both groups are faced with a similar problem: 'how do I make a language with combinatorial structure’? In this paper I argue first language development itself enables this to happen and by broadly similar mechanisms across modalities. Combinatorial structure is the outcome of phonological simplifications and productivity in using verb morphology by children in sign and speech.

  14. V2S: Voice to Sign Language Translation System for Malaysian Deaf People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mean Foong, Oi; Low, Tang Jung; La, Wai Wan

    The process of learning and understand the sign language may be cumbersome to some, and therefore, this paper proposes a solution to this problem by providing a voice (English Language) to sign language translation system using Speech and Image processing technique. Speech processing which includes Speech Recognition is the study of recognizing the words being spoken, regardless of whom the speaker is. This project uses template-based recognition as the main approach in which the V2S system first needs to be trained with speech pattern based on some generic spectral parameter set. These spectral parameter set will then be stored as template in a database. The system will perform the recognition process through matching the parameter set of the input speech with the stored templates to finally display the sign language in video format. Empirical results show that the system has 80.3% recognition rate.

  15. Kinematic Parameters of Signed Verbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaia, Evie; Wilbur, Ronnie B.; Milkovic, Marina

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Sign language users recruit physical properties of visual motion to convey linguistic information. Research on American Sign Language (ASL) indicates that signers systematically use kinematic features (e.g., velocity, deceleration) of dominant hand motion for distinguishing specific semantic properties of verb classes in production…

  16. The Importance of Early Sign Language Acquisition for Deaf Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, M. Diane; Hauser, Peter C.; Miller, Paul; Kargin, Tevhide; Rathmann, Christian; Guldenoglu, Birkan; Kubus, Okan; Spurgeon, Erin; Israel, Erica

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have used various theories to explain deaf individuals' reading skills, including the dual route reading theory, the orthographic depth theory, and the early language access theory. This study tested 4 groups of children--hearing with dyslexia, hearing without dyslexia, deaf early signers, and deaf late signers (N = 857)--from 4…

  17. Health care accessibility and the role of sign language interpreters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van den Bogaerde; R. de Lange

    2014-01-01

    In healthcare, the accuracy of interpretation is the most critical component of safe and effective communication between providers and patients in medical settings characterized by language and cultural barriers. Although medical education should prepare healthcare providers for common issues they w

  18. Infusing Sign Language and Spanish into Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Lauren J.; Columna, Luis; de la Vega Mansilla, Patricia Martinez; Taylor, Carah

    2010-01-01

    Hardness of hearing or deafness is the number one disability in the United States. The United States also has an extremely diverse population, including a growing Hispanic population. Based on these facts, physical educators need to find ways to help their students to overcome language and cultural barriers in order to ensure learning. One way to…

  19. Creating Official Language Policy from Local Practice: The Example of the Native American Languages Act 1990/1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, Larisa

    2012-01-01

    This research explores the development of landmark federal language policy in the United States: the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992 (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of United States American Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting Native American languages. Indigenous languages in the…

  20. Prior knowledge of deaf students fluent in brazilian sign languages regarding the algebraic language in high school

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Teresinha Frizzarini; Clélia Maria Ignatius Nogueira

    2014-01-01

    There are few researches with deeper reflections on the study of algebra with deaf students. In order to validate and disseminate educational activities in that context, this article aims at highlighting the deaf students’ prior knowledge, fluent in Brazilian Sign Language, referring to the algebraic language used in high school. The theoretical framework used was Duval’s theory, with analysis of the changes, by treatment and conversion, of different registers of semiotic representation, in p...

  1. A Topological derivative based image segmentation for sign language recognition system using isotropic filter

    CERN Document Server

    Krishnaveni, M

    2010-01-01

    The need of sign language is increasing radically especially to hearing impaired community. Only few research groups try to automatically recognize sign language from video, colored gloves and etc. Their approach requires a valid segmentation of the data that is used for training and of the data that is used to be recognized. Recognition of a sign language image sequence is challenging because of the variety of hand shapes and hand motions. Here, this paper proposes to apply a combination of image segmentation with restoration using topological derivatives for achieving high recognition accuracy. Image quality measures are conceded here to differentiate the methods both subjectively as well as objectively. Experiments show that the additional use of the restoration before segmenting the postures significantly improves the correct rate of hand detection, and that the discrete derivatives yields a high rate of discrimination between different static hand postures as well as between hand postures and the scene b...

  2. Quantifiers and Variables: Insights from Sign Language (ASL and LSF)

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Schlenker

    2010-01-01

    In standard logical systems, quantifiers and variables are essential to express complex relations among objects. Natural language has expressions that have an analogous function: some noun phrases play the role of quantifiers (e.g. every man), and some pronouns play the role of variables (e.g. him, as in Every man likes people who admire him). Since the 1980’s, there has been a vibrant debate in linguistics about the way in which pronouns come to depend on their antecedents. According to one ...

  3. Depictions and minifiction: a reflection on translation of micro-story as didactics of sign language interpreters training in colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Giovanny Barreto; Román Santiago Artunduaga

    2015-01-01

    The article presents reflections on methodological translation-practice approach to sign language interpreter’s education focus in communicative competence. Implementing translation-practice approach experience started in several workshops of the Association of Translators and Interpreters of Sign Language of Colombia (ANISCOL) and have now formalized in the bachelor in education degree project in signed languages, develop within Research Group UMBRAL from National Open University and Distanc...

  4. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique, Elizabeth; Enfield, N. J.

    2015-01-01

    Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA). We describe a type...

  5. Sign Language Recognition System using Neural Network for Digital Hardware Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Lorena P.; Barba, Leiner; Torres, C. O.; Mattos, L.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents an image pattern recognition system using neural network for the identification of sign language to deaf people. The system has several stored image that show the specific symbol in this kind of language, which is employed to teach a multilayer neural network using a back propagation algorithm. Initially, the images are processed to adapt them and to improve the performance of discriminating of the network, including in this process of filtering, reduction and elimination noise algorithms as well as edge detection. The system is evaluated using the signs without including movement in their representation.

  6. Translation and interpretation of sign language in the postgraduate context: problematizing positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Daniel Rodrigues Dinarte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims, based in sign language translation researches, and at the same time entering discussions with inspiration in contemporary theories on the concept of "deconstruction" (DERRIDA, 2004 DERRIDA e ROUDINESCO, 2004 ARROJO, 1993, to reflect on some aspects concerning to the definition of the role and duties of translators and interpreters. We conceive that deconstruction does not consist in a method to be applied on the linguistic and social phenomena, but a set of political strategies that comes from a speech community which translate texts, and thus put themselves in a translational task performing an act of reading that inserts sign language in the academic linguistic multiplicity.

  7. Sign Language Recognition System using Neural Network for Digital Hardware Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents an image pattern recognition system using neural network for the identification of sign language to deaf people. The system has several stored image that show the specific symbol in this kind of language, which is employed to teach a multilayer neural network using a back propagation algorithm. Initially, the images are processed to adapt them and to improve the performance of discriminating of the network, including in this process of filtering, reduction and elimination noise algorithms as well as edge detection. The system is evaluated using the signs without including movement in their representation.

  8. Resisting Assimilation: Deliberate Acculturation by the American English Language Learner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Lyndsie

    2016-01-01

    Education policy has historically been viewed as having an influential part in crafting the roles of immigrants in American society. However, while policy makers continue to push their own agendas on English language learners (ELLs), ELLs continue to push back to create their own sense of what it means be an American. This article analyzes how…

  9. A Vision Based Recognition of Indian Sign Language Alphabets and Numerals Using B-Spline Approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sign language is the most natural way of expression for the deaf community. The urge to support the integration of deaf people into the hearing society made the automatic sign language recognition, an area of interest for the researchers. Indian Sign Language (ISL is a visual-spatial language which provides linguistic information using hands, arms, facial expressions, and head/body postures. In this paper we propose a novel vision-based recognition of Indian Sign Language Alphabets and Numerals using B-Spline Approximation. Gestures of ISL alphabets are complex since it involves the gestures of both the hands together. Our algorithm approximates the boundary extracted from the Region of Interest, to a B-Spline curve by taking the Maximum Curvature Points (MCPs as the Control points. Then the B-Spline curve is subjected to iterations for smoothening resulting in the extraction of Key Maximum Curvature points (KMCPs, which are the key contributors of the gesture shape. Hence a translation & scale invariant feature vector is obtained from the spatial locations of the KMCPs in the 8 Octant Regions of the 2D Space which isgiven for classification.

  10. AMERICAN ATTITUDES TOWARD THE STATE LANGUAGE POLICY

    OpenAIRE

    Ирина Ивановна Скачкова

    2013-01-01

    The article is a continuation of studies of the theoretical aspects of language policy in a multinational state in theU.S.example. The study of language policy in highly developed countries can make a considerable contribution to solving language and national problems of the states that have begun democratic transformation not long ago. Now, some politicians and scientists again raise the question of the recognition of English official, despite the fact that English is the official language, ...

  11. Integrating Language and Culture in Middle School American History Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Short, Deborah J.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes preliminary findings from a study examining school American history classes with English language learners. The study has investigated the construction of social studies knowledge in these and the development and implementation of lessons that address the and educational backgrounds of the learners while integrating language content, and culture objectives. After briefly describing some features studies language, revealed through analyses of classroom discourse books, th...

  12. Accessible Web for Deaf and Hard of Hearing with Transparent Multimodal Sign Language Interpreter Module

    OpenAIRE

    Kosec, Primož

    2012-01-01

    World Wide Web is becoming increasingly necessary for everybody regardless of age, gender, culture, health and individual disabilities. Unfortunately, the information on the Web is still not accessible to deaf and hard of hearing Web users since these people require translations of written forms into their first language: sign language, which is based on facial expressions, hands and body movements and has its own linguistic structure. This thesis introduces a possible solution (method) for p...

  13. Prior knowledge of deaf students fluent in brazilian sign languages regarding the algebraic language in high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Teresinha Frizzarini

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are few researches with deeper reflections on the study of algebra with deaf students. In order to validate and disseminate educational activities in that context, this article aims at highlighting the deaf students’ prior knowledge, fluent in Brazilian Sign Language, referring to the algebraic language used in high school. The theoretical framework used was Duval’s theory, with analysis of the changes, by treatment and conversion, of different registers of semiotic representation, in particular inequalities. The methodology used was the application of a diagnostic evaluation performed with deaf students, all fluent in Brazilian Sign Language, in a special school located in the north of Paraná State. We emphasize the need to work in both directions of conversion, in different languages, especially when the starting record is the graphic. Therefore, the conclusion reached was that one should not separate the algebraic representation from other records, due to the need of sign language perform not only the communication function, but also the functions of objectification and treatment, fundamental in cognitive development.

  14. Mexican sign language recognition using normalized moments and artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solís-V., J.-Francisco; Toxqui-Quitl, Carina; Martínez-Martínez, David; H.-G., Margarita

    2014-09-01

    This work presents a framework designed for the Mexican Sign Language (MSL) recognition. A data set was recorded with 24 static signs from the MSL using 5 different versions, this MSL dataset was captured using a digital camera in incoherent light conditions. Digital Image Processing was used to segment hand gestures, a uniform background was selected to avoid using gloved hands or some special markers. Feature extraction was performed by calculating normalized geometric moments of gray scaled signs, then an Artificial Neural Network performs the recognition using a 10-fold cross validation tested in weka, the best result achieved 95.83% of recognition rate.

  15. Toward the Ideal Signing Avatar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Adamo-Villani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses ongoing research on the effects of a signing avatar's modeling/rendering features on the perception of sign language animation. It reports a recent study that aimed to determine whether a character's visual style has an effect on how signing animated characters are perceived by viewers. The stimuli of the study were two polygonal characters presenting two different visual styles: stylized and realistic. Each character signed four sentences. Forty-seven participants with experience in American Sign Language (ASL viewed the animated signing clips in random order via web survey. They (1 identified the signed sentences (if recognizable, (2 rated their legibility, and (3 rated the appeal of the signing avatar. Findings show that while character's visual style does not have an effect on subjects' perceived legibility of the signs and sign recognition, it has an effect on subjects' interest in the character. The stylized signing avatar was perceived as more appealing than the realistic one.

  16. AMERICAN ATTITUDES TOWARD THE STATE LANGUAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skachkova Irina Ivanovna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is a continuation of studies of the theoretical aspects of language policy in a multinational state in the U.S. example. The study of language policy in highly developed countries can make a considerable contribution to solving language and national problems of the states that have begun democratic transformation not long ago. Now, some politicians and scientists again raise the question of the recognition of English official, despite the fact that English is the official language, de facto and this status is not threatened. Therefore, using the statistical method, and the analysis of the collected data and documentary sources, the author examines the classification of statements of U.S. researchers on the need of the state language policy in the U.S., the history of debates and legal disputes over the language policy of the state language, different points of view as to why the founding fathers did not secure the official status of English in the constitution. The author also discusses the differences between assimilation and multicultural model of the state. In conclusion, the author says that minority groups are now realizing the value of their languages ​​and making great efforts to save them. Status of the English language is currently not threatened, so the desire of many scientists and politicians to legalize the official status of the English language is most likely due to the approval of the English language as a national symbol.

  17. Variation in handshape and orientation in British Sign Language: The case of the ‘1’ hand configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Jordan; Schembri, Adam; Rentelis, Ramas; Cormier, Kearsy

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates phonological variation in British Sign Language (BSL) signs produced with a ‘1’ hand configuration in citation form. Multivariate analyses of 2084 tokens reveals that handshape variation in these signs is constrained by linguistic factors (e.g., the preceding and following phonological environment, grammatical category, indexicality, lexical frequency). The only significant social factor was region. For the subset of signs where orientation was also investigated, only grammatical function was important (the surrounding phonological environment and social factors were not significant). The implications for an understanding of pointing signs in signed languages are discussed. PMID:23805018

  18. The Impact of Input Quality on Early Sign Development in Native and Non-Native Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jenny; Jones, Anna; Morgan, Gary

    2016-01-01

    There is debate about how input variation influences child language. Most deaf children are exposed to a sign language from their non-fluent hearing parents and experience a delay in exposure to accessible language. A small number of children receive language input from their deaf parents who are fluent signers. Thus it is possible to document the…

  19. Sign Language Users' Education and Employment Levels: Keeping Pace with Changes in the General Australian Population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willoughby, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    This article draws on data from the 2006 Australian census to explore the education and employment outcomes of sign languages users living in Victoria, Australia, and to compare them with outcomes reported in the general population. Census data have the advantage of sampling the entire population on the one night, avoiding problems of population…

  20. Deaf People, Modernity, and a Contentious Effort to Unify Arab Sign Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Fityani, Kinda

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines a project to unify sign languages across twenty-two Arab countries. Proponents of the project, mainly pan-Arab governmental bodies with the support of members of the staff at the Al Jazeera satellite network, have framed the project as a human rights effort to advance the welfare of deaf Arab people. They have urged its…

  1. Creating a Digital Jamaican Sign Language Dictionary: A R2D2 Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Gregory; Soutar, Iris

    2015-01-01

    The Jamaican Association for the Deaf, in their responsibilities to oversee education for individuals who are deaf in Jamaica, has demonstrated an urgent need for a dictionary that assists students, educators, and parents with the practical use of "Jamaican Sign Language." While paper versions of a preliminary resource have been explored…

  2. Interactive Application in Spanish Sign Language for a Public Transport Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera-Santana, José Guillermo; Hernández-Haddad, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Esparragón, Dionisio; Castillo-Ortiz, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    People with hearing disability find it difficult to access to information and communication in public places. According to this fact, it is considered the possibility to design a communication system based on the Spanish Sign Language (SSL), which helps to overcome this barrier in public environments of wide concurrence, where much of the…

  3. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf adults in…

  4. Designing Digital Solutions for Preserving Penan Sign Language: A Reflective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Zaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oroo’ is a language of nomadic Penans in the rainforests of Borneo and the only way of asynchronous communication between nomadic groups in the forest journey. Like many other indigenous languages, the Oroo’ language is also facing imminent extinction. In this paper, we present the research process and reflections of a multidisciplinary community-based research project on digitalizing and preserving the Oroo’ sign language. As a methodology for project activities, we are employing Participatory Action Research in Software Development Methodology Augmentation (PRISMA. Preliminary results show a general interest in digital contents and a positive impact of the project activities. In this paper, we present scenario of a research project that is retooled to fit the need of communities, informing language revitalization efforts and assisting with the evolution of community-based research design.

