Full Text Available This article looks at the interrelationship between revolution and tax in the context of the American Revolution. It examines the role of ordinary people in demanding, among other things, as part of wider demands for democracy and equality, no taxation without representation. The article aims to reintroduce the neglected notions of class and class struggle into current discussions and debates about tax and history, putting the people back into academic narratives about the history of taxation and to their place as political actors on history’s stage.
Burg, David F.
While the American Revolution officially began in Lexington, Massachusetts, in April 1775, the seeds of rebellion had been sown for decades. The struggle for representation in the British Parliament left many colonists eager to seek out independence. This book provides hundreds of firsthand accounts of the period from diary entries, letters,…
It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically…
Kiddy, Elizabeth; Woodward, Kristen T.
As part of a U.S. Department of Education grant to expand Latin American and Caribbean Studies at Albright College, the authors of this article, one a historian and one an artist, teamed up to teach a course called Revolutions: Art and Revolution in Latin America. In the class, they proposed to combine a studio art printmaking class with Latin…
Waks, Leonard J.
This article critiques the report of President Obama's taskforce on educational technology, "Transforming American Education". It calls into question the claims of the authors that the proposed policy is "revolutionary", and then offers a point-by-point comparison between the report's recommendations and those derived from a perspective taking…
Trotter, Joe William, Jr.
Briefly outlines the ways race and technology shaped: (1) the early enslavement of African Americans; (2) the work of bondsmen and women during the antebellum era; and (3) the increasing urbanization of the African American population during the industrial age. (CMK)
Hirschman, Charles; Mogford, Elizabeth
In this study, we measure the contribution of immigrants and their descendents to the growth and industrial transformation of the American workforce in the age of mass immigration from 1880 to 1920. The size and selectivity of the immigrant community, as well as their disproportionate residence in large cities, meant they were the mainstay of the American industrial workforce. Immigrants and their children comprised over half of manufacturing workers in 1920, and if the third generation (the grandchildren of immigrants) are included, then more than two-thirds of workers in the manufacturing sector were of recent immigrant stock. Although higher wages and better working conditions might have encouraged more long-resident native-born workers to the industrial economy, the scale and pace of the American industrial revolution might well have slowed. The closing of the door to mass immigration in the 1920s did lead to increased recruitment of native born workers, particularly from the South, to northern industrial cities in the middle decades of the 20th century.
Full Text Available This paper unveils the revolutionary potential incarnated in the post-9/11 transformed figure of the cinematic zombie. It is my contention that zombies, through their cinematic (revolution, came to embody Deleuze and Guattari’s vision of the nomad war machine. Zombie films are used as a vehicle for addressing the tension between the hegemonic fear of the violent multitude in revolt and the counter-hegemonic liberatory potential of the rising masses. It is impossible to achieve a final resolution between these contradicting tendencies since the narrative structure of zombie films remains open-ended. The characteristics of the zombies and the meaning ascribed to them transform over time but they also maintain a continuity with a difference with the previous expressions of the monstrous. The monstrous characteristics which have pertained since George A. Romero’s paradigm shift in the 1960s (the zombifying contagion, violence and swarm attacks, joined with the new features appearing in the American zombie cinema of the new millennium, formulate a response to the manifest and latent violence of the State apparatus.
York, Grace Ann
Basic tools for research in American revolutionary history are described, with emphasis on American sources and reference to key British sources. Included are basic guides to primary and secondary sources, bibliographies, histories, dissertations, dictionaries and encyclopedias, biographies, atlases, and statistics, together with a title and…
Green, Christopher D.
American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…
Green, Christopher D
American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within the highly pragmatic American context and to facilitate the application of psychology to domains outside of the scientific laboratory. Applications of psychology that emerged from the functionalist ethos included child and developmental psychology, clinical psychology, psychological testing, and industrial/vocational psychology. Functionalism was also the ground within which behaviorism rooted and grew into the dominant form of psychology through the middle of the 20th century. 2009 APA, all rights reserved
Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A.; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G.
An exceptionally detailed ice core from the high-altitude location of Quelccaya (Peru) contains compelling evidence that the well-known metallurgic activities performed during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438−1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, atmospheric emissions of a variety of toxic trace elements in South America started to have a widespread environmental impact around A.D. 1540, ∼240 y before the industrial revolution when colonial metallurgy began to...
Full Text Available Looking at the revolutionary context of Pennsylvania, the essay analyzes the continuous movement of rebellions during the American Revolution in order to highlight the process of institutionalization of the constitutional order, namely the changeable power relationship that shaped society. The essay reconstructs: 1 the battle for free trade and freedom of property and the resulting rising of the mercantile class as a national elite; 2 the mercantile political project of ordering society by creating a national system of public credit based upon the institution of the public debt and the foundation of the first national bank; 3 the vicissitudes of the bank by analyzing Dissertations of Government, the Affairs of the Bank and Paper Money (1786, one of the most underrated pamphlets of Thomas Paine. By this way, the essay shows how the principle of popular sovereignty and the language of rebellion were intended to be institutionalized as part of the constitutional order that was formalized in 1787-88.
Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie
In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice-core record (793-1989 AD) from the high altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the pre-colonial period (i.e., pre-1532 AD), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (1438-1532 AD) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after 1540 AD, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, 240 years prior to the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (1572 AD), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.
Uglietti, Chiara; Gabrielli, Paolo; Cooke, Colin A; Vallelonga, Paul; Thompson, Lonnie G
In the Southern Hemisphere, evidence for preindustrial atmospheric pollution is restricted to a few geological archives of low temporal resolution that record trace element deposition originating from past mining and metallurgical operations in South America. Therefore, the timing and the spatial impact of these activities on the past atmosphere remain poorly constrained. Here we present an annually resolved ice core record (A.D. 793-1989) from the high-altitude drilling site of Quelccaya (Peru) that archives preindustrial and industrial variations in trace elements. During the precolonial period (i.e., pre-A.D. 1532), the deposition of trace elements was mainly dominated by the fallout of aeolian dust and of ash from occasional volcanic eruptions, indicating that metallurgic production during the Inca Empire (A.D. 1438-1532) had a negligible impact on the South American atmosphere. In contrast, a widespread anthropogenic signal is evident after around A.D. 1540, which corresponds with the beginning of colonial mining and metallurgy in Peru and Bolivia, ∼240 y before the Industrial Revolution. This shift was due to a major technological transition for silver extraction in South America (A.D. 1572), from lead-based smelting to mercury amalgamation, which precipitated a massive increase in mining activities. However, deposition of toxic trace metals during the Colonial era was still several factors lower than 20th century pollution that was unprecedented over the entirety of human history.
Full Text Available Previous studies have noted the dominance of official sources within the news process and their unique ability to shape media narratives. This research addresses the role and implications of news sources in contributing to the overwhelmingly positive portrayal of the anti-Mubarak opposition protesters within British and American newspaper coverage of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. Furthermore, this paper will assess how the position of global political elites towards the protests in Egypt possibly opened up the editorial space within the news coverage of the revolution for the anti-Mubarak opposition movement to emerge as the dominant voice within the reporting.
While it was not talked about in France a few months ago, unconventional gas (CNG) have made a grand entrance in the energy landscape. It is the U.S. that the techniques for extracting these gases trapped in rocks such as sandstone and shale have been perfected and have open access to new and very large deposits. The consequences are serious because facing the depletion of oil resources, these gases could represent almost double the gas reserves so-called 'conventional'. In total, the world would be assured of having more than one hundred years of use if it continued at its current pace. The impact of these new resources on the price of gas is already significant. The economic crisis and the decline in imports in the U.S. have released quantities of gas are transferred to other markets, driving prices down spots on other continents, remarkable phenomenon at a time when commodity prices tends to increase. This drop is hardly noticeable, however the French consumer, for which the price of gas, indexed in long-term contracts to over 80% on the price of oil continues to increase. The energy balances are changed, many uses is now directing the gas to the detriment of coal, nuclear - which recovery is delayed - and even renewable energy. Regarded by some experts as the greatest energy revolution of recent decades, these gases there are nevertheless questions about the impact of their operations on global warming, environmental (noise, emissions, footprint, pollution risk aquifers, use of large amounts of water) and on the economic activities associated with it. In France, authorizations permits have recently sparked controversy. The Ministers in charge of industry and sustainable development launched in February 2011 a fact-finding mission whose results must be communicated in June 2011. The work schedules of manufacturers have been adapted to take account of this mission, and no exploration work will take place by the end of the mission. Contents: - Improved production
The crisis of the Spanish Catholic monarchy paved the way for the creation of more than twenty republics in Latin America between 1810 and 1825. This paper analyzes early nineteenth-century Spanish American republican experiences, which have been generally neglected in the historiography, as constitutive parts of Atlantic republicanism. It focuses on the theologico-political considerations of the res publica from the seventeenth century onwards, the articulation of a patriotic discourse in the American colonies of Spain during the eighteenth century, and how Spanish-American revolutionaries used republican languages based on Roman references, natural rights, and Catholicism to create new political legitimacy.
Turner, Steven C.
Between 1880 and 1920 the way science was taught in American High Schools changed dramatically. The old "lecture/demonstration" method, where information was presented to essentially passive students, was replaced by the "laboratory" method, where students performed their own experiments in specially constructed student laboratories. National…
John W. Fitzpatrick
Exactly one hundred years ago, with North America in full-fledged environmental crisis, prominent members of the American Ornithologists' Union (AOU) participated in major political and social upheaval. A century of unrestrained exploitation had reached catastrophic proportions, with Passenger Pigeons and Eskimo Curlews representing only the tip of an iceberg....
Mills, Randy K.; Woods, John C.
Utilizes selections from 17th century philosophical writing as instructional material for a series of learning activities that reveal the influence of the material on early American democratic thought. Activities involve selections from Isaac Newton, John Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, The Declaration of Independence, and Bishop Bossuet. (MJP)
The 1950s saw perhaps the largest number of American films set on and around the US-Mexico border of any period of the twentieth century. This thesis investigates why this concentration of films appeared at this point in time. It argues that rather than responding to the changes in policy and practice along the borderline that were taking place in the 1950s, these films engage with cold war politics as they explore the relationship between the United States and Mexico through ideas of romance...
Hopewell, Philip C; Du Melle, Fran; Murray, John F
The major event in the recent history of the American Thoracic Society (ATS) is its separation from the American Lung Association (ALA), resulting in the Society's independence. The seeds of the separation were sown over the course of many years. The fundamental reason driving the separation was the organizational structure of the ALA, with the ATS being a division within the larger organization and having neither the standing to make independent decisions nor the ability to respond effectively to the expectations of a growing and diverse membership. Additional important factors included continual organizational conflicts; ongoing struggles over finances; reluctance by the ALA to provide what the ATS considered to be appropriate support for research; divergence of areas of interest as the Society became more broad based to include critical care and sleep medicine, as well as concerns with medical practice issues; and internationalization of the Society, with an increasing proportion of members residing outside the United States. Once it was decided that the ATS could only exist as an independent organization, the separation agreement was negotiated in less than 3 years. Although there were substantial unknowns immediately after the separation, a unified leadership, a strongly supportive membership, and a skilled and dedicated staff guided the organization through this difficult period, from which the Society emerged as a strong independent professional organization that remains true to the public-minded spirit that guided its formation 107 years ago.
Weisdorf, Paul R. Sharp Jacob L.; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis
At the end of the eighteenth century, England and France both underwent revolutions: France the French Revolution, England the industrial revolution. This note sheds new light on these contrasting experiences in the histories of England and France by looking at the evolution of real consumer prices...... to maintain a decent living, and often had to cut consumption to make ends meet. The exercise conducted in the present paper gives a quantitative and economic underpinning to the notion that the French revolution did not arise out of nowhere, but rather had its roots in centuries of hardship amongst working...
Hekma, G.; Giami, A.
The sexual revolution of 1960-1980 created a major break in attitudes and practices in Western societies. It created many new freedoms for gay men, youth and women, in terms of sexual imagery, information, and rights. Leftists denounced the revolution's consumerism whilst feminists lamented its
historisk forklaringskategori. I de første årtier af det 20. århundrede står begrebet i centrum for debatter mellem russiske marxister om den kommende russiske revolutions karakter. G.V. Plekhanov fastholder her, at denne må blive en borgerlig revolution af samme type som den franske i 1789. V.I. Lenin...
Gill, Kendra Lynnette
Reported on and judged by American citizens and government officials, American eyes have viewed violence against women in northern Mexico as specifically “Mexican” events. This paper juxtaposes American discourse from the Mexican Revolution (1910-1920) with United States Department of State human rights reports from 1999 to 2007 to demonstrate similarities, differences and continuities in the discussion of sexual violence within these two time periods that connect American views of Mexican vi...
It was the complex and far-reaching transformation of the Mexican Revolution rather than the First World War that left its mark on Mexican history in the second decade of the 20th century. Nevertheless, although the country maintained its neutrality in the international conflict, it was a hidden theatre of war. Between 1914 and 1918, state actors in Germany, Great Britain and the United States defined their policies towards Mexico and its nationalist revolution with a view not only to improve...
Edwards, Jeremy S. S.
Although European economic history provides essentially no support for the view that education of the general population has a positive causal effect on economic growth, a recent paper by Becker, Hornung and Woessmann (Education and catch-up in the Industrial Revolution, 2011) claims that such education had a significant impact on Prussian industrialisation. The author shows that the instrumental variable they use to identify the causal effect of education is correlated with variables that in...
Although European economic history provides essentially no support for the view that education of the general population has a positive causal effect on economic growth, a recent paper by Becker, Hornung and Woessmann (Education and Catch-Up in the Industrial Revolution, 2011) claims that such education had a significant impact on Prussian industrialisation. The author shows that the instrumental variable BHW use to identify the causal effect of education is correlated with variables that inf...
Defense AT&L: September-October 2016 42 ADVANCED MANUFACTURING A Fabric Revolution AFFOA Is Weaving the Next Fiber and Textile Revolution ... revolution .” 43 Defense AT&L: September-October 2016 After a decline in U.S. manufacturing during the 2000s, the American textile industry is adding jobs
Lutz, William, Ed.; Brent, Harry, Ed.
By bringing together many substantive yet disparate views on revolution, this book attempts to treat this rather emotional subject in a serious and objective manner. It attempts to bring history to bear on the modern radical scene by presenting the ideas of Marx, Lenin, Trotsky, Stalin, Mao Tse-tung, and others, along with those of modern…
The turn of the XXth century witnessed a revolution in physics comparable to Isaac Newton’s discovery of the universal laws of mechanics and of gravitation three centuries earlier. The world required to be described in novel terms, as the immutable, deterministic view of our familiar universe had given way to a new world picture, one which featured chance, flux, and an incessant upsurge of waves of matter. Such a worldview was so radically new and counterintuitive that it gave rise to strong debates, to the effect that Albert Einstein himself tried to oppose it on the grounds that “God does not play dice”. In spite of the intense debates that accompanied its emergence, quantum mechanics quickly proved an incredibly efficacious new tool to understand and to predict a wide array of new phenomena. It was so successful that in no time it broke free from the environment of research labs to become part of daily life, making it possible, for example, to understand why some materials...
van Ree, E.
This article argues that the 'permanent revolution' represented the dominant element in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels' political discourse, and that it tended to overrule considerations encapsulated in 'historical materialism'. In Marx and Engels's understanding, permanent revolution did not
Berkeley, Edmund C.
"The Computer Revolution", a part of the "Second Industrial Revolution", is examined with reference to the social consequences of computers. The subject is introduced in an opening section which discusses the revolution in the handling of information and the history, powers, uses, and working s of computers. A second section examines in detail the…
Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.
This outline on the French Revolution is designed to illustrate how this period of French history influenced various aspects of contemporary culture. Four main sections are treated: (1) ideas that led to the Revolution, (2) the reigns of the Bourbon kings, (3) the Revolution, and (4) the rise of Napoleon as a reaction to chaos. A list of 16mm…
heartedly planned a coup d’etat to get :he money owed them by Congress.2 6 The Revolution, as; an armed struggle, ended with a whimper. " Hannah Arendt , Ott...HWashington, X, 54-56, 332; David Uriffith to Mrs Hannah Griffith, November 13, 1777, David Griffith Papers. Virginia Historical Society; George Weedon to
Stromberg, Roland N.
Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)
Den Russiske Revolution er en af de mest afgørende politiske og sociale begivenheder i det 20. århundredes historie. Den skabte de ideologiske og geopolitiske parametre, der dominerede verden frem til 1991 - og på mange måder stadig gør det. Fortolkningen af Den Russiske Revolution har været et...
Huke, Robert E.
Modern agriculture's green revolution refers to a complex package that includes improved seeds and a wide range of efficient management practices. The genetic history of and technological developments that led to the green revolution are described, and its impact discussed. (RM)
Compares Robert Palmer's interpretation of the French Revolution with the Marxist and revisionist views. Stresses Palmer's theory that the French Revolution belongs to the same spiritual family as the American. Reports that Palmer saw the French Revolution as the climactic event in a series of similar upheavals that integrated liberal democracy…
Mellor, John W.; Riely, Frank Z.
Described are some of the successes of the Green Revolution in third-world nations. Discussed are research priorities; misconceptions; and improvements in management skills, training and education, infrastructure, and international trade. (CW)
The Green Revolution game helps college students learn about agrarian change in which people use science to transform nature. The rational and basic objectives of the game are discussed, and the game's strengths and weaknesses are examined. (RM)
artiklen diskuterer det teologiske grundlag for de arabiske opstande. Er det tilladt ifølge islamisk lov at lave revolution på det grundlag der kendetegner den arabiske verden i 2011?......artiklen diskuterer det teologiske grundlag for de arabiske opstande. Er det tilladt ifølge islamisk lov at lave revolution på det grundlag der kendetegner den arabiske verden i 2011?...
Den Russiske Revolution er en af de mest afgørende politiske og sociale begivenheder i det 20. århundredes historie. Den skabte de ideologiske og geopolitiske parametre, der dominerede verden frem til 1991 - og på mange måder stadig gør det. Fortolkningen af Den Russiske Revolution har været et...... afgørende stridspunkt i det 20. århundredes politiske og filosofiske diskussioner. I denne bog gives der plads til en række af revolutionens egne stemmer. Bogen indeholder en lang række primærtekster fra Den Russiske Revolution - fra den første revolution i 1905 og frem til nedkæmpelsen af Kronstadt......-oprøret i 1921, med fokus på revolutionsåret 1917. Sammen med revolutionens artikler, bøger, dekreter, taler, digte og slagord indeholder bogen en introduktion og en tidslinje, der giver læseren overblik over de historiske begivenheder og idémæssige strømninger, der udgjorde Den Russiske Revolution....
Full Text Available There is a conventional view among Irish historians that a revolution occurred in that country between the passing of the Third Home Rule Bill of 1912 and the end of the Civil War in 1923. The violence of those years, the collapse in support for the Irish Parliamentary Party (IPP, the meteoric rise to power of Sinn Féin, a new sense of meritocracy, a greater sense of democracy and a widespread radicalism; all are seen as elements of a major change in Irish politics and life, a ‘Revolution.’ Drawing on Gramsci's notion of a “revolution without a revolution”, this paper seeks to understand the events in Ireland of 1912-23, not as a sudden rupture with the past but as the culmination of a much longer period of (often British-backed capitalist development in post-Famine Ireland. This paper argues that Irish nationalist politics in the decades before 1912 is better understood via categories such as class, gender, capitalism and the pervasive power of the British state. As such, as well as pursuing a reassessment of the project of Irish historical development and state-building, this paper also seeks a reassessment of the project of (an equally statist Irish historiography.
I respond to the critical comments by Martin Kusch and Ursula Klein on my account of the Chemical Revolution. I comment along three different lines: descriptive, explanatory, and normative. (1) I agree with Klein that Lavoisier did not introduce drastic changes in chemical ontology, but maintain that there was methodological incommensurability in the Chemical Revolution; in response to Kusch's view, I maintain that Lavoisier's victory was slow and incomplete. (2) Admitting that there were many causes shaping the outcome of the Chemical Revolution, including the convenience of Lavoisier's theoretical scheme and various complicated social factors, I still think that the general rise of compositionism was an important factor. (3) I defend my normative pluralist view on the Chemical Revolution, denying Kusch's argument that chemists had overwhelmingly good reasons to trust Lavoisier and his allies over the phlogistonists. Overall, I agree with Kusch that it would be desirable to have a good descriptive-normative sociological account of the Chemical Revolution, but I also think that it should be an account that allows for divergence in individuals' and sub-communities' self-determination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cheng, Shikun; Li, Zifu; Uddin, Sayed Mohammad Nazim; Mang, Heinz-Peter; Zhou, Xiaoqin; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Lei; Zhang, Lingling
The wide-spread prevalence of unimproved sanitation technologies has been a major cause of concern for the environment and public health, and China is no exception to this. Towards the sanitation issue, toilet revolution has become a buzzword in China recently. This paper elaborates the backgrounds, connotations, and actions of the toilet revolution in China. The toilet revolution aims to create sanitation infrastructure and public services that work for everyone and that turn waste into value. Opportunities for implementing the toilet revolution include: fulfilling Millennium Development Goals and new Sustainable Development Goals; government support at all levels for popularizing sanitary toilet; environmental protection to alleviate wastewater pollution; resource recovery from human waste and disease prevention for health and wellbeing improvement. Meanwhile, the challenges faced are: insufficient funding and policy support, regional imbalance and lagging approval processes, weak sanitary awareness and low acceptance of new toilets, lack of R&D and service system. The toilet revolution requires a concerted effort from many governmental departments. It needs to address not only technology implementation, but also social acceptance, economic affordability, maintenance issues and, increasingly, gender considerations. Aligned with the ecological sanitation principles, it calls for understanding issues across the entire sanitation service chain. Public-private partnership is also recommended to absorb private capital to make up the lack of funds, as well as arouse the enthusiasm of the public. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Bruno, Sam J., Ed.
The papers included in this document represent most of the papers presented at the 1976 conference of the Southwest American Business Communication Association and deal with various aspects of business communication. Topics of papers are nonverbal aspects of business communication; four problems relating to awareness of metacommunication in…
This paper is a continuation of Kantian peace and war analysis, but with other means. The paper is part of an effort to establish a systemic theory of state-formation based on the description of the emergence of a number of functional systems. In a historical perspective the military system...... was dominant in the establishment of the European State-model as well as it has a decisive role in the stabilisation of recent states. Using Niklas Luhmann's system theory that does not describes neither military systems nor the emergence of a organisational system, the present paper outlines a system...... theoretical perspective on the present and historical transformations of military systems. One the one hand the paper offers a systemic criticism of the recent so called revolution in military affairs (RMA), on the other hand the historical establishment of a self-referential form of the military system...
In much the way 18th century France was ripe for a revolution, so are the two social systems within which we live and work: health care and higher education. In health care, too many are suffering so that a few might live lives of luxury. Higher education is structured so as to reproduce a social order of class privilege and patriarchal values. For a complex set of reasons, (some known to us, many more beyond our consciousness) we have chosen higher education and nursing education as our arena--as the place where we might contribute to the world order, to our society, to individuals and communities who are striving to be healthy. Our project, then, is to enable others so that they might enable still others: to teach and learn with our students who are our colleagues in creating a future; to teach and learn in caring ways that will serve as prototypes for caring communities. To those who would dismiss the curriculum revolution as a fad and those involved it as aging malcontents, I refer them to the diaries of Governor Morris, an American guest of Marie Antoinette who was at Versailles during the months before the fall of the Bastille on July 14, 1789: Yesterday, it was the Fashion at Versailles not to believe that there had been any disturbances at Paris. I presume this Day's Transactions will induce a Conviction that all is not perfectly quiet (Pernoud, 1960, p. 45).
Amineh, M.P.; Eisenstadt, S.N.
The Iranian Islamic Revolution, the only continual regime constituted by a modern fundamentalist movement, shares many of the characteristics of the Great revolutions. The causes of the Iranian Revolution are indeed very similar to those of the classical ones—namely the breakdown of a modernizing
The detection of nuclear or radioactive materials for homeland or national security purposes is inherently difficult. This is one reason detection efforts must be seen as just one part of an overall nuclear defense strategy which includes, inter alia, material security, detection, interdiction, consequence management and recovery. Nevertheless, one could argue that there has been a revolution in detection affairs in the past several decades as the innovative application of new technology has changed the character and conduct of detection operations. This revolution will likely be most effectively reinforced in the coming decades with the networking of detectors and innovative application of anomaly detection algorithms.
Vi står over for en ny industriel revolution, lød det på det netop overståede verdensøkonomiske topmøde i Davos i Schweiz. Men er det nu også helt rigtigt?......Vi står over for en ny industriel revolution, lød det på det netop overståede verdensøkonomiske topmøde i Davos i Schweiz. Men er det nu også helt rigtigt?...
Adams, Thomas M.
Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)
management such as user innovation, crowd sourcing and crowd funding, as well as social media. In line with the constant globalization of innovation, the first volume of Revolution of Innovation Management offers a variety of international perspectives on these topics with illustrations and analysis coming...
Bell, Carolyn Shaw
The future status of women is envisioned as more than labor market projections of wider employment opportunities. Responsibilities of human beings such as family formation, upbringing of children, the process of human growth and development, marriage and divorce are seen as components of the second revolution. (Author/AM)
"normale" industrivirksomheder, men den er absolut set begrænset. Årsagerne til denne kun "moderate revolution" af organisationsformerne diskuteres: Er det fordi klassisk organisation og social nærkontakt er nødvendig i den nye økonomi, eller er det manglende fantasi og tryghedsbehov? Begge muligheder...
Eriksen, Christoffer Basse
Hvad har Newtons teori om tyngdekraften med politisk revolution at gøre? Samfundskritikken og idéen om oplysningstænkeren opstod ud af en naturfilosofisk tradition, der anså hele verden som levende og følsom. Christoffer Basse Eriksen rekapitulerer i dagens essay opkomsten af Oplysningstiden....
created by means of affective and assembled spaces. Finally, the paper will discuss notions of (spatial) singularization by elaborating on Suely Rolnik and Félix Guattari’s travel book, Molecular Revolutions in Brazil (2007). How, for instance, does spatial interventions relate to and transform global...
Armstrong, Stephen; Desrosiers, Marian
A visitor to a random sampling of Modern World History classes in the United States will find that the subject of "revolution" is a favorite for many students. Reading about and researching individuals and topics such as Tsar Nicholas II, Rasputin, Marie Antoinette and guillotines is never boring. Unfortunately, in too many classrooms,…
Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A
The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.
The eBook Revolution: A Primer for Librarians on the Front Lines is exactly what its title promises: an essential resource for librarians facing the formidable task of coordinating the library-wide transition to eBooks and fielding questions from patrons
Wood, Gordon S.
The American Revolution transformed the American colonies into republics, which meant that ordinary people were no longer to be considered "subjects" to be ruled as they were under a monarchy. They were thereafter to be citizens--participants themselves in the ruling process. Because the process of creating of a republican citizenry…
Appreciating pictures entails a consideration not only of the people, objects and landscape that their artists have chosen to portray, but also an imagining of what has been excluded. The term 'Industrial Revolution' has been given multiple meanings, and this article (part of the Science in the Industrial Revolution series) explores some of these by exposing the messages concealed inside some of the most enduring images of the Revolution.
Seyyed Ali Mortazavi Emami; Seyyed Javad Emamzadeh; Hosein Harsij; Hosein Masoudnia
Color revolution is one of the new ways of changing a regime at the beginning of the twenty-first century, which has usually been carried out on corrupt, political systems remaining from the Cold War era in Eastern European countries and countries that have become independent from the former Soviet Union and through such revolution a new peaceful form of political power transition emerged. An exploration of the circumstances of Ukraine’s Orange Revolution suggests foreigners’ support and lead...
Binion Rudolph.- Marianne in the Home. Political Revolution and Demographic Transition in France and the United States Historians of France agree about the precocity of the French demographic transition while disagreeing about its causes and its possible links with the partly coterminous Revolution of 1789. They ignore the American transition which began at the time of the American Revolution some years earlier. An analysis of these two transitions using the comparative method advocated by Ma...
Jay R. Mandle
Full Text Available [First paragraph] Caribbean Revolutions and Revolutionary Theory: An Assessment of Cuba, Nicaragua and Grenada. BRIAN MEEKS. London: Macmillan Caribbean, 1993. ix + 210 pp. (Paper n.p. The Grenada Invasion: Politics, Law, and Foreign Policy Decisionmaking. ROBERT J. BECK. Boulder: Westview, 1993. xiv + 263 pp. (Cloth US$ 49.95 The Gorrión Tree: Cuba and the Grenada Revolution. JOHN WALTON COTMAN. New York: Peter Lang, 1993. xvi + 272 pp. (Cloth US$ 48.95 These three books might be thought of as a second generation of studies concerned with the rise, rule, and destruction of the People's Revolutionary Government (PRG in Grenada. The circumstances surrounding the accession to power in 1979 of the government led by Maurice Bishop, the nature of its rule, and its violent demise in 1983 resulted in the appearance during the mid-1980s of an extensive literature on the Grenada Revolution. Some of these works were scholarly, others polemical. But what they all had in common was the desire to examine, either critically or otherwise, something which was unique in the historical experience of the English-speaking Caribbean. Never, before the rule of the New JEWEL Movement (NJM in Grenada, had a Leninist party come to power; never had a violent coup initiated a new political regime; never had a Caribbean government so explicitly rejected U.S. hegemony in the area; and never, before October 1983, had a government experienced quite so dramatic a crisis as that in Grenada, one which resulted in the killing of the Prime Minister and numerous others of his supporters.
Agriculture in China is at the onset of an Organic Revolution. From 2000 to 2006, China has moved from 45th to 2nd position in the world in number of hectares under organic management. China now has more land under organic horticulture than any other country. In the year 2005/2006, China added 12% to the world’s organic area. This accounted for 63% of the world’s annual increase in organic land, and China now has 11% of the world’s organically managed land. The antecedents to China’s Organic ...
LASERSOFT and the Laser Technology, Inc. (LTI) Criterion 400 survey laser instrument constitute a virtual revolution in pre-design activities for many projects requiring field survey in the Forest Service. The instrument makes and downloads survey measurements in a couple of seconds; LASERSOFT is MS-DOS compatible software that provides a user-friendly platform for survey management and data conversion into formats required by several widely used PC-based road and site design software systems. This article provides information specific to LASERSOFT V1.0 usage, in addition to brief overviews of laser instrument capabilities and existing and planned survey routines
Guides readers through the development of geometry and basic proof writing using a historical approach to the topic. In an effort to fully appreciate the logic and structure of geometric proofs, Revolutions of Geometry places proofs into the context of geometry's history, helping readers to understand that proof writing is crucial to the job of a mathematician. Written for students and educators of mathematics alike, the book guides readers through the rich history and influential works, from ancient times to the present, behind the development of geometry. As a result, readers are successfull
This essay examines the ways in which the age of revolutions expanded the repertoire of political ideas and identities available to new and old political subjects. It questions the traditional narrative that replaces a model of old regimes and empires with a new one of imagined unitary nation-states. Instead, it argues that the nature of the political crisis of the Iberian empires gave rise to a reinvention of familiar categories, like monarchy and empire, and sired a wider range of new ones that did not fit the national mold.
This edited collection explores how digitalization is changing the management of innovation, and the subsequent implications for the next phases in its development. The authors identify and examine relevant phenomena which are related to the ongoing digital breakthrough in the context of innovation...... management such as user innovation, crowd sourcing and crowd funding, as well as social media. In line with the constant globalization of innovation, the first volume of Revolution of Innovation Management offers a variety of international perspectives on these topics with illustrations and analysis coming...
This edited volume explores how the rapid development of business model innovation changes innovation management at an international level. It discusses the next phases in its development, and the impact that this could have on the field. The authors identify and examine recent trends which have...... the potential to disrupt the traditional way of managing innovation, notably in terms of creativity, product development, and process change. In line with the constant globalization of innovation, the second volume of Revolution of Innovation Management offers a variety of international perspective...
Premiere cassette : - 1666 : impact de la creation de l'Academie des Sciences par Colbert, trente ans apres le proces de Galile, et au moment des disparitions de Pascal, Descartes et Fermat. Elle dirigee par le hollandais Huyggens jusqu'a sa fuite de France au moment de la revocation de l'Edit de Nantes. - 1750 : l'Encyclopedie (ou "Dictionnaire raisonne des Sciences, des Arts et des Metiers") de Diderot et d'Alembert, soutenus par Malherbes, Buffon, Condorcet et Rousseau. - 1789 : Revolution francaise. - 8 aout 1793 : l'Assemblee, par une declaration de Marat, dissout l'Academie des Sciences. Celle-ci continue cependant ses travaux pour les poids et mesures jusqu'en 1795. - la Terreur : la condamnation a mort, pas au nom d'une "Revolution qui n'a pas besoin de savants" mais pour d'autres raisons, de trois grands hommes de science : Lavoisier, Bailly et Condorcet. - 1793-1794 : Au printemps 93, le Comite de Salut Publique s'inquiete du demi-million de soldats etrangers de toutes les pays frontaliers qui essai...
Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H
Joseph Lister (1827-1912), renowned British surgeon-scientist, introduced to the world the use and appreciation of the antiseptic method for the prevention of wound sepsis. Armed with the ideas of Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) regarding the role of microorganisms in infections or the so-called germ theory of disease, he advanced the surgical field by using antiseptics, such as carbolic acid, in the treatment of contaminated wounds. These developments constituted a real surgical revolution. No breakthrough before Lister's, except perhaps the discovery of anesthesia, had contributed to such an incredible advancement in relationship to the surgical arena. After 1867, the year in which Lister published his remarkable paper in Lancet, it was possible to appropriately treat or prevent wound infections with the use of antiseptics at the site of the operated wound. Lister's method was complicated but produced its desired effect--to diminish wound morbidity and patient mortality. His contribution was secured for future generations and a surgical revolution had begun!
Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…
Argues that the British industrial revolution was in no sense inevitable and scarcely deserves the term "revolution." Examined are the characteristics which the British shared with other Europeans and ways in which they were distinctive that enabled them to become the first industrial nation. (RM)
Benagiano, Giuseppe; Bastianelli, Carlo; Farris, Manuela
Modern contraceptive technology is more than a technical advance: it has brought about a true social revolution, the 'first reproductive revolution' in the history of mankind. This latter was followed in rapid succession by other major changes in human reproductive strategies. In the human species, sexual activity began to lose its exclusive reproductive meaning at an early stage of its evolution. Human beings must have practiced non-conceptive sex from the outset and therefore must have had a need to avoid, rather than to seek conception during intercourse from time immemorial. The search for methods to control fertility went on for millennia, but a valid solution was only found during the twentieth century, when the population explosion had forever changed the shape of humanity: in only one century the total population of the planet had grown from some 1.6 billion to more than 6 billion. That increase will remain unique in the history of Homo sapiens. At the global level, contraception provided a tool to deal with overpopulation and, in only 50 years, went a long way towards its resolution. However, to solve the problem, national and international family planning initiatives were required. For individuals, contraception also meant a revolution. It allowed sexual intercourse without reproduction. Only 25 years later, in vitro fertilisation permitted childbearing without sexual intercourse. Other advances followed and now cloning, that is, reproduction without the two gametes, looms on the horizon. Such a series of rapid, major changes in human reproductive strategies has confused many. For this reason, a constructive dialogue between sociology and biology is mandatory. Contraception is a powerful tool to promote equity between sexes; it improves women's status in the family and in the community. Avoiding pregnancy during the teens increases opportunities for a young woman's education, training and employment. By controlling their fertility, women get a chance to
Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe
Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as 'epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences.
Meloni, Maurizio; Testa, Giuseppe
Epigenetics is one of the most rapidly expanding fields in the life sciences. Its rise is frequently framed as a revolutionary turn that heralds a new epoch both for gene-based epistemology and for the wider discourse on life that pervades knowledge-intensive societies of the molecular age. The fundamentals of this revolution remain however to be scrutinized, and indeed the very contours of what counts as ‘epigenetic' are often blurred. This is reflected also in the mounting discourse on the societal implications of epigenetics, in which vast expectations coexist with significant uncertainty about what aspects of this science are most relevant for politics or policy alike. This is therefore a suitable time to reflect on the directions that social theory could most productively take in the scrutiny of this revolution. Here we take this opportunity in both its scholarly and normative dimension, that is, proposing a roadmap for social theorizing on epigenetics that does not shy away from, and indeed hopefully guides, the framing of its most socially relevant outputs. To this end, we start with an epistemological reappraisal of epigenetic discourse that valorizes the blurring of meanings as a critical asset for the field and privileged analytical entry point. We then propose three paths of investigation. The first looks at the structuring elements of controversies and visions around epigenetics. The second probes the mutual constitution between the epigenetic reordering of living phenomena and the normative settlements that orient individual and collective responsibilities. The third highlights the material import of epigenetics and the molecularization of culture that it mediates. We suggest that these complementary strands provide both an epistemically and socially self-reflective framework to advance the study of epigenetics as a molecular juncture between nature and nurture and thus as the new critical frontier in the social studies of the life sciences. PMID
Compares Chinese and Iranian Cultural Revolutions via examination of similarities and differences between the two and draws lessons from the Chinese experience for Iran or any other developing nations which decides to politicize its education systems. (Author/AH)
Hernandez Castellon, R
The characteristics of the Cuban demographic revolution associated with the main economic, political, and social changes in the country are analyzed. The authors begin with a brief historical outline of the political-economic situation in the country in the middle of the 19th century. There is emphasis on the dependency of the Cuban economy and its monoproducer nature (with sugar being the major export). This was due to the Spanish colonization and to the subsequent American neocolonization. The discovery of the cause for yellow fever by a Cuban physician and the sanitation campaign conducted by the Americans contributed to a diminishing of mortality. A great migratory flow occurred due to the price of sugar in the world market. This must have influenced Cuban demographic patterns which are a major factor linked to the demographic revolution. The influence on proliferation of urbanization and educational trends is emphasized. The low participation in economic activities of women during the early part of the century did affect fertility levels. The trends in mortality throughout the period 1907-43 are pointed out. It was found that 1 major aspect which had a bearing on Cuban demographic patterns was the 2 large migratory flows. An analysis of growth rates in the population--which also confirms the demographic changes in Cuba--is presented. It is concluded that the 4th decade of this century witnessed Cuba's entry in a new stage of the demographic revolution, a stage in which decreased fertility and mortality go together to create a new period. (author's)
Marland, S. P., Jr.
