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Sample records for american psychological association

  1. 2009 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2009. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology--and the unique skills of psychologists--to the attention of the public. This report aims…

  2. 2010 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides the highlights of the association's and individual directorate's activities to APA members. APA continued its efforts to advance psychological practice and ensure the public's access to high-quality psychological services, apply psychological…

  3. The Asian American Psychological Association: Parallels and Intersections with Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Wu, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the AAPA. AAPA was created in 1972 in response to psychology's neglect…

  4. Past and future American Psychological Association guidelines for statistical practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finch, S; Thomason, N; Cumming, G

    2002-01-01

    We review the publication guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) since 1929 and document their advice for authors about statistical practice. Although the advice has been extended with each revision of the guidelines, it has largely focused on null hypothesis significance testing

  5. 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Presents the 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In his introduction, President Barry Anton describes how 2015 was among APA's most challenging. Although 2015 ushered in an era of greater transparency within the association and enhanced communications to members and the public, it also required painful self-reflection stemming from the revelations of an independent review by an outside law firm. The review examined the question of whether APA played any role related to the Bush administration's use of abusive interrogation techniques during the war on terror. Anton's introduction also discusses (1) the APA convention, (2) representing APA at a White House meeting with health care providers and insurance companies, (3) APA's effort to increase the number of APA-accredited internships, (4) international activities, and (5) the global summit on psychology and integrated care. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27504583

  6. Neuropsychological Training in American Psychological Association-Accredited and Nonaccredited School Psychology Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amato, Rik Carl; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examines whether American Psychological Association (APA)-accredited and nonaccredited programs differ in views and offerings of neuropsychological training. Of 72 programs surveyed, 59 percent of APA-accredited programs and 53 percent of nonaccredited programs offered course work in neuropsychology. Found that students viewed neuropsychological…

  7. 2011 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    As we have throughout the association's history, we focused in 2011 on multiple initiatives--all designed to further, support, and communicate the important work that psychologists do. This year we had the benefit of APA's first-ever strategic plan as well as funding for the following seven initiatives that are specifically designed to execute the…

  8. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: A critique of policy and process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis Martha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs, as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights.

  9. The ethics of interrogation and the American Psychological Association: a critique of policy and process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Brad; Soldz, Stephen; Davis, Martha

    2008-01-01

    The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but primarily because of the APA's long-standing tradition of taking great care in developing ethical policies that protected anyone who might be impacted by the work of psychologists. Many psychological and non-governmental organizations (NGOs), as well as reputable journalists, believed the risk of harm associated with psychologist participation in interrogations at these detention centers was not adequately addressed by the report. The present critique analyzes the assumptions of the PENS report and its interpretations of the APA Ethics Code. We demonstrate that it presents only one (and not particularly representative) side of a complex set of ethical issues. We conclude with a discussion of more appropriate psychological contributions to national security and world peace that better respect and preserve human rights. PMID:18230171

  10. Ethics Education in Professional Psychology: A Survey of American Psychological Association Accredited Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Domenech Rodriguez, Melanie M.; Erickson Cornish, Jennifer A; Thomas, Janet T; Forrest, Linda; Anderson, Austin; Bow, James N

    2014-01-01

    Professional psychologists are expected to know ethical standards and engage in proactive analysis of ethical considerations across professional roles (e.g., practice, research, teaching). Yet, little is known about the current state of doctoral ethics education in professional psychology, including the content covered and pedagogical strategies used to ensure developing this core component of professional competency (de las Fuentes, Willmuth, & Yarrow, 2005). A survey of ethics educators fro...

  11. Should title lengths really adhere to the American Psychological Association's twelve word limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Robert M; Dillner, Kari M

    2016-04-01

    The publication manual for the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that title lengths do not exceed 12 words, yet journals do not prevent longer titles. Here, we examined title lengths in APA journals to see how many exceeded the APA's suggested limit. First, we conducted a systematic analysis of 235 articles in the current issues of 23 APA journals. A total of 52% of titles were more than 12 words long. Second, we examined articles from APA journals that were at least 50 years old to examine whether title lengths have changed over time. Our results suggested that the average title lengths have indeed increased with time. One of 2 courses should be taken. Perhaps science is becoming more complex that longer titles are needed in order to convey the primary message to the reader. If this is the case, then the APA's word limit should be increased. On the other hand, however, maybe editor and reviewers should try to enforce the current word limit to force writers to be succinct. Either way, editors should make their preferences clear so that the trend for longer titles does not continue unchecked. PMID:27042886

  12. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…

  13. Examining the associations of racism, sexism, and stressful life events on psychological distress among African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B

    2014-10-01

    African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed. PMID:25313434

  14. Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations and the Society of Counseling Psychology: Greater Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…

  15. Psychological Control Associated with Youth Adjustment and Risky Behavior in African American Single Mother Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…

  16. The 2002 Revision of the American Psychological Association's Ethics Code: Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Rosemary; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Jacob, Susan

    2005-01-01

    The Ethical Principles for Psychologists and Code of Conduct has been recently revised. The organization of the code changed, and the language was made more specific. A number of points relevant to school psychology are explicitly stated in the code. A clear advantage of including these items in the code is the assistance to school psychologists…

  17. Associations of Child Maltreatment and Intimate Partner Violence with Psychological Adjustment among Low SES, African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaslow, Nadine J.; Thompson, Martie P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the unique and interactive effects of child maltreatment and mothers' physical intimate partner violence (IPV) status on low-SES African American children's psychological functioning. Methods: Mothers were recruited from a large, inner-city hospital, and those who met eligibility criteria were asked to complete a…

  18. Gender and the Association between Discrimination and Psychological Distress Amongst African Americans in the California Quality of Life Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Glenn, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Racial discrimination serves as a psychosocial stressor with implications for health, including mental health. Previous research indicates that while African American men report more discrimination events, African American women are at greater risk for some psychiatric conditions. The responses from Black respondents to the California Quality of Life Survey (Cal-QOL) in 2005 and 2007 were analyzed to test the hypothesis that gender moderates the association between discrimination and distres...

  19. Examining the Associations of Racism, Sexism, and Stressful Life Events on Psychological Distress among African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B.

    2014-01-01

    African American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations between racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, person...

  20. American Psychology "Is" Becoming More International

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Gregory D.; Nichols, Austin Lee; Schember, Tatiana Orozco

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors argue that while Arnett's assessment was poignant, and his call for a more inclusive, international, and cross-cultural representation in American psychology…

  1. American College Health Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Dollars at Work Recognizing Donors Find us on social media! Home Contact Us Marketplace Cart Copyright © 2016 American College Health Association | Privacy and Usage Policies | Spokesperson and ...

  2. Psychology's contribution to the well-being of older americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatz, Margaret; Smyer, Michael A; DiGilio, Deborah A

    2016-01-01

    In concert with 6 decennial White House Conferences on Aging, psychologists have considered how developments in psychological science can contribute to the well-being of older Americans. We suggest 5 illustrative areas of psychological research: Advances in neuroscience elucidate ways to promote healthy cognitive aging; associated developments in neuropsychological assessment can help in protecting older Americans with cognitive losses from financial exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Psychological research on decision making and behavioral economics has much to offer to planning for retirement security and reducing vulnerability to financial abuse. Psychological research on self-management and behavior change can contribute importantly to enhancing good health behaviors among older adults; similarly the power of context on behavior can be harnessed in long-term care settings. Psychological research on attitudes and stereotypes gives insight into age bias that can be detrimental to healthy aging. Adaptive technologies and information technologies are beginning to transform assessment in research and clinical settings; technology also holds the promise of improving long-term support for older adults in both institutional and community-based settings. Finally, with 1 in 7 Americans now ages 65 and older, compared with 1 in 11 50 years ago, the psychology workforce-including health services providers and faculty to train those providers-is insufficient to meet the challenge of the aging population. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27159432

  3. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association for the Legislative Year 2009: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives and Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Barry S.

    2010-01-01

    These minutes are the official record of the actions of the American Psychological Association taken during the year by both the Board of Directors (the Board) and the Council of Representatives (Council). The roll of representatives was called at each Council meeting, and more than a quorum answered to their names. Reference is made in these…

  4. Coverage of Russian psychological contributions in American psychology textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and

  5. American Music Therapy Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Music Therapy Association Home Contact News Help/FAQ Members Only Login Quick Links Facts About Music Therapy Qualifications ... with AMTA Sponsor AMTA Events Social Networking Support Music Therapy When you shop at AmazonSmile, Amazon will ...

  6. American Therapeutic Recreation Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Remember Me I forgot my password American Therapeutic Recreation Association Promoting Health & Wellness Services Annual Conference 2016 ... and leave your opinion Join thousands of Therapeutic Recreation specialists today Join Now Renew your membership today ...

  7. American Sleep Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Health Professionals Join ASA Press Room American Sleep Association Share What is Sleep ? Insight into the ... Forums Contact Us Login Join ASA – for FREE Sleep Blog ASA Charitable Work – Sleeping Children Around the ...

  8. American Tinnitus Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Tinnitus Association Donate Become A Member Member Login Find A Provider Search form Search Menu Close Understanding The Facts Managing Your Tinnitus Research Toward A Cure About Us Initiatives News & ...

  9. The h index of the presidents of the American Psychological Association (APA through journal articles included in the Web of Science database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualberto Buela-Casal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio descriptivo analiza los índices h de los presidentes de la American Psychological Association (APA desde 1940 hasta la actualidad. El índice h se calcula teniendo en cuenta el número de artículos publicados en las revistas de la Web of Science (WOS y las citas recibidas por los mismos en dicha base de datos. No se estableció un periodo de búsqueda y, por tanto, se analizaron todos los resultados incluidos en la WOS. El número total de resultados analizados fue de 16.676, de los cuales 3.734 fueron de los presidentes de la APA. Los resultados se presentan en forma de ranking y ponen de manifiesto que Albert Bandura y Alan Kazdin son los presidentes con un índice h más elevado, y en entre estos y los demás existe una diferencia considerable. Los resultados hacen especular que el criterio de productividad en artículos científicos no fue el criterio más importante para presidir esta institución.

  10. Darwinian Theory, Functionalism, and the First American Psychological Revolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…

  11. 75 FR 36414 - American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Psychology Program Announcement Type: New. Funding Opportunity Number... Indians into Psychology Program. This program is authorized under the authority of ``25 U.S.C....

  12. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  13. The Competencies Initiative in American Professional Psychology: Implications for School Psychology Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Edward J., III; Doll, Beth; Schulte, Ann C.; Fenning, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    In the past decade, American professional psychology has taken significant steps toward a unified statement of the competencies that define the practice of psychology, regardless of specialty. The purpose of this article is to explain the current competency initiative in professional psychology and examine its implications and potential impact on…

  14. The Role of Disordered-Eating Cognitions and Psychological Flexibility on Distress in Asian American and European American College Females in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Akihiko; Le, Jane; Cohen, Lindsey L.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated whether different forms of disordered-eating-related cognitions and psychological flexibility were associated with psychological distress among female Asian American and European American college students in the United States. Disordered-eating-related cognitions examined in the present study included thoughts (a)…

  15. Comparative Sports Psychology: British and American Developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Benjamin; Walsh, Joseph

    By the turn of the 20th century, research had begun dealing with the subject of sport psychology in America. In the early 1900's, Coleman Griffin, the father of sport psychology, led the way in researching sport psychology. It was not until the 1960's that research in this field became popular in Great Britain. In 1967, in both America and Great…

  16. Dual Minority Stress and Asian American Gay Men's Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…

  17. Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research with Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…

  18. Theory, Not Cultural Context, Will Advance American Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeffel, Gerald J.; Thiessen, Erik D.; Campbell, Matthew W.; Kaschak, Michael P.; McNeil, Nicole M.

    2009-01-01

    Comments on an article by J. J. Arnett regarding the assertion that American psychology focuses too narrowly on Americans while neglecting the other 95% of the world's population. The authors agree with Arnett's call for greater attention to this issue. However, they fundamentally disagree with his position on issues related to generalizability…

  19. American Telemedicine Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ATA On Twitter Tweets by @AmericanTelemed ATA On Facebook Physicians and Clinicians Increase your reach as a ... the global deployment of telemedicine. ATA provides proven marketing opportunities, connecting buyers and sellers. Upcoming Trade Shows ...

  20. American Heart Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Heart area Search by State SELECT YOUR LANGUAGE Español (Spanish) 简体中文 (Traditional Chinese) 繁体中文 (Simplified Chinese) Tiếng Việt (Vietnamese) Healthy Living Conditions Caregiver ...

  1. Psychological influence on American humanist education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu, L.

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is meant to outline the modalities in which psychology has influenced humanist education in the USA, starting with a historical background and presenting its major trends: positive psychology, transcendentalism, the trend based on new discoveries in genetics and neurology with special focus on the third force psychology. It encourages self-actualization, enabling students to express themselves, to act, to experiment, to make mistakes, to discover and to self-discover. The major objectives of humanist education work together for free manifestation of human individuality and the elimination of any coercion and oppression which may suppress the individual.

  2. American Association Of State Climatologists

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...

  3. Reasons for African American Student Attrition from School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what…

  4. American Lung Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association's 'Tobacco 21' Initiative to Save Lives of Millennials, Future Generations by Raising Tobacco Sales Age to ... by lung disease. Help us continue to deliver education, advocacy and research to those who need it. $ ...

  5. Academic Attitudes and Psychological Well-Being of Black American Psychology Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uqdah, Aesha L.; Tyler, Kenneth M.; DeLoach, Chante

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study is to explore the relationships between academic self-concept, perception of competency in related domains, and academic motivation (intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation), and reported anxiety and depression among Black American psychology graduate students. The major research question asks whether there is a relationship…

  6. Role of Social Support in Examining Acculturative Stress and Psychological Distress Among Asian American Immigrants and Three Sub-groups: Results from NLAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shipra; McBride, Kimberly; Kak, Vivek

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the impact of acculturative stress and social support (family and friend) on psychological distress among Asian American immigrants and three Asian sub-groups (Vietnamese, Filipino and Chinese) immigrants. The National Latino and Asian American Study 2002-2003 dataset was used. The study findings were: (1) among all Asian American immigrants high language barrier and discrimination stress were associated with increased level of psychological distress, but similar association was not present for legal stress; (2) among all Asian American immigrants high family social support decreased the levels of psychological distress, and in addition, friend social support buffered the relationship of discrimination and psychological distress; and (3) among Vietnamese, Filipino, and Chinese, differential association of social support and acculturative stress to psychological distress were observed. These findings highlight the importance of social support among Asian American immigrants, while also paying attention to the variation that may exist between different sub-groups. PMID:25910620

  7. The Archives of the History of American Psychology: An Interview with David B. Baker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Loreto R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with David B. Baker, Director of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. Covers topics such as: Baker's interest in the history of psychology, his work at the Archives of the History of American Psychology, and recommendations for teachers when addressing history in non-history courses. (CMK)

  8. Revisión acerca de las normas para la presentación de referencias bibliográficas según el estilo de la American Psychological Association (APA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Carlos Abalos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerosas instituciones han hecho accesibles sus datos a través de la infraestructura de comunicaciones que ofrece la internet, a través de la World Wide Web. Su amplia versatilidad permite trabajar con ficheros de texto, sonido, imágenes fijas y/o en movimiento, así como la capacidad de acceder desde ella a todos los otros servicios de internet. Bajo este esquema tecnológico surgieron los distintos recursos electrónicos de información. Para la preparación de un informe en los ámbitos académicos y científicos, cada día es más necesario citar y referirse a documentos e información obtenida a través de medios electrónicos. La utilización de estos recursos hace necesario contar con un sistema que determine un criterio adecuado para citarlos. En este artículo, se presenta una síntesis del estilo sugerido por la American Psychological Association para citar documentos electrónicos consultados a través de la internet.

  9. Impact of psychological stress on the associations between apolipoprotein E variants and metabolic traits: findings in an American sample of caregivers and controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Iqbal; Brummett, Beverly H; Barefoot, John;

    2010-01-01

    To examine the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene variants and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum triglycerides, all metabolic traits known as cardiovascular disease (CVD) endophenotypes, in a population ...

  10. Psychological-Mindedness and American Indian Historical Trauma: Interviews with Service Providers from a Great Plains Reservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, William E; Gone, Joseph P

    2016-03-01

    The concept of historical trauma (HT) was developed to explain clinical distress among descendants of Jewish Holocaust survivors and has since been ascribed new meanings to account for suffering in diverse contexts. In American Indian (AI) communities, the concept of AI HT has been tailored and promoted as an expanded notion of trauma that combines psychological injury with historical oppression to causally connect experiences with Euro-American colonization to contemporary behavioral health disparities. However, rather than clinical formulations emphasizing psychological injury, a focused content analysis of interviews with 23 AI health and human service providers (SPs) on a Great Plains reservation demonstrated strong preferences for socio-cultural accounts of oppression. Reflective of a local worldview associated with minimal psychological-mindedness, this study illustrates how cultural assumptions embedded within health discourses like HT can conflict with diverse cultural forms and promote "psychologized" perspectives on suffering that may limit attention to social, economic, and political determinants of health. PMID:27217325

  11. Addressing the Underrepresentation of African-Americans in Counseling and Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haizlip, Breyan N.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been an upward trend in the number of African-American doctoral students completing counseling and psychology programs. However, despite these trends, African-American faculty continue to be significantly underrepresented as counseling educators and psychology faculty. Similarly, counseling education programs…

  12. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Careers Certification Publications Events Advocacy Continuing Education Practice Management Research American Speech-Language-Hearing Association (ASHA) Making effective communication, a human ...

  13. Psychological Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Psychology has recently identified itself as a health care profession and codified this change in the bylaws of the American Psychological Association. Although psychologists make a number of contributions to the nation's health-and mental health-the most identifiable activity focuses on treating physical or psychological pathology with…

  14. Behavioral Enculturation and Acculturation, Psychological Functioning, and Help-Seeking Attitudes Among Asian American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bryan S. K.; Omizo, Michael M.

    2010-01-01

    The study examined behavioral enculturation to Asian culture and behavioral acculturation to the dominant European American culture and their possible relations to positive psychological functioning among Asian American adolescents. Positive psychological functioning was operationalized using measures of general self-efficacy, cognitive flexibility, collective self-esteem, and attitudes toward seeking help. Based on data from 112 Asian American high school students in Hawaii, the results did ...

  15. Demographic Correlates of Psychological Well-Being and Distress Among Older African Americans and Caribbean Black Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chae, David H.; Chatters, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the demographic correlates of psychological distress and psychological well-being among older African American and black Caribbean adults. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life revealed that psychological well-being and psychological distress are distinct concepts. Findings also identify distinct correlates of psychological well-being (e.g., happiness, life satisfaction, self-rated mental health) and psychological distress (e.g., depressive symptoms, serious psy...

  16. The Impact of Ecological Risk and Perceived Discrimination on the Psychological Adjustment of African American and European American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Danoff-Burg, Sharon; Swenson, Rebecca R.; Pulgiano, Dana

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of cumulative ecological risk (i.e., neighborhood disadvantage and ecologically salient stressful events) and perceived discrimination on the psychological adjustment of urban African American and European American youth. Findings indicated that both cumulative ecological risk and perceived…

  17. American Association for Clinical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... indispensable patient care tool. Learn more IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY ddPCR Quantification of Lymphoma Mutations Researchers have developed ... Online Harmonization.net Commission on Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry American Board of Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Trainee ...

  18. American Health Information Management Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Government Corporate & Government Training Signature Partners Sponsorship Exhibitors Advertise With AHIMA Copyright & Permissions RSS LinkedIn Facebook Twitter YouTube Copyright © 2016 by The American Health ...

  19. Parent Discrimination Predicts Mexican-American Adolescent Psychological Adjustment 1 Year Later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2016-07-01

    This study examined whether Mexican-American parents' experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parents' ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14-16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a 2-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescents 1 year later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents' increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them. PMID:27224903

  20. Experiences and Perspectives of African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American Psychology Graduate Students: A National Study

    OpenAIRE

    Maton, Kenneth I.; Wimms, Harriette E.; Grant, Sheila K.; Wittig, Michele A.; Rogers, Margaret R.; Vasquez, Melba J. T.

    2011-01-01

    A national, web-based survey of 1,222 African-American, Latina/o, Asian-American and European-American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color differed from European-American students in perceptions of fairness of rep...

  1. American Association of Occupational Health Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vision & Mission Board of Directors Fellows What is Occupational Health Nursing Public/Legislative Affairs AAOHN Alliances AAOHN Affiliates AAOHN ... Total Worker Health ® Agenda The American Association of Occupational ... nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center’s Commission ...

  2. American Association of Critical-Care Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Journal of Critical Care AACN Bold Voices Critical Care Nurse eNewsletter NTI Voices Career Options Books Search The ... Ambassadors Chapters Privacy Policy Disclaimer © American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Learn more about what we have to offer ...

  3. Medical and Psychological Risk Factors for Incident Hypertension in Type 1 Diabetic African-Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique S. Roy

    2011-01-01

    Conclusions. The development of hypertension in African-Americans living with type 1 diabetes appears to be multifactorial and includes both medical (overt proteinuria as well as psychological (high hostility risk factors.

  4. American Association of Colleges of Nursing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Joining Forces Public Health Nursing QSEN Module Series NURSING SHORTAGE RESOURCES About the Nursing Shortage I mpact ... Social Media Communities American Association of Colleges of Nursing One Dupont Circle, NW Suite 530 Washington, DC ...

  5. American Evaluation Association Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.

  6. Understanding the Disproportionately Low Marriage Rate among African Americans: An Amalgam of Sociological and Psychological Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza

    2011-01-01

    African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…

  7. The Evolution of the American Journal of Psychology, 1904-1918: A Network Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D; Feinerer, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    In an earlier article, we used digital historical methods to examine the first 14 volumes (1887-1903) of The American Journal of Psychology (AJP) by creating networks of the vocabularies used in every substantive article the journal published in those years. These networks showed us the major research groups that had been gathered together by the journal's founder-editor, G. Stanley Hall, and how the intellectual composition of the journal (and the discipline) changed over that 17-year period. In the present article we extended that study forward, creating networks for the next 15 volumes (1904-1918), broken into time blocks of 5 years each. Our findings, in brief, were that vision research (especially color) continued to play as consistent and prominent role in the journal as it had since the start; that memory, association, and some higher mental processes were active areas of research throughout; that Hall continued to have an on-again, off-again relationship with theoretical and philosophical psychology; that intelligence-measuring methods, psychoanalysis, and psychophysics were periodically popular enough that they each generated a cluster in 1 of the 3 time blocks; and that Titchener's participation in the editing of AJP led to its becoming the major outlet for his Structuralist research program (an absence that we noted in our earlier studies of the journal Psychological Review). PMID:27424420

  8. Review of the theater of trauma: american modernist drama and the psychological struggle for the american mind, 1900-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Steven N

    2006-01-01

    Reviews the book, The Theater of Trauma: American Modernist Drama and the Psychological Struggle for the American Mind, 1900-1930 by Michael Cotsell (2005). For most of the 20th century, psychoanalytic theory and its myriad offshoots so pervasively influenced literary criticism in the United States that for many it is difficult to imagine examining American literature of that era through any other psychological lens. In his new book The Theater of Trauma: American Modernist Drama and the Psychological Struggle for the American Mind, 1900-1930, Michael Cotsell alerts us to the existence of an alternate psychological perspective that dominated the American landscape before Freudian analysis gained widespread acceptance on this side of the Atlantic--dissociationism. He makes a compelling case that from the waning years of the 19th through the early decades of the 20th century American modernist drama was primarily shaped not by psychoanalytic thought, but by dissociationist psychology. Cotsell argues that it is dissociationism that informed and sustained the modernist sensibility in American drama, and that once dissociationist psychology was eclipsed by psychoanalytic theory, the demise of modernist playwriting was inevitable. Despite the breadth of this book, it is no more realistic that a single work could provide the last word on the relevance of dissociationism to drama than that one volume could offer a comprehensive discussion of the pertinence of psychoanalytic theory to the theater. Cotsell reminds us of the existence of a conceptual framework that carries tremendous explanatory power in its capacity to cogently link the realm of the psychological and personal to that of the social and political. The continued ubiquity of trauma and dissociation in contemporary life render the dissociationist perspective as relevant today as it was in the modernist epoch. Consequently, the significance of The Theater of Trauma extends well beyond the specific territory it

  9. Practice parameters for the psychological and behavioral treatment of insomnia: an update. An american academy of sleep medicine report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Timothy; Kramer, Milton; Alessi, Cathy; Friedman, Leah; Boehlecke, Brian; Brown, Terry; Coleman, Jack; Kapur, Vishesh; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Owens, Judith; Pancer, Jeffrey; Swick, Todd

    2006-11-01

    Insomnia is highly prevalent, has associated daytime consequences which impair job performance and quality of life, and is associated with increased risk of comorbidities including depression. These practice parameters provide recommendations regarding behavioral and psychological treatment approaches, which are often effective in primary and secondary insomnia. These recommendations replace or modify those published in the 1999 practice parameter paper produced by the American Sleep Disorders Association. A Task Force of content experts was appointed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to perform a comprehensive review of the scientific literature since 1999 and to grade the evidence regarding non-pharmacological treatments of insomnia. Recommendations were developed based on this review using evidence-based methods. These recommendations were developed by the Standards of Practice Committee and reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Psychological and behavioral interventions are effective in the treatment of both chronic primary insomnia (Standard) and secondary insomnia (Guideline). Stimulus control therapy, relaxation training, and cognitive behavior therapy are individually effective therapies in the treatment of chronic insomnia (Standard) and sleep restriction therapy, multicomponent therapy (without cognitive therapy), biofeedback and paradoxical intention are individually effective therapies in the treatment of chronic insomnia (Guideline). There was insufficient evidence to recommend sleep hygiene education, imagery training and cognitive therapy as single therapies or when added to other specific approaches. Psychological and behavioral interventions are effective in the treatment of insomnia in older adults and in the treatment of insomnia among chronic hypnotic users (Standard). PMID:17162987

  10. Psychological Factors Associated with Obtaining Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Elizabeth; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Rose, John

    2007-01-01

    Background: Less than 10% of people with intellectual disabilities are employed. The aim of the present study was to investigate what psychological factors might predict employment outcome for people with intellectual disability who had received a placement in a supported employment service. Method: Sixty people were interviewed whilst they were…

  11. Psychical research and the origins of American psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Sommer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Largely unacknowledged by historians of the human sciences, late-19th-century psychical researchers were actively involved in the making of fledgling academic psychology. Moreover, with few exceptions historians have failed to discuss the wider implications of the fact that the founder of academic psychology in America, William James, considered himself a psychical researcher and sought to integrate the scientific study of mediumship, telepathy and other controversial topics into the nascent ...