  5. AMERICAN ATTITUDES TOWARD THE STATE LANGUAGE POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ирина Ивановна Скачкова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is a continuation of studies of the theoretical aspects of language policy in a multinational state in theU.S.example. The study of language policy in highly developed countries can make a considerable contribution to solving language and national problems of the states that have begun democratic transformation not long ago. Now, some politicians and scientists again raise the question of the recognition of English official, despite the fact that English is the official language, de facto and this status is not threatened. Therefore, using the statistical method, and the analysis of the collected data and documentary sources, the author examines the classification of statements of U.S. researchers on the need of the state language policy in the U.S., the history of debates and legal disputes over the language policy of the state language, different points of view as to why the founding fathers did not secure the official status of English in the constitution. The author also discusses the differences between assimilation and multicultural model of the state. In conclusion, the author says that minority groups are now realizing the value of their languages and making great efforts to save them. Status of the English language is currently not threatened, so the desire of many scientists and politicians to legalize the official status of the English language is most likely due to the approval of the English language as a national symbol.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-25

  6. Evidence for Website Claims about the Benefits of Teaching Sign Language to Infants and Toddlers with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lauri H.; White, Karl R.; Grewe, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The development of proficient communication skills in infants and toddlers is an important component to child development. A popular trend gaining national media attention is teaching sign language to babies with normal hearing whose parents also have normal hearing. Thirty-three websites were identified that advocate sign language for hearing…

  7. Sign-Language Theatre and Deaf Theatre: New Definitions and Directions. Center on Deafness Publication Series No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Dorothy S.; Fant, Louie J., Jr.

    Offered are guidelines to the development of theatre for, by, and about deaf persons. Various terms used for sign-language theatre and deaf theatre are defined and discussed in an introductory section, and the use of sign language as a theatrical medium is explained. The production of theatre is covered by sections on the history of deaf theatre,…

  8. SLEND Sign Language to English by the Deaf:literacy development with Deaf communities using sign language, peer tuition, and learner-generated online content

    OpenAIRE

    Ahereza, Noah; Nyarko, Marco; Huhua Fan, Rita; Gillen, Julia Kay; Zeshan, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a project designed to enhance the employability and wellbeing of a marginalised community: the Deaf . It is funded by the Economic and Social Research Council/Department for International Development in the UK (ES/M005186/1). The project adopts a Deaf-led approach to developing English literacy. This one year project features the development of an online platform: Sign Language to English by the Deaf (SLEND). The project’s ethos stems from a conviction that learning is s...

  9. A Component-Based Vocabulary-Extensible Sign Language Gesture Recognition Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengjing Wei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sign language recognition (SLR can provide a helpful tool for the communication between the deaf and the external world. This paper proposed a component-based vocabulary extensible SLR framework using data from surface electromyographic (sEMG sensors, accelerometers (ACC, and gyroscopes (GYRO. In this framework, a sign word was considered to be a combination of five common sign components, including hand shape, axis, orientation, rotation, and trajectory, and sign classification was implemented based on the recognition of five components. Especially, the proposed SLR framework consisted of two major parts. The first part was to obtain the component-based form of sign gestures and establish the code table of target sign gesture set using data from a reference subject. In the second part, which was designed for new users, component classifiers were trained using a training set suggested by the reference subject and the classification of unknown gestures was performed with a code matching method. Five subjects participated in this study and recognition experiments under different size of training sets were implemented on a target gesture set consisting of 110 frequently-used Chinese Sign Language (CSL sign words. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework can realize large-scale gesture set recognition with a small-scale training set. With the smallest training sets (containing about one-third gestures of the target gesture set suggested by two reference subjects, (82.6 ± 13.2% and (79.7 ± 13.4% average recognition accuracy were obtained for 110 words respectively, and the average recognition accuracy climbed up to (88 ± 13.7% and (86.3 ± 13.7% when the training set included 50~60 gestures (about half of the target gesture set. The proposed framework can significantly reduce the user’s training burden in large-scale gesture recognition, which will facilitate the implementation of a practical SLR system.

  10. A Component-Based Vocabulary-Extensible Sign Language Gesture Recognition Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengjing; Chen, Xiang; Yang, Xidong; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Sign language recognition (SLR) can provide a helpful tool for the communication between the deaf and the external world. This paper proposed a component-based vocabulary extensible SLR framework using data from surface electromyographic (sEMG) sensors, accelerometers (ACC), and gyroscopes (GYRO). In this framework, a sign word was considered to be a combination of five common sign components, including hand shape, axis, orientation, rotation, and trajectory, and sign classification was implemented based on the recognition of five components. Especially, the proposed SLR framework consisted of two major parts. The first part was to obtain the component-based form of sign gestures and establish the code table of target sign gesture set using data from a reference subject. In the second part, which was designed for new users, component classifiers were trained using a training set suggested by the reference subject and the classification of unknown gestures was performed with a code matching method. Five subjects participated in this study and recognition experiments under different size of training sets were implemented on a target gesture set consisting of 110 frequently-used Chinese Sign Language (CSL) sign words. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework can realize large-scale gesture set recognition with a small-scale training set. With the smallest training sets (containing about one-third gestures of the target gesture set) suggested by two reference subjects, (82.6 ± 13.2)% and (79.7 ± 13.4)% average recognition accuracy were obtained for 110 words respectively, and the average recognition accuracy climbed up to (88 ± 13.7)% and (86.3 ± 13.7)% when the training set included 50~60 gestures (about half of the target gesture set). The proposed framework can significantly reduce the user's training burden in large-scale gesture recognition, which will facilitate the implementation of a practical SLR system. PMID:27104534

  11. Korean American College Students' Language Practices and Identity Positioning: "Not Korean, but Not American"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the intersection between language practices and ethnic identity for 8 second-generation Korean American learners who were participating in a Korean-as-a-foreign-language (KFL) class at a U.S. university. This study aims to examine the fluid nature of ethnic identity by examining how Korean heritage learners negotiate,…

  12. The impact of input quality on early sign development in native and non-native language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jenny; Jones, Anna; Morgan, Gary

    2016-05-01

    There is debate about how input variation influences child language. Most deaf children are exposed to a sign language from their non-fluent hearing parents and experience a delay in exposure to accessible language. A small number of children receive language input from their deaf parents who are fluent signers. Thus it is possible to document the impact of quality of input on early sign acquisition. The current study explores the outcomes of differential input in two groups of children aged two to five years: deaf children of hearing parents (DCHP) and deaf children of deaf parents (DCDP). Analysis of child sign language revealed DCDP had a more developed vocabulary and more phonological handshape types compared with DCHP. In naturalistic conversations deaf parents used more sign tokens and more phonological types than hearing parents. Results are discussed in terms of the effects of early input on subsequent language abilities. PMID:26922911

  13. A Human Mirror Neuron System for Language: Perspectives from Signed Languages of the Deaf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Heather Patterson; Corina, David P.

    2010-01-01

    Language is proposed to have developed atop the human analog of the macaque mirror neuron system for action perception and production [Arbib M.A. 2005. From monkey-like action recognition to human language: An evolutionary framework for neurolinguistics (with commentaries and author's response). "Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28", 105-167; Arbib…

  14. Effects of Hearing Status and Sign Language Use on Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschark, Marc; Sarchet, Thomastine; Trani, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Deaf individuals have been found to score lower than hearing individuals across a variety of memory tasks involving both verbal and nonverbal stimuli, particularly those requiring retention of serial order. Deaf individuals who are native signers, meanwhile, have been found to score higher on visual-spatial memory tasks than on verbal-sequential tasks and higher on some visual-spatial tasks than hearing nonsigners. However, hearing status and preferred language modality (signed or spoken) frequently are confounded in such studies. That situation is resolved in the present study by including deaf students who use spoken language and sign language interpreting students (hearing signers) as well as deaf signers and hearing nonsigners. Three complex memory span tasks revealed overall advantages for hearing signers and nonsigners over both deaf signers and deaf nonsigners on 2 tasks involving memory for verbal stimuli (letters). There were no differences among the groups on the task involving visual-spatial stimuli. The results are consistent with and extend recent findings concerning the effects of hearing status and language on memory and are discussed in terms of language modality, hearing status, and cognitive abilities among deaf and hearing individuals. PMID:26755684

  15. Real-Time Processing of ASL Signs: Delayed First Language Acquisition Affects Organization of the Mental Lexicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Amy M.; Borovsky, Arielle; Hatrak, Marla; Mayberry, Rachel I.

    2015-01-01

    Sign language comprehension requires visual attention to the linguistic signal and visual attention to referents in the surrounding world, whereas these processes are divided between the auditory and visual modalities for spoken language comprehension. Additionally, the age-onset of first language acquisition and the quality and quantity of…

  16. Sign Language Video Segmentation with Level Sets Fusing Color, Texture, Boundary and Shape Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V.V.Kishore

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new and improved concept for segmenting gestures of sign language. The algorithm presented extracts signs from video sequences under various non static backgrounds. The signs are segmented which are normally hands and head of the signing person by minimizing the energy function of the level set fused by various image characteristics such as colour, texture, boundary and shape information. From RGB color video three color planes are extracted and one color plane is used based on the contrasting environments presented by the video background. Texture edge map provides spatial information which makes the color features more distinctive for video segmentation. The boundary features are extracted by forming image edge map form the existing color and texture features. The shape of the sign is calculated dynamically and is made adaptive to each video frame for segmentation of occlude objects. The energy minimization is achieved using level sets. Experiments show that our approach provides excellent segmentation on signer videos for different signs under robust environments such as diverse backgrounds, sundry illumination and different signers.

  17. An Investigation into the Relationship of Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Sign Language Use among Deaf and Hard of Hearing Hungarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontra, Edit H.; Csizer, Kata

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to point out the relationship between foreign language learning motivation and sign language use among hearing impaired Hungarians. In the article we concentrate on two main issues: first, to what extent hearing impaired people are motivated to learn foreign languages in a European context; second, to what extent sign…

  18. Pan-American Teletandem Language Exchange Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Scott, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a TeleTandem language exchange project between English speaking Spanish students at Georgia College, USA, and Spanish speaking English students at Universidad de Concepción, Chile. The aim of the project was to promote linguistic skills and intercultural competence through a TeleTandem exchange. Students used Skype and Google…

  19. THE BIBLE LANGUAGE IN THE AMERICAN LYRIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Rosario Candelier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The footprint of the Bible in its intellectual and aesthetic expression is manifested in the creation of poetry and fiction. The religious and mystical poetry, and the use of biblical language through the recreation of characters, themes or motifs inspired by the sacred text, are a tribute to the Holy Book  and a creative vein of literature inspired by this paradigmatic work of our culture. The biblical language that channel profound teachings and revealed truths through diverse literary figures, has been a fruitful means of creation. Besides intuition and inspiration, in the poetic language flowing the signals of revelation that synthesize perception of consciousness, the metaphysics slope of the existing and the effluvia of Transcendence. In its implementation intervenes the creative power of poetry that the word formalized in images, myths and concepts. In numerous poetic creations there are formal, conceptual and spiritual reminiscent of the Holy Book. It’s prolific the trace of the Bible in literature, culture and spiritual awareness. The word that creates and raises is a melting pot of the aesthetic feeling and spirituality. In fact, the Gospel contains the inspiring principle of Christian mystical literature. By focusing biblical language in poetic creation, we appreciate literary formulas and compositional resources. There is a wisdom and a stylistic inherent in biblical language, which manifests itself in a biblical tone, a biblical image and a biblical technique that the language arts formalized in various forms of creation. Knowing from the biblical heritage is reflected in judgments, prophetic visions, parables, allegories, parallelisms and other resources that have fallen into the lyrical flow. The biblical language embodies a format registered by proverbs, hymns, prayers, metaphors and other expressive resources format. In the biblical text we find various literary forms that have fueled the substance of poetic creation, as

  20. Deconstructing “common sense” : Normative ethics and decision-making by sign language interpreters

    OpenAIRE

    Calle-Alberdi, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Sign language interpreters must continuously make context-based decisions (Dean & Pollard, 2013). Those decisions need to articulate the normative material available in the profession, mainly the code of ethics and role metaphors, in view of the specific characteristics of a given assignment. In this regard, different studies have reported a gap between what Dean and Pollard have called “rhetoric versus de facto” practice (Dean & Pollard, 2005), meaning that what interpreters acknowledge as h...

  1. The verbal-visual discourse in Brazilian Sign Language – Libras

    OpenAIRE

    Tanya Felipe

    2013-01-01

    This article aims to broaden the discussion on verbal-visual utterances, reflecting upon theoretical assumptions of the Bakhtin Circle that can reinforce the argument that the utterances of a language that employs a visual-gestural modality convey plastic-pictorial and spatial values of signs also through non-manual markers (NMMs). This research highlights the difference between affective expressions, which are paralinguistic communications that may complement an utterance, and verbal-visual ...

  2. A Real-time Face/Hand Tracking Method for Chinese Sign Language Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new Chinese Sign Language recognition (CSLR) system and a method of real-time tracking face and hand applied in the system. In the method, an improved agent algorithm is used to extract the region of face and hand and track them. Kalman filter is introduced to forecast the position and rectangle of search, and self-adapting of target color is designed to counteract the effect of illumination.

  3. EXTENSION OF HIDDEN MARKOV MODEL FOR RECOGNIZING LARGE VOCABULARY OF SIGN LANGUAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Maher Jebali; Mohamed Jemni

    2013-01-01

    Computers still have a long way to go before they can interact with users in a truly natural fashion. From a user’s perspective, the most natural way to interact with a computer would be through a speech and gesture interface. Although speech recognition has made significant advances in the past ten years, gesture recognition has been lagging behind. Sign Languages (SL) are the most accomplished forms of gestural communication. Therefore, their automatic analysis is a real challen...

  4. The body and the fading away of abstract concepts and words: a sign language analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Anna M; Capirci, Olga; Gianfreda, Gabriele; Volterra, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important challenges for embodied and grounded theories of cognition concerns the representation of abstract concepts, such as "freedom." Many embodied theories of abstract concepts have been proposed. Some proposals stress the similarities between concrete and abstract concepts showing that they are both grounded in perception and action system while other emphasize their difference favoring a multiple representation view. An influential view proposes that abstract concepts are mapped to concrete ones through metaphors. Furthermore, some theories underline the fact that abstract concepts are grounded in specific contents, as situations, introspective states, emotions. These approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive, since it is possible that they can account for different subsets of abstract concepts and words. One novel and fruitful way to understand the way in which abstract concepts are represented is to analyze how sign languages encode concepts into signs. In the present paper we will discuss these theoretical issues mostly relying on examples taken from Italian Sign Language (LIS, Lingua dei Segni Italiana), the visual-gestural language used within the Italian Deaf community. We will verify whether and to what extent LIS signs provide evidence favoring the different theories of abstract concepts. In analyzing signs we will distinguish between direct forms of involvement of the body and forms in which concepts are grounded differently, for example relying on linguistic experience. In dealing with the LIS evidence, we will consider the possibility that different abstract concepts are represented using different levels of embodiment. The collected evidence will help us to discuss whether a unitary embodied theory of abstract concepts is possible or whether the different theoretical proposals can account for different aspects of their representation. PMID:25120515

  5. The body and the fading away of abstract concepts and words: a sign language analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important challenges for embodied and grounded theories of cognition concerns the representation of abstract concepts, such as freedom. Many embodied theories of abstract concepts have been proposed. Some proposals stress the similarities between concrete and abstract concepts showing that they are both grounded in perception and action system while other emphasize their difference favouring a multiple representation view. An influential view proposes that abstract concepts are mapped to concrete ones through metaphors. Furthermore, some theories underline the fact that abstract concepts are grounded in specific contents, as situations, introspective states, emotions. These approaches are not necessarily mutually exclusive, since it is possible that they can account for different subsets of abstract concepts and words. One novel and fruitful way to understand the way in which abstract concepts are represented is to analyze how sign languages encode concepts into signs. In the present paper we will discuss these theoretical issues mostly relying on examples taken from Italian Sign Language (LIS, Lingua dei Segni Italiana, the visual-gestural language used within the Italian Deaf community. We will verify whether and to what extent LIS signs provide evidence favoring the different theories of abstract concepts. In analyzing signs we will distinguish between direct forms of involvement of the body and forms in which concepts are grounded differently, for example relying on linguistic experience. In dealing with the LIS evidence, we will consider the possibility that different abstract concepts are represented using different levels of embodiment. The collected evidence will help us to discuss whether a unitary embodied theory of abstract concepts is possible or whether the different theoretical proposals can account for different aspects of their representation.