In this speech, given at the inauguration of Dr. Frank Angel as President of New Mexico Highlands University, Mr. S. P. Marland, Jr., U.S. Commissioner of Education, discusses both the shortcomings and accomplishments of the American education system when it comes to educating Mexican American students. It is noted that even though the Federal…
The Earth that sustains us today was born out of a few remarkable, near-catastrophic revolutions, started by biological innovations and marked by global environmental consequences. The revolutions have certain features in common, such as an increase in the complexity, energy utilization, and information processing capabilities of life. This book describes these revolutions, showing the fundamental interdependence of the evolution of life and its non-living environment. We would not exist unless these upheavals had led eventually to 'successful' outcomes - meaning that after each one, at length, a new stable world emerged. The current planet-reshaping activities of our species may be the start of another great Earth system revolution, but there is no guarantee that this one will be successful. This book explains what a successful transition through it might look like, if we are wise enough to steer such a course. This book places humanity in context as part of the Earth system, using a new scientific synthe...
Roč. 2, č. 2 (2014), s. 185-190 ISSN 2336-3142 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Scientific revolution * party historiography * Czechoslovakia * communist reformism Subject RIV: AB - History
Kaiser, Thomas E.
Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)
Trudeau, Richard J
How unique and definitive is Euclidean geometry in describing the "real" space in which we live? Richard Trudeau confronts the fundamental question of truth and its representation through mathematical models in The Non-Euclidean Revolution. First, the author analyzes geometry in its historical and philosophical setting; second, he examines a revolution every bit as significant as the Copernican revolution in astronomy and the Darwinian revolution in biology; third, on the most speculative level, he questions the possibility of absolute knowledge of the world. Trudeau writes in a lively, entertaining, and highly accessible style. His book provides one of the most stimulating and personal presentations of a struggle with the nature of truth in mathematics and the physical world. A portion of the book won the Pólya Prize, a distinguished award from the Mathematical Association of America. "Trudeau meets the challenge of reaching a broad audience in clever ways...(The book) is a good addition to our literature o...
Adrián Sotelo Valencia
Full Text Available This article addresses the materialist theory of development and fall of Marxism based on the theory of value as originally considered and presented by Karl Marx in Grundrisse and in Crítica da Economia Política, claiming that the production of value depends on labor force. As it takes place today, capital displaces labor force in every industry, service and activity, country, territory and region all over the world; workers are dismissed and are transferred to speculative activities of the fictional capital. This lesser disposition of labor force eventually harms the mean profit rate and, as time goes by, it provokes a crisis. The present capitalist crisis is resultant from the insufficiency and, to certain extent, to the incapacity of mechanisms from the system to generate enough value production in the labor process, to provide value to the invested capital (in settings of production, raw matter, and in labor force or variable capital; to create more value and to regain increased profit rate. These restraints of the financial capital (fictional capital cause a deviation to the speculative plan and contribute for the formation of tragic speculative bubbles in sectors such as those of housing, energy and food. No matter how much productivity is increased, developing a technological revolution and “sparing labor force”, the reduction of time, socially required for the production of goods and labor force, becomes harder and more marginal. This is the way the capitalist system enters a civilian, structural and organic crisis, as it is now. To go beyond the capital means to construct structures and superstructures of a new non-capitalist society based on a new way to produce, to work and to keep harmonious and friendly human social relations. It is difficult to have a successful revolution if not with the education of its agents, that is, the organized front people, parties and syndicates that will raise the social, political and cultural
Defense AT&L: November-December 2016 14 Ensuring a Safe Technological Revolution William E. Frazier, Ph.D. n Elizabeth L. McMichael n Jennifer...agility for increased innovation and performance capabilities, is the cusp of the AM technology revolution . AM provides the opportunity to truly...develops strategic plans for the research, development and transition of naval aviation technologies . He is a graduate of Drexel University, the Naval
The development of quantum mechanics has now reached such a level that we can consider its promising applications in various fields as a looming second quantum revolution. The classical computer that relies on logical gates is out, now quantum properties open the way to new machines that will simulate nature's events exactly, this will be possible because both nature and the machine will be quantum. The machine will mimic nature and some problems like high temperature superconductivity that resist any modelling will be reproduced easily and then put within hand reach to be understood. Another application is quantum imaging based on the property of quantum entanglement. In the case of 2 entangled particle beams, the measurement of the properties of one beam fixes the values on the other beam. In other words, in case of entangled fluctuations, the measurement of the fluctuations on one beam fixes the value of the fluctuations on the other beam and by subtracting them on the second beam, we get a more accurate result: we have made the background noise disappear. Another application, that has already entered our daily life, is the generation of random numbers in a simple way: quantum mechanics states that a photon has a probability of 50 % to be reflected by a semi-reflecting plate and be detected, this experimental setting is a perfect toss play. The most known application of quantum mechanics is cryptography to assure the security of information transfer. Various systems have proved its efficiency but this technology is hampered by the damping of the signal in optical fibers and is reliable on distances shorter than a few hundreds kilometers. (A.C.)
Through an analysis of Marx’s writings on the French Revolution of 1789, the concept ‘bourgeois revolution’ can be shown to contain a much richer potential than the simplistic and widely rejected ‘orthodox’ notion of a capitalist bourgeoisie as a social agent with a fully developed class...... consciousness and revolutionary intentions in the French Revolution of 1789. On the basis of a methodologically ambitious view of concepts in general, Marx starts from a general conception of the state as alienated human potentials and proceeds through a methodological framework of multiple periodizations...... towards more particular determinations. On the basis of this method, the question of the ‘bourgeois’ character of the Revolution is posed with regard to its international relations and processual aspects rather than any nationally framed confrontation of capitalist and feudal classes. This non...
This paper examines treatment by the U.S. press of the Mexican, Cuban, and Chilean revolutions from a historical perspective, both using original research and synthesizing the research of others. On balance, the U.S. media have reported or commented on Latin American social revolutions mainly by exploiting sensation and ridicule. Economic…
If we define scientific revolutions as changes of scientists' ontologies, types of causal explanation, and paradigmatic types of methods and instruments, Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier's contribution to chemistry did not amount to a scientific revolution. Contrary to the received view that Lavoisier initiated a "chemical revolution," which is accepted by Chang and Kusch, I argue that Lavoisier shared with the phlogistonists their "flat ontology" of chemical substance, established decades before the 1770s, their types of explaining chemical transformation, and their quantitative methods. Based on my historical reconstruction, I criticize Chang's argument that the late eighteenth-century phlogistic systems and Lavoisier's system belonged to two different theoretical traditions. As a consequence, I also question Chang's argument that the acceptance of Lavoisier's system can be explained in terms of dominance of "compositionism" over "principlism." Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The growth of renewable sources of energy on the planet (in particular, solar power) is deeply altering the economics of energy. The decentralization of decision-making, the placing of users at the center of systems, the management of energy consumption in buildings, new forms of mobility... all these are expectations that digital technology can satisfy. Do digital technology and energy naturally converge... or will there be a revolution? For sure, a revolution, but one that has to take place, first of all, in our heads
Two questions are addressed: whether or not the revolutions in methodology realized in research have any real effect on classroom teaching and why there is a constant effort to find new methodologies. A new approach to the problem, focusing on changing the educational institutions themselves, is suggested. (MSE)
Through an analysis of Marx’s writings on the French Revolution of 1789, the concept ‘bourgeois revolution’ can be shown to contain a much richer potential than the simplistic and widely rejected ‘orthodox’ notion of a capitalist bourgeoisie as a social agent with a fully developed class consciou......Through an analysis of Marx’s writings on the French Revolution of 1789, the concept ‘bourgeois revolution’ can be shown to contain a much richer potential than the simplistic and widely rejected ‘orthodox’ notion of a capitalist bourgeoisie as a social agent with a fully developed class...... consciousness and revolutionary intentions in the French Revolution of 1789. On the basis of a methodologically ambitious view of concepts in general, Marx starts from a general conception of the state as alienated human potentials and proceeds through a methodological framework of multiple periodizations......-reductive concept of ‘bourgeois revolution’, describing an important aspect of the French Revolution rather than the particulars of this historic event, seems to contain a challenge unmet by most contemporary historiography....
The paper deals with the origins of French revolution and its implication to the contemporary Nigerian religious spirituality. The issues attended to include corruption, religious intolerance and bigotry, political bickering or bigotry, ecclesiastical maladministration characterized by materialism leading to neosecularization of ...
James H. Billington
Full Text Available Provides a brief historical perspective on the role of books and libraries in the United States and asks whether the impact of electronic media will result in the loss of the ’values of the book culture that made democracy and the responsible use of freedom possible’. Describes the efforts of the Library of Congress to create a National Digital Library of American history and culture, to make free and reliable educational content accessible on the Web and develop human mediators who can help integrate new online knowledge with the older wisdom in books.
Kiernan, James Patrick
Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)
Med den industrielle revolution fulgte den urbane revolution og urbanismen som bymæssig videns- og planlægningsdisciplin. Med de nye informations- og kommunikationsteknologier står vi i dag over for samfundsmæssige forandringer, som sætter en ny urban revolution på dagsordenen. Urbanismen er...
Carlos, Luis A.
This document is a course outline for a 16 week community college course on the Mexican Revolution of 1910, designed to trace the historical development of events leading to the Mexican Revolution, examine the armed struggle of the Revolution, and explore the aftermath of that struggle. Cognitive and affective objectives are included in the…
Over the past decade, the rapid increase in shale gas and shale oil production in the United States has profoundly changed energy markets in North America, and has led to a significant decrease in American natural gas prices. The possible existence of large shale deposits in Europe, mainly in France, Poland and the United Kingdom, has fostered speculation on whether the "shale revolution", and its accompanying macroeconomic impacts, could be duplicated in Europe. However, a number of uncertai...
Kanne, Jeffrey P
The digital media revolution is in full swing, fueled by rapid growth of the Internet and proliferation of handheld devices capable of accessing electronically data from virtually anywhere. With this growth of digital media, the printing industry is seeing declines in circulation and advertising revenue. Scholarly journals, including the American Journal of Roentgenology, are not immune from this changing paradigm. The scholarly journal of the future should be a platform for the active exchange of new information and ideas.
Ponte, Stefano; Kelling, Ingrid; Jespersen, Karen Sau
In this article, we examine the upgrading trajectories of selected aquaculture value chains in four Asian countries and the links between upgrading and three factors of value chain governance: coordination mechanisms; types of drivers; and domestic regulation. We find instances of improving produ...... of upgrading the "blue revolution" in Asia...
Tikunov, Vladimir S.
Describes a number of topics in geography that are effected by the multimedia information revolution. These include research in political geography, finance, and the geography of tourism and medicine. Considers new technologies assisting spatial modeling and visualization of data and their effects on these fields. (MJP)
To meet the challenge of producing sufficient food for 9 billion people by 2050, many have proposed a new green revolution. However, Valentí Rull questions if this is a viable solution to alleviate hunger in the long term and whether it could lead to undesired and potentially disastrous consequences.
Arnstein, George E.
Automation is a word that describes the workings of computers and the innovations of automatic transfer machines in the factory. As the hallmark of the new industrial revolution, computers displace workers and create a need for new skills and retraining programs. With improved communication between industry and the educational community to…
-, č. 3 (2015), s. 199-202 ISSN 2336-3142 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Velvet Revolution * Dissent * Transformation Process * Prague Spring Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://www.usd.cas.cz/casopis/czech-journal-of-contemporary-history-3-2015/
Hilden, Clark G.
In the 1960s it was predicted that famine would strike India because the country lacked the necessary resources to feed its rapidly growing population. Yet, in the 1970s and 1980s new agricultural developments occured that have helped abate the crisis. These developments comprise what is now called the Green Revolution. India's food/population…
advancements of the Industrial Revolution , expansionism, and the notion that Americans were beginning to become conscious of their status in the world as...characteristics that also increases the generalizability of this study’s findings. The American Revolution was chosen because it was the first war in American...American Revolutionary War The first case study to be examined is the American Revolution and its respective war
Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es promover la discusión conceptual para una publicación más amplia “Los Ciclos del Imperialismo, Guerra, y Revolución”. Empieza desde una presuposición que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando una transición desde un contexto histórico amplio eurocéntrico hacia un contexto histórico amplio non-eurocéntrico. Continua con la discusión histórica de los conceptos relacionados con la guerra, la reforma y la revolución y explica porque, en el contexto de la fase actual de la transición mundial y la Primera Verdadera Guerra Mundial, a pesar de la discusión anterior acerca de las revoluciones y revoluciones mundiales, es razonable sugerir que nuestro mundo común esta atravesando la Primera Verdadera Revolución Mundial._____________________ABSTRACTThe purpose of this article is to engage in a conceptual discussion for a broader publication on “The Cycles of Imperialism, War and Revolution”. It departs from a presupposition that our common world is experiencing a transition from a broad Eurocentric historical context into a non-Eurocentric broad historical context. It proceeds by a historical discussion on the concepts related to wars, reforms and revolutions and explains why, in the context of the actual phase of global transition and the First Real World War, it is, despite earlier discussions on revolutions and world revolutions, meaningful to suggest that our common world is experiencing a First Real World Revolution.
Paganetto, Luigi; Scandizzo, Pasquale Lucio
Technological cycles have been characterized as the basis of long and continuous periods economic growth through sustained changes in total factor productivity. While this hypothesis is in part consistent with several theories of growth, the sheer magnitude and length of the economic revolutions experienced by humankind seems to indicate surmise that more attention should be given to the origin of major technological and economic changes, with reference to one crucial question: role of production and use of energy in economic development.
The history of bariatric surgery is investigational. Dedicated surgeons have continuously sought for an ideal procedure to relieve morbidly obese patients from their burden of comorbid conditions, reduced life expectancy and low quality of life. The ideal procedure must have low complication risk, both in short- and long term, as well as minimal impact on daily life. The revolution of laparoscopic techniques in bariatric surgery is described in this summary. Advances in minimal invasive techn...
Paarlberg, Robert L.
Will developing countries adopt policies that promote the planting of genetically modified (GM) crops, or will they select policies that slow the spread of the GM crop revolution? The evidence so far is mixed. In some prominent countries such as China, policies are in place that encourage the independent development and planting of GM crops. Yet in a number of other equally prominent countries the planting of GM crops is not yet officially approved. The inclination of developing countries to ...
Vladimir G. Dazishen
Full Text Available Based on both archival and previously published documents, this article examines the issue of impact that Russia’s revolution of 1917 had on contemporary events in Tuva. Tuva acceded to the USSR in 1944, many years after the Bolshevik revolution and the rise of the Soviet state. However, we postulate that the “Soviet history” of Tuva, just like that of Russia, started in 1917. Soviet historiography prioritized the Great October Socialist revolution, but the events of 1917 began in February. The course of February revolution in Tannu Tuva Uriankhai did not automatically lead to the victory of the Bolsheviks and the establishment of the Soviet power. In spring and summer 1917, revolutionary change in Tuva was largely peaceful and constructive. Supported by the whole Russian population of Tuva, members of the Socialist Revolutionary Party formed the new local government and coopted representatives of Tuvan principalities as partners of the new Russian power. Bolshevik ideas, howsoever high the popularity of their supporters in Tuva might have been, did not find massive endorsement in the region. Consequently, Uriankhai saw no “dual power” (dvoevlastiie in 1917, and the victory of communists in Russia did not mean that the power should transfer to them in Tuva as well. One of the most complex issues of the revolution in the region was incorporating the political system of Tuva into that of the Russian Republic. The complications of the “Uriankhai issue” and the rise of Tuvan separatism did not lead to interethnic conflicts, and the use of force to settle the burning issues was not deemed mandatory. On the whole, both the revolutionary events of 1917 and the vocal presence of all Russian political forces in the region pointed towards the future accession of Tuva into the Russian Republic. Our study made use of sources from the Foreign Policy Archive of the Russian Empire in Moscow, as well as regional archives of Tuva, Novosibirsk
Full Text Available I propose to discuss Ernst Lubitsch’s decision to tailor Ninotchka (1939, his film with I propose to discuss Ernst Lubitsch’s decision to tailor Ninotchka (1939, his film with Greta Garbo, to Garbo in the role of a Soviet revolutionary, which — given the over whelming importance of Garbo to classical Hollywood — is how the October Revolution is situated at the heart of American cinema at the time while Garbo’s proverbial cinemat ic melancholia is shown to entail the structures of affect residual to revolutions. More over, by divorcing Garbo’s revolutionary melancholia from melodrama and attaching it to comedy, Lubitsch extricates this particular psychopolitics from the fact of genre, now as an insight into the construction of film. Finally, I show how Lubitsch engages Russian literature, especially Tolstoy’s Anna Karenina, as a code-holder for Hollywood iconicity.
Oluwatobi Babatunde Njoaguani
Full Text Available Change and continuity are characteristics of human history. Strategic change in any society has significant impacts that becomes reference points for similar transformation in the near future. Fundamentally, the numerous internal upheavals that characterized North Africa and Middle East that culminated in a change of government in these countries has raised fundamental question about subject of change and revolution. Such questions include: is every change a revolution and does every revolution culminate in a change? What are the distinguishing features of change and the significance of such change for contemporary international politics? Using secondary data derived from books, and journals, the paper therefore examines the revolution and change in international politics drawing from historical examples of America and France Revolution. Also, noting the causes and implications of these of revolution on International Relations. It also seeks to distinguish between socio-political upheaval and internal disruptions that may culminate in change from revolution, that is, a vital change that affects institution, structure and value system of a society. The paper recommends a cautious use of the term revolution from change of government.
We inquire into the question whether the Aristotelian or classical ideal of science has been realised by the Model Revolution, initiated at Stanford University during the 1950s and spread all around the world of philosophy of science—salute Suppes. The guiding principle of the Model Revolution is: a
Deutsch, Leslie J.
The computer revolution is far from over on Earth. It is just beginning in space. We can look forward to an era of enhanced scientific exploration of the solar system and even other start systems. We can look forward to the benefits of this space revolution to commercial uses on and around Earth.
Emily K. Hobson
Full Text Available This article analyzes the radical imagination of lesbian and gay activism in solidarity with the Nicaraguan Revolution. It examines the reasons US lesbian and gay radicals supported that revolution and investigates the ways that homoerotic, especially lesbian, desire shaped their solidarity. Drawing on Herbert Marcuse and Michel Foucault, the article argues that lesbian and gay radicals viewed the Nicaraguan Revolution in erotic and heterotopic terms. Posters, fliers, and interviews reveal that US activists, people of color and white, represented the Revolution and solidarity through tropes of female masculinity and women’s affection. Many Nicaraguan lesbians and gay men shared these nonnormative images of socialist change. Yet while Nicaraguans claimed Sandinismo as their own, for US activists revolution remained a distant object of desire and solidarity a “seduction,” “crush,” or embrace. United States activists who embraced developmentalist views of Latin American sexualities remained unable to witness lesbian and gay life inside Nicaragua, while lesbian and gay Sandinistas kept silent about FSLN homophobia so as not to undermine solidarity against the Contra war. Desire served as a powerful tool for mobilizing transnational solidarity. By failing to examine desire critically, however, US activists limited their communications with Nicaraguan lesbians and gay men and weakened the relationship they sought with revolution itself.
The article investigates the impact of the French Revolution on Goethe’s narrative works in the mid-1790s. I argue that the reductive interpretation of Goethe’s attitude to the Revolution as distant and reluctant ignores the formal and thematic impact of the Revolution on his prose works. Similarly......, we lose important perspectives when reducing German intellectual life of the late eighteenth century to apolitical inwardness. The Revolution had an impact, also in the German context, and Goethe’s literary works were significantly affected by it. Working in various literary genres, he investigated...... and experimented with some of the fundamental challenges of the Revolution and the modern era, especially those regarding self-determination, community, and the nexus between individual and shared history. Following a brief sketch of how these issues looked from a German perspective, I will focus on Goethe...
Optical tracking of users and various technical systems are becoming more and more popular. It consists of analysing sequence of recorded images using video capturing devices and image processing algorithms. The returned data contains mainly point-clouds, coordinates of markers or coordinates of point of interest. These data can be used for retrieving information related to the geometry of the objects, but also to extract parameters for the analytical model of the system useful in a variety of computer aided engineering simulations. The parameter identification of joints deals with extraction of physical parameters (mainly geometric parameters) for the purpose of constructing accurate kinematic and dynamic models. The input data are the time-series of the marker’s position. The least square method was used for fitting the data into different geometrical shapes (ellipse, circle, plane) and for obtaining the position and orientation of revolute joins.
Guo, Peixuan; Noji, Hiroyuki; Yengo, Christopher M; Zhao, Zhengyi; Grainge, Ian
The ubiquitous biological nanomotors were classified into two categories in the past: linear and rotation motors. In 2013, a third type of biomotor, revolution without rotation (http://rnanano.osu.edu/movie.html), was discovered and found to be widespread among bacteria, eukaryotic viruses, and double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) bacteriophages. This review focuses on recent findings about various aspects of motors, including chirality, stoichiometry, channel size, entropy, conformational change, and energy usage rate, in a variety of well-studied motors, including FoF1 ATPase, helicases, viral dsDNA-packaging motors, bacterial chromosome translocases, myosin, kinesin, and dynein. In particular, dsDNA translocases are used to illustrate how these features relate to the motion mechanism and how nature elegantly evolved a revolution mechanism to avoid coiling and tangling during lengthy dsDNA genome transportation in cell division. Motor chirality and channel size are two factors that distinguish rotation motors from revolution motors. Rotation motors use right-handed channels to drive the right-handed dsDNA, similar to the way a nut drives the bolt with threads in same orientation; revolution motors use left-handed motor channels to revolve the right-handed dsDNA. Rotation motors use small channels (3 nm) with room for the bolt to revolve. Binding and hydrolysis of ATP are linked to different conformational entropy changes in the motor that lead to altered affinity for the substrate and allow work to be done, for example, helicase unwinding of DNA or translocase directional movement of DNA. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
This article considers the "myths" and negative images of the French Revolution which were fashioned in the United States by examining interpretations found in nineteenth and twentieth-century American school texts. The texts are part of the Floyd Family Collection at Indiana State University, representing books used in Indiana schools,…
Tao Zhang; Mustiere, Fred; Micheyl, Christophe
The first revolution in hearing aids came from nonlinear amplification, which allows better compensation for both soft and loud sounds. The second revolution stemmed from the introduction of digital signal processing, which allows better programmability and more sophisticated algorithms. The third revolution in hearing aids is wireless, which allows seamless connectivity between a pair of hearing aids and with more and more external devices. Each revolution has fundamentally transformed hearing aids and pushed the entire industry forward significantly. Machine learning has received significant attention in recent years and has been applied in many other industries, e.g., robotics, speech recognition, genetics, and crowdsourcing. We argue that the next revolution in hearing aids is machine intelligence. In fact, this revolution is already quietly happening. We will review the development in at least three major areas: applications of machine learning in speech enhancement; applications of machine learning in individualization and customization of signal processing algorithms; applications of machine learning in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of clinical tests. With the advent of the internet of things, the above developments will accelerate. This revolution will bring patient satisfactions to a new level that has never been seen before.
INTRODUCTION The tradition of the 1956 Hungarian revolution played a major role in undermining the legitimacy of the one-party state in 1988–89. However, the post-mortem victory of Imre Nagy over János Kádár, the glorious revival of the tradition of the revolution, coincided with the dissolution of the very same tradition. Recently, as the 50th anniversary of the revolution approached, the memory and celebration of 1956 became the most controversial historical and ideological issue in the Hun...
In South Korea, the Green Revolution has been commonly understood as the development and dissemination of new rice varieties ('Tongil' rice) and the rapid increase of rice yield in the 1970s. However, revolutionary success in agriculture was not the only green revolution South Korea experienced; another green revolution lay in the success of reforestation projects. In the 1970s, South Korea's forest greening was closely related to its agricultural revolution in several ways. Therefore, South Korea's Green Revolution was an intrinsically linked double feature of agriculture and forestry. This two-pronged revolution was initiated by scientific research - yet accomplished by the strong administrative mobilization of President Park Chung Hee's regime. The process of setting goals and meeting them through a military-like strategy in a short time was made possible under the authoritarian regime, known as 'Yushin', though the administration failed to fully acknowledge scientific expertise in the process of pushing to achieve goals.
Shorrock, William I.
Maintains that the effects of the French Revolution continue today. Presents scholarly views on the significance of the revolution. Challenges the view that the French Revolution led to the violent totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century. Traces the history of the revolution and outlines its legacy. (RW)
Mohammad Baqer Khorramshad
Full Text Available Islamic Revolution and the consequent Islamic state in Iran have revived Iranian-Islamic civilization’s discourse in a modern form which is rooted in both Iranian and Islamic ancient civilizations. Post-revolutionary Iran, as an obviously determinant country in this civilizational field, which has developed the civilization in the modern era, necessarily has to think and act civilizationally in order to resist western Humanist and Materialist affects. Academy is the place within which knowledge, as clearly one of the most important foundations of civilization-building, is produced. Civilization-building is the horizon toward which Iranian Universities should orient themselves. Academy is the canon of science, knowledge, and culture, and therefore plays an affective role in the formation, development and flourishing of a civilization; and it could be said that University is the foundation on which civilization is built. In other words, University in the modern era is not only the site of education and research, but also as an epistemological basis, participates in the process of culture and civilization-building; the matter which this study attempts to elaborate. Thus, we attempt to explain and define the necessary tools and indicators in the process.
Honorary Editor It was that temporary Bolshevik Leon Trotsky who developed the principle of `permanent revolution', a principle that perhaps characterizes the recent history of education in (south) Britain more than does, say, principles traditionally associated with the Conservative or Labour parties. As this editorial is being written, changes are being made to primary school education, and the long-awaited details of the post-Dearing reorganizing of post-16 education are yet to hit the overful bookshelves and filing cabinets of school heads and examination board officials. But something unique has happened recently which might have surprised even Trotsky. The Secretary of State for Education has set up targets for primary school pupils' attainment and threatened (or promised) to resign if they are not met within the lifetime of our newly elected parliament. Of course, if Mr Blunkett is still in a position to resign at that stage he will have been the longest serving Secretary of State since time immemorial. But we should not carp: this is truly a revolutionary idea. Not the promise to resign - although this idea is not so fashionable now as it once was. The revolutionary idea is that a major change to an educational process is actually being made that carries with it a predicted and testable outcome. By contrast, when school physics was refreshed a generation ago by the introduction of Nuffield courses at both pre- and post-16 stages, no `targets' were set. I and many other physics teachers certainly preferred teaching these to teaching their predecessor syllabuses, and might even dare to assert that the pupils liked them too. But we still don't really know whether or not they learned more - or even better - physics. Very little happened as far as the outside world was concerned: the usual fraction of students gave up physics at the usual ages, and those who were examined didn't really get a better reward for their more up-to-date and more enjoyably learned
This three- to four-week unit for use with secondary students in courses in politics or modern world history generates a basic understanding about the origins, development, and status of the revolution in Iran. (RM)
Mădălina Roxana Buneci
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is provide a set of Maple procedures to construct approximate developments of a general surface of revolution generalizing the well-known gore method for sphere
The Ptolemaic system of the universe, with the earth at the center, had held sway since antiquity as authoritative in philosophy, science, and church teaching. Following his observations of the heavenly bodies, Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) abandoned the geocentric system for a heliocentric model, with the sun at the center. His remarkable work, On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres, stands as one of the greatest intellectual revolutions of all time, and profoundly influenced, among others, Galileo and Sir Isaac Newton.
Riesemann, W.A. von; Stricklin, J.A.; Haisler, W.E.
Over the past few years a series of finite element computer programs have been developed at Texas A and M University for the static and dynamic nonlinear analysis of shells of revolution. This paper discusses one of these, DYNAPLAS, which is a program for the transient response of ring stiffened shells of revolution subjected to either asymmetric initial velocities or to asymmetric pressure loadings. Both material and geometric nonlinearities may be considered. (Auth.)
Paulo Fagundes Visentini
Full Text Available Analysis of the impact of revolutions in the International Relations and the World System as constitutive and renewed elements. Criticizes the stance of theories that consider it a domestic phenomenon that causes a systemic disturbance, focusing in the case of the African Revolutions in the 1970s. Explores the international dimension they possess, considering their impact regarding the end of the Cold War, even though it happened in the periphery of the world.
Full Text Available Turkey's foreign policy has been drawing considerable attention particularly because of the momentous transformations in the Middle East. The visits of Turkish Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davuoglu to Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia in September 2011 and their subsequent visits to the region underscored the rise of Turkey's involvement in the region. The Arab Spring came at a time when Turkey's relations with the United States, Israel and the European Union were going through significant turbulence. 2010 proved to be a particularly difficult year for Turkey's place in the transatlantic community. The Gaza flotilla crisis in June 2010 - ending with Israeli forces killing eight Turkish citizens - and Turkey's "no" vote to a new round of sanctions against Iran at the United Nations (UN Security Council that same month triggered a heated debate on Turkey's relations with the West, which led popular American columnists such as Tom Friedman to go as far as arguing that Ankara was now joining the "Hamas- Hezbollah-Iran resistance front against Israel." While this was a clear exaggeration, it indicated the scope of debate on the eve of the Arab Spring. Since the Arab Spring, the Western discourse about Turkey has dramatically changed. Instead of asking "who lost Turkey" or complaining about the Islamization of Turkish foreign policy, analysts began discussing whether the new regimes in the Arab world would follow the "Turkish model." This article aims to analyze the Turkish approach to the Middle East and the Arab revolutions, the main determinants of Turkish foreign policy and diplomacy in the Middle East and the debate on "Turkish Model. What has changed, or has not, during and after the Arab Spring?
Oellrich, Anika; Collier, Nigel; Groza, Tudor; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich; Shah, Nigam; Bodenreider, Olivier; Boland, Mary Regina; Georgiev, Ivo; Liu, Hongfang; Livingston, Kevin; Luna, Augustin; Mallon, Ann-Marie; Manda, Prashanti; Robinson, Peter N; Rustici, Gabriella; Simon, Michelle; Wang, Liqin; Winnenburg, Rainer; Dumontier, Michel
Phenotypes have gained increased notoriety in the clinical and biological domain owing to their application in numerous areas such as the discovery of disease genes and drug targets, phylogenetics and pharmacogenomics. Phenotypes, defined as observable characteristics of organisms, can be seen as one of the bridges that lead to a translation of experimental findings into clinical applications and thereby support 'bench to bedside' efforts. However, to build this translational bridge, a common and universal understanding of phenotypes is required that goes beyond domain-specific definitions. To achieve this ambitious goal, a digital revolution is ongoing that enables the encoding of data in computer-readable formats and the data storage in specialized repositories, ready for integration, enabling translational research. While phenome research is an ongoing endeavor, the true potential hidden in the currently available data still needs to be unlocked, offering exciting opportunities for the forthcoming years. Here, we provide insights into the state-of-the-art in digital phenotyping, by means of representing, acquiring and analyzing phenotype data. In addition, we provide visions of this field for future research work that could enable better applications of phenotype data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.
The history of bariatric surgery is investigational. Dedicated surgeons have continuously sought for an ideal procedure to relieve morbidly obese patients from their burden of comorbid conditions, reduced life expectancy and low quality of life. The ideal procedure must have low complication risk, both in short- and long term, as well as minimal impact on daily life. The revolution of laparoscopic techniques in bariatric surgery is described in this summary. Advances in minimal invasive techniques have contributed to reduced operative time, length of stay, and complications. The development in bariatric surgery has been exceptional, resulting in a dramatic increase of the number of procedures performed world wide during the last decades. Although, a complex bariatric procedure can be performed with operative mortality no greater than cholecystectomy, specific procedure-related complications and other drawbacks must be taken into account. The evolution of laparoscopy will be the legacy of the 21(st) century and at present, day-care surgery and further reduction of the operative trauma is in focus. The impressive effects on comorbid conditions have prompted the adoption of minimal invasive bariatric procedures into the field of metabolic surgery.
William P. Graf
Full Text Available A perspective on the very human process by which scientific paradigms change can help point the path forward in any science, or in an applied science, such as Structural Engineering. Understanding this process of change, we can examine earthquake engineering, seismic building codes and theories of structural engineering for earthquake loads. When we take this perspective, we recognize that Structural Engineering for earthquake resistance is in the midst of a number of revolutions, from paradigms embodied in current building codes in which earthquake demands are associated with forces, to a new paradigm in which earthquake demands are re-envisioned as resulting from structural displacements or drift. The new paradigm is embodied in the current national standard for the seismic rehabilitation of existing structures, ASCE 41  and the emerging standards for performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE. Associated with this is the shift from design oriented towards life-safety to design for a range of performance objectives, such as life-safety, damage reduction, or immediate occupancy. With this perspective, we further recognize deficiencies in research and development. We have failed to systematically use the experimental and computational tools we possess to fill in the gaps of scientific knowledge. We have not developed and deployed appropriate frameworks to collect and share ideas and results. As one example, the formulation of performance-based codes now outstrips the knowledge-base needed to ensure that structures designed by the new tools will meet their performance objectives.
Hardy, Samantha; Dhanissaro, Phra John Paramai; Thangsurbkul, Worakate
This paper describes a project called Peace Revolution [http://peacerevolution.net], which provides an opportunity for young people from around the world to learn and share positive messages and activities relating to peace. The Peace Revolution project aims to empower young people via a unique process related to youth development, helping young…
Zheludev, Nikolay I.
This special section on Nanophotonics and Metamaterials is a follow-up to the second European Topical Meeting of the NANOMETA series of meetings (see www.nanometa.org) which took place on 5-8 January 2009, in Seefeld, Austria. The main idea of the first NANOMETA meeting held in 2007 was to bring together the mature community of microwave electrical engineers with the emerging community of photonics researchers interested in the physics of light coupled to nanostructures. In recent years the research landscape has shifted dramatically. A wider proliferation of nanofabrication techniques such as electron beam lithography, nanoimprint and focused ion beam milling, diagnostics techniques such as near-field scanning imaging, cathodoluminescence with nanoscale resolution and micro-spectrometry, and the availability of affordable broadband and ultrafast optical sources, have moved the research focus of the NANOMETA community to the optical domain. Quite naturally the ideas of the nonlinearity of materials and the coherency of light in the nanoscale realm have been widely discussed. Driven by the dream of untapped device and material functionality, nonlinear and switchable nanophotonic devices and photonic metamaterials, along with the concept of tailoring the electromagnetic space with metamaterials, appear to be the main avenues along which the subject will develop in the coming years. Indeed, in the last 20 years photonics has played a key role in creating the world as we know it, with enormous beneficial social impact worldwide. It is impossible to imagine modern society without the globe-spanning broadband internet and mobile telephony made possible by the implementation of optical fibre core networks, optical disc data storage (underpinned by the development of compact semiconductor lasers), modern image display technologies and laser-assisted manufacturing. We now anticipate that the next photonic revolution will continue to grow, explosively fuelled by a new
Lent, John A., Ed.
This book is composed of 19 articles written by both Asian and American scholars on the history and present conditions of newspapers in 15 Asian nations: China, Hong Kong, Japan, Korea, Taiwan, Australia, Burma, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore, the Philippines, Thailand, South Vietnam, Ceylon, India, and Pakistan. Two overviews of the Asian…
2 sexual revolutions have occurred in the last 30 years: an immense increase in knowledge of sexual matters and the accompanying expansion of providing therapy for sexual disorders; and a radical change in sexual attitudes and behavior. Discussion focuses on the ethical implications of these changes. The standards of sexual morality in this society are derived from the Judeo Christian tradition. In the beginning of Genesis there are 2 passages which are fundamental for the origin and understanding of traditional morality. In these 2 passages sexuality is first linked with establishing a man woman permanent relationship and secondly as the means of giving rise to new life. The origins of the standard Christian mortality about sex was that it was good for procreation and procreation was confined to marriage. All sexual activity before marriage and outside marriage was condemned; fornication and adultery were both wrong. This tradition of confining sex to marriage for the purpose of procreation has continued to the present when it has been widely challenged and contravened. The advent of birth control has had a pronounced effect. For the 1st time sexual intercourse and procreation are totally and effectively separated. As a result sexual activity in previously forbidden situations is now rampant. There exists an extensive preoccupation with sex. Many lavish praise on love making, yet it all depends on what is meant by lovemaking. There are at least 3 ways of understanding lovemaking: solitary sex; transient sex between a couple; and sexual intercourse within marriage. There are single people who extol solitary sex, people who insist that they do not need other people in their life. Masturbation has a place in the life of adolescents and may reassert itself when men and women are separated, but the pleasure of mutual involvement is so much greater that masturbation readily yields to heterosexual activity in the majority of cases and homosexual activity in a small
Med den industrielle revolution fulgte den urbane revolution og urbanismen som bymæssig videns- og planlægningsdisciplin. Med de nye informations- og kommunikationsteknologier står vi i dag over for samfundsmæssige forandringer, som sætter en ny urban revolution på dagsordenen. Urbanismen er...... tilsvarende ved at blive afløst af en "meta-urbanisme", som adskiller sig fra den foregående med hensyn til målsætninger, kundskabsmæssige redskaber og handlingsinstrumenter. I artiklen redegøres for sammenhænge mellem disse teknologiske, samfundsmæssige, bymæssige og urbanistiske forandringer....