  12. Social support, psychological vulnerability, and HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Lena D; van den Berg, Jacob J; Chambers, Christopher S; Operario, Don

    2016-05-01

    Previous research has suggested a need to understand the social-psychological factors contributing to HIV risk among African American men who have sex with men (MSM). We conducted individual in-depth interviews with 34 adult African American MSM to examine their personal experiences about: (i) sources of social support, (ii) psychological responses to the presence or absence of social support and (iii) influences of social support on sexual behaviours. The majority of participants described limited positive encouragement and lack of emotional support from family, as well as few meaningful personal relationships. Feelings of isolation and mistrust about personal relationships led many participants to avoid emotional intimacy and seek physical intimacy through sexual encounters. Findings highlight a need for multilevel interventions that enhance social support networks and address the social-psychological, emotional and interpersonal factors that contribute to HIV risk among African American MSM. PMID:26588945

  13. American Evaluation Association: Guiding Principles for Evaluators

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Journal of Evaluation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Evaluation Association (AEA) strives to promote ethical practice in the evaluation of programs, products, personnel, and policy. This article presents the list of principles which AEA developed to guide evaluators in their professional practice. These principles are: (1) Systematic Inquiry; (2) Competence; (3) Integrity/Honesty; (4)…

  14. 75 FR 73076 - National Gas Supply Association, American Forest and Paper Association, Inc., American Public Gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ...., American Public Gas Association, Independent Petroleum Association of America, Process Gas Consumers Group... Petroleum Association of America, and Process Gas Consumers Group (collectively, the Associations), filed in... desiring to intervene or to protest in this proceeding must file in accordance with Rules 211 and 214...

  15. American Telemedicine Association: 2014 Fall Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Bernard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The American Telemedicine Association (ATA will host its annual Fall Forum in Palm Desert, California, Sept. 6-9, 2014. In addition to two full days of programs related to managing and improving chronic conditions, ATA will host a full-day American-Chinese Telemedicine Forum on Sunday, Sept. 7, 2014. The forum, co-sponsored by the American International Telemedicine Council, will deliver the tools and information that are essential to building a successful telemedicine business abroad. Attendees will learn about the existing clinical and business landscape oftelemedicine in China, and how to establish key partnerships to help their respective health system, or business, grow in the international market.

  16. Latin American Journal of Psychology: Four Decades of History: 1969-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Gallegos

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the history of Latin American Journal of Psychology (RLP) in the last four decades (1969-2009). From the beginning, the RLP has sustained its editorial quality, three numbers a year, different theoretical perspectives and methodologies, authors from different countries, etc. Original editor’s motivations and interests are presented, also editorial indicators descriptions are analyzed showing the relevance of the Journal both in Latin American and international context. It...

  17. A "Narrowing of Inquiry" in American Moral Psychology and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Michael J.; Slife, Brent D.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the possibility that a priori philosophical commitments continue to result in a narrowing of inquiry in moral psychology and education where theistic worldviews are concerned. Drawing from the theories of Edward L. Thorndike and John Dewey, we examine naturalistic philosophical commitments that influenced the study of moral psychology…

  18. Influence of Psychological and Social Factors on Bystanders' Roles in School Bullying among Korean-American Students in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sumi; Cho, Young Il

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the associations of psychological and social variables with the likelihood of exhibiting three different behaviors as a bystander in a bullying situation. The sample comprised 238 Korean-American and Korean students, from the 3rd to 12th grades, studying in the USA. Students receiving classmate support showed a lower…

  19. Pre-migration Trauma Exposure and Psychological Distress for Asian American Immigrants: Linking the Pre- and Post-migration Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Miao; Anderson, James G

    2016-08-01

    Drawing on the life course perspective and the assumptive world theory, this paper examines whether pre-migration trauma exposure is associated with psychological distress through post-migration perceived discrimination for Asian American immigrants. The study is based on cross-sectional data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 1639). Structural equation model is used to estimate the relationship between pre-migration trauma, post-migration perceived discrimination, and psychological distress. Additional models are estimated to explore possible variations across ethnic groups as well as across different types of pre-migration trauma experience. Pre-migration trauma exposure is associated with higher levels of psychological distress, both directly and indirectly through higher level of perceived discrimination, even after controlling for demographic/acculturative factors and post-migration trauma exposure. This pattern holds for the following sub-types of pre-migration trauma: political trauma, crime victimization, physical violence, accidental trauma, and relational trauma. Multi-group analyses show that this pattern holds for all Asian immigrant subgroups except the Vietnamese. Studies of immigrant mental health primarily focus on post-migration stressors. Few studies have considered the link between pre- and post-migration contexts in assessing mental health outcomes. The study illustrates the usefulness of bridging the pre- and post-migration context in identifying the mental health risks along the immigrant life course. PMID:26319042

  20. Delayed psychological morbidity associated with snakebite envenoming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehan S Williams

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The psychological impact of snakebite on its victims, especially possible late effects, has not been systematically studied. OBJECTIVES: To assess delayed somatic symptoms, depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and impairment in functioning, among snakebite victims. METHODS: The study had qualitative and quantitative arms. In the quantitative arm, 88 persons who had systemic envenoming following snakebite from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka were randomly identified from an established research database and interviewed 12 to 48 months (mean 30 after the incident. Persons with no history of snakebite, matched for age, sex, geograpical location and occupation, acted as controls. A modified version of the Beck Depression Inventory, Post-Traumatic Stress Symptom Scale, Hopkins Somatic Symptoms Checklist, Sheehan Disability Inventory and a structured questionnaire were administered. In the qualitative arm, focus group discussions among snakebite victims explored common somatic symptoms attributed to envenoming. RESULTS: Previous snakebite victims (cases had more symptoms than controls as measured by the modified Beck Depression Scale (mean 19.1 Vs 14.4; p<0.001 and Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (38.9 vs. 28.2; p<0.001. 48 (54% cases met criteria for depressive disorder compared to 13 (15% controls. 19 (21.6% cases also met criteria for PTSD. 24 (27% claimed that the snakebite caused a negative change in their employment; nine (10.2% had stopped working and 15 (17% claimed residual physical disability. The themes identified in the qualitative arm included blindness, tooth decay, body aches, headaches, tiredness and weakness. CONCLUSIONS: Snakebite causes significant ongoing psychological morbidity, a complication not previously documented. The economic and social impacts of this problem need further investigation.

  1. Reducing the Grade Disparities between American Indians and Euro-American Students in Introduction to Psychology through Small-Group, Peer-Mentored, Supplemental Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris Alan; Berlin, Anna; Hanrahan, Jeanne; Lewis, James; Johnson, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Supplemental instruction (SI) is a small-group, peer-mentored programme which is compatible with the learning preferences of American Indian students. We tested the hypothesis that SI is a compensatory strategy that reduces the differences in the grades earned in introduction to psychology by Euro-American and American Indian students. The sample…

  2. Psychological Research with Muslim Americans in the Age of Islamophobia: Trends, Challenges, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Mona M.; Bagasra, Anisah

    2013-01-01

    Like other minority groups in North America, Muslim Americans have been largely ignored in the psychological literature. The overwhelming pressures faced by this group, including surveillance, hate crimes, and institutional discrimination, stimulate an urgent need for psychologists to better understand and ensure the well-being of this population.…

  3. Family Violence: Psychological Consequences and Beliefs in Asian and Asian-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Azmaira; Heiple, Becky

    This study specifically explored the relationships among childhood trauma, long-term psychological consequences, beliefs about family violence, and gender role stereotypes in Asian and Asian American women. A prediction was made that childhood physical violence and witnessing family violence would create long-term negative symptoms; higher levels…

  4. Perceived Racial Discrimination, Social Support, and Psychological Adjustment among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prelow, Hazel M.; Mosher, Catherine E.; Bowman, Marvella A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine three competing models of the relations among perceived discrimination, social support, and indicators of psychological adjustment in a sample of 135 African American college students. The three competing models, social support buffering, social support mobilization, and social support deterioration, were…

  5. Relationship Status, Psychological Orientation, and Sexual Risk Taking in a Heterosexual African American College Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfield, Evelyn B.; Whaley, Arthur L.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examined relationship status, psychological orientation toward sexual risk taking, and other characteristics as potential correlates of risky sexual behavior in a sample of 223 heterosexual African American college students. Risky sexual behavior was investigated as a multinomial variable (i.e., abstinence, consistent condom use,…

  6. Examining Relationships between Ethnic Identity, Family Environment, and Psychological Outcomes for African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Jalika; Harris-Britt, April; Walker-Barnes, Chanequa

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic identity has been linked to a number of healthy psychological outcomes for African American adolescents. The levels of conflict and cohesion in the family environment have also been found to be predictive of adolescent mental health. This study examined whether the ethnic identity and levels of conflict and cohesion in the family…

  7. Religious Identity, Religious Participation, and Psychological Well-Being in Asian American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Richard F; Kiang, Lisa

    2016-03-01

    Religiosity plays a prominent spiritual and social role in adolescents' lives. Yet, despite its developmental salience, few studies have examined normative changes in religiosity or the implications of these changes for psychological well-being. We explored longitudinal variation in and associations between religiosity, as defined by private regard, centrality, and participation in religious activities, and diverse indicators of well-being including self-esteem, depressive symptoms, positive and negative affect, and both the presence of and search for meaning in life. The participants were two cohorts of Asian American high school students (N = 180; 60 % female) followed for 4 years and living in the southeastern US. Using hierarchical linear modelling and controlling for gender and generational status, results revealed that religious identity (i.e., regard, centrality) did not normatively increase or decrease over time, but participation increased. Religious identity was significantly associated with higher self-esteem, greater positive affect, the presence of meaning in life, and reduced depressive symptoms (for females), and participation was positively associated with positive affect and the presence of meaning. Our results and discussion emphasize the utility of further examining how religion plays a role in health and well-being, particularly among immigrant youth. PMID:26346036

  8. Puerto Rican Phenotype: Understanding Its Historical Underpinnings and Psychological Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Irene

    2008-01-01

    The following is a historically informed review of Puerto Rican phenotype. Geared toward educating psychologists, this review discusses how various psychological issues associated with phenotype may have arisen as a result of historical legacies and policies associated with race and racial mixing. It discusses how these policies used various…

  9. Parent-Adolescent Relationship Quality and Nondisclosure as Mediators of the Association between Exposure to Community Violence and Psychological Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E.; Bryant, Fred B.; Boustani, Maya M.; Tyler, Donald; McIntosh, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: African American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and for psychological symptoms, but there has been little investigation of mediating processes that might explain this association. Objectives: This study tested the quality of parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent…

  10. Psychological morbidity associated with motor vehicle accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, E B; Hickling, E J; Taylor, A E; Loos, W R; Gerardi, R J

    1994-03-01

    Fifty victims of recent motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), who had sought medical attention after their accidents, were assessed for possible psychological morbidity as a result of the accident. Forty age, gender-matched controls were also assessed with the same instruments. Forty-six percent of the MVA victims met the criteria for current post-traumatic stress disorders (PTSD) as a result of the accident while 20% showed a sub-syndromal version (the reexperiencing symptom cluster plus either the avoidance/numbing cluster or the over-arousal cluster) of PTSD. Although all MVA victims showed some form of driving reluctance, only 1 S met the criteria for driving phobia. Those MVA victims who met the criteria for PTSD or sub-syndromal PTSD were significantly more likely to have experienced previous trauma, other than a serious MVA, and were more likely (P = 0.008) to have previously met the criteria for PTSD as a result of that trauma. Forty-eight percent of MVA victims who met the criteria for current PTSD also met the criteria for current major depression. Significantly more current MVA-PTSDs had suffered previous major depressive episodes. PMID:8192626

  11. BRIDGE OVER TROUBLED WATERS? THE MOST "CENTRAL" MEMBERS OF PSYCHOLOGY AND PHILOSOPHY ASSOCIATIONS CA. 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher D; Heidari, Crystal; Chiacchia, Daniel; Martin, Shane M

    2016-07-01

    There are many different ways to assess the significance of historical figures. Often we look at the influence of their writings, or at the important offices they held with disciplinary institutions such as universities, journals, and scholarly societies. In this study, however, we took a novel approach: we took the complete memberships, ca. 1900, of four organizations-the American Psychological Association, the Western Philosophical Association, the American Philosophical Association, and the Southern Society for Philosophy and Psychology-and visualized them as a network. We then identified individuals who "bridged" between two or more of these groups and considered what might be termed their "centrality" to the psychological-philosophical community of their time. First, we examined these figures qualitatively, briefly describing their lives and careers. Then we approached the problem mathematically, considering several alternative technical realizations of "centrality" and then explaining our reasons for choosing eigenvector centrality as the best for our purposes. We found a great deal of overlap among the results of the qualitative and quantitative approaches, but also some telling differences. J. Mark Baldwin, Edward Buchner, Christine Ladd Franklin, and Frank Thilly consistently emerged as highly central figures. Some more marginal figures such as Max Meyer, and Frederick J. E. Woodbridge, Edward A. Pace, Edward H. Griffin played interesting roles as well. PMID:27163795

  12. Culture, Power, Authenticity and Psychological Well-Being within Romantic Relationships: A Comparison of European American and Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Kristin D.; Suizzo, Marie-Anne

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated possible cultural differences in the association of power, authentic self-expression, and well-being within romantic relationships. Participants (N = 314) included European American students from a central Texas university and Mexican American students from a border university. Results indicated that power inequality was…

  13. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association for the Legislative Year 2006: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives, February 17-19, 2006, Washington, DC; and August 17 and 21, 2006, New Orleans, LA; and Minutes of the February, June, August, and December 2006 Meetings of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Ruth Ullmann

    2007-01-01

    Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives (February 17-19, 2006, Washington, DC; and August 17 and 21, 2006, New Orleans, LA) and of the 2006 meetings of the Board of Directors (February, June, August, and December) are provided. These minutes are the official record of the actions of the American Psychological Association…

  14. Non medical factors associated with psychological disorders in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To find out major non-medial factors associated with psychological disorders in cancer patients. Design: An observational study conducted on adult cancer patients. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at Shaukat Khanum Memorial Cancer Hospital and Research Center Lahore Pakistan from January 1999. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twenty-four newly-diagnosed adult cancer patients were interviewed by the clinical psychologist and data was collected regarding non-medical causal factors, patients age, gender family support system, general home atmosphere and marital status. Collected data was analyzed by utilizing. SPSS for windows version 10.0. Results: Of the 224 patients 142 (63.4%) reported non-medical factors causing psychological distress and 82 (36.6%) reported that medical sources are the most distressing. Ten most common non-medical sources of developing psychological disorders were identified. It was observed that family support system and general home atmosphere were significantly associated with the development of psychological disorders whereas the other variables such as age, gender and marital status had no significant relationship with the non Medical factors. Conclusion: It was concluded that non-medical factors causing psychological problems are significant in cancer patients. The results suggest that we should identify these factors and target psychosocial intervention for those patients most at risk. (author)

  15. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association for the Legislative Year 2007: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives and Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Barry S.

    2008-01-01

    Provides the minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives February 16-18, 2007, Washington, DC, and August 9 and 13, 2007, San Francisco, CA, and minutes of the February, June, August, and December 2007 meetings of the Board of Directors. These minutes are the official record of the actions of the American Psychological…

  16. The American Kinesiology Association Undergraduate Core Curriculum©

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the elements of the undergraduate core in kinesiology that have been established by the American Kinesiology Association. The American Kinesiology Association also describes a set of ten student-learning outcomes that emanate from the four core content elements. This information has been developed by the American Kinesiology…

  17. Church Member Support Benefits Psychological Well-Being of Pregnant African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Murn, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Depression during pregnancy is common, and pregnant African American (AA) women are more likely to experience depressive symptoms compared with pregnant non-Hispanic white women. This study explored AA women's experience of church attendance, church member support, depressive symptoms, and psychological well-being at 15-25 weeks' gestation. Nurses need to be aware of the importance of church support and encourage clergy and church members to be supportive of pregnant women. PMID:27119803

  18. Applying Social Psychological Models to Predicting HIV-Related Sexual Risk Behaviors Among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, Susan D.; MAYS, VICKIE M.

    1993-01-01

    Existing models of attitude-behavior relationships, including the Health Belief Model, the Theory of Reasoned Action, and the Self-Efficacy Theory, are increasingly being used by psychologists to predict human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related risk behaviors. The authors briefly highlight some of the difficulties that might arise in applying these models to predicting the risk behaviors of African Americans. These social psychological models tend to emphasize the importance of individualis...

  19. What is military psychology? Symposium Proceedings

    OpenAIRE

    Arima, James K.

    1980-01-01

    Symposium proceedings: papers presented in a symposium entitled "What is Military Psychology", held on 3 September 1979 at the 87th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association in New York City

  20. American Lung Association's radon public information program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Lung Association (ALA), the nation's oldest voluntary health organization, is dedicated to the conquest of lung disease and the promotion of lung health. The objective of the ALA Radon Public Information Program is to reduce public exposure to elevated indoor radon levels through implementing grassroots-based radon public awareness campaigns by 22 local ALA groups. The program, which is funded by a grant from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), was initiated in December 1989; the first phase will continue until May, 1991. Activities of local Lung Associations include distribution of free or reduced-cost radon kits; presenting programs in elementary and secondary schools; presenting information on TV news series and talk shows, and on radio Public Service Announcements and talk shows; presenting articles and feature stories in the print media; holding conferences, workshops, and displays at fairs and other exhibitions; distributing radon fact sheets through libraries and utility company mailings; and distributing videos through video chains and libraries. The local Lung Associations also serve as promoters for the EPA/Advertising Council Radon Public Service Announcement Campaign. We will highlight the activities of the groups in communicating radon health risks to the public; we will describe the results obtained and will attempt to evaluate the merits of the various approaches on the basis of the initial results

  1. Predicting the Psychological Response of the American People to Oil Depletion and Declining Energy Return on Investment (EROI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail P. Lambert

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Oil has played a crucial role in the United States’ continued but increasingly tenuous economic prosperity. The continued availability of cheap, high energy return on investment (EROI oil, however, is increasingly in doubt. If cheap oil is increasingly constrained, how might that impact the American psychological sense of personal and national well-being? We employ general systems theory and certain key paradigms from psychology and sociology to predict the possible societal response to global peak oil and the declining EROI of whatever oil is produced. Based on these frameworks, the following three defense mechanisms seem likely to be employed by individuals and groups within society if and when confronted with stresses associated with declining oil availability. These are: denial of one’s passive helpless state, desire to establish a scapegoat, and arousal of affiliative needs and increased subgrouping. A group’s “survival” is a function of its unified sense of direction and the stability of necessary interdependencies and linkages. We suggest that the ability of the U.S. society, taken as a whole, to adapt to the stresses derived from the declining EROI of oil will increase during periods of moderate stress, and then decline after reaching its maximum ability to cope with stress. The integrity of interdependencies and linkages—power, communication, affect, and goals—must be preserved for continued social unity. Americans will need to acknowledge the reality of biophysical constraints if they are to adapt to the coming energy crisis.

  2. American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Mental Health: Development, Context, Prevention, and Treatment. Child Psychology and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarche, Michelle C., Ed.; Spicer, Paul, Ed.; Farrell, Patricia, Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This unique book examines the physical, psychological, social, and environmental factors that support or undermine healthy development in American Indian children, including economics, biology, and public policies. American Indian and Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately higher rates of trauma, substance abuse, and youth suicide. At the…

  3. Sexual orientation and sexual behavior among Latino and Asian Americans: implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, David H; Ayala, George

    2010-09-01

    Research on the sexuality of Asians and Latinos in the United States has been sparse, and the studies that have been done suffer from a number of limitations. Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (2002-2003), this study examined self-identified sexual orientation and self-reported sexual behavior among Latinos (n = 2,554; age: M = 38.1, SE = 0.5) and Asians (n = 2,095; age: M = 41.5, SE = 0.8). This study also investigated implications for unfair treatment and psychological distress among sexual minorities identified in the sample. Results indicated heterogeneity in responses to items assessing sexual orientation and sexual behavior including differences in the adoption of lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB) identity by gender, ethnicity, nativity, and socioeconomic status. LGB sexual minorities reported higher levels of unfair treatment and psychological distress compared to their non-LGB-identified sexual minority counterparts, and unfair treatment was positively associated with psychological distress. Results highlight the need to consider multiple demographic factors in assessing sexuality, and also suggest that measures of both self-identified sexual orientation and sexual behavior should be collected. In addition, findings provide support for the deleterious influence of unfair treatment among Asians and Latinos in the United States. PMID:19626536

  4. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association for the Legislative Year 2008: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives and Minutes of the Meetings of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Barry S.

    2009-01-01

    Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives (February 22-24, 2008, Washington, DC; and August 13 and 17, 2008, Boston, Massachusetts) and of the 2008 meetings of the Board of Directors (February, June, August, and December) are provided. These minutes are the official record of the actions of the Association taken during the…

  5. Incorporating Law into the Undergraduate Psychology Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Elizabeth V.

    1983-01-01

    Law and psychology interface in a number of traditional researchable subfields of psychology, such as social, clinical, and developmental. Another reason for the inclusion of legal courses in college psychology courses is that the American Psychological Association's "Ethical Standards of Psychologists" mandates that psychologists stay current in…

  6. Factors Associated with Hepatitis B Testing Among Vietnamese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Tung T Nguyen; McPhee, Stephen J.; Stewart, Susan; Gildengorin, Ginny; Zhang, Lena; Wong, Ching; Maxwell, Annette E.; Bastani, Roshan; Taylor, Vicky M.; Chen, Moon S.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis B-associated liver cancer is a major health disparity among Vietnamese Americans, who have a chronic hepatitis B prevalence rate of 7–14% and an incidence rate for liver cancer six times that of non-Latino whites. OBJECTIVE Describe factors associated with hepatitis B testing among Vietnamese Americans. DESIGN A population-based telephone survey conducted in 2007–2008. PARTICIPANTS Vietnamese Americans age 18–64 and living in the Northern Californi...

  7. The Hawthorne experiments and the introduction of Jean Piaget in American industrial psychology, 1929-1932.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Yeh

    2002-05-01

    The Hawthorne interview program between 1929 and 1932 was one of the most significant industrial studies in the United States. The Hawthorne researchers applied Jean Piaget's clinical method in their extensive interviews with tens of thousands of workers. Chiefly responsible for the program's methodology was Elton Mayo, an Australian who saw interviewing as a means to promote social cooperation. Previous discussions of the Hawthorne experiments have ignored the influence of Piaget in the social sciences. This article provides an account of Mayo's and the Hawthorne researchers' efforts to fuse Piaget's innovation with burgeoning American industrial psychology. The endeavor was not an isolated event but rather drew on the theories and practice of Janet-Piaget psychology, on the support of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Foundation, and on the discourse among social scientists about Piaget's work. PMID:12096759

  8. Psychological Factors Associated With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christino, Melissa A.; Fleming, Braden C.; Machan, Jason T.; Shalvoy, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Psychological factors may have underappreciated effects on surgical outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between specific psychological factors, objective clinical data, and patient-oriented outcomes. Purpose: Psychological factors are significantly associated with patient perceptions and functional outcomes after ACL reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate relationships between self-esteem, health locus of control, and psychological distress with objective clinical outcomes, patient-oriented outcomes, and return to sport. Study Design: Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Twenty-seven patients who were 6 to 24 months post–computer-assisted ACL reconstruction by a single surgeon consented to participate in the study (52% response rate). Participants had a 1-time visit with a physician consisting of: a physical examination, a single-leg hop test, KT-1000 arthrometer measurements, and survey completion. Psychological measures included the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Brief Profile of Mood States. Outcome measures included the Tegner activity scale, International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) Subjective Knee Score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score–Quality of Life subscale (KOOS-QOL), and Short Form–36 (SF-36). Patient charts were also reviewed for pertinent operative details. Results: The mean age of patients (±SD) was 25.7 ± 8.4 years, and the mean duration of time since surgery was 16.5 ± 5.9 months. The majority (89%) of the patients identified themselves as athletes, and of these, 65% reported returning to sports at a competitive level. Sport returners were found to have higher levels of self-esteem (P = .002) and higher reported KOOS-QOL scores (P = .02). Self-esteem was significantly associated with IKDC scores (r = 0.46, P < .05), KOOS-QOL scores (r = 0

  9. Mechanisms Linking Violence Exposure and School Engagement Among African American Adolescents: Examining the Roles of Psychological Problem Behaviors and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Torsten B Neilands; Hunnicutt, Shannon

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether the relationship between violence exposure and school engagement is mediated by psychological problem behaviors and whether such relationships are gendered. Five hundred and sixty-three high school African American adolescents (ages 13 to 19 years) completed questionnaires which assessed two types of violence exposure (community violence and marital conflict), psychological problem behaviors (e.g., PTSD symptoms, anxiety, withdrawal, and aggressive behaviors), and ...

  10. The Publishing Dilemma of the American Psychological Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, George D.

    2002-01-01

    Primary source peer reviewed journals are the gold standard for biomedical science. Relationships between journal owners, who have total business authority, and editors, who have total intellectual authority, are often strained. Adherence to "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" of the International Committee of…

  11. American Kinesiology Association: A National Effort to Promote Kinesiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Thomas, Jerry R.