  6. The Sound of Silence in Nohya: A Preliminary Account of Sign Language Use by the Deaf in a Maya Community in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuman, Malcom L.

    1980-01-01

    A description of the sign language used in a Mexican village shows its parallels with other sign languages, its similarity to the folk gestural system of Mexico and its distinguishing aspects. Examples illustrate its syntax, grammar and lexicon. (PMJ)

  7. A Language Challenge to the Hispanic American.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nino, Miguel A.

    The Hispanic-American, because he or she is bilingual and bicultural, could play an important role in the future economic development of the United States. Declines in steel, automotive, and electronics industries due to foreign competition and market saturation have caused industrial displacement and unemployment. The Maquiladora or Twin Plant…

  8. Teaching sign language in gaucho schools for deaf people: a study of curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Hessel Silveira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper, which provides partial results of a master’s dissertation, has sought to give contribute Sign Language curriculum in the deaf schooling. We began to understand the importance of sign languages for deaf people’s development and found out that a large part of the deaf are from hearing parents, which emphasises the significance of teaching LIBRAS (Brazilian Sign Language in schools for the deaf. We should also consider the importance of this study in building deaf identities and strengthening the deaf culture. We have obtained the theoretical basis in the so-called Deaf Studies and some experts in the curriculum theories. The main objective for this study has been to conduct an analysis of the LIBRAS curriculum at work in schools for the deaf in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The curriculum analysis has shown a degree of diversity: in some curricula, content from one year is repeated in the next one with no articulation. In others, one can find preoccupation for issues of deaf identity and culture, but some of them include contents that are not related to LIBRAS, or the deaf culture, but rather to discipline for the deaf in general. By providing positive and negative aspects, the analysis data may help in discussions about difficulties, progress and problems in LIBRAS teacher education for deaf students.

  9. Cognitive status, lexical learning and memory in deaf adults using sign language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jafari

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Learning and memory are two high level cognitive performances in human that hearing loss influences them. In our study, mini-mental state examination (MMSE and Ray auditory-verbal learning test (RAVLT was conducted to study cognitive stat us and lexical learning and memory in deaf adults using sign language. Methods: This cross-sectional comparative study was conducted on 30 available congenitally deaf adults using sign language in Persian and 46 normal adults aged 19 to 27 years for both sexes, with a minimum of diploma level of education. After mini-mental state examination, Rey auditory-verbal learning test was run through computers to evaluate lexical learning and memory with visual presentation. Results: Mean scores of mini-mental state examination and Rey auditory-verbal learning test in congenitally deaf adults were significantly lower than normal individuals in all scores (p=0.018 except in the two parts of the Rey test. Significant correlation was found between results of two tests just in the normal group (p=0.043. Gender had no effect on test results. Conclusion: Cognitive status and lexical memory and learning in congenitally deaf individuals is weaker than in normal subjects. It seems that using sign language as the main way of communication in deaf people causes poor lexical memory and learning.

  10. Palm Reversal Errors in Native-Signing Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, Aaron; Meier, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have native exposure to a sign language such as American Sign Language (ASL) have received almost no scientific attention. This paper reports the first studies on a sample of five native-signing children (four deaf children of deaf parents and one hearing child of deaf parents; ages 4;6 to 7;5)…

  11. The verbal-visual discourse in Brazilian Sign Language – Libras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Felipe

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to broaden the discussion on verbal-visual utterances, reflecting upon theoretical assumptions of the Bakhtin Circle that can reinforce the argument that the utterances of a language that employs a visual-gestural modality convey plastic-pictorial and spatial values of signs also through non-manual markers (NMMs. This research highlights the difference between affective expressions, which are paralinguistic communications that may complement an utterance, and verbal-visual grammatical markers, which are linguistic because they are part of the architecture of phonological, morphological, syntactic-semantic and discursive levels in a particular language. These markers will be described, taking the Brazilian Sign Language–Libras as a starting point, thereby including this language in discussions of verbal-visual discourse when investigating the need to do research on this discourse also in the linguistic analyses of oral-auditory modality languages, including Transliguistics as an area of knowledge that analyzes discourse, focusing upon the verbal-visual markers used by the subjects in their utterance acts.

  12. Signs Used in the Deaf Gay Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudner, William A.; Butkowsky, Rochelle

    1981-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of American Sign Language signs relating to the deaf gay community or used exclusively by its members. Both heterosexual and homosexual informants were used to determine which signs were known only to the gay community. Attitudes of both groups toward these words was also explored. (Author/PJM)

  13. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth eManrique

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA. We describe a type of response termed a ‘freeze-look’, which occurs when a person has just been asked a direct question: instead of answering the question in the next turn position, the person holds still while looking directly at the questioner. In these cases it is clear that the person is aware of having just been addressed and is not otherwise accounting for their delay in responding (e.g., by displaying a ‘thinking’ face or hesitation, etc.. We find that this behavior functions as a way for an addressee to initiate repair by the person who asked the question. The ‘freeze-look’ results in the questioner ‘re-doing’ their action of asking a question, for example by repeating or rephrasing it. Thus we argue that the ‘freeze-look’ is a practice for other-initiation of repair. In addition, we argue that it is an ‘off-record’ practice, thus contrasting with known on-record practices such as saying ‘Huh?’ or equivalents. The findings aim to contribute to research on human understanding in everyday turn-by-turn conversation by looking at an understudied sign language, with possible implications for our understanding of visual bodily communication in spoken languages as well.

  14. Suspending the next turn as a form of repair initiation: evidence from Argentine Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique, Elizabeth; Enfield, N J

    2015-01-01

    Practices of other-initiated repair deal with problems of hearing or understanding what another person has said in the fast-moving turn-by-turn flow of conversation. As such, other-initiated repair plays a fundamental role in the maintenance of intersubjectivity in social interaction. This study finds and analyses a special type of other-initiated repair that is used in turn-by-turn conversation in a sign language: Argentine Sign Language (Lengua de Señas Argentina or LSA). We describe a type of response termed a "freeze-look," which occurs when a person has just been asked a direct question: instead of answering the question in the next turn position, the person holds still while looking directly at the questioner. In these cases it is clear that the person is aware of having just been addressed and is not otherwise accounting for their delay in responding (e.g., by displaying a "thinking" face or hesitation, etc.). We find that this behavior functions as a way for an addressee to initiate repair by the person who asked the question. The "freeze-look" results in the questioner "re-doing" their action of asking a question, for example by repeating or rephrasing it. Thus, we argue that the "freeze-look" is a practice for other-initiation of repair. In addition, we argue that it is an "off-record" practice, thus contrasting with known on-record practices such as saying "Huh?" or equivalents. The findings aim to contribute to research on human understanding in everyday turn-by-turn conversation by looking at an understudied sign language, with possible implications for our understanding of visual bodily communication in spoken languages as well. PMID:26441710

  15. Sociolinguistic Variation, Language Change and Contact in the British Sign Language (BSL) lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Stamp, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    BSL exhibits considerable regional lexical variation. Results from previous studies suggest that there has been a reduction in regional differences since the introduction of BSL on television (Woll et al., 1991) and increased regional contact (Woll, 1987). Based on these findings, this project aims to investigate lexical variation and change in BSL and its relationship to regional contact. Regional variation in the signs for colours, countries, numbers and UK place names were analysed from th...

  16. First language acquisition differs from second language acquisition in prelingually deaf signers: evidence from sensitivity to grammaticality judgement in British Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Kearsy; Schembri, Adam; Vinson, David; Orfanidou, Eleni

    2012-07-01

    Age of acquisition (AoA) effects have been used to support the notion of a critical period for first language acquisition. In this study, we examine AoA effects in deaf British Sign Language (BSL) users via a grammaticality judgment task. When English reading performance and nonverbal IQ are factored out, results show that accuracy of grammaticality judgement decreases as AoA increases, until around age 8, thus showing the unique effect of AoA on grammatical judgement in early learners. No such effects were found in those who acquired BSL after age 8. These late learners appear to have first language proficiency in English instead, which may have been used to scaffold learning of BSL as a second language later in life. PMID:22578601

  17. A Study of Technical Signs in Science: Implications for Lexical Database Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Harry G.; Hupper, Mary LaPorta; Monte, Denise A.; Brown, Scott W.; Babb, Ivar; Scheifele, Pete M.

    2007-01-01

    Both classroom instruction and lexical database development stand to benefit from applied research on sign language, which takes into consideration American Sign Language rules, pedagogical issues, and teacher characteristics. In this study of technical science signs, teachers' experience with signing and, especially, knowledge of content, were…

  18. Phonetic study of North American languages history and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddieson, Ian

    2005-04-01

    Serious phonetic study of North America languages started at the beginning of the 20th century. Within limits of available technology, aspects of speech articulation, aerodynamics and acoustics were investigated. One clear motivation was to understand how classes of sounds unfamiliar from study of better-known European and Asian languages were produced. Glottalized consonants and stops then referred to as ``intermediate'' (voiceless unaspirated) received particular attention. Nasal airflow, lip position in vowels, and tone and pitch accent were also investigated. Significant insights on relative timing were obtained, inter alia foreshadowing VOT measurement as a useful discriminator of laryngeal activity and revealing part of the mechanism by which ejective consonants are made. After the 1920's, the idea of ``psychologically real'' phonemes which ignored phonetic differences became the ruling paradigm in American linguistics, contributing to a decline of interest in phonetic studies that basically lasted until around the 1980's. When interest renewed, a new vision that phonetic patterns show regularities independent of phonemic structure guided research, and considerable attention was also paid to how indigenous American languages fit into overall phonetic typologies. Recent work is also often informed by concern for documentation of endangered languages and community interest in language revival.

  19. Functional connectivity in task-negative network of the Deaf: effects of sign language experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie Malaia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies investigating cortical processing in Deaf signers suggest that life-long experience with sign language and/or auditory deprivation may alter the brain’s anatomical structure and the function of brain regions typically recruited for auditory processing (Emmorey et al., 2010; Pénicaud et al., 2013 inter alia. We report the first investigation of the task-negative network in Deaf signers and its functional connectivity—the temporal correlations among spatially remote neurophysiological events. We show that Deaf signers manifest increased functional connectivity between posterior cingulate/precuneus and left medial temporal gyrus (MTG, but also inferior parietal lobe and medial temporal gyrus in the right hemisphere- areas that have been found to show functional recruitment specifically during sign language processing. These findings suggest that the organization of the brain at the level of inter-network connectivity is likely affected by experience with processing visual language, although sensory deprivation could be another source of the difference. We hypothesize that connectivity alterations in the task negative network reflect predictive/automatized processing of the visual signal.

  20. Depictions and minifiction: a reflection on translation of micro-story as didactics of sign language interpreters training in colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Giovanny Barreto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents reflections on methodological translation-practice approach to sign language interpreter’s education focus in communicative competence. Implementing translation-practice approach experience started in several workshops of the Association of Translators and Interpreters of Sign Language of Colombia (ANISCOL and have now formalized in the bachelor in education degree project in signed languages, develop within Research Group UMBRAL from National Open University and Distance of Colombia-UNAD. The didactic proposal focus on the model of the efforts (Gile, specifically in the production and listen efforts. A criticism about translating competence is presented. Minifiction is literary genre with multiple semiotic and philosophical translation possibilities. These literary texts have elements with great potential to render on visual, gestural and spatial depictions of Colombian sign language which is profitable to interpreter training and education. Through El Dinosaurio sign language translation, we concludes with an outline and reflections on the pedagogical and didactic potential of minifiction and depictions in the design of training activities in sign language interpreters.

  1. Kyoto's enemy : the american oil industry's influence in the signing and non-ratification of the Kyoto protocol

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary This study is an empirical and theoretical analysis of the influence obtained by the American oil industry in the United States decision to first sign and then not ratify the Kyoto Protocol. The purpose of the study is to explore and measure the influence the industry managed to obtain and then compare the period before the signing to the period between the signing and the decision to not ratify Kyoto. By employing theoretical framework, the empirical data collected wi...

  2. First language acquisition differs from second language acquisition in prelingually deaf signers: Evidence from sensitivity to grammaticality judgement in British Sign Language

    OpenAIRE

    Cormier, K.; Schembri, A.; D. Vinson; Orfanidou, E.

    2012-01-01

    Age of acquisition (AoA) effects have been used to support the notion of a critical period for first language acquisition. In this study, we examine AoA effects in deaf British Sign Language (BSL) users via a grammaticality judgment task. When English reading performance and nonverbal IQ are factored out, results show that accuracy of grammaticality judgement decreases as AoA increases, until around age 8, thus showing the unique effect of AoA on grammatical judgement in early learners. No su...

  3. The signer and the sign: Cortical correlates of person identity and language processing from point-light displays

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, R.; Capek, C. M.; Gazarian, K; MacSweeney, M.; Woll, B.; David, A S; Mcguire, P. K.; Brammer, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the first to explore the cortical correlates of signed language (SL) processing under point-light display conditions, the observer identified either a signer or a lexical sign from a display in which different signers were seen producing a number of different individual signs. many of the regions activated by point-light under these conditions replicated those previously reported for full-image displays, including regions within the inferior temporal cortex that are specialised...

  4. Unsilencing voices: a study of zoo signs and their language of authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogelberg, Katherine

    2014-12-01

    Zoo signs are important for informal learning, but their effect on visitor perception of animals has been sparsely studied. Other studies have established the importance of informal learning in American society; this study discusses zoo signs in the context of such learning. Through the lens of Critical Theory framed by informal learning, and by applying critical discourse analysis, I discovered subtle institutional power on zoo signs. This may influence visitors through dominant ideological discursive formations and emergent discourse objects, adding to the paradox of "saving" wild animals while simultaneously oppressing them. Signs covering a variety of species from two different United States-accredited zoos were analyzed. Critical Theory looks to emancipate oppressed human populations; here I apply it zoo animals. As physical emancipation is not practical, I define emancipation in the sociological sense—in this case, freedom from silence. Through this research, perhaps we can find a way to represent animals as living beings who have their own lives and voices, by presenting them honestly, with care and compassion.