The well documented cognitive "revolution" was, to a large extent, an evolving return to attitudes and trends that were present prior to the advent of behaviorism and that were alive and well outside of the United States, where behaviorism had not developed any coherent support. The behaviorism of the 1920 to 1950 period was replaced because it was unable to address central issues in human psychology, a failure that was inherent in part in J. B. Watson's founding manifesto with its insistence on the seamless continuity of human and nonhuman animal behavior. The "revolution" was often slow and piecemeal, as illustrated by four conferences held between 1955 and 1966 in the field of memory. With the realization that different approaches and concepts were needed to address a psychology of the human, developments in German, British, and Francophone psychology provided some of the fuel of the "revolution."
Schweber, Silvan S.
I argue that the quantum revolution should be seen as an Ian Hacking type of scientific revolution: a profound, longue durée, multidisciplinary process of transforming our understanding of physical nature, with deep-rooted social components from the start. The "revolution" exhibits a characteristic style of reasoning - the hierarchization of physical nature - and developed and uses a specific language - quantum field theory (QFT). It is by virtue of that language that the quantum theory has achieved some of its deepest insights into the description of the dynamics of the physical world. However, the meaning of what a quantum field theory is and what it describes has deeply altered, and one now speaks of "effective" quantum field theories. Interpreting all present day quantum field theories as but "effective" field theories sheds additional light on Phillip Anderson's assertion that "More is different". This important element is addressed in the last part of the paper.
Grayson, Lawrence P.
Narrates the history of engineering and engineering education in the United States during revolutionary times under these headings: before 1775; wartime needs; early concern for training; arrival of foreign volunteers; continuing education efforts; and after the war. A special section on 18th century French and English engineering is also…
importance to the state; the province of life or death ; the road to survival or ruin.1 -Sun Tzu In deliberating on this question, it was impossible...British) could not easily forget that they were fighting against men of their own race. Here pity interposes and we cannot forget that when we strike we
5 David A. Armour , “DePeyster, Arent Schuyler,” Dictionary of Canadian Biography, vol. 6, University of Toronto, 1987, accessed 13 September 2015...Huguenot emigration.”36 While this restricted model makes the subject matter more manageable , it also negates broader temporal and spatial connections...overview of Huguenot contributions in almost every possible field, from the arts to medicine and from the military to politics, the authors manage to
Among the theoreticians dealing with the development of democracy a woman can seldom be found. However, that the influence of the women’s rights issue on the democratic revolution is by no means a minor one, but quite the contrary, demonstrates Mary Wollstonecraft’s essay »Vindication of the Rights of Woman«. In his considerations regarding the relation between the women’s rights issue and the democratic revolution, Mastnak relies upon this very book and its interpretations. In contrast to so...
Originally published in English in 1973. This volume traces the development of the revolution which so drastically altered man's view of the universe in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The ""astronomical revolution"" was accomplished in three stages, each linked with the work of one man. With Copernicus, the sun became the centre of the universe. With Kepler, celestial dynamics replaced the kinematics of circles and spheres used by Copernicus. With Borelli the unification of celestial and terrestrial physics was completed by abandonment of the circle in favour the straight line to inf
Some of the most important things in life are taken for granted, and nowhere is this truer than with light. In this article, we will look at some important milestones marking light's path from human evolution to sustainable revolution, challenges facing the modern lighting industry as well as the world we live in, and what the future promises. In a sense, a new revolution is at hand. It would be hard to overestimate the fundamental importance of light as it shapes virtually everything we sense and experience.
Wrigley, E A
Societies before the Industrial Revolution were dependent on the annual cycle of plant photosynthesis for both heat and mechanical energy. The quantity of energy available each year was therefore limited, and economic growth was necessarily constrained. In the Industrial Revolution, energy usage increased massively and output rose accordingly. The energy source continued to be plant photosynthesis, but accumulated over a geological age in the form of coal. This poses a problem for the future. Fossil fuels are a depleting stock, whereas in pre-industrial time the energy source, though limited, was renewed each year.
Roč. 7, č. 4 (2017), s. 565-580 ISSN 2159-8282 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : revolution * participation * political economy * Russian revolution Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion OBOR OECD: Political science
Kjær, Poul F.
Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)......Book review of: Critical Theory of Legal Revolutions. Evolutionary Perspective / by Hauke Brunkhorst (London: Bloomsbury, 2014, 471 pp.)...
Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…
Describes computer program designed to enable students to analyze process of political revolution by generating graphs for comparisons of such factors as violence, economic instability, and political instability. Student activities, abilities, and reactions, and teacher involvement are noted. Sources concerning revolution, the French Revolution,…
Queiroz, Ana Isabel; Alves, Daniel
This paper presents an embryo of a literary guide on the Carnation Revolution to be explored for educational historical excursions other than leisure and tourism. We propose a historical trail through the centre of Lisbon, city of the Carnation Revolution, called "Walk through the Revolution." The trail aims to reinforce collective…
Pinhey, Laura A.
Provides a list, from the ERIC database, of teaching materials and background information on the Industrial Revolution. Specific topics include life in Lowell (Massachusetts), the global impact of the Industrial Revolution, and England's Industrial Revolution. Offers directions for obtaining the full text of these materials. (CMK)
Allen, Robert C.; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis
estimates of the actual working year, we find two ‘industrious' revolutions among rural workers; both, however, are attributable to economic hardship, and we detect no signs of a consumer revolution. For urban labourers, by contrast, a growing gap between their actual working year and the work required......It is conventionally assumed that the pre-modern working year was fixed and that consumption varied with changes in wages and prices. This is challenged by the twin theories of the ‘industrious' revolution and the consumer revolution, positing a longer working year as people earned surplus money...... to buy novel goods. In this study, we turn the conventional view on its head, fixing consumption rather than labour input. Specifically, we use a basket of basic consumption goods and compute the working year of rural and urban day labourers required to achieve that. By comparing with independent...
Horn, J J
Despite a victorious social revolution, a self-proclaimed "revolutionary" government, and a significant post-war economic growth, Mexico has not achieved a just or equitable social system. The Mexican Revolution led to the emergence of a new bureaucratic class whose "trickle-down" development strategy sacrificed social welfare to capital accumulation. Mexican morbidity and mortality patterns resemble those of more impoverished developing nations without revolutionary experience. The patterns of health care in Mexico reflect inequities and contradictions in the society and economy at large and flow from the erosion of the egalitarian aims of the revolution concomitant with the expansion of capitalism and the concentration of the benefits of "modernization" in the hands of privileged elites. Mexico's health problems are symptomatic of a general socio-economic malaise which questions the legitimacy of the Revolution.
More than any other Igbo sub-group; the Nnewi Igbo emerged as pioneer road transport entrepreneurs and charted this novel economic enterprise with huge success. Some of these pioneer transport capitalists were J.C. Ulasi, L.P. Ojukwu, and A.E. Ilodibe. These indigenous entrepreneurs commercialized the revolution in ...
Scrofani, E. Robert, Ed.
These teacher-developed materials are designed to help educators integrate economic concepts into the teaching of history. The materials include readings on the Industrial Revolution in England and a series of activities that require students to analyze the impact of industrialization first on English peasant farmers, and then on workers in early…
This volume provides an in-depth discussion on the central question – how can people express and survive dissent and disagreement in confined habitats in space? The discussion is an important one because it could be that the systems of inter-dependence required to survive in space are so strong that dissent becomes impossible. John Locke originally said that people have a right to use revolution to overthrow a despotic regime. But if revolution causes violence and damage that causes depressurisation with the risk of killing many people, is it even permissible to have a revolution? How then are people to express their liberty or dissatisfaction with their rulers? The emergence of structures of dissent and disagreement is an essential part of the construction of a framework of liberty in space (revolution is just the extreme example) and thus the topic deserves in-depth and immediate attention. Even today, the way in which we assemble organisations and corporations for the government and private exploration o...
Clark, Barbara A.; French, James Joss
Educators are hesitant to venture into the unknown landscape within a child's heart and mind because they have throughout their education experienced the same non-compassionate teachers. This research proposes an awakening, making a wave for a new revolution of compassionate teachers that institutes aesthetic methodology to address relevant…
The US energy revolution will have profound and longstanding repercussions on its national economy and on the world market. What are the strategic consequences of this evolution? Some have suggested that US policy in the Middle East could undergo a deep transformation. Don't hold your breath. (author)
The concept ‘bourgeois revolution' developed through a particular synthesis of three world views, each with its own period of dominance in Western thought. In the enlightenment views of civilization history developing in Scotland and France from the 1740's till about 1800, materialist notions of ...
Biological databases are having a growth spurt. Much of this results from research in genetics and biodiversity, coupled with fast-paced developments in information technology. The revolution in bioinformatics, defined by Sugden and Pennisi (2000) as the "tools and techniques for...
The 'shale gas revolution' - responsible for a huge increase in unconventional gas production in the US over the last couple of years - is creating huge investor uncertainties for international gas markets and renewables and could result in serious gas shortages in 10 years time. This report casts serious doubt over industry confidence in the 'revolution', questioning whether it can spread beyond the US, or indeed be maintained within it, as environmental concerns, high depletion rates and the fear that US circumstances may be impossible to replicate elsewhere, come to the fore. Investor uncertainty will reduce investment in future gas supplies to lower levels than would have happened had the 'shale gas revolution' not hit the headlines. While the markets will eventually solve this problem, rising gas demand and the long lead-in-times on most gas projects are likely to inflict high prices on consumers in the medium term. The uncertainties created by the 'shale gas revolution' are also likely to compound existing investor uncertainty in renewables for power generation in the aftermath of Copenhagen. The serious possibility of cheap, relatively clean gas may threaten investment in more expensive lower carbon technologies.
This working paper is a draft chapter for the UNESCO-History of Humanity. Different views on the concept and spread of the industrial revolution, which took place from the late 18th century onwards, are dealt with. By way of example the revolutionary character of technological change and the search
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 11. Copernican Revolution in the Complex Plane - An Algebraic Way to Show the "Chief Point" of Copernican Innovation. Giorgio Goldoni. General Article Volume 17 Issue 11 November 2012 pp 1065-1084 ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 2. Revolutions in Evolutionary Thought: Darwin and After. Renee M Borges. General Article Volume 14 Issue 2 February 2009 pp 102-123. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…
This is to revaluate the truth-content of scientific theory in the event of scientific revolution. In this paper, we argued that the radical views on incommensurability offered, especially, by Thomas S. Kuhn (shared by Paul Feyerabend, and others) do not actually undermine either the realist or cumulative stature of science.
Mason, Robert M.
Discussion of choices posed by the current microtechnology revolution notes librarians' reluctance to utilize new technologies, ability of libraries to deal with success and fund new services, strategic decision facing libraries and professionals concerning essential "business" of libraries, new microcomputer portables and more powerful…
Revision," Middle East International, 3 February 1989. Halliday, Fred "The Revolution’s First Decade," Middle East Report, January 1989. Hiro , Dilip "The...Revolution Takes Stock," The Middle East, June 1989. Hiro , Dilip "What War Did for the Revolution," The Middle East July 1989. Hoffer, Eric The True
Davis, Scott A
.... The case studies of Braddock's Campaign, the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution, and the Philippines Insurrection provide justification for the presence of the tenets of 4GW throughout...
Full Text Available México celebraba en el año 2010 el Bicentenario del empiezo de sus luchas de independencia y el Centenario de la Revolución Mexicana de 1910. Lo que no se celebra oficialmente es el proceso revolucionario contemporáneo, aunque sus ciertas fases han incluido entusiasmo por parte de diferentes actores sociales. En este artículo les ofrezco un análisis histórico de estos procesos revolucionarios como tres largas revoluciones de México. Además de eso, las explicaré dentro de un contexto histórico más amplio la transición desde un contexto histórico amplio eurocéntrico hacia un contexto histórico amplio no-eurocéntrico, que podemos entender también como la Primera Verdadera Revolución Mundial (PVRM. Empiezo con la explicación de este contexto histórico amplio. Continúo con el análisis del proceso de independencia desde 1810 así como la Revolución Mexicana desde 1910. Adelanto con la explicación de la tercera larga revolución mexicana, para la cual he seleccionado como el año del empiezo el 1988 y las elecciones presidenciales. Otros posibles años del empiezo podrían ser la represión del movimiento estudiantil en 1968 y la rebelión neozapatista desde 1994. En manera de conclusión se analiza como las largas revoluciones mexicanas están conectadas a las transiciones en la esfera del contexto histórico amplio.Palabras clave: México, revolución, largas revoluciones, Primera Verdadera Revolución Mundial (PVEM___________________________Abstract:Mexico celebrated in 2010 the Bicentenary of the beginning of its struggles of independence and the Centenary of the Mexican Revolution of 1910. What is not celebrated officially is the contemporary revolutionary process though some of its phases have included enthusiasm for the part of different social actors. In this article I offer you a historical analysis of these revolutionary processes as Mexico’s three long revolutions. Besides that I will explain them within the
From cholera pandemics to smog episodes, urban development driven by narrow economic interests has shown itself to be a serious threat to human health and wellbeing. Past revolutions in sanitation and pollution control demonstrate that social movements and governance reforms can transform an urban health penalty into a health advantage. But many environmental problems have been displaced over time and space, and never truly resolved. Health concerns need once again to drive an environmental agenda – but this time it must be sustainable over the long haul, and globally equitable. With the global economic crisis raising the ante, what's needed is no less than a revolution in environmental justice that puts health, not economics, at the core of its values.
Williams, J B
This book is about how electronics, computing, and telecommunications have profoundly changed our lives – the way we work, live, and play. It covers a myriad of topics from the invention of the fundamental devices, and integrated circuits, through radio and television, to computers, mobile telephones and GPS. Today our lives are ruled by electronics as they control the home and computers dominate the workspace. We walk around with mobile phones and communicate by email. Electronics didn’t exist until into the twentieth century. The industrial revolution is the term usually applied to the coming of steam, railways and the factory system. In the twentieth century, it is electronics that has changed the way we gather our information, entertain ourselves, communicate and work. This book demonstrates that this is, in fact, another revolution. .
Den Herder, Griet; Van Isterdael, Gert; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive
A significant increase in shoot biomass and seed yield has always been the dream of plant biologists who wish to dedicate their fundamental research to the benefit of mankind; the first green revolution about half a century ago represented a crucial step towards contemporary agriculture and the development of high-yield varieties of cereal grains. Although there has been a steady rise in our food production from then onwards, the currently applied technology and the available crop plants will not be sufficient to feed the rapidly growing world population. In this opinion article, we highlight several below-ground characteristics of plants such as root architecture, nutrient uptake and nitrogen fixation as promising features enabling a very much needed new green revolution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The world, in terms of globalization did not become more stable and predictable. Its main characteristics today are: turbulence, insecurity, and growth potential for conflicts. The most important expression of compression of clamps of turbulence becomes events from 2011. Years, in many countries of North Africa and the Middle East, called the ''Arab revolutions''. For some, these events are coincidental and spontaneous protest ''dreamers of democracy'', while for others it is a result of the planned implementation of projects for a global reorganization of the world. Besides the difference in the value perception of ''colored revolutions'', among theorists there is no agreement even on issues of their target orientation and of their relationship to democracy, social reasonableness, and especially of compatibility of goals and the methods for their realizations.
Wang Yongxian; Qian Junlong; Yang Fujia
As a high technique, nuclear techniques play specific roles in the new technological revolution. Technological developments have been enhanced by a number of nuclear techniques, such as industrial applications of computed tomography systems in non-destructive inspections and tests, ion implantation in electronical device manufacturing, analytial nuclear techniques in elemental and sub-surface analysis, nuclear logging in surveying energy resources and radiation processing in developing new polymeric materials
The Egyptian Revolution 2011 created a space and opportunity to forward important demands concerning different social and political issues, amongst these matters related to women's status and situations in the society. Feminist and women's rights proponents in Egypt conceptualize the aims of a feminist or women's rights agenda as (women's) human rights and citizen's rights, independence, freedom and choice, though such universal concepts are understood in accordance with particular cultural o...
AbstractThis project discusses the role Egyptian women have been playing in shaping the social and political landscape of their country during the last decade, but particularly in the aftermath of the January 2011 revolution. It specifically examines the work independent women artists have been creating to keep the dialogue open, and to increase awareness about women’s issues as well as human rights in general. Through examination of design, graffiti, music, and filmmaking created during this...
This journey in the history of physics is offered in celebration of David Cassidy's Pais Prize. The journey, undertaken in part with the community of historians of physics and in part not, starts from a conventional characterization of the relativity revolution as an abrupt transition, in 1905, from pre-Einsteinian darkness to Einsteinian light, and ends with an alternative perspective on the relativity revolution, seeing it as a process extending over 50 years, in two phases: first, the protorelativity phase, lasting from the early 1880s to 1905, and involving initial treatments of the length contraction, the mass increase, and invariance properties; second, the Einsteinian phase, beginning with his recasting of the basic theoretical framework--with the inclusion now of the time dilation and the E = mc2 relationship--and continuing with the ensuing competition between the protorelativistic and Einsteinian approaches, issuing in the final triumph of the Einsteinian approach only in the early 1930s. A proper appreciation of the character and importance of the protorelativity phase of the relativity revolution is relevant to a variety of contexts: for the teaching of relativity theory, it makes available a more concrete and pictorial approach to the relativistic effects--retaining greater (length contraction) or somewhat lesser (mass increase) validity to the present day; for the ongoing discourse on the nature of scientific revolutions, it provides a perspective on the intricacies and complexities of those occurrences, and on the elements of continuity and gradualism in even the most radical changes; and for our general understanding of historical process in the history of the sciences, it shows the importance of the broader scientific research community for even the most individual accomplishments.
Batten, Alan Henry
The term "revolution" in scientific contexts usually refers either to the beginnings of modern western science in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, or to the two great revolutions of early twentieth century physics. Comparison of what was known at the beginning of the nineteenth century with what was known at the end, however, shows that century to have been one of transformation in astronomy, and in the other sciences, that amounts to "revolution". Astronomers in 1800 knew neither the nature of the Sun nor the distances of the stars. Developments in instrumentation enabled the first determinations of stellar parallax in the 1830s, and later enabled the solar prominences to be studied outside the brief momemnts of total eclipses. The development of photography and of spectroscopy led to the birth of observational astrophysics, while the greater understanding of the nature of heat and the rise of thermodynamics made possible the first attempts to investigate the theory of stellar structure. Nothing was known in 1800 of extra-galactic objects apart from some tentative identifcations by William Herschel but, by the end of the century, the discovery of the spiral structure of some nebulae had led some to believe that these were the "island universes" about which Kant had speculated. Of course, astrophysics and cosmology would be much further developed in the twentieth century and those of us whose careers spanned the second half of that century look back on it as a "golden age" for astronomy; but the nineteenth century was undoubtedly a time of rapid transformation and can be reasonably described as as one of the periods of revolution in astronomy.
Roč. 69, č. 1 (2017), s. 111-126 ISSN 0925-9392 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-23584S Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Czechoslovakia * Marxist humanism * Revolution * Karel Kosík * Robert Kalivoda Subject RIV: AB - History OBOR OECD: History (history of science and technology to be 6.3, history of specific sciences to be under the respective headings) Impact factor: 0.059, year: 2016
Thaler, David S
The Neolithic revolution--the transition of our species from hunter and gatherer to cultivator--began approximately 14,000 years ago and is essentially complete for macroscopic food. Humans remain largely pre-Neolithic in our relationship with microbes but starting with the gut we continue our hundred-year project of approaching the ability to assess and cultivate benign microbiomes in our bodies. Buildings are analogous to the body and it is time to ask what it means to cultivate benign microbiomes in our built environment. A critical distinction is that we have not found, or invented, niches in buildings where healthful microbial metabolism occurs and/or could be cultivated. Key events affecting the health and healthfulness of buildings such as a hurricane leading to a flood or a burst pipe occur only rarely and unpredictably. The cause may be transient but the effects can be long lasting and, e.g., for moisture damage, cumulative. Non-invasive "building tomography" could find moisture and "sentinel microbes" could record the integral of transient growth. "Seed" microbes are metabolically inert cells able to grow when conditions allow. All microbes and their residue present actinic molecules including immunological epitopes (molecular shapes). The fascinating hygiene and microbial biodiversity hypotheses propose that a healthy immune system requires exposure to a set of microbial epitopes that is rich in diversity. A particular conjecture is that measures of the richness of diversity derived from microbiome next-generation sequencing (NGS) can be mechanistically coupled to--rather than merely correlated with some measures of--human health. These hypotheses and conjectures inspire workers and funders but an alternative is also consequent to the first Neolithic revolution: That the genetic uniformity of contemporary foods may also decrease human exposure to molecular biodiversity in a heath-relevant manner. Understanding the consequences--including the unintended
Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kosawada, Tadashi; Takahashi, Shin
Axisymmetric shells of revolution are used for chemical plants, nuclear power plants, aircrafts, structures and so on, and the elucidation of their free vibration is important for the design. In this study, the axisymmetric vibration of a barrel-shaped shell was analyzed by the modified thick shell theory. The Lagrangian during one period of the vibration of a shell of revolution was determined, and from its stopping condition, the vibration equations and the boundary conditions were derived. The vibration equations were analyzed strictly by using the series solution. Moreover, the basic equations for the strain of a shell and others were based on those of Love. As the examples of numerical calculation, the natural frequency and vibration mode of the symmetrical shells of revolution fixed at both ends and supported at both ends were determined, and their characteristics were clarified. By comparing the results of this study with the results by thin shell theory, the effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency and vibration mode were clarified. The theoretical analysis and the numerical calculation are described. The effects of shearing deformation and rotary inertia on the natural frequency became larger in the higher order vibration. The vibration mode did not much change in both theories. (Kako, I.)
Full Text Available The main issue dealt with in this theoretical paper is the explanation of the starting scientific and democratic revolution both in the educative field and in the educative research. In addition, evidence-based arguments are included to provide validity of some affirmations. The first section argues that the social sciences are the daughters and an essential part of democracy. A few historical arguments about the way in which the dominant classes have slowed down the scientific progress and the development of people that make it possible. In the second section, it is analyzed the opposition of feudal universities to this unstoppable beginning of what could be called the scientific and democratic revolution. At the same time, we deal with its ambivalent character requiring to be supported and to be criticized so that it can be improved. In the third section, we expound the way in which this progress has provide some conditions that makes it possible to overcome the strong gender-based violence happening in our institutions of higher education and makes it also possible that women who were persecuted are now transforming our universities. Influences and criticism to our university feudalism, made by social movements such as the named 'Spanish Revolution', appear in the fourth section. In the fifth and last section, we offer a proposal to promote the scientific, democratic, and revolutionary approach of the university.
Sergei A. Nefedov
Full Text Available The question about the causes and actors of the February revolution can be understood only in the context of previous events. In this connection, of great importance is the analysis of the causes and circumstances of a strike wave that swept through Petrograd in October 1916. Up to 100 thousand strikers (together with locked-out workers were involved in these labor unrests that were accompanied by demonstrations and clashes with the police. In many ways (bread shortage as the main motivation, bakeshops pillage, spontaneity, suddenness, involvement of adolescents and women, Cossacks’ refusal to shoot into the crowd, solders’ desertion to the side of people, these events recall those of February 23–28, 1917. The American historians L. Haimson and E. Brian called them “a try-out of the February revolution”. Short information about these strikes is available in the papers of a number of Soviet authors; however, it is presented to some extent tendentiously, based on the desire to show the directing and organizational role of the Bolshevik party. In this regard, it seems important to restore the actual course of the events and give them an objective interpretation. The study shows that the October strikes were the first reaction of Petrograd workers to the emerging food crisis, whereas the February revolution was the reaction to the second, a much more acute phase of this crisis. The mechanism of these events was similar: in the both cases, famine was the major factor pushing for protests. In the both cases, protests were spontaneous and massive, externally similar to a hunger riot. The food crisis determined the army’s position as well: both in October and in February, Cossacks and soldiers sympathized with the starving population and refused to use weapons to crackdown demonstrators
ABSTRACT Within a short time after the Iranian revolution of 1977-79, a number of studies were published concerning the dramatic process. It was presumably the spectacular turn of events, comprehensive media coverage, and relatively long period of time over which the revolution took place...... of the Iranian Revolution, thus adding new dimensions to the comprehensive discussions of the dramatic developments. It is the article’s perspective that the revolution must be conceptualised as a complex and dynamic process involving a high degree of internal dynamism and unpredictability, which made possible...... that enhanced the attention it received, and still receives from academic research. Taking its point of departure in theories of revolution by Theda Skocpol, this article discusses the character of the revolution. The article problematises Skocpol’s theories through a discussion of the special characteristics...
Franco-American Alliance of 1778, eds. Peter J. Albert and Ronald Hoffman (Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1981), 109-115. 30 It...Revolution: The Franco-American Alliance of 1778, eds. Peter J. Albert and Ronald Hoffman (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1981), 155...104 Simms, Europe, 136-137. 43 Bibliography Albert , Peter J. and Ronald Hoffman , eds. Diplomacy and the Revolution: The Franco-American
Nuclear material shipping containers have shells of revolution as basic structural components. Analytically modeling the response of these containers to severe accident impact conditions requires a nonlinear shell-of-revolution model that accounts for both geometric and material nonlinearities. Existing models are limited to large displacements, small rotations, and nonlinear materials. The paper presents a finite element model for a nonlinear shell of revolution that will account for large displacements, large strains, large rotations, and nonlinear materials
The world is experiencing a new revolution – the knowledge revolution – fuelled by the technological change. In the same time, globalization and competitiveness are two concepts used to explain modern trends in economic development. This paper analyzes the relationship between globalization, technology and competitiveness. Globalization and technology are linked and they have generated great shifts in the national competitiveness of countries. In a broad sense, industrial revolution can be se...
In January 2005, Viktor Yushchenko became Ukraine's new President, after massive demonstrations helped to overturn the former regime's electoral fraud, in what has been dubbed the "Orange Revolution...
Karl Kautsky's writings on the French Revolution were crucial to the construction not only of the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, which was perhaps the most important reference point for the historiography of that event during the 20th century, but even of Marxism itself as a comprehens......Karl Kautsky's writings on the French Revolution were crucial to the construction not only of the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, which was perhaps the most important reference point for the historiography of that event during the 20th century, but even of Marxism itself...
Эдуард Эдуардович Шульц
Full Text Available Study of the problem of “class character” of 1917’ revolution and competency of the term “proletarian revolution”. The author considers questions of participation of various social groups in the Russian revolution, draws analogies of social composition of previous revolutions, considers the principle of “proletarian revolution”, as an ideology element for positioning of Bolsheviks and power capture. It is necessary to consider that an age, gender and national factor played much bigger role un Russian revolution than class factor. Revolution in Russia in many respects leaned on young generations which made more than a third of the population of the Russian Empire by 1917. In fight against tsarism separate calculation was based on the non-russian population and national suburbs of the empire. The special role in the Russian revolution was played by the peasantry. Revolution happened in the capital (in two capitals in Russia, the peasantry remained indifferent to revolution while Bolsheviks didn't begin to take away from them the food violently. This period:(summer - fall of 1919 became the time of peak of the Civil war. However return of landowners and their claim for property of the land forced peasants to turn bayonets for revolution and the earth and, eventually, to provide to Bolsheviks a victory in the Civil war.
McAlister, Kenneth W.
The wake behind a two-bladed model rotor in light climb was measured using particle image velocimetry, with particular emphasis on the development of the trailing vortex during the first revolution of the rotor. The distribution of vorticity was distinguished from the slightly elliptical swirl pattern. Peculiar dynamics within the void region may explain why the peak vorticity appeared to shift away from the center as the vortex aged, suggesting the onset of instability. The swirl and axial velocities (which reached 44 and 12 percent of the rotor-tip speed, respectively) were found to be asymmetric relative to the vortex center. In particular, the axial flow was composed of two concentrated zones moving in opposite directions. The radial distribution of the circulation rapidly increased in magnitude until reaching a point just beyond the core radius, after which the rate of growth decreased significantly. The core-radius circulation increased slightly with wake age, but the large-radius circulation appeared to remain relatively constant. The radial distributions of swirl velocity and vorticity exhibit self-similar behaviors, especially within the core. The diameter of the vortex core was initially about 10 percent of the rotor-blade chord, but more than doubled its size after one revolution of the rotor. According to vortex models that approximate the measured data, the core-radius circulation was about 79 percent of the large-radius circulation, and the large-radius circulation was about 67 percent of the maximum bound circulation on the rotor blade. On average, about 53 percent of the maximum bound circulation resides within the vortex core during the first revolution of the rotor.
Giedd, Jay N
Remarkable advances in technologies that enable the distribution and use of information encoded as digital sequences of 1s or 0s have dramatically changed our way of life. Adolescents, old enough to master the technologies and young enough to welcome their novelty, are at the forefront of this "digital revolution." Underlying the adolescent's eager embracement of these sweeping changes is a neurobiology forged by the fires of evolution to be extremely adept at adaptation. The consequences of the brain's adaptation to the demands and opportunities of the digital age have enormous implications for adolescent health professionals. Published by Elsevier Inc.
In this paper, we study the relation between conserved quantities of nonholonomic systems and the hamiltonization problem employing the geometric methods of Balseiro (Arch Ration Mech Anal 214:453-501, 2014) and Balseiro and Garcia-Naranjo (Arch Ration Mech Anal 205(1):267-310, 2012). We illustrate the theory with classical examples describing the dynamics of solids of revolution rolling without sliding on a plane. In these cases, using the existence of two conserved quantities we obtain, by means of gauge transformations and symmetry reduction, genuine Poisson brackets describing the reduced dynamics.
Murphy, Beverly; Peterson, Richard A; Vines, Hattie; von Isenburg, Megan; Berney, Elizabeth; James, Robert; Rodriguez, Marcos; Thibodeau, Patricia
This article will describe how a revolution in customer service provision beginning in 2002 has led to an evolution of library services. When the reference and circulation desks were merged to create a single service point, responsibilities were broadened, core competencies were developed, and staff members were cross trained. In 2005, an analysis of staffing and work patterns demonstrated a need to build upon the original model to better utilize staff and ensure coverage of the desk. Reference librarians were moved to "on call" status, technical services staff were added to the schedule, and core competencies and procedures were refined.
The general audience for these lectures is mainly physicists, computer scientists, engineers or the general public wanting to know more about what’s going on in the biosciences. What’s bioinformatics and why is all this fuss being made about it ? What’s this revolution triggered by the human genome project ? Are there any results yet ? What are the problems ? What new avenues of research have been opened up ? What about the technology ? These new developments will be compared with what happened at CERN earlier in its evolution, and it is hoped that the similiraties and contrasts will stimulate new curiosity and provoke new thoughts.
Miller, David Marshall
The novel understanding of the physical world that characterized the Scientific Revolution depended on a fundamental shift in the way its protagonists understood and described space. At the beginning of the seventeenth century, spatial phenomena were described in relation to a presupposed central point; by its end, space had become a centerless void in which phenomena could only be described by reference to arbitrary orientations. David Marshall Miller examines both the historical and philosophical aspects of this far-reaching development, including the rejection of the idea of heavenly sphere
In a number of papers and in his recent book, Is Water H2O? Evidence, Realism, Pluralism (2012), Hasok Chang has argued that the correct interpretation of the Chemical Revolution provides a strong case for the view that progress in science is served by maintaining several incommensurable "systems of practice" in the same discipline, and concerning the same region of nature. This paper is a critical discussion of Chang's reading of the Chemical Revolution. It seeks to establish, first, that Chang's assessment of Lavoisier's and Priestley's work and character follows the phlogistonists' "actors' sociology"; second, that Chang simplifies late-eighteenth-century chemical debates by reducing them to an alleged conflict between two systems of practice; third, that Chang's evidence for a slow transition from phlogistonist theory to oxygen theory is not strong; and fourth, that he is wrong to assume that chemists at the time did not have overwhelming good reasons to favour Lavoisier's over the phlogistonists' views. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kickbusch, I; Reddy, K S
The recent Ebola crisis has re-opened the debate on global health governance and the role of the World Health Organization. In order to analyze what is at stake, we apply two conceptual approaches from the social sciences - the work on gridlock and the concept of cosmopolitan moments - to assess the ability of the multilateral governance system to reform. We find that gridlock can be broken open by a health crisis which in turn generates a political drive for change. We show that a set of cosmopolitan moments have led to the introduction of the imperative of health in a range of policy arenas and moved health into 'high politics' - this has been called a political revolution. We contend that this revolution has entered a second phase with increasing interest of heads of state in global health issues. Here lies the window of opportunity to reform global health governance. Copyright © 2015 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scientific progress is characterized by important technological advances. Next-generation DNA sequencing has, in the past few years, led to a major scientific revolution: the microbiome revolution. It has become possible to generate a fingerprint of the whole microbiota of any given environment. As it becomes clear that the microbiota affects several aspects of our lives, each new scientific finding should ideally be analyzed in light of these communities. For instance, animal experimentation should consider animal sources and husbandry; human experimentation should include analysis of microenvironmental cues that might affect the microbiota, including diet, antibiotic, and drug use, genetics. When analyzing the activity of a drug, we should remember that, according to the microbiota of the host, different drug activities might be observed, either due to modification or degradation by the microbiota, or because the microbiota changes the immune system of the host in a way that makes that drug more or less effective. This minireview will not be a comprehensive review on the interaction between the host and microbiota, but it will aim at creating awareness on why we should not forget the contribution of the microbiota in any single aspect of biology. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Belu Mănescu, Cristiana; Nuño, Galo
The aim of this paper is to analyze the impact of the so-called “shale oil revolution” on oil prices and economic growth. We employ a general equilibrium model of the world oil market in which Saudi Arabia is the dominant firm, with the rest of the producers as a competitive fringe. Our results suggest that most of the expected increase in US oil supply due to the shale oil revolution has already been incorporated into prices and that it will produce an additional increase of 0.2% in the GDP of oil importers in the period 2010–2018. We also employ the model to analyze the collapse in oil prices in the second half of 2014 and conclude that it was mainly due to positive unanticipated supply shocks. - Highlights: • We analyze the impact of the “shale oil revolution” on oil prices and economic growth. • We employ a general equilibrium model of the oil market in which Saudi Arabia is the dominant firm. • We find that most of the shale oil revolution is already priced in. • We also analyze the decline in oil prices in the second half of 2014. • We find that unanticipated supply shocks played the major role in the fall.
Teske, S.; Pregger, T.; Simon, S.; Naegler, T.; Graus, W.H.J.; Lins, C.
The Energy [R]evolution 2010 scenario is an update of the Energy [R]evolution scenarios published in 2007 and 2008. It takes up recent trends in global energy demand and production and analyses to which extent this affects chances for achieving climate protection targets. The main target is to
Emmott, Lawrence F
The digital revolution is upon us. Are you ready to take advantage of it? Do you even know what it means? If you begin with the basics, the rest falls into place. In this overview of the digital revolution and its impact on dentistry, we start from the beginning of an amazing, and magical, quest to capture the best images.
The French Revolution can be a difficult subject to teach. Students often struggle to relate to events that happened more than two hundred years ago in France. In this article, the author suggests three key causes for the failure of the revolution that social studies teachers can focus on when teaching this topic. He also provides several stories…
Thorup, Mikkel; Von Eggers, Nicolai; Hein Jessen, Mathias
Den generelle forståelse af forholdet mellem individ og regering, frihed og slaveri fra Den Amerikanske Revolution kan genfindes i nutidig amerikansk politik og i den aktuelle valgkamp.......Den generelle forståelse af forholdet mellem individ og regering, frihed og slaveri fra Den Amerikanske Revolution kan genfindes i nutidig amerikansk politik og i den aktuelle valgkamp....
Gutierrez, Jose Angel
The latter decades of the eighteenth century and first decades of the nineteenth century were full or revolutions and births of new nations, particularly in the Americas. The period has been termed the Age of Revolution. In 2010, Mexico celebrated along with several other countries the two hundred-year celebration of their movement toward…
Artiklen diskuterer interaktionen mellem de tre store transformative kræfter i Kinas moderne historie: revolution, nationalisme og kapitalisme. Udgivelsesdato: Marts......Artiklen diskuterer interaktionen mellem de tre store transformative kræfter i Kinas moderne historie: revolution, nationalisme og kapitalisme. Udgivelsesdato: Marts...
Teske, S.; Muth, J.; Sawyer, S.; Pregger, T.; Simon, S.; Naegler, T.; O'Sullivan, M.; Schmid, S; Pagenkopf, J.; Frieske, B.; Graus, W.H.J.; Kermeli, K.; Zittel, W.; Rutovitz, J.; Harris, S.; Ackermann, T.; Ruwahata, R.; Martense, N.