    2010-01-01

    The American Academy of Kinesiology and Physical Education (AAKPE) and The American Kinesiology Association (AKA) should work together to help kinesiology thrive. Data are provided about kinesiology that reflects its visibility in PubMed and Google. Survey data from AKA show the rapid growth of the undergraduate major and graduate programs. In…

  12. Where are you from? A validation of the Foreigner Objectification Scale and the psychological correlates of foreigner objectification among Asian Americans and Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Brian E; Lee, Richard M; Pituc, Stephanie T; Jung, Kyoung-Rae; Park, Irene J K; Soto, José A; Kim, Su Yeong; Schwartz, Seth J

    2013-04-01

    Many ethnic minorities in the United States consider themselves to be just as American as their European American counterparts. However, there is a persistent cultural stereotype of ethnic minorities as foreigners (i.e., the perpetual foreigner stereotype) that may be expressed during interpersonal interactions (i.e., foreigner objectification). The goal of the present study was to validate the Foreigner Objectification Scale, a brief self-report measure of perceived foreigner objectification, and to examine the psychological correlates of perceived foreigner objectification. Results indicated that the Foreigner Objectification Scale is structurally (i.e., factor structure) and metrically (i.e., factor loadings) invariant across foreign-born and U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos. Scalar (i.e., latent item intercepts) invariance was demonstrated for the two foreign-born groups and the two U.S.-born groups, but not across foreign-born and U.S.-born individuals. Multiple-group structural equation models indicated that, among U.S.-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was associated with less life satisfaction and more depressive symptoms, and was indirectly associated with lower self-esteem via identity denial, operationalized as the perception that one is not viewed by others as American. Among foreign-born individuals, perceived foreigner objectification was not significantly associated directly with self-esteem, life satisfaction, or depressive symptoms. However, perceived foreigner objectification was positively associated with identity denial, and identity denial was negatively associated with life satisfaction. This study illustrates the relevance of perceived foreigner objectification to the psychological well-being of U.S.-born Asian Americans and Latinos. PMID:23647327

  13. Evolving Internship Issues in School Psychology Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeAdelle; Swerdlik, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Current issues relevant to school psychology internships are reviewed. The movement toward professional competencies and behavioral benchmarks as they relate to school psychology internships is discussed, with a concentration on American Psychological Association and National Association of School Psychologists standards. Given the emphasis on…

  14. Parenting Cognitions Associated with the Use of Psychological Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, Bobbi R.; Mills, Rosemary S. L.; Freeman, Wendy S.

    2007-01-01

    Psychological control is a pattern of parenting that is intrusive and manipulative of children's thoughts, feelings, and attachment to parents. Although little is known about the determinants of psychological control, it has been linked to the psychological status of the parent. We hypothesized that several parenting cognitions reflecting personal…

  15. The European Federation of Psychology Students' Associations: A growing organization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polišenská, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 2 (2011), s. 100-103. ISSN 1016-9040 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : EFPSA * psychology in Europe * psychology organization s Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.306, year: 2011

  16. Faculty member receives American Agricultural Law Association highest honor

    OpenAIRE

    Sutphin, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    L. Leon Geyer of Blacksburg, Va., professor of agricultural and applied economics in Virginia Tech's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, has received the 2008 American Agricultural Law Association (AALA) Distinguished Service Award.

  17. Subjective stress reactivity in psoriasis – a cross sectional study of associated psychological traits

    OpenAIRE

    Remröd, Charlotta; Sjöström, Karin; Svensson, Åke

    2015-01-01

    Background Stress or psychological distress is often described as a causative or maintaining factor in psoriasis. Psychological traits may influence the appraisal, interpretation and coping ability regarding stressful situations. Detailed investigations of psychological traits in relation to stress reactivity in psoriasis are rare. The aim of this study was to examine whether patients with psoriasis who report an association between psychological distress and exacerbation, “stress reactors” (...

  18. Factors Associated with Hepatitis B Testing Among Vietnamese Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Tung T Nguyen; McPhee, Stephen J.; Stewart, Susan; Gildengorin, Ginny; Zhang, Lena; Wong, Ching; Maxwell, Annette E.; Bastani, Roshan; Taylor, Vicky M.; Chen, Moon S.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis B-associated liver cancer is a major health disparity among Vietnamese Americans, who have a chronic hepatitis B prevalence rate of 7–14% and an incidence rate for liver cancer six times that of non-Latino whites. Describe factors associated with hepatitis B testing among Vietnamese Americans. A population-based telephone survey conducted in 2007–2008. Vietnamese Americans age 18–64 and living in the Northern California and Washington, DC areas (N = ...

  19. Association of Personality Traits with Psychological Factors of Depression, Anxiety, and Psychological Distress: A Community Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Afshar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Personality can be defined as the dynamic arrangement of psycho-physical systems. This study was conducted with aim to assess the prevalence of personality traits and their relation with psychological factors in the general population. Methods: The present research was designed as a cross-sectional study. We extracted our data from the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health, and Nutrition (SEPAHAN, in 2013. Participants (4763 adults were selected from among healthy people in 20 counties across Isfahan Province, Iran, through convenience sampling. Personality traits and psychological factors including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to find the association among the personality traits and psychological variables. Odds ratios were reported with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Results: The mean score ± SD of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were 18.72 ± 7.87, 29.03 ± 7.08, 24.04 ± 5.28, 31.05 ± 6.37, and 36.26 ± 7.22, respectively. In depressed and anxious subjects and subjects with high psychological distress, the score of neuroticism was higher, but the scores of other factors were significantly lower (P < 0.05. Through multivariate analysis, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with being depressed, anxious, or having significantly high psychological distress. Conclusion: In conclusion, in our population, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of agreeableness and extraversion were associated with being depressed or anxious, or having high psychological distress. Keywords: Personality, Trait, Depression, Anxiety, Stress

  20. Emotion and mood: over 120 years of contemplation and exploration in the American Journal of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altarriba, Jeanette

    2012-01-01

    Emotional states derived from stimuli such as visual objects, scenes, and films, linguistic input such as words and phrases, and other inputs such as music and humor have been examined over many decades in an attempt to understand how feelings are aroused and, in turn, how they influence behavior. From early introspectionists to modern-day social, clinical, and cognitive researchers studying the ways in which affect is derived from everyday conscious and unconscious experiences and how those experiences frame our perceptions for processing future encounters with emotional stimuli, over 120 years of work has been reported in The American Journal of Psychology. The current article provides an overview of the more salient and influential of those works and articulates the ways in which the reported findings influence our current explorations of emotion and mood. PMID:23350300

  1. An evaluation of the impact of the European Association of Social Psychology: A response to Schruijer (2012)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hewstone, M.; Liebkind, K.; Lewicka, M.; Laszlo, J.; Voci, A.; Contarello, A.; Gomez, A.; Hantzi, A.; Bilewicz, M.; Guinote, A.; Graf, Sylvie; Petkova, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 3 (2012), s. 117-126. ISSN 0952-6951 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : social psychology * science * European Association of Social Psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.442, year: 2012

  2. The Influence of Cognitive Development and Perceived Racial Discrimination on the Psychological Well-Being of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…

  3. School and Neighborhood Contexts, Perceptions of Racial Discrimination, and Psychological Well-Being among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Yip, Tiffany

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined contextual influences on the relationship between racial discrimination (individual, cultural, and collective/institutional) and psychological well-being. Two hundred and fifty two African American adolescents (46% male and 54% female, average age = 16) completed measures of racial discrimination, self-esteem, depressive…

  4. Exposure to Violence and Parenting as Mediators between Poverty and Psychological Symptoms in Urban African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K.E.; McCormick, A.; Poindexter, L.; Simpkins, T.; Janda, C.M.; Thomas, K.J.; Campbell, A.; Carleton, R.; Taylor, J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study builds on past research that has found support for a conceptual model in which poverty is linked with adolescent psychological symptoms through economic stressors and impaired parenting. The present study examined this model in a sample of urban African American mothers and their adolescent children. In addition, an alternative…

  5. American Academy of School Psychology Survey on the Independent Educational Evaluation for a Specific Learning Disability: Results and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, Fredrick A.; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Caterino, Linda C.; Desrochers, John

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a survey of the Fellows of the American Academy of School Psychology (Academy; AASP) regarding the independent educational evaluation (IEE) for a specific learning disability (SLD). Academy Fellows were asked about important components of the IEE, desirable evaluator qualifications, and recommended criteria for…

  6. The Utility of the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6) in Two American Indian Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Christina M.; Beals, Janette

    2011-01-01

    The Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6; Kessler et al., 2002) has been used widely as a screener for mental health problems and as a measure of severity of impact of mental health problems. However, the applicability and utility of this measure for assessments within American Indian communities has not been explored. Data were…

  7. Neuropathic sensory symptoms: association with pain and psychological factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaygan M

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Shaygan,1 Andreas Böger,2 Birgit Kröner-Herwig11Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Pain Management Clinic at the Red Cross Hospital, Kassel, GermanyBackground: A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms.Methods: Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms.Results: ANOVA (analysis of variance results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors.Conclusion: Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of

  8. Standards for educational and psychological testing

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and employment. It includes changes in federal law and measurement trends affecting validity, testing individuals with disabilities or different linguistic backgrounds, and new types of tests, as well as new uses of existing tests.

  9. Conference of the European Association of Psychology and Law (EAPL)

    OpenAIRE

    Dozortseva E.G.

    2014-01-01

    EAPL conference is held in Russia for the first time. The theme for 2014 is "Actual Problems of Legal Psychology. Victims and witnesses: from research to effective practice". Psychological characteristics of testimony, in particular, children's testimony, the possibility of recognition of lies and errors in the readings were in the focus of researchers at the dawn of the development of Legal Psychology as a science and remain relevant to this day. Currently in Russia, these topics are of part...

  10. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, Hildegard M. [Experimental Oncology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-03-13

    Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation.

  11. Impact of Neuro-Psychological Factors on Smoking-Associated Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation

  12. Confirming the Multidimensionality of Psychologically Controlling Parenting among Chinese-American Mothers: Love Withdrawal, Guilt Induction, and Shaming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Hart, Craig H.; Sun, Shuyan; Olsen, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the theoretical conceptualization of parental psychological control as a multidimensional construct, the majority of previous studies have examined psychological control as a unidimensional scale. Moreover, the conceptualization of shaming and its associations with love withdrawal and guilt induction are unclear. The current study aimed to…

  13. An Association Perspective: Responding to the American Dental Association's Future of Dentistry Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Rowland A.; Haden, N. Karl; Valachovic, Richard W.

    2000-01-01

    In response to the American Dental Association's (ADA) Future of Dentistry Project, the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) provided perspective on the most critical issues facing the dental profession. ADEA responded in six areas, each corresponding to areas of focus in the ADA project. This report reflects comments provided to the ADEA…

  14. Defining Peace Psychology and the Role of Peace Psychologists: A Survey of Division 48 Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Naomi S.

    This study was undertaken in an attempt to clarify and delineate the definition of peace psychology and the role of peace psychologists. Members of Division 48 of the American Psychological Association were asked to respond to three questions: (1) What is the definition of peace psychology? (2) How is peace psychology a psychology? and (3) What…

  15. Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…

  16. Reading and analysis on management guidelines for hyperthyroidism published in 2011 by American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists published 'Hyperthyroidism and other causes of thyrotoxicosis: management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists', and created 100 evidence-based recommendations. The guideline systematically introduced the diagnoses and therapies of hyperthyroidism, emphasizing the indications, contraindications, preparations, methodologies and follow-up strategies. The guideline also provided detailed management principles for hyperthyroidism in children and pregnancy, Graves' ophthalmopathy and some unusual causes of hyperthyroidism. (authors)

  17. Trajectories of ethnic-racial discrimination among ethnically diverse early adolescents: associations with psychological and social adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed. PMID:25345480

  18. The Association Between Psychological Distress and Decision Regret During Armed Conflict Among Hospital Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Bibi, Haim

    2016-09-01

    The association between psychological distress and decision regret during armed conflict among hospital personnel is of interest. The objective of this study was to learn of the association between psychological distress and decision regret during armed conflict. Data was collected from 178 hospital personnel in Barzilai Medical Center in Ashkelon, Israel during Operation Protective Edge. The survey was based on intranet data collection about: demographics, self-rated health, life satisfaction, psychological distress and decision regret. Among hospital personnel, having higher psychological distress and being young were associated with higher decision regret. This study adds to the existing knowledge by providing novel data about the association between psychological distress and decision regret among hospital personnel during armed conflict. This data opens a new venue of future research to other potentially detrimental factor on medical decision making and medical error done during crisis. PMID:26603623

  19. Association of Psychologic and Nonpsychologic Factors With Primary Dysmenorrhea

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarzi, Mahbobeh; Salmalian, Hajar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Primary dysmenorrhea seems to be one the most common gynecologic condition in women of childbearing age. Objectives: The aim of this research was to evaluate psychologic and nonpsychologic risk factors of primary dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on medical sciences students of Babol University of Medical Sciences. In this study, 180 females with dysmenorrhea and 180 females without dysmenorrhea were enrolled. Psychological risk factors wer...

  20. Obesity in American Indian and Mexican American Men and Women: Associations with Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Autonomic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Criado, José R.; Gilder, David A.; Kalafut, Mary A.; Ehlers, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a serious public health problem, especially in some minority communities, and it has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. While obesity is a serious health concern in both American Indian and Mexican American populations, the relationship between obesity and cardiac autonomic control in these two populations is not well understood. The present study in a selected sample of American Indians and Mexican Americans assessed associations between obesity, bl...

  1. [Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat, Haring 20th century American painters from a psychological perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petôvári, Csaba

    2010-01-01

    Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat and Haring made an international reputation for themselves with their art foremost of the American artists of the 20th century, and became pop cultural icons for the man in the street and for the media as well. Accordingly to the habits of the consumer society their art and even themselves become product and consumer's goods. Their not mistaken, individual style - which also became their trademark - makes that possible. The connection between the four artists is that each of them had a dependent personality, their fine art activity was arguable in their period, and after all themselves and his artworks get into the increased attention of the media. These four artists embody the brand-new artist type, who steps into a star status. Besides the artworks the artist also get into the focus of interest. Through psychological aspect their artworks tell a lot about their way of life, their personality, and the social estate around them. Four of them were catalysts, they set new art trends. The influence of Basquiat and Haring stretched over to the 21st century, and keeps going in the graffiti street-art which gets into the "high art" at last, and captivates the art galleries and critics as well. PMID:20938058

  2. Associations of cigarette smoking with rheumatoid arthritis in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuls, Ted R.; Sayles, Harlan; Yu, Fang; LeVan, Tricia; Gould, Karen A.; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Conn, Doyt; Jonas, Beth L.; Callahan, Leigh F.; Smith, Edwin; Brasington, Richard; Moreland, Larry W.; Reynolds, Richard; Bridges, S. Louis

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of cigarette smoking with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in African Americans and to determine to whether this association is impacted by HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE). Methods Smoking status, cumulative smoking exposure, and SE status were measured in African American patients with RA and in healthy controls. Associations of smoking with RA were examined using age- and gender-adjusted logistic regression. Additive and multiplicative SE-smoking interactions were examined. Results After adjusting for age and gender, ever (OR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.97) and current smoking (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.26) were more common in African American RA cases (n = 605) than in controls (n = 255). The association of smoking with RA was limited to those with a cumulative exposure exceeding 10 pack-years, associations that were evident in both autoantibody positive and negative disease. There was evidence of a significant additive interaction between SE status and heavy smoking (≥ 10 pack-years) in RA risk (attributable proportion due to interaction [AP] of 0.58, p = 0.007) with an AP of 0.47 (p = 0.006) between SE status and ever smoking. There was no evidence of multiplicative interactions. Conclusion Among African Americans, cigarette smoking is associated not only with the risk of autoantibody positive RA but also with the risk of autoantibody negative disease. RA risk attributable to smoking is limited to African Americans with more than 10 pack-years of exposure and is more pronounced among individuals positive for HLA-DRB1 SE. PMID:20722010

  3. Society for melanoma research and american heart association scientific sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Among the featured topics: oncolytic immunotherapy, BRAF/MEK inhibition, and a programmed death-1 inhibitor at the Society for Melanoma Research; and anticoagulation therapy, an alternative to statins, and endocarditis in the absence of dental antibiotic prophylaxis at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions. PMID:25628510

  4. Associations among Asian Americans' Enculturation, Emotional Experiences, and Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Y. Joel; Tran, Kimberly K.; Lai, Andre

    2009-01-01

    Using a computer-based text analysis of 218 Asian Americans' writing samples, the authors found that enculturation as well as use of negative emotion and positive emotion words were associated with depressive symptoms. Enculturation was also found to moderate the relation between use of negative emotion words and cognitive--affective depressive…

  5. American Art Therapy Association, Inc.: 2011 Membership Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, David E.; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2013-01-01

    The American Art Therapy Association (AATA) surveys its members biennially to gather information on general demographics, employment-related characteristics, licensing, and professional affiliations. The surveys are used in the development of national media opportunities and public policy initiatives to help increase recognition for the field of…

  6. American Art Therapy Association, Inc.: 2013 Membership Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, David E.; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    The American Art Therapy Association (AATA) surveys its members biennially to collect data regarding membership demographics as well as variables concerning the work environment for art therapists. These surveys can provide a detailed description of these characteristics and how they may change over time. This article statistically compares the…

  7. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Oral Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Oral radiology curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools are provided. The guidelines describe minimal conditions under which a satisfactory educational experience can be offered. Principles of x-radiation, radiobiological concepts, radiological health, radiographic technique, radiographic quality, and darkroom…

  8. American Association of Physics Teachers Annual Report, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Association of Physics Teachers (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) mission is to enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics through teaching. Embracing the notion that physics understanding is critical to the wellbeing of society, AAPT is committed to serving its members and the larger community by promoting effectiveness in physics teaching for…

  9. American Association of Dental Schools Curricular Guidelines for Orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Guidelines reviewed and approved by the American Association of Dental Schools and sent to the Council on Dental Education in June 1979 are outlined. Educational goals and objectives and sequence of instruction (including growth and development, preclinical orthodontics, and clinical experience) are discussed. (MLW)

  10. Psychological maladjustment and academic achievement: a cross-cultural study of Japanese, Chinese, and American high school students.

    OpenAIRE

    Crystal, DS; Chen, C.; Fuligni, AJ; Stevenson, HW; Hsu, CC; Ko, HJ; Kitamura, S.; Kimura, S.

    1994-01-01

    Psychological maladjustment and its relation to academic achievement, parental expectations, and parental satisfaction were studied in a cross-national sample of 1,386 American, 1,633 Chinese, and 1,247 Japanese eleventh-grade students. 5 indices of maladjustment included measures of stress, depressed mood, academic anxiety, aggression, and somatic complaints. Asian students reported higher levels of parental expectation and lower levels of parental satisfaction concerning academic achievemen...

  11. Counseling Health Psychology: Assessing Health Psychology Training within Counseling Psychology Doctoral Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.

    2013-01-01

    Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…

  12. Psychological consequences of lymphoedema associated with breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vassard, Ditte; Olsen, Maja Halgren; Zinckernagel, Line;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective cohort study of women attending a rehabilitation course at the Dallund Rehabilitation Centre was to explore the emotional and psychological aspects of living with lymphoedema, expressed as psychological distress, poorer quality of life and poorer self...... lymphoedema had a 14% higher risk for scoring one level higher on the POMS-SF test, a 9% higher probability of scoring one point lower on the quality of life scale and a 29% higher likelihood of reporting poorer or bad health than women without lymphoedema. These findings were seen at all three measurement...

  13. Internship Training Directors' Perceptions of School Psychology Internship Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Emery B.; Perfect, Michelle M.; Edwinson, Roxanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, an imbalance between the number of available American Psychological Association (APA)-accredited internships and applicants has existed. In 2014, 14% of predoctoral psychology students who applied for internships accredited by the APA or members of the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) did…

  14. Vitamin D intake is associated with insulin sensitivity in African American, but not European American, women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oster Robert A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes is higher among African Americans (AA vs European Americans (EA, independent of obesity and other known confounders. Although the reason for this disparity is not known, it is possible that relatively low levels of vitamin D among AA may contribute, as vitamin D has been positively associated with insulin sensitivity in some studies. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary vitamin D would be associated with a robust measure of insulin sensitivity in AA and EA women. Methods Subjects were 115 African American (AA and 137 European American (EA healthy, premenopausal women. Dietary intake was determined with 4-day food records; the insulin sensitivity index (SI with a frequently-sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test and minimal modeling; the Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR with fasting insulin and glucose; and body composition with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Vitamin D intake was positively associated with SI (standardized β = 0.18, P = 0.05 and inversely associated with HOMA-IR (standardized β = -0.26, P = 0.007 in AA, and the relationships were independent of age, total body fat, energy intake, and % kcal from fat. Vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with indices of insulin sensitivity/resistance in EA (standardized β = 0.03, P = 0.74 and standardized β = 0.02, P = 0.85 for SI and HOMA-IR, respectively. Similar to vitamin D, dietary calcium was associated with SI and HOMA-IR among AA but not EA. Conclusions This study provides novel findings that dietary vitamin D and calcium were independently associated with insulin sensitivity in AA, but not EA. Promotion of these nutrients in the diet may reduce health disparities in type 2 diabetes risk among AA, although longitudinal and intervention studies are required.

  15. The American Library Association in Latin America: American Librarianship as a "Modern" Model during the Good Neighbor Policy Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maymi-Sugranes, Hector J.

    2002-01-01

    Through American Library Association (ALA) projects in Latin America, American librarianship progressed from conceptualization to implementation as the model in modernizing Latin American library practices and societies. Development of library practices was fundamental to pursuit of a "modern" society. In fighting fascist propaganda, the United…

  16. Associations between psychological variables and pain in experimental pain models. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M S; Horjales-Araujo, E; Dahl, J B

    2015-01-01

    predictive of the level of pain following experimental pain models. METHODS: A systematic search on the databases, PubMed, Embase, Cochcrane library, and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed during September 2014. All trials investigating the association between psychological variables and experimental pain in......BACKGROUND: The association between pain and psychological characteristics has been widely debated. Thus, it remains unclear whether an individual's psychological profile influences a particular pain experience, or if previous pain experience contributes to a certain psychological profile...... healthy volunteers were considered for inclusion. RESULTS: Twenty-nine trials met the inclusion criteria, with a total of 2637 healthy volunteers. The included trials investigated a total of 45 different psychological tests and 27 different types of pain models. The retrieved trials did not present a...

  17. Bi-directional associations between psychological arousal, cortisol, and sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger;

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive and...

  18. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to community violence and academic functioning, and if the indirect effects of community violence on academic functioning differed for boys and girls, in a community sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 491; 46.6% female). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effect of exposure to community violence in grade 6 on grade 8 academic functioning. Results revealed that aggression in grade 7 mediated the association between grade 6 exposure to community violence and grade 8 academic functioning. There were no indirect effects through depressive and anxious symptoms, and gender did not moderate the indirect effect. Findings highlight the importance of targeting aggressive behavior for youth exposed to community violence to not only improve their behavioral adjustment but also their academic functioning. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23277294

  19. Asian and European American Cultural Values, Bicultural Competence, and Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Psychological Help among Asian American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omizo, Michael M.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Abel, Nicholas R.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the extent to which Asian American adolescents who were living in Hawaii adhered to Asian and European American cultural values in relation to mental health variables including collective self-esteem (membership, private, public, importance to identity), cognitive flexibility, general self-efficacy, and attitudes toward…

  20. Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.

  1. Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shriner

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.

  2. Female Firesetters: Gender Associated Psychological and Psychopathological Features

    OpenAIRE

    Alleyne, Emma; Gannon, Theresa A.; Mozova, Katarina; Page, Thomas; Ó Ciardha, Caoilte

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Female firesetters are reported to commit nearly a third of deliberately set fires, yet there are limited studies examining the characteristics that distinguish them from suitable comparison groups. The aim of this study is to compare incarcerated female firesetters with incarcerated male firesetters and female offender controls on psychopathological and psychological features that could be targeted via therapeutic interventions. Method: Sixty-five female firesetters, 128 male ...

  3. Psychological markers associated with successful scientific work of biology students

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Ramendik

    2011-01-01

    The paper report results from a psychological study of 90 biology students (Moscow State University) and five doctors of biology. Faculty expert opinions were used to determine ten most successful performers and ten poor performers among students. They were compared by several cognitive and personal factors. The paper shows that success in scientific work is connected not with separate cognitive, communicative and personal characteristics, but with their system interaction. When this interact...

  4. Recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. American Medical Informatics Association, Computer-based Patient Record Institute, Medical Library Association, Association of Academic Health Science Libraries, American Health Information Management Association, American Nurses Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R A; Gardner, R M

    1997-01-01

    In mid-1996, the FDA called for discussions on regulation of clinical software programs as medical devices. In response, a consortium of organizations dedicated to improving health care through information technology has developed recommendations for the responsible regulation and monitoring of clinical software systems by users, vendors, and regulatory agencies. Organizations assisting in development of recommendations, or endorsing the consortium position include the American Medical Informatics Association, the Computer-based Patient Record Institute, the Medical Library Association, the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries, the American Health Information Management Association, the American Nurses Association, the Center for Healthcare Information Management, and the American College of Physicians. The consortium proposes four categories of clinical system risks and four classes of measured monitoring and regulatory actions that can be applied strategically based on the level of risk in a given setting. The consortium recommends local oversight of clinical software systems, and adoption by healthcare information system developers of a code of good business practices. Budgetary and other constraints limit the type and number of systems that the FDA can regulate effectively. FDA regulation should exempt most clinical software systems and focus on those systems posing highest clinical risk, with limited opportunities for competent human intervention. PMID:9391932

  5. Darkness’s Descent on the American Anthropological Association

    OpenAIRE

    Dreger, Alice

    2011-01-01

    In September 2000, the self-styled “anthropological journalist” Patrick Tierney began to make public his work claiming that the Yanomamö people of South America had been actively—indeed brutally—harmed by the sociobiological anthropologist Napoleon Chagnon and the geneticist-physician James Neel. Following a florid summary of Tierney’s claims by the anthropologists Terence Turner and Leslie Sponsel, the American Anthropological Association (AAA) saw fit to take Tierney’s claims seriously by c...

  6. Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology: Integrating Nutrition and Child Development Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Black, Maureen M.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Pioneers in Pediatric Psychology series, this article provides a brief personal account of Maureen Black's career as a pediatric psychologist. It traces the transition of the Society of Pediatric Psychology (SPP) from a section of the Division of Clinical Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) to an independent division of APA, which occurred during my presidency of SPP. The article addresses three aspects of pediatric psychology that have been central to my...

  7. Mixed emotional experience is associated with and precedes improvements in psychological well-being.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan M Adler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The relationships between positive and negative emotional experience and physical and psychological well-being have been well-documented. The present study examines the prospective positive relationship between concurrent positive and negative emotional experience and psychological well-being in the context of psychotherapy. METHODS: 47 adults undergoing psychotherapy completed measures of psychological well-being and wrote private narratives that were coded by trained raters for emotional content. RESULTS: The specific concurrent experience of happiness and sadness was associated with improvements in psychological well-being above and beyond the impact of the passage of time, personality traits, or the independent effects of happiness and sadness. Changes in mixed emotional experience preceded improvements in well-being. CONCLUSIONS: Experiencing happiness alongside sadness in psychotherapy may be a harbinger of improvement in psychological well-being.