  5. Examining the contribution of motor movement and language dominance to increased left lateralization during sign generation in native signers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Sigut, Eva; Payne, Heather; MacSweeney, Mairéad

    2016-08-01

    The neural systems supporting speech and sign processing are very similar, although not identical. In a previous fTCD study of hearing native signers (Gutierrez-Sigut, Daws, et al., 2015) we found stronger left lateralization for sign than speech. Given that this increased lateralization could not be explained by hand movement alone, the contribution of motor movement versus 'linguistic' processes to the strength of hemispheric lateralization during sign production remains unclear. Here we directly contrast lateralization strength of covert versus overt signing during phonological and semantic fluency tasks. To address the possibility that hearing native signers' elevated lateralization indices (LIs) were due to performing a task in their less dominant language, here we test deaf native signers, whose dominant language is British Sign Language (BSL). Signers were more strongly left lateralized for overt than covert sign generation. However, the strength of lateralization was not correlated with the amount of time producing movements of the right hand. Comparisons with previous data from hearing native English speakers suggest stronger laterality indices for sign than speech in both covert and overt tasks. This increased left lateralization may be driven by specific properties of sign production such as the increased use of self-monitoring mechanisms or the nature of phonological encoding of signs. PMID:27388786

  6. On “diversity” and “inclusion”: Exploring paradigms for achieving sign language peoples’ rights

    OpenAIRE

    Kusters, A.; De Meulder, M.; Friedner, M.; Emery, S

    2015-01-01

    The use of the concepts “diversity” and “inclusion” are analyzed with regard to deaf people, whom we call Sign Language Peoples (SLPs), specifically in policy discourses (as used by the World Federation of the Deaf and in the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities) and academic discourses (particularly the concept of Deaf Gain). Discussing such discourses, we evaluate the promises and perils of “diversity” and “inclusion” in policy positions and scholarly analysis. We argue ...

  7. Increasing Literacy Skills for Students with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Effects of Integrating Comprehensive Reading Instruction with Sign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beecher, Larissa; Childre, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of a comprehensive reading program enhanced with sign language on the literacy and language skills of three elementary school students with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Students received individual and small group comprehensive reading instruction for approximately 55 minutes per session. Reading…

  8. How do Typically Developing Deaf Children and Deaf Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Use the Face When Comprehending Emotional Facial Expressions in British Sign Language?

    OpenAIRE

    Denmark, T.; Atkinson, J.; Campbell, R.; Swettenham, J.

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions in sign language carry a variety of communicative features. While emotion can modulate a spoken utterance through changes in intonation, duration and intensity, in sign language specific facial expressions presented concurrently with a manual sign perform this function. When deaf adult signers cannot see facial features, their ability to judge emotion in a signed utterance is impaired (Reilly et al. in Sign Lang Stud 75:113-118, 1992). We examined the role of the face in th...

  9. Native American Language Education as Policy-in-Practice: An Interpretative Policy Analysis of the Native American Languages Act of 1990/1992

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhol, Larisa

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on findings from an interpretive policy analysis of the development and impacts of landmark federal legislation in support of Native American languages: the 1990/1992 Native American Languages Act (NALA). Overturning more than two centuries of federal Indian policy, NALA established the federal role in preserving and protecting…

  10. Establishment and Study of Sign Language Video Library%手语视频库的建立与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨炼; 钟鹏; 郑祖明; 韩梅; 李凯

    2015-01-01

    Based on the computer professional sign language, and combined with video clips and database technology, Sign language video database provides data support for the study on the standardization of computer professional sign language teaching;Taking“the computer professional sign language"as the foundation edited by CDPF, computer professional sign language video database is established.The subject of the paper is to provide the data support for the standardization of sign language teaching in computer science.Further the research of the sign language corpus can provide the support for the vid-eo data.%手语视频数据库以《计算机专业手语》为基础,将视频剪辑技术和数据库技术相结合,为计算机专业手语教学的规范化研究提供数据支持;以中残联编著的《计算机专业手语》为基础,建立计算机专业手语视频数据库。课题将视频剪辑技术和数据库技术相结合,为计算机专业手语教学的规范化研究提供数据支持;指导聋人高等工科教育中的手语教学,提高课堂手语教学的教学质量。同时可为计算机手语语料库的研究提供视频数据的支持。

  11. Language Learning for the 21st Century: Challenges for the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, G. Richard

    1993-01-01

    The American phenomenon of pervasive monolingualism is considered, and potential implications of the North American Free Trade Agreement are described. Five second-language learning/teaching areas are projected: language for specific purposes; obligatory language study; exchange programs; technological advances; and information resources.…

  12. How Do Typically Developing Deaf Children and Deaf Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Use the Face When Comprehending Emotional Facial Expressions in British Sign Language?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmark, Tanya; Atkinson, Joanna; Campbell, Ruth; Swettenham, John

    2014-01-01

    Facial expressions in sign language carry a variety of communicative features. While emotion can modulate a spoken utterance through changes in intonation, duration and intensity, in sign language specific facial expressions presented concurrently with a manual sign perform this function. When deaf adult signers cannot see facial features, their…

  13. Language Preservation: the Language of Science as a bridge to the Native American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.; Martin, M.; Grant, G.

    2009-12-01

    Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language, and the need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. Almost 70 percent of Navajos speak their tribal language in the home, and 25 per cent do not know English very well. In contrast, only 30 percent of Native Americans as a whole speak their own tribal language in the home. For the Cherokee and the Chippewa, less than 10 percent speak the native language in the home. And for the Navajo, the number of first graders who solely speak English is almost four times higher than it was in 1970. The U.S. Rosetta Project is the NASA contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone is the inspiration for the mission’s name. As outlined by the European Space Agency, Rosetta is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. The concept of ancient language as a key provides a theme for this NASA project’s outreach to Native American communities anxious for ways to enhance and improve the numbers of native speakers. In this talk we will present a concept for building on native language as it relates to STEM concepts. In 2009, a student from the Dine Nation interpreted 28 NASA terms for his senior project at Chinle High School in Chinle, AZ. These terms included such words as space telescope, weather satellite, space suit, and the planets including Neptune and Uranus. This work represents a foundation for continued work between NASA and the Navajo Nation. Following approval by the tribal elders, the U.S. Rosetta project would host the newly translated Navajo words on a web-site, and provide translation into both Navajo and English. A clickable map would allow the user to move through all the words, see Native artwork related to the word, and hear audio translation. Extension to very remote teachers in the

  14. Development of a new Arabic Sign Language Recognition Using K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. Reyadh Naoum

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new Arabic sign language recognition using K-nearest Neighbor algorithm. The algorithm is designed to work as a first level detection upon a series of steps to bring the captured character images into actual spelling. The algorithm acts in a high performance execution which is exactly needed for such type of systems. K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm and feature extraction are the guidelines of the recognition system, because hand gestures is treated as a block of curves needed to be extracted in the best fit with a predefined character set in the knowledge base. The specific image preprocessing to form a new idea of histogram and a histogram transition table is formed as a hashed string of transformation of block histogram sequence using K-Nearest Neighbor Algorithm. Preparing the knowledge base as a sequence of characters for one time and will and fast easily compared to detecting the character input.

  15. The Cognitive Neuroscience of Sign Language: Engaging Undergraduate Students' Critical Thinking Skills Using the Primary Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a modular activity on the neurobiology of sign language that engages undergraduate students in reading and analyzing the primary functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature. Drawing on a seed empirical article and subsequently published critique and rebuttal, students are introduced to a scientific debate concerning the functional significance of right-hemisphere recruitment observed in some fMRI studies of sign language processing. The activity requires minimal background knowledge and is not designed to provide students with a specific conclusion regarding the debate. Instead, the activity and set of articles allow students to consider key issues in experimental design and analysis of the primary literature, including critical thinking regarding the cognitive subtractions used in blocked-design fMRI studies, as well as possible confounds in comparing results across different experimental tasks. By presenting articles representing different perspectives, each cogently argued by leading scientists, the readings and activity also model the type of debate and dialogue critical to science, but often invisible to undergraduate science students. Student self-report data indicate that undergraduates find the readings interesting and that the activity enhances their ability to read and interpret primary fMRI articles, including evaluating research design and considering alternate explanations of study results. As a stand-alone activity completed primarily in one 60-minute class block, the activity can be easily incorporated into existing courses, providing students with an introduction both to the analysis of empirical fMRI articles and to the role of debate and critique in the field of neuroscience. PMID:26557797

  16. Telescopic Vector Composition and Polar Accumulated Motion Residuals for Feature Extraction in Arabic Sign Language Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assaleh K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces two novel approaches for feature extraction applied to video-based Arabic sign language recognition, namely, motion representation through motion estimation and motion representation through motion residuals. In the former, motion estimation is used to compute the motion vectors of a video-based deaf sign or gesture. In the preprocessing stage for feature extraction, the horizontal and vertical components of such vectors are rearranged into intensity images and transformed into the frequency domain. In the second approach, motion is represented through motion residuals. The residuals are then thresholded and transformed into the frequency domain. Since in both approaches the temporal dimension of the video-based gesture needs to be preserved, hidden Markov models are used for classification tasks. Additionally, this paper proposes to project the motion information in the time domain through either telescopic motion vector composition or polar accumulated differences of motion residuals. The feature vectors are then extracted from the projected motion information. After that, model parameters can be evaluated by using simple classifiers such as Fisher's linear discriminant. The paper reports on the classification accuracy of the proposed solutions. Comparisons with existing work reveal that up to 39% of the misclassifications have been corrected.

  17. Telescopic Vector Composition and Polar Accumulated Motion Residuals for Feature Extraction in Arabic Sign Language Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shanableh

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces two novel approaches for feature extraction applied to video-based Arabic sign language recognition, namely, motion representation through motion estimation and motion representation through motion residuals. In the former, motion estimation is used to compute the motion vectors of a video-based deaf sign or gesture. In the preprocessing stage for feature extraction, the horizontal and vertical components of such vectors are rearranged into intensity images and transformed into the frequency domain. In the second approach, motion is represented through motion residuals. The residuals are then thresholded and transformed into the frequency domain. Since in both approaches the temporal dimension of the video-based gesture needs to be preserved, hidden Markov models are used for classification tasks. Additionally, this paper proposes to project the motion information in the time domain through either telescopic motion vector composition or polar accumulated differences of motion residuals. The feature vectors are then extracted from the projected motion information. After that, model parameters can be evaluated by using simple classifiers such as Fisher's linear discriminant. The paper reports on the classification accuracy of the proposed solutions. Comparisons with existing work reveal that up to 39% of the misclassifications have been corrected.

  18. Language impairments in the development of sign: Do they reside in a specific modality or are they modality-independent deficits?

    OpenAIRE

    Woll, B.; G. Morgan

    2012-01-01

    Various theories of developmental language impairments have sought to explain these impairments in modality-specific ways – for example, that the language deficits in SLI or Down syndrome arise from impairments in auditory processing. Studies of signers with language impairments, especially those who are bilingual in a spoken language as well as a sign language, provide a unique opportunity to contrast abilities across language in two modalities (cross-modal bilingualism). The aim of the arti...

  19. Adaptation of the Language Proficiency Interview (LPI) for Assessing Sign Communicative Competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, William; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes the Sign Communication Proficiency Interview (SCPI) and discusses the SCPI rating scale, linguistic and cultural factors important for sign communicative competence, and skills in communicating simultaneously in signing and speaking. (EKN)

  20. "I Never Really Knew the History behind African American Language": Critical Language Pedagogy in an Advanced Placement English Language Arts Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Bell, April

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to two long-standing dilemmas that limit the effectiveness of language education for students who speak and write in African American Language (AAL): (1) the gap between theory and research on AAL and classroom practice, and (2) the need for critical language pedagogies. This article presents the effectiveness of a critical…

  1. L'adquisició infantil de les llengües de signes

    OpenAIRE

    Josep Quer

    2003-01-01

    This article offers an overview of research in sign language acquisition by children, mostly in American Sign Language. The results indicate that the developmental milestones and the linguistic errors made by children acquiring a sign language coincide with those observed in hearing children acquiring spoken languages. The visual-gestural modality is shown not to have the expected impact on the acquisition processes, which is arguably regulated by strictly linguistic principles.

  2. Diversity in Education: Kenyan Sign Language as a Medium of Instruction in Schools for the Deaf in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mweri, Jefwa G.

    2014-01-01

    In Kenya, the only official document that deals with the use of mother tongue (MT) in Schools is the 1967 Gachathi report. The report has clear-cut guidance and policy regarding MT use by the hearing children. However, for deaf children, no such policy exists; therefore, the use of the deaf child's MT (Kenyan Sign Language (KSL)) in schools…

  3. The role of sign language in enhancement of communicating skills and academic achievement of hearing impaired children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoman Vesna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controverse about the effects which the Sign Language of deaf has on their communicative and educational achievement is the subject of actual research. For the first time the effects of Serbian Sign Language are investigated. The sample was made of 60 subjects. The subjects were children with severe hearing impairments - more than 80 dB - aged 8 to 12 years and divided into a control and an experimental group. Before the beginning, the experimental and the control group were made equal in terms of the degree of hearing loss, communication abilities, IQ, age, sex and school achievement, and after the experiment their communicative ability was retested by means of the Communication Competence Scale and their school achievement was compared. The research scheme applied in the study is an experiment with parallel groups. The experimental group participated in a communication workshop on a daily basis for five months and learned Serbian sign language through various tasks and games. No activities were carried out with the control group. The data were statistically interpreted by means of the repeated measures two-factor analysis of variance. The results confirm that learning and improving Serbian Sign Language has positive effects on the promotion of verbal competence (receptive and expressive, global communicative competence and school achievement. The study has also confirmed that the Communication Competence Scale is valid, reliable and discriminative.

  4. Conglomeration of Hand Shapes and Texture Information for Recognizing Gestures of Indian Sign Language Using Feed forward Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.V.V.Kishore

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This research paper highlights the use of shape and texture information for recognizing gestures of Indian sign language. The proposed method involves extracting the hand segments from theoriginal color gesture images and subjecting them to further processing. In the next stage texture information of the hands in extracted using gabor filter. Again from the segmented hand portions shape is modeled using Chan-Vese(CV active contour model. Finally both the shape and texture information are merged together to produce a feature vector that essentially represents a sign in Indian SignLanguage. To reduce the dimensionality of the feature matrix principle component analysis is applied on the feature matrix. The obtained feature matrix will train a artificial neural network the learns using error back propagation algorithm. Indian sign language database was created for around 36 signs with 10 different signers. For training 4 sets gesture images were used and the remaining 6 sets were used for testing. After extensive testing under various conditions the average recognition rate stands at 98.2%.

  5. Features of Digital African American Language in a Social Network Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines a social network site (SNS) where specific interlocutors communicate by combining aspects of academic American English (AE), digital language (DL), and African American Language (AAL)--creating a digital form of AAL or digital AAL (DAAL). This article describes the features of DAAL in the discursive, online context of MySpace,…

  6. Panjabi Language Instruction at the American Sikh Temple School: A Site for Hybrid Cultural Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwana, Ravneet Kaur

    2007-01-01

    It has been claimed that there is only one language, the English language in the United States, because America is not a "polyglot boardinghouse ..." (Portes and Rumbaut 196). The fact is that America has always been a multilingual society, even though this mythical notion of a monolingual American identity reflecting American loyalty…

  7. Grammatical Gender in American Norwegian Heritage Language: Stability or Attrition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohndal, Terje; Westergaard, Marit

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates possible attrition/change in the gender system of Norwegian heritage language spoken in America. Based on data from 50 speakers in the Corpus of American Norwegian Speech (CANS), we show that the three-gender system is to some extent retained, although considerable overgeneralization of the masculine (the most frequent gender) is attested. This affects both feminine and neuter gender forms, while declension class markers such as the definite suffix remain unaffected. We argue that the gender category is vulnerable due to the lack of transparency of gender assignment in Norwegian. Furthermore, unlike incomplete acquisition, which may result in a somewhat different or reduced gender system, attrition is more likely to lead to general erosion, eventually leading to complete loss of gender. PMID:27014151

  8. Marcyliena Morgan, Language, Discourse and Power in African American Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Chevannes, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Toute étude sur la culture de la diaspora africaine, qui soulève des questions sur l’origine, risque de se trouver prise dans une controverse, dans la mesure où les spécialistes sont divisés sur le rôle du passé africain dans l’expérience vécue aux Amériques. Cependant, l’ouvrage Language, Discourse and Power in African American Culture sera objet de débat moins pour cette raison, bien que l’auteure reconnaisse et insiste sur les continuités africaines dans les styles verbaux de « l’anglais a...