Energy [R]evolution 2012 provides a consistent fundamental pathway for how to protect our climate: getting the world from where we are now to where we need to be by phasing out fossil fuels and cutting CO2 emissions while ensuring energy security.The Energy [R]evolution Scenario has become a well
Doppen, Frans H.
Discusses the role the Industrial Revolution had in changing humankind's perception of time and recommends using the flashback approach in order to encourage students to think about how the process of industrialization still affects their lives. Provides activities that address the concept of time caused by the Industrial Revolution. (CMK)
This report proposes an overview of LTO (Light Tight Oil or shale oil) production in the USA, and examines the consequences of oil price fall on its future level. The first part gives an assessment of five years of this revolution which follows the shale gas revolution. It addresses the most remarkable evolutions: spectacular development of production, decrease of oil imports, increase of oil product exports, and a move towards oil independence. The second part highlights some peculiarities of shale oils and of the resulting business model which is much different from the Exploration/Production model for conventional oil. It analyses the LTO economy and breakeven prices required for a continued investment. Technological advances which are at the basis of this revolution are addressed, and expected improvements on a short or medium term are described. The main financial indicators are then presented as the financial situation of LTO producers is a crucial factor for future investment levels. The last chapter reports the study of the impact of price decrease on capital expenditures (CAPEX) of American producers, and on the drilling activity. It seems that LTO production will resist to price decrease
Gonzalo Varela Petito
Full Text Available This article presents to the readers in Latin America the thought of the Italian liberal writer and politician Piero Gobetti (Torino 1900–Paris 1926 who was a close friend of Antonio Gramsci and one of the main intellectual influences on the work of the marxist peruvian thinker José Carlos Mariátegui. His most relevant book, La Rivoluzione Libérale, was translated into Spanish only recently but —as Mariátegui understood— some of Gobetti's ideas are very relevant to an analysis of Latin American socialformations. His very original "movement oriented" liberalism was influenced by the Russian revolution as well as by philosophers like Georges Sorel, Gaetano Mosca, Benedetto Croce and Henri Bergson.Gobetti's major concern in politics was to promote the emergence of a new ruling class. For a better comprehension of his thought, Gobetti's ideas are here compared with those of Gramsci and Mariátegui.
An American-style shale gas revolution will not take place in Europe on the short term as things stand at the moment. The economic profitability of the European resources is not as interesting, their social acceptability is not granted, and the energy security seems to worry only the countries extremely dependent on Russian imports like Poland. However, because of the influence of the American experience and that of some capitals who want to emulate or avoid it, the debate on its advantages and drawbacks continues to rage in Europe. It has become part of a wider discussion over the EU's climate-energy strategy until 2030. The European Commission, which represents the common European interest, has seized the opportunity: by the end of the year it intends to put forward new measures to improve the management of the environmental impact of any potential activities. The Union should not stop here: the positive impact in the US on the economy and energy security, and the difficulties of its own climate and energy policies should convince the Union to think beyond environmental constraints. It should notably organize a European public debate in view of the European elections in May 2014, which will take into account both economic and geopolitical aspects. On the medium term, it should dedicate resources to allow for estimates of shale gas resources in Europe and of the profitability of extraction. On the long term, the Union should observe the best practices in the US, facilitate the exchange of information between the extracting Member States, and contribute to the improvement of extraction methods towards higher environmental standards and better economic conditions. (author)
Transport infrastructure investment increased substantially in Britain between the seventeenth and eighteenth century. This paper argues that the Glorious Revolution of 1688-89 contributed to transportation investment by reducing uncertainty about the security of improvement rights. It shows that road and river investment was low in the 1600s when several undertakers had their rights violated by major political changes or decrees from the King. It also shows that investment permanently increa...
Parrochia, D. [Universite Paul Valery, Montpellier 3, 34 - Montpellier (France)
Three great physical revolutions are studied here: the theory of relativity (general and restricted); the quantum mechanics (and its different interpretations); the theory of the determinist chaos (its pre-history as its applications). These three theories contribute to modify the answers that it is possible to bring to great metaphysical questions and to give a hint of a new philosophical landscape. (N.C.)
Full Text Available In order to consider the future of Victorian literary studies within the long nineteenth century, we must go back to that earlier “period” of the nineteenth century, and the French Revolution of 1789. Drawing on the aesthetic and political innovations of 1790s women's writings, this essay argues that we need to reconceive of nineteenth-century literary studies beyond the period boundaries of Romantic and Victorian. The sexualization of revolutionary Terror, and particularly of Robespierre, in Romantic-era writings by women like Helen Maria Williams, Mary Robinson and Fanny Burney, offers surprising precedents for the feminization of Terror associated with the retrospectives of Victorian writers like Carlyle and Dickens. In this respect, and given many other aesthetic continuities (for example, the crossgender and cross-period appeal of the “poetess” figure, the “Victorian period” appears increasingly unsatisfactory when compared to the merits of a long nineteenth-century model for literary studies.
Just a year ago, in the March-April 1989 issue of Harvard Business Review, Professor Regina E. Herzlinger of the Harvard Business School took a long look at the U.S. health care system and declared the much touted revolution in the health care delivery system a failure. This article is a summary of the arguments that Professor Herzlinger marshaled for her treatise. In the following two articles, members of the College assess those arguments in terms of the medical management profession and in terms of the organizations, a hospital and a managed care company, for which they work. Finally, Professor Herzlinger returns to the subject with a response to these physician executives.
This article discusses how major changes in the electricity supply industry can take place in the next few years due to market liberalisation and efforts to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses. Decentralisation is discussed as being a 'mega-trend' and fuel cells in particular are emphasised as being a suitable means of generating heat and power locally, i.e. where they are needed. Also, the ecological advantages of using natural gas to 'fire' the fuel cell units that are to complement or replace coal-fired or gas-fired combined gas and steam-turbine power stations is discussed. Various types of fuel cell are briefly described. Market developments in the USA, where the power grid is extensive and little reserve capacity is available, are noted. New designs of fuel cell are briefly examined and it is noted that electricity utilities, originally against decentralisation, are now beginning to promote this 'quiet revolution'
Full Text Available In this study, humor and the confused feelings of overwhelming happiness, fear, and uncertainty intertwine to reflect Tunisians’ attitudes, beliefs, feelings, and experiences in the aftermath of the revolution. The study adopts a blended netnography/ethnography approach to data collection and analysis. My original data consist of 2 hrs of recorded discussions of 60 Tunisian students and a total of 300 online humorous posts collected from the social network Facebook (FB. The data revealed that Tunisians interacting via FB used two main types of situational humor: Third party insult and Alternate reality. These two types of humor were found to be associated with a variety of psychological and social functions and to serve as effective interpersonal strategies to construct group cohesion, strengthen shared attitudes and beliefs, and develop relational identity.
Cahn, R. W.
Antoine Lavoisier, the pioneering French chemist who (together with Joseph Priestley in England) identified oxygen as an element and gave it its name, in 1789 concluded that quartz was probably a compound with an as-yet undiscovered but presumably extremely common element. That was also the year in which the French Revolution broke out. Five years later, the Jacobins accused Lavoisier of offences against the people and cut off his head, thereby nearly cutting off the new chemistry. It was not until 1824 that Jöns Berzelius in Sweden succeeded in confirming Lavoisier's speculation by isolating silicon. Argument at once broke out among the scientific elite as to whether the newly found element was a metal or an insulator. It took more than a century to settle that disagreement decisively: As so often, when all-or-nothing alternatives are fiercely argued, the truth turned out to be neither all nor nothing.
Snow, C P
2013 Reprint of 1959 Edition. Exact facsimile of the original edition, not reproduced with Optical Recognition Software. This is the publication of the influential 1959 Rede Lecture by British scientist and novelist C. P. Snow. Its thesis was that "the intellectual life of the whole of western society" was split into the titular two cultures - namely the sciences and the humanities - and that this was a major hindrance to solving the world's problems. Published in book form, Snow's lecture was widely read and discussed on both sides of the Atlantic, leading him to write a 1963 follow-up, "The Two Cultures: And a Second Look: An Expanded Version of The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution."
Karageorge, Panos D; Smilansky, Uzy
We consider eigenfunctions of the Laplace-Beltrami operator on special surfaces of revolution. For this separable system, the nodal domains of the (real) eigenfunctions form a checkerboard pattern, and their number ν n is proportional to the product of the angular and the 'surface' quantum numbers. Arranging the wavefunctions by increasing values of the Laplace-Beltrami spectrum, we obtain the nodal sequence, whose statistical properties we study. In particular, we investigate the distribution of the normalized counts ν n /n for sequences of eigenfunctions with K ≤ n ≤ K + ΔK, where K, ΔK element of N. We show that the distribution approaches a limit as K, ΔK → ∞ (the classical limit), and study the leading corrections in the semi-classical limit. With this information, we derive the central result of this work: the nodal sequence of a mirror-symmetric surface is sufficient to uniquely determine its shape (modulo scaling)
Solal, Roger; Hoffmann, Alain; Roche, Roland.
The CEASEMT system of calculation by finite elements is used to determine critical internal pressures on a flattened ellipsoid of revolution. This case resembles that of an ellipsoidal head of a thin pressure vessel fitted onto a flexible colla. The calculations are performed assuming the geometry perfect, the deformations slight and the behaviour of the material perfectly elastic. The results obtained are presented favourably by plotting a reduced pressure p* against the geometry. A good definition of p* would be: p*=pπ 2 E/1-μ 2 .e 2 b 2 /a 4 (p* critical pressure, E Young's modulus, μ Poisson's coefficient, e thickness, a half large axis, b half small axis). When a/b is above 2 the p value remains close to 1. For lower a/b values the p value rises considerably with a/b [fr
Devyn Spence Benson
Full Text Available “Owning the Revolution” explores the role that conversations about race and racism played in defining the 1959 Cuban Revolution both on the island and in South Florida, where over half of the exiles fled. It highlights how revolutionary leaders challenged internal and external opposition movements by publicly labeling dissenters “counterrevolutionaries” and “racists.” Using the label “racist” to attack an opponent was not altogether new in the 1960s, but by linking the term to counterrevolution, national discussions occurring in newspapers, magazines, and on television defined public racism as existing outside of the norms of a new Cuba. Exiles disagreed with this identification and accused the revolution of betraying the nineteenth-century colorblind goals of Jose Martí. Exile leaders in Miami argued that Castro invented racial tensions and claimed that their fight was not with blacks or mulatos but with “red” or communist Cubans. The politics expressed by white exile newspapers, however, did not always fit with the concerns of Afro-Cubans in the United States. Miami Cubans failed to acknowledge the persistence of racism in new exile communities in the same way that the revolutionary government dismissed racism on the island. These parallel silences exemplify the dangers of polarized narratives that imagine the revolution as antiracist and the exile community as racist.
Full Text Available A.G.H Bachrach, Willem III, de stadhouder-koning en zijn tijd R. Bastiaanse, H. Bots, Glorieuze Revolutie. De wereld van Willem & Mary. Glorious Revolution. The world of William & Mary M. van Doorn, Koning-stadhouder Willem III, triomfator. De triomfale intocht in Den Haag in 1691 D. Jacques, A.J. van der Horst, De tuinen van Willem en Mary A. van der Kuijl, Glorieuze overtocht. De expeditie van Willem III naar Engeland in 1688 J. Kuijpers, A.D. Renting, Boeken van Oranje. De Oranje-Nassaubibliotheek ten tijde van Willem III R. van Leeuwen, Paintings from England. William III and the Royal Collections R.P. Maccubbin, M. Hamilton-Philips, The age of William III & Mary II. Power, politics and patronage 1688-1702. A reference encyclopedia and exhibition catalogue K. Ottenheym, Daniel Marot. Vormgever van een deftig bestaan. Architectuur en interieurs van Haagse stadspaleizen S. van Raay, In het gevolg van Willem III & Mary. Huizen en tuinen uit hun tijd D. Swetschinski, L. Schönduve, De familie Lopes Suasso, financiers van Willem III H. van der Zee, B. van der Zee, 1688. Revolution in the family H. van der Zee, B. van der Zee, William and Mary J.D. Hunt, The Anglo-Dutch garden in the age of William and Mary. De gouden eeuw van de Hollandse tuinkunst R. Turner, G. de Bruin, A.H. Huussen jr., [Koning-stadhouder Willem III triomfator] R. Hatton, W. Troost, W.F. Leemans, Oranje-Nassau museum jaarboek 1988
Von Riesemann, W.A.; Stricklin, J.A.; Haisler, W.E.
DYNAPLAS is a program for the transient response of ring stiffened shells of revolution subjected to either asymmetric initial velocities or to asymmetric pressure loadings. Both material and geometric nonlinearities may be considered. The present version, DYNAPLAS II, began with the programs SAMMSOR and DYNASOR. As is the case for the earlier programs, a driver program, SAMMSOR III, generates the stiffness and mass matrices for the harmonics under consideration. A highly refined meridionally curved axisymmetric thin shell of revolution element is used in conjunction with beam type ring stiffeners in the circumferential direction. The shell element uses a cubic displacement function and through static condensation a basic eight degree of freedom element is generated. The shell material may be isotropic or orthotropic. DYNAPLAS II uses the 'displacement' method of analysis in which the nonlinearities are treated as pseudo loads on the right-hand side of the equations of motion. The equations are written for each Fourier harmonic used in representing the asymmetric loading components, and although the left-hand side of the equations is uncoupled, the right-hand side is coupled by the nonlinear pseudo loads. The strain displacement equations of Novozhilov are used and the incremental theory of plasticity is used with the von Mises yield condition and associated flow rule. Either isotropic work hardening or the mechanical sublayer model may be used. Strain rate effects may be included. Either the explicit central difference method or the implcit Houbolt method are available. The program has found use in the analysis of containment vessels for light water reactors
Scialli, Anthony R; Daston, George; Chen, Connie; Coder, Prägati S; Euling, Susan Y; Foreman, Jennifer; Hoberman, Alan M; Hui, Julia; Knudsen, Thomas; Makris, Susan L; Morford, LaRonda; Piersma, Aldert H; Stanislaus, Dinesh; Thompson, Kary E
Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental toxicity testing? A workshop was held under the auspices of the Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute to consider how we might design developmental toxicity testing if we started over with 21st century knowledge and techniques (revolution). We first consider what changes to the current protocols might be recommended to make them more predictive for human risk (evolution). The evolutionary approach includes modifications of existing protocols and can include humanized models, disease models, more accurate assessment and testing of metabolites, and informed approaches to dose selection. The revolution could start with hypothesis-driven testing where we take what we know about a compound or close analog and answer specific questions using targeted experimental techniques rather than a one-protocol-fits-all approach. Central to the idea of hypothesis-driven testing is the concept that testing can be done at the level of mode of action. It might be feasible to identify a small number of key events at a molecular or cellular level that predict an adverse outcome and for which testing could be performed in vitro or in silico or, rarely, using limited in vivo models. Techniques for evaluating these key events exist today or are in development. Opportunities exist for refining and then replacing current developmental toxicity testing protocols using techniques that have already been developed or are within reach. © 2018 The Authors. Birth Defects Research Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
.... However, short shrift is often given to more historical experiences. Is it possible to learn something relevant to present-day or future operations from "dated" events, such as the American Revolution...
Pingali, Prabhu L
A detailed retrospective of the Green Revolution, its achievement and limits in terms of agricultural productivity improvement, and its broader impact at social, environmental, and economic levels is provided. Lessons learned and the strategic insights are reviewed as the world is preparing a "redux" version of the Green Revolution with more integrative environmental and social impact combined with agricultural and economic development. Core policy directions for Green Revolution 2.0 that enhance the spread and sustainable adoption of productivity enhancing technologies are specified.
In the middle of the 20th century, many in the world were predicting catastrophic starvation that was halted by the Green Revolution. To address continued population growth and the unsolved problems of the Green Revolution, many hope for a new and different Green Revolution. Supporters of a biotechnology-based revolution claim that it could…
In an introduction the compiler discusses the field of Asian-American studies and describes his methods. The bibliography is divided into 14 subject areas. It covers scholarly and popular books and articles, biography, fiction, juvenile fiction, poetry, news items, guidebooks, and documents on every aspect of Asian-American life. (DM)
Selverstone concludes the there really has been a sexual revolution. An enormous sociocultural change has taken place during the lives of parents of schoolchildren. Parents say they feel that there is an increased openness about sexuality today and greater access to accurate information. They also indicate that they are able to have more open conversations with their children than they were able to have with their parents, and that their children seem to have more opposite sex friendships. However, they also are apprehensive about the acceleration of their children's sexual involvement and observe that the sexual double standard still prevails. Other important changes include the following. 1) There is a continuing acceleration in the number of young people who are beginning to have sexual intercourse. Orr et al reported that in a blue-collar, urban, junior high school in Indianapolis, Indiana, 46% of the 14-year-old girls and 74% of the 14-year-old boys had already had intercourse. In the Kinsey sample, only 28% of 14-year-old boys had intercourse. 2) Discussion of sexually transmitted disease is frank and open. 3) 2/3 of American Catholics use birth control. 4) Between 1970 and 1985, births to unwed mothers increased 50%; today, 1 in 5 births in the US is to an unwed mother. 5) Abortion, a clandestine subject in yesteryear, is now one of the most critical and divisive of political issues. 6) People are waiting longer to get married. Between 1970 and 1984, the median age for marriage rose 2 1/2 years, and since 1956, 3 years. 7) Currently, 72% of all women aged 25-34 work, and both spouses work in 56% of all families. However, economic and job discrimination against women is still the rule rather than the exception. 8) There has been a movement toward a less male-dominated heterosexual approach to religion, also. 9) This is perhaps the 1st generation that has begun to comprehend that perhaps 4-7% of the population will be exclusively or predominantly homosexual
Anders, N.; Seijmonsbergen, H.
Terrain analysis in geomorphology has undergone a serious quantitative revolution over recent decades. Lidar information has been efficiently used to automatically classify discrete landforms, map forest structures, and provide input for models simulating landscape development, e.g. channel incision
Stephens, W. B.
Indicates the likelihood that the initial period of the Industrial Revolution was one of deteriorating educational standards in most areas, especially in those that were seats of displaced domestic textile industries. (Author)
Simpson, Thomas K.
First in a three-part series of case studies tracing the impact of the "Anglo Revolution" on New Mexico, this article deals with copper mining in New Mexico, particularly the Santa Rita del Cobre copper mine. (NQ)
Takezono, S.; Akashi, T.
This paper is concerned with the numerical analysis of large elasto/visco-plastic deformations of this shells of revolution under axi-symmetrical loading with applications to pressure vessels. (orig.)
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposed research aims to solve the low-thrust many-revolution optimization problem. Optimal low-thrust spaceflight trajectories over hundreds of orbital...
The rapid diffusion of information and communication technologies (ICTs) during the last two decades has had a profound impact on all spheres of human endeavors, changes that are collectively referred to as the Information Revolution (IR...
Karl Kautsky's writings on the French Revolution were crucial to the construction not only of the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, which was perhaps the most important reference point for the historiography of that event during the 20th century, but even of Marxism itself as a comprehens......Karl Kautsky's writings on the French Revolution were crucial to the construction not only of the Marxist interpretation of the Revolution, which was perhaps the most important reference point for the historiography of that event during the 20th century, but even of Marxism itself...... these writings, spanning roughly four decades from 1889 till 1930, we may see dynamic interrelations between historical study, theory construction and contemporary political intervention. Kautsky's approach to such key Marxist concepts as class and state prove to bemuch more subtle and nuanced than what has...
Discusses the social and economic impact of the Green Revolution and the resulting problems such as benefiting rich farmers more than poor farmers, displacing labor and increasing rural unemployment. (BR)
Andrews, Timothy D
.... Different dynamics imply different optimal responses to the challenge of change. To the extent that the term Revolution in Military Affairs can be systematically disaggregated, a better understanding of its resulting components may be possible...
Beaudoin, Steven M.
Provides an overview of the literature on the debates surrounding the industrial revolution using four categories: (1) definition and characteristics; (2) context and causation; (3) impacts and scope; and (4) industrialization as a worldwide phenomenon. (CMK)
After 20 years at different positions in the gas sector, from the policy side to trading floors, the author gives an overview of the major gas issues and elaborate on the consequences of the US shale gas revolution. The first part of the book provides basic knowledge and gives needed tools to better understand this industry, that often stands, in sandwich, between upstream oil and utilities. After extensive research, publication and teaching, the author shares his insights on fundamental issues all along the gas chain and explains the price mechanisms ranging from oil-indexing to spot. The second part looks into the future of worldwide gas balance. To supply growing markets, the major resource holder, Russia, is now in direct competition with the major gas producer, the US. China has the potential not only to select the winner but also to decide the pricing principle for all Asian buyers in 2020. As China is a new and growing gas importer and has a lower price tolerance than historical Asian buyers (Japan and South Korea), it is highly possible that, against basic geography, China selects waterborne US LNG vs. close Russian pipe gas, to achieve lower import price. Europe, so risk adverse that it won't be able to take any decision regarding shale gas production on this side of 2020, should see its power fading on the energy scene and would rely more on Russia. Gas geopolitics could tighten Russia stronghold on Europe, on one side, and create a flourishing North America-Asian trade... This book is accessible to all and will particularly interest readers seeking a global gas perspective where economics and geopolitics mix. It can be read as an economic novel where billions of $ are invested to shape tomorrow energy world or as a geopolitical thriller where Russia and the US compete to impose their respective agenda, leaving China to select the winner. Contents: 1. Basics. 2. Technicals. 3. Markets, prices and costs. 4. Policies. 5. Where is the future supply growth? 6
After 20 years at different positions in the gas sector, from the policy side to trading floors, the author gives an overview of the major gas issues and elaborate on the consequences of the US shale gas revolution. The first part of the book provides basic knowledge and gives needed tools to better understand this industry, that often stands, in sandwich, between upstream oil and utilities. After extensive research, publication and teaching, the author shares his insights on fundamental issues all along the gas chain and explains the price mechanisms ranging from oil-indexing to spot. The second part looks into the future of worldwide gas balance. To supply growing markets, the major resource holder, Russia, is now in direct competition with the major gas producer, the US. China has the potential not only to select the winner but also to decide the pricing principle for all Asian buyers in 2020. As China is a new and growing gas importer and has a lower price tolerance than historical Asian buyers (Japan and South Korea), it is highly possible that, against basic geography, China selects waterborne US LNG vs. close Russian pipe gas, to achieve lower import price. Europe, so risk adverse that it won't be able to take any decision regarding shale gas production on this side of 2020, should see its power fading on the energy scene and would rely more on Russia. Gas geopolitics could tighten Russia stronghold on Europe, on one side, and create a flourishing North America-Asian trade... This book is accessible to all and will particularly interest readers seeking a global gas perspective where economics and geopolitics mix. It can be read as an economic novel where billions of $ are invested to shape tomorrow energy world or as a geopolitical thriller where Russia and the US compete to impose their respective agenda, leaving China to select the winner. Contents: 1. Basics. 2. Technical aspects. 3. Markets, prices and costs. 4. Policies. 5. Where is the future supply
The media of Kyrgyzstan described Georgia after the Rose Revolution of 2003 as a country that has made giant strides in economic recovery, suppressing corruption, and reform of its police and education system. The two countries increased their cooperation after the Tulip Revolution of 2010 in Kyrgyzstan; today, it has taken the form of an exchange of diplomatic and political experience and youth programs. Trade turnover between the two countries is expected to top $1.4 million. These two Sovi...
Hoeft, Christoph; Messinger-Zimmer, Soeren; Zilles, Julia
Part A covers the German energy revolution as socio-scientific research field. Part B deals with local conflicts concerning energy revolution projects - inspections: protests against transmission line location, protests against wind mills, protests against fracking. Part C includes contributions on participants and non-involved people - perception and perspectives: the conflicts in the view of different groups. Part D summarizes the protests and concludes with nine hypotheses.
L.A.B. de Castro
Full Text Available The strategy described in the present paper offers details about the possibility for Brazil to play a more substantial role in the gene revolution. If successfully applied, the powerful science-based technology currently available in Brazil can contribute to extend the benefits of the gene revolution to the poorest countries, very much like the Green Revolution did in the past, thereby reducing the hunger syndrome which claimed the lives of millions of people in some Asian countries, particularly Pakistan and India, decades ago. In his visit to Brazil in February 2004, Norman Borlaug had the opportunity to witness the success of Brazilian agriculture. At a Conference held at ESALQ - Superior School of Agriculture Luiz de Queiroz in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, he stated that the 21st century revolution will come from Brazil in the area of agriculture. He also said that reducing hunger is essential for the world to achieve socioeconomic stability. A central question remains unanswered: who will fund this revolution? The FAO 2003-2004 Annual Report listed the barriers preventing the gene revolution from reaching the poorest countries: inadequate regulatory procedures - Intellectual Property Rights and Biosafety, poorly functioning seed delivering systems and weak domestic plant breeding capacity; all are discussed in this paper.
Full Text Available Marketing writers' assertion that online communities are the future for organisations may be misguided, although peer-to-peer networks are certainly the future for consumers. Brands have experienced 'consumer revulsion' at their poorly-planned attempts to enter online communities to interact with customers. The Internet has facilitated a revolution amongst consumers, providing a medium for online communities to thrive. Source credibility is paramount and Internet users are being selective with exactly whose message they are willing to accept, absorb and ultimately, allow to influence their buying decisions. The primary objective of this research is to undertake an exploratory investigation into the dynamics of online communities and how membership influences the buying decision for consumers of genre novels. Through the process of online focus groups and the completion of online questionnaires, data on the dynamics of online relationships between consumers and authors, the buying habits of consumers and the acceptance of online word-of-mouth (WOM were extracted and analysed. This research demonstrates that the dynamics of online communities are highly complex and in no way inferior or less fulfilling than real-life relationships and that the influence of online relationships on our buying decisions have no less impact than real-life encounters.
Desai, Vela; Bumb, Dipika
Photographs are symbolic of memories and with the advent of digital photography it has become much easier to collect them in a second in a more comprehensive and qualitative manner. Technological advancements in the field of digital photography have revolutionized the concept of photography as a powerful medium of expression and communication. It also offers a spectrum of perception, interpretation and execution. Photography and dentistry go hand in hand for revelation of the hidden and overlooked defects in teeth and other parts of the cavity. This article emphasizes on the significance of digital photography in dentistry and guidelines for capturing orofacial structures and radiographs in a more accurate and informative manner. Dental world constitutes of microstructures that have to be recorded in a detailed manner in order to perform patient education, documentation of records and treatment, illustration of lectures, publication and web connectivity of complicated cases. How to cite this article: Desai V, Bumb D. Digital Dental Photography: A Contemporary Revolution. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):193-196.
The article combines two objectives: understand the genesis and development of the sociology of Bourdieu in connection with his social and intellectual positioning. The sociology of Bourdieu is a theory of Action which reconciles the double requirement of objectification and taking account of the practical logic bound by social agents. From the character both objective and subjective of social space, he analyzes how different institutions (firstly School) are doing that mental structures match the objective structures of society. By making acceptable reality and registering it in the body, these instances contribute to reproduce social divisions and participate in the work of domination. Gradually, Bourdieu develops a general theory about Power, which leads to a sociology of State. But he refuses any sociological fatalism. Because he perceived homologies between the sociologist and the artist facing the social order, each in their own way, he devoted two researches to Flaubert and Manet, seized in the same enterprise of aesthetic subversion he described as a 'symbolic revolution'. In many aspects, the sociology of Bourdieu opens ways of looking for an objectification of caregivers and their practices.
Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Perkins, Edward J
The rapid development of new technologies such as transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics (Omics) are changing the way ecotoxicology is practiced. The data deluge has begun with genomes of over 65 different aquatic species that are currently being sequenced, and many times that number with at least some level of transcriptome sequencing. Integrating these top-down methodologies is an essential task in the field of systems biology. Systems biology is a biology-based interdisciplinary field that focuses on complex interactions in biological systems, with the intent to model and discover emergent properties of the system. Recent studies demonstrate that Omics technologies provide valuable insight into ecotoxicity, both in laboratory exposures with model organisms and with animals exposed in the field. However, these approaches require a context of the whole animal and population to be relevant. Powerful approaches using reverse engineering to determine interacting networks of genes, proteins, or biochemical reactions are uncovering unique responses to toxicants. Modeling efforts in aquatic animals are evolving to interrelate the interacting networks of a system and the flow of information linking these elements. Just as is happening in medicine, systems biology approaches that allow the integration of many different scales of interaction and information are already driving a revolution in understanding the impacts of pollutants on aquatic systems. © 2010 SETAC.
Lloyd, Graeme T; Davis, Katie E; Pisani, Davide; Tarver, James E; Ruta, Marcello; Sakamoto, Manabu; Hone, David W.E; Jennings, Rachel; Benton, Michael J
The observed diversity of dinosaurs reached its highest peak during the mid- and Late Cretaceous, the 50 Myr that preceded their extinction, and yet this explosion of dinosaur diversity may be explained largely by sampling bias. It has long been debated whether dinosaurs were part of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution (KTR), from 125–80 Myr ago, when flowering plants, herbivorous and social insects, squamates, birds and mammals all underwent a rapid expansion. Although an apparent explosion of dinosaur diversity occurred in the mid-Cretaceous, coinciding with the emergence of new groups (e.g. neoceratopsians, ankylosaurid ankylosaurs, hadrosaurids and pachycephalosaurs), results from the first quantitative study of diversification applied to a new supertree of dinosaurs show that this apparent burst in dinosaurian diversity in the last 18 Myr of the Cretaceous is a sampling artefact. Indeed, major diversification shifts occurred largely in the first one-third of the group's history. Despite the appearance of new clades of medium to large herbivores and carnivores later in dinosaur history, these new originations do not correspond to significant diversification shifts. Instead, the overall geometry of the Cretaceous part of the dinosaur tree does not depart from the null hypothesis of an equal rates model of lineage branching. Furthermore, we conclude that dinosaurs did not experience a progressive decline at the end of the Cretaceous, nor was their evolution driven directly by the KTR. PMID:18647715
M. K. Sahu
Full Text Available The BRICS countries are of critical importance to both supply and demand fundamentals of energy markets globally. Today BRICS plays a very important role in the system of international energy security. BRICS energy diversification is driven by concerns for energy security. The potential for a BRIC energy partnership is thus enormous. The development of the BRIC countries in the next coming decades will include demographic changes with a growing middle class population which will demand more energy and resources that our world has the potential to supply.A Green Energy Revolution is the panacea to solve major social, economic and environmental effects of their growing populations. This paper is an attempt to highlight the cooperation among the BRICS Nations for the development of Energy Sector and at the same time the concerning issue of climate change etc. It further discusses about the contribution of BRICS countries in the global economy. This paper also discusses about the role of the BRICS Nations in collaboration with the International Energy Agency.
The year 2012 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of Thomas S. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Up until recently, the book's philosophical reception has been shaped, for the most part, by the debates and the climate in philosophy of science in the 1960s and 1970s; this new collection of essays takes a renewed look at this work. This volume concentrates on particular issues addressed or raised in light of recent scholarship and without the pressure of the immediate concerns scholars had at the time of the Structure's publication. There has been extensive research on all of the major issues concerning the development of science which are discussed in Structure, work in which the scholars contributing to this volume have all been actively involved. In recent years they have pursued novel research on a number of topics relevant to Structure's concerns, such as the nature and function of concepts, the complexity of logical positivism and its legacy, the relation of history to philosophy o...
The author comments the content of the French bill project on energy transition. She first discusses the meaning of this concept of energy transition which can be perceived as an evolution, a transformation, a progressive change, rather than a revolution. She recalls the original debate between those who wanted to preserve nuclear energy because it does not produce CO 2 emissions, and those who wanted a more radical change of the energy system. In this respect, she outlines and comments the main statements made by the French President on these issues, and indicates the main measures defined in the bill project regarding the reduction of greenhouse gas emission, the increase of the share of renewable energies, a decrease of the share of nuclear in power production, and a reduction of energy consumption. Then, she discusses how this transition is to be financed, proposes an assessment and a discussion of the skills and shortcomings of the bill project. She notably states that the main shortcoming is the lack of strong objectives regarding the reduction of emissions by transports, and the development of inter-modality. She also regrets the disappearance of the regional public service of energy efficiency, the fact that electricity consumption is not capped. Because of that, it's not that sure that the reduction of greenhouse gas emission by a factor 4 in 2050 with respect to 1990 will be reached. In the next parts, the author discusses the issue of the ecologic tax policy, outlines the importance of being exemplary within the perspective of the 2015 Conference on Climate (COP21)
Full Text Available Youth joblessness was one of the main triggers of Tunisia’s January Revolution. Unemployment rate in Tunisia has increased from 13 percent in 2010 to 18.3 percent in 2011 (NIS, 2011. Young people and women are more affected by this increase in unemployment .Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of various individual and job-related characteristics on the probabilities of unemployment of females and males aged 15–29 and to explore policy actions to create jobs in Tunisia. These issues are addressed using data from a 2010 survey of the National Institute of Statistics that provided information on the employment status of youth aged 15–29. The main estimated results show first that individual’s age, gender, marital status, level of education, sector of economic activity, type of employment and region of residence are significantly related to the unemployment. The results indicate that, for young workers, unemployment incidence increases with the level of education. Education has a greater impact on the unemployment of females than on that of males. Second, there is a negative and significant effect of the agricultural, educational and health sectors on the probability of transition into unemployment for women and men in which case the estimated impact is greater for men. Third, coastal area and public employment are associated with lower probability of transition into unemployment. Finally, Tunisian policymakers are aware of the fact that the elected National Constituent Assembly and the transitional government have a set of challenging tasks to accomplish in order to lower the rate of youth unemployment. For instance, generating funds for business development and infrastructure in non-coastal regions, and collaborating with the private sector to promote investment– whether foreign or domestic – and employment for educated young people.
Full Text Available Is research ‘fit-for-purpose’ for realizing sustainable development? More than two decades after the Brundtland report and UNCED Earth summit, the world has now adopted Sustainable Development Goals(SDGs. Rather than a cause for celebration, this delay should encourage reflection on the role of research in society. Why is it so difficult to realize sustainability in practice? The answer lies in the fact that universities and research centres persist with 19th century methods of data gathering, scholarly analysis, and journal articles. Today’s world needs science in real-time, whether to detect drought, confront Ebola, or assist refugees. Research needs to work faster and embrace 21st century practices including data science, open access, and infographics.A silent revolution is occurring in the ways of organizing and conducting research, enabled by new technology and encouraging work that tackles the key challenges facing society. A variety of new arrangements have come into existence that promote international collaboration, including Horizon 2020 with its emphasis on societal challenges, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation which has inspired a family of grand challenges funds on health and development, and the Future Earth joint program of research for global sustainability. These arrangements not only control billions of dollars in research funding, they also influence the strategies of national research councils and international organizations. The result is no less than a transformation in the incentives that reward how researchers invest their time and effort.Why is a revolution needed? Within research, substantial growth in knowledge production coincided with fragmentation among disciplines. One can easily find expertise and publications in soil science or agronomy, yet integrated efforts on food security and climate adaptation remain scarce. Beyond research, society remains largely uninformed, as academics avoid engaging in public
Вадим Валерьевич Гриншкун
Full Text Available The development of the education system are largely determined by scientific and technical progress. In recent times it is spoken about approach of a new, fourth industrial revolution. According to researchers, this revolution coincides with a series of information revolutions and is based on the development and implementation of new means and technologies of informatization, such as the Internet of things, VR and AR, 3D-printing, and quantum computers. It is obvious that the education system needs to respond to these challenges. For the solution of relevant problems the article describes a number of urgent measures to be taken in education in the coming years. These measures are systematized depending on the factors of the fourth industrial revolution. In particular, special training of teachers, establishment of a closer partnership organizations vocational education with industry, fundamentalization of training of students, is invariant to rapidly changing technologies, and other measures. Special attention is paid to development of information technologies and approaches to the allocation information revolutions. Their change also has an impact on approaches to reforming the education system.
The Agrochemicals Division cosponsored the 13th International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry held as part of the 248th National Meeting and Exposition of the American Chemical Society in San Francisco, CA, USA, August 10–14...