  8. The Multi-dimensional Nature of Religiosity/Spirituality and its Association with Psychological Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Schettino, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the dimensional structure of religiosity/spirituality (R/S) and its relationship with positive psychological adjustment (defined here as a latent variable indicated by lower levels of depression and perceived stress and higher levels of positive affect) within a Christian context. Two separate samples (total N = 806) were recruited online via Amazon MechTurk and consisted of Christian American adults (age > 18). R/S was measured using the MCRSI, a 29-item inventor...

  9. Circulating angiogenic cell function is inhibited by cortisol in vitro and associated with psychological stress and cortisol in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L

    2016-05-01

    Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age=26years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health. PMID:26925833

  10. Mapping out the subject of Brazilian social psychology in the production of the national association of research and post-graduate studies in psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Adegas de Azambuja; Carolina dos Reis; Neuza Maria de Fátima Guareschi; Simone Maria Hüning

    2013-01-01

    This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG) of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP), during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstract...

  11. Association between psychological distress and a sense of contribution to society in the workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozaki Kenichi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, mental health promotion related to psychological distress in the workplace has become a great concern, and a focus of much research attention. However, a sense of contribution to society and sense of bonding with the workplace have not been examined in relation to psychological distress. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine whether these two factors are associated with psychological distress. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1137 full-time employees who worked in systems engineering, sales, or administration at a Japanese company. Participant's sense of contribution to society, sense of bonding with the workplace, psychological distress, and qualitative job stress (quantitative and qualitative workloads, job-control latitude, and support from supervisors, co-workers and family were assessed with a questionnaire. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine associations between psychological distress and sense of contribution to society and of bonding with the workplace. Results A high sense of contribution to society was significantly associated with a high sense of bonding with the workplace (Spearman's ρ = 0.47, p Conclusions Psychological distress in the workplace was associated with sense of contribution to society. Therefore, workplace mental health promotion should consider the workers' sense of contribution to society.

  12. HIV prevention interventions to reduce sexual risk for African Americans: the influence of community-level stigma and psychological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E; Dovidio, John F; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T

    2014-02-01

    Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans' condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma-Whites' attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites' attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites' attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites' attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites' attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants' values and needs, which may reduce African Americans' mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites' attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities

  13. Association of Sexual Intercourse with Psychological Suppression and Copying Modes for Vocational School Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li WANG; Xiao-jin WANG; Xiao-wen TU; Chao-hua LOU; Er-sheng GAO

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of sex behavior with sexual related psychological suppression and coping modes among students in three vocational schools in Shanghai.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1368 grade one students from three vocational schools in a district of Shanghai,with Computer Assisted Self-Interview(CASI).The field work began in the April,2003 for a baseline survey,and completed in the December,2003.Data on students'sexual intercourse,sexual related psychological suppression and psychological coping modes,and communication with parents were collected and analyzed.Binary logistic regression was used to adjust the potential confounding factors.Results After controlling for demographic factors,adolescents with middle or high scores of active psychological coping strategies on sexual related events were less likely to have sexual intercourse(ORadj=0.48,95% CI=0.30-0.77 and ORadj=0.49,95%CI=0.30-0.83,respectively),while association between psychological suppression on sex related events and sexual intercourse was not statistically significant(ORadj=0.93,95%CI=0.63-1.37);sexual related psychological suppression and active coping modes were positively associated with adolescents'communicating with parents for 2-7 h/week about school things.but negatively associated with parents'open attitudes towards heterosexual contacts and talking sex related things with others.Conclusion Vocational school students with active psychological coping strategies on sexual related events were less likely to engage in sexual intercourse,so interventions focus on reducing unprotected sexual behaviors should target on psychological coping modes skills training.

  14. Brazilian Social Psychology in the international setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Raquel Rosas Torres; José Luis Álvaro

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to discuss the Social Psychology that has been developing in Brazil, placing it in the international theoretical-methodological setting. To achieve this goal, we initially present a brief historical account of the founding of the Brazilian Association of Social Psychology and the Latin American Association of Social Psychology, providing insight into the political struggle that surrounded the emergence of these two organizations and that, to a certain degree, is...

  15. Factors Associated With Overweight and Obesity Among Mexican Americans and Central Americans: Results From the 2001 California Health Interview Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice V. Bowie, PhD, MPH

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHispanics are the fastest growing demographic group in the United States; however, “Hispanic” is a broad term that describes people who are from or whose ancestors are from multiple countries of origin. This study examines, separately, the social, cultural, and behavioral factors associated with overweight and obesity among Mexican American adults and among Central American adults. MethodsTo estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans living in California, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey using SUDAAN software to account for the survey’s multistage sampling design.ResultsOf the 8304 Mexican Americans participating in the survey, 36.8% were overweight and 26.2% were obese. Of the 1019 Central Americans, 39.2% were overweight and 22.2% were obese. Among Mexican American men, age and marital status were associated with overweight and obesity; and education, acculturation, health insurance status, health status, and use of vitamins were associated with obesity only. Among Mexican American women, age, education, number of children, health status, and health behavior were associated with overweight and obesity. Among Central American men, age, education, and access to health care were associated with overweight, whereas marital status, acculturation, health care, and binge drinking were associated with obesity. Among Central American women, number of children was associated with overweight and obesity; and age and education were associated with obesity only. ConclusionsOur findings of high rates of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans in California indicate the need for a wide variety of effective weight-loss interventions targeting these populations, and the differences we found in the factors associated with overweight and obesity may suggest the need for unique intervention strategies for different

  16. Top 20 Psychological Principles for PK-12 Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucariello, Joan M.; Nastasi, Bonnie K.; Dwyer, Carol; Skiba, Russell; DeMarie, Darlene; Anderman, Eric M.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an initiative undertaken by a coalition of psychologists (Coalition for Psychology in Schools and Education) from the American Psychological Association (APA) to identify the top 20 principles from psychological science relevant to teaching and learning in the classroom. This article identifies these principles and their…

  17. Characteristics of Programs That Maximize Psychology Major Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoloff, Michael L.; Good, Megan Rodgers; Smith, Kristen L.; Brewster, JoAnne

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a national survey of psychology department chairs, and, based on their responses, we concluded that psychology programs differ in the number of students enrolled in various types of classes; the degree of focus on each of the goals recommended by the "American Psychological Association (APA) Guidelines for an Undergraduate…

  18. Betrayal Trauma: Associations with Psychological and Physical Symptoms in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2012-01-01

    Betrayal trauma, or trauma perpetrated by someone with whom a victim is close, is strongly associated with a range of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. However, few studies have examined associations between different forms of trauma and emotional and physical symptoms. The present study compared betrayal trauma to other forms…

  19. Factors Associated With Overweight and Obesity Among Mexican Americans and Central Americans: Results From the 2001 California Health Interview Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bowie, Janice V.; Juon, Hee-Soon; Rodriguez, Elisa M.; Cho, Juhee

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Hispanics are the fastest growing demographic group in the United States; however, "Hispanic" is a broad term that describes people who are from or whose ancestors are from multiple countries of origin. This study examines, separately, the social, cultural, and behavioral factors associated with overweight and obesity among Mexican American adults and among Central American adults. Methods To estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans li...

  20. American Telemedicine Association: First China (Tianjin International Telemedicine Technology Exhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Bernard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available With the support of Tianjin Municipal People’s Government and the People’s Government of Binhai New Area, the “First China (Tianjin International Telemedicine Technology Exhibition” hosted by the American Telemedicine Association (ATA, will be held October 28- 30, 2014 at the Tianjin Binhai International Convention and Exhibition Center. The three day event will feature keynote sessions, concurrent discussion forums, exhibits (e.g., telemedicine, information technology, mHealth, a venture summit, meet-and-greet sessions for international and domestic companies for potential business collaboration, and policy discussions on China healthcare. For registration information: http://www.atacn.org/en/

  1. Does suicidal desire moderate the association between frontal delta power and psychological pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sandra J.

    2016-01-01

    Psychological pain frequently underlies thoughts of suicide. We investigated if recent suicidal desire moderated the association between potential neurophysiological markers and psychological pain assessed on the Psychache Scale (PS) and the Orbach & Mikulincer Mental Pain Questionnaire (OMMP). The OMMP specifically assesses current psychological pain that may more readily capture emotions present during recent suicidal desire. In contrast, the PS leaves the timeframe undefined. A secondary analysis was conducted of resting-state EEG data and heart rate obtained in adults with a history of depression. In simultaneous multiple regression models, while controlling for depressive symptoms, recent suicidal desire moderated associations with right-frontal EEG delta power (ΔR2 = .07, p < .01) and low-frequency heart rate variability (nonsignificantly) for pain assessed on the PS. No indication for moderation was found for pain on the OMMP. The relationship between the two measures of psychological pain was stronger for individuals with recent suicidal desire (r = .75, p < .01 vs. r = .50, p < .05). The findings suggest that, unless a respondent’s psychological pain is recent and substantial, the PS may not capture the intensity of current psychological pain as effectively as the OMMP. PMID:26793422

  2. A Native American Voice in Multicultural Psychology: Finding Healing in an Interpersonal Tapestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rockey R.

    2012-01-01

    The tribal-cultural milieu in which the author was raised incited awareness that Native American people live in a great tapestry of life where everything and everyone is interconnected. It is an awareness that cannot be taught through lectures or books. It is an awareness of connectedness that Native American people had in early childhood but was…

  3. A large insertion in intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene associated with American Palomino phenotype in American mink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cirera Salicio, Susanna; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Kristiansen, Thea;

    2016-01-01

    A number of American mink phenotypes display a range of brownish colours. One of these phenotypes, namely American Palomino (b (P) b (P) ) (AP) has been found to be associated with the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene by genotyping microsatellite markers in one sire family. Trials for...

  4. XX Congress of the International Association for Cross - Cultural Psychology (IACCP) Cultural change - Meeting the challenge

    OpenAIRE

    William Alejandro Jiménez Jiménez

    2010-01-01

    El XX Congress of the International Association for Cross - Cultural Psychology (IACCP), es un Congreso que organiza de forma biannual la IACCP (International Association for Cross - Cultural Psychology). Durante el año 2010 se llevó a cabo en la Universidad de Melbourne, en el estado de Victoria (Australia). Durante este congreso, se presentaron un total de 471 trabajos, distribuidos en 7 categorías, con una masiva asistencia de académicos y estudiantes provenientes de diferentes paíse...

  5. Subjective health complaints in patients with chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD). Relationships with physical, psychological, and collision associated factors

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Ihlebæk; Arit Ødegaard; John Vikne; Hege R. Eriksen; Even Lærum

    2009-01-01

     Aims: Investigate subjective health complaints (SHC) in chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD, grade I & II) patients, and to identify physical, psychological, and collision associated factors that might be associated with high levels of comorbidity. Method: During the years 2000-2002 171 chronic WAD patients filled in questionnaires and underwent physical examination. The prevalence of SHC was recorded and compared with a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n=1014). Resul...

  6. Casebook for Providers of Psychological Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Committee on Professional Standards

    1984-01-01

    Discusses three cases involving quality assurance problems in clinical, industrial/organizational, and school psychology. Gives a statement of problem, applicable American Psychological Association policies, an interpretation of policy and principles in light of major questions posed by each case, and educative ramifications. (CMG)

  7. Ethics Education and Adjudication within Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, David H.

    1984-01-01

    Provides an overview of the formal ethics system within psychology. Describes the structure of the American Psychological Association (APA) and state ethics systems, functions of APA's Committee on Scientific and Professional Ethics and Conduct, and its procedures for handling complaints. (Author/CMG)

  8. Social Justice in School Psychology: Moving Forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Alissa

    2009-01-01

    The topic of social justice is not new to dialogue and research within disciplines that serve children, such as education and psychology. The commitment to social justice within the fields of education and psychology is evidenced by the attention that their organizations--the American Educational Research Association (AERA) and the American…

  9. Study of Association of Psychological Stress and Depression among Undergraduate Medical Students in Pondicherry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Kittu, Rohan Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical education across the globe is perceived as being inherently stressful. Studies on psychological problems such as stress, depression and anxiety among medical students have found that these disorders are under diagnosed and under treated. In this background the present study was undertaken with the objectives to assess the magni-tude of depression and its association with stress among medical students. Methods: A Cross sectional study was undertaken among 235 medical students in a private medical college, Pondicherry. Tools similar to General Health Questionaire (GHQ-12 and Beck depression Inventory (BDI was used to screen psychological stress and depression respectively. Results: The prevalence of depression was 71% among medical students. Psychological stress was associated with depression. Conclusion: Emphasize should be laid on the importance of screening for depression of medical students on a regular basis for early detection and rendering appropriate intervention like group counseling, stress management training etc. to protect the future professionals.

  10. Religious coping moderates the relation between racism and psychological well-being among Christian Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Webb, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the moderating role of positive and negative religious coping in the relation between racism and psychological well-being in a sample of Catholic and Protestant Asian American college students (N = 107). On the basis of prior theorizing on the 2 types of religious coping, combined with some limited empirical evidence, they predicted that positive religious coping would have a buffering effect (Hypothesis 1) on the racism-mental health relation and that negative religious coping would have an exacerbating effect (Hypothesis 2). Participants completed an online survey containing measures corresponding to the study variables. Results indicated that the interaction between positive religious coping and racism was nonsignificant, so Hypothesis 1 was not supported. For Hypothesis 2, the negative religious coping and racism interaction term was statistically significant, but the moderating effect was in an unexpected direction, such that negative religious coping actually protected against the deleterious impact of racism on mental health. The findings suggest that the theorized deleterious influence of negative religious coping may need to be reconsidered in an Asian American setting. The findings have the potential to inform practitioners who work with Asian American college students to better cope with the detrimental consequences of racism. PMID:25602609

  11. Association between psychological measures and brain natriuretic peptide in heart failure patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brouwers, Corline; Spindler, Helle; Larsen, Mogens Lytken;

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a promising marker for heart failure diagnosis and prognosis. Although psychological factors also influence heart failure (HF) prognosis, this might be attributed to confounding by BNP. Our aim was to examine the association between multiple ...... findings and examine whether psychological risk markers are independent predictors of prognosis in HF or an artifact that may be attributed to other biological or behavioral mechanisms.......ABSTRACT Objective: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a promising marker for heart failure diagnosis and prognosis. Although psychological factors also influence heart failure (HF) prognosis, this might be attributed to confounding by BNP. Our aim was to examine the association between multiple...... psychological markers using a prospective study design with repeated NT-proBNP measurements. Design: The sample comprised 94 outpatients with systolic HF (80% men; mean age=62.2±9.32). The psychological markers (i.e., anxiety, depression and Type D personality), assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression...

  12. Socio-Emotional and Psychological Issues and Needs of Gifted African-American Students: Culture Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Michelle Trotman

    2012-01-01

    Most of the scholarship on gifted Black children focuses, legitimately, in a disproportionate way on underrepresentation, namely, identification and placement issues, barriers, and recommendations. Comparatively speaking, less attention has focused on socio-emotional (or affective) and psychological needs and development of these students.…

  13. Cross-National Evidence for Compatibility of Psychological Type in Polish and American Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacyk, Jerome; Cyrson, Edward; Tobacyk, Zofia

    2000-01-01

    A study of three Polish groups (71 managers, 107 marketing/management students, 75 English-language students) showed that the psychological type distributions of managers and marketing/management students were similar to each other and to U.S. samples. English-language students' types were nearly the opposite and were similar to U.S. liberal arts…

  14. Factors Associated with Pregnancy among Incarcerated African American Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Simone C; Holmes, Kristin; Bradford, Denise R

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social and behavioral factors associated with pregnancy history among a sample of African American adolescent girls recruited from a short-term juvenile detention center in order to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population. Data were collected from a sample of 188 detained African American, 13-17-year-old girls in Atlanta, Georgia, who participated in a larger HIV prevention study. An audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey was completed by participants to obtain information on socioecological factors to include individual, parental/familial, sexual risk, psychosocial, and substance use factors. Among the 188 participants, 25.5 % reported a history of pregnancy. A multivariable logistic regression model showed that girls with a history of pregnancy were more likely to live in a household receiving government aid, use hormonal contraceptives at last sex, participate in sex trading, have casual sex partners, have condomless sex in the past 90 days, and have a history of physical abuse. Girls with no history of pregnancy were more likely to have been incarcerated at least twice and to have previously used alcohol. Detention-based interventions and pregnancy prevention programs for this vulnerable population may benefit by addressing factors related to sexual behavior and development, substance use, individual background, and psychosocial health. PMID:27271026

  15. Sarcopenic obesity is associated with lower indicators of psychological health and quality of life in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yoonsu; Shin, So-Youn; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2015-05-01

    Sarcopenic obesity (SO) is known to contribute to morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases. However, there exists limited information regarding its effect on psychological health. The aim of this study was to evaluate association of SO with several indices of psychological health and quality of life (QoL) in Korean adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 11521 participants older than 20 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Sarcopenic obesity was defined by a low appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight less than 1 standard deviation below the sex-specific mean for the young reference group, and by a high waist circumference of at least 90 cm for men and at least 85 cm for women. Psychological health status, including depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and suicidal ideation, as well as QoL, was assessed by a self-reporting questionnaire. Association between SO and psychological health status was assessed under a logistic regression model. After multivariate adjustment for demographics and lifestyle factors, SO was significantly associated with perceived stress (odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.44; P value = .004) and suicidal ideation (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.50; P value = .010). In addition, SO was found to have a negative association with a range of QoL indicators. Interestingly, these association patterns were more significant in participants younger than 60 years. In conclusion, our results suggest that SO was associated with adverse psychological health and lower QoL more than body mass index-based general obesity. PMID:25931418

  16. Using the Implicit Association Test as an Unconsciousness Raising Tool in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, Bettina J.; Flores, Abdiel J.; Didway, Jessica D.

    2013-01-01

    People are reluctant to admit they harbor implicit biases. Students (N = 68) from four social psychology courses completed an assignment designed to raise awareness about implicit biases. After completing an Implicit Association Test (IAT), students answered six essay questions, read two articles on the IAT, and answered five additional essay…

  17. Psychosis associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Mussele, Stefan; Marien, Peter; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of psychosis in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Petersen's criteria) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia, and to characterize the associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Method: A cross-section

  18. Developmental Trajectories of Chinese Children's Relational and Physical Aggression: Associations with Social-Psychological Adjustment Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…

  19. The Heart's Content : The Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Cardiovascular Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2012-01-01

    This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…

  20. Associations between assertiveness, psychological well-being, and self-esteem in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Orosova, Olga; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Klein, Daniel; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the associations between adolescents assertive behavior, psychological well-being, and self-esteem. The sample consisted of 1,023 students (14.9 +/-.51; 47.6% boys). Two dimensions of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (distress and performance), 2 factors of the General Health

  1. Internship Attainment and Program Policies: Trends in APA-Accredited School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfect, Michelle M.; Thompson, Miriam E.; Mahoney, Emery

    2015-01-01

    Completion of an internship that is accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA) is considered to be to the "gold standard" for health service psychology training programs. The Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) facilitates a Match process between participating applicants and internship…

  2. American Telemedicine Association: 19th Annual International Meeting & Tradeshow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Bernard

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2014 American Telemedicine Association (ATA 2014 Annual International Meeting & Exposition, will be held May 18-20, 2014 in Baltimore, Maryland. ATA 2014 will bring together healthcare professionals, leading telemedicine programs, and industry. This meeting has been the premier forum for professionals in the telemedicine, telehealth and mHealth space for over 19 years. ATA 2014 is on course to be the largest ATA meeting ever, with over 6,000 projected attendees. The exhibit hall will feature nearly 300 of the leading vendors in remote healthcare technologies. The program will include 500 educational sessions and posters highlighting the latest innovations, applications and research in telemedicine. The educational sessions at ATA 2014 will offer training, information, and updates on issues vital to the practice and industry of telemedicine.   Detailed program information--including courses, sessions and Continuing Medical Education (CME information--will be available January 2014 at: http://www.americantelemed.org.

  3. American Telemedicine Association: 18th Annual International Meeting & Tradeshow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Forstag

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available For 18 years, the American Telemedicine Association (ATA Annual International Meeting & Exposition has been the premier forum for professionals in the telemedicine, telehealth and mHealth space -- one of the fastest growing meetings in the country. ATA 2013 is on course to be the largest ATA meeting ever, with over 6,000 projected attendees.  The program will include 500 educational sessions and posters, highlighting the latest innovations, applications and research in telemedicine. The 2013 exhibit hall will feature nearly 300 of the leading vendors in remote healthcare technologies. With over 6000 projected attendees, from all around the world, there's no better place to meet and network with your peers and thought leaders in the field. Detailed program information--including courses, sessions and CME information--will be available January 2013 at:http://www.americantelemed.org.

  4. American Telemedicine Association: 20th Annual International Meeting & Tradeshow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2015 American Telemedicine Association (ATA 2015 Annual International Meeting & Tradeshow, will be held May 3-5, 2015 at the Los Angeles Convention Center. ATA 2015 will bring together healthcare professionals, leading telemedicine programs, and industry. This meeting has been the premier forum for professionals in the telemedicine, telehealth and mHealth space for over 20 years.  The world-class, peer reviewed program will include over 500 educational sessions and posters, highlighting the latest innovations, applications and delivery models in telemedicine. The expansive exhibit hall will host hundreds of leading vendors with groundbreaking remote healthcare technologies and services. The educational sessions at ATA 2015 will offer training, information, and updates on issues vital to the practice and industry of telemedicine.Detailed program information--including courses, sessions and Continuing Medical Education (CME information--will be available at: http://www.americantelemed.org/ata-2015/conference-overview

  5. Direct and indirect aggression and victimization in adolescents - Associations with the development of psychological difficulties.

    OpenAIRE

    Lundh, Lars-Gunnar; Daukantaité, Daiva; Wångby, Margit

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous research has established that direct and indirect forms of aggression differ in their association with gender and type of psychological difficulties. One purpose of the present study was to test if the same applies to direct and indirect victimization. A second purpose was to study these associations not only cross-sectionally (as in most previous research) but also longitudinally. A third purpose was to test the hypotheses that there are prospective bidirectional assoc...

  6. Implications of the Implicit Association Test D-Transformation for Psychological Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Jaccard, James; Burrows, Christopher N

    2015-08-01

    Psychometricians strive to eliminate random error from their psychological inventories. When random error affecting tests is diminished, tests more accurately characterize people on the psychological dimension of interest. We document an unusual property of the scoring algorithm for a measure used to assess a wide range of psychological states. The "D-score" algorithm for coding the Implicit Association Test (IAT) requires the presence of random noise in order to obtain variability. Without consequential degrees of random noise, all individuals receive extreme scores. We present results from an algebraic proof, a computer simulation, and an online survey of implicit racial attitudes to show how trial error can bias IAT assessments. We argue as a result that the D-score algorithm should not be used for formal assessment purposes, and we offer an alternative to this approach based on multiple regression. Our critique focuses primarily on the IAT designed to measure unconscious racial attitudes, but it applies to any IAT developed to provide psychological assessments within clinical, organizational, and developmental branches of psychology-and in any other field where the IAT might be used. PMID:25296761

  7. Association of coping style and psychological well-being in hospital nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Loukzadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nursing jobs are among the occupations experiencing high levels of stress. Level of psychological well-being and coping style with stressful situations among nurses has large impact on their job performance. Limited information exists about the relationship between coping styles and psychological well-being among nurses, so the present study examined the way of coping and the level of psychological well-being as well as their relationships among nurses. Methods: In this correlational study, 100 nurses from Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences were selected by multi-stage random sampling in 2012. Lazarus and Folkman's coping styles and Ryff's psychological well-being Questionnaires were completed by self-report method. Collected data were entered software SPSS ver. 13 and then analyzed using Pearson correlation test. Results: The results showed EFCSwere more used but PFCSstyle was less used with a little difference by mean (SD of 87.91 (10.76 vs. 73.12 (12.15. Between EFCSand some psychological well-being dimensions such as purpose in life (P=0.01, r= - 0.28 and personal development (P= 0.03, r= - 0.024, a significant negative association and between PFCSstyle and purpose in life, a significant positive relationship was found (P=0.006, r= 0.31. Conclusion: Considering that PFCSstyle is more effective in solving problems and job stress, as well as, the increased use of EFCSis associated with adverse health consequences, improvement of nurses' coping strategies to cope better with stressful events by skill training and promotion of nurses' psychological well-being level is recommended.

  8. Acculturative and Psychological Predictors of Academic-Related Outcomes Among Cambodian American High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Dinh, Khanh T.; WEINSTEIN, Traci L.; Kim, Su Yeong; Ivy K. Ho

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the acculturative and psychosocial predictors of academic-related outcomes among Cambodian American high school students from an urban school district in the state of Massachusetts. Student participants (N = 163) completed an anonymous survey that assessed demographic characteristics, acculturative experiences, intergenerational conflict, depression, and academic-related outcomes. The main results indicated that acculturative and psychosocial variables were significant pre...

  9. The Effects of Cuento Therapy on Reading Achievement and Psychological Outcomes of Mexican-American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Jain, Sachin; Flores-Torres, Leila L.; Perez, Roxanna; Carlson, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the effects of cuento therapy (an intervention using Spanish-language tales) on children's self-esteem, affect, and reading test performance. The sample was composed of 58 third-grade Mexican-American students who were randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. The results showed a mean self-esteem gain…

  10. Association of genetic loci with sleep apnea in European Americans and African-Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay R Patel

    Full Text Available Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is known to have a strong familial basis, no genetic polymorphisms influencing apnea risk have been identified in cross-cohort analyses. We utilized the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe to identify sleep apnea susceptibility loci. Using a panel of 46,449 polymorphisms from roughly 2,100 candidate genes on a customized Illumina iSelect chip, we tested for association with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI as well as moderate to severe OSA (AHI≥15 in 3,551 participants of the Cleveland Family Study and two cohorts participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study.Among 647 African-Americans, rs11126184 in the pleckstrin (PLEK gene was associated with OSA while rs7030789 in the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1 gene was associated with AHI using a chip-wide significance threshold of p-value<2×10(-6. Among 2,904 individuals of European ancestry, rs1409986 in the prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER3 gene was significantly associated with OSA. Consistency of effects between rs7030789 and rs1409986 in LPAR1 and PTGER3 and apnea phenotypes were observed in independent clinic-based cohorts.Novel genetic loci for apnea phenotypes were identified through the use of customized gene chips and meta-analyses of cohort data with replication in clinic-based samples. The identified SNPs all lie in genes associated with inflammation suggesting inflammation may play a role in OSA pathogenesis.