  9. Racial Identity, Language Attitudes and Educational Experiences: The Voices of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the language attitudes, racial identity and educational experiences of 75 African American university and community college students. This study is motivated by the hypothesis that the power of language attitudes dictates, to a large extent, the language one speaks, which is intimately tied to one's sense of…

  10. Linguistic Reception of Latin American Students in Catalonia and Their Responses to Educational Language Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Michael; Patino-Santos, Adriana; Trenchs-Parera, Mireia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the connections between language policy implementation in three Barcelona-area secondary schools and the language attitudes and behaviors of Spanish-speaking Latin American newcomers. Data were collected through interviews and ethnographic participant observation document indexes of different forms of language socialization…

  11. Removing Obstacles for African American English-Speaking Children through Greater Understanding of Language Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Barbara Zurer; Conner, Tracy; Jackson, Janice E.

    2013-01-01

    Language difference among speakers of African American English (AAE) has often been considered language deficit, based on a lack of understanding about the AAE variety. Following Labov (1972), Wolfram (1969), Green (2002, 2011), and others, we define AAE as a complex rule-governed linguistic system and briefly discuss language structures that it…

  12. Physical exposure of sign language interpreters: baseline measures and reliability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Alain; Larivière, Christian; Imbeau, Daniel; Durand, Marie-José

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of physical exposure to musculoskeletal disorder risk factors must generally be performed directly in the field to assess the effectiveness of ergonomic interventions. To perform such an evaluation, the reliability of physical exposure measures under similar field conditions must be known. The objectives of this study were to estimate the reliability of physical exposure measures performed in the field and to establish the baseline values of physical exposure in sign language interpreters (SLI) before the implementation of an intervention. The electromyography (EMG) of the trapezius muscles as well as the wrist motions of the dominant arm were measured using goniometry on nine SLI on four different days. Several exposure parameters, proposed in the literature, were computed and the generalizability theory was used as a framework to assess reliability. Overall, SLI showed a relatively low level of trapezius muscle activity, but with little time at rest, and highly dynamic wrist motions. Electromyography exposure parameters showed poor to moderate reliability, while goniometry parameter reliability was moderate to excellent. For EMG parameters, performing repeated measurements on different days was more effective in increasing reliability than extending the duration of the measurement over one day. For goniometry, repeating measurements on different days was also effective in improving reliability, although good reliability could be obtained with a single sufficiently long measurement period. PMID:15830245

  13. Analysis of sign language proficiency among teachers of the deaf in primary schools in Bulawayo (Zimbabwe: Implications for learning and inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sibanda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sign Language proficiency among teachers of the deaf form the basis for effective learning by deaf children. It is also the bedrock of successful inclusion. Previous studies and literature have equivocally confirmed that young children who are deaf learn more effectively when taught using Sign Language. The current study sought to establish the level of Sign language competency among teachers of children who are deaf in 10 of the primary schools in Bulawayo that enroll children who are deaf. A descriptive survey and ex-post facto research designs were employed in soliciting data from a sample of 15 teachers of the deaf and 5 college lecturers. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and a Modified Sign Language Proficiency Interview (MSLPI on a 6-Point rating scale. Document analysis and observation were used to authenticate responses from college lecturers and teachers of the deaf respectively. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS and descriptive summaries were used to analyse data. The data indicated that teachers of the deaf in Bulawayo lacked Sign Language proficiency. They could only afford the lowest two scores on the (MSLPI scale that is the Novice and the No Functional Skills levels. What teachers at times mistook for Sign language was mere finger spelling and some distorted signed systems. From these findings the study concluded that the learning of the deaf children in primary schools in Bulawayo was heavily compromised due to lack of effective communication between teachers and the learners. The study also concluded that the inclusion of deaf children in the schools would remain a pipe dream as long as the teachers were not proficient in Sign language which is the first language of the deaf. The study recommended regular Sign Language staff development programmes, intensification of the practical component of Sign Language in the college programme for trainee teachers of the deaf, external scholarship and

  14. The evolution of language and languages

    OpenAIRE

    Hurford, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Human languages, such as French, Cantonese or American Sign Language, are socio- cultural entities. Knowledge of them (`competence') is acquired by exposure to the ap- propriate environment. Languages are maintained and transmitted by acts of speaking and writing; and this is also the means by which languages evolve. The utterances of one generation are processed by their children to form mental grammars, which in some sense summarize, or generalize over, the children's linguistic experie...

  15. Time-Compressed Professionalization: The Experience of Public School Sign Language Interpreters in Mountain-Plains States

    OpenAIRE

    Bolster, Laurie A

    2005-01-01

    Laurie Bolster Abstract Rapid establishment of interpreting skill and knowledge standards for public school sign language interpreters has created a virtual mandate for their immediate, time-compressed, professionalization. A series of federal laws requiring accessibility to communication for deaf people have escalated demand for interpreters far beyond the supply. Thousands of people with varying levels of knowledge, skill, and experience, have been drawn into service in ...

  16. Predicate Structures, Gesture, and Simultaneity in the Representation of Action in British Sign Language: Evidence From Deaf Children and Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cormier, K.; Smith, S.; Sevcikova, Z.

    2013-01-01

    British Sign Language (BSL) signers use a variety of structures, such as constructed action (CA), depicting constructions (DCs), or lexical verbs, to represent action and other verbal meanings. This study examines the use of these verbal predicate structures and their gestural counterparts, both separately and simultaneously, in narratives by deaf children with various levels of exposure to BSL (ages 5;1 to 7;5) and deaf adult native BSL signers. Results reveal that all groups used the same t...

  17. Random Forest-Based Recognition of Isolated Sign Language Subwords Using Data from Accelerometers and Surface Electromyographic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ruiliang; Chen, Xiang; Cao, Shuai; Zhang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Sign language recognition (SLR) has been widely used for communication amongst the hearing-impaired and non-verbal community. This paper proposes an accurate and robust SLR framework using an improved decision tree as the base classifier of random forests. This framework was used to recognize Chinese sign language subwords using recordings from a pair of portable devices worn on both arms consisting of accelerometers (ACC) and surface electromyography (sEMG) sensors. The experimental results demonstrated the validity of the proposed random forest-based method for recognition of Chinese sign language (CSL) subwords. With the proposed method, 98.25% average accuracy was obtained for the classification of a list of 121 frequently used CSL subwords. Moreover, the random forests method demonstrated a superior performance in resisting the impact of bad training samples. When the proportion of bad samples in the training set reached 50%, the recognition error rate of the random forest-based method was only 10.67%, while that of a single decision tree adopted in our previous work was almost 27.5%. Our study offers a practical way of realizing a robust and wearable EMG-ACC-based SLR systems. PMID:26784195

  18. Metáforas en Lengua de Señas Chilena Metaphors in Chilean Sign Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Becerra

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio describe las características del lenguaje metafórico de personas sordas chilenas y su impacto en la comprensión lingüística. La relevancia de esta pregunta radica en la escasez de investigaciones realizadas, particularmente a nivel nacional. Se desarrolló un estudio cualitativo en base a análisis de videos de sujetos sordos en habla espontánea. Se confeccionó una lista de metáforas conceptuales y no conceptuales en Lengua de Señas Chilena. Posteriormente se evaluó su comprensión en un grupo de sujetos sordos, educados con modalidad comunicativa de lengua de señas. Los resultados obtenidos permiten observar la existencia de metáforas propias de la cultura sorda. Ellas serían coherentes con las particulares experiencias de los sujetos sordos y no necesariamente concuerdan con el lenguaje oral.The present study examined the characteristics of Chilean deaf people's metaphoric language and its relevance in linguistic comprehension. This key question is based in the scarcity of studies conducted in Chile. A qualitative study was developed, on the basis of analysis of videos of Chilean deaf people spontaneous sign language. A list of conceptual and no conceptual metaphors in Chilean sign language was developed. The comprehension of these metaphors was evaluated in a group of deaf subjets, educated using sign language communication. The results identify the existence of metaphors of the deaf culture. These methaphors would be coherent with the particular experiences of deaf subjets and do not necessarily agree with spoken language.

  19. Dual Language Use in Sign-Speech Bimodal Bilinguals: fNIRS Brain-Imaging Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovelman, Ioulia; Shalinsky, Mark H.; White, Katherine S.; Schmitt, Shawn N.; Berens, Melody S.; Paymer, Nora; Petitto, Laura-Ann

    2009-01-01

    The brain basis of bilinguals' ability to use two languages at the same time has been a hotly debated topic. On the one hand, behavioral research has suggested that bilingual dual language use involves complex and highly principled linguistic processes. On the other hand, brain-imaging research has revealed that bilingual language switching…

  20. Language Use along the Urban Street in Senegal: Perspectives from Proprietors of Commercial Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohata, Mariko

    2012-01-01

    Senegal adopted French as the country's sole official language at the time of independence in 1960, since when the language has been used in administration and other formal domains. Similarly, French is employed throughout the formal education system as the language of instruction. Since the 1990s, however, government has mounted an ambitious…

  1. The Interplay between Perception of Language and Perception of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poizner, Howard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigates the psychological representation of visual-gestural languages from a cross-linguistic perspective. The perception of signers of American and Chinese Sign Languages is analyzed. (27 references) (Author/VWL)

  2. 自然手语翻译器系统设计和实现%Natural Sign LanguageInterpreter System Design and ImPlementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫民; 贺冬春

    2015-01-01

    In order to better serve the deaf community,community made a lot of effort.But sign language popularization and learning dififculties,affect the actual effect of the service.In order to solve this problem,we put forward a set of nature of the deaf sign language resources construction,service platform development, and an integrated approach to mobile phone terminal APP.The scheme on the basis of the electronic resource natural sign language,the integrated use of natural language processing,knowledge management,3 d animation modeling, mobile Internet technology,the development of Android technology,the development of the nature of the deaf sign language interpreter.The whole system generated by the natural sign language resource management subsystem and subsystem, natural sign language sign language to show the client.Natural language generation subsystems including natural language processing,such as natural sign language animation automatically generated module;Natural sign language resource management subsystem to complete the management of the natural sign language related resources,including natural language semantic knowledge, natural sign language conversion semantic knowledge resources,sign language,etc. The system is economical and practical,widely used,easy to use,wide prospect,can be used to learn sign language,sign language, virtual host,help to sign language learning and the promotion,promote the construction and development of a harmonious society.%为了更好的服务好聋人群体,社会做了很多努力。但手语普及和学习的困难,影响了服务的实际效果。为了解决这个问题,文章提出了一套聋人自然手语资源建设、服务平台开发和手机终端APP实现的综合方案。该方案在电子化自然手语资源的基础上,综合运用了自然语言处理、知识管理、3D动画建模、移动互联技术、Android开发等技术,开发了聋人自然手语翻译器。整个系统由自然手语生

  3. Natural Sign LanguageInterpreter System Design and ImPlementation%自然手语翻译器系统设计和实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卫民; 贺冬春

    2015-01-01

    In order to better serve the deaf community,community made a lot of effort.But sign language popularization and learning dififculties,affect the actual effect of the service.In order to solve this problem,we put forward a set of nature of the deaf sign language resources construction,service platform development, and an integrated approach to mobile phone terminal APP.The scheme on the basis of the electronic resource natural sign language,the integrated use of natural language processing,knowledge management,3 d animation modeling, mobile Internet technology,the development of Android technology,the development of the nature of the deaf sign language interpreter.The whole system generated by the natural sign language resource management subsystem and subsystem, natural sign language sign language to show the client.Natural language generation subsystems including natural language processing,such as natural sign language animation automatically generated module;Natural sign language resource management subsystem to complete the management of the natural sign language related resources,including natural language semantic knowledge, natural sign language conversion semantic knowledge resources,sign language,etc. The system is economical and practical,widely used,easy to use,wide prospect,can be used to learn sign language,sign language, virtual host,help to sign language learning and the promotion,promote the construction and development of a harmonious society.%为了更好的服务好聋人群体,社会做了很多努力。但手语普及和学习的困难,影响了服务的实际效果。为了解决这个问题,文章提出了一套聋人自然手语资源建设、服务平台开发和手机终端APP实现的综合方案。该方案在电子化自然手语资源的基础上,综合运用了自然语言处理、知识管理、3D动画建模、移动互联技术、Android开发等技术,开发了聋人自然手语翻译器。整个系统由自然手语生

  4. Efeitos de modalidade de língua: as línguas de sinais/Language modality effects: the sign languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronice Muller de Quadros

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available As línguas de sinais que são visuais-espaciais oferecem um campo de análise que se refere aos possíveis efeitos que a diferença na modalidade pode implicar para as teorias lingüísticas e para as análises discursivas. Neste artigo, vamos nos deter a discutir os efeitos de modalidade na perspectiva teórica apresentando uma revisão dos estudos clássicos das línguas de sinais, bem como dos estudos que buscam compreender as especificidades dessas línguas. Sign languages that are visuo-spatial languages offer an area of analyses that refer to possible effects in which the difference in the modality can have implication to the linguistic theories and to the discourse analyses. In this paper, we will discuss the modality effects in the theoretical perspective presenting a revision of the classical studies of sign languages, as well as the studies that look for understanding the specificity of the languages.

  5. The Political Uses of Sign Language: The Case of the French Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Sophia

    2005-01-01

    The story of the Abbe de l'Epee's "methodical signs" is best known as a key moment in Deaf history. However, at the time of the French Revolution this story served a larger political function. The example of de l'Epee's deaf students, and their seemingly miraculous command of ideas learned through gestural signs, helped the French revolutionaries…

  6. Searching for Language: Process, Not Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sherman

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the work of William Stokoe who not only made the claim that American Sign Language is in fact language, but who also questioned the view of linguists of the time and built a unique account of the gestural theory of language. Suggests that semantic phonology is the true legacy of Stokoe's lifelong study of language. (Author/VWL)

  7. Interpretive signs designed to trigger naturalist intelligence at two American zoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Martha

    An investigation of interpretive graphics was conducted in 2005 at two mid-sized AZA-accredited zoos, Lowry Park Zoo, Tampa, Florida and Knoxville Zoo, Knoxville, Tennessee. The Lowry Park Zoo study investigated signs at a red-tailed hawk and sandhill crane exhibit. Combination signs and wordless signs were more effective helping visitors see animals, increasing holding time, and number of engagements than treatments of no signs, or signs with words only. A second study, at Knoxville Zoo, tested combination and wordless signs in a children's zoo, investigating 31 signs at a 3.5-acre exhibit. Comparisons of visitors seeing the animals/using interactive exhibit elements, holding time, and engagement activities, showed wordless signs were more effective than combination signs. Differences in gender ratio, age, group size, and other demographics were not significant. Visit motivation differed between zoos, with visitors from Lowry Park Zoo more often articulating reason for a visit as wanting to see animals. Visitors at Knoxville Zoo most often said they wanted to spend time with family and friends. Differences in potential for naturalist intelligence were probably related to local practices rather than to innate differences in naturalist intelligence. The number of communities in Florida that regulate pet ownership and provide lawn service could account for the lower number of people who have pets and plants. At both institutions, behaviors supported educational theories. The importance of signs as advanced organizers was shown where signs were removed at the bird exhibit at Lowry Park Zoo, with fewer visitors seeing the animals. Social interaction was noted at both zoos, with intra- and inter-group conversations observed. If naturalist intelligence is necessary to see animals, visitors run a continuum. Some are unable to see animals with signs and assistance from other visitors; others see animals with little difficulty. The importance of honing naturalist

  8. A Comparison of Foreign Language Learning Social Environments, Motivation, and Beliefs between Chinese and American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinxiao; Chen, Dianbing

    2011-01-01

    For the purposes of revealing and comparing the social, cultural, and motivational differences between American and Chinese undergraduate students learning foreign language, a sample of 100 students at University of Wyoming was asked to fill out a Foreign Language Learning Motivation and Beliefs questionnaire and 61 respondents completed the…

  9. Auxiliary BE Production by African American English-Speaking Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrity, April W.; Oetting, Janna B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine 3 forms ("am," "is," "are") of auxiliary BE production by African American English (AAE)-speaking children with and without specific language impairment (SLI). Method: Thirty AAE speakers participated: 10 six-year-olds with SLI, 10 age-matched controls, and 10 language-matched controls. BE production was examined through…

  10. Speaking like a "Good American": National Identity and the Legacy of German-Language Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Amanda

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: As a case study in minority language restriction, the German example provides a useful historical counterpoint to more recent debates regarding the place of non-English languages in American schools. Purpose/Objective/Research Question/Focus of Study and Research Design: This historical analysis examines the role of education…

  11. Language Minority Students in American Schools: An Education in English. ESL & Applied Linguistics Professional Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, H. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    This book addresses questions of language education in the United States, focusing on how to teach the 3.5 million students in American public schools who do not speak English as a native language. These students are at the center of a national debate about the right relationship among ESL, bilingual, and mainstream classes. Bilingual education…

  12. The Effects Employing Sign Language and Rewards to Teach Rote Counting to 50 with a Student with Down Syndrome and Intellectual Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Griffin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of sign language to teach a second grade student with developmental delays to rote count to fifty. The second grade student with a communication delay that impacted his ability to produce oral communication served as our participant. An ABAB reversal design was used to evaluate the effects of employing sign language. The outcomes indicated an initial gradual improvement in our participant’s skills in rote counting. A return to baseline resulted in a large decrease in performance. A replication of the sign language condition resulted in a large improvements in correct counting. The efficacy of employing manual sign language in the classroom was discussed. Both teachers and parents were satisfied with the outcomes.