Ia. V. Vishniakov
Full Text Available Using original documents from the Russian State Military Historical Archive, many of which are introduced for the first time, the author reveals details of creation and activities of the Serbian Volunteer Corps formed from captured soldiers and officers of the Austro-Hungarian army inOdessain the Summer 1916. The same autumn it received a baptism of fire in Dobruja fighting in the separate corps of the Russian army under the command of General Zayonchkovsky. The research interest in studying the activities of “national” and "international" military units within the Russian army is connected with the question of expediency and effectiveness of using such forces against those for whom they have not so long ago shed blood. The author, contrary to the popular opinion of Serbian historians, shows that the call to join the First Serbian division did not arouse mass enthusiasm among the prisoners of war both Serbs and representatives of other Yugoslav nations because of well-founded fears for their close relatives living in the Dual Monarchy and a fairly comfortable stay in the Russian captivity. At the same time, the author emphasizes that this military unit, commanded by officers of the Serbian regular army, was considered by the political leadership ofSerbiaas the basis of the future armed forces of the new state ofYugoslavia. The article shows that the events of the Russian Revolution of 1917 influenced the future fate of this military formation. Many of its soldiers later found themselves on different sides of the front in the Russian civil war. A special attention is payed to the interethnic conflict erupted in the corps between the Serbs on the one side and the Croats and Slovenes on the other. The author introduces a significant body of primary documents showing the nuances of relations in the corps between representatives of various Yugoslav nations. The article emphasizes that the relationship of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes within the
The 21st Century will be fundamentally different from the previous one in all aspects of the human life. The world is now facing unprecedented challenges that will determine the fate of the human race as a whole. Our tiny planet is too small to shoulder the weight of six and a half billion energy-needy people and it is too vulnerable to afford violent and confrontational approaches as was the case in the past 20th century. It is also a fact that science opened new horizons before us. Digital Revolution inaugurated a new era in human history. Technology offers tremendous opportunities to overcome new and inherited problems. Sadly, the family of nations is ill-equipped for handling these challenges because the organizational structure of the world society is archaic and inoperative. Or, we live in a geo strategic environment pregnant with dangerous crisis of global significance. Furthermore, the good old days when scientists were heeded respectfully as reliable guides and when scientific facts were accepted as 'veritas' are over. Solid scientific arguments are perceived as cover up stories to defend financial interests of multinational companies. Similarly, confidence in politicians is at its lowest level in several countries. At the center of this puzzle lies a frenetic quest for cleaner, cheaper and more secure energy sources. In such circumstances, the best remedies which may be created by the brightest minds of the world will be tributary to the 'goodwill' of politicians. Or, politicians are under the overwhelming pressure of their respective public opinions who may act according to emotional factors or advices from religion, gossip or ideology. Consequently, 'Societal Issues' will be 'the decisive' factor in shaping the future of 'Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems' as well as nonnuclear technologies. This paper will attempt to identify major elements of this global equation from a political standpoint. One also has to take into account a group of new and powerful
Dies ist die Geschichte von Einsteins unvollendeter Revolution, einer tiefgreifenden Veränderung unserer Begriffe von Raum, Zeit, Materie und Strahlung. Diese Revolution begann in Einsteins Wunderjahr 1905, wurde durch seine allgemeine Relativitätstheorie aus dem Jahre 1915 fortgesetzt und wirkt in den heutigen Versuchen der Wissenschaft, die Entstehung und das Schicksal des Universums zu verstehen, weiter. Vor dem Hintergrund einer historischen Theorie des wissenschaftlichen Fortschritts wird Einsteins bis heute nicht abgeschlossene Revolution als das Ergebnis einer langfristigen Entwicklung des Wissens verständlich. Anhand der spannenden Geschichte von Einsteins Entdeckungen wird nachvollziehbar, warum große Denker wie Einstein weiter gesehen haben als ihre Vorgänger. Sie standen nicht nur auf den Schultern von Riesen, also den wissenschaftlichen Leistungen einzelner großer Vorgänger wie Newton, sondern auch auf den Schultern von "Zwergen", dem wissenschaftlichen Wissen, dem technischen Wissen, und d...
The aim of the paper is to clarify Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions. We propose to discriminate between a scientific revolution, which is a sociological event of a change of attitude of the scientific community with respect to a particular theory, and an epistemic rupture, which is a linguistic fact consisting of a discontinuity in the linguistic framework in which this theory is formulated. We propose a classification of epistemic ruptures into four types. In the paper, each of these types of epistemic ruptures is illustrated by examples from physics. The classification of epistemic ruptures can be used as a basis for a classification of scientific revolutions and thus for a refinement of our view of the progress of science.
Spellman, Barbara A
Crisis of replicability is one term that psychological scientists use for the current introspective phase we are in-I argue instead that we are going through a revolution analogous to a political revolution. Revolution 2.0 is an uprising focused on how we should be doing science now (i.e., in a 2.0 world). The precipitating events of the revolution have already been well-documented: failures to replicate, questionable research practices, fraud, etc. And the fact that none of these events is new to our field has also been well-documented. I suggest four interconnected reasons as to why this time is different: changing technology, changing demographics of researchers, limited resources, and misaligned incentives. I then describe two reasons why the revolution is more likely to catch on this time: technology (as part of the solution) and the fact that these concerns cut across social and life sciences-that is, we are not alone. Neither side in the revolution has behaved well, and each has characterized the other in extreme terms (although, of course, each has had a few extreme actors). Some suggested reforms are already taking hold (e.g., journals asking for more transparency in methods and analysis decisions; journals publishing replications) but the feared tyrannical requirements have, of course, not taken root (e.g., few journals require open data; there is no ban on exploratory analyses). Still, we have not yet made needed advances in the ways in which we accumulate, connect, and extract conclusions from our aggregated research. However, we are now ready to move forward by adopting incremental changes and by acknowledging the multiplicity of goals within psychological science. © The Author(s) 2015.
The discovery in the 1960's of type 2 superconductors with high critical current densities in high magnetic fields (and the development of NbTi in particular) led to the first revolution. The discovery of high temperature superconductors (HTS) started the second revolution. At this stage ceramists became involved with superconductors. I will assess the status of various superconductor applications, progress of HTS and their possible applications at 4.2K, and near-term needs for superconducting materials operating at 30T in specialized facilities. Reasons for the slow growth of superconductor applications will be reviewed
Leonard, J.W.; Arbabi-Kanjoori, F.
A formulation and solution technique are presented for the creep analysis of shells of revolution subjected to arbitrary loads and temperature changes. Arbitrary creep laws are admitted in the formulation with specific attention given to the two common laws, i.e. strain hardening and time hardening. The governing equations for creep of shells of revolution are derived. The solution method requires the quasi-static linearization of the equations: linear incremental behaviour is assumed during each time step. The incremental equations are expanded in Fourier series and solved by a numerical integration technique. (Auth.)
Innovative plant breeding and technology transfer fostered the Green Revolution, which transformed agriculture worldwide by increasing grain yields in developing countries. The Green Revolution temporarily alleviated world hunger, but also reduced biodiversity, nutrient cycling, and carbon sequestr...
Kenneth D. Lehman
Full Text Available James Malloy’s 1970 study, still one of the most systematic analytical attempts in English to understand Bolivia’s 1952 National Revolution, argued that the revolution remained “uncompleted.” However, the election and subsequent policies of the Morales government after 2005 moved Bolivia much closer to completing two important stated objectives of the revolution, as yet unfulfilled when Malloy wrote: inclusion of all Bolivians in the political system and increased national autonomy. While it is premature to call Bolivia’s revolution “completed,” the shift in the locus of power from Europeanized elites to more broadly popular forces and the growing independence of Bolivia from outside influence and direction under Morales are key achievements of what might be called Bolivia’s “Long Revolution.” Giving close attention to these two fundamental achievements—inclusion and autonomy—this paper provides a preliminary examination of the complicated and often paradoxical role the United States has played in Bolivia’s long historical trajectory since April 1952. Directly and indirectly, through imposition and suggestion, purposefully and unintentionally, by providing assistance and at the same time stimulating fierce nationalist resistance, through design and through the twists and turns of historical contingency—the United States has contributed to Bolivia’s slow revolutionary transformation. But patterns of imposition and resistance continue and this paper argues that it is time for the United States to examine its assumptions so that the two nations can escape the cyclical patterns of the past. El trabajo que James Malloy publicó en 1970 (hasta hoy día uno de los esfuerzos analíticos más sistemáticos que se han hecho en inglés para entender la Revolución Nacional de 1952, argumentaba que la revolución permanecía "incompleta". Las elecciones y subsiguientes políticas del gobierno de Morales después de
This article explores the Gothicisation of the Haitian Revolution in the transatlantic discourse during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. As it argues, the Gothic mode has to be understood as a reaction to the profound challenges that the Haitian Revolution posed to a transatlantic world built on the slave economy. Pro-slavery and pro-colonialist authors demonised this successful slave revolution and one of the first anti-colonial revolutions in modern history by resorting f...
Stromberg, Roland N.
Reexamines the role of ideas as a factor in the French Revolution. Discusses recent research concerning the influence of philosophy upon this Revolution. Looks at research dealing with the Enlightenment thinkers and the "Cercle Social" Girondists among other philosophies. Views the French Revolution as a means of understanding the modern…
Buchanan, Rachel; Holmes, Kathryn; Preston, Gregory; Shaw, Kylie
In 2007 the Labor Government came to power with the promise to bring to Australia an "Education Revolution". More than four years later we are still waiting for the full impact of this series of policy initiatives. Among the various facets of the Education Revolution was the assurance that the Education Revolution would focus on the most…
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie... restrict vessel traffic during the swim portion of the Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, OH... later notice in the Federal Register. B. Basis and Purpose Each year, the Revolution 3 Triathlon occurs...
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie... restrict vessel traffic during the swim portion of the Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie, Sandusky Bay, OH.... Basis and Purpose Each year, the Revolution 3 Triathlon occurs at Cedar Point near Sandusky, OH. This...
... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Sandusky Bay, Lake... intended to restrict vessels from a portion of Lake Erie during the Revolution 3 Triathlon. This temporary... in the preceding paragraph. Background and Purpose The Revolution 3 Triathlon will occur between 6 a...
A. M. Akmatalieva
Full Text Available Main approaches to the studies of internal and external causes of colour revolutions in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and the Ukraine are reviewed. The article considers colour revolutions in the context of the fourth wave of democratization and concludes that colour revolutions encouraged the development of the civil society, party systems, parliamentarianism, the transparency of state bodies, and electoral process.
Boncourt, Maite de
The author comments the critical situation of Arab countries which are traditionally oil and gas producers, but have to face political and social revolutions, and also an energy revolution with the emergence of shale gas and oil, and more generally of new non-conventional energy resources. This energy revolution results in a new deal, and threatens the strategic role of the region with respect to world energy supply. While recalling levels of hydrocarbon and gas production and reserves, and the share in world production of Arab countries, the author discusses to which extent non conventional hydrocarbons are actually a threat for these producers: significant reduction of exports towards the USA, structural upheaval and uncertainty of energy markets, impact on the whole value chain of the world oil industry. The author outlines that the OPEC is progressively loosing its power and influence, and is unable to choose or decide whether to increase or decrease production. Moreover, different political instabilities stopped reforms and investments in Arab countries: revolutions, domestic political tensions, civil war. The challenge could be the ability to make a move on Asian markets, and to implement reforms in order to attract capitals and new technologies
Nielsen, Wendy; Miller, K. Alex; Hoban, Garry
We report a case study of two highly qualified science teachers as they implemented laptop computers in their Years 9 and 10 science classes at the beginning of the "Digital Education Revolution," Australia's national one-to-one laptop program initiated in 2009. When a large-scale investment is made in a significant educational change,…
Wilen, William W.
This article relates a story about the unfolding of the recent revolution in Kyrgyzstan told by an insider who was an unlikely "captive" of the events in the capital, Bishkek. Over a seven-day period this past March, protest demonstrations paralyzed the country, military and police protection evaporated, the government collapsed, the…
Provides an overview of the electronic business (e-business) revolution and suggests ways it will affect human performance improvement professionals. Highlights include customer reliance on the Web; use of the Internet and associated software to link employees, applications, and companies; information access and sharing; business-to-consumer and…
Hall, Phyllis A.; Sprinkle, John H., Jr.
Uses Josiah Wedgwood and the pottery industry in England to illustrate the theme of technological development in a unit on the Industrial Revolution. States that infusing the biography of a specific individual can enliven history instruction. Presents two lessons on Josiah Wedgwood and shows how historians use the material culture to understand…
Kane, Paul W.
The advantages of a social studies program, centered on the various technological revolutions -- human, agricultural, urban, industrial, and humanizing -- are a multi-disciplinary approach, the use of inquiry skills, wide coverage of history and nations through a framework of concepts, and discussion of ethnocentrism. (JH)
Palmer, R. R.
Before the French Revolution, in 1789, 46 percent of the pupils in public secondary schools received free instruction compared to 13 percent of the pupils in 1842. The article examines the means by which the conclusion is arrived at, assesses its validity, and comments on some of its implications. (Author/SM)
Explores the relationship between revolutionary ideals and the subsequent expansion and promotion of the French language. It is shown, through a linguistic and sociopolitical history of the French Revolution and the French language, that there is no incompatibility between the two and that the movement of Francophonie is a continuation of France's…
Presents a play about the French Revolution, discussing how the play was used within a global history course. States that students read the play, work in groups to rewrite the play, and perform their version of the play. Includes key questions that are asked of the students. (CMK)
With the exception of Simon Schama's monograph on Dutch Patriots and French 'Liberators', the Batavian Revolution (1795-1806) has usually been interpreted as French-inspired and thus as 'alien' to the Netherlands. The original Dutch revolutionary achievements are underestimated as are those in the
During the Iranian Revolution of 1979, millions of Iranian women left their homes and entered the public sphere, but their public presence was soon restricted with the ascension to power of the Ayatollah Khomeini. For Westerners the Iranian women's seemingly easy acceptance of the forced wearing of the veil (chador) appeared to be their ultimate…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 10. The Determinants of the Scientific Revolution Factors and Conceptual Frameworks. Virendra Singh. Reflections ... Author Affiliations. Virendra Singh1. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400 005, India.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. The Determinants of the Scientific Revolution Early Thinking. Virendra Singh. Reflections Volume 2 Issue 9 September ... Author Affiliations. Virendra Singh1. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road Mumbai 400 005, India.
Hassell, M. E. C. J.; Grundeken, M. J. D.; Woudstra, P.; Delewi, R.; Wykrzykowska, J. J.; Piek, J. J.
After the introduction of coronary balloon angioplasty, bare-metal, and drug-eluting stents, fully bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) could be the fourth revolution in interventional cardiology. The BRS technology shares the advantages of metallic stents regarding acute gain and prevention of acute
The study seeks to find out the effects of Green Revolution technology adoption on output/efficiency of agricultural households in Ghana. The method of analysis involves Battese and Coelli's (1993; 1995) one-step estimation of a stochastic frontier model. Technology adoption was found to have positive effects on output.
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. The Determinants of the Scientific Revolution Early Thinking. Virendra Singh. Reflections Volume 2 Issue 9 September 1997 pp 83-90. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:
Van Oosterhout, Aaron; Smith, Benjamin T
This article examines the church's embrace of scientific methodologies in the late nineteenth century. It is argued that in general, the shift worked to repel liberal ridicule and control popular devotions. However, in Mexico the effects were mixed. During the Mexican Revolution, a desperate church was forced to apply these new scientific methodologies to increasingly unauthorized cults. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This article explores the impact of the Iranian revolution in 1979 on Muslim communities in South Africa, a socio-political context that is profoundly shaped by the struggle against apartheid. The contribution of the Muslim community to this struggle has only been observable with the emergence of Muslim organizations with ...
The article examines a mainstream curricular unit on the Haitian Revolution, centered on a culminating role-play activity. Cultural studies, subaltern studies, and hermeneutics are applied as theoretical frameworks to read the curriculum unit and its activities. These theoretical lenses sharpen an understanding of what it means to experience…
Genomic-based molecular tools are emerging as powerful laboratory methods for assessing water quality characteristics and improving our ability to assess the human health risks posed by microbial contaminants in drinking water. To a great extent, this revolution in genomics-rese...
Full Text Available The article examines the roots and causes of protests in Egypt at the present stage. The author focuses on the ideological influence of Islamic parties and movements, in particular the association “Muslim Brotherhood” in the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. Methodological basis of this publication principles amounted to politological, sociological, cultural and historical methods of scientific knowledge.
Africa missed out on the scientific breakthroughs that revolutionized agriculture in Asia. However, with locally developed and locally relevant technologies, a built-up human and institutional capacity, and supportive national policy and leadership, an African Green Revolution can be a reality.
GR status increases across Nigeria, delayed marriage is likely to soar and sustainable fertility decline achieved. .... TIMING AND FERTILITY. Gender Revolution Interaction with Marriage Timing and Fertility ...... with time a negligible proportion of females began to take advantage of formal education and subsequently ...
Johnson, Gary R
Politics and the life sciences--also referred to as biopolitics--is a field of study that seeks to advance knowledge of politics and promote better policymaking through multidisciplinary analysis that draws on the life sciences. While the intellectual origins of the field may be traced at least into the 1960s, a broadly organized movement appeared only with the founding of the Association for Politics and the Life Sciences (APLS) in 1980 and the establishment of its journal, Politics and the Life Sciences ( PLS ), in 1982. This essay--contributed by a past journal editor and association executive director--concludes a celebration of the association's thirtieth anniversary. It reviews the founding of the field and the association, as well as the contributions of the founders. It also discusses the nature of the empirical work that will advance the field, makes recommendations regarding the identity and future of the association, and assesses the status of the revolution of which the association is a part. It argues that there is progress to celebrate, but that this revolution--the last of three great scientific revolutions--is still in its early stages. The revolution is well-started, but remains unfinished.
Even though Wharton expresses the idea that the old aristocracy was fading away in a Darwinism sense, since Undine Spragg and other new women are outside the genteel circle and the results of their machinations can be swift and deadly, old New York high society underwent a revolution rather than an evolution.
Full Text Available This presentation discusses innovation and The Next Industrial Revolution Industry 4.0 by Martin Sanne at the 6th CSIR Conference: Ideas that work for industrial development, 5-6 October 2017, CSIR International Convention Centre, Pretoria, South...
"The most compelling questions facing contemporary particle physics research and a program to address them have been distilled into a new report “Quantum Universe: The Revolution in 21st-Century Particle Physics,” adopted today by the Department of Energy/National Science Foundation High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP)" (1 page)
Cauvin, Colette; Serradj, Aziz
This series in three volumes considers maps as constructions resulting from a number of successive transformations and stages integrated in a logical reasoning and an order of choices. Volume 2 focuses on the impact of the quantitative revolution, partially related to the advent of the computer age, on thematic cartography.
Increase in the number of individuals pursuing postsecondary schooling involves economic and social costs to the kibbutz. "Educational revolution" in the kibbutz refers to growing aspirations of the kibbutzim toward higher education. Measures taken by the kibbutz movement and individual kibbutzim to counteract the problems created by the…
In this article, the author presents a truer picture than economic historians have previously had of the economies of Tokugawa Japan, and Britain during the Industrial Revolution. Though substantially different, both societies were prosperous compared to most of the rest of the world. Japan's economic success began in the Tokugawa period…
We hypothesise that the prospects of gender revolution (GR) is rising in Nigeria and may be swaying marriage timing and fertility. The 1990 and 2013 NDHS data and 45 in-depth interviews were analysed. The analysis suggests that the prospects for the emergence of GR increased between 1990 and 2013. Women with ...
Tebbel, John; Ruiz, Ramon Eduardo
The heritage of the Mexican American people who settled in the Southwest is discussed in this book with regard to Mexico's history, its revolution with Spain, Mexico today, and its relations with the United States. The illustrated book is designed for use by or with young people. (NQ)
Maksim M. Zagorulko
Full Text Available The turning points of the history are characterized by people’s active participation in one of the most natural for the man social activity – the creation of new self-images. Being incorporated in these images, people are able to realize their involvement in social events. The new ideas and meanings acquire “corporality” in the new images of man and get accumulated in them becoming the reality accessible for the majority of people. Being revealed in the images of people, new ideas obtain real bodies, penetrate to the living tissue of culture, transform into reality, which can be perceived. Man uses their body as a tool for coding significant cultural meanings. The rules of behavior, public manners, the elements of appearance and clothing become the material signs of nonmaterial ideas. They transform into the complex distinguishing system, which allows for the consolidation of people with similar viewpoints. The creation of new visual images comes in hand with the experiments in the field of creating a new language. The authors demonstrate the appearance and creation of such images using the examples of Great French revolution, the revolutionary transformations of Post-reform Russia, Great Russian revolution, cultural revolution of the Chinese People’s Republic. M.M. Zagorulko and I.A. Petrova represent common theoretical approaches to the analysis of cultural revolutions of the New Time and Modern period, to understanding the principles of interaction between the “old” and the “new” in culture. I.A. Petrova carries out analysis of theoretical disputes of A.V. Lunacharsky and A.A. Bogdanov about the possibility of constructing “pure proletarian culture”. I.K. Cheremushnikova proves the significance of emblematic images in the culture, the connection between body self-representation and the privileged meanings, adopted during the revolution; she represents numerous examples of man becoming the carrier of new cultural meanings
Full Text Available Purpose: Industry 4.0 represents a special challenge for businesses in general and for SMEs in particular. The study at hand will examine companies´ awareness, readiness and capability to meet this challenge taking into account the special role of SMEs. Methodology: The results of nine studies dealing with this range of topics are examined in the framework of a systematic review and compared with regard to the objective of the study at hand. Findings: The review showed that, as a rule, there is an awareness concerning the relevance of the topic. The readiness and the capability to meet this challenge exist in parts; however, they strongly depend on the enterprise size. The smaller SMEs are, the higher the risk that they will become victims instead of beneficiaries of this revolution.Originality/value: Considering different studies concerning Industry 4.0 the article gives an insight into the dependence of the Industry 4.0 readiness in reference to the company size. This deepens the knowledge in adaption deficits German SME still have and opens different approaches for further research and action plans.
Although the Spanish American independence movements are reflexively assumed to have been inspired by the American and French Revolutions, the patriot leaders actually looked toward Great Britain for much of their inspiration and material support. One of their most cherished social goals was to reform and uplift their education systems and to that…
The paper looks closely at student enrolment trends through a case study of South African "race" enrolment data, including some hypotheses about how student social class has influenced these trends. First, data on 1988-1998 enrolments showing a "skewed revolution" in student africanisation are summarised. Then, using 2000-2012…
George, Steven Z
Steven Z. George, PT, PhD, is a profound scholar whose contributions to the science of musculoskeletal pain rehabilitation have been both impactful and innovative to the area of clinical practice, as well as the profession at large. Highly regarded as an expert in pain-related psychosocial factors and their impact on rehabilitative outcomes, George is a clinical researcher decorated with accolades, ranging from substantial grant funding to high-impact publications. After 14 years at the University of Florida, George is currently Director of Musculoskeletal Research, Duke Clinical Research Institute, and Vice Chair of Clinical Research, Orthopaedic Surgery, at Duke University. He completed postdoctoral training in pain science and rehabilitation outcomes at the University of Florida and holds a PhD in rehabilitation science and MS in orthopedic physical therapy from the University of Pittsburgh and a BS in physical therapy from the West Virginia University School of Medicine. In his research, George has a primary theme focused on the use of biopsychosocial models to prevent and treat chronic musculoskeletal pain. Specific research areas include the effects of manual therapy on pain sensitivity, genetic and psychological risk factors associated with persistent pain and disability, and behavioral interventions for low back pain. Having authored over 185 peer-reviewed publications in physical therapy, orthopedic, rehabilitation, and pain research journals, George exemplifies a noteworthy level of compassion to improving the profession's, as well as society's, understanding of how to effectively provide pain relief. He is an editorial board member for Physical Therapy and Journal of Pain. He is also an International Editorial Review Board member for the Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy. George's dedication has been highlighted through various awards, including the John C. Liebeskind Early Career Scholar Award from the American Pain Society, the Ulf
Of late, offshoring and outsourcing have become political hot buttons. These o words have been conflated to mean that high-paying, white-collar jobs have been handed to well-trained but less expensive workers in India and other locales. The brouhaha over the loss of service jobs, which currently account for over 80% of private-sector employment in the United States, is not merely an American phenomenon. The fact is that service-sector jobs in all developed countries are at risk. Regardless of what the politicians now say, worry focused on offshoring and outsourcing misses the point, the author argues. We are in the middle of a fundamental change, which is that services are being industrialized. Three factors in particular are combining with outsourcing and offshoring to drive that transformation: The first is increasing global competition, where just as with manufactured goods in the recent past, foreign companies are offering more services in the United States, taking market share from U.S. companies. The second is automation: New hardware and software systems that take care of back-room and front-office tasks such as counter operations, security, billing, and order taking are allowing firms to dispense with clerical, accounting, and other staff positions. The third is self-service. Why use a travel agent when you can book your own flight, hotel, and rental car online? As these forces combine to sweep across the service sector, executives of all stripes must start thinking about arming and defending themselves, just as their manufacturing cousins did a generation ago. This will demand proactive and far-reaching changes, including focusing specifically on customer preference, quality, and technological interfaces; rewiring strategy to find new value from existing and unfamiliar sources; de-integrating and radically reassembling operational processes; and restructuring the organization to accommodate new kinds of work and skills.
This essay analyzes Einstein's relativity revolution as part of a long-term development of knowledge in which the knowledge system of classical physics was reorganized in a process of reflection, described here as a "Copernican process." This process led in 1905 to the introduction of fundamentally new concepts of space, time, matter, and radiation. On the basis of an extensive historical reconstruction, the heuristics of Einstein's creation of the general theory of relativity, completing the relativity revolution, is interpreted as a further transformation of the knowledge of classical physics, starting from conceiving gravitation as a borderline problem between field theory and mechanics. The essay thus provides an answer to the puzzle of how Einstein was able to create a theory capable of accounting for a wide range of phenomena that were discovered only much later.
Tillemann, Levi; Beck, Fredric; Brodrick, James; Brown, Austin; Feldman, David; Nguyen, Tien; Ward, Jacob
For decades, America has anticipated the transformational impact of clean energy technologies. But even as costs fell and technology matured, a clean energy revolution always seemed just out of reach. Critics often said a clean energy future would "always be five years away." This report focuses on four technology revolutions that are here today. In the last five years they have achieved dramatic reductions in cost and this has been accompanied by a surge in consumer, industrial and commercial deployment. Although these four technologies still represent a small percentage of their total market, they are growing rapidly. The four key technologies this report focuses on are: onshore wind power, polysilicon photovoltaic modules, LED lighting, and electric vehicles.
We explore the n-body problem, n ≥ 3, on a surface of revolution with a general interaction depending on the pairwise geodesic distance. Using the geometric methods of classical mechanics we determine a large set of properties. In particular, we show that Saari's conjecture fails on surfaces of revolution admitting a geodesic circle. We define homographic motions and, using the discrete symmetries, prove that when the masses are equal, they form an invariant manifold. On this manifold the dynamics are reducible to a one-degree of freedom system. We also find that for attractive interactions, regular n-gon shaped relative equilibria with trajectories located on geodesic circles typically experience a pitchfork bifurcation. Some applications are included.
Hassell, M E C J; Grundeken, M J D; Delewi, R; Wykrzykowska, J J; Piek, J J
After the introduction of coronary balloon angioplasty, bare-metal, and drug-eluting stents, fully bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) could be the fourth revolution in interventional cardiology. The BRS technology shares the advantages of metallic stents regarding acute gain and prevention of acute vessel occlusion by providing transient scaffolding, while potentially overcoming many of the safety concerns of drug-eluting stents. Furthermore, without a permanent metallic cage, the vessel could remodel favourably and atherosclerotic plaques could regress in the long-term. This attracted increased interest and several BRS have been developed. In this review we will describe all BRS which are thus far clinically evaluated and provide an overview of ongoing clinical studies. Although the technology seems to be very promising, more studies including patients with more complex lesions are needed to evaluate whether the BRS can be used in daily clinical practice and if it is indeed becoming a new interventional revolution.
Boff, Kenneth R
The "Revolution in Information Technology" has spawned a series of transformational revolutions in the nature and practice of human factors and ergonomics (HFE). "Generation 1" HFE evolved with a focus on adapting equipment, workplace and tasks to human capabilities and limitations. Generation 2, focused on cognitive systems integration, arose in response to the need to manage automation and dynamic function allocation. Generation 3 is focused on symbiotic technologies that can amplify human physical and cognitive capabilities. Generation 4 is emergent and is focused on biological enhancement of physical or cognitive capabilities. The shift from HFE Generations 1 and 2 to Generations 3 and 4 profoundly alters accepted boundary constraints on the adaptability of humans in complex systems design. Furthermore, it has opened an ethical divide between those that see cognitive and physical enhancement as a great benefit to society and those who perceive this as tampering with the fundamentals of human nature.
Paul McWhorter, Deputy Director for of the Microsystems Center at Sandia National Laboratories, discusses the potential of surface micromachining. A vision of the possibilities of intelligent Microsystems for the future is presented along with descriptions of several possible applications. Applications that are just around the corner and some that maybe quite a ways down the road but have a clear development path to their realization. Microsystems will drive the next silicon revolution.
In this article, the influence of geopolitics is analyzed in the case of spreading seeds of high-yielding varieties in the Third World, through study cases in Mexico, India and Costa Rica. In Mexico, agricultural research, supported by the Rockefeller Foundation since 1943, allowed the development of high-yielding varieties of wheat. In India, the cradle of the so-called Green revolution, the arrival of these seeds happened within the frame of the expansion of communism in Southeast Asia, and...
Pickett, Warren E.
Room temperature superconductivity has been the most prominent, highly ambitious, but still imaginable, acme of materials physics for half a century. The struggle toward this revolution was foreshadowed by a Victorian novelist and championed,unsuccessfully, by dogged physicists in the 1960s to 1980s who had a workable theory but uncompliant materials. Discovery of superconductivity of H$_3$S at 200 K in the 160-200 GPa pressure range has renewed anticipation of yet higher values of the critic...
Breh, Wolfgang; Schaetzler, Katharina
''Opportunities for energy revolution'' was the title under which the KIT Energy Center of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in May 2012 held its first annual meeting. The meeting covered the whole Topic of the KIT Energy Center. The present proceedings give those interested the opportunity to delve into the contributions and to provide a differentiated picture of the challenges and opportunities of the energy transition.
Wray, K. Brad
This paper argues that the field of chemistry underwent a significant change of theory in the early twentieth century, when atomic number replaced atomic weight as the principle for ordering and identifying the chemical elements. It is a classic case of a Kuhnian revolution. In the process...... of what it is to be an element. In the process of making these changes, a new scientific lexicon emerged, one that took atomic number to be the defining feature of a chemical element....
Institution, 1982. Hiro , Dilip , The Longest War: The Iran-Irag Military Conflict. New York: Routledge, 1991. Hitti, Philip K., History of the Arabs: From the...Iran, Afghanistan, and the former Soviet Union’s Turkmen Republic. The Turkomans migrated into Iran during the 蚊Hiro, Dilip , The Longest War: The...Hooglund, eds., The Iranian Revolution and the Islamic Republic, p. 192. 52° Hiro , The Lonqest War, p. 263. 52 1Cordesman and Wagner, Modern War, p
Beginning: The Nicaraguan Revolution, 2nd ed. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1982); Edelberto Torres-Rivas, " Vida y muerte en Guatemala: refleciones...63Salvador Arias Penate, "Las perspectivas de desarrollo agropecuario en relaci6n con la tenencia de la tierra," Estudios Centroamericanos, 379 (May 1980...News-Gazette, 2-8 March 1980, pp. 1-2. Arias Penate, Salvador. "Las perspectivas de desarrollo agropecuario en relaci6n con la tenencia de la tierra
Due to a typographical error in the 15 June issue of Science (column 1, fourth line from the bottom, page 1152), the dates of the Mexican Revolution were incorrectly given as 1910-1970; the correct dates are 1910-1917. In the 21 June issue (column 1, paragraph 1, page 1263), the number of technicians and engineers Mexico intends to send abroad for training this year was given as 200; the correct number is 2000.
van Ree, E.
This article discusses the question of Georgii Plekhanov's contributions to Marxist revolutionary strategy. It argues that the strategy Plekhanov proposed in Our Differences (1885) was very different from the one he had earlier proposed in Socialism and Political Struggle (1883). Plekhanov pretended to model his Russian policies on the Communist Manifesto's policies for Germany in the mid-nineteenth century. However, in proposing that Russia's democratic revolution was to be followed by a pro...
Mahto, S.; Dixit, U. S.
This work illustrates the shape optimization of flexible link of revolute-jointed rigid-flexible manipulator. Flexible link is considered as Euler-Bernoulli beam and dynamic analysis is carried out by finite element based on Langrange approach. Nonlinear classical search technique (Sequential Quadratic Programming method) is applied to extremize the four different objectives. Different optimized shapes are obtained for different optimization problems. Optimized shapes improve the static and dynamic response of the system viz. fundamental frequency, hub angles, flexural vibration, etc.
George Keeton wrote, in 1943, about “a silent revolution in methods of advocacy as practiced by the English Bar over the last fifty years” . Changed standards of etiquette, professional rules and greater control exerted by judges over these years led to a vast increase in courtesy in interactions with judges and between counsel. The conduct of prosecutions had also improved. They were generally no longer carried out in a sneering hectoring manner with witnesses mercilessly browbeaten or bulli...
Paarlberg, Robert L.
Will developing countries adopt policies that promote the planting of genetically modified (GM) crops, or will they select policies that slow the spread of the GM crop revolution? The evidence so far is mixed. In some prominent countries such as China, policies are in place that encourage the independent development and planting of GM crops. Yet in a number of other equally prominent countries the planting of GM crops is not yet officially approved. The inclination of developing countries to ...
I have recently come across the diaries of Johann Conrad Fischer. These diaries span six decades and cover the years of social, economic, and technological upheaval which marked the industrial revolution in England. The reader is given a picture of these years through the eyes of a Swiss manufacturer with a good perception of history, and his notes are of some value to historians. PMID:13874462
This is a presentation for the 1st University of Florida Data Symposium.Major advances in knowledge and technology have transformed farming throughout history; examples include the plow, selective breeding, chemical fertilization, mechanized cultivation, and genetically modified organisms. Systems that integrate these advances are often billed as revolutions for the benefits they deliver to farmers and the food system. Yet, advancements in agriculture are only beginning to respect the collect...
Daniel C. Littlefield
Full Text Available [First paragraph] Sugar, Slavery, and Society: Perspectives on the Caribbean, India, the Mascarenes, and the United States. Bernard Moitt (ed.. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2004. vii + 203 pp. (Cloth US $ 65.00 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450-1680. Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2004. xiii + 347 pp. (Paper US $ 22.50 These two books illustrate the fascination that sugar, slavery, and the plantation still exercise over the minds of scholars. One of them also reflects an interest in the influence these have had on the modern world. For students of the history of these things the Schwartz collection is in many ways the more useful. It seeks to fill a lacuna left by the concentration of monographs on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, suggesting that we know less about the history of sugar than we thought we did. Perhaps in no other single place is such a range of information on so wide an area presented in such detail for so early a period. Ranging from Iberia to the Caribbean and including consumption as well as production of sugar, with a nod to the slave trade and a very useful note on weights and currencies, this volume is a gold mine of information. It considers (briefly the theoretical meaning as well as the growing of this important crop, contrasting its production in Iberia with that on the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Canaries, colonized by Iberian powers, and continuing the contrast with São Tomé, off the coast of Africa, and on to Brazil and the Spanish American empire before ending with the British in Barbados. In the transit, it of necessity considers and complicates the meaning of “sugar revolution” and shows how scholars using that term do not always mean the same thing. John McCusker and Russell Menard, for example, tackling a cornerstone of the traditional interpretation of the development of sugar, argue that there
Full Text Available Most Algerian Francophone literature has been written since 1950, and thus the development of that literature has been intimately linked to the political events which forged the Algerian nation. Especially influential was the 1954-62 war of independence which for many years was a major contextual element in the literature. With the passage of time, the Revolution has begun to be less and less cognitive in the lives and works of the young writers. For some, Revolution lives on in the oneiric evocations of horrors glimpsed, for others it is something relegated to history, whereas for yet others it has become a political and social device. The role the Revolution plays in a writer's creativity has tended to dichotomize the literature into a conservative branch of inward- and backward-looking patriotism and a radical branch of outward- and forward-looking experimentation. Both branches present equally fervent defenses of their loyalty to their country based on a variety of arguments, but the radical branch, regardless of its relative worth in terms of internal affairs, certainly is the branch which tends to transcend national idiom and to express itself in terms of wide-spread and universal literary values.
Why do the planets revolve around the Sun? Has genetic science shaken Darwin's theories to their foundations? Are viruses the champions of evolution? Is progress a form of tradition? On 8 and 9 July, Geneva's Science History Museum is inviting you to a Science Night on the theme of 'Evolution, revolution'. The Sixth Science Night will host some 60 stands and offer workshops for children, guided tours, exhibitions and shows. Anticipating the (r)evolutions from the LHC, CERN will also be taking part in the event. The future accelerator promises to deliver scientific advances and may even turn our understanding of the infinitesimally small on its head. However, the LHC has already led to technological breakthroughs. The Laboratory's stand will put a special emphasis on the part played by CERN in the computing revolution, from the Web to the Computing Grid. Computer animations will be used to explain these technologies which have spin-offs well beyond the field of particle physics that are of benefit to the whol...
Warner, Mark; Mostajeran, Cyrus
We solve the forward and inverse problems associated with the transformation of flat sheets with circularly symmetric director fields to surfaces of revolution with non-trivial topography, including Gaussian curvature, without a stretch elastic cost. We deal with systems slender enough to have a small bend energy cost. Shape change is induced by light or heat causing contraction along a non-uniform director field in the plane of an initially flat nematic sheet. The forward problem is, given a director distribution, what shape is induced? Along the way, we determine the Gaussian curvature and the evolution with induced mechanical deformation of the director field and of material curves in the surface (proto-radii) that will become radii in the final surface. The inverse problem is, given a target shape, what director field does one need to specify? Analytic examples of director fields are fully calculated that will, for specific deformations, yield catenoids and paraboloids of revolution. The general prescription is given in terms of an integral equation and yields a method that is generally applicable to surfaces of revolution.