  11. Psychological workload is associated with weight gain between 1993 and 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Dorthe; Gamborg, M; Gyntelberg, Finn;

    2004-01-01

    AIMS: To examine associations between psychological workload and subsequent 6-y weight changes. METHODS: In total, 6704 Danish nurses, aged 45-65 y and employed both in 1993 and 1999, answered questionnaires about psychological workload, including busyness in job, job speed and job influence, and...... lifestyle, as well as body weight and height at both examinations. RESULTS: Danish nurses who reported being almost always busy, or never busy, gained significantly more weight (3.1 and 3.5 kg, respectively) than nurses who reported being sometimes busy, who gained 2.5 kg in weight (P=0.04, 0.002). Job...... speed was not associated with subsequent weight gain. Job influence was inversely associated with subsequent weight changes after 6 y. The mean weight gain for nurses with no job influence was 4.1 kg, whereas those having major job influence had a mean weight gain of 2.6 kg (P=0.002). Nurses who stated...

  12. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Dijk Jitse P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.

  13. Psychological contents and social effects associated to peripheral facial paralysis: a speech-language approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, Mabile Francine Ferreira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The peripheral facial paralysis (PFP results from the reduction or interruption of the axonal transport to the seventh cranial nerve resulting in complete or partial paralysis of the facial movements. The facial deformity and limitation of movements, besides affecting the aesthetics and functionality, can significantly interfere with interpersonal communication. Objective: Investigate the psychological contents and other social effects associated to PFP in adult subjects, performing a comparative analysis in three groups of subjects with PFP: at flaccid, recovery and sequel phases. Method: Quantitative and qualitative research. 16 adult subjects, from both sexes, aging between 43 and 88 years old, with PFP. Procedure: Open interviews with subjects. The material was recorded in audio and video, literally transcribed, systematized through categorical and statistical analysis. Results: The subjects bearing sequels presented higher statistical significance of psychological contents and social effects associated to PFP. Followed, respectively, by those that were on flaccid and recovery phases. The results suggest that the speech-language therapist, besides performing functional and aesthetical rehabilitation with the subject with PFP, needs to be aware of psychological and social aspects that may be involved, in order to evaluate and seek to reduce the degree of psychological distress and promote the social adjustment of these patients. Conclusion: The biopsychosocial approach to patients with PFP revealed a wide and significant range of subjective contents that warrant new studies that may contribute to the effectiveness of the speech-language clinical method to approach this medical condition.

  14. Separate but Equal: School Psychology's Search for Organizational Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Thomas K.

    1993-01-01

    Traces organizational roots of Division 16 of the American Psychological Association (APA) and of National Association of School Psychologists from the founding of APA to present. Focuses on significance of these organizations and their contributions to development of school psychology. Describes trends in structure and characteristics of the…

  15. How does Violence Exposure Affect the Psychological Health and Parenting of Young African American Mothers?

    OpenAIRE

    Lewin, Amy; Horn, Ivor B; Valentine, Dawn; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Joseph, Jill G

    2009-01-01

    Urban, minority, adolescent mothers are particularly vulnerable to violence exposure, which may increase their children’s developmental risk through maternal depression and negative parenting. The current study tests a conceptual model of the effects of community and contextual violence exposure on the mental health and parenting of young, African American mothers living in Washington DC. A path analysis revealed significant direct effects of witnessed and experienced violence on mothers’ dep...

  16. ADHD: A Psychological Response to an Evolving Concept (Report of a Working Party of the British Psychological Association).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reason, Rea

    1999-01-01

    This article is an abridged version of a British Psychological Society paper that addresses research relevant to current understanding of the notion of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder from an historical, psychological, and biological perspective. Also discusses implications for practice in the light of the information obtained. (Author/CR)

  17. Psychological aspects of caregivers associated with family support in the therapeutic adherence of diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Teresa Domínguez - Guedea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the relationship of psychological aspects of family caregivers with the support that they offer to the diabetic patient’s adherence to treatment. The psychological aspects were: subjective well-being, attachment styles, coping strategies to problems and perceived social support. Methods: Joined in the study 29 family caregivers in a noneprobabilistic sample. Participants were contacted from three Mutual Aid Groups for diabetic and hypertensive patients in the city of Hermosillo, México. Questionnaires designed for the purposes of research were applied, as well as psychometric instruments previously validated in the cultural reference group. Results: The data showed that the psychological aspects that are statistically significant and negatively related to adherence therapy are avoidant attachment and negative affection, both associated to each other in a positive way, indicating that they occur in parallel. Avoidant attachment was positively associated with avoidant coping strategies and emotional disturbance, but negatively with secure attachment and material satisfaction. Negative affection were positively associated with emotional coping, but negatively with secure attachment and material satisfaction. Negative affect were positively associated with emotional confrontation, but negatively with positive affection, material satisfaction, emotional support and guidance support. Conclusions: More applied research in needed on the influence of family factors in achieving adherence to treatment, because so far, most work focuses more on the individual patient, disregarding the family factor.

  18. Subjective health complaints in patients with chronic Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD. Relationships with physical, psychological, and collision associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Ihlebæk

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available  Aims: Investigate subjective health complaints (SHC in chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD, grade I & II patients, and to identify physical, psychological, and collision associated factors that might be associated with high levels of comorbidity. Method: During the years 2000-2002 171 chronic WAD patients filled in questionnaires and underwent physical examination. The prevalence of SHC was recorded and compared with a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n=1014. Results: The chronic WAD patients reported higher number of subjective health complaints (median: 9 than the general population (median: 5. They showed significantly higher risk of reporting all musculoskeletal complaints, palpitation, heat flushes, sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, breathing difficulties, chest pain, coughing, heartburn, gas discomfort, and obstipation. The patients with the highest level of comorbid subjective health complaints also reported more function loss, reading difficulties, poorer quality of life, higher psychological distress, higher use of medication, and less optimism about their situation. There were no differences however, in any collision factors or physical meassures recorded by physiotherapists between the high, medium and low comorbidity groups. Conclusion: The high comorbidity of other complaints, the strong relationships between degree of comorbidity and psychological factors, and the lack of relationships between degree of comorbidity and collision factors and physical tests, suggest that chronic WAD is best understood as a syndrome and not simply as a neck injury. Sensitization is suggested as a possible psychobiological mechanism

  19. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Nicholette D; McDonough, Caitrin W; Hicks, Pamela J;

    2012-01-01

    African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wid...

  20. The association between idiopathic environmental intolerance and psychological distress, and the influence of social support and recent major life events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, Sine; Rasmussen, Alice; Zachariae, Robert;

    2012-01-01

    association has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to examine the association between psychological distress and IEI and to determine whether the association is confounded by social support and major life events. Methods Data were collected by postal questionnaires; other results from the...... consequences, as the dependent variables, and psychological distress, social support and major life events as the independent variables. Results Our study confirmed positive and statistically significant associations between psychological distress and IEI. The associations remained statistically significant......Objectives Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a disorder characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to common airborne chemicals. Increasing evidence points to an association between IEI and symptoms of psychological distress. However, whether other risk factors influence this...

  1. Associations of psychological capital, demographic and occupational factors with cigarette smoking among Chinese underground coal miners

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li; Xu, Xin; Wu, Hui; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie

    2015-01-01

    Background As a specific male occupational group, underground coal miners have been commonly found to have a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. It is of urgent need to explore some factors that could be intervened to reduce smoking from personal or internal perspective. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of psychological capital (PsyCap), demographic and occupational factors with smoking among Chinese underground coal miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey w...

  2. Multi-level Factors Associated with Pregnancy among Urban Adolescent Women Seeking Psychological Services

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Delia L.; Rieckmann, Traci; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Crosby, Richard A.; Brown, Larry K.; Donenberg, Geri R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of pregnancy as well as multi-level factors (i.e., individual, family, and environment) associated with history of pregnancy among a sample of urban adolescent women seeking psychological services. Data were collected from a total of 264 sexually active, 13–18-year-old, adolescent women who participated in a larger HIV prevention study. Adolescents and one participating parent completed an audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey...

  3. Polytraumatization in an adult national sample and its association with psychological distress and self-esteem

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Doris; Dahlström, Örjan; Pribe, Gisela; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2014-01-01

    AbstractObjective The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of self-reported experiences of potential childhood traumas and polytraumatization, and to find cut-off values for different kinds of potential traumatic events in a national representative sample of adults in Sweden. In addition, to analyse the association between polytraumatization and both psychological distress and global self-esteem. Method A web-based survey - containing SCL-25 and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, a...

  4. Social, Environmental and Psychological Factors Associated with Objective Physical Activity Levels in the Over 65s

    OpenAIRE

    McMurdo, Marion E. T.; Ishbel Argo; Iain K Crombie; Zhiqiang Feng; Sniehotta, Falko F.; Thenmalar Vadiveloo; Witham, Miles D.; Donnan, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. Design: Cross sectional survey. Setting: 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. Participants: Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65–80 years), old-old (over 80 years), more affluent and less affluent groups. Main Outcome Measures: Acce...

  5. Association between Childhood Dental Experiences and Dental Fear among Dental, Psychology and Mathematics Undergraduates in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Serra-Negra, Júnia M.; Vale, Miriam P.; Paiva, Saul M.; Maurício A. Oliveira; Ferreira, Meire C.; Bendo, Cristiane B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students responded to the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS) and a questionnaire regarding previous dental experiences. Both the DFS and the questionnaire were self-administered. Associatio...

  6. Study of Association of Psychological Stress and Depression among Undergraduate Medical Students in Pondicherry

    OpenAIRE

    Devi Kittu, Rohan Patil

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medical education across the globe is perceived as being inherently stressful. Studies on psychological problems such as stress, depression and anxiety among medical students have found that these disorders are under diagnosed and under treated. In this background the present study was undertaken with the objectives to assess the magni-tude of depression and its association with stress among medical students. Methods: A Cross sectional study was undertaken among 235 medical st...

  7. Psychological distress and associated factors among prisoners in North West Ethiopia: cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Dachew, Berihun Assefa; Fekadu, Abel; Kisi, Teresa; Yigzaw, Nigussie; Bisetegn, Telake Azale

    2015-01-01

    Background Currently, mental health is an important public health problem and the leading cause of disability worldwide. Studies have shown that, mental illnesses are more common among the prison population than the general population. However, still there is no accurate count of persons with mental disorder who are incarcerated in Ethiopia and information about prisoners’ health conditions is scarce. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of psychologic...

  8. What are sleep-related experiences? Associations with transliminality, psychological distress, and life stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Shahar, Golan

    2009-12-01

    Sleep-related experiences [Watson, D. (2001). Dissociations of the night: Individual differences in sleep-related experiences and their relation to dissociation and schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 526-535] refer to a host of nocturnal altered-consciousness phenomena, including narcoleptic tendencies, nightmares, problem-solving dreams, waking dreams, and lucid dreams. In an attempt to clarify the meaning of this construct, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sleep-related experiences (SREs), altered-consciousness tendencies (i.e., dissociation and transliminality), psychological distress, childhood maltreatment (i.e., abuse and neglect), and life stress in young adults. Both types of SREs (general SREs and lucid dreaming) were found to be distinguishable from altered-consciousness tendencies. Transliminality emerged as a longitudinal predictor of both general SREs and lucid dreams. Psychological distress and an increase in life stress predicted an increase in general SREs over a 3-month interval. We conclude that transliminality is a general altered-consciousness trait that accounts for some of the individual differences in sleep-related experiences, and that general sleep experiences are an outcome of psychological distress and life stress. PMID:18799323

  9. Statistical Methods in Psychology Journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willkinson, Leland

    1999-01-01

    Proposes guidelines for revising the American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual or other APA materials to clarify the application of statistics in research reports. The guidelines are intended to induce authors and editors to recognize the thoughtless application of statistical methods. Contains 54 references. (SLD)

  10. Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Winston J; Mangels, Ann Reed

    2009-07-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foods. This article reviews the current data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, n-3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, and vitamins D and B-12. A vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, supplements or fortified foods can provide useful amounts of important nutrients. An evidence- based review showed that vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate in pregnancy and result in positive maternal and infant health outcomes. The results of an evidence-based review showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarians also appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index and lower overall cancer rates. Features of a vegetarian diet that may reduce risk of chronic disease include lower intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, soy products, fiber, and phytochemicals. The variability of dietary practices among vegetarians makes individual assessment of dietary adequacy essential. In addition to assessing dietary adequacy, food and nutrition professionals can also play key roles in educating vegetarians about sources of specific nutrients

  11. The Role of Ethnic and National Identifications in Perceived Discrimination for Asian Americans: Toward a Better Understanding of the Buffering Effect of Group Identifications on Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Goldberg, Robyn

    2014-09-01

    A robust relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress has been established. Yet, mixed evidence exists regarding the extent to which ethnic identification moderates this relationship, and scarce attention has been paid to the moderating role of national identification. We propose that the role of group identifications in the perceived discrimination-psychological distress relationship is best understood by simultaneously and interactively considering ethnic and national identifications. A sample of 259 Asian American students completed measures of perceived discrimination, group identifications (specific ethnic identification stated by respondents and national or "mainstream American" identification), and psychological distress (anxiety and depression symptoms). Regression analyses revealed a significant three-way interaction of perceived discrimination, ethnic identification, and national identification on psychological distress. Simple-slope analyses indicated that dual identification (strong ethnic and national identifications) was linked to a weaker relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress compared with other group identification configurations. These findings underscore the need to consider the interconnections between ethnic and national identifications to better understand the circumstances under which group identifications are likely to buffer individuals against the adverse effects of racial discrimination. PMID:25258674

  12. The Development of an Undergraduate Study Abroad Program: Nicaragua and the Psychology of Social Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Ellen I.

    2013-01-01

    In its recent report outlining principles for teaching undergraduate students in psychology, the American Psychological Association Board of Educational Affairs recommended including experiential learning in the curriculum and identified study abroad opportunities as being particularly valuable. Unfortunately, although American universities offer…

  13. Association of Psychological Disorders with Extra-intestinal Symptoms in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mirbagher

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraintestinal symptoms are common in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. In the present study, we determined the relationship between psychological disorders and extraintestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. Methods: Adult patients with IBS referred to 4 gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan, Iran, completed the irritable bowel severity scoring system, extraintestinal symptoms scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life (IBS-QOL Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: The patients included 113 females and 45 males with mean age of 34.8 ± 11.1 years. Cumulative frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was 3.3 ± 2.4 (0 to 10. Anxiety and depression were present in 79.7% and 54.4% of the patients, respectively. Frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was correlated with anxiety and depression (r = 0.289 to 0.531, IBS severity (r = 0.373 to 0.505, and quality of life (r = -0.317 to -0.398. Severity of IBS was independently associated with extraintestinal digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = 0.248. Female gender, education level, and anxiety were independently associated with extraintestinal non-digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = -0.225 to 0.260. Severity of IBS and frequency of non-digestive symptoms were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.494 and -0.218. After controlling for psychological factors, IBS severity and depression were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.435 and -0.318. Conclusion: Extraintestinal symptoms and psychological disorders are common in patients with IBS and impact their quality of life. Psychological disorders are associated with extraintestinal symptoms, especially non-digestive symptoms. These results highlight the need for an integrated biopsychosocial approach to the management of IBS patients with physical and mental comorbidities.

  14. American social psychology: Examining the contours of the 1970s crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faye, Cathy

    2012-06-01

    Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, social psychologists diagnosed their field as suffering a state of disciplinary crisis. The crisis was a multifaceted one, but issues of methodology, social relevance, and disciplinary, philosophical, and theoretical orientation were the primary areas of concern. Given that these issues have been prominent ones throughout the history of the social and behavioral sciences, it becomes necessary to look to the immediate context of the 1970s crisis to understand how and why a disciplinary crisis came to be diagnosed. The present analysis suggests that the crisis reflected the larger crisis in American society and also drew on the language of crisis prevalent at the time. Employing this language may have offered the field a method of making sense of, reframing, and redirecting internal and external critiques of the discipline. PMID:22520200

  15. Teaching Statistics in APA-Accredited Doctoral Programs in Clinical and Counseling Psychology: A Syllabi Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ord, Anna S.; Ripley, Jennifer S.; Hook, Joshua; Erspamer, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Although statistical methods and research design are crucial areas of competency for psychologists, few studies explore how statistics are taught across doctoral programs in psychology in the United States. The present study examined 153 American Psychological Association-accredited doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology and aimed…

  16. Laurie R. Santos: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive…

  17. Of Course: Prerequisite Courses for Admission into APA-Accredited Clinical and Counseling Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, John C.; Sayette, Michael A.; Stratigis, Katerina Y.; Zimmerman, Barrett E.

    2014-01-01

    Students often inquire about which psychology courses to complete in preparation for graduate school. This study provides data that enable students and their advisors to make research-informed decisions. We surveyed the directors of the 304 American Psychological Association-accredited doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology (97%…

  18. Fanny M. Cheung: Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Fanny M. Cheung for her outstanding contributions to the assessment of cross-cultural psychopathology, personality psychology, and gender…

  19. Social Constraints are Associated with Negative Psychological and Physical Adjustment in Bereavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juth, Vanessa; Smyth, Joshua M; Carey, Michael P; Lepore, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    Losing a loved one is a normative life event, yet there is great variability in subsequent interpersonal experiences and adjustment. The Social-Cognitive Processing (SCP) model suggests that social constraints (i.e. limited opportunities to disclose thoughts and feelings in a supportive context) impede emotional and cognitive processing of stressful life events, which may lead to maladjustment. This study investigates personal and loss-related correlates of social constraints during bereavement, the links between social constraints and post-loss adjustment, and whether social constraints moderate the relations between loss-related intrusive thoughts and adjustment. A community sample of bereaved individuals (n = 238) provided demographic and loss-related information and reported on their social constraints, loss-related intrusions, and psychological and physical adjustment. Women, younger people, and those with greater financial concerns reported more social constraints. Social constraints were significantly associated with more depressive symptoms, perceived stress, somatic symptoms, and worse global health. Individuals with high social constraints and high loss-related intrusions had the highest depressive symptoms and perceived life stress. Consistent with the SCP model, loss-related social constraints are associated with poorer adjustment, especially psychological adjustment. In particular, experiencing social constraints in conjunction with loss-related intrusions may heighten the risk for poor psychological health. PMID:25708231

  20. «ПУБЛИКАЦИОННОЕ РУКОВОДСТВО АССОЦИАЦИИ АМЕРИКАНСКИХ ПСИХОЛОГОВ» (PUBLICATION MANUAL OF AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION): ИСТОРИЯ СОЗДАНИЯ

    OpenAIRE

    Денисова, Наталия; Ефимова, Алла

    2014-01-01

    В статье дается представление об истории возникновения «Публикационного руководства Ассоциации американских психологов» (Publication Manual of American Psychological Association). Данное пособие является базовым для написания научных работ по психологии и некоторым социальным дисциплинам, требующим следованию стиля АРА (American Psychological Association). В статье рассматривается влияние процесса информационной перегрузки и принципа индустриальной рационализации, определивших основные подход...

  1. American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association Specification No. 52 for uranium content in dental porcelain and porcelain teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standards have been established by the American Dental Association limiting the amount of uranium permitted in dental porcelain to no more than 0.003% by weight. This is a reduction by 40% of the previous standard set by the AEC in 1950. A procedure for uranium determination by neutron activation is described

  2. American ginseng suppresses inflammation and DNA damage associated with mouse colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yu; Kotakadi, Venkata S.; Ying, Lei; Hofseth, Anne B.; Cui, Xiangli; Wood, Patricia A; Windust, Anthony; Matesic, Lydia E.; Pena, Edsel A.; Chiuzan, Codruta; Singh, Narendra P.; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.; Wargovich, Michael J.; Hofseth, Lorne J.

    2008-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a dynamic, idiopathic, chronic inflammatory condition associated with a high colon cancer risk. American ginseng has antioxidant properties and targets many of the players in inflammation. The aim of this study was to test whether American ginseng extract prevents and treats colitis. Colitis in mice was induced by the presence of 1% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water or by 1% oxazolone rectally. American ginseng extract was mixed in the chow at level...

  3. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Associationの英文法記述について

    OpenAIRE

    江藤, 裕之

    2004-01-01

    言語事実の記述・分析により,言語の本質を追及することを目指す今日の科学的言語学において,「文法」は規範文法-言葉による正確な自己表現を可能にするためのルール-を意味しない.しかし,思考内容を正しく文章に表現するための技術への要請は消滅することなく,その伝統は文章読本,論文執筆マニュアルといった形で続いている.本稿では,今日を代表する英語論文執筆マニュアルであるアメリカ心理学会発行のPublication Manual of the American Psychological Associationの"g...

  4. Educational activities of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) was incorporated in 1958. Among the main purposes of the Association as specified in its Articles of Incorporation is to 'promote the application of physics to medicine and biology, to encourage interest and training in medical physics and related fields, and to prepare and to disseminate technical information in medical physics and related fields'. AAPM's activities in education emanate primarily from its Educational and Science Councils, International Affairs Committee (IAC), Annual Meeting, Annual Summer School, Medical Physics journal, and Website (www.aapm.org). AAPM devotes nearly one third of its total budget to educational activities not only in the United States but also internationally, with many of the international activities being co-sponsored and/or in conjunction and cooperation with the International Organization of Medical Physics, International Atomic Energy Agency, and other international societies. The AAPM's IAC has subcommittees devoted to all regions of the earth including subcommittees for African Affairs, Asian Oceanic Affairs, European Affairs, Latin American Affairs, Middle East Affairs, and the Exchange Scientist Program. The AAPM includes under its umbrella of Education the creation of Task Group Reports on various training and standard of practice documents, teaching syllabi, slide sets, PowerPoint presentations, support of continuing educational meetings throughout the world including meetings in developing countries, and free access to most of the educational and professional modules on its website. The AAPM's Education Council oversees the activities of several committees and task groups dedicated to national and international educational activities for medical physicists as well as other health professional (such as physicians and medical technologists) via the activities of our committees on Continuing Professional Development, Education and Training of Medical

  5. Can social psychological attitude measures be used to study language attitudes? - A case study exploring the Personalized Implicit Association Test

    OpenAIRE

    Rosseel, Laura; Speelman, Dirk; Geeraerts, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    In the field of social psychology, a wide range of implicit attitude measures have recently been developed. These measures have hardly been used in linguistic attitude research so far. This paper presents a case study exploring the potential of one of these social psychological measures, the Personalized Implicit Association Test, in order to find out whether it can be useful for the study of language attitudes. In the case study, the Personalized Implicit Association Test is applied to measu...

  6. Association between Childhood Dental Experiences and Dental Fear among Dental, Psychology and Mathematics Undergraduates in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnia M. Serra-Negra

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students responded to the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS and a questionnaire regarding previous dental experiences. Both the DFS and the questionnaire were self-administered. Association was tested using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis, with a 5% significance level. Dentistry undergraduates reported lower scores than psychology (p < 0.001 and mathematics undergraduates (p < 0.05 for all three dimensions of the DFS. Negative dental experiences in childhood was associated with dimensions of Avoidance (B = 2.70, p < 0.001, Physiological arousal (B = 1.42, p < 0.001 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 3.44, p < 0.001. The reason for first visit to dentist was associated with dimensions of Physiological arousal (B = 0.76, p < 0.01 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 1.29, p < 0.01. Dentists should be encouraged to evaluate the dental fear of their patients before treatment. The DFS has been found to be an effective instrument for this purpose.

  7. Are CRIS Cluster Patterns Differentially Associated with African American Enculturation and Social Distance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Vandiver, Beverly J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether Black racial identity cluster patterns, using Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS) scores, were differentially associated with preference for African American culture and social distance from various cultural groups. African American college students (N = 351) completed the CRIS, an enculturation scale, and a social…

  8. BURNOUT SYNDROME AND ITS ASSOCIATION TO PSYCHOLOGICAL PROFILE AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN NURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNICA M. NOVOA GÓMEZ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aim was to evaluate the Burnout syndrome and its association to psychological profile and quality of lifein nurses from urgency, oncology and neonatology services at a third level hospital in Bogotá city. The research pertainsto the investigation group in Psychology and Health of the Psychology Faculty at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.It is a non-experimental research within a correlational descriptive design. The instruments used were the Catell’s 16Personality Factors Inventory (16PF, the Maslash Burnout Inventory (MBI, a semi-structured interview and anobservational register. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation. Additionally, multivariatecovariance analysis (MANCOVA and Pearson correlation were used in special cases. SSPS programme was used for thisdata analysis. Results showed that the Burnout syndrome was not present in the evaluated nurses but they had somesymptoms, like emotional tiredness and depersonalisation; personality factors as impulsive-prudent, confident-jealousand dominant-submisive were found as predictors of occupational performance.