  13. Cultural Views, Language Ability, and Mammography Use in Chinese American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenchi; Wang, Judy; Chen, Mei-Yuh; Feng, Shibao; Yi, Bin; Mandelblatt, Jeanne S.

    2009-01-01

    Mammography screening rates among Chinese American women have been reported to be low. This study examines whether and how culture views and language ability influence mammography adherence in this mostly immigrant population. Asymptomatic Chinese American women (n = 466) aged 50 and older, recruited from the Washington, D.C. area, completed a…

  14. Bidialectal African American Adolescents' Beliefs about Spoken Language Expectations in English Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Amanda; Escher, Allison

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the perspectives of bidialectal African American adolescents--adolescents who speak both African American Vernacular English (AAVE) and Standard English--on spoken language expectations in their English classes. Previous research has demonstrated that many teachers hold negative views of AAVE, but existing scholarship has…

  15. Expressive and Receptive Language Effects of African American English on a Sentence Imitation Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, J. Michael; Jackson, Sandra C.; Evangelou, Evangelos; Smith, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    This study tests the extent to which giving credit for African American English (AAE) responses on a General American English sentence imitation test mitigates dialect effects. Forty-eight AAE-speaking second graders completed the Recalling Sentences subtest of the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Third Edition (1995). A Bayesian…

  16. Vital Signs: The Current State of African Americans in Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This section presents a statistical record of the progress of African Americans in institutions of higher education. The composite index of higher educational indicators shows a slight downward trend in Spring 1998. Other tables present information on racial inequality, students and faculty from Africa, graduation rates of Black Americans,…

  17. Design of the Sign Language Template Library Based on Index Structure%基于索引结构的手语词库的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于美娟; 许力; 刘岩恺; 马希荣

    2012-01-01

    With the increasingly widespread applications of HCI,the sign language recognition technology has gotten a lot of attention and development On the basic of the research of the current sign language recognition techniques, for the disadvantages about sign language template library and the China sign language features, the sign language template library based index structure was designed. And with this method, the sign language recognition accuracy and efficiency are improved.%随着人机交互应用的日益广泛,手语识别技术得到了很大的重视与发展.基于对当前手语识别技术的研究,针对手语模板库存在的缺点及中国手语的特点,对手语词库进行设计,并通过建立基于索引结构的手语词库,提高了手语识别的准确性和效率.

  18. Meeting the Needs of Signers in the Field of Speech and Language Pathology: Some Considerations for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cripps, Jody H.; Cooper, Sheryl B.; Supalla, Samuel J.; Evitts, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Deaf individuals who use American Sign Language (ASL) are rarely the focus of professionals in speech-language pathology. Although society is widely thought of in terms of those who speak, this norm is not all-inclusive. Many signing individuals exhibit disorders in signed language and need treatment much like their speaking peers. Although there…

  19. LANGUAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ The word"language"comes from the Latin(拉丁语)word"lingua",which means"tongue".The tongue is used in more sound combinations(结合)than any other organ(器官)of speech.A broader(概括性的)interpretation(解释)of"language"is that it is any form of expression.This includes(包括)writing,sign(手势)language,dance,music,painting,and mathematics.But the basic(基本的)form of language is speech.

  20. Predicate structures, gesture, and simultaneity in the representation of action in British Sign Language: evidence from deaf children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, Kearsy; Smith, Sandra; Sevcikova, Zed

    2013-01-01

    British Sign Language (BSL) signers use a variety of structures, such as constructed action (CA), depicting constructions (DCs), or lexical verbs, to represent action and other verbal meanings. This study examines the use of these verbal predicate structures and their gestural counterparts, both separately and simultaneously, in narratives by deaf children with various levels of exposure to BSL (ages 5;1 to 7;5) and deaf adult native BSL signers. Results reveal that all groups used the same types of predicative structures, including children with minimal BSL exposure. However, adults used CA, DCs, and/or lexical signs simultaneously more frequently than children. These results suggest that simultaneous use of CA with lexical and depicting predicates is more complex than the use of these predicate structures alone and thus may take deaf children more time to master. PMID:23670881

  1. Modality-Dependent and -Independent Factors in the Organisation of the Signed Language Lexicon: Insights from Semantic and Phonological Fluency Tasks in BSL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Chloë; Rowley, Katherine; Atkinson, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    We used fluency tasks to investigate lexical organisation in Deaf adults who use British sign language (BSL). The number of responses produced to semantic categories did not differ from reports in spoken languages. However, there was considerable variability in the number of responses across phonological categories, and some signers had difficulty…

  2. Evaluating the Phonology of Nicaraguan Sign Language: Preprimer and Primer Dolch Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delkamiller, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 30-years linguists have been witnessing the birth and evolution of a language, Idioma de Señas de Nicaragua (ISN), in Nicaragua, and have initiated and documented the syntax and grammar of this new language. Research is only beginning to emerge on the implications of ISN on the education of deaf/hard of hearing children in Nicaragua.…

  3. English Language Proficiency and Smoking Prevalence among California's Asian Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Hao; Shimizu, Robin; Chen, Moon S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors documented California's tobacco control initiatives for Asian Americans and the current tobacco use status among Asian subgroups and provide a discussion of the challenges ahead. The California Tobacco Control Program has employed a comprehensive approach to decrease tobacco use in Asian Americans, including ethnic-specific media campaigns, culturally competent interventions, and technical assistance and training networks. Surveillance of tobacco use among Asian Americans and the ...

  4. Language and Cross-Cultural Training in American Multinational Corporations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Marianne

    1985-01-01

    Discusses a survey done to assess the current situation in foreign language, English language, and cross-cultural training among U.S. multinational corporations. A questionnaire was sent to 300 companies representing 25 different types of business involved in international trade or development. Sixty-two percent of the companies responded to the…

  5. Language of administration and neuropsychological test performance in neurologically intact Hispanic American bilingual adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard; Croyle, Kristin L; Cavazos-Gonzalez, Cynthia; Sandoval, Omar

    2007-11-01

    This study compared the performance of Hispanic American bilingual adults on Spanish and English language versions of a neuropsychological test battery. Language achievement test scores were used to divide 36 bilingual, neurologically intact, Hispanic Americans from south Texas into Spanish-dominant, balanced, and English-dominant bilingual groups. They were administered the eight subtests of the Bateria Neuropsicologica and the Matrix Reasoning subtest of the WAIS-III in Spanish and English. Half the participants were tested in Spanish first. Balanced bilinguals showed no significant differences in test scores between Spanish and English language administrations. Spanish and/or English dominant bilinguals showed significant effects of language of administration on tests with higher language compared to visual perceptual weighting (Woodcock-Munoz Language Survey-Revised, Letter Fluency, Story Memory, and Stroop Color and Word Test). Scores on tests with higher visual-perceptual weighting (Matrix Reasoning, Figure Memory, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Spatial Span), were not significantly affected by language of administration, nor were scores on the Spanish/California Verbal Learning Test, and Digit Span. A problem was encountered in comparing false positive rates in each language, as Spanish norms fell below English norms, resulting in a much higher false positive rate in English across all bilingual groupings. Use of a comparison standard (picture vocabulary score) reduced false positive rates in both languages, but the higher false positive rate in English persisted. PMID:17900857

  6. Thoughts about the work of translation and interpretation in sign language as ethical and political practice in self care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyenne Matos da Costa Vieira-Machado

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Think about the work of sign language translator and interpreter (SLTI as ethical and political practice in self care constitutes an urgent question in our time and it is the main objective of this paper. With this constitution of academic and specialized knowledge of the translation and interpretation studies of sign language e its affiliation with the Translation Studies field, the displacement of the SLTI is emergent. Besides the introduction and final conclusions, the text will be divided in three parts. The first part, we will discuss about research and political questions that emerges about the SLTI. Those are undertaken by government devices with the objective to locate the relevance of the purpose of this text that is beyond prescriptive and descriptive ethics and discuss it as practical life. In the second part of the text it will be problematized, questions, inspired by Foucault, that penetrates the ethical practice of the SLTI starting from the comprehension of its function as intellectual in the area and its responsibility that asumes in the elaboration of its own subjectivity. To finish, in the last part of this paper, the commitment with the translation and the text and with the other as an ethical position adopted.

  7. Foton Signs Formal Joint Venture Contract with American Cummins in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Canhua

    2006-01-01

    @@ Lu Hao, Vice Mayor of Beijing Municipal Government, Zhang Xiaoyu, Vice Chairman of the China Machinery Industry Federation,An Qingheng, Chairman of the Board of Beiqi Foton Motor Co., Ltd., Wang Jinyu, General Manager of Beiqi Foton Motor Co., Ltd., Zhou Liang, Vice General Manager of Beiqi Foton Motor Co.,Ltd., Steve Chapman, Vice President of American Cummins Inc..

  8. Scientific-Based Translation of Standardized Questionnaires into Sign Language of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.S. Smeijers; B. van den Bogaerde; M. Ens-Dokkum; A.M. Oudesluys-Murphy

    2014-01-01

    In healthcare, the accuracy of interpretation is the most critical component of safe and effective communication between providers and patients in medical settings characterized by language and cultural barriers. Although medical education should prepare healthcare providers for common issues they w

  9. Do You See the Signs? Evaluating Language, Branding, and Design in a Library Signage Audit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempler, Amy F.; Polger, Mark Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Signage represents more than directions or policies; it is informational, promotional, and sets the tone of the environment. To be effective, signage must be consistent, concise, and free of jargon and punitive language. An efficient assessment of signage should include a complete inventory of existing signage, including an analysis of the types…

  10. Loss of Culture, Loss of Language: An Afghan-American Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Saydee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study voices the concerns of Afghan-American parents about the disappearance of the Dari language among youth and provides data for policymakers to consider, particularly as the United States is deeply involved in Afghanistan. In this quantitative study, the researcher argues that when it comes to the decline of their heritage language and the inexorable shift towards mainstream culture, Afghan families experience similar forces of assimilation as other immigrants in the United States. The 27 Afghan parents from different households who participated in the study attribute the decline of their heritage language to Afghan-American children becoming accustomed to speaking English at home and in public, and wanting to fit into the mainstream culture. This study uses a Reversing Language Shift (RLS perspective to identify factors that have contributed to the slow erosion of Dari within the Afghan community in San Diego.

  11. 中国手语数据库建设的构想%The Conception of the Chinese Sign Language Database Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凯; 张书珍; 袁甜甜

    2014-01-01

    介绍学习规范化的中国手语的重要性,论述建设中国手语数据库的重要意义和技术上的可行性,并从手语数据库功能、数据库系统构成、视频库设计等几个方面进行分析和探讨,构建一款可适用于聋人和健听人检索、研究和学习中国手语的多功能的手语数据库,同时提出需要注意的几个问题。%This article introduces the importance of normalized Chinese sign language learning and discusses the significance of Chinese sign language database construction and its technical feasibility. By way of such aspects as the functions of the sign language database, the composition of the database system, the design of the video database, etc., this paper analyzes and discusses about the establishment of a multifunctional sign language database which is suitable for both people with hearing impairment and people without hearing impairment to retrieve information, study and learn Chinese sign language and meanwhile proposes several problems which need paying attention to.

  12. Research on Sign Language Teaching in China's Colleges and the Suggestions%我国高校手语教学研究及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢苇

    2014-01-01

    随着中国社会人文的不断进步,社会对残疾人教育越来越重视。手语研究与手语教育的发展,吸引着越来越多人的目光。近年来,我国各特教高校纷纷设立了手语课程,更多的人加入手语学习的行列,手语教学也在实践中得到推广。针对我国高校手语教学中存在的问题,本文提出了教学方法改革的几点建议。%With the continually development of social humanity in China, society plays an important role in the education for disabled people. Sign language study and sign language education attract more and more people’s attention. In recent years, sign language cour-ses are established in some special education colleges and more and more people are brought to study sign language, which promotes sign language teaching practice. In view of the problems in practical teaching, this essay puts forward several suggestions on the reform of teaching methods.

  13. A whole language curriculum for nonreading, limited English proficient Native American adult factory workers

    OpenAIRE

    Franks, Mary Susan Tomat

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a whole language curriculum for limited English proficient, nonreading Native American adult factory workers. The curriculum was based upon a humanistic view of the adult literacy process. Cognitive and psycholinguistic theories of learning were used as the theoretical foundation for the curriculum. Schema theory was presented as part of a reader-centered, psycholinguistic processing model of English as a Second Language reading. The curricu...

  14. Language Measurement Equivalence of the Ethnic Identity Scale With Mexican American Early Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    White, Rebecca M. B.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Knight, George P.; Zeiders, Katharine H.

    2011-01-01

    The current study considers methodological challenges in developmental research with linguistically diverse samples of young adolescents. By empirically examining the cross-language measurement equivalence of a measure assessing three components of ethnic identity development (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) among Mexican American adolescents, the study both assesses the cross-language measurement equivalence of a common measure of ethnic identity and provides an appropriate c...

  15. ON MALE AND FEMALE SPEECH AND MORE: CATEGORICAL GENDER INDEXICALITY IN INDIGENOUS SOUTH AMERICAN LANGUAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    International audience Indexing the gender of the speaker or the addressee within any type of sentence is often considered as sociolinguistic variation rather than as a gender-exclusive rule. This paper presents a survey of categorical (rather than statistical) gender indexicality in grammar with the greatest number of languages to date. It also offers a data-informed typology of categorical gender indexicality based on 41 indigenous South American languages, aimed at encouraging and facil...

  16. Reading the Body in Bret Easton Ellis's American Psycho (1991) : Confusing Signs and Signifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Roche, David

    2009-01-01

    http://www.graat.fr/roche.pdf International audience This article examines how matter, in Ellis's scandalous novel, is read according to the texts that inform the yuppie's etiquette, labeling the body as either “healthy” or “unhealthy.” Basing his argumentation on the works of Judith Butler, Luce Irigaray, Jacques Lacan, Clément Rosset and D.W. Winnicott, the author argues that the body is perceived as a sign of something when it is actually an effect of the signifier, and that the nove...