Full Text Available The subject of this article is the development of the cultural construction and the emergence of the Constitutional Revolution in Iran. This study, by examining the cultural structure of the Qajar era of the Naser-al-Din Shah period wants to investigate the cause of the Constitutional Revolution. The findings of this research, which have been collected by historical-analytical method, indicate that the pattern of development in the Qajar era is consistent with the pattern of unbalanced development. In this sense, by starting educational, political and military reforms in the Qajar era specially Nasser-al-Din Shah, gradually the cultural structure apart from the traditional political structure. This development provided the basis for the emergence of new intellectuals and elites with new political ideas in the field of governance methods. However, the attenuation of political structure and the backwardness of political development from cultural development faced with some obstacles. Political system instead of creating a development along with gradual cultural development and consolidating its position through the persuasion of the community, in fact to maintain integrity in the social system was resorted to force and preferred force and compulsion to persuasion. The kind of reaction and opposition of the political power structure against the modern intellectual movement, which contained new political demands in the area of governance and freedom, led to the weakness and, finally, the collapse of the Qajar political system and the constitutional revolution.
When Enrico Fermi, Stan Ulam, Nicholas Metropolis, John von Neuman, and Robert Richtmyer invented the Monte Carlo method fifty years ago, little could they imagine the far-flung consequences, the international applications, and the revolution in science epitomized by their abstract mathematical method. The Monte Carlo method is used in a wide variety of fields to solve exact computational models approximately by statistical sampling. It is an alternative to traditional physics modeling methods which solve approximate computational models exactly by deterministic methods. Modern computers and improved methods, such as variance reduction, have enhanced the method to the point of enabling a true predictive capability in areas such as radiation or particle transport. This predictive capability has contributed to a radical change in the way science is done: design and understanding come from computations built upon experiments rather than being limited to experiments, and the computer codes doing the computations have become the repository for physics knowledge. The MCNP Monte Carlo computer code effort at Los Alamos is an example of this revolution. Physicians unfamiliar with physics details can design cancer treatments using physics buried in the MCNP computer code. Hazardous environments and hypothetical accidents can be explored. Many other fields, from underground oil well exploration to aerospace, from physics research to energy production, from safety to bulk materials processing, benefit from MCNP, the Monte Carlo method, and the revolution in science
de Micheli-Serra, A
Mexican physicians, faithful to their tradition of honor and patriotism, were present in the military and political events of the great Revolution, the began in 1910 and ended triumphantly in 1917. In the first phase, a Madero supporter and opposed to presidential reelection was doctor Francisco Vázquez Gómez, a specialist in otorhinolaryngology, Professor at the National Medical School and past President of our Academy of Medicine. The second phase of this Revolution, characterized by the struggle against the Huerta dictatorship and then by combats among revolutionary factions, also saw the intervention of many physicians and surgeons, such as senator Belisario Domínguez of Chiapas, a victim of dictatorial oppression. Among them were distinguished academicians such as doctors Rafael Silva of Mexico and Francisco Castillo Nájera of Durango. Likewise devoted nurses were in Carranza's group, while medical students enlisted in Zapata's forces. The last phase of the Revolution was dominated by the activities of the Constituent Congress in Querétaro, which promulgated the New Mexican Constitution. Among 223 elected representatives, 20 were physicians and two pharmacists (10%), who had an excellent participation in the different sessions. The new Constitution, sworn and signed on February 5, 1917, added social guarantees to individual guarantees already established by the Constitution of 1857.
Full Text Available [First paragraph] To make a world safe for revolution: Cuba's foreign policy. JORGE I. DOMÏNGUEZ. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1989. viii + 365 pp. (Cloth US$ 35.00 U.S. - Cuba relations in the 1990s. JORGE I. DoMfNGUEZ & RAFAEL HERNANDEZ (eds.. Boulder CO: Westview, 1989. ix + 324 pp. (Cloth US$ 42.00, Paper US$ 15.95 Transformation and struggle: Cuba faces the 1990s. SANDOR HALEBSKY & JOHN M. KIRK (eds.. with the assistance of Rafael Hernéndez. New York: Praeger, 1990. xxvi + 291 pp. (Cloth US$ 45.00, Paper US$ 17.95 "A masterpiece of political intrigue" was one description of Jorge Dominguez' earlier book, Cuba: order and revolution; and it is a fitting comment for its sequel foreign policy volume. Dominguez himself opens with: "This is not a book of fiction, yet much of the story seems a fantasy." The story is how, from 1959 to 1988, Cuban leaders sought "to make a world safe for revolution" and, in the process, that small country Cuba came to have "the foreign policy of a big power." In his thorough, methodical fashion, Dominguez marshalls a wealth of documentary evidence from varied and conflicting sources, backed with extensive interview material, to paint a "behind the scènes" story of policymakers and their policy.
Krewitt, Wolfram; Teske, Sven; Simon, Sonja; Pregger, Thomas; Graus, Wina; Blomen, Eliane; Schmid, Stephan; Schaefer, Oliver
The Energy [R]evolution 2008 scenario is an update of the Energy [R]evolution scenario published in 2007. It takes up recent trends in global socio-economic developments, and analyses to which extent they affect chances for achieving global climate protection targets. The main target is to reduce global CO 2 emissions to 10 Gt per year in 2050, thus limiting global average temperature increase to 2 deg. C and preventing dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. A review of sector and region specific energy efficiency measures resulted in the specification of a global energy demand scenario incorporating strong energy efficiency measures. The corresponding energy supply scenario has been developed in an iterative process in close cooperation with stakeholders and regional counterparts from academia, NGOs and the renewable energy industry. The Energy [R]evolution scenario shows that renewable energy can provide more than half of the world's energy needs by 2050. Developing countries can virtually stabilise their CO 2 emissions, whilst at the same time increasing energy consumption through economic growth. OECD countries will be able to reduce their emissions by up to 80%.
Full Text Available While views may differ on the factors that made the 2011 Egyptian revolution possible, the role of mass media will remain undisputable. The Internet-based social networks caught the Mubarak regime by surprise, and the popular disillusionment with the ‘national’ media led the public to turn to private newspapers and satellite channels for keeping pace with the events. This paper examines the role of specific media during the 18 days of the 2011 Egyptian revolution – from 25 January to 11 February, 2011 – which we have divided into four parts. It discusses how these media contributed to the unfolding of events, conceptualized the protests and the demands of the public, and presented the actors that participated in or opposed the revolution. These points are addressed by discussing the content of the Facebook pages of the Sixth of April Movement and We Are All Khalid Said, as well as that of a private Egyptian newspaper, al-Shuruq, and the state-run newspaper al-Ahram.
Peter Andrew Novick
Full Text Available «There is one question, Inspector Callahan: Why do they call you ‘Dirty Harry’?» Harry, it is explained, «…Hates everybody: Limeys, Micks, Hebes, Fat Degos, Niggers, Honkies, Chinks…especially Spics». Don Siegel’s Dirty Harry (1971, famously labeled «fascist» by prominent film critic Pauline Kael, nonetheless represented something new and unique—the “Silent Majority’s” entry into liberal New Hollywood, a veritable counter-reformation to the new social movements having sprung up in the late Sixties and early Seventies. Far from the traditional American Right, however, and distinctly un-Fascist (in as much as the term means more than a simple epithet, these films acted to unite traditional European philosophy and revolutionary thought with organic conservative American tendencies, resulting in hybrid films which challenged the new social movements, while working within the medium of liberal New American Cinema. The article will address three themes from the era: violence and race in the city, revenge against “liberated women”, and fear and loathing of homosexuality. In each instance, using primary evidence from films and critical reviews from the Seventies and the present era, in addition to American and European theorists, the article will show how the counter-revolution in Seventies cinema failed to expunge the “revolutionary spirit” of the era. Rather, the Silent Majority’s visions of visual violence and reactionary values became part and parcel of the new liberated culture of the “Me Decade,” forever bounding the conservative celluloid revolt to the new cinematic culture.
Orzulak, Jessica Lynn
The violent phase of the 1910 Mexican Revolution figured prominently in the media and fine arts of Mexico during the war and in its aftermath. Documentary photography from the violent phase of the Revolution and revolutionary themed Mexican art in the first half of the twentieth century articulated revolutionary women, or `soldaderas,' as figures divorced from their subjectivity and fashioned them into allegorical characters of the Revolution. Portraits in the archive of photographs documen...
Perrin, Stephanie Jane
Like any social phenomenon, revolutions are gendered. The male tilt of revolutionary processes and their histories has produced a definition of revolution that consistently fails women. This thesis aims to redefine revolution to incorporate women’s visions of societal transformation and the full achievement of their rights and freedoms. I argue that approaches to women’s revolutionary experiences are enriched by focusing on the roles of culture, consciousness, and unconventional revolutionary...
Golub, Andrew; Bennett, Alex S; Elliott, Luther
This paper places America's "war on drugs" in perspective in order to develop a new metaphor for control of drug misuse. A brief and focused history of America's experience with substance use and substance use policy over the past several hundred years provides background and a framework to compare the current Pharmacological Revolution with America's Nineteenth Century Industrial Revolution. The paper concludes with cautions about growing challenges and provides suggestions for navigating this revolution and reducing its negative impact on individuals and society.
The guiding force of American national consciousness and socio-economic growth resides, as Alexis de Tocqueville noted long ago, in a deeply grounded, complex proclamation of the rights of the individual. Well before the American Revolution proved successful in 1781, the public culture of the American colonies found expression in the language, symbols, and imperatives of the Protestant Reformation, with its stark focus on the individual's responsibility to seek and serve his God. In the ...
The guiding force of American national consciousness and socio-economic growth resides, as Alexis de Tocqueville noted long ago, in a deeply grounded, complex proclamation of the rights of the individual. Well before the American Revolution proved successful in 1781, the public culture of the American colonies found expression in the language, symbols, and imperatives of the Protestant Reformation, with its stark focus on the individual's responsibility to seek and serve his God. In the ninet...
Sun, Lie; Hu, Danian
The construction of nine high-end technical installations (hereafter Project NGI, for Nine Great Installations or ) in the 1960s and 1970s was an indispensable part of the development of China's defense and heavy industries. The project put more than 1400 machines into operation or trial operation during the Culture Revolution (1966-1976), and they served essential technical functions in sectors such as aviation, aerospace, machinery, metallurgy, and electronics, and directly advancing the development of these fields. It took more than a decade for Project NGI to go from planning to completion-a surprisingly uninterrupted and steady development while China fell into unprecedented turmoil. One important reason for Project NGI's success was the vital leadership of Shen Hong (, 1906-1998), the technical director of the project and a high-ranking official. Supported by state leaders such as Zhou Enlai and Nie Rongzhen, Shen and his colleagues adopted a suitable roadmap for technological development, coordinated the best-performing manufacturing forces in the country, and successfully manufactured the NGI machines. Project NGI is significant for the history of Chinese science, technology, and medicine during the Cultural Revolution not because it was technologically original, but because it represents an extraordinary case, in which the project's technological development seemed to be largely exempted from the interference of the turbulent Cultural Revolution. The project's national defense orientation, its pragmatism, and the contemporary dogma of self-reliance (), in addition to Shen Hong's political maneuvering, all contributed to the creation of a relatively calm and favorable environment around Project NGI. Despite the widespread turmoil in the country, Shen managed to assemble a stable and continuously productive team, which executed experiments, absorbed previously introduced Soviet technologies, stayed informed about advanced European and American technologies
Scientific revolutions have occurred in an approximately 80 year periodicity since 1500. Economic depressions have occurred at an approximately 40-50 year periodicity since 1790, and the economic depressions are a result of the scientific revolutions. The field of cold fusion is a part of a scientific revolution in physics. Understanding cold fusion phenomena in the broader historical context is helpful for understanding the development of the field and the significance of the phenomena technologically and economically. This paper includes a short history of science and of the recent scientific revolution, and includes predictions about the economic consequences of the development of the paradigm. (author)
Waines, J. Giles; Ehdaie, Bahman
Background and Aims Most plant scientists, in contrast to animal scientists, study only half the organism, namely above-ground stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and neglect below-ground roots. Yet all acknowledge roots are important for anchorage, water and nutrient uptake, and presumably components of yield. This paper investigates the relationship between domestication, and the root systems of landraces, and the parents of early, mid- and late green-revolution bread wheat cultivars. It compares the root system of bread wheat and ‘Veery’-type wheat containing the 1RS translocation from rye. Methods Wheat germplasm was grown in large pots in sand culture in replicated experiments. This allowed roots to be washed free to study root characters. Key Results The three bread wheat parents of early green-revolution wheats have root biomass less than two-thirds the mean of some landrace wheats. Crossing early green-revolution wheat to an F2 of ‘Norin 10’ and ‘Brevor’, further reduced root biomass in mid-generation semi-dwarf and dwarf wheats. Later-generation semi-dwarf wheats show genetic variation for root biomass, but some exhibit further reduction in root size. This is so for some California and UK wheats. The wheat–rye translocation in ‘Kavkaz’ for the short arm of chromosome 1 (1RS) increased root biomass and branching in cultivars that contained it. Conclusions Root size of modern cultivars is small compared with that of landraces. Their root system may be too small for optimum uptake of water and nutrients and maximum grain yield. Optimum root size for grain yield has not been investigated in wheat or most crop plants. Use of 1RS and similar alien translocations may increase root biomass and grain yield significantly in irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Root characters may be integrated into components of yield analysis in wheat. Plant breeders may need to select directly for root characters. PMID:17940075
Waines, J Giles; Ehdaie, Bahman
Most plant scientists, in contrast to animal scientists, study only half the organism, namely above-ground stems, leaves, flowers and fruits, and neglect below-ground roots. Yet all acknowledge roots are important for anchorage, water and nutrient uptake, and presumably components of yield. This paper investigates the relationship between domestication, and the root systems of landraces, and the parents of early, mid- and late green-revolution bread wheat cultivars. It compares the root system of bread wheat and 'Veery'-type wheat containing the 1RS translocation from rye. Wheat germplasm was grown in large pots in sand culture in replicated experiments. This allowed roots to be washed free to study root characters. The three bread wheat parents of early green-revolution wheats have root biomass less than two-thirds the mean of some landrace wheats. Crossing early green-revolution wheat to an F(2) of 'Norin 10' and 'Brevor', further reduced root biomass in mid-generation semi-dwarf and dwarf wheats. Later-generation semi-dwarf wheats show genetic variation for root biomass, but some exhibit further reduction in root size. This is so for some California and UK wheats. The wheat-rye translocation in 'Kavkaz' for the short arm of chromosome 1 (1RS) increased root biomass and branching in cultivars that contained it. Root size of modern cultivars is small compared with that of landraces. Their root system may be too small for optimum uptake of water and nutrients and maximum grain yield. Optimum root size for grain yield has not been investigated in wheat or most crop plants. Use of 1RS and similar alien translocations may increase root biomass and grain yield significantly in irrigated and rain-fed conditions. Root characters may be integrated into components of yield analysis in wheat. Plant breeders may need to select directly for root characters.
Mays, S; Brickley, M; Ives, R
The rapid urbanization of the Industrial Revolution in 18th-19th century England presented new health challenges. Our aim is to investigate using English skeletal remains whether the living conditions for an urban working class group in the Industrial Revolution negatively impacted upon their skeletal growth compared with a population from a rural agrarian parish. The Industrial Revolution skeletal material is from St Martin's Churchyard, Birmingham (SMB), West Midlands. It dates primarily from the first half of the nineteenth century when Birmingham was a major manufacturing center. The rural group is from Wharram Percy (WP), North Yorkshire, and dates from 10th-19th century AD. The methodology involves plotting diaphyseal bone lengths versus dental age for subadults. No overall difference was found between the two populations in bone length-for-age among the 2- to 18-year cohort. However the younger parts of the SMB cohort were smaller than at WP; the opposite was true of the older parts of the cohort. Growth rate, as inferred from crosssectional data, appeared greater at SMB than at WP. The only result consistent with expectations is the larger bone dimensions in young children from WP, but this likely reflects prolonged breastfeeding at WP not differences in urban and rural environments. That the deleterious health effects that we know accompanied the major transition in human society from a rural agrarian to an urban industrialized living environment should be little manifest in skeletal endochondral growth data is discouraging for those who would use such methodology to monitor health in earlier populations. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Lefort, Hugues; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Tabbagh, Xavier; Lanoe, Vincent; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre
After the sanitary disaster caused by the first months of the conflict, the Health service of the French armies undertook a true revolution. By 1918, it had become the most efficient of all the opposing armies. At the end of 1914, through the spacing out of the evacuating hospitals within the zone of the armies, the most efficient teams were placed as close as possible to the front. Injured soldiers were categorized at every step of the chain. Technical progress, especially in war surgery, pushed medicine into the moderne era.
Full Text Available As all Albanians, people in Diber welcomed the new regime of the Young Turks. After Young Turks Revolution, the movement about the national Education, in the same way as the National Movement, achieved the highest level of development during Renaissance. However the success achieved from legal development of National Education in Albania, the widespread of Albanian language in different ways and the widespread of Albanian language school nets, which became home for the strengthening of National feelings, disturbed Young Turks a lot, which used every tool against them, from the exertion of religion feelings and intrigues, to the violence.
Gardner, Jonathan P.
Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the most important astronomical discoveries of the last IO years, and the role that space telescopes have played in those discoveries. The next decade looks equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. I will describe how Hubble was upgraded and how and why we are building Webb.
Full Text Available The dimension of biomolecules is of few nanometers, so the biomolecular devices ought to be of that range so a better understanding about the performance of the electronic biomolecular devices can be obtained at nanoscale. Development of optical biomolecular device is a new move towards revolution of nano-bioelectronics. Optical biosensor is one of such nano-biomolecular devices that has a potential to pave a new dimension of research and device fabrication in the field of optical and biomedical fields. This paper is a very small report about optical biosensor and its development and importance in various fields.
This 25th anniversary edition of Steven Levy's classic book traces the exploits of the computer revolution's original hackers -- those brilliant and eccentric nerds from the late 1950s through the early '80s who took risks, bent the rules, and pushed the world in a radical new direction. With updated material from noteworthy hackers such as Bill Gates, Mark Zuckerberg, Richard Stallman, and Steve Wozniak, Hackers is a fascinating story that begins in early computer research labs and leads to the first home computers. Levy profiles the imaginative brainiacs who found clever and unorthodox sol
Full Text Available – The Enduring Legacy. Oil, Culture and Society in Venezuela, by Miguel Tinker Salas. Durham/London: Duke University Press, 2009. – Rethinking Venezuelan Politics. Class, Conflict and the Chávez Phenomenon, by Steve Ellner. Boulder/London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2008. – Changing Venezuela by Taking Power. The History and Policies of the Chávez Government, by Gregory Wilpert. London/New York: Verso, 2007. – The Real Venezuela. Making Socialism in the 21st Century, by Iain Bruce. London: Pluto Press, 2008. – Democracy and Revolution. Latin America and Socialism Today, by D.L. Raby. London/Ann Arbor: Pluto Press, 2006.
This article explores Pat Parker's poem "Movement in Black." It examines the ways in which she emblematizes intersectionality and simultaneity as forms of revolution in struggles of self and society. It begins with a theoretical and historical apparatus to contextualize Parker as an artist and activist. Then it offers a literary analysis of the poem, focusing on themes of time and space, marginalization and movement, difference and power, visibility and invisibility, and history and memory. It argues that Parker uses autobiographical writing to fuse personal and political sites of resistance.
The world is at the dawn of a third industrial revolution, the digital revolution, that brings great changes the world over. Today, computing devices, the Internet, and the World Wide Web are vital technology tools that affect every aspect of everyday life and success. While computing technologies offer enormous benefits, there are equally enormous safety and security risks that have been growing exponentially since they became widely available to the public in 1994. Cybercriminals are increasingly implementing sophisticated and serious hack attacks and breaches upon our nation's government, financial institutions, organizations, communities, and private citizens. There is a great need for computer scientists to carry America's innovation and economic growth forward and for cybersecurity professionals to keep our nation safe from criminal hacking. In this digital age, computer science and cybersecurity are essential foundational ingredients of technological innovation, economic growth, and cybersecurity that span all industries. Yet, America's K-12 education institutions are not teaching the computer science and cybersecurity skills required to produce a technologically-savvy 21st century workforce. Education is the key to preparing students to enter the workforce and, therefore, American K-12 STEM education must be reformed to accommodate the teachings required in the digital age. Keywords: Cybersecurity Education, Cybersecurity Education Initiatives, Computer Science Education, Computer Science Education Initiatives, 21 st Century K-12 STEM Education Reform, 21st Century Digital Literacies, High-Tech Innovative Problem-Solving Skills, 21st Century Digital Workforce, Standardized Testing, Foreign Language and Culture Studies, Utica College, Professor Chris Riddell.
Antonio Eduardo de Oliveira
Full Text Available It is my main purpose to discuss in this paper three relevant topics concerned with Joseph Conrad's novel Under Western Eyes, namely: the author's view of revolution and anarchism and its relation with his Polish experience; how critical Conrad is of both autocracy and revolution and finally to discuss where in, the novel the writer is sympathetic to revolution. To begin with, let me mention some aspects of Conrad's Polish background. First of all, he was a Pole, born in the Russian-occupied Poland of 1857 as the son of one of the most spirited participants in the Polish National Comittee, and with a profound fear of Russian autocratic power in his blood. Politics, nationalism, the forces of imperialism and rebellion, were the first and deepest parts of his inheritance. Conrad's character was linked to the patriotic and nationalistic ardour of his father's nature, an idealist revolutionary, and to the conservatism of his uncle Tadeuz Bobrowski his guardian during youth. The duality of thought conditioned by Apollo Korzeniowski, the father, and Tadeuz Bobrowski made his character divided all his life long. The political approach in Under Western Eyes exemplifies the writer's duality of thought. In order to write this novel Conrad found uggestions in the writings of Russian novelists, mainly Dostoievsky's Crime and Punishment. Although the book fully justifies this assertion, the writer denies it and even affirmed in a letter to a friend that he had a "Russophobia", and that he did not like the works of the famous Russian writer. It is my main purpose to discuss in this paper three relevant topics concerned with Joseph Conrad's novel Under Western Eyes, namely: the author's view of revolution and anarchism and its relation with his Polish experience; how critical Conrad is of both autocracy and revolution and finally to discuss where in, the novel the writer is sympathetic to revolution. To begin with, let me mention some aspects of Conrad
terror arrests and executions against the Hungarian revolutionaries. In some instances young teens were sentenced with the death penalty to be executed on...in jeopardy. Leaders not wanting to offend their capable subordinates, not feeling sure of their understanding of the problem, focused elsewhere, or
provides an uncompleted view of Spanish diplomacy, using as sources just the monograph "Espana ante la Independencia de los Estados Unidos ", by Yela...Spanish colonies. Luis de Unzuaga, Governor of Louisiana ( 1770 -1777), and his successor, Bernardo de Galvez, would provide gunpowder, guns, and other...Spain, in 1746, and trained as a doctor. He served alongside Bernardo de Galvez in Spain’s military campaign at Algiers in the 1770s , and through him
Books translated into English which would be of great Service but none more so than the great Marechal Saxe ―who stalks a God in war.‖ Tis he who...ammunition based on range and target. Ball shot was the primary ammunition, but he did not describe the specific range for the use of ― grape shot...fired either round shot or grape fired in this manner, casualties were often heavy. The linear formations of the 18th century allowed for round shot
response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed , and completing and...matter of course, to be tenanted by rebels." 10 In most cases, British troops were conect in their assumptions. On a few occasions they were not. In...be considered against us." Those refusing to declare their allegiance, Cornwallis thought, needed "to be disarmed, and every measure taken to
per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching data sources, galhering and maintaining the data needed , and completing and... conect . One English historian wrote that America was "an anarchy of local autonomy," but that system suited the people .. Each colony had its own...fighting of the Seven Years War appalled the British ruling elite. Skyrocketing debt led the crown to levy painful taxes. Because the need for postwar
Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, techniques have transformed : shale deposits from marginal sources of hydrocarbon fuel into global game changers : in the production of oil and natural gas, Robert Henry saidand the ...
This paper gives a definition of the different existing unconventional gases (coal-bed methane, tight gases, shale gases), and outlines that, although these gases as well as the techniques to extract them have been well known for a long time, it is the combination of two of these techniques (hydraulic fracturing or fracking, and horizontal drilling) which enables the current technological development and the exploitation of these gases. It also outlines that the current situation in terms of natural resources favours such a development. It evokes projects in the United States, China, India, Europe, and more particularly in France, stressing that environmental issues and population density in Europe are obstacles to perform these drillings. The author questions the production cost issue and explains how these developments, notably in the USA, may change completely the world energetic landscape, and therefore entail a review of the European energy agenda. He explores the possible consequences of a durable decrease of gas prices
are those of the student author and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College or any other government...Carter United States Army School of Advanced Military Studies United States Army Command and General Staff College Fort Leavenworth, Kansas 2016...development of the anti-authoritarian narrative through the actions and sermons of the revivalists, coverage in the print media, music and the visual
Kennedy, Charles L.; DeKock, Paul
This simulation allows students to experience colonial America during the days from the closing of the French and Indian War until the Declaration of Independence. It is designed to help students gain a knowledge of the historical period, an appreciation of the many cross-pressures that colonial citizens were subjected to, and a feeling for the…
On June 19, 1771, the young, admired captain of the Regulators, Benjamin Merrill, and 11 of his compatriots were condemned to the gallows for high treason. But what heinous actions did these men commit? What reprehensible crime would constitute such a punishment? The answer lies in the failure of the Regulator Rebellion, a prolonged conflict in…
of hegemonic orders. Political theorist Robert Gilpin describes the history of hegemonic orders as “the evolution of any system. . . characterized...9 Ikenberry, 26. 10 Robert Gilpin , War and Change in World Politics, Reprint ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983), 42-43. 11 Gilpin ...Institute for International Economics, U.S., 2014. Gilpin , Robert . War & Change in World Politics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1981
Kousser, J. Morgan
Stanford University economic historian Gavin Wright's clear, accessible, and deeply researched book argues persuasively, first, that it was civil rights laws and federal court decisions from Brown v. Board of Education (1954) on that substantially enhanced the economic well-being of southern blacks after 1960. These improvements in black status, he demonstrates with both statistical evidence and qualitative case studies, would not have come about through the operation of mar...
prisoners and forcing the British to reinforce and area they thought they controlled.65 These militia groups grew larger and more emboldened after...British prisoners , Washington told him that he could not “answer for the militia who are resorting to Arms in most parts of the State, and exceedingly...the tension between punishing the colonists and welcoming them back into British rule prevented him from solving the hybrid warfare dilemmas posed
Increasing population, urbanisation and disposable incomes in developing countries are fuelling a strong growth in demand for animal food products, which in turn will have a strong impact on the location and organisation of global livestock production. Changes in the latter will in turn strongly impinge on animal and human health, the livelihoods of the poor and the environment. The consequences of these trends, termed the 'livestock revolution', are expected to dramatically change the face of animal agriculture in coming decades, including a major increase in the developing countries' share in world livestock production and consumption; a gradual substitution of cereals and other basic foods with meat and milk in the developing countries' diets; a change from multiple production objectives to more specialised intensive meat, milk and egg production within an integrated global food and feed market; a shift to more industrial production and processing; rising use of cereal-based animal feeds; and greater stress on fragile extensive pastoral areas and more pressure on land in areas with very high population densities and close to urban centres. Henning Steinfeld, an agricultural economist from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, reviews here trends associated with the 'Livestock Revolution' and predicted implications for animal health. The presentation was given in a plenary session at the 19th International Conference of the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) held in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA during 10-14 August 2003.
The centenary of the October Revolution in 1917 provides a timely opportunity to assess the legacies of that event. I examine the role of the revolution in public health with a focus on nursing, assessing the Imperial Russian health care system, the development of Soviet nursing, and current plans for nursing and public health care in Putin's Russia. Analyzing nursing shows that there was a great deal of continuity in terms of medical personnel and ideas on how public health care service in Russia should operate. Nursing illuminates some of the complexities of Soviet health care and ideology, particularly the state's desire to create a socialist form of nursing in theory, despite the strong links with the prerevolutionary past in the form of personnel. This situation changed after the collapse of the Soviet Union, when the new Russian state attempted to sever connections with the past, this time with the Soviet past. But as I show, making a clean break with the past is a difficult and often fraught process.
Tracy Ann P. Llanera
Full Text Available A Copernican revolution heralds a grand renovation of a tradition of knowledge. In science—the discipline from which the concept originates—it aptly connotes a paradigm shift from a previously accepted notion of reality. It is upon this conceptualization that John Dewey wrote: “Kant claimed that he had effected a Copernican revolution in philosophy by treating the world and our knowledge of it from the standpoint of the knowing subject.” For the Enlightenment thinker, traditional philosophy construed a rational system of nature and then borrowed from it the features by which to characterize knowledge. He argued that this “borrowing” of a rational system should not be credited to some outworldy power, but to human reason. Thus, his “revolution” was a shift from theological to human authorship and a placing of the locus of intellect in man as a knowing subject. Kant’s work created a new center in philosophy: that it is the mind that knows by means of an equipment of powers complete within itself and that it merely exercises its capabilities upon an antecedent external material equally complete in itself.
``The history of science, to my knowledge,'' wrote Thomas Kuhn, describing the years just prior to the development of matrix and wave mechanics, ``offers no equally clear, detailed, and cogent example of the creative functions of normal science and crisis.'' By 1924, most quantum theorists shared a sense that there was much wrong with all extant atomic models. Yet not all shared equally in the sense that the failure was either terribly surprising or particularly demoralizing. Not all agreed, that is, that a crisis for Bohr-like models was a crisis for quantum theory. This paper attempts to answer four questions: two about history, two about memory. First, which sub-groups of the quantum theoretical community saw themselves and their field in a state of crisis in the early 1920s? Second, why did they do so, and how was a sense of crisis related to their theoretical practices in physics? Third, do we regard the years before 1925 as a crisis because they were followed by the quantum mechanical revolution? And fourth, to reverse the last question, were we to call into the question the existence of a crisis (for some at least) does that make a subsequent revolution less revolutionary?
Cristian Paúl Naranjo Navas
Full Text Available On July 9th, 1925, a coup d’état overthrew the Ecuadorian government of the president Gonzalo S. Córdova. The Military Junta chose the new president, Dr. Isidro Ayora, who founded the Central Bank of Ecuador in 1927. The majority of historians emphasize the patriotic spirit of the military forces in order to eliminate the influence of private banks. Nonetheless, there is a less popular view of the Julian Revolution, which understands the coup d’état, and the foundation of the Central Bank of Ecuador, as the result of struggles between bankers due to controversies around currency emissions. The arguments behind the Julian Revolution were based on some economic facts. Even though real GDP did not decrease in any year from 1913 to 1927, there was a generalized perception of a critical economy due to the constant fluctuation in prices, the increasing of fiscal deficit, and the reduction of revenues from the trade balance. The economic crisis was a common factor in the urban areas, which represented less than half percent of the total population.
Full Text Available Paul Clark. The Chinese Cultural Revolution: A History. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008. 368 pp. $88 (cloth, $26 (paper.Paul Clark. Youth Culture in China: From Red Guards to Netizens. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2012. 294 pp. $90 (cloth, $30 (paper, $24 (ebook.To read the two most recent books by Paul Clark, renowned for his earlier contributions to the study of Chinese cinema, is to marvel both at his vast and enviable knowledge of the subject matter and at the vast and fast-changing landscape of modern and contemporary Chinese cultural experiences and expressions. It is to be constantly amazed by the dots that the cultural historian connects, by the different terrains that he leads us through, and by the expansive vistas that he brings into focus. Students interested in almost any aspect of modern and contemporary Chinese culture (from film to fiction to music to dance to bodybuilding will appreciate the wealth of materials and references contained in these two volumes. Similarly, scholars of the Cultural Revolution and the developments since will have much to think about and to address, because what Clark presents here is a richer and more complex narrative of recent Chinese cultural history than has heretofore been packaged or popularized. It is a narrative that underscores the continuing evolution of modern Chinese culture in the twentieth century and beyond.
Reardon, Thomas; Chen, Kevin Z; Minten, Bart; Adriano, Lourdes; Dao, The Anh; Wang, Jianying; Gupta, Sunipa Das
There is a rapid transformation afoot in the rice value chain in Asia. The upstream is changing quickly-farmers are undertaking capital-led intensification and participating in burgeoning markets for land rental, fertilizer and pesticides, irrigation water, and seed, and shifting from subsistence to small commercialized farms; in some areas landholdings are concentrating. Midstream, in wholesale and milling, there is a quiet revolution underway, with thousands of entrepreneurs investing in equipment, increasing scale, diversifying into higher quality, and the segments are undergoing consolidation and vertical coordination and integration. Mills, especially in China, are packaging and branding, and building agent networks in wholesale markets, and large mills are building direct relationships with supermarkets. The downstream retail segment is undergoing a "supermarket revolution," again with the lead in change in China. In most cases the government is not playing a direct role in the market, but enabling this transformation through infrastructural investment. The transformation appears to be improving food security for cities by reducing margins, offering lower consumer rice prices, and increasing quality and diversity of rice. This paper discusses findings derived from unique stacked surveys of all value chain segments in seven zones, more and less developed, around Bangladesh, China, India, and Vietnam. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Full Text Available Kuhn’s Structure of Scientific Revolutions is notable for the readiness with which it drew on the results of cognitive psychology. These naturalistic elements were not well received and Kuhn did not subsequently develop them in his pub- lished work. Nonetheless, in a philosophical climate more receptive to naturalism, we are able to give a more positive evaluation of Kuhn’s proposals. Recently, philosophers such as Nersessian, Nickles, Andersen, Barker, and Chen have used the results of work on case-based reasoning, analogical thinking, dynamic frames, and the like to illuminate and develop various aspects of Kuhn’s thought in Structure. In particular this work aims to give depth to the Kuhnian concepts of a paradigm and incommensurability. I review this work and identify two broad strands of research. One emphasizes work on concepts; the other focusses on cognitive habits. After contrasting these, I argue that the conceptual strand fails to be a complete account of scientific revolutions. We need a broad approach that draws on a variety of resources in psychology and cognitive science.
Petit, M. Loretta
Comparative education research and courses are needed to identify real revolutionary movements in the current cultural revolution in the United States. The presence of cultural revolution is indicated by, among other things, the development of microcultures. Intranational instead of cross-national studies are of importance in the next few years to…
...-AA00 Safety Zone; Revolution 3 Triathlon, Lake Erie & Sandusky Bay, Cedar Point, OH AGENCY: Coast Guard... portions of the Lake Erie during the Revolution 3 Cedar Point Triathlon. The temporary safety zone is... Statement of Energy Effects under Executive Order 13211. Technical Standards The National Technology...
Lazerson, Marvin; Wagener, Ursula; Shumanis, Nichole
This report examines the potential revolution in U.S. higher education public policies that require improved student learning. This revolution includes numerous teaching innovations activities that were initiated and sustained by external pressures and politically astute reformers. The report notes the criticism of U.S. elementary and secondary…
This paper provides a critical analysis of the Australian government's education revolution policy as promulgated in the media release document, "Quality Education: The Case for an Education Revolution in our Schools". It seeks to problematize the government's claim to marry quality and equity, via an analysis of the discursive…
In the final paragraph of his 1984 book "From knowledge to wisdom, a revolution in the aims and methods of science," the philosopher Nicholas Maxwell boldly declared that an intellectual revolution was underway in the aims and methods of science, and academic inquiry in general, from what he termed knowledge-inquiry to wisdom-inquiry.…
Specifications for ready-mixed concrete limit drum revolution and mixing time to 250 drum revolutions and/or : 1.5 hours before discharge. These specifications have been in place for many years with the objective of ensuring : the quality and perform...
This article demonstrates that the Cultural Revolution led to a temporary decline in educational homogamy in urban China, which was reversed when the Cultural Revolution ended. Previous studies on educational homogamy in China have paid incomplete attention to China's shifting institutional structures. This research applies institutional theory to…
H.J.M. Fenger (Menno)
textabstractAbstract The recent wave of revolutions or near-revolutions in Serbia, Georgia, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine shared the following characteristics: they were triggered by stolen elections, they were the result of massive but non-violent demonstrations, and the opposition united behind
This article regards Saussure's social, static and structural perspective and Chomsky's individual, generative and formal perspective as two revolutions in linguistics in the 20th century. A third revolution is already on the way. This is characterised by considering the individual's mental mechanisms in relation to the interplay between verbal…
Yu. V. Yakovets
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the prospects of development and standing science in the XXI century of the Russian science the leader of a new scientific revolution. This process is necessary to base synthesis of knowledge and achievements of three previous great scientific and technological revolutions: scientific, educational and informational.
Bacher, P. [Academie des Technologies, 75 - Paris (France)
Is the civilization of hydrogen on its way? This is what Jeremy Rifkin claims, who is announcing the 3. industrial revolution, based on electricity produced in an entirely decentralized manner from renewable energy and stored in the form of hydrogen produced by water electrolysis. This article analyses the three main 'pillars' of this industrial revolution and concludes that it is much more a matter of utopia than a 'vision'. (author)
Catanese, Anthony V.