  9. Reading and analysis on management guidelines for hypothyroidism published in 2012 by American thyroid association and American association of clinical endocrinologists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists published Clinical Guideline for Hypothyroidism. The authors took an evidence-based medicine approach, and created 52 recommendations on 15 issues. The guideline emphasized that serum thyrotropin is the single best screening test for primary thyroid dysfunction for the vast majority of outpatient clinical situations. The standard treatment for hypothyroidism is replacement with L-thyroxine. The decision to treat subclinical hypothyroidism when the serum thyrotropin is less than 10 mIU/L should be tailored to the individual patient. (authors)

  10. Ensuring the Availability and Quality of School Psychology Doctoral Internships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Abigail M.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, only a small percentage of internships accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA) are filled by school psychology interns and only a few of the available APA internship positions are in schools. Program data submitted online to APA indicate that many interns are in sites that meet the guidelines adopted by the Council of…

  11. Ethical Perspectives on Qualitative Research in Applied Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2005-01-01

    The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…

  12. Longitudinal Pathways to Competence and Psychological Adjustment among African American Children Living in Rural Single-Parent Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Murry, Velma McBride; Kim, Sooyeon; Brown, Anita C.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between maternal psychological functioning and child competence and psychological adjustment among black families with 11-year-old children. Found a chain of influences over a 3-year period in which maternal education and income were linked with maternal psychological functioning, which predicted competence-promoting…

  13. Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia I Iqbal Kring

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress. METHODS: Obese young men (n = 475, BMI ≥ 31.0 kg/m(2 and a randomly selected control group (n = 709 identified from a population of 141,800 men were re-examined in two surveys (S-46: mean age 46, S-49: mean age 49 years where anthropometric and biochemical measures were available. Psychological stress factors were assessed by a self-administered 7-item questionnaire. Each item had the possible response categories "yes" and "no" and assessed familial problems and conflicts. Summing positive responses constituted a stress item score, which was then dichotomized into stressed and non-stressed. Logistic regression analysis, applying a recessive genetic model, was used to assess odds ratios (OR of the associations between APOE rs439401 genotypes and adverse levels of metabolic traits. RESULTS: The APOE rs439401 TT-genotype associated positively with BMI (OR = 1.09 [1.01; 1.17], waist circumference (OR = 1.09 [1.02; 1.17] in stressed men at S-46. Positive associations were observed for fasting plasma glucose (OR = 1.42 [1.07; 1.87], serum triglycerides (OR = 1.41 [1.05; 1.91] and with fasting plasma insulin (OR = 1.48 [1.05; 2.08] in stressed men at S-49. Rs439401 TT-genotype also associated positively with surrogate measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; OR = 1.21 [1.03; 1.41] and inversely with insulin sensitivity (Stumvoll index; OR = 0.90 [0.82; 0.99], BIGTT-S(I; OR = 0.60 [0.43; 0.85] in stressed men. No significant associations were observed in non-stressed men, albeit the estimates showed similar but weaker trends as in stressed men. CONCLUSION: The

  14. Associations between assertiveness, psychological well-being, and self-esteem in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Orosova, Olga; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Klein, Daniel; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the associations between adolescents assertive behavior, psychological well-being, and self-esteem. The sample consisted of 1,023 students (14.9 +/-.51; 47.6% boys). Two dimensions of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (distress and performance), 2 factors of the General Health Questionnaire-12 (depression/anxiety and social dysfunction), and 2 factors of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (positive self-esteem and negative self-esteem) were used; data were analyzed using h...

  15. Depleted Parental Psychological Resources as Mediators of the Association of Income with Adherence and Metabolic Control

    OpenAIRE

    Drew, Linda M.; Berg, Cynthia; King, Pamela; Verdant, Claudia; Griffith, Katrina; Butler, Jorie; Wiebe, Deborah J.

    2011-01-01

    For adolescents with type 1 diabetes, lower family income may be associated with poorer diabetes management through depleted parental psychological resources (i.e., higher parental depressive symptoms, lower parental acceptance). Adolescents (n=252; 46% male) aged 10-14 years with type 1 diabetes assessed the acceptance of their mother and father (e.g., gives me the feeling that she likes me as I am; she doesn't feel she has to make me over into someone else). Mothers provided information on ...

  16. Brief report: Association between psychological sense of school membership and mental health among early adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete, Jorge; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo

    2016-07-01

    Mental health problems among adolescents are prevalent and are associated with important difficulties for a normal development during this period and later in life. Understanding better the risk factors associated with mental health problems may help to design and implement more effective preventive interventions. Several personal and family risk factors have been identified in their relationship to mental health; however, much less is known about the influence of school-related factors. One of these school factors is school belonging or the psychological sense of school membership. This is a well-known protective factor to develop good academic commitment, but it has been scarcely studied in its relationship to mental health. We explored this association in a sample of early adolescents and found that students who reported having a high level of school membership had lower mental health problems, even after controlling for several personal and family factors. PMID:27149432

  17. Ishwar Puri elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science

    OpenAIRE

    Crumbley, Liz

    2005-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has awarded the distinction of Fellow to Ishwar Puri, head of the Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics in the Virginia Tech College of Engineering.

  18. Equine dental seminar hosted by the American Association of Equine Practitioners

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    The student chapter of the American Association of Equine Practitioners at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine recently presented an equine dental seminar for about 60 registrants.

  19. Physical Performance Is Associated with Executive Functioning in Older African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Brooke C.; Lichtenberg, Peter A.

    2011-01-01

    An older adult's ability to perform physical tasks is predictive of disability onset and is associated with declines in cognition. Risk factors for physical performance declines among African Americans, a group with the highest rates of disability, remain understudied. This study sought to identify demographic, health, and cognitive factors associated with lower-extremity physical performance in a sample of 106 African American women ages 56 to 91. After controlling for global cognitive funct...

  20. Association Between Asthma and Obesity Among Immigrant Asian Americans, California Health Interview Survey, 2001–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin J. Becerra; Scroggins, Christy M.; Monideepa B. Becerra

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to study the comorbidity of asthma and obesity among foreign-born Asian Americans, by subgroups. Public data from the California Health Interview Survey, 2001–2011, were analyzed by using independent logistic regressions, yielding the association between asthma and obesity (Asian and standard cutoffs for body mass index [BMIs]) of 19,841 Asian American immigrant respondents. Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, and Japanese immigrants had a positive association between lifetime a...

  1. Association between maternal psychological status and fetal hemodynamic circulation in late pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Jing; Yang Ruifen; Ma Xiaodong; Xia Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence reported of maternal depression from the first to the third trimester was 7.4%,12.8%,12.0% respectively,which implies that around one-tenth of pregnant women suffer from psychological disorder during the whole pregnancy.It is assumed that during pregnancy the maternal-fetal circulation unit is also affected by maternal psychological status.The aim of this study is to explore the association between maternal psychological status and fetal dynamic blood flow circulation during pregnancy.Methods We recruited 102 singleton low risk pregnant women between 30 to 33 gestational weeks.The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) was used to assess maternal psychological status.Ultrasound Doppler was used to measure blood flow changes in maternal-fetal circulation.Pulsatility index (PI) value was measured in umbilical artery (UA),fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) and maternal uterine arteries (UTA).Peak systolic velocity (PSV) was measured in MCA and velocity was measured in umbilical vein (UV).Statistical analysis was performed with standard nonparametric MannWhitney U tests.Two-tailed P values <0.05 were considered statistical significance.Results Of the 102 pregnant women,12 patients show high levels of poor mental health.Women with poor mental health have higher umbilical artery PI values than good mental health patients (P=0.020).A higher MCA PI value is found in poor mental health patients but this does not reach statistical significance (P=0.053).Women with hostility show lower placental scores (P=0.030).Women with somatization demonstrate higher values in UA PI,MCA PI and MCA PSV (P=0.049,0.030 and 0.035 respectively).A higher MCA PSV value is also found in phobic anxiety patients (P=0.046).Conclusions Poor mental health during pregnancy is found to have an adverse effect on maternal-fetal circulation.Umbilical artery and fetal cerebral circulation are more sensitive and affected by maternal psychological disorder.

  2. Methodological diversity of research published in selected psychological journals in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munley, Patrick H; Anderson, Mary Z; Briggs, Denise; Devries, Michael R; Forshee, Wade J; Whisner, Emily A

    2002-10-01

    454 papers appearing in 10 journals published by the American Psychological Association during 1999 were reviewed to consider the frequency of publication of qualitative research. Journals reviewed included Health Psychology, Journal of Abnormal Psychology, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Journal of Counseling Psychology, Journal of Educational Psychology, Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, Journal of Family Psychology, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, Psychological Assessment, and Psychology and Aging. Papers were classified as quantitative, qualitative, or mixed qualitative/quantitative studies. Quantitative papers were also dichotomously classified as either primarily descriptive or experimental. Qualitative studies were classified by type of qualitative methods specified by the authors. Most papers (97.6.%) were classified as quantitative. Only three journals reviewed published qualitative studies. PMID:12416829

  3. Financial Exploitation and Psychological Mistreatment among Older Adults: Differences between African Americans and Non-African Americans in a Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Scott R.; Schulz, Richard; Castle, Nicholas G.; Rosen, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine racial differences in (a) the prevalence of financial exploitation and psychological mistreatment since turning 60 and in the past 6 months and (b) the experience--perpetrator, frequency, and degree of upset--of psychological mistreatment in the past 6 months. Design and methods: Random digit dial telephone recruitment and…

  4. Association and Correlation between Temporomandibular Disorders and Psychological Factors in a Group of Dental Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Sood

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims/Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and presence of psychological factors (i.e.,anxiety and depression levels in dental undergraduate students. Second purpose was to assess the association and correlation between TMD degree and psychological factors viz. anxiety and depression. Materials and methods: The sample comprised of 400 Dental undergraduatestudents aged 18- 25 years, including both the genders. TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire (modified version of Helkimo’s anamnestic index. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to assess of levels of anxiety (HADSa and depression (HADSd in the dental undergraduate students. Results: Onbasisof the TMD anamnestic index, 74% of students were TMD free. 24.5% of subjects presented with mild degree of TMD and only 1.5% of subjects presented with moderate degree of TMD. According to the results obtained from HADSa, 35.3% of subjects presented with mild anxiety level, 13.8% with moderate anxiety level, and only 1.3% with severe anxiety level. According to the results obtained from HADSd, 10.3% of subjects presented with mild depression level and only 2.3% with moderate depression level. A definite association between TMD degree and Anxiety level (HADSa was found. A definite association between TMD degree and Depression level (HADSd was found. Therewas significant association between TMD degree and occlusion. Conclusions: On the basis of anamnestic index, this study revealed a 26% TMD prevalence in the dental undergraduate students included in the study; majority of cases being of mild degree. Both anxiety and depression were found to be associated with TMD degree/severity. Both anxiety and depression are weakly correlated with TMD in the present study.

  5. Influence of irradiation on therapy-associated psychological distress in breast carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To confirm our assumptions regarding factors that apparently cause psychological distress related to adjuvant radiotherapy in breast cancer patients and to evaluate variables that can predict therapy-associated distress. Methods and Materials: Between January 1997 and April 1998, 111 women (33-84 years) with early-stage breast cancer were irradiated (56 Gy) after breast-conserving surgery. Patients were given self-assessment questionnaires on the first and last day of radiotherapy. Statistical analysis was performed using the structural equation model LISREL, variance analysis, and regression analysis. Results: The internal subject-related factors (coping, radiation-related anxiety, physical distress, psychological distress) reciprocally influenced each other, whereas external radiotherapy-specific factors (environmental influence, confidence in the medical staff) were causally related to coping, anxiety, and distress. Fifty-three percent of the women felt distressed because cancer affected the breast; 48% were initially afraid of radiotherapy. For 36%, anxiety was not reduced during treatment. Highly distressed women were identified by the following parameters: ≤58 years; initial anxiety; they were affected by having breast cancer, were negatively affected by environmental factors, and did not find distraction helpful. Conclusion: Despite considerable individual variability in breast cancer patients, it seems possible to identify women who run a high risk of therapy-associated distress. In these patients, psychosocial support is necessary to reduce treatment-related anxiety and to stabilize confidence in the medical staff

  6. Sense of humor and its association with psychological disturbances among dental students in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhan, Balasubramanian; Barik, Ashish Kumar; Patil, Rajesh; Gayathri, Haritheertham; Reddy, Mora Sathi Rami

    2013-10-01

    Although the health benefits of humor and the potential advantages of having a good Sense of Humor (SoH) have been long recognized, they have not been investigated in dental students. The aim of this study was to assess the extent and demographic correlates of SoH in dental students and its association with their self-reported level of psychological disturbances. Six hundred and five students (age 20.3±1.83 years, 250 males, 355 females) from two dental schools in India anonymously completed the Multidimensional Sense of Humor Scale (MSHS) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21. Independent samples t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to analyze the intergroup differences based on gender and year of study, respectively. The association between SoH and each of the three negative affective states was evaluated with multiple linear regressions. The mean MSHS score of the sample was 59.65±11.77. Male students showed a marginally higher SoH than females (60.78 vs. 58.86, pstudents, the psychosocial roles of humor, and their application in improving the psychological climate in dental schools. PMID:24098038

  7. Associations between Psychological Distress and Body Mass Index among Law Enforcement Officers: The National Health Interview Survey 2004-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Ja K; Charles, Luenda E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Andrew, Michael E; Ma, Claudia; Bang, Ki Moon; Violanti, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between psychological distress and obesity among law enforcement officers (LEOs) in the United States. Methods Self-reported data on psychological distress based on six key questions were obtained from LEOs who participated in the National Health Interview Survey (2004-2010). We used Prochaska's cut-point of a Kessler 6 score ≥ 5 for moderate/high mental distress in our analysis. Mean levels of body mass index (BMI) were compared across three levels o...

  8. Psychological resources, their social antecedents, and association with well-being and health behaviour in early adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Ek, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The success of entering work life, young people s psychological resources and self-reported well-being were studied in a longitudinal setting from a life-span developmental-contextual perspective in early adulthood. The aim was to analyse how psychosocial characteristics in early childhood and adolescence predict successful entrance into work life, how this is associated with well-being, and to assess the level of psychological resources such as dispositional optimism, personal meaning of wor...

  9. Financial and Psychological Risk Attitudes Associated with Two Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Nicotine Receptor (CHRNA4) Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Roe, Brian E.; Tilley, Michael R.; Gu, Howard H.; Beversdorf, David Q.; SADEE, WOLFGANG; Haab, Timothy C.; Papp, Audrey C.

    2009-01-01

    With recent advances in understanding of the neuroscience of risk taking, attention is now turning to genetic factors that may contribute to individual heterogeneity in risk attitudes. In this paper we test for genetic associations with risk attitude measures derived from both the psychology and economics literature. To develop a long-term prospective study, we first evaluate both types of risk attitudes and find that the economic and psychological measures are poorly correlated, suggesting t...

  10. Psychological distress and substance use by adolescent mothers: associations with parenting attitudes and the quality of mother-child interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieker, S J; Gillmore, M R; Lewis, S M; Morrison, D M; Lohr, M J

    2001-01-01

    This study examines associations between psychological distress and alcohol and drug use across the first five years of raising a child and parenting quality at child age six for 185 adolescent mothers. Overall, alcohol and other drug use in this sample was relatively low, but drug use was associated with more mother-reported unrealistic expectations of child behavior and more attributions of child intent to annoy parent by misbehaving. Maternal psychological distress was associated with maternal reports of negative control (yelling, pushing, spanking, etc.), and alcohol use moderated the association between psychological distress and negative control. At low levels of alcohol use, more maternal distress was associated with greater negative control; at higher levels of alcohol use, maternal distress was not related to negative control, but the absolute level of negative control was similar to that reported by more distressed mothers. Neither psychological distress nor alcohol and other drug use were related to maternal behavior during an interaction task. Overall, much stronger associations with parenting outcomes were found for an index of maternal vocabulary, compared with maternal psychological distress or maternal alcohol and other drug use. PMID:11333005

  11. European initiatives in psychology education and research

    OpenAIRE

    Foreman, Nigel

    2015-01-01

    Psychology within the EU is likely to become more coherent as a discipline with initiatives such as the European Diploma of Psychology, and more and morecountries adopting the Bologna process as the basis of their educational provision. In addition, text books now appear which are adapted from American versions, giving a European perspective. The European Federation of Psychologists Associations (EFPA), though it does not award research grants, is keen to promote initiatives such as the new E...

  12. European initiatives in psychology education and research:

    OpenAIRE

    Foreman, Nigel

    2006-01-01

    Psychology within the EU is likely to become more coherent as a discipline with initiatives such as the European Diploma of Psychology, and more and morecountries adopting the Bologna process as the basis of their educational provision. In addition, text books now appear which are adapted from American versions, giving a European perspective. The European Federation of Psychologists Associations (EFPA), though it does not award research grants, is keen to promote initiatives such as the new E...

  13. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: Comprehensive School Nutrition Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G.; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…

  14. Two-Thirds of Americans Report Daily Discrimination in Poll

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to race, ethnicity, age, disability, gender or sexual orientation," Jaime Diaz-Granados, executive director for education at the American Psychological Association (APA), said in a news release from ...

  15. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association for the Legislative Year 2010: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives, February 19-21, 2010, Washington, DC, and August 11 and 15, 2010, San Diego, California, and Minutes of the February, June, August, September, and December 2010 Meetings of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Barry S.

    2011-01-01

    These minutes are the official record of the actions of the Association taken during the year by both the Board of Directors (the Board) and the Council of Representatives (Council). The roll of representatives was called at each Council meeting, and more than a quorum answered to their names. Reference is made in these minutes to various reports,…

  16. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association for the Legislative Year 2004: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives, February 20-22, 2004, Washington, DC, and July 28 and 30, 2004, Honolulu, Hawaii, and Minutes of the February, April, June, August, October, and December 2004 Meetings of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paige, Ruth Ullmann

    2005-01-01

    The minutes presented in this article are the official record of the actions of the Association taken during the year by both the Board of Directors (Board) and the Council of Representatives (Council). The minutes consist of: Elections, Awards, Membership, and Human Resources; Ethics; Board of Directors; Divisions and State, Provincial, and…

  17. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association for the Legislative Year 2011: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives, February 18-20, 2011, Washington, DC, and August 3 and 5, 2011, Washington, DC, and Minutes of the February, June, August, and December 2011 Meetings of the Board of Directors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Barry S.

    2012-01-01

    These minutes are the official record of the actions of the Association taken during the year by both the Board of Directors (the Board) and the Council of Representatives (Council). The roll of representatives was called at each Council meeting, and more than a quorum answered to their names. Reference is made in these minutes to various reports,…

  18. Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V V Fadeyev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available В конце весны 2011 г. вышли новые рекомендации Американской тиреоидной ассоциации и Американской ассоциации клинических эндокринологов по диагностике и лечению тиреотоксикоза. Они озаглавлены “Гипертиреоз и другие причины тиреотоксикоза”. Bahn R.S., Burch H.B., Cooper D.S., Garber J.R., Greenlee M.C., Klein I., Laurberg P., McDougall I.R., Montori V.M., Rivkees S.A., Ross D.S., Sosa J.A., Stan M.N. Hyperthyroidism and Other Causes of Thyrotoxicosis: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association and American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. Thyroid. 2011:21. Рекомендации представляют собой достаточно большой документ, изданный на 54 журнальных страницах. Важно отметить, что в его создании участвовали не только американские, но и европейские эксперты, т.е. представленные рекомендации не узкоспецифичны для США, где, как известно, есть свои особенности организации медицинской помощи. В документе сформулировано собственно 100 пунктов рекомендаций, каждому из которых представлен уровень силы рекомендации и уровень доказательности. Большая же часть объема документа представлена обсуждением и аргументацией,на основании которой были сформулированы 100 рекомендаций. В этой статье хотелось бы

  19. Timing and tempo: Exploring the complex association between pubertal development and depression in African American and European American girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Culbert, Kristen M; Grimm, Kevin J; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D

    2014-11-01

    The relative contribution of pubertal timing and tempo to the development of depression has not been tested in a large, representative sample, nor has the interface among pubertal maturation, depression, and race been tested. Participants were a community-based sample of 2,450 girls from the Pittsburgh Girls Study who were interviewed annually from ages 9 to 17 years. Pubertal timing and tempo were characterized as a unitary construct and also separately for pubic hair and breast development using child and maternal report. Depression symptoms were assessed annually. African American girls had higher depression symptoms and progressed through puberty earlier, but at a slower tempo than European American girls. Girls with earlier timing had higher levels of depression symptoms at age 10 years. Slower tempo was associated with higher depression symptoms at age 10, and faster tempo was associated with increases in depression from ages 10 to 13. As well, race moderated the associations among timing, tempo, and depression symptoms, and the association between race and depression was partially mediated by pubertal timing and tempo. Pubertal timing and tempo and race contribute to the developmental course of depression from early to late adolescence. The pattern of association varies as a function of the developmental window within which depression is assessed. Thus, repeated measures of depression symptoms and puberty across the span of pubertal development are necessary for exploring the relative importance of dimensions of pubertal development to depression etiology. PMID:25314262

  20. Sense of coherence is associated with reduced psychological responses to job stressors among Japanese factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urakawa Kayoko

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Job stress is associated with adverse health effects. The present study was conducted to examine the association between sense of coherence (SOC, as advocated by Antonovsky, and psychological responses to job stressors among Japanese workers. Methods A self-administered questionnaire containing a Japanese version of the 13-item SOC scale, the Brief Job Stress Questionnaire, and a self-rated health item were distributed to 1968 workers in X Prefecture. Anonymous responses were recovered by postal mail. Results Complete responses were received from 299 workers (response rate 15.2%, 191 males and 108 females who consented to participate in the study. Participants were 186 office clerks, 38 sales representatives, 22 technical engineers, 16 service trade workers, eight information processing workers, eight technical experts, and 21 other workers of various types. SOC scores were associated with age, self-rated health, job title, and marriage status. According to regression analyses stratified by gender, SOC was inversely associated with tension, fatigue, anxiety, depression and subjective symptoms in males, and tension, depression and subjective symptoms in females. SOC was positively associated with vigor in both males and females. Conclusions Having a strong SOC may reduce worker’s negative job stress responses and increase their vigor. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm this finding.

  1. Commonalities in the psychological factors associated with problem gambling and Internet dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, N A; Brown, M

    2010-08-01

    The most commonly applied conceptual approach for excessive Internet use has been as a behavioral addiction, similar to pathological or problem gambling. In order to contribute to the understanding of Internet dependence as a disorder resembling problem gambling, the current study aimed to examine the relationship between problem gambling and Internet dependence and the degree to which psychological factors associated with problem gambling are relevant to the study of Internet dependence. The factors of depression, anxiety, student stressors, loneliness, and social support were examined in a sample of university students from several Australian universities. The findings revealed that there is no overlap between the populations reporting problem gambling and Internet dependence, but that individuals with these disorders report similar psychological profiles. Although requiring replication with larger community samples and longitudinal designs, these preliminary findings suggest that problem gambling and Internet dependence may be separate disorders with common underlying etiologies or consequences. The implications of the findings in relation to the conceptualization and management of these disorders are briefly discussed. PMID:20575708

  2. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures as a manifestation of psychological distress associated with undiagnosed autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Dai; Iwakura, Yoshihiro; Seto, Toshiyuki; Kusaka, Hiroto; Goto, Ayako; Okada, Yu; Asada, Nobuyoshi; Yanagihara, Erika; Inoue, Koki

    2016-01-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are observable changes in behavior or consciousness that are similar to epileptic seizures but are not associated with electrophysiologic changes. PNES occur in children with underlying psychological distress and are especially frequent in those with epilepsy. Because PNES are heterogeneous, comprehensive treatment tailored to each patient is required to reduce psychosocial stress. Currently, reports regarding children with PNES concomitant with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not exist, and effective treatment strategies for these children are lacking. In this case report, we describe a 10-year-old Japanese girl with undiagnosed ASD who developed PNES while undergoing treatment for benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. She exhibited hypersensitivity to sound and interpersonal conflicts caused by social communication deficits. The PNES symptoms improved shortly after our intervention, which was designed to reduce her distress caused by auditory hypersensitivity and impaired social communication, both characteristics of ASD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing PNES in a child with ASD. Our findings suggest that PNES can result from psychological distress in children with undiagnosed ASD and highlight the importance of examining ASD traits in patients with PNES. PMID:26848267

  3. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures as a manifestation of psychological distress associated with undiagnosed autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyawaki D

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dai Miyawaki,1 Yoshihiro Iwakura,1 Toshiyuki Seto,2 Hiroto Kusaka,1 Ayako Goto,1 Yu Okada,1 Nobuyoshi Asada,1 Erika Yanagihara,1 Koki Inoue1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, 2Department of Pediatrics, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES are observable changes in behavior or consciousness that are similar to epileptic seizures but are not associated with electrophysiologic changes. PNES occur in children with underlying psychological distress and are especially frequent in those with epilepsy. Because PNES are heterogeneous, comprehensive treatment tailored to each patient is required to reduce psychosocial stress. Currently, reports regarding children with PNES concomitant with autism spectrum disorder (ASD do not exist, and effective treatment strategies for these children are lacking. In this case report, we describe a 10-year-old Japanese girl with undiagnosed ASD who developed PNES while undergoing treatment for benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. She exhibited hypersensitivity to sound and interpersonal conflicts caused by social communication deficits. The PNES symptoms improved shortly after our intervention, which was designed to reduce her distress caused by auditory hypersensitivity and impaired social communication, both characteristics of ASD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing PNES in a child with ASD. Our findings suggest that PNES can result from psychological distress in children with undiagnosed ASD and highlight the importance of examining ASD traits in patients with PNES. Keywords: pseudoseizures, autism spectrum disorders, undiagnosed, children

  4. Workplace wellness recognition for optimizing workplace health: a presidential advisory from the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonarow, Gregg C; Calitz, Chris; Arena, Ross; Baase, Catherine; Isaac, Fikry W; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Peterson, Eric D; Pronk, Nico; Sanchez, Eduardo; Terry, Paul E; Volpp, Kevin G; Antman, Elliott M

    2015-05-19

    The workplace is an important setting for promoting cardiovascular health and cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention in the United States. Well-designed, comprehensive workplace wellness programs have the potential to improve cardiovascular health and to reduce mortality, morbidity, and disability resulting from cardiovascular disease and stroke. Nevertheless, widespread implementation of comprehensive workplace wellness programs is lacking, and program composition and quality vary. Several organizations provide worksite wellness recognition programs; however, there is variation in recognition criteria, and they do not specifically focus on cardiovascular disease and stroke prevention. Although there is limited evidence to suggest that company performance on employer health management scorecards is associated with favorable healthcare cost trends, these data are not currently robust, and further evaluation is needed. As a recognized national leader in evidence-based guidelines, care systems, and quality programs, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association is uniquely positioned and committed to promoting the adoption of comprehensive workplace wellness programs, as well as improving program quality and workforce health outcomes. As part of its commitment to improve the cardiovascular health of all Americans, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will promote science-based best practices for comprehensive workplace wellness programs and establish benchmarks for a national workplace wellness recognition program to assist employers in applying the best systems and strategies for optimal programming. The recognition program will integrate identification of a workplace culture of health and achievement of rigorous standards for cardiovascular health based on Life's Simple 7 metrics. In addition, the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association will develop resources that assist employers in meeting these rigorous

  5. Child Well-Being in Same-Sex Parent Families: Review of Research Prepared for American Sociological Association Amicus Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther

    2014-08-01

    Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families. PMID:25018575

  6. HPV Literacy and Associated Factors Among Hmong American Immigrants: Implications for Reducing Cervical Cancer Disparity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Raiza; Simms, Tina; Lee, Hee Yun; Kwon, Melissa

    2016-06-01

    Previous studies show that certain minority and ethnic communities experience low human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination rates despite a higher cervical cancer burden. HPV is known to be responsible for almost all cervical cancer cases. Hmong Americans, a growing Asian American population, appear to be at increased risk. The cervical cancer incidence rate among Hmong American women is three times higher than other Asian/Pacific Islanders and more than four times higher than Non-Hispanic Whites. Despite such alarming statistics, there is limited research focusing on HPV literacy and its associated factors in the Hmong American community. This study's objectives are to investigate: (1) the level of HPV knowledge among Hmong Americans; (2) HPV vaccination initiation and completion rates of Hmong Americans; and (3) factors associated with HPV literacy in the Hmong American community. Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use was used as the study's theoretical framework. A self-administered paper and online health survey was completed by192 Hmong Americans living in a major metropolitan area in Minnesota. Results revealed a mean score of 4.76 (SD 1.67) for the 7-item questionnaire measuring HPV knowledge. The HPV vaccination initiation rate was 46.3 % (n = 56), with 32.7 % completing the recommended three doses. Multiple regression analysis found that participants' level of education, number of doctor visits, and cervical cancer screening literacy were significantly associated with HPV knowledge. This study's results indicate the important role of health providers in educating Hmong Americans patients about HPV and cervical cancer prevention to decrease the cervical cancer burden in this high-risk population. PMID:26696118

  7. Experiences and Perceptions of Interpersonal, Environmental, and Institutional Racism among African-American Students in Psychology Graduate Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell, Tracey

    Racist incidents that graduate students in psychology may experience can be reflective of Eurocentric values and forces which permeate present institutions. To better understand these forces, the experiences and perceptions of racism as experienced by minority graduate students are explored. Seventeen doctoral students in psychology, who…

  8. Polymorphic allele of human IRGM1 is associated with susceptibility to tuberculosis in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Y King

    Full Text Available An ancestral polymorphic allele of the human autophagy-related gene IRGM1 is associated with altered gene expression and a genetic risk for Crohn's Disease (CD. We used the single nucleotide polymorphism rs10065172C/T as a marker of this polymorphic allele and genotyped 370 African American and 177 Caucasian tuberculosis (TB cases and 180 African American and 110 Caucasian controls. Among African Americans, the TB cases were more likely to carry the CD-related T allele of rs10065172 (odds ratio of 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.02; P<0.01 compared to controls. Our finding suggests that this CD-related IRGM1 polymorphic allele is also associated with human susceptibility to TB disease among African Americans.