  17. 多层DGMM识别器在中国手语识别中的应用%A Hierarchical DGMM Recognizer for Chinese Sign Language Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴江琴; 高文; 陈熙霖; 马继涌

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is the language used by the deaf, which is a comparatively s teadier expressive system composed of signs corresponding to postures and motion s assisted by facial expression. And it is a language communicated by motion/vis ion. The objective of sign language recognition research is to "see" the langu age of the deaf. The integration of sign language recognition and sign languag e synthesis jointly comprises a "human-computer sign language interpreter", w hich facilitates the interaction between deaf people and their surrounding s. The issue of sign language recognition is to recognize dynamic gesture signal , that is, to recognize sign language signal. Considering the speed and performa nce of the recognition system, Cyberglove is selected as gesture input device in sign language recognition system, DGMM (dynamic Gaussian mixture model) is used as recognition technique, and hierarchical recognizer is used in recognizing mo dule, which can recognize 274 sign language words coming from the dictionary of Chinese sign language with an accuracy of 97.4%, based on Chinese sign language' s own characteristic. Compared with the recognition system based on single-DGMM recognizer, the recognition rate of hierarchical DGMM recognizer is nearly equa l to that of single-DGMM recognizer, but its recognition speed is apparently mu ch faster than that of single-DGMM recognizer.%手语是聋人使用的语言,是由手形动作辅之以表情姿势由符号构成的比较稳定的表达系统 ,是一种靠动作/视觉交际的语言.手语识别的研究目标是让机器"看懂"聋人的语言.手语识别和手语合成相结合,构成一个"人-机手语翻译系统",便于聋人与周围环境的交流.手语识别问题是动态手势信号即手语信号的识别问题.考虑到系统的实时性及识别效率, 该系统选取Cyberglove型号数据手套作为手语输入设备,采用DGMM(dynamic Gaussian mixt ure model)作为系统的识别技术,并根据

  18. Language Deficits or Differences: What We Know about African American Vernacular English in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Yvette R.; Schroeder, Valarie M.

    2013-01-01

    This focus of this paper is to present an overview of the current research which examines the language and literacy performance of African American children who speak African American Vernacular English (AAVE), as presented from a deficit versus difference perspective. Language and literacy and assessment and remediation of AAVE speakers are…

  19. Sign painting

    OpenAIRE

    Repstock, Anna Marie

    2012-01-01

    My MFA thesis project titled Sign Painting includes five oil paintings. Each painting contains two words squished together, eliminating the space between them: BOXINGGRIN, WHISKYMUSTACHE, SLOWAMBULANCE, PERISHOW, GRIZZLEND. In my painting practice I provocatively invite words into the visual space of oil paint. The provocation comes from the idea that language, which is verbal, and paint, which is purely visual, are opposed. But I have found that language inevitably asks to be painted. Poetic...

  20. Bimodal Bilinguals Co-Activate Both Languages during Spoken Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shook, Anthony; Marian, Viorica

    2012-01-01

    Bilinguals have been shown to activate their two languages in parallel, and this process can often be attributed to overlap in input between the two languages. The present study examines whether two languages that do not overlap in input structure, and that have distinct phonological systems, such as American Sign Language (ASL) and English, are…

  1. 中国手语与中国古文字的比较%A Comparison of Chinese Sign Language and Chinese Ancient Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓梅; 谭中华

    2014-01-01

    Sign language originated from primitive society and it had a close relation with original language;Ancient Chinese characters recorded the original language and they are expressions of written original language. This paper, by comparing Chinese sign language with Chinese ancient characters, shows the similarities and differences between them and discusses the problems between the two and the original language and primitive thought, providing a new perspective for the research on sign language and ancient characters.%手语起源于原始社会,与原始语言有着密切的关系;古文字记录着原始语言,是原始语言书面化的体现者。通过中国手语与中国古文字比较,突出展现了二者的异同点,进而探讨了二者与原始语言、原始思维等方面的问题,为手语研究和古文字研究提供了一个新的角度。

  2. An Assessment of Language Attitudes towards African American Vernacular English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nikole D.

    2012-01-01

    Speakers of stigmatized varieties are often judged as less educated and less competent than speakers of prestigious varieties. This can have profound effects on speakers' academic achievement and language assessment in schools. Linguists' efforts to destigmatize AAVE have included providing commentary in media outlets, publishing…

  3. 《中国手语》中手语构词特点分析%Analysis on the Word Formation Characteristics of Entries in Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛赛群; 兰继军

    2014-01-01

    The word formation characteristics of Chinese sign language means that there are some characteris-tics and relations between the entries of Chinese sign language.The word formation characteristics of entries in Chi-nese Sign Language are mainly embodied in five aspects:generation phenomenon,basic word phenomenon,reduc-tion phenomenon,facial expressions and posture as the component of sign language and the connection between sign position and word formation.%手语构词特点,指手语词汇之间共有的某些特点与联系,是从所有手语词汇中总结得出的规律与特征。《中国手语》中手语的构词特点主要表现在五个方面:兼代现象,基本词现象,简缩现象,面部表情与体态成为构词成分,手语位置与构词存在关联。

  4. Strategies for North American Missionaries' Relational Language-Culture Learning in the Japanese Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe-Kim, Rie

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on presenting the fieldwork findings derived from studying North-American missionaries' relational dynamics with the Japanese people, and the strategies that impacted their language-culture learning. This study also focused on applying the fieldwork findings towards the creation of a coaching model designed to help…

  5. Considerations Influencing Hispanic-American Mothers' Intergenerational Language Practices with Their Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Gloria Y.

    2013-01-01

    Using basic qualitative research methodology, the purpose for this dissertation study was to explore the language, social and learning considerations and subsequent actions taken by eight, bilingual, Hispanic-American mothers of children with autism between the ages of four and eight-years-old regarding speaking Spanish, English or both languages…

  6. Greek American Ethnic Identity, Cultural Experience and the "Embodied Language" of Dance: Implications for Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issari, Philia

    2011-01-01

    This ethnographic study aims to contribute to better counseling services for the Greek American population in the U.S. by providing cultural knowledge and insight into one of the smaller ethnic groups that has been overlooked in the literature. More specifically, it explores the role of the "embodied language" of dance in the formation of Greek…

  7. Heritage Language Education and Investment among Asian American Middle Schoolers: Insights from a Charter School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Hsuan; Lee, Kathy; Leung, Genevieve

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates Mandarin learning experiences of Chinese American teenagers from working-class families. Drawing on a subset of data from a larger ethnographic study, we focus on 14 middle schoolers who studied Mandarin as a heritage language at a socially engaging school with Mandarin as part of its official curriculum. The data highlight…

  8. Rosemary Shingobe Barstow, Ojibwe Language Instructor. With Teacher's Guide. Native Americans of the Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minneapolis Public Schools, MN.

    A biography for elementary school students introduces Rosemary Shingobe Barstow, a Native American Ojibwe language instructor and bilingual education consultant. A teacher's guide following the bibliography contains suggested activities and worksheets, objectives, directions for teachers, vocabulary list, resource list, and an evaluation…

  9. Heritage-Language Literacy Practices: A Case Study of Three Japanese American Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Kumi; Lee, Jin Sook

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the heritage-language (HL) literacy practices of three Japanese American families residing in a predominantly Anglo and Latino community. Through interviews and observations, this study investigates Japanese children's HL-literacy practices, parental attitudes toward HL literacy, and challenges in HL-literacy development in…

  10. Performance of American Indian Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome on the Test of Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Laura J.; Chermak, Gail D.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-seven American Indian children (ages 4-12), 10 with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) and 17 normally developing control subjects, were administered the Test of Language Development. FAS children exhibited depressed performance on most subtests. The older FAS children presented syntactic deficits whereas the younger FAS subjects presented more…

  11. 76 FR 3120 - Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 78485). Competitive Preference Priorities: For FY 2011 and any subsequent year in which we... Federal Register on December 15, 2010 (75 FR 78485). Note: The regulations in 34 CFR part 79 apply to all... Native American and Alaska Native Children in School Program; Office of English Language...

  12. A Common Language: British and American English, Conversations Between Albert H. Marckwardt and Randolph Quirk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marckwardt, Albert H.; Quirk, Randolph

    This transcription of radio conversations on the English language between Albert H. Marckwardt and Randolph Quirk, jointly produced by The British Broadcasting Corporation and The Voice of America, indicates that American and British English have never been so different as people have imagined and that the dominant tendency has been toward…

  13. Ladies Are Seen, Not Heard: Language Socialization in a Southern, African American Cosmetology School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs-Huey, Lanita

    2003-01-01

    Examined classroom discourse at a southern cosmetology school, noting African American students' language socialization. Highlighted freshmen's and seniors' engagement with formal/textbook scripts about proper communication, analyzing how teachers and students made sense of official metacommunicative scripts about proper salon communication.…

  14. Language of Science as a Bridge to Native American Educators and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C. J.; Angrum, A.; Martin, M.; Ali, N.; Kingfisher, J.; Treuer, A.; Grant, G.; Ciotti, J.

    2010-12-01

    In the Western tradition, words and vocabulary encapsulate much of how knowledge enters the public discourse, and is passed from one generation to the next. Much of Native American knowledge is passed along in an oral tradition. Chants and ceremonies contain context and long-baseline data on the environment (geology, climate, and astronomy) that may even surpasses the lifespan of a single individual. For Native American students and researchers, the concept of ‘modern research and science education’ may be wrapped up into the conundrum of assimilation and loss of cultural identification and traditional way of life. That conundrum is also associated with the lack of language and vocabulary with which to discuss 'modern research.' Native Americans emphasize the need to know themselves and their own culture when teaching their students. Many Native American communities recognize that the retention of their language - and need to make the language relevant to the technological age we live in, represents one of their largest and most urgent challenges. One strategy for making science education relevant to Native American learners is identifying appropriate terms that cross the cultural divide. More than just words and vocabulary, the thought processes and word/concept relationships can be quite different in the native cultures. The U.S. Rosetta Project has worked to identify words associated with Western 'STEM' concepts in three Native American communities: Navajo, Hawaiian, and Ojibwe. The U.S. Rosetta Project is NASA’s contribution to the International Rosetta Mission. The Rosetta stone, inspiration for the mission’s name, is expected to provide the keys to the primordial solar system the way the original Rosetta Stone provided a key to ancient language. Steps taken so far include identification and presentation of online astronomy, geology, and physical science vocabulary terms in the native language, identification of teachers and classrooms - often in

  15. New Branches from Old Roots: Experts Respond to Questions about African American English Development and Language Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Frances A.; Velleman, Shelley L.; Green, Lisa J.; Roeper, Tom

    2010-01-01

    This article uses a question-and-answer format to respond to questions about working with children who speak African American English (AAE) in clinical and educational contexts. The respondents urge speech-language pathologists to appreciate AAE as students' first language, to view all language for its communicative potential, and to remain aware…

  16. 手语词识别的影响因素探讨--手语词的两个网络系统及其交互作用%Chinese Sign Language Lexical Recognition:Two Network Systems and Interaction Effect Among Sign Language Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈穗清; 张积家; 李艳霞; 张惠霞

    2015-01-01

    采用真假词判断任务考察影响手语词识别的因素,探讨词汇网络系统和语义网络系统的变量在手语词识别中的作用及其交互作用。结果表明,在手语词识别中,既存在着熟悉性效应、复杂度效应、象似性效应和具体性效应,又存在着熟悉性与象似性、具体性的交互作用。这表明,手语词识别既涉及词汇网络系统的变量,又涉及语义网络系统的变量,既包含着由“形”至义的数据驱动加工,又包含着由义至“形”的概念驱动加工。手语词识别与书面语词识别具有共性。研究还表明,形象性影响聋人对手语词的识别。%Sign language, as the first and natural acquisition language for deaf, is a language form that transfer information and interact thought by gesture, face expression and posture etc. Similar to oral language and written language, sign language also has a special grammar system representing sophisticated thought, subtle emotion and other abstract information. To date, most theories of word recognition have been proposed largely based on studies of spoken language, even though few studies have examined sign language lexical recognition. The comparison of signed and written language processing is necessary for reflecting general properties of the language recognition system. Based on the “Lexical and Semantic Network System” theory, effects of four variables including familiarity, complexity, iconicity, concreteness were investigated in Chinese Sign Language lexical recognition. Familiarity and complexity belonged to variables of lexical network system, iconicity and concreteness belonged to variables of semantic network system. Therefore, this paper not only focused on specific factors in sign language word recognition, but also the interaction between these factors in the two network system. The effects of familiarity, complexity, iconicity and concreteness of the Chinese Sign Language were

  17. "No Sign Language if you want to get him talking": Power, Transgressions/Resistance and Discourses of d/Deafness in the Republic of Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last number of decades, recognition of the fact that Deaf people comprise a Deaf Community which shares a common language, Sign Language, with its own grammar and syntax (Stokoe, 1960), cultural norms and values, and history (Groce, 1985; Bienvenu, 1989; Lane, 1989; Sacks, 1989; van Cleve and Crouch, 1989; Lane et al., 1996; Mow, 2001; Woll and Ladd, 2005) has highlighted the need for a socio-cultural perspective on Deafness, breaking away from the traditional medic...

  18. 面向中国手语合成的视频语义描述方法%Video Semantic Description Method for Chinese Sign Language Synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王茹; 尹宝才; 王立春; 孔德慧

    2012-01-01

    To improve synthesis realistic of sign language videos,a method to describe sign language video semantics is proposed,and the sign language video database based on semantic description for sign language synthesis is constructed.Chinese sign language videos in specific research field are captured,then sign language video units and multi-dimensional transition units are cut from the captured sign language videos.By describing the semantic information of every frame in sign language videos,which include locations,hand shapes and rhythm information,their multi-dimensional semantic models are constructed.During sign language video synthesis,useful information can be used in real-time by parsing multi-dimensional semantic models.This method provides real-time and coherent semantic information for sign language video synthesis,and in the process of joining two sign language videos,different rhythm information can be parsed out from their semantic models,then interpolated locations of transition frames can be moderately adjusted to make the rhythm in transition frames gradually change.%为提高手语合成视频的真实感,提出一种面向手语合成的视频语义描述方法,并基于语义描述构建出相应的视频数据库.采集特定研究领域的手语视频数据,按照词义把源视频切分成词条基元和基于人体-部件的多层次过渡基元,通过对视频基元每帧图像进行语义描述来建立它们的多维语义模型.每个视频基元的多维语义模型代表了该视频每帧图像所包含的具体手语信息,包括位置、手形、韵律等.在手语合成过程中,通过解析视频的多维语义模型即可实时地调用有用的信息.该视频语义描述方法可为手语合成提供实时一致的语义理解,并且在拼接2段不同韵律的手语视频时,可通过解析出的韵律信息适当地调整过渡帧的插值位置,进而合成韵律一致的过渡视频.