Uses 1990 U.S. Census data to show the changing demographic profile of Haitian Americans. Haitian Americans are likely to live along the Atlantic seaboard and to have relatively low, although not the lowest, incomes. However, the demographic mosaic of Haitian Americans is diverse, showing the effects of Haitian national and ethnic history. (SLD)
Miller, Edward Alan; West, Darrell M
Despite the growing use of online resources, it is unclear how many Americans are using the World Wide Web for different health-related purposes and whether factors promoting use of the Internet in health care correspond with those affecting more traditional in-person and telemedicine encounters. This research uses a national public opinion survey to examine the degree to which health care consumers communicate through conventional, face-to-face consultation, telemedicine, or digital technology, and the relationship between these means of communication and respondent characteristics. Results indicate that few people are using digital technology to get information, communicate with health personnel, or make online medical purchases. Furthermore, less well educated, lower-income individuals living in rural areas tend to use the health care Internet less than others. Several policy measures need to be undertaken in order to accelerate the appropriate use of digital technology by health care consumers of all kinds. These include improving education and technological literacy and providing access to low-cost digital technology. Without a consumer complement to prevailing efforts to spur health information technology development and implementation on the part of providers, the promise of the digital revolution will continue to be limited to certain better-connected segments of the population.
Persson, Asha; Newman, Christy E; Mao, Limin; de Wit, John
With the expanding pharmaceuticalization of public health, anthropologists have begun to examine how biomedicine's promissory discourses of normalization and demarginalization give rise to new practices of and criteria for citizenship. Much of this work focuses on the biomedicine-citizenship nexus in less-developed, resource-poor contexts. But how do we understand this relationship in resource-rich settings where medicines are readily available, often affordable, and a highly commonplace response to illness? In particular, what does it mean to not use pharmaceuticals for a treatable infectious disease in this context? We are interested in these questions in relation to the recent push for early and universal treatment for HIV infection in Australia for the twin purposes of individual and community health. Drawing on Ecks's concept of pharmaceutical citizenship, we examine the implications for citizenship among people with HIV who refuse or delay recommended medication. We find that moral and normative expectations emerging in the new HIV "treatment revolution" have the capacity to both demarginalize and marginalize people with HIV. © 2016 by the American Anthropological Association.
This paper focuses on recent phenomena of touristic staging of the Cuban revolution, embedded in the peculiar situation of Cuba and its progressive establishment as an international tourist destination. It is shown how, by whom and for what reasons this staging occurs. Furthermore, opportunities and risks of this staging will be highlighted. The opening for international tourism during the 1990s aimed at attracting forex to Cuba, as after the decay of the USSR and the COMECON economic aid broke off. Today tourism, described as a "necessary evil" by Fidel Castro, is one of the most important sources of income for both, the Cuban state and its population. To fulfill the expectations of international tourists, which mainly consist of revolutionary symbols and personalities like Che Guevara on the one hand as well as colonial architecture falling to ruins and classic American cars on the other, many actors in Cuban tourism stage these symbols, narratives and practices. By doing so, they contribute to the creation of a distinctive place brand, both intentionally and unintentionally. The intentional dimension of this process aims at fulfilling the expectations of tourists by reproducing certain narratives. At the same time, the actors involved often have limited understanding for their impact on branding processes among tourists.
Luis Fernando Barón
Full Text Available Public opinion leaders and activists characterized the Egyptian “Arab Spring” of January 2011 as a “Facebook Revolution”. They highlight the intrinsic power of social media as an influencing factor for social change. Undeniably, social media played important roles in that revolution process. However, these roles cannot be disconnected from the socio-political contexts. This paper discusses the use of social media, particularly of Facebook, by the April 6th Youth Movement (A6YM, a decisive actor of the Egyptian protests. It is based on the analysis of two Egyptian newspapers and one American newspaper, between 2008 and 2011. We propose that a social media provided alternative mechanisms for political expression and organization, b social media contributed to the genesis and consolidation of the A6YM and to the establishment of youth political identities, and c the combination of “bits and streets” amplified not just the movement’s mobilization but the degree of opposition experienced by the Egyptian regime.
elsewhere, such as S.J. Shand (1933), E.B. Bailey (1939), and Arthur Holmes (1944), presented continental drift as a working hypothesis that could elegantly solve important geological problems. Americans were preconditioned to dislike continental drift theory, ever since James Dwight Dana taught in his Manual of Geology (1863...1895) that North America was the type continent of the world, and that it had stood alone since earliest time. Such beliefs sometimes trump geologic evidence. As noted by Stephen Jay Gould (1999) Sigmund Freud had much insight into the psychology of scientific revolutions: they involve a scientific development that shows humans to have lesser status than previously perceived. In the Copernican revolution (geocentrism vs. heliocentrism) humans no longer inhabited the center of the universe. In the Darwinian revolution (creationism vs. evolutionism) humans were no longer uniquely created. In the Wegenerian revolution (fixism vs. mobilism) North America was no longer uniquely created; it was just other fragment from Pangaea. North American geologists were pleased when Press & Siever gave them their own lithospheric plate. Being a global-tectonic killjoy, I would like to take away that small consolation as well. Or at least pose the question: Is there really a North American Plate?
Davis W. Houck
Full Text Available Despite the proliferation of interest in James Baldwin across popular culture and the academy, few, if any, critical studies of his public oratory have been conducted. This is unfortunate and ironic—unfortunate because Baldwin was a marvelous orator, and ironic in that his preferred solution to what ailed whites and blacks as the Civil Rights movement unfolded was thoroughly rhetorical. That is, Baldwin’s racial rhetorical revolution involved a re-valuing of the historical evidence used to keep blacks enslaved both mentally and physically across countless generations. Moreover, for Baldwin the act of naming functions to chain both whites and blacks to a version of American history psychologically damaging to both. Three speeches that Baldwin delivered in 1963 amid the crucible of civil rights protest illustrate these claims.
Revolutions can happen in different ways. About six years ago, a very particular type of revolution began in a cluster of rooms on the main campus of Gallaudet University. There, a handful of individuals began a "quiet revolution" guided by an overarching passionate mission to conduct groundbreaking science that would have widespread…
ÓSCAR M CHAVES
Full Text Available The scientific revolution probably began at 16th century with the heliocentric theory of the eminent astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus, but it was culminated with the masterful discoveries of Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton at 17th century who revealed that planet movements around the sun and other similar phenomena can be explained by simple mechanical laws of physics and astronomy. However, the origin, complexity and configuration of living beings remained in the mystery until 19th century, with the publication of "On the origin of species". In this essay I discuss the importance of the Darwinian scientific revolution, its beginnings, and the main objections of creationists to his evolutionary ideas. Darwin demonstrated that the origin and complexity of living beings can be explained by natural processes, without the intervention of a supernatural being. However, the beginnings of the Darwinian revolution were particularly difficult and 128 years after his death, the controversy between evolutionists and creationists still persists.Con base en la teoría heliocéntrica formulada por Nicolás Copérnico en el siglo XVI, Galileo Galilei e Isaac Newton iniciaron la revolución científica al demostrar que los movimientos de los planetas alrededor del sol podían ser explicados por las leyes de la física y la astronomía. No obstante, el origen y complejidad del mundo orgánico permaneció en el misterio hasta mediados del siglo XIX, cuando Charles Darwin publicó su célebre obra 'El origen de las especies'. Desde entonces, la selección natural se ha convertido en una de las teorías científicas más umversalmente aceptadas y Darwin en el fundador de la biología moderna. En este ensayo se discute la importancia de la revolución darwiniana, sus inicios y las principales objeciones de sus detractores. Darwin demostró que el origen y la complejidad de los seres vivos pueden ser explicados por procesos naturales sin necesidad de la intervenci
Anatolii M. Malivskyi
Full Text Available The purpose is to reveal and comprehend forms of influence metaphysical' revolution for a way of interpretation of the anthropological project by Descartes on the basis of investigations of modern dekartes's researchers, that is the recognition of a fundamental role of metaphysics. Methodology. As methodological base modern investigations of dekartes's researchers accenting a fundamental role of metaphysics and expediency of unbiassed judgment of heritage of the great thinker are used. The scientific novelty. The transformation of the anthropological project is outlined as manifestation of metaphysical revolution. It is about a transcendencecy of naive anthropology (as an embodiment of reductive mindset, that is interpretations of human nature as its corporality and transition to metaphysical anthropology which consists in upholding of unconditional priority of human thinking as associated with God. As result of transition concentration of attention on intense human nature, that is at tension between sensuality and intelligence, aspiration to truth and tendency to delusion, between Life and Nothing, etc. Conclusions. The appeal to the incomplete anthropological project of Descartes on the basis of innovative researches allows proving the thesis about influence of metaphysical revolution on a way of its interpretation. The main forms of oriented to science ideals of naive anthropology, trust in evidence of the senses, atheism, interpretation of science as the main form of detection rationality of human nature, which Descartes tends constructively to overcome in the text of "meditation", are highlighted. During creation of metaphysical anthropology the attention of the thinker is drawn by the fact of impossibility of comprehension of human nature by means of natural-science rationality and expediency of the appeal to metaphysics. The subject of attention of the thinker is the tension between sensuality and intelligence, need
Subbiondo, Joseph L.
This article discusses the emergence of a "postsecular age" in American higher education: an age in which the academic study and practice of spirituality is alive and well. This emerging age stands in contrast to the centuries-old secular age with its origins in the empirical revolution of seventeenth-century Europe. In the secular age,…
Fink, Edward J.
Opines that the study of video production is important in better understanding the aural/visual aspects of television, especially since television production is undergoing a digital revolution. Assesses the impact of new technologies by examining a "cutting-edge" program, "American Gothic." Finds that digital technology offers…
Lamont, Sarah; Collet, Bruce
The aftermath of 9/11 and the current surge of revolutions in North Africa and the Middle East have caused Muslim Americans to be either demonized or forgotten altogether, despite the significance of their everyday navigation of both Islamic and democratic values and unique efforts toward identity construction. The neglect of the Muslim American…
Xiao, Zhiwen; Mehrotra, Purnima; Zimmerman, Rick
China is undergoing rapid changes in sexual mores due to several reasons such as decreasing control of the state over private lives of individuals, globalization of its economy, and some policies initiated by the state. There is increased acceptance of premarital sex and extramarital sex in China, especially among youth. In historically conservative China, influenced by Confucian ideals of patriarchal dominance for centuries, the sexual freedom currently enjoyed by many is unprecedented. This has impacted women's status and sexual lives in several positive ways such as increasing freedom of sexual expression, control over their bodies, sexual choices, and increasing equality with men in all spheres of life. However several negative consequences such as a rise in STD/HIV prevalence, commercial sex, and divorce rates have also been attributed to the ongoing sexual revolution in China. Recommendations combating these and suggestions for directions in future research are discussed.
Arya, Harinder; Kaul, Zeenia; Wadhwa, Renu; Taira, Kazunari; Hirano, Takashi; Kaul, Sunil C.
Visual analysis of biomolecules is an integral avenue of basic and applied biological research. It has been widely carried out by tagging of nucleotides and proteins with traditional fluorophores that are limited in their application by features such as photobleaching, spectral overlaps, and operational difficulties. Quantum dots (QDs) are emerging as a superior alternative and are poised to change the world of bio-imaging and further its applications in basic and applied biology. The interdisciplinary field of nanobiotechnology is experiencing a revolution and QDs as an enabling technology have become a harbinger of this hybrid field. Within a decade, research on QDs has evolved from being a pure science subject to the one with high-end commercial applications
Wray, K. Brad
This paper argues that the field of chemistry underwent a significant change of theory in the early twentieth century, when atomic number replaced atomic weight as the principle for ordering and identifying the chemical elements. It is a classic case of a Kuhnian revolution. In the process...... of addressing anomalies, chemists who were trained to see elements as defined by their atomic weight discovered that their theoretical assumptions were impediments to understanding the chemical world. The only way to normalize the anomalies was to introduce new concepts, and a new conceptual understanding...... of what it is to be an element. In the process of making these changes, a new scientific lexicon emerged, one that took atomic number to be the defining feature of a chemical element....
A shell-of-revolution model was developed to analyze impact problems associated with the safety analysis of nuclear material shipping containers. The nonlinear shell theory presented by Eric Reissner in 1972 was used to develop our model. Reissner's approach includes transverse shear deformation and moments turning about the middle surface normal. With these features, this approach is valid for both thin and thick shells. His theory is formulated in terms of strain and stress resultants that refer to the undeformed geometry. This nonlinear shell model is developed using the virtual work principle associated with Reissner's equilibrium equations. First, the virtual work principle is modified for incremental loading; then it is linearized by assuming that the nonlinear portions of the strains are known. By iteration, equilibrium is then approximated for each increment. A benefit of this approach is that this iteration process makes it possible to use nonlinear material properties. (orig.)
Full Text Available This text is the conference, by Irene Viparelli in the Karl Marx Congress that happened in November, 2008 at Nova Lisboa University. The author examines the theoretical elaboration of Marx in the highlights of the historical events occurred between 1848 and 1851, specially the relation between crisis and revolution. The purpose of the publishing is to claim the marxism as a social and knowledge theory alive and present, because it’s historical. As development in thinking of the whole conflicts that the humanity lives in the social formations of the living way, the marxism contributes for the qualified debate of the current crisis of the capitalism and it constitutes a subsidy for the social practices that allow its improvement, the socialism.
Full Text Available Human history presents changes in various forms. These do not, however, keep up the same pace. There have been times of rapid changes and there have been times of relative stability. From ancient times to the modern world, the pace of the changes signalled in history has been relatively slow. Since the industrial revolution, however, this pace has become increasingly more intense. The mutations that have been produced have completely changed the structures of industrial production. Over the last decades, these changes and their pace of implementation have been accelerated to such an extent that they have changed the way in which we perceive the world. This article highlights the determining factors and follows the stages in the development of the great global economic powers and their fight for supremacy in the global economic equation.
A global shortage of helium gas can seriously jeopardise the scientific programmes of neutron scattering laboratories due to the use of cryogenic sample environment in the majority of the neutron scattering experiments. Recently developed cryogen-free technology allows a significant reduction or even a complete elimination of liquid helium consumption. Here we review the impact of the cryogen-free revolution on cryogenic equipment used at large neutron facilities, such as cryostats, dilution refrigerators, superconducting magnets and other cryogenic systems. Particular attention is given to the newly developed superconducting magnets for neutron diffraction and spectroscopy experiments. Use of the cryogen-free approach, as well as cutting-edge superconducting magnet technology and advanced neutron optics allows researcher to achieve extraordinary performance in their experiments, opening up new opportunities in neutron scattering research.
Children's hospitals are vastly different today from fifty years ago. Although there have been dramatic changes in treatment and environment, the biggest contrast for patients is the involvement of parents and family in the nursing and care of the children. This change is largely due to the work of two men from Great Britain, Dr John Bowlby and James Robertson, whose research findings changed the way children were nursed to include consideration of their psychological alongside physical needs. This caused a revolution in the nursing of children that spread throughout Australasia. Bowlby and Robertson's work is largely forgotten now, but it forms the basis for the current policy of nursing children within the context of the family. This paper includes excerpts from an Australian oral history collection of twenty-six narratives from former child patients, parents and nurses and the personal papers of Dr Bowlby.
Who are we, and how do we relate to each other? Luciano Floridi, one of the leading figures in contemporary philosophy, argues that the explosive developments in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) is changing the answer to these fundamental human questions. As the boundaries between life online and offline break down, and we become seamlessly connected to each other and surrounded by smart, responsive objects, we are all becoming integrated into an ". Personas we adopt in social media, for example, feed into our 'real' lives so that we begin to live, as Floridi puts in, ". Following those led by Copernicus, Darwin, and Freud, this metaphysical shift represents nothing less than a fourth revolution. " defines more and more of our daily activity - the way we shop, work, learn, care for our health, entertain ourselves, conduct our relationships; the way we interact with the worlds of law, finance, and politics; even the way we conduct war. In every department of life, ICTs have become environmenta...
Full Text Available The Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela has built mass organizations of workers and communities that have erratically challenged class and market relations—verifying that taking political power is difficult but essential to fundamental social change and that capitalist cultural practices complicate the revolutionary process. This work identifies components of state power, separating state apparatus (government as a crucial site for instituting social change. The case of democratic, participatory communication and public media access is presented as central to the successes and problems of Venezuelan 21st century socialism. Drawing on field research in community media in Caracas, the essay highlights some of the politico-cultural challenges and class contradictions in producing and distributing cultural values and social practices for a new socialist hegemony necessary for fundamental social change.
Wallace, P. M.
``When a white-robed scientist, momentarily looking away from his microscope or cyclotron [or telescope], makes some pronouncement for the general public, he may not be understood but at least he is certain to be believed.'' The truth of this opening sentence of Anthony Standen's 1950 book Science is a Sacred Cow, as clear today as it was then, is the motivation for a new astronomy course at Berry College near Atlanta, GA, USA. To non-scientists, science is known by its products, not by what it is: a human progress. For this illiteracy an antidote is offered: the history of astronomy. In this course the story of the Copernican Revolution is told, for within this story the true nature of science can be found in its fullness. For example, Aristotle's uniform circular motion is used to emphasize the role of assumptions, and the occasional value of wrong ideas is evident in Tycho's theory and in Kepler's universe of perfect solids. Tycho's observations of Mars and Kepler's analysis illustrate the interplay of observation, theory, and technology. As a final example, the indirectness and often-unintentional nature of scientific advance can be seen in the work of Copernicus. The roles of personality and the intersections of science and society are themes throughout the course, as are the merging of disparate fields and the power of strong theories. There are other themes (e.g., coherence, the role of mathematics), but the emphasis is on the science and much of the work is quantitative. There is a laboratory component that features observations and experiments, and in order to bring the narrative to life the class spends two weeks in Poland, the Czech Republic, and Italy, touring sites that are relevant to the story of the Copernican Revolution.
Würschum, Tobias; Langer, Simon M; Longin, C Friedrich H; Tucker, Matthew R; Leiser, Willmar L
Increases in the yield of wheat during the Green Revolution of the late 20 th century were achieved through the introduction of Reduced height (Rht) dwarfing genes. The Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 loci ensured short stature by limiting the response to the growth-promoting hormone gibberellin, and are now widespread through international breeding programs. Despite this advantage, interference with the plant's response to gibberellin also triggers adverse effects for a range of important agronomic traits, and consequently modern Green Revolution genes are urgently required. In this study, we revisited the genetic control of wheat height using an association mapping approach and a large panel of 1110 worldwide winter wheat cultivars. This led to the identification of a major Rht locus on chromosome 6A, Rht24, which substantially reduces plant height alone as well as in combination with Rht-1b alleles. Remarkably, behind Rht-D1, Rht24 was the second most important locus for reduced height, explaining 15.0% of the genotypic variance and exerting an allele substitution effect of -8.8 cm. Unlike the two Rht-1b alleles, plants carrying Rht24 remain sensitive to gibberellic acid treatment. Rht24 appears in breeding programs from all countries of origin investigated, with increased frequency over the last decades, indicating that wheat breeders have actively selected for this locus. Taken together, this study reveals Rht24 as an important Rht gene of commercial relevance in worldwide wheat breeding. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Markus, Hazel Rose
U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream. Yet it is a less good characterization of the selves of the majority of Americans who are working-class and/or people of color. A cultural psychological approach reveals that much of North American psychology is still grounded in an independent model of the self and, as such, neglects social contexts and the psychologies of a majority of Americans. Given the prominence of independence in American ideas and institutions, the interdependent tendencies that arise from intersections of national culture with social class, race, and ethnicity go unrecognized and are often misunderstood and stigmatized. This unseen clash of independence and interdependence is a significant factor in many challenges, including those of education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and political polarization.
Full Text Available This paper places America's “war on drugs” in perspective in order to develop a new metaphor for control of drug misuse. A brief and focused history of America's experience with substance use and substance use policy over the past several hundred years provides background and a framework to compare the current Pharmacological Revolution with America's Nineteenth Century Industrial Revolution. The paper concludes with cautions about growing challenges and provides suggestions for navigating this revolution and reducing its negative impact on individuals and society.
After the Iranian Islamic Revolution in 1979, Islamic jurists have played an important role in the political arena of the new establishment. This paper aimed to describe changes in the Shī'ite jurisprudence academia in contemporary Iran, especially after the revolution. Thus I focused on owze-ye 'Elmīye (Shī'ite learning institution) in Qom before and after the revolution. Then I figured out the changes in the educational aspect and the administrative aspect. In addition, I tried to reveal a ...
millennial task. As a consequence. political theorists and statesmen re- placed clergymen as the leaders of American thought, and politics supplanted...nor buy and sell land. They %%ere barred from the practice of law and such other professions as teaching. For any act of opposition. they felt the pain...of 22 THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION Loyalist property probably produced little economic levelling-because only the Revolutionary elite had the funds to buy
The Chinese Communist revolution and the Korean War turned U.S.-China commercial relations into a political issue inseparable from the question of diplomatic recognition. The American business community supported the U.S. policy of trade embargo. After some American allies relaxed the China trade control system in 1957, many business people asked for a reexamination of the embargo policy. Their effort failed to achieve concrete change, for they could not overcome the strong opposition from th...
This presentation features materials for teaching about the Mexican Revolution: 1910-1940. The presentation is divided into four broad sections. The first section, "Why Teach the Mexican Revolution?" furnishes a rationale for teaching a course about a revolution that took place much closer to home than the Russian or Chinese Revolutions.…
Fanning, David J.
Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofiev: Cantata for the 20th Anniversary of the October Revolution, Op. 74 a. The Tale of the Stone Flower - experts. Philharmonia Chorus and Orchestra / Neeme Järvi" Chandos ABTD 1597; CHAN9095 (75 minutes:DDD)
Full Text Available Should recent events in North Africa and the Middle East be considered as uprisings or revolutions? Coombs' theoretical commentary unpacks the subjective core of the matter by way of an extrapolation on the thought of Alain Badiou.
Aziz, Jonathan D.; Parker, Jeffrey S.; Scheeres, Daniel J.; Englander, Jacob A.
Low-thrust trajectories about planetary bodies characteristically span a high count of orbital revolutions. Directing the thrust vector over many revolutions presents a challenging optimization problem for any conventional strategy. This paper demonstrates the tractability of low-thrust trajectory optimization about planetary bodies by applying a Sundman transformation to change the independent variable of the spacecraft equations of motion to an orbit angle and performing the optimization with differential dynamic programming. Fuel-optimal geocentric transfers are computed with the transfer duration extended up to 2000 revolutions. The flexibility of the approach to higher fidelity dynamics is shown with Earth's J 2 perturbation and lunar gravity included for a 500 revolution transfer.
We estimate the trend in average height of the population of the French province Orleans from 1715 to the beginning of the 19th century using data on recruits who were drafted either through a lottery system or through general conscription. After controlling for age, residence, and occupation, we find a general decline in the biological standard of living in the decades before the French Revolution. The results support a Ricardian-Malthusian interpretation of the causes of the French Revolution. In the debate 'Revolution de la misère ou de la prospérité' our findings support the side which argues that the French Revolution was a culmination of a long-lasting economic malaise during the final phases of the Ancien Régime. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Harten, Hans Christian
Contends that education was an important instrument of social change during the French Revolution. Argues that education became a way to speed up social modernization and, at the same time, hide the contradictions of modernization. (CFR)
.... This monograph uses ideas suggested in Thomas Kuhn's book, The Structure of Scientific Revolution, to examine the forces that impelled doctrinal change, the manner in which change occurred, and the consequences...
.... This monograph uses ideas suggested in Thomas Kuhn's book, The Structure of Scientific Revolution, to examine the forces that impelled doctrinal change, the manner in which change occurred, and the consequences...
Marcum, James A
This new edition of Thomas Kuhn's Revolution marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of Kuhn's most influential work. Drawing on the rich archival sources at MIT, and engaging fully with current scholarship, James Marcum provides the historical background to the development of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Exploring the shift Kuhn makes from a historical to an evolutionary philosophy of science and examining Kuhn's legacy in depth, Marcum answers key questions: What exactly was Kuhn's historiographic revolution and how did it come about? Why did it have the impact it did? What will its future impact be for both academia and society? Marcum's answers build a new portrait of Kuhn: his personality, his pedagogical style and the intellectual and social context in which he practiced his trade. Thomas Kuhn's Revolution shows how Kuhn transcends the boundaries of the philosophy of science, influencing sociologists, economists, theologians and even policy makers and politicians. This is a comprehensi...
Trudeau, Richard J
How unique and definitive is Euclidean geometry in describing the "real" space in which we live? Richard Trudeau confronts the fundamental question of truth and its representation through mathematical models in The Non-Euclidean Revolution. First, the author analyzes geometry in its historical and philosophical setting; second, he examines a revolution every bit as significant as the Copernican revolution in astronomy and the Darwinian revolution in biology; third, on the most speculative level, he questions the possibility of absolute knowledge of the world. Trudeau writes in a lively, entertaining, and highly accessible style. His book provides one of the most stimulating and personal presentations of a struggle with the nature of truth in mathematics and the physical world. A portion of the book won the Pólya Prize, a distinguished award from the Mathematical Association of America.
Some reflections concerning the role of Communist Party in the development of sciences and arts in the Soviet Union, following from the book by Leonid Dobronravov (Donitch)(Russian Revolution) and writings by Gennady Gorelik are given.
Since 1987 [1,2,3,4,5] the global jet engine community is facing the historical fact that jet engine steering is gradually replacing canards and the common, often dangerous and obsolete, aerodynamic-only flight control - a fact that (i) has already affected the defense-industrial complex in the US, Russia, China, Japan, S-Korea and India, (ii) has integrated the traditional jet-engine components R&D with advanced aero-electro-physics, stealth technology, thrust vectoring aerodynamics and material science. Moreover, this military revolution is historically due to expand into the civil transport jets domain, [6,7,8,9]. The historical aim of the JES-Revolution remains the same: Replace the common, stall-spin sensitive canards  and Aerodynamic-Only-Obsolete-Flight Control ("AOOF Control"). Invented about 100 years ago for propeller-driven air vehicles, it has already been partially replaced for failure to function in WVR-combat post-stall domain, and for the following reasons: In comparison with complete Tail-Less, Canard-Less, Stealth-JES (Figure 5 and References [1,2,3,4,5,6]), the common AOOF Control increases drag, weight, fuel consumption, complexity, cost, and reduces flight safety, stealth, [Low Detectability] and provides zero post-stall, WVR air combat capability while its CANARDS KILL LD & REDUCE JES. Examples of stealth fighter aircraft that have already replaced canards and AOOF-Control where JES provides at least 64 to 0 KILL-RATIO advantage over AOOF-Controlled conventional fighter aircraft: The U.S. JES F-22 and, apparently, the Russian JES-Su-T-50 & 35S, China 2016-J-31, Indian HAL AMCA & FGFA, Japanese JES IHHI ATD-X, S-Korean JES KF-X. Cf. X-44 in Figure 5. Consequently, the jet engine is no longer defined as providing only brute force forward. Instead, it successfully competes with and wins over the wrong, dominating AOOF-Control, at least as a backup flight control whose sole factual domain is currently a well-established, primary flight
The idea for this research was given by the Finnish record and entertainment company ACE Revolutions. The young company is planning to expand its services and products into the German market via the Internet. With the help of Social Medias ACE Revolutions wants to create a virtual platform that allows the interaction between the company and its customers and prospects. The objective of this research is to identify and analyze the most suitable Social Media platform for the record company in o...
A Catalyst for Ideas Distributed via Email and Posted at www.fpri.org July 2011 RUSSIA’S ANXIETIES ABOUT THE ARAB REVOLUTION By Stephen...necessarily represent those of the US Army, Defense Department, or the U.S. Government. By June 2011, the Arab revolutions had evolved into a...reformers. Thus, President Dmitry Medvedev said, in March 2011: Look at the current situation in the Middle East and the Arab world. It is extremely
This article aims to investigate the relationship between education, class struggle and revolution based on Manifesto and the "historical texts" of Marx on the 1848 revolution. Initially, some confrontation will be shown fruitful by illuminating the basic features of the theoretical Marxian: rejecting both "objectivist" and "subjectivist" interpretations. Marx’s theory of history turns out to be founded on two different times - linear and cyclical. These define a dialectical relat...
We all want to change the world The Beatles sing in their song revolution. To change the world is what the world leaders have decided by the goal of limiting the rise in temperature to two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. This has shown to be expensive and one way of financing the revolution is Green Bonds. Green Bonds are used to finance “green” projects that help mitigate climate change and help countries adapt ...
Collins, Jeffery D.; Volakis, John L.
Progress on the development and implementation of hybrid finite element methods for scattering by bodies of revolution are described. It was found that earlier finite element-boundary integral formulations suffered from convergence difficulties when applied to large and thin bodies of revolution. An alternative implementation is described where the finite element method is terminated with an absorbing termination boundary. In addition, an alternative finite element-boundary integral implementation is discussed for improving the convergence of the original code.
Von Nordheim, Alex
This dissertation seeks to offer an explanation for the Islamic Revolution, taking into account not only the social, political, and economic conditions of the time, but also religious and cultural elements. It seeks to determine the origins of the trends it identifies as important to an understanding of the causes of the Islamic Revolution. These include the rise of nationalism, Iran’s exploitation by foreign powers, and the assertive posture of the Shi’a ulama.
Is the civilization of hydrogen on its way? This is what Jeremy Rifkin claims, who is announcing the 3. industrial revolution, based on electricity produced in an entirely decentralized manner from renewable energy and stored in the form of hydrogen produced by water electrolysis. This article analyses the three main 'pillars' of this industrial revolution and concludes that it is much more a matter of utopia than a 'vision'. (author)
van Dongen, Jeroen
Albert Einstein accepted a "special" visiting professorship at the University of Leiden in the Netherlands in February 1920. Although his appointment should have been a mere formality, it took until October of that year before Einstein could occupy his special chair. Why the delay? The explanation involves a case of mistaken identity with Carl Einstein, Dadaist art, and a particular Dutch fear of revolutions. But what revolutions was one afraid of? The story of Einstein’s Leiden chair throws ...
Li, Chengzhi; Zhang, Dehui; Hu, Danian
This article discusses why Chinese space programs were able to develop to the extent they did during the turbulent decade of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). It first introduces briefly what China had accomplished in rocket and missile technology before the Cultural Revolution, including the establishment of a system for research and manufacturing, breakthroughs in rocket technology, and programs for future development. It then analyzes the harmful impacts of the Cultural Revolution on Chinese space programs by examining activities of contemporary mass factions in the Seventh Ministry of Machinery Industry. In the third section, this article presents the important developments of Chinese space programs during the Cultural Revolution and explores briefly the significance of these developments for the future and overall progress in space technology. Finally, it discusses the reasons for the series of developments of Chinese space technology during the Cultural Revolution. This article concludes that, although the Cultural Revolution generated certain harmful impacts on the development of Chinese space technology, the Chinese essentially accomplished their scheduled objectives in their space program, both because of the great support of top Chinese leaders, including the officially disgraced Lin Biao and the Gang of Four, and due to the implementation of many effective special measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
For centuries medicine was predominantly a tradition-based "trade" until the introduction of science transformed it into an intellectually rigorous discipline. That transformation contributed heavily to the dominance in medical education of the learning of biomedical concepts ("knowing that") over learning how to translate that knowledge into clinical performance ("knowing how"). The recent emergence of performance-oriented educational initiatives suggests, however, that the balance between these two complementary approaches is changing, a change that has been referred to as "the Flexnerian revolution of the 21(st) century." Problem-based learning, learning the practice of evidence-based medicine, and learning to use clinical guidelines are among the important initiatives designed to develop high-level performance in the care of individual patients. Initiatives in which learners acquire skill in changing the performance of care systems are also being widely implemented. These trends have received important formal support through recent changes in residency training accreditation standards. Although it is too early to assess the impact of these initiatives or to know whether they will develop further, medical education is unlikely to reach its full potential unless it successfully comes to grips with the challenges of understanding, teaching, and measuring performance.
Full Text Available Our aim in this paper is to give reasons for thinking that Badioursquo;s philosophy is not prepared to follow through all the consequences of the historical retreat of the political event. We want to suggest that it is important to come to terms with the implications of this retreat as no less a revolutionary aspect of the revolution. Whereas fidelity to the event demands that we not be selective in following the consequences of an event, fidelity to the eventrsquo;s retreat points to a more direct relation of philosophy to the event than Badiou allows. In the first section of our paper we outline the philosophical orientation that informs our encounter with Badioursquo;s thought. In the second we examine the relationship between philosophy and the political event in order to set the context for the elaboration of our claim in the third section that fidelity to the event calls for attention not only to the demands of its emergence but also to those associated with the eventrsquo;s retreat. In the final section we indicate how the retreat of the political event might give rise to the philosophical subject and to the requirements of a philosophy of the event.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cooperation is of utmost importance to society as a whole, but is often challenged by individual self-interests. While game theory has studied this problem extensively, there is little work on interactions within and across groups with different preferences or beliefs. Yet, people from different social or cultural backgrounds often meet and interact. This can yield conflict, since behavior that is considered cooperative by one population might be perceived as non-cooperative from the viewpoint of another. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To understand the dynamics and outcome of the competitive interactions within and between groups, we study game-dynamical replicator equations for multiple populations with incompatible interests and different power (be this due to different population sizes, material resources, social capital, or other factors. These equations allow us to address various important questions: For example, can cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma be promoted, when two interacting groups have different preferences? Under what conditions can costly punishment, or other mechanisms, foster the evolution of norms? When does cooperation fail, leading to antagonistic behavior, conflict, or even revolutions? And what incentives are needed to reach peaceful agreements between groups with conflicting interests? CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our detailed quantitative analysis reveals a large variety of interesting results, which are relevant for society, law and economics, and have implications for the evolution of language and culture as well.
The 'Casing Drilling' technology, patented by Tesco, which allows operators to simultaneously drill, case and evaluate oil and gas wells, is described. The system is claimed to substantially reduce the amount of lost circulation, loss of well control and bore hole instability problems that have been documented to account for about 25 per cent of total rig time on a well, and at least $4 billion (or 10 per cent of the $40 billion annual global drilling tab) spent on 'unscheduled events' associated with tripping drill pipe. With the Casing Drilling process, wells are drilled using standard oilfield casing instead of drill pipe. The host of downhole problems associated with tripping in and out of the hole are avoided, as the casing pipe is never removed. Instead, drill bits and other downhole tools are tripped through the casing with wireline at a rate of about 500 ft per minute, drastically reducing tripping time. Tesco also developed the portable top drive, the manufacture and rental of which constitutes a large part of the company's business, besides helping technologically to make Casing Drilling possible. Much of the company's success is attributed to the tenacity and zest for innovative approaches of the company's CEO, Bob Tessari, who is largely responsible for the company finding itself at the centre of a drilling technology revolution.
After the suppression of medical education during the French revolution in 1793, the lack of caregivers is dramatic, especially in the army. The medical education is therefore rehabilitated in 1794 in 3 (then 6) Health Schools, which will become Schools of Medicine and Faculties of Medicine, incorporated in 1808 into then Imperial University. During 3 years, the courses are theoretical and also based on a practical teaching on the patient. The defense of a thesis provides access to the title of doctor in medicine or surgery and allows practicing for all the pathologies on the entire territory of the Empire. Meanwhile, medical courses are given in military hospitals to train officers of health. They are dedicated for the service of the army and for minor diseases in rural areas. They are authorized to practice only in the department in which they were received. The inspectors general provide medical education directly in the military medical structures and conduct examinations about medical care. This type of career is illustrated by the biography of Surgeon Major François Augustin Legaÿ.
Vieillard-Baron, Antoine; Slama, Michel; Cholley, Bernard; Janvier, Gérard; Vignon, Philippe
Over recent decades, echocardiography has become a pivotal diagnostic tool for the assessment of patients with hemodynamic compromise in general intensive care units (ICUs). In addition to its imaging capability, echocardiography provides a detailed cardiovascular assessment, based on the combination of real-time two-dimensional evaluation of cardiac structure and function and hemodynamic information provided by Doppler measurement of blood flow velocity. However, despite its ease of use, portability and accuracy, the diffusion of echocardiography among ICUs has been limited by various factors. We discuss here the main reasons for the slow acceptance by the critical care community of echocardiography as a first-line diagnostic tool for the evaluation of hemodynamically unstable patients. One of these reasons is probably the absence, in most countries, of a training program in echocardiography specifically dedicated to intensivists. We report recent French experience in the organization of specific echocardiographic certification aimed at intensivists and anesthesiologists. We strongly believe that a broader use of echocardiography would be beneficial in terms of diagnostic capability and patient management. Therefore, we would like to involve colleagues from other countries and the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine in defining the objectives of echocardiography training for intensivists and in organizing postgraduate courses and training programs aimed at developing the use of echocardiography in ICUs. This would allow the current "evolution" in mentalities to become a true "revolution" in our daily practice.
Takezono, S.; Tao, K.
The authors study the large deflection elasto/visco-plastic dynamic response of shells of revolution to strong blast loads, where the viscosity of the material is considered in the plastic range. The equations of motion and the relations between the strain and the displacement are derived from the Sanders nonlinear theory for thin shells. The constitutive relation for shell response is linear elastic, visco-plastic. In the linear elastic range Hooke's law is used. In the plastic range the elasto/visco-plastic equations by Fyfe based on the model developed by Perzyna are employed. The criterion for yielding used in this analysis is the von Mises yield theory. The numerical method selected for integration of the equations of motion is a method using finite difference in both space and time. The differential equations are written in finite difference form on the basis of the parabola method. For the time integration of the equations of motion the second-order finite difference in time is used. The equations of motion are thus expressed in finite difference form if we divide the shell into segments along meridional length and around the circumference. Resultant forces and resultant moments are given from numerical integration by Simpson's 1/3 rule. The loadings which are considered in this paper may be either impulsive or of finite time duration. (Auth.)
Gardner, Jonathan P.