  9. Is there an independent association between burnout and increased allostatic load? Testing the contribution of psychological distress and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintsa, Taina; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus; Ahola, Kirsi; Virtanen, Marianna; Pirkola, Sami

    2016-08-01

    Burnout has been suggested to be related to depression. We examined the relationship between burnout and allostatic load, and whether this association is independent of psychological distress and depression. We measured burnout psychological distress, depression, and allostatic load in 3283 participants. Higher burnout (β = 0.06, p =0.003) and cynicism (β = 0.03, p = 0.031) and decreased professional efficacy (β = 0.03, p = 0.007) were related to higher allostatic load independent of age, sex, education, occupation and psychological distress. Depression, however, explained 60 percent of the association. Burnout is related to higher allostatic load, and this association partly overlaps with co-occurring depression. PMID:25476575

  10. The associations of perceived neighborhood disorder and physical activity with obesity among African American adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Dulin-Keita, Akilah; Kaur Thind, Herpreet; Affuso, Olivia; Baskin, Monica L.

    2013-01-01

    Background According to recent research studies, the built and socioeconomic contexts of neighborhoods are associated with African American adolescents’ participation in physical activity and obesity status. However, few research efforts have been devoted to understand how African American adolescents’ perceptions of their neighborhood environments may affect physical activity behaviors and obesity status. The objective of the current study was to use a perceived neighborhood disorder concept...

  11. Association of hair iron levels with creativity and psychological variables related to creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru Takeuchi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Creativity generally involves the conception of original and valuable ideas. Previous studies have suggested an association between creativity and the dopaminergic system, and that physical activity facilitates creativity. Iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and physical activity. Here, we newly investigated the associations between hair iron levels and creativity, dopamine-related traits and states [novelty seeking, extraversion, and vigor (motivational state], as well as the physical activity level. In the present study, we addressed this issue by performing a hair mineral analysis to determine iron levels and a behavioral creativity test of divergent thinking and related psychological measures among young adults (254 men, 88 women; mean age 20.79 ± 2.03 years. Iron levels did not show any significant association with creativity but displayed significant positive associations with novelty seeking, extraversion, and physical activity level. These results may be partly congruent with the notion that iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and imply that iron is important for traits and physical activity, which facilitate creativity. Future interventional or longitudinal studies are warranted to identify any causal effects.

  12. Association of Enjoyable Leisure Activities With Psychological and Physical Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, Sarah D.; Matthews, Karen A.; Cohen, Sheldon; Martire, Lynn M.; Scheier, Michael; Baum, Andrew; Schulz, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine whether engaging in multiple enjoyable activities was associated with better psychological and physiological functioning. Few studies have examined the health benefits of the enjoyable activities that individuals participate in voluntarily in their free time. Method Participants from four different studies (n = 1399 total, 74% female, age = 19–89 years) completed a self-report measure (Pittsburgh Enjoyable Activities Test (PEAT)) assessing their participation in ten different types of leisure activities as well as measures assessing positive and negative psychosocial states. Resting blood pressure, cortisol (over 2 days), body mass index, waist circumference, and perceived physiological functioning were assessed. Results Higher PEAT scores were associated with lower blood pressure, total cortisol, waist circumference, and body mass index, and perceptions of better physical function. These associations withstood controlling for demographic measures. The PEAT was correlated with higher levels of positive psychosocial states and lower levels of depression and negative affect. Conclusion Enjoyable leisure activities, taken in the aggregate, are associated with psychosocial and physical measures relevant for health and well-being. Future studies should determine the extent that these behaviors in the aggregate are useful predictors of disease and other health outcomes. PMID:19592515

  13. Social, environmental and psychological factors associated with objective physical activity levels in the over 65s.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion E T McMurdo

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling. RESULTS: 547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model. CONCLUSIONS: Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.

  14. Changing for the Better? Longitudinal Associations Between Volitional Personality Change and Psychological Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Nathan W; Fraley, R Chris

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has found that a vast majority of people want to change their personality traits--and they may be able to find some degree of success in doing so. However, desires for self-change have been theoretically and empirically linked to reduced well-being. The present study utilized a longitudinal design to better understand the associations between people's desires and attempts to change their personality traits and their psychological well-being. Results indicated that possessing change goals did not necessarily predict growing deficits in well-being over time. In contrast, people who were able to change their personality traits in ways that aligned with their desires tended to experience increases in well-being over time. These findings are consistent with theory that dissatisfaction can precipitate change goals, and successful change can ameliorate dissatisfaction. PMID:27016068

  15. Gold medal award for life achievement in the application of psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology is Stuart Oskamp. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 117th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 7, 2009, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2009 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; William Howell, vice president/secretary; Archie L. Turner, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Charles L. Brewer; Anthony Jackson; Steven E. James; Ronald F. Levant; Gerald Koocher; Sandra Shullman; and Rosie Phillips Bingham, APA Board of Directors liaison. PMID:19618969

  16. 77 FR 38378 - Hours of Service (HOS) of Drivers; Revision of Exemption; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... carriers and added 9 new APA-member carriers (76 FR 37876 and 76 FR 37880, June 28, 2011) for their... published on June 28, 2011 (76 FR 37876-37882). Issued on: June 21, 2012. Larry W. Minor, Associate... Exemption; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety...

  17. Valuation and the American Evaluation Association: Helping 100 Flowers Bloom, or at Least Be Understood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The author explores the challenges encountered when organizations attempt to facilitate evaluation and improvement through policy statements of professional associations. The American Evaluation Association (AEA) is used as an example. Various AEA statements are described as general and avoiding particular value preferences. The author concludes…

  18. 78 FR 17679 - Implementation of the Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Association Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health... the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013... updated Guidelines. DATES: Public concerns regarding the updated AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia...

  19. The Prospective Association between Positive Psychological Well-Being and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, Julia K.; Kivimaki, Mika; Trudel-Fitzgerald, Claudia; Kubzansky, Laura D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Positive psychological well-being has protective associations with cardiovascular outcomes, but no studies have considered its association with diabetes. This study investigated links between well-being and incident diabetes. Methods At study baseline (1991-1994), 7,800 middle-aged British men and women without diabetes indicated their life satisfaction, emotional vitality, and optimism. Diabetes status was determined by self-reported physician diagnosis and oral glucose tolerance test (screen detection) at baseline and through 2002-2004. Incident diabetes was defined by physician-diagnosed and screen-detected cases combined and separately. Logistic regression estimated the odds of developing diabetes controlling for relevant covariates (e.g., demographics, depressive symptoms). Models were also stratified by gender and weight status. Results There were 562 combined cases of incident diabetes during follow-up (up to 13 years). Well-being was not associated with incident diabetes for combined physician-diagnosed and screen-detected cases. However, when examining the 288 physician-diagnosed cases, life satisfaction (OR=0.85, 95% CI=0.76-0.95) and emotional vitality (OR=0.86, 95% CI=0.77-0.97) were associated with up to a 15% decrease in the odds of physician-diagnosed diabetes, controlling for demographics (results were similar with other covariates). Optimism was not associated with physician-diagnosed diabetes and no well-being indicator was associated with screen-detected diabetes. Gender and weight status were not moderators. Conclusions Life satisfaction and emotional vitality, but not optimism, were associated with reduced risk of physician-diagnosed diabetes. These findings suggest well-being may contribute to reducing risk of a prevalent and burdensome condition although intervention studies are needed to confirm this. It is unclear why findings differed for physician-diagnosed versus study-screened diabetes. PMID:25603420

  20. The mediating role of psychological capital on the association between occupational stress and job burnout among bank employees in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees. PMID:25764060

  1. The Mediating Role of Psychological Capital on the Association between Occupational Stress and Job Burnout among Bank Employees in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xirui Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank

  2. International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology. European Regional Conference: Cognitive Development and Learning from Kindergarten to University. Program and Abstracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hessels, Marco G.P.

    2012-01-01

    Abstracts and program of the 2012 European Regional Conference "Cognitive development and learning from kindergarten to university" of the International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology.

  3. An examination of the association between demographic and educational factors and African American achievement in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottledge, Michael Christopher

    Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS. Answers to the following questions were sought: 1. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 2. Is there an association between teacher educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? 3. Is there an association between teacher demographic factors, educational factors and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African American male students on the 2010 science TAKS? Status of the Question: According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), science and engineering jobs in the U.S. have increased steadily over recent years and by the year 2016 the number of STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Math) jobs will have grown by more than 21 percent. This increase in science and engineering jobs will double the growth rate of all other workforce sectors combined. The BLS also reports that qualified minority applicants needed to fill these positions will be few and far between. African Americans, Latinos, and other minorities constitute 24 percent of the U.S. population but only 13 percent of college graduates and just 10 percent of people with college degrees who work in science and engineering (Education Trust, 2009). Drawing on the above information, I proposed the following hypotheses to the research questions: H01: There will be no significant statistical association between the demographic factors teacher gender and years of teaching experience and the percent passing rate of their tenth grade African

  4. Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: Identifying interfering and facilitating sources

    OpenAIRE

    Thames, AD; Panos, SE; Arentoft, A; Byrd, DA; Hinkin, CH; Arbid, N

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 American Psychological Association. The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with hig...

  5. Cross-border ties and Arab American mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2016-04-01

    Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans. PMID:26999416

  6. Association between household income and overweight of Korean and American children: trends and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yongju; Oh, Sangwoo; Park, Sangshin; Park, Yongsoon

    2010-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight in children has been dramatically increasing worldwide, and socioeconomic status is an important risk factor. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that household income is negatively associated with overweight in Korean and American girls and boys. In the study, 2117 children 7 to 12 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2007 and 3016 children from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2006 were included. Overweight is defined as the sex- and age-specific body mass index cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Lower household income significantly increased the risk for overweight in Korean boys, irrespective of adjustments. The negative association between household income and overweight of American boys disappeared after adjusting for the frequency of dining out and TV viewing time. There was no significant association between household income and overweight of Korean and American girls. As household income increased, the intake of energy from protein was increased, but energy from carbohydrates was decreased in Korean boys. On the other hand, as household income increased, energy intake from carbohydrates was increased and energy intake from proteins decreased in American boys. In conclusion, positive association between household income and overweight was found in Korean boys, but not in Korean girls and American boys and girls. Effects solely targeting reduction in income disparities cannot effectively reduce sex disparities in overweight of children. PMID:20797479

  7. An Implicit Measure of Anti-Gay Attitudes: Prospective Associations with Emotion Regulation Strategies and Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Dovidio, John F; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Phills, Curtis E

    2009-11-01

    Members of stigmatized groups are at increased risk for mental health problems, and recent research has suggested that emotion dysregulation may be one mechanism explaining the stigma-distress association. However, little is known regarding characteristics that predict vulnerabilities to emotion dysregulation and subsequent distress. We examined whether anti-gay attitudes would predict poorer emotion regulation and greater psychological distress in 31 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) respondents. Respondents completed implicit and explicit attitude measures at baseline, and participated in an experience sampling study examining stigma-related stressors, emotion regulation strategies, and mood over the course of ten days. Implicit and explicit attitude measures were not correlated. LGB respondents with greater implicit anti-gay attitudes engaged in significantly more rumination and suppression and reported more psychological distress. Rumination fully mediated the prospective association between implicit prejudicial attitudes and psychological distress, and suppression was a marginally significant mediator. PMID:20161465

  8. Industrial Organizational Psychology: Today's Critical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, James C.

    The Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) of the American Psychological Association is dominated by the health care providers whose agenda in issuing accreditation standards and influencing state licensing requirements may be as much to protect the clinician from less expensive competition as it is to protect the client. Tension exists between the…

  9. Financial Exploitation and Psychological Mistreatment Among Older Adults: Differences Between African Americans and Non-African Americans in a Population-Based Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Beach, Scott R.; Schulz, Richard; Castle, Nicholas G; Rosen, Jules

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine racial differences in (a) the prevalence of financial exploitation and psychological mistreatment since turning 60 and in the past 6 months and (b) the experience—perpetrator, frequency, and degree of upset—of psychological mistreatment in the past 6 months. Design and methods: Random digit dial telephone recruitment and population-based survey (telephone and in-person) of 903 adults aged 60 years and older in Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania (693 non-African Am...

  10. HLA disease association and protection in HIV infection among African Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, J M; Brackin, M N; Lewis, R E; Meeks, W; Nolan, R; Brackin, B

    1991-01-01

    In a previous investigation, we demonstrated an increased progression of overt AIDS in the African American population compared to the Caucasian population as reflected by the significantly lower absolute number of CD4+ lymphocytes detected in the African American population in an earlier study. The present study elucidates some of the possible genetic factors which may contribute to disease association or protection against HIV infection. The HLA phenotypes expressed as A, B, C, DR and DQw antigens were revealed by the Amos-modified typing procedure. NIH scoring was utilized to designate positive cells taking up trypan blue. A test of proportion equivalent to the chi 2 approximation was used to compare the disease population (n = 62; 38 African Americans, 24 Caucasians) to race-matched normal heterosexual local controls (323 African Americans, 412 Caucasians). Significant p values were corrected for the number of HLA antigens tested. HLA markers associated with possible protection from infection for African Americans were Cw4 and DRw6, whereas Caucasians expressed none. Disease association markers present in the African American population were A31, B35, Cw6, Cw7, DR5, DR6, DRw11, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7, whereas in the Caucasian population A28, Aw66, Aw48, Bw65, Bw70, Cw7, DRw10, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7 were demonstrated. The highest phenotypic frequency for a disease association marker in the study was for HLA-DR5 (62.9%) in the HIV-infected African American population without Kaposi's sarcoma compared to a frequency of 28.9% for the regional control group (p = 0.0012). We conclude that genetic factors do have a role in HIV infection since only 50-60% of those exposed to the AIDS virus will become infected. PMID:1910527

  11. Psychiatry Today : Biology vs. Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, I; Fried, W; Berman, S M; Lengua, J A; Alpert, M

    1995-06-01

    This research addresses preferences and theoretical leanings of present-day psychiatrists along the continuum defined at one end by biology and at the other by psychology. A questionnaire was devised and sent to 5,702 randomly selected members of the American Psychiatric Association in 1990. The response rate was 307%. The results were analyzed for two groups: psychiatrists with fewer than 15 years of practice since residency and psychiatrists with more than 15 years of practice since graduation. Although the great majority of psychiatrists in both groups equally valued psychology and biology, the senior group attributed a greater importance to psychological methods, whereas the younger group stressed equally the importance of biology and psychology. This suggests that psychiatry has evolved over the years from a predominantly psychological practice to one with a more equal emphasis on psychology and biology. Recent advances in neuroscience may have shifted the pendulum toward a more balanced willingness of clinicians to consider the broad armamentarium of psychosocial and biological treatments. The results point to the need for further conceptualization into the relationship between biology and psychology and its incorporation into the psychiatric residency curriculum. PMID:24442524

  12. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  13. Association of psychological morbidity with socio-demographic characteristics among elderly: A cross-sectional study from Eastern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratyay Pratim Datta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The psychological morbidity of the geriatric people is very common. There are different socio-demographic factors affecting the psychological health of elderly, which have not been studied in detail in India. Objective: The present study was framed to find out the association of different socio-demographic factors with the psychological morbidity of the elderly. Materials and Methods: It was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted in Municipal area of Tarakeswar, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India among the geriatric people using a pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured schedule to collect the socio-demographic data. General Health Questionnaire-28 was used to collect data regarding psychological morbidity. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16.0. Results: It was revealed that only 29.4% of the respondents scored within normal range. Multiple linear regression taking total as well as domain-wise scoring as dependent variable revealed that increasing age, female sex, illiteracy, financial dependency on other family members, not living with spouse, and poor socio-economic status are significantly associated with psychological morbidity. Conclusion: Overall mental health condition of geriatric people is not good. Proper rehabilitation measures have to be taken by family members, society, and government like engaging them in light activities of their interest, old age pension scheme or forming self-help group among elderly, which would result in making them happy.

  14. Prevalence and Clinical Characteristics Associated with Pulmonary Hypertension in African-Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhary, Gaurav; Jankowich, Matthew; Wu, Wen-Chih

    2013-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. It is frequently associated with cardiopulmonary diseases that are prevalent in African Americans (AAs). However, the prevalence or determinants of PH in the AA population is not known. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of PH (defined as trans-tricuspid gradient ≥ 35 mm Hg) and associated clinical characteristics in AAs using the Jackson Heart Study cohort (n=3,28...

  15. Mixed Emotional Experience Is Associated with and Precedes Improvements in Psychological Well-Being

    OpenAIRE

    Adler, Jonathan M.; Hershfield, Hal E.

    2012-01-01

    Background The relationships between positive and negative emotional experience and physical and psychological well-being have been well-documented. The present study examines the prospective positive relationship between concurrent positive and negative emotional experience and psychological well-being in the context of psychotherapy. Methods 47 adults undergoing psychotherapy completed measures of psychological well-being and wrote private narratives that were coded by trained raters for em...

  16. Prevalence and associated factors in burnout and psychological morbidity among substance misuse professionals

    OpenAIRE

    Oyefeso Adenekan; Clancy Carmel; Farmer Roger

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies of psychological stress among substance misuse professionals rarely describe the nature of burnout and psychological morbidity. The main aim of this study was to determine the extent, pattern and predictors of psychological morbidity and burnout among substance misuse professionals. Methods This study was a cross-sectional mail survey of 194 clinical staff of substance misuse services in the former South Thames region of England, using the General Health Questionna...

  17. Content Analysis of Acculturation Research in Counseling and Counseling Psychology: A 22-Year Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Eunju; Langrehr, Kimberly; Ong, Lee Za

    2011-01-01

    The authors conducted a 22-year (1988-2009) content analysis of quantitative empirical research that included acculturation and/or enculturation as a study variable(s). A total of 138 studies in 134 articles were systematically evaluated from 5 major American Psychological Association and American Counseling Association journals in counseling and…

  18. The Influence of Sex-Role Identity and Occupational Attainment on the Psychological Well-Being of Asian American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Esther Ngan-Ling

    1987-01-01

    Examined the relationship of sex-role identity to occupational attainment, self-esteem, and work satisfaction for 161 employed Asian American women. Androgynous Asian American women and those with a high level of occupational attainment had a higher level of self-esteem and a greater degree of work satisfaction than those with other types of…

  19. Daily Psychological Demands Are Associated with Six-Year Progression of Carotid Artery Atherosclerosis: The Pittsburgh Healthy Heart Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarck, Thomas W.; Shiffman, Saul; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Tepper, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examine associations between the perception of ongoing psychological demands by ecological momentary assessment (EMA) and 6-year changes in carotid artery atherosclerosis by ultrasonography. Methods 270 initially healthy participants collected ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and recorded their daily experiences, using electronic diaries, over two 3-day periods. Mean intima-medial thickness (IMT) and plaque were assessed in the carotid arteries using B-mode ultrasound at baseline and again during a 6-year follow-up (average follow-up duration 73 months). Results Among those who had no exposure to antihypertensive medications over the course of follow-up (n = 192), daily psychological demands were associated with greater progression of IMT as well as plaque, after adjustment for demographic and risk factor covariates. Associations between demands and plaque change were partially accounted for by ABP differences among those reporting high demands. Among those who were employed at baseline (n=117), six-year IMT changes were more strongly associated with ratings of daily demands than with traditional measures of occupational stress. Conclusion These data support the role of psychological demands as a correlate of subclinical atherosclerotic progression, they point to ABP as a potential mechanism facilitating these effects, and they highlight the utility of EMA measures for capturing daily psychological demands with potential effects on health. PMID:22582340

  20. The Specificity of Psychological Factors Associated with Binge Eating in Adolescent Boys and Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehm, Marie; Warschburger, Petra

    2015-11-01

    Low self-esteem, lack of interoceptive awareness, perfectionism, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, weight teasing, and internalization of the societal body ideal are known to be associated with binge eating (BE) in adolescents. The purpose of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate whether these attributes are BE-specific and whether different patterns exist for boys and girls. We assessed BE, internalizing symptoms and psychological factors in 1039 adolescents from a community sample by self-report. Using multinomial logistic regression and controlling for measured height and weight, we compared adolescents with BE with individuals from a healthy control group and adolescents reporting internalizing symptoms. Individuals from the BE-group reported a greater lack of interoceptive awareness and higher body dissatisfaction than individuals from the healthy control group. Additionally, we found a significant interaction between gender and body dissatisfaction. Internalization of the societal body ideal was related to BE when compared to internalizing symptoms. Results suggest, that the lack of interoceptive awareness and body dissatisfaction display substantial associations with BE, and that the latter effect is especially strong in boys. The internalization of societal standards of beauty emerged as a BE-specific factor and this finding emphasizes the role of the societal body ideal in the nature of eating pathology in boys and in girls. Increasing body satisfaction and the acceptance of realistic body ideals might be effective strategies in preventing eating pathology. PMID:25936287

  1. Factors associated with willingness to participate in biospecimen research among Chinese Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wanzhen; Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Fang, Carolyn; Weaver, JoEllen; Jin, Ming; Lai, Philip

    2014-04-01

    A paucity of information exists on the recruitment of Asian Americans for biospecimen research. Although studies show that Chinese Americans are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, little is known about their willingness to participate in HBV-related biospecimen research and how knowledge, attitudes, and cultural factors impact their willingness to participate. The study was guided by Community-Based Participatory Research principles. Data were derived from an assessment study on HBV-related biospecimen research participation among Chinese Americans in the Philadelphia region. The assessment was conducted with 415 Chinese Americans recruited from eight Chinese community-based organizations. Cultural beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes toward biospecimen research were examined for associations with their willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Overall, 192 (46.3%) of 415 participants who completed the assessment indicated they were willing to participate if they were invited to donate blood to be frozen and stored for future HBV biospecimen studies. Cultural variables significant in bivariate analysis included collectivism, knowledge about biospecimen research, and Yin-Yang beliefs. Fatalism and individualism were not associated with participation willingness. In multivariate analysis, age, health care attitudes, and trust were significantly associated with willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Asian American communities have little knowledge of biospecimen banking and will benefit from educational campaigns that emphasize collective benefits and attitudes towards and trust in the health care system. Understanding cultural factors is important for improving Chinese Americans' knowledge, awareness, and intentions of participation in biospecimen research. Similar efforts need to be undertaken to develop culturally appropriate educational intervention programs to increase participation in biospecimen research

  2. Discriminating real victims from feigners of psychological injury in gender violence: Validating a protocol for forensic setting

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Arce; Francisca Farina; Manuel Vilarino

    2009-01-01

    Standard clinical assessment of psychological injury does not provide valid evidence in forensic settings, and screening of genuine from feigned complaints must be undertaken prior to the diagnosis of mental state (American Psychological Association, 2002). Whereas psychological injury is Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a clinical diagnosis may encompass other nosologies (e.g., depression and anxiety). The assessment of psychological injury in forensic contexts requires a multimethod a...

  3. Narrating Psychological Distress: Associations between Cross-Clausal Integration and Mental Health Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinken, Jorg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna; Butler, Lisa; Skinner, T. Chas

    2011-01-01

    Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress…

  4. Functional (psychogenic) movement disorders associated with normal scores in psychological questionnaires : A case control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, Renske M.; Broersma, Marja; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H. M.; Koops, Elouise A.; van Laar, Teus; Stone, Jon; van Beilen, Marije

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Functional movement disorders (FMDs) fall within the broader category called functional neurological symptom disorder (FNSD). New DSM-5 criteria for FNSD no longer require the presence of a 'psychological conflict' suggesting that some patients with FMD may not have obvious psychological

  5. Female genital mutilation. Council on Scientific Affairs, American Medical Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Female genital mutilation is the medically unnecessary modification of female genitalia. Female genital mutilation typically occurs at about 7 years of age, but mutilated women suffer severe medical complications throughout their adult lives. Female genital mutilation most frequently occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, and it is generally part of a ceremonial induction into adult society. Recent political and economic problems in these regions, however, have increased the numbers of students and refugees to the United States. Consequently, US physicians are treating an increasing number of mutilated patients. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that US physicians join the World Health Organization, the World Medical Association, and other major health care organizations in opposing all forms of medically unnecessary surgical modification of the female genitalia. PMID:7474278

  6. Expanding the Epistemological Terrain: Increasing Equity and Diversity within the American Educational Research Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, James A.