  19. Absolute pitch among students in an American music conservatory: association with tone language fluency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Diana; Dooley, Kevin; Henthorn, Trevor; Head, Brian

    2009-04-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to name a musical note in the absence of a reference note, is extremely rare in the U.S. and Europe, and its genesis is unclear. The prevalence of AP was examined among students in an American music conservatory as a function of age of onset of musical training, ethnicity, and fluency in speaking a tone language. Taking those of East Asian ethnicity, the performance level on a test of AP was significantly higher among those who spoke a tone language very fluently compared with those who spoke a tone language fairly fluently and also compared with those who were not fluent in speaking a tone language. The performance level of this last group did not differ significantly from that of Caucasian students who spoke only nontone language. Early onset of musical training was associated with enhanced performance, but this did not interact with the effect of language. Further analyses showed that the results could not be explained by country of early music education. The findings support the hypothesis that the acquisition of AP by tone language speakers involves the same process as occurs in the acquisition of a second tone language. PMID:19354413

  20. A Novel Phonology- and Radical-Coded Chinese Sign Language Recognition Framework Using Accelerometer and Surface Electromyography Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Juan; Chen, Xun; Liu, Aiping; Peng, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Sign language recognition (SLR) is an important communication tool between the deaf and the external world. It is highly necessary to develop a worldwide continuous and large-vocabulary-scale SLR system for practical usage. In this paper, we propose a novel phonology- and radical-coded Chinese SLR framework to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous SLR using accelerometer (ACC) and surface electromyography (sEMG) sensors. The continuous Chinese characters, consisting of coded sign gestures, are first segmented into active segments using EMG signals by means of moving average algorithm. Then, features of each component are extracted from both ACC and sEMG signals of active segments (i.e., palm orientation represented by the mean and variance of ACC signals, hand movement represented by the fixed-point ACC sequence, and hand shape represented by both the mean absolute value (MAV) and autoregressive model coefficients (ARs)). Afterwards, palm orientation is first classified, distinguishing "Palm Downward" sign gestures from "Palm Inward" ones. Only the "Palm Inward" gestures are sent for further hand movement and hand shape recognition by dynamic time warping (DTW) algorithm and hidden Markov models (HMM) respectively. Finally, component recognition results are integrated to identify one certain coded gesture. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed SLR framework with a vocabulary scale of 223 characters can achieve an averaged recognition accuracy of 96.01% ± 0.83% for coded gesture recognition tasks and 92.73% ± 1.47% for character recognition tasks. Besides, it demonstrats that sEMG signals are rather consistent for a given hand shape independent of hand movements. Hence, the number of training samples will not be significantly increased when the vocabulary scale increases, since not only the number of the completely new proposed coded gestures is constant and limited, but also the transition movement which connects successive signs needs no

  1. The British Sign Language Versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-Item Scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Katherine D.; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Scott, Paul R.; Kendal, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The present study is aimed to translate 3 widely used clinical assessment measures into British Sign Language (BSL), to pilot the BSL versions, and to establish their validity and reliability. These were the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) scale, and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS).…

  2. “She’s American Now, I Don’t Like That”: Gendered Language Ideologies in a Laotian American Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As gender identities have shifted within the Laotian American community, perceptions of English proficiency have emerged as a site in which complex ideologies about gender identity are explored and contested. While Laotian women experience expanded opportunities for enacting their gender identities through wage labor and access to education, Laotian men experience a narrowing of opportunities, having lost traditional sources of power such as land ownership and high status professions. Laotian mens enactment of a discourse of nostalgia and the development of language ideologies, specifically the belief that they are more proficient English speakers than women, play an important part in mens attempt to mitigate this loss of status. At the heart of these ideologies about language is an assumption that mens greater proficiency in English allows them to create a seamless transition between their role as family leader and provider in Laos and a similar role within the radically changed gender landscape of the United States.

  3. Belief Reasoning and Emotion Understanding in Balanced Bilingual and Language-Dominant Mexican American Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weimer, Amy A; Gasquoine, Philip G

    2016-01-01

    Belief reasoning and emotion understanding were measured among 102 Mexican American bilingual children ranging from 4 to 7 years old. All children were tested in English and Spanish after ensuring minimum comprehension in each language. Belief reasoning was assessed using 2 false and 1 true belief tasks. Emotion understanding was measured using subtests from the Test for Emotion Comprehension. The influence of family background variables of yearly income, parental education level, and number of siblings on combined Spanish and English vocabulary, belief reasoning, and emotion understanding was assessed by regression analyses. Age and emotion understanding predicted belief reasoning. Vocabulary and belief reasoning predicted emotion understanding. When the sample was divided into language-dominant and balanced bilingual groups on the basis of language proficiency difference scores, there were no significant differences on belief reasoning or emotion understanding. Language groups were demographically similar with regard to child age, parental educational level, and family income. Results suggest Mexican American language-dominant and balanced bilinguals develop belief reasoning and emotion understanding similarly. PMID:27010450

  4. 国内外手语语序研究综述%Domestic and Overseas Researches on Word Orders in Sign Languages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕会华; 王红英; 巩卓

    2014-01-01

    文章查阅了国内外关于手语语序研究的文献,对研究结果进行分析归纳后得出:手语语序研究在国外开展比较深入,国内相关研究尚显薄弱;手语语序受到动词方向性、类标记结构、语义、语用以及非手控特征等多种因素的影响;判断手语基本语序的标准与口语大致相同;对被试的选择和实验材料的设计越来越科学合理。文章在分析归纳已有研究成果的基础上,提出了中国手语语序研究中应该注意的问题。%Drawing on domestic and foreign research literature on word orders in sign languages,this paper makes an in-depth analysis of the findings and reaches the conclusions:more intensive researches on word orders in sign languages overseas have been made than in China;word orders in sign languages are determined by various influencing factors,such as verbal orientation,classification marking structures,meaning,linguistic use and non-manual features;the criteria for basic word orders in sign languages are roughly the same as those for spoken lan-guages;and the selection of subjects and the design of experimental materials are more and more scientific and rea-sonable.Based on the analysis of the existing research findings,the paper puts forward some key issues we should give more attention to in our research on the word orders in Chinese sign languages.

  5. 基于VRML虚拟人的维文手语库的构建%CONSTRUCTION OF UIGHUR SIGN LANGUAGE DATABASE BASED ON VRML VIRTUAL HUMAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯玉花; 阿里甫·库尔班; 陈景超

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of Uighur sign language can improve natural communication between Uighur deaf people and the normal ones. It can also be applied to computer-aided Uighur sign language teaching and Uighur television programs broadcasting. Uighur sign language database is the basis for synthesis of Uighur sign language. In this paper we analyse the characteristics of Uighur sign language, use the technology of key frame interpolation to control the gestures of VRML virtual human and have achieved a Uighur gesture editing system by using Visual C + + and OpenGl environment. It can display current gestures state of VRML virtual human in real time driven by gestures data. Through this system, the data of gestures have been collected including commonly used Uighur words and 32 Uighur letters.%维吾尔语的手语合成有助于改善维吾尔族聋哑人与听力正常人进行自然交流,也可以应用于计算机辅助维吾尔哑语教学、维文电视节目播放等方面.维文手语库是维吾尔语手语合成的基础.通过分析维吾尔手语的特点,采用关键帧插值技术来控制VRML虚拟人的手势动作,利用VisualC++和OpenGL环境实现了一个维吾尔文的手势编辑系统,通过手势运动数据驱动虚拟人来实时显示当前的手势状态.通过该系统,收集了常用的维吾尔语词汇及32个维吾尔字母的手势运动数据.

  6. Palm Reversal Errors in Native-Signing Children with Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Shield, Aaron; Meier, Richard P.

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who have native exposure to a sign language such as American Sign Language (ASL) have received almost no scientific attention. This paper reports the first studies on a sample of five native-signing children (four deaf children of deaf parents and one hearing child of deaf parents; ages 4;6 to 7;5) diagnosed with ASD. A domain-general deficit in the ability of children with ASD to replicate the gestures of others is hypothesized to be a source of p...

  7. Reflections on Teaching Chinese Language Films at American Colleges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haili Kong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available “Film Studies” has become one of the fastest developing disciplines at liberal arts colleges in the United States since the early 1990s. Many factors have contributed to the growth of this new teaching field, among which is the fact that new generations of college students are more accustomed than ever before to visual learning due to the influence of media technology. Also with the growth of global studies, “film” is widely used as “cultural text” through which students learn about other national histories, cultures, and customs in a visualized way that is different from conventional text-reading. Chinese language cinema, with perspectives and content distinctive from Western films, has become an innovative point in the development of Chinese studies curricula. China’s fast-paced economic development and the emergence of the Chinese cinematic movements (so-called “New Waves” of the mid-1980s have also played critical roles in drawing increased attention to Chinese cinema in classrooms in the United States.

  8. Writing Differences in Teacher Performance Assessments: An Investigation of African American Language and Edited American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpara, Michelle Y.; Wylie, E. Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Differential performance results occur when a specific population subgroup achieves a passing rate which is significantly lower than that of the normative reference group. African Americans do less well, in general, on all types of assessments, including constructed-response tests. The present study examined the writing styles of African American…

  9. Living in Two Languages: The Challenges to English in Contemporary American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ksenija Kondali

    2012-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of English in (re)negotiating culture and identity in U.S. society, numerous contemporary American authors have explored the issue of cultural and linguistic competence and performance in their writing. Supported with examples from literary texts by Sandra Cisneros, Julia Alvarez, Junot Díaz, Amy Tan, and Kiran Desai, this paper discusses the complex role of the English language in the characters’ struggle for economic and emotional survival. Frequently based on the...

  10. Language Deficits or Differences: What We Know about African American Vernacular English in the 21st Century

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Yvette R.; Valarie M. Schroeder

    2013-01-01

    This focus of this paper is to present an overview of the current research which examines the language and literacy performance of African American children who speak African American Vernacular English (AAVE), as presented from a deficit versus difference perspective. Language and literacy and assessment and remediation of AAVE speakers are discussed in sections one and two. Section three of the paper provides theoretical and methodological suggestions to educational psychologists, speech pa...

  11. 手语语言地位的确立与中国大陆手语翻译职业化进程的开创史%Establishment of Status of Sign Language at the Beginning of the History of China Sign Language Translation of Professionalization in Mainland China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁生

    2012-01-01

    The status of sign language is premise that sign language translation is more professional. More and more people realized the importance of sign language,though Chinese lingustics didn' t spend more time on the research of sign language. There are many research of sign language (including acdamie research and application reaseareh) Because of social demand and the force of administration. The author of this article reviewed the history of development as a witness and revealed some potential problem,in order to make Chinese sign language translation to be more professioral.%手语语言地位的确立是手语翻译走上职业化道路的重要前提之一。中国语言学界对手语所进行的语言学研究虽历时不长,但进展较快,手语的语言地位已为越来越多的人所接受,加之社会需求和行政力量的推动,对手语的研究(包括学术性研究及应用性研究)呈现了十分火热的场面。这无疑对加快手语翻译职业化的进程起到了重要作用。作者以一个见证人的身份对这段开创史进行了回顾,同时揭示了其中的某些隐忧,以期使我国手语翻译的职业化之路走得更畅、更健。

  12. Toward the Successful Implementation of the North American Free-Trade Agreement: The Integration of Language and Business Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffield, Barney T., III

    This paper examines the need for the integration of language and business studies to enhance successful implementation of the North American Free Trade Agreement. For college and university graduates to deal effectively with French-Canadian and Mexican business people and consumers, they must be exposed to their languages and their cultures. This…

  13. Korean Immigrant Mothers' Perspectives: The Meanings of a Korean Heritage Language School for Their Children's American Early Schooling Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee

    2011-01-01

    This study examines what a Korean heritage language school means to Korean immigrant families and their children, considering Korean immigrant mothers' perspectives on American early schooling. As part of an ethnographic research project on Korean-American children's peer culture in a heritage school, seven mothers, two guardians (grandmothers),…

  14. Language experience and consonantal context effects on perceptual assimilation of French vowels by American-English learners of French1

    OpenAIRE

    Levy, Erika S.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has called for an examination of perceptual assimilation patterns in second-language speech learning. This study examined the effects of language learning and consonantal context on perceptual assimilation of Parisian French (PF) front rounded vowels ∕y∕ and ∕œ∕ by American English (AE) learners of French. AE listeners differing in their French language experience (no experience, formal instruction, formal-plus-immersion experience) performed an assimilation task involving PF ...

  15. A comparison of finger language,vocabulary formation and sentence expression in Chinese and Japanese sign languages%中日手语手指语、词汇构成和句式表达的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓梅; 王惠

    2011-01-01

    通过对中日手语的界定,分析了两国手语在手指语、词汇构成、句式表达等方面的异同点,便于学习者理解和掌握中日手语的基本知识,对中日两国聋人之间的沟通和交流起到促进作用。%Through defining Chinese and Japanese sign languages,this article analyzes the similarities and differences in Chinese and Japanese sign languages,including finger language,vocabulary formation and sentence expression,which will be beneficial for learners

  16. British Sign Name Customs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Linda; Sutton-Spence, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Research presented here describes the sign names and the customs of name allocation within the British Deaf community. While some aspects of British Sign Language sign names and British Deaf naming customs differ from those in most Western societies, there are many similarities. There are also similarities with other societies outside the more…

  17. 美国人的肢体语言%Body Language of Americans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英

    2007-01-01

    @@ 在日常生活交流过程中,在许多场合下,身势语言(body language),即各种手势、姿势和身势(signs.slgnals cnd gestures)也是人们常用的交流工具.你知道美国人常用的身势语有哪些吗?下面就以身体部分为单元,把美国人生活交际中经常使用的手势、姿势和身势介绍给大家.

  18. “She’s American Now, I Don’t Like That”: Gendered Language Ideologies in a Laotian American Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl Gordon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As gender identities have shifted within the Laotian American community, perceptions of English proficiency have emerged as a site in which complex ideologies about gender identity are explored and contested. While Laotian women experience expanded opportunities for enacting their gender identities through wage labor and access to education, Laotian men experience a narrowing of opportunities, having lost traditional sources of power such as land ownership and high status professions. Laotian men’s enactment of a discourse of nostalgia and the development of language ideologies, specifically the belief that they are more proficient English speakers than women, play an important part in men’s attempt to mitigate this loss of status. At the heart of these ideologies about language is an assumption that men’s greater proficiency in English allows them to create a seamless transition between their role as family leader and provider in Laos and a similar role within the radically changed gender landscape of the United States.

  19. Improved sign language recognition research using depth image information and SLVW%采用深度图像信息和SLVW的手语识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨全; 彭进业

    2013-01-01

    In order to realize the accurate recognition of manual alphabets in the sign language video, this paper presents an im-proved algorithm based on DI_CamShift(Depth Image CamShift)and SLVW(Sign Language Visual Word). It uses Kinect as the sign language video capture device to obtain both of the color video and depth image information of sign language gestures. The paper calculates spindle direction angle and mass center position of the depth images to adjust the search window and for gesture tracking. An Ostu algorithm based on depth integral image is used to gesture segmentation, and the SIFT features are ex-tracted. It builds the SLVW bag of words as the feature of sign language and uses SVM for recognition. The best recognition rate of single manual alphabet can reach 99.87%, and the average recognition rate is 96.21%.%为了实现手语视频中手语字母的准确识别,提出了一种基于DI_CamShift和SLVW的算法。该方法将Kinect作为手语视频采集设备,在获取彩色视频的同时得到其深度信息;计算深度图像中手语手势的主轴方向角和质心位置,通过调整搜索窗口对手势进行准确跟踪;使用基于深度积分图像的Ostu算法分割手势,并提取其SIFT特征;构建了SLVW词包作为手语特征,并用SVM进行识别。通过实验验证该算法,其单个手语字母最好识别率为99.87%,平均识别率96.21%。

  20. Design and implementation of sign language interpreter system based on Leap Motion%基于Leap Motion手语翻译器的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翁省辉; 陈韦澔; 陈匡林

    2015-01-01

    手语翻译器作为不懂手语的正常人与使用手语的残障人士之间的沟通桥梁,近来成为研究热点,但是目前市场上成熟的手语翻译器并不多见。在此设计利用Leap Motion对手部识别精度高以及体积小巧等特性,实现了一种识别精度高、便于携带的手语翻译器。该翻译器不仅支持静态手语的识别,同时也能识别动态手语,实现了手语识别、文本翻译、语音播报,多语言翻译等功能。实验结果表明该手语翻译器具有识别准确率高的特点,能基本实现残障人士与正常人之间简单的交流,具有良好的应用前景。%As a communication bridge between normal people ignorant of the sign language and handicapped persons using the sign language,the sign⁃language translator has recently become a hot research. However,sign⁃language interpreters on the market are rare. A high recognition accuracy and portable sign⁃language translator was achieved by utilizing Leap Motion’s characteristics of high recognition accuracy and small size. The interpreter implemented the sign⁃language recognition,text trans⁃lation,voice broadcast,multi⁃language translation and other functions,as well as can support static sign⁃language recognition and recognize dynamic sign⁃language. The experimental result shows that the sign⁃language interpreter has high recognition accu⁃racy,and can basically realize simple communication between people with disabilities and normal people. Therefore,it has a nice prospect.