Astronomy is going through a scientific revolution, responding to a flood of data from the Hubble Space Telescope, other space missions, and large telescopes on the ground. In this talk, I will discuss some of the important discoveries of the last decade, from dwarf planets in the outer Solar System to the mysterious dark energy that overcomes gravity to accelerate the expansion of the Universe. The next decade will be equally bright with the newly refurbished Hubble and the promise of its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope. An infrared-optimized 6.5m space telescope, Webb is designed to find the first galaxies that formed in the early universe and to peer into the dusty gas clouds where stars and planets are born. With MEMS technology, a deployed primary mirror and a tennis-court sized sunshield, the mission presents many technical challenges. I will describe Webb's scientific goals, its design and recent progress in constructing the observatory. Webb is scheduled for launch in 2014.
Gauvain, B.; Le Ngoc, B.
The French nuclear industry is undergoing tremendous change. France has lost its leader place in the competition to build reactors and today's priority is to realize important competitiveness gains. Nuclear industry must become more flexible concerning the management and integration of innovation at any stage of any nuclear activity and the digital revolution will help to do so by easing cooperation between various enterprises. A joint team composed of engineers from AREVA and EDF is working in the EPR-NM project whose purpose is to re-invent the EPR reactor in order to make it more competitive by a factor 20-30%. The deployment of digital-based technologies in nuclear industry appears late when compared to other industries like aviation industry but it could benefit from the feedback experience. The additive manufacturing already exists to fabricate some small pieces of a plane. The nuclear activities that could benefit from the application of digital-based technologies like connected objects is the monitoring of the fabrication of components, the quality control and the optimization of maintenance. (A.C.)
SHAUKET AHMED PALA
Full Text Available Pala SA, Wani AH, Boda RH, Wani BA. 2014. Mushroom refinement endeavor auspicate non green revolution in the offing. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 173-185. Mushroom can serve as food, tonic, and as medicine thus make people healthier, fitter and happier. They have a cracking potential for generating great socioeconomic impact in human welfare at local, national and international level. With the help of allied mushroom farming we can easily tackle the problem of food for growing world population; reduce environmental pollution by bioconversion of huge organic wastes into mushrooms; recycle huge quantity of organic wastes to mushroom crops, biofertilizers, and biogas; restore damaged environment by mushroom mycelia through mycoforestry, mycoremediation, mycofiltration and mycopesticides in a zero emission fashion. They can be used to degrade radioactive industrial biocide wastes in an eco-friendly fashion. Since mushroom cultivation is an indoor agribusiness, it could have great economic impact by generating employment, income and functional food requirements for rural people especially in developing countries. How far mushroom cultivation can meet the functional food requirements; address the domestic food challenges, rising food prices and crisis vis a vis environmental sustainability will be thrust areas of this communication.
Gilson Olegario da Silva
Full Text Available Several recent works in history and philosophy of science have re-evaluated the alleged opposition between the theses put forth by logical empiricists such as Carnap and the so-called "post-positivists", such as Kuhn. Although the latter came to be viewed as having seriously challenged the logical positivist views of science, recent authors (e.g., Friedman, Reisch, Earman, Irzik and Grünberg maintain that some of the most notable theses of the Kuhnian view of science have striking similarities with some aspects of Carnap's philosophy. Against that reading, Oliveira and Psillos argue that within Carnap's philosophy there is no place for the Kuhnian theses of incommensurability, holism, and theory-ladenness of observations. This paper presents each of those readings and argues that Carnap and Kuhn have non-opposing views on holism, incommensurability, the theory-ladenness of observations, and scientific revolutions. We note at the very end - without dwelling on the point, however - that they come apart on other matters, such as their views on metaphysics and on the context of discovery/justification distinction.
López y de la Peña, Xavier A
The historical event known as the Mexican Revolution (1910-1917) took place at different locations in the country and many people participated in it, directly or indirectly. In this paper I describe the role that some physicians played in this struggle in the state of Aguascalientes, where the social structure was broken up so thunderously. But why specifically physicians? Because they formed an important local sphere of influence, both socially and politically, and had vision, actions and sometimes conflicting ideals, that were all at the mercy of the vortex of the revolutionary social struggle that after its partial or total end, favored and exalted some while damaged and eliminated others. These were the doctors in their role as citizens, politicians, and even revolutionaries, who contributed to the forging of modern Mexico, inside and outside of Aguascalientes. Their contributions deserve to be remembered by all; good or bad as you may judge them, they only were the product of their time and particular circumstances.
Glenberg, Arthur M; Witt, Jessica K; Metcalfe, Janet
In 1988, the cognitive revolution had become institutionalized: Cognition was the manipulation of abstract symbols by rules. But, much like institutionalized political parties, some of the ideas were becoming stale. Where was action? Where was the self? How could cognition be smoothly integrated with emotions, with social psychology, with development, with clinical analyses? Around that time, thinkers in linguistics, philosophy, artificial intelligence, biology, and psychology were formulating the idea that just as overt behavior depends on the specifics of the body in action, so might cognition depend on the body. Here we characterize (some would say caricature) the strengths and weaknesses of cognitive psychology of that era, and then we describe what has come to be called embodied cognition: how cognition arises through the dynamic interplay of brain controlling bodily action controlling perception, which changes the brain. We focus on the importance of action and how action shapes perception, the self, and language. Having the body in action as a central consideration for theories of cognition promises, we believe, to help unify psychology. © The Author(s) 2013.
Leonard, J.W.; Arbaki-Kanjoori, F.
The requirement of some structural components such as propulsion systems and gas turbines to operate at high temperatures and pressures make the accurate evaluation of the creep phenomenon exigent (in fast breeder reactor for example). For the expected increases in operating temperatures and pressures, it becomes necessary to perform a thorough analysis of integral structural components of nuclear power plants throughout their life span. Since a large class of structures operating at elevated temperatures are composed of rotationally symmetric shells, a solution technique can be developed which involves the numerical integration of the governing shell equations. This method has been successfully applied to the static and dynamic analysis of thin elastic shells of revolution and for some cases of inelastic material behavior. It has been shown to render solutions efficiently and accurately, usually with only a fraction of computer time and storage requirements and data manipulation that is required for other numerical schemes such as the finite element method. Furthermore, the numerical integration method allows more flexibility for varying the integration step lengths than does the finite difference method and can provide uniform accuracy throughout the analysis. For nonlinear viscoelastic behavior the numerical integration technique is expected to provide similar efficiency to that obtained for the elastic problems. The computer program developed can accept time variation of material properties. Since a single form for the material constitutive law cannot encompass all materials, provisions are made so that the analysis of a very large class of material behavior can be accomplished
Solar cells have been considered as one of the foremost solutions to energy and environmental problems because of clean, high efficiency, cost-effective, and inexhaustible features. The historical development and state-of-the-art solar cells mainly focus on elevating photoelectric conversion efficiency upon direct sunlight illumination. It is still a challenging problem to realize persistent high-efficiency power generation in rainy, foggy, haze, and dark-light conditions (night). The physical proof-of-concept for all-weather solar cells opens a door for an upcoming photovoltaic revolution. Our group has been exploring constructive routes to build all-weather solar cells so that these advanced photovoltaic technologies can be an indication for global solar industry in bringing down the cost of energy harvesting. How the all-weather solar cells are built without reducing photo performances and why such architectures can realize electricity outputs with no visible-light are discussed. Potential pathways and opportunities to enrich all-weather solar cell families are envisaged. The aspects discussed here may enable researchers to develop undiscovered abilities and to explore wide applications of advanced photovoltaics. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Tan, Peter T; Wei, Andrew H
Rapid advances in molecular technologies are continually re-shaping the way we view and understand the mechanisms driving oncogenesis. The last decade has witnessed unparalleled change in the biology and therapy of the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), a heterogeneous collection of clonal myeloid disorders characterised by ineffective haematopoiesis and susceptibility to acute leukaemia transformation. Pivotal studies demonstrating the positive effects of hypomethylating agents on clinical outcome have brought an 'epigenomics revolution' to this disease, emphasising the importance of epigenetic mechanisms to the underlying pathogenesis of MDS. One of the most important future challenges in the MDS field will be to determine whether epigenetic therapies can be made more 'targeted' through identification of biomarkers which define subsets of patients most likely to benefit from treatment. A wave of novel mutations have recently been reported in MDS and other myeloid disorders, several of which regulate endogenous methylation networks within cells (including TET2, DNMT3A, IDH and EZH2). The relevance of these lesions in being able to predict response to epigenetic modulators and their correlation with epigenetic signatures in MDS are beginning to emerge.
Toenniessen, Gary; Adesina, Akinwumi; DeVries, Joseph
Most of Africa's people live in rural areas and depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. These predominantly small-scale farmers face many challenges, including food insecurity, rising poverty, and natural resource degradation. To increase the productivity, profitability, and sustainability of their farms, they need greater access to affordable yield-enhancing inputs, including well-adapted seeds and new methods for integrated soil fertility management, as well as to output markets where they can convert surplus production into cash. To address these needs, the Rockefeller Foundation and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation established the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA). AGRA is now African led and is working within the context of the comprehensive agricultural development program established by Africa's leaders. From offices in Nairobi, Kenya, and Accra, Ghana, AGRA will support work across all key aspects of the African agricultural value chain to help millions of small-scale farmers and their families lift themselves out of poverty and hunger.
Nagano, Hironori; Onishi, Kazumitsu; Ogasawara, Mitsuhiro; Horiuchi, Yuki; Sano, Yoshio
During the "Green Revolution" of rice, high-yielding varieties (HYVs) were developed using a semi-dwarf gene (sd1 or OsGA20ox2). The presence or absence of the two mutant alleles (DGWG type in Dee-geo-woo-gen and JKK type in Jikkoku) were surveyed by PCR using 256 accessions of eight wild and two cultivate rice species. The DGWG allele was detected in a landrace (Oryza sativa) and two accessions of wild rice (O. rufipogon), all of which are from China, showing their limited distribution. Genealogical studies of the OsGA20ox2 gene showed that the 62 sequences of O. sativa and O. rufipogon included 20 distinct haplotypes, indicating that the species complex contained OsGA20ox2 genes from two different lineages. The silent site nucleotide diversities (pi and theta(w)) were extremely low in Japonica rice, suggesting a genetic bottleneck. The haplotype network showed that the DGWG and JKK alleles were derived in different lineages. The DGWG carrier (W1944) had unique polymorphisms in the surrounding region of the locus, suggesting that the DGWG allele has been preserved in the wild progenitor, rather than that the DGWG allele has been introgressed from HYVs to W1944. Although a semi-dwarfing plant is a weak competitor under saturated fields, the crossing experiment revealed that the DGWG variant might have been preserved as a hidden variation in the genetic background of wild rice, without expressing a short-stature.
Snapp, Sieglinde S; Blackie, Malcolm J; Gilbert, Robert A; Bezner-Kerr, Rachel; Kanyama-Phiri, George Y
The Asian green revolution trebled grain yields through agrochemical intensification of monocultures. Associated environmental costs have subsequently emerged. A rapidly changing world necessitates sustainability principles be developed to reinvent these technologies and test them at scale. The need is particularly urgent in Africa, where ecosystems are degrading and crop yields have stagnated. An unprecedented opportunity to reverse this trend is unfolding in Malawi, where a 90% subsidy has ensured access to fertilization and improved maize seed, with substantive gains in productivity for millions of farmers. To test if economic and ecological sustainability could be improved, we preformed manipulative experimentation with crop diversity in a countrywide trial (n = 991) and at adaptive, local scales through a decade of participatory research (n = 146). Spatial and temporal treatments compared monoculture maize with legume-diversified maize that included annual and semiperennial (SP) growth habits in temporal and spatial combinations, including rotation, SP rotation, intercrop, and SP intercrop systems. Modest fertilizer intensification doubled grain yield compared with monoculture maize. Biodiversity improved ecosystem function further: SP rotation systems at half-fertilizer rates produced equivalent quantities of grain, on a more stable basis (yield variability reduced from 22% to 13%) compared with monoculture. Across sites, profitability and farmer preference matched: SP rotations provided twofold superior returns, whereas diversification of maize with annual legumes provided more modest returns. In this study, we provide evidence that in Africa, crop diversification can be effective at a countrywide scale, and that shrubby, grain legumes can enhance environmental and food security.
Trobe, Melanie; Burke, Martin D
Today we are poised for a transition from the highly customized crafting of specific molecular targets by hand to the increasingly general and automated assembly of different types of molecules with the push of a button. Creating machines that are capable of making many different types of small molecules on demand, akin to that which has been achieved on the macroscale with 3D printers, is challenging. Yet important progress is being made toward this objective with two complementary approaches: 1) Automation of customized synthesis routes to different targets by machines that enable the use of many reactions and starting materials, and 2) automation of generalized platforms that make many different targets using common coupling chemistry and building blocks. Continued progress in these directions has the potential to shift the bottleneck in molecular innovation from synthesis to imagination, and thereby help drive a new industrial revolution on the molecular scale. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
The internet can provide wide access to online smoking cessation programmes developed by highly qualified professionals. Compared with one-to-one counselling in smoking cessation clinics or on telephone quitlines, the mass-level dissemination of automatised, individualised counselling on the internet is comparable to the industrial revolution, when skilled craftsmen working in small shops were replaced by huge plants. Hundreds of websites provide information and advice on smoking cessation, but very few of them have been evaluated scientifically. Therefore, it is not yet known whether web-based smoking cessation interventions are effective in the long term, and which of their components are most effective for subgroups of smokers. Claims for efficacy found on some popular websites have not been evaluated. The internet is being used increasingly by tobacco companies to promote their products. The overall effect of internet smoking cessation programs on smoking prevalence is unknown. Greater efforts should be expended to improve the reach and efficacy of smoking cessation websites.
We live in a world made by science. How and when did this happen? This book tells the story of the extraordinary intellectual and cultural revolution that gave birth to modern science, and mounts a major challenge to the prevailing orthodoxy of its history. Before 1492 it was assumed that all significant knowledge was already available; there was no concept of progress; people looked for understanding to the past not the future. This book argues that everything changed with the discovery of America, which demonstrated that new knowledge was possible: indeed it introduced the very concept of "discovery", and opened the way to the invention of science. The first crucial discovery was Tycho Brahe's nova of 1572: proof that there could be change in the heavens. The telescope (1610) rendered the old astronomy obsolete. Torricelli's experiment with the vacuum (1643) led directly to the triumph of the experimental method in the Royal Society of Boyle and Newton. By 1750 Newtonianism was being celebrated throughout E...
... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron in the blood (anemia), diabetes, insulin resistance related to HIV treatments, cancer-related fatigue, high blood pressure, trouble sleeping (insomnia), ...
Institutional Reform and Rights Revolutions in Latin America: The Cases of Costa Rica and Colombia Reforma institucional y revoluciones de derechos en América Latina. Los casos de Costa Rica y Colombia
Bruce M. Wilson
Full Text Available This article analyzes the conditions that allowed for expansive rights revolutions in Costa Rica and Colombia. My research suggests that many of the preconditions for rights revolutions in other regions of the world are also central to understanding Latin American cases. Of particular relevance is judicial system design including the high courts’ operating rules concerning access, standing, and judicial formality. These factors can and do mitigate the need for extensive resources and support structures necessary in other non-Latin American countries in which rights revolutions have occurred. Este artículo analiza las condiciones que facilitaron el surgimientode revoluciones para promover los derechos en Costa Rica y Colombia.Mi investigación sugiere que muchas de las precondiciones para lasrevoluciones de derechos en otras regiones del mundo también son centralespara entender los casos latinoamericanos. De particular relevancia es eldiseño del sistema judicial, incluyendo las reglas de funcionamiento los detribunales supremos con respecto a acceso, rango y formalidad judicial.Estos factores pueden disminuir la necesidad de recursos extensivos yestructuras de apoyo necesarios en otros paises no latinoamericanos en loscuales revoluciones de derechos han ocurrido.
Maisonneuve, Cecile; Boncourt, Maite de
As epicentres of the production of hydrocarbon, the Gulf States must adapt to an energy scene upset by the arrival of new resources on the market and by the historic reversal of demand in European countries. Consuming less energy and developing alternative sources in order to reserve hydrocarbon for exports: such is the huge challenge for countries whose social contract is based on unlimited consumption of subsidized energy. In the long term, their economic, social and political stability is at stake, together with their ability to remain key actors of the world energy system
This series of papers examines how the Anglo-American dental profession was established in the eighteenth century, examining its need for a name and identity, public recognition and official status. This final paper describes the presence of the new dentists in North America before and after the revolution.
Full Text Available Innovation in family law firms can tangibly improve access to justice in Canada. This article develops that claim by drawing on empirical data and scholarship about Canadian family law. Part 1 explains how and why legal needs arising from the dissolution of intimate relationships are so difficult for the parties to meet. This Part draws on civil legal needs surveys, surveys with lawyers, and data from interviews with litigants. The focus shifts to family law firms (including sole practitioners in Part 2, using new empirical data about the Canadian lawyers who do this work. Three promising opportunities to innovate for accessibility in family law practice are identified: (i innovative fee structure; (ii innovative service variety; and (iii innovative division of labour. A "third revolution" in Canadian family law is proposed in Part 3. Our family law doctrine was revolutionized beginning in the 1960s, and family law alternative dispute resolution was similarly transfigured beginning in the 1980s. It is now time to foment a third revolution, in family law practice accessibility, to bring the benefits of family justice to all Canadians who need them. L’innovation au sein des cabinets spécialisés en droit de la famille peut apporter des améliorations concrètes à l’accès à la justice au Canada. C’est ce que soutient l’auteur dans cet article, en se fondant sur des données et recherches empiriques sur le droit de la famille canadien. Dans la première partie, il explique comment naissent les besoins juridiques des parties en instance de séparation ou de divorce, et pourquoi il est si difficile de répondre à ces besoins. Cette partie est fondée sur des enquêtes portant sur les besoins juridiques en matière civile, sur des sondages menés auprès des avocats et sur des données découlant d’entrevues auprès des parties aux litiges. Dans la deuxième partie, l’accent est mis sur les cabinets spécialisés en droit de la
Pearson, Peter J.G.; Foxon, Timothy J.
Recent efforts to promote a transition to a low carbon economy have been influenced by suggestions that a low carbon transition offers challenges and might yield economic benefits comparable to those of the previous industrial revolutions. This paper examines these arguments and the challenges facing a low carbon transition, by drawing on recent thinking on the technological, economic and institutional factors that enabled and sustained the first (British) industrial revolution, and the role of ‘general purpose technologies’ in stimulating and sustaining this and subsequent industrial transformation processes that have contributed to significant macroeconomic gains. These revolutions involved profound, long drawn-out changes in economy, technology and society; and although their energy transitions led to long-run economic benefits, they took many decades to develop. To reap significant long-run economic benefits from a low carbon transition sooner rather than later would require systemic efforts and incentives for low carbon innovation and substitution of high-carbon technologies. We conclude that while achieving a low carbon transition may require societal changes on a scale comparable with those of previous industrial revolutions, this transition does not yet resemble previous industrial revolutions. A successful low carbon transition would, however, amount to a different kind of industrial revolution. - Highlights: ► Investigates lessons for a low carbon transition from past industrial revolutions. ► Explores the implications of ‘general purpose technologies’ and their properties. ► Examines analysis of ‘long waves’ of technological progress and diffusion. ► Draws insights for low carbon transitions and policy.
Full Text Available The story of fastskin swimsuits reflects some of the challenges facing the impact of technology in postmodern culture. Introduced in 1999 and ratified for the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, fastskin swimsuits were touted as revolutionising competitive swimming. Ten years later, they were banned by the world’s swimming regulatory body FINA (the Fédération Internationale de Natation, with the ban taking effect from January 2010 (Shipley 2009. The reason was the controversy caused by the large number of world records that were broken by competitors wearing polyurethane swimsuits, the next generation of the original fast skin suits. These suits were deemed to be providing an artificial advantage by increasing buoyancy and reducing drag. This had been an issue ever since they were introduced, yet FINA had approved the suits and, thereby, unleashed an unstoppable technological revolution of the sport of competitive swimming. Underlying this was the issue about its implications of the transformation of a sport based on the movement of the human body through water without the aid of artificial devices or apparatus. This article argues that the advent of the fastskin has not only transformed the art of swimming but has created a new image of the swimmer as a virtual android rather than a human fish. In turn, the image of the sport of swimming has been re-mapped as a technical artefact and sci-fi spectacle based on a radically transformed concept of the swimming body as a material object that has implications for the ideal of the fashionable body.
Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, Michael J.; Henneken, Edwin; Grant, Carolyn S.; Thompson, Donna M.; Chyla, Roman; Holachek, Alexandra; Sudilovsky, Vladimir; Elliott, Jonathan; Murray, Stephen S.
Whether or not scholarly publications are going through an evolution or revolution, one comforting certainty remains: the NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) is here to help the working astronomer and librarian navigate through the increasingly complex communication environment we find ourselves in. Born as a bibliographic database, today's ADS is best described as a an "aggregator" of scholarly resources relevant to the needs of researchers in astronomy and physics. In addition to indexing content from a variety of publishers, data and software archives, the ADS enriches its records by text-mining and indexing the full-text articles, enriching its metadata through the extraction of citations and acknowledgments and the ingest of bibliographies and data links maintained by astronomy institutions and data archives. In addition, ADS generates and maintains citation and co-readership networks to support discovery and bibliometric analysis.In this talk I will summarize new and ongoing curation activities and technology developments of the ADS in the face of the ever-changing world of scholarly publishing and the trends in information-sharing behavior of astronomers. Recent curation efforts include the indexing of non-standard scholarly content (such as software packages, IVOA documents and standards, and NASA award proposals); the indexing of additional content (full-text of articles, acknowledgments, affiliations, ORCID ids); and enhanced support for bibliographic groups and data links. Recent technology developments include a new Application Programming Interface which provides access to a variety of ADS microservices, a new user interface featuring a variety of visualizations and bibliometric analysis, and integration with ORCID services to support paper claiming.
Cline, D. W.
As an intrinsic factor in national security, the global economy, food and energy production, and human and ecological health, fresh water resources are increasingly being considered by an ever-widening array of stakeholders. The U.S. intelligence community has identified water as a key factor in the Nation's security risk profile. Water industries are growing rapidly, and seek to revolutionize the role of water in the global economy, making water an economic value rather than a limitation on operations. Recent increased focus on the complex interrelationships and interdependencies between water, food, and energy signal a renewed effort to move towards integrated water resource management. Throughout all of this, hydrologic extremes continue to wreak havoc on communities and regions around the world, in some cases threatening long-term economic stability. This increased attention on water coincides with the "second IT revolution" of cyber-infrastructure (CI). The CI concept is a convergence of technology, data, applications and human resources, all coalescing into a tightly integrated global grid of computing, information, networking and sensor resources, and ultimately serving as an engine of change for collaboration, education and scientific discovery and innovation. In the water arena, we have unprecedented opportunities to apply the CI concept to help address complex water challenges and shape the future world of water resources - on both science and socio-economic application fronts. Providing actionable local "water intelligence" nationally or globally is now becoming feasible through high-performance computing, data technologies, and advanced hydrologic modeling. Further development on all of these fronts appears likely and will help advance this much-needed capability. Lagging behind are water observation systems, especially in situ networks, which need significant innovation to keep pace with and help fuel rapid advancements in water intelligence.
Félix Vicq d'Azyr was born in 1748 in the small town of Valognes, Normandy. He studied medicine in Paris but he was particularly impressed by the lectures given at the Jardin du Roi by the comparative anatomist Louis Daubenton and the surgeon Antoine Petit. In 1773, Vicq d'Azyr initiated a series of successful lectures on human and animal anatomy at the Paris Medical School, from which he received his medical degree in 1774. He was elected the same year at the Academy of Sciences at age 26, thanks to his outstanding contributions to comparative anatomy. Vicq d'Azyr became widely known after his successful management of a severe cattle plague that occurred in the southern part of France in 1774, an event that led to the foundation of the Royal Society of Medicine in 1778. As Permanent Secretary of this society, Vicq d'Azyr wrote several eulogies that were models of eloquence and erudition and worth him a seat at the French Academy in 1788. Vicq d'Azyr published in 1786 a remarkable anatomy and physiology treatise: a large in-folio that contained original descriptions illustrated by means of nature-sized, colored, human brain figures of a quality and exactitude never attained before. In 1789, Vicq d'Azyr was appointed physician to the Queen Marie-Antoinette and, in 1790, he presented to the Constituent Assembly a decisive plan to reform the teaching of medicine in France. Unfortunately, Vicq d'Azyr did not survive the turmoil of the French Revolution; he died at age 46 on June 20, 1794.
Remon Fayek Aziz
Full Text Available Time is one of the major considerations throughout project management life cycle and can be regarded as one of the most important parameters of a project and the driving force of project success. Time delay is a very frequent phenomenon and is almost associated with nearly all constructing projects. However, little effort has been made to curtail the phenomenon, this research work attempts to identify, investigate, and rank factors perceived to affect delays in the Egyptian construction projects with respect to their relative importance so as to proffer possible ways of coping with this phenomenon. To achieve this objective, researcher invited practitioners and experts, comprising a statistically representative sample to participate in a structured questionnaire survey. Brain storming was taken into consideration, through which a number of delay factors were identified in construction projects. Totally, ninety-nine (99 factors were short-listed to be made part of the questionnaire survey and were identified and categorized into nine (9 major categories. The survey was conducted with experts and representatives from private, public, and local general construction firms. The data were analyzed using Relative Importance Index (RII, ranking and simple percentages. Ranking of factors and categories was demonstrated according to their importance level on delay, especially after 25/1/2011 (Egyptian revolution. According to the case study results, the most contributing factors and categories (those need attention to delays were discussed, and some recommendations were made in order to minimize and control delays in construction projects. Also, this paper can serve as a guide for all construction parties with effective management in construction projects to achieve a competitive level of quality and a time effective project.
Full Text Available Por dois séculos, a experiência da França em 1789 transformou a relativamente anódina categoria da revolução num eixo obrigatório do juízo político em todo o mundo. Nessa longa travessia, ela serviu mais insistente e efetivamente para definir a lealdade e a antipatia políticas do que para dirigir a agência política para fins bem definidos e politicamente acessíveis. O que a equipou para fazer isso foi uma imagem das exigências imperiosas e abrangentes da razão humana no interior da vida coletiva. Mas é duvidoso hoje que tais pretensões sejam capazes de oferecer uma base massiva de solidariedade para reconstruir a sociedade e a política, depois do colapso ou derrubada de um regime.For two full centuries the experience of France in 1789 turned the relatively anodyne category of revolution into a mandatory axis of political judgment across the world. Throughout that long traverse it served more insistently and effectively to define political allegiance than to direct political agency towards well defined and potentially accessible ends. What equipped it to do this was a picture of the comprehensive and imperious requirements of human reason within the collective life. But it is dubious today that those claims are still able to offer a massive basis of solidarity for reconstructing society and polity in the aftermath of regime collapse or overthrow.
Petersen, Anne Ring
The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....
Full Text Available O ano de 1968 tornou-se, no decorrer do tempo, uma espécie de referência para as grandes transformações ocorridas nas décadas de 1960 e 1970. Um pouco antes, porém, surgiu nos Estados Unidos, nos anos de 1950, um movimento de jovens que ficou conhecido como beat generation, cujos principais representantes foram Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, entre outros. Foi um grupo de moços intelectualizados que propôs, por meio da literatura e da arte, um estilo de vida e de comportamento diferente do universo pragmático e mercantilizado da sociedade americana. Ao lado do rock’n’roll também surgido nesse momento, a juventude teve as condições para engendrar uma grande revolução comportamental, que mais tarde ficou conhecida como o movimento da contracultura, dos hippies e da cultura psicodélica. A partir desse momento estavam lançadas as bases para tudo o que viria ocorrer nos anos de 1960 e 1970, décadas realmente revolucionárias, em que a juventude não tergiversou quanto ao direito de traçar seu próprio destino. Seu maior objetivo era assegurar o que o homem tem de mais precioso: a liberdade e a luta contra a asfixia comportamental imposta pelo establishment. Palavras-chave: Contracultura. Política. Liberdade. Sociedade. Estado. Revolução. Psicodélico. The year of 1968 has become, throughout time, a kind of reference to the great transformations that occurred in the decades of 1960 and 1970. Some time before, however, in the 1950’s, in the US, a young movement appeared. They were known as the beat generation, which main representatives were Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, and others. It was a group of intellectual young men that brought, through the literature and art, a life style and different behavior from the pragmatic and commercialized universe of the American society. Together with the rock’n’roll, also from that moment, the youth had conditions to engender a big behavior revolution
Yuminoki, K; Tachibana, S; Nishimura, Y; Mori, H; Takatsuka, T; Hashimoto, N
We previously reported that a rotation/revolution pulverizer (NP-100) could mill a small amount of a drug (0.1 g) into nanoparticles in several minutes. In this investigation, scale up from the milligram to the kilogram scale of the nano-milling process by the rotation/revolution pulverizer was studied. Phenytoin was used as a model drug with low solubility in water. After confirming the improvement of the phenytoin bioavailability by milling to nanoparticles using NP-100, scaling parameters were evaluated using NP-100 and the middle scale model of NP-100 (ARV-3000T). A theoretical equation for the specific collisional energy was adapted for wet milling; this suggested that the relative centrifugal acceleration of revolution (revolution G) and the drug concentration in the suspension were the two most important parameters. The results obtained using NP-100 and ARV-3000T correlated well when these two parameters were identical. These results were applied to the large scale model of NP-100 (ARV-10KT), where 2 kg (1 kg x 2) of phenytoin nanoparticles were obtained in 60 min. The results from PXRD and DSC indicated that the milled phenytoin by ARV-3000T and ARV-10KT maintained its crystallinity. These results suggest nano-milling using a rotation/revolution pulverizer will be widely applicable to the development of nano-medicine.
Ronaghy, Hossain A; Shajari, Anoshiravan
Following the Islamic Revolution of 1979 in Iran, the trend of migration of physicians from the country continued. The total number of Iranian physicians migrated to the United States (US) increased from 1625 before revolution in 1974, to 5045 in 2010, thirty years post-revolution. The percentage of medical graduates migrating to the US, in the same period dropped from 15% to 5%. The reasons for this drop were restrictions imposed, along with creation of good postgraduate residency and fellowship programs in Iran. Following the revolution, the number of medical schools increased from 13 to 48. Despite all the restrictions and impediments for post-revolution medical graduates, over 500 medical graduates from newly established medical schools found their ways into the healthcare system of the US. In spite of all hardships of eight years of imposed war, and 30 years of the US sanctions, Iran has been able to maintain good progress in its healthcare, education, and research in medicine and other branches of science and technology.
Zhang, Chihong; Gao, Lifeng; Sun, Jiaqiang; Jia, Jizeng; Ren, Zhenglong
Green Revolution made a substantial contribution to wheat yields worldwide in the 1960s and 1970s. It is of great importance to analyze the haplotype variation of Rht-D1, the Green Revolution gene, during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) domestication and breeding to understand its evolution and function in wheat breeding history. In this study, the Rht-D1 and its flanking regions were sequenced and single nucleotide polymorphisms were detected based on a panel of 45 accessions of Aegilops tauschii, 51 accessions of landraces and 80 accessions of commercial varieties. Genetic diversity in the wild accessions was much higher than that in the varieties and higher than that reported previously. Seven haplotypes (Hapl I to Hapl VII) of Rht-D1 were identified and their evolutionary relationships were proposed. In addition to the well-known Green Revolution allele Rht-D1b, Hapl VII (an allele Rht-D1k) was identified in early breeding varieties, which reduced plant height by 16%. The results suggested that Rht-D1k had been used in breeding before the Green Revolution and made a great contribution to wheat production worldwide. Based on the breeding history and molecular evidence, we proposed that the wheat Green Revolution in China and International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) occurred independently. © 2014 Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected such monarch......Illuminated fêtes and civic celebrations began in Renaissance Italy and spread through the courts of Europe. Their fireworks, torches, lamps, and special effects glorified the monarch, marked the birth of a prince, or celebrated military victory. Nineteenth-century Americans rejected...... such monarchial pomp and adapted spectacular lighting to their democratic, commercial culture. In American Illuminations, David Nye explains how they experimented with gas and electric light to create illuminated cityscapes far brighter and more dynamic than those of Europe, and how these illuminations became......, commercial lighting that defined distinct zones of light and glamorized the city’s White Ways, skyscrapers, bridges, department stores, theaters, and dance halls. Poor and blighted areas disappeared into the shadows. American illuminations also became integral parts of national political campaigns...
Chapman, Ellen; Chapman, Ronald
Describes personal experiences of two American teachers who were evacuated from Beijing Foreign Studies University three days after the massacre of students and workers in Tiananmen Square. The Chinese system of education is described, library education is briefly discussed, and student attitudes and interests are examined. (LRW)
Breivik, Patricia Senn
Discussion of information literacy focuses on resource-based learning. Considers library instruction versus information literacy; documenting value added; the workforce and information literacy; user-friendly library systems; and educational reform. Information literacy standards, endorsed by the American Association of School Librarians (AASL)…
Today, 54 million Americans use electricity equivalent to that of 109 million Europeans or 950 million Africans. This article evaluates the possibility of supplying electricity to all Africans by 2030, generated from renewable resources. Furthermore, it evaluates the opportunity to export “green” electricity to Europe ...
Full Text Available The article analyzes the guiding imperatives behind Russia’s grand strategy in the Mideast, including both its domestic decision-making institutional idiosyncrasies and the wider geopolitical considerations at play. It discusses the evolution of Russian strategy after the so-called “Arab Spring” events and into the present day, taking care to individually analyze Moscow’s most important bilateral relationships. The review begins by addressing Russia’s anti-terrorist intervention in Syria, before progressing to some words about the two competing foreign policy factions present in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. After outlining the key differences between the Liberal and Military-Security camps, the work then broadly explains how their rivalry fi gures into the formulation of Russia’s overall grand strategy in the Mideast. Following that, it logically proceeds to examine the other bilateral relationships that are of signifi cance to Moscow, beginning with Turkey, Iraq, and Israel, and ending with Saudi Arabia and Iran. The goal of the research is to establish a very general understanding of how Russia’s foreign policy is presently practiced in the Mideast, how and why it got to where it is today, and forecast on the prospects for its further development. In doing this, the article relies on empirical observations and references several under-discussed news items that have evaded wider scrutiny. It also makes use of a few academic sources in proving that the geopolitical environment in which Russia conducts its present foreign policy was largely shaped by the US’ legacy of Hybrid Wars on the region, which in hindsight created fertile ground for the revolution in Russia’s Mideast strategy. In summary, Russia seeks to replace the US as the Mideast countries’ most preferred and trusted partner, capitalizing off of Washington’s decline in regional infl uence brought about by the disastrous rise of Daesh and the controversial
The "green revolution" was desirable because of increased crop yields, but 25 years later after the results of land degradation, groundwater contamination, and environmentally harmful practices were revealed, there is a return to sustainable agriculture. The aim is to minimize agriculture's harmful effects on the environment and to maintain water ad soil resources. Present and future food production depends on suitable land, water, climate, and finances. Unfortunately, the timing is wrong. Population growth is putting pressure on farmers to increase yields. The current conditions are the 11% of the earth's vegetative land surface has diminished productivity due to human activity. There is loss of biodiversity and genetic material. CAttle grazing is inefficient and adds to desertification; animal waste contributes to pollution. Pesticides and fertilizers are the largest US water pollutants. Sustainable agriculture means new tilling methods, reducing pesticide use, and crop rotation. The National Research Council in 1989 reported on alternative agriculture: 1) making the most of natural biological processes; 2) reducing or eliminating pesticides and other chemicals; 3) conserving soil, water, and energy; and 4) matching crops with land to ensure sustainable production levels. Reeducation is needed. Operation SAVE (Sustainable Agriculture that's Voluntary and Economical) produces an annual directory and guide for farmers adopting new methods. Land trusts and conservation easements are being established to preserve farmland. Reclamation of degraded land is being promoted by distribution of tree seedlings to developing countries. Community supported agriculture groups share in the cost of raising crops and receive organic, fresh produce. There are fears about economic feasibility. Conventional farmers argue for pesticide use to increase yields, but a Cornell University study refutes this for organically grown corn. High technology research is not likely to yield a new
measure of equity to ensure efficiency (Chichilnisky 1996, Chichilnisky and Heal 2002). This conclusion has been validated theoretically and is also in line with what was agreed by 160 nations in the Kyoto Protocol. Somewhat surprisingly, the same conclusion applies also to trading knowledge goods. Knowledge is a global public good. This paper proposes a new property rights regimes for knowledge goods and for environmental assets that seem crucial for economic progress in the era of the Knowledge Revolution TM . (author)
Full Text Available Martin Amis uses the language of revolution to describe the newly altered social circumstances at the height of the sexual revolution in his semi-autobiographical novel The Pregnant Widow. The concept of a ‘language of revolution’ as well as second- and third-wave feminist scholarship is applied to a textual analysis of the novel. Amis’s brand of satire creates a sense of displacement and challenges existing perceptions about gender, culture and sexuality, exposing them as constructed and changeable norms. Moreover, it becomes clear that the author is skeptical about the benefits of the sexual revolution for either gender, and that he views its liberating aspects as unfulfilled, particularly for women. Given that Amis names one of his characters Scheherazade, evoking the legendary heroine of The Arabian Nights, the importance of storytelling in the novel is also examined and found to be a potentially redeeming force.