    2016-01-01

    During the civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the quest for civil rights by African Americans and other groups of color reverberated throughout the United States and the world, including within educational professional and research organizations, such as the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the National Council of…

  7. Importation of Hybrid Human-Associated Trypanosoma cruzi Strains of Southern South American Origin, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, Louisa A; Ramirez, Juan David; Llewellyn, Martin S; Guhl, Felipe; Miles, Michael A

    2016-08-01

    We report the characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi of southern South American origin among humans, domestic vectors, and peridomestic hosts in Colombia using high-resolution nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping. Expanding our understanding of the geographic range of lineage TcVI, which is associated with severe Chagas disease, will help clarify risk of human infection for improved disease control. PMID:27434772

  8. AERA Code of Ethics: American Educational Research Association Approved by the AERA Council February 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Educational Researcher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) articulates a common set of values upon which education researchers build their professional and scientific work. The Code is intended to provide both the principles and the rules to cover professional situations encountered by education researchers. It has as its primary…

  9. Attempted Suicide and Associated Health Risk Behaviors among Native American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Lana; Doshi, Sonal R.; Jones, Sherry Everett

    2004-01-01

    Suicide represents the second-leading cause of death among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth aged 15-24 years. Data from the 2001 Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to examine the association between attempted suicide among high school students and unintentional injury and violence behaviors, sexual risk…

  10. 77 FR 42229 - Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ...The Food and drug Administration (FDA) is correcting a notice that appeared in the Federal Register of June 13, 2012 (77 FR 35317). The document announced that Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM N.V., and National Council of La Raza had jointly filed a petition proposing that the food additive regulations be amended......

  11. Tobacco industry influence on the definition of tobacco related disorders by the American Psychiatric Association

    OpenAIRE

    Neuman, M; Bitton, A; Glantz, S

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.

  12. The American Bar Association and Legislatively Mandated Treatment for Sex Offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallone, Nathanial J.

    1991-01-01

    Offers historical overview of "criminal sexual psychopath" legislation, which customarily prescribes confinement for treatment (rather than incarceration for punishment) for offenders whose sex crimes are attributed to sexual psychopathology. Discusses desire of American Bar Association and Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry to repeal extant…

  13. University of Central Florida and the American Association of State Colleges and Universities: Blended Learning Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    EDUCAUSE, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Blended Learning Toolkit supports the course redesign approach, and interest in its openly available clearinghouse of online tools, strategies, curricula, and other materials to support the adoption of blended learning continues to grow. When the resource originally launched in July 2011, 20 AASCU [American Association of State Colleges and…

  14. The Clinical Research Forum and Association of American Physicians disagree with criticism of the NIH Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    Crowley, William; Courtney, John; Pardes, Herbert; Moskowitz, Jay; Orringer, Eugene; Rubenstein, Arthur; Wood, Alastair; Rettig, Richard; Ausiello, Dennis; Brenner, David; Collins, Francis; Elias, Jack; Greene, Warner; Horowitz, Ralph; Jameson, Larry

    2006-01-01

    As representatives of 50 leading academic medical centers focusing on clinical research and many of academic medicine’s scientific leaders, the Clinical Research Forum and Association of American Physicians disagree with the JCI’s recent editorials on the NIH Roadmap, Elias Zerhouni’s leadership, and the future directions of biomedical research.

  15. Neuronal calcium sensor-1 and cocaine addiction: A genetic association study in African-Americans and European Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multani, Pushpinder K.; Clarke, Toni-Kim; Narasimhan, Sneha; Ambrose-Lanci, Lisa; Kampman, Kyle M.; Pettinati, Helen M.; Oslin, David W.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Berrettini, Wade H.; Lohoff, Falk W.

    2013-01-01

    Genes involved in drug reward pathways are plausible candidates for susceptibility to substance use disorders. Given the prominent role of dopamine in drug reward, dopamine receptor-interacting proteins (DRIPs) such as the neuronal calcium sensor-1 (NCS-1) protein have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathophysiology of cocaine addiction (CA). In this study, we investigated whether genetic variants in the NCS-1 gene confer risk to CA. We genotyped 8 SNPs (rs4837479, rs7849345, rs3824544, rs10819611, rs947513, rs2277200, rs7873936 and rs1342043) in our discovery sample (cases n = 796, controls n = 416) of African descent. Confirmation of associated or trending SNPs (rs7849345, rs10819611, rs1342043) was attempted using a replication sample of African American (AA) ethnicity (cases n = 335, controls n = 336) and European-American (EA) ancestry (cases n = 336, controls n = 656). Secondary sex specific analysis was also carried out for each SNP in both AA and EA individuals. Genotyping of the discovery cohort showed significant genotypic (p = 0.0005, corrected q-value) as well as allelic (p = 0.005, corrected q-value) associations of rs1342043 with CA in AAs; however, this marker could not be confirmed in either the AA or EA replication sample. Combined analysis of all AA samples (n = 1883) for rs1342043 showed a significant association with CA (genotypic p = 0.0001, allelic p = 0.002) with a gender specific effect for males (allelic p = 0.005, genotypic p = 0.0003). Our data suggest that genetic variants in the NCS-1 gene contribute to susceptibility of CA in individuals of African descent. PMID:22999924

  16. Psychological quality of life and its association with academic employability skills among newly-registered students from three European faculties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionescu Ion

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objectives were to assess psychological quality of life (QoL and to analyse its associations with academic employability skills (AES among students from the Faculty of Language, Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education, Walferdange Luxembourg (F1, mostly vocational/applied courses; the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Liege, Belgium (F2, mainly general courses; and the Faculty of Social Work, Iasi, Romania (F3, mainly vocational/professional courses. Method Students who redoubled or who had studied at other universities were excluded. 355 newly-registered first-year students (145 from F1, 125 from F2, and 85 from F3 were invited to complete an online questionnaire (in French, German, English or Romanian covering socioeconomic data, the AES scale and the QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment subscales as measured with the World Health Organisation Quality of Life short-form (WHOQoL-BREF questionnaire. Analyses included multiple regressions with interactions. Results QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment' scores were highest in F1 (Luxembourg, and the QoL-psychological score in F2 (Belgium was the lower. AES score was higher in F1 than in F3 (Romania. A positive link was found between QoL-psychological and AES for F1 (correlation coefficient 0.29, p Conclusions Psychological quality of life is associated with acquisition of skills that increase employability from the faculties offering vocational/applied/professional courses in Luxembourg and Romania, but not their academically orientated Belgian counterparts. In the context of developing a European Higher Educational Area, these measurements are major indicators that can be used as a guide to promoting programs geared towards counseling, improvement of the social environment, and services to assist with university work and facilitate

  17. Women's Involvement in Educational Psychology Journals from 1976 to 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Joy; Hsieh, Peggy Pei-Hsuan; Robinson, Daniel H.

    2005-01-01

    Previously, Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan (1998) examined women's involvement in six educational psychology journals ("American Educational Research Journal," "Contemporary Educational Psychology," "Educational Psychologist," "Educational Psychology Review," "Journal of Experimental Education," and "Journal of Educational Psychology") from…

  18. A large insertion in intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene associated with American Palomino phenotype in American mink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirera, Susanna; Markakis, Marios Nektarios; Kristiansen, Thea; Vissenberg, Kris; Fredholm, Merete; Christensen, Knud; Anistoroaei, Razvan

    2016-04-01

    A number of American mink phenotypes display a range of brownish colours. One of these phenotypes, namely American Palomino (b (P) b (P) ) (AP) has been found to be associated with the tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) gene by genotyping microsatellite markers in one sire family. Trials for amplifying the genomic DNA and cDNA at the beginning of intron 2 of AP TYRP1 revealed the presence of a large insertion of approximately eight kb. The insertion most likely disrupts different elements necessary for the splicing of intron 2 of the TYRP1 gene. In AP RNAseq data indicate, however, the presence of the wild-type (wt) transcript at very low levels and Western blot reveals three products when using an antibody raised against middle part of the TYRP1 protein. One individual from another brown mink phenotype-commercially named Dawn-was also investigated at the molecular level by long-range PCR and the same size insertion appears to be present. By this we suggest that certain modifiers of TYRP1 would induce different brown colour degradation, which results in at least two different phases of brown. PMID:26886941

  19. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valicenti, Richard K., E-mail: Richard.valicenti@ucdmc.ucdavis.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California (United States); Thompson, Ian [Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Albertsen, Peter [Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goldenberg, S. Larry [Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Wolf, J. Stuart [Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sartor, Oliver [Department of Medicine and Urology, Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Klein, Eric [Glickman Urological Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Carol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Faraday, Martha M. [Four Oaks, Inc (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.

  20. Adjuvant and Salvage Radiation Therapy After Prostatectomy: American Society for Radiation Oncology/American Urological Association Guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review

  1. Causal reasoning versus associative learning: A useful dichotomy or a strawman battle in comparative psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    The debate about whether or not one could/should ascribe reasoning abilities to animals has deep historical roots and seems very up-to-date in the light of the immense body of new empirical data originating from various species and research paradigms. Associative learning (AL) seems to be a ubiquitous low-level contender for any cognitive interpretation of animal behavior, mostly because of the assumed mechanistic simplicity and phylogenetic prevalence. However, the implicit assumption that AL is simple and therefore the most parsimonious mechanism to describe seemingly complex behavior can and must be questioned on various grounds. Using recent empirical findings with chimpanzees as an example, I argue that at times inferential reasoning might be the most likely candidate to account for performance differences between experimental and control conditions. Finally, a general conclusion drawn from the current debate(s) in the field of comparative psychology could be that a dichotomist battle of 2 conceptual camps-each of which is lacking a clear and homogeneous theoretical framework-is a scientific deadlock. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27512825

  2. Insulin Promoter Factor 1 variation is associated with type 2 diabetes in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaoqin

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Defective insulin secretion is a key defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2DM. The β-cell specific transcription factor, insulin promoter factor 1 gene (IPF1, is essential to pancreatic development and the maintenance of β-cell mass. We hypothesized that regulatory or coding variants in IPF1 contribute to defective insulin secretion and thus T2DM. Methods We screened 71 Caucasian and 69 African American individuals for genetic variants in the promoter region, three highly conserved upstream regulatory sequences (PH1, PH2 and PH3, the human β-cell specific enhancer, and the two exons with adjacent introns. We tested for an association of each variant with T2DM Caucasians (192 cases and 192 controls and African Americans (341 cases and 186 controls. Results We identified 8 variants in the two populations, including a 3 bp insertion in exon 2 (InsCCG243 in African Americans that resulted in an in-frame proline insertion in the transactivation domain. No variant was associated with T2DM in Caucasians, but polymorphisms at -3766 in the human β-cell enhancer, at -2877 bp in the PH1 domain, and at -108 bp in the promoter region were associated with T2DM in African American subjects (p Conculsion The common alleles of regulatory variants in the 5' enhancer and promoter regions of the IPF1 gene increase susceptibility to type 2 diabetes among African American individuals, likely as a result of gene-gene or gene-environment interactions. In contrast, IPF1 is not a cause of type 2 diabetes in Caucasians. A previously described InsCCG243 variant may contribute to diabetes susceptibility in African American individuals, but is of low penetrance.

  3. Harsh voice quality and its association with blackness in popular American media

    OpenAIRE

    Moisik, S.

    2013-01-01

    Performers use various laryngeal settings to create voices for characters and personas they portray. Although some research demonstrates the sociophonetic associations of laryngeal voice quality, few studies have documented or examined the role of harsh voice quality, particularly with vibration of the epilaryngeal structures (growling). This article qualitatively examines phonetic properties of vocal performances in a corpus of popular American media and evaluates the association of voice qu...

  4. The Association Between Self-Efficacy and Hypertension Self-Care Activities Among African American Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Warren-Findlow, Jan; Seymour, Rachel B.; Brunner Huber, Larissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic disease management requires the individual to perform varying forms of self-care behaviors. Self-efficacy, a widely used psychosocial concept, is associated with the ability to manage chronic disease. In this study, we examine the association between self-efficacy to manage hypertension and six clinically prescribed hypertension self-care behaviors. We interviewed 190 African Americans with hypertension who resided in the greater metropolitan Charlotte area about their self-efficacy a...

  5. Heroin addiction in African Americans: a hypothesis-driven association study

    OpenAIRE

    Levran, Orna; Londono, Douglas; O'Hara, Kim; Randesi, Matthew; Rotrosen, John; Casadonte, Paul; Linzy, Shirley; Ott, Jurg; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a chronic complex disease with a substantial genetic contribution. This study was designed to identify gene variants associated with heroin addiction in African Americans. The emphasis was on genes involved in reward modulation, behavioral control, cognitive function, signal transduction, and stress response. We have performed a case-control association analysis by screening with 1350 variants of 130 genes. The sample consisted of 202 former severe heroin addicts in methad...

  6. Association of genetic and psychological factors with persistent pain after cosmetic thoracic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimova V

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Violeta Dimova,1–3 Jörn Lötsch,3 Kathrin Hühne,4 Andreas Winterpacht,4 Michael Heesen,5 Andreas Parthum,1,2 Peter G Weber,6 Roman Carbon,6 Norbert Griessinger,2 Reinhard Sittl,2 Stefan Lautenbacher1 1Physiological Psychology, Otto-Friedrich University Bamberg, 2Pain Center, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, 3Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, 4Department of Human Genetics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, Germany; 5Department of Anaesthesia, Kantonsspital Baden, Baden, Switzerland; 6Department of Pediatric Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, Germany Abstract: The genetic control of pain has been repeatedly demonstrated in human association studies. In the present study, we assessed the relative contribution of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pain-related genes, such as cathechol-O-methyl transferase gene (COMT, fatty acid amino hydrolase gene (FAAH, transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 gene (TRPV1, and δ-opioid receptor gene (OPRD1, for postsurgical pain chronification. Ninety preoperatively pain-free male patients were assigned to good or poor outcome groups according to their intensity or disability score assessed at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after funnel chest correction. The genetic effects were compared with those of two psychological predictors, the attentional bias toward positive words (dot-probe task and the self-reported pain vigilance (Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire [PVAQ], which were already shown to be the best predictors for pain intensity and disability at 6 months after surgery in the same sample, respectively. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant effects of any of the genetic predictors up to the end point of survival time at 1 year after surgery. Adding the genetics to the prediction by the attentional bias to positive words for pain intensity and the PVAQ for pain disability, again

  7. TREM2 is associated with increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Sheng Chih; Carrasquillo, Minerva M.; Benitez, Bruno A.; Skorupa, Tara; Carrell, David; Patel, Dwani; Lincoln, Sarah; Krishnan, Siddharth; Kachadoorian, Michaela; Reitz, Christiane; Mayeux, Richard; Wingo, Thomas S.; Lah, James J.; Levey, Allan I.; Murrell, Jill

    2015-01-01

    Background TREM2 encodes for triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 and has rare, coding variants that associate with risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) in Caucasians of European and North-American origin. This study evaluated the role of TREM2 in LOAD risk in African-American (AA) subjects. We performed exonic sequencing and validation in two independent cohorts of >800 subjects. We selected six coding variants (p.R47H, p.R62H, p.D87N, p.E151K, p.W191X, and p.L211P) for...

  8. A Closer Look at Peer Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Psychological Well-Being among Urban Chinese American Sixth Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Drake, Deborah; Hughes, Diane; Way, Niobe

    2008-01-01

    Recent research suggests that although ethnic discrimination may have negative consequences for psychological well-being among youth of Chinese descent as it does for other ethnic groups, ethnic identity beliefs may buffer against such effects. Data for this study were drawn from the Early Adolescent Cohort Study, an investigation of contextual…

  9. ANCA-associated vasculitis in Hispanic Americans: an unrecognized severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreih, Antoine G; Mandhadi, Ranadeep; Aldaghlawi, Fadi; Khan, Asad; Irshad, Vajiha; Finn, Katherine; Block, Joel A

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to compare the severity and outcomes of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) between Hispanics and Caucasians living in the same geographical area. All patients diagnosed with AAV at two academic institutions in Chicago from January 2006 to December 2012 were retrospectively and prospectively identified. Disease activity was measured with the Birmingham Vasculitis Activity Score (BVAS), and disease damage was measured with the Vasculitis Damage Index (VDI). Student's t test and chi-square tests were employed; p ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Seventy patients with AAV were identified; 15 patients were excluded. Fifty-five patients were included in the study: 23 Hispanics and 32 Caucasians, 35 patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener's), 12 with microscopic polyangiitis, 7 with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and 1 with renal-limited vasculitis. Compared to Caucasians, Hispanics had a higher BVAS at presentation (16.3 ± 7.6 versus 10.7 ± 7.5, p = 0.006), a higher VDI at presentation (2.90 ± 1.50 versus 2.06 ± 1.30, p = 0.030), and a cumulative VDI (3.90 ± 1.70 versus 2.50 ± 1.90, p = 0.010). Renal involvement was more common among Hispanics (85 % of Hispanics versus 48 % of Caucasians, p = 0.01). Seventy percent of Hispanics had acute renal failure (mean creatinine = 3.37 ± 4.4 mg/dl) of whom seven (50 %) required dialysis, versus 25 % of Caucasians (mean creatinine = 1.78 ± 1.57 mg/dl, p = 0.03) and only two requiring dialysis. Compared to Caucasians, Hispanics with AAV present with more severe disease and higher damage indices. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings and delineate the respective roles of environment and genetics in the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:24752347

  10. Quality of Life and the Associated Psychological Factors in Caregivers of Children with PKU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nargess Alirezaei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "nObjectives: The main objective of this study was to investigate the association of psychological factors and life stressors with quality of life in caregivers of children with PKU. "nMethods: Participants were caregivers of children with PKU who were referred to a child and adolescent consultation-liaison psychiatry clinic for a clinical follow up. Their demographic characteristics were recorded at first. WHOQOL-BREF and Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale (DASS were used to assess quality of life, depression, anxiety and stress in participants. Data analysis was performed using SPSS-11.5 statistical software. "nResults: A total number of 49 caregivers were enrolled for the study. The mean age of participants and their children were 35.63±8.82, and 9.84±6.62 respectively.  Of the participants, 59.2% were mothers and 40.8% were fathers. Of the children, 51% were girls and 49% were boys. According to the results, 57.1, 50.1 and 57.1 percent of the participants had mild to severe levels of depression, anxiety and stress scores respectively. The most associated factors with quality of life were as follows: caregivers' occupation; anxiety; and depression mean scores. "nConclusion: Results of the current study showed that caregivers of children with PKU have lower levels of quality of life in comparison with the general population; and the most correlated factors with quality of life were the caregivers' occupation (especially unemployment , and high levels of depression and anxiety.

  11. Financial and psychological risk attitudes associated with two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the nicotine receptor (CHRNA4 gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Roe

    Full Text Available With recent advances in understanding of the neuroscience of risk taking, attention is now turning to genetic factors that may contribute to individual heterogeneity in risk attitudes. In this paper we test for genetic associations with risk attitude measures derived from both the psychology and economics literature. To develop a long-term prospective study, we first evaluate both types of risk attitudes and find that the economic and psychological measures are poorly correlated, suggesting that different genetic factors may underlie human response to risk faced in different behavioral domains. We then examine polymorphisms in a spectrum of candidate genes that affect neurotransmitter systems influencing dopamine regulation or are thought to be associated with risk attitudes or impulsive disorders. Analysis of the genotyping data identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the gene encoding the alpha 4 nicotine receptor (CHRNA4, rs4603829 and rs4522666 that are significantly associated with harm avoidance, a risk attitude measurement drawn from the psychology literature. Novelty seeking, another risk attitude measure from the psychology literature, is associated with several COMT (catechol-O-methyl transferase SNPs while economic risk attitude measures are associated with several VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter SNPs, but the significance of these associations did not withstand statistical adjustment for multiple testing and requires larger cohorts. These exploratory results provide a starting point for understanding the genetic basis of risk attitudes by considering the range of methods available for measuring risk attitudes and by searching beyond the traditional direct focus on dopamine and serotonin receptor and transporter genes.

  12. Scholarly Productivity and Impact of School Psychology Faculty in APA-Accredited Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grapin, Sally L.; Kranzler, John H.; Daley, Matt L.

    2013-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to conduct a normative assessment of the research productivity and scholarly impact of tenured and tenure-track faculty in school psychology programs accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA). Using the PsycINFO database, productivity and impact were examined for the field as a whole and by…

  13. Ethics as an Undergraduate Psychology Outcome: When, Where, and How to Teach It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Ana; Warchal, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The American Psychological Association (APA) recently approved a new set of "Guidelines for the undergraduate psychology major, version 2.0" (APA, 2013a) which addressed ethics specifically. Yet the teaching of ethics receives little attention in publications, national and international institutes, and conferences. Few guidelines for…

  14. The Model Does Matter II: Admissions and Training in APA-Accredited Counseling Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, John C.; Evans, Krystle L.; Ellis, Jeannette L.

    2010-01-01

    This study collected information on the acceptance rates, admission standards, financial assistance, student characteristics, theoretical orientations, and select outcomes of American Psychological Association-accredited counseling psychology programs (99% response rate). Results are presented collectively for all 66 counseling programs as well as…

  15. Feminism and psychology: critiques of methods and epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagly, Alice H; Riger, Stephanie

    2014-10-01

    Starting in the 1960s, many of the critiques of psychological science offered by feminist psychologists focused on its methods and epistemology. This article evaluates the current state of psychological science in relation to this feminist critique. The analysis relies on sources that include the PsycINFO database, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010), and popular psychology methods textbooks. After situating the feminist critique within the late-20th-century shift of science from positivism to postpositivism, the inquiry examines feminists' claims of androcentric bias in (a) the underrepresentation of women as researchers and research participants and (b) researchers' practices in comparing women and men and describing their research findings. In most of these matters, psychology manifests considerable change in directions advocated by feminists. However, change is less apparent in relation to some feminists' criticisms of psychology's reliance on laboratory experimentation and quantitative methods. In fact, the analyses documented the rarity in high-citation journals of qualitative research that does not include quantification. Finally, the analysis frames feminist methodological critiques by a consideration of feminist epistemologies that challenge psychology's dominant postpositivism. Scrutiny of methods textbooks and journal content suggests that within psychological science, especially as practiced in the United States, these alternative epistemologies have not yet gained substantial influence. PMID:25046701

  16. Mother-adolescent relationship quality as a moderator of associations between racial socialization and adolescent psychological adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Sharon F; Roche, Kathleen M; Saleem, Farzana T; Henry, Jessica S

    2015-09-01

    Parents' racial socialization messages, including messages focused on awareness, preparation, and strategies for managing racial discrimination, are necessary to help African American youth successfully navigate their daily lives. However, mixed findings regarding the utility of preparation for bias messages for African American youth's mental health adjustment raise questions about the conditions under which these protective racial socialization messages are most beneficial to African American youth. The current study examined the degree to which communication and trust as well as anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship moderated associations between 2 types of preparation for bias messages, cultural alertness to discrimination and cultural coping with antagonism, and adolescent mental health. Participants were 106 African American adolescents (57% female; mean age = 15.41) who reported about their receipt of racial socialization messages, mother-adolescent relationship quality, and depressive symptoms. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that positive associations between cultural alertness to racial discrimination and youth depressive symptoms were weaker for boys in the context of higher mother-adolescent communication and trust; communication and trust were not similarly protective for girls. For boys, the positive associations between cultural coping with antagonism messages and depressive symptoms were stronger in the context of high anger and alienation in the mother-adolescent relationship. Findings suggest that qualities of the mother-adolescent relationship, in which preparation for bias messages are delivered, are important for understanding the mental health adjustment of African American adolescents. PMID:26460701

  17. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of thyroid Nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, Hossein; Papini, Enrico; Paschke, Ralf;

    2010-01-01

    American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules are systematically developed statements to assist health care professionals in medica...

  18. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, Hossein; Papini, Enrico; Paschke, Ralf;

    2010-01-01

    American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, Associazione Medici Endocrinologi, and European Thyroid Association Medical Guidelines for Clinical Practice for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Nodules are systematically developed statements to assist health care professionals in medica...

  19. Oxidative stress associated with exercise, psychological stress and life-style factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1996-01-01

    generation. Here, we review the effect of alcohol, air pollution, cigarette smoke, diet, exercise, non-ionizing radiation (UV and microwaves) and psychological stress on the development of oxidative stress. Regular exercise and carbohydrate-rich diets seem to increase the resistance against oxidative stress....... Air pollution, alcohol, cigarette smoke, non-ionizing radiation and psychological stress seem to increase oxidative stress. Alcohol in lower doses may act as an antioxidant on low density lipoproteins and thereby have an anti-atherosclerotic property....

  20. Psychology and culturology: A means of cooperating and problems associated with cooperation.

    OpenAIRE

    Zaks L.A.

    2014-01-01

    The article discloses the main potential aspects of cooperation between psychology and culturology, which are connected through their mutual determination of the psyche (psychic reality) and culture. The paper acknowledges the key importance of the cultural-historical traditions initiated by Lev Vygotsky and his successors as well as the idea that their potential has yet to be realized by contemporary psychology. A new vision of culture is given to culturology (in comparison with traditional ...

  1. PSYCHOLOGY AND CULTUROLOGY: A MEANS OF COOPERATING AND PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH COOPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Zaks, Lev

    2014-01-01

    The article discloses the main potential aspects of cooperation between psychology and culturology, which are connected through their mutual determination of the psyche (psychic reality) and culture. The paper acknowledges the key importance of the cultural-his-torical traditions initiated by Lev Vygotsky and his successors as well as the idea that their potential has yet to be realized by contemporary psychology. A new vision of culture is given to culturology (in comparison with traditional...

  2. Do motivations for using Facebook moderate the association between Facebook use and psychological well-being?

    OpenAIRE

    Rae, James R.; Susan D Lonborg

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory...

  3. The Associations of Eating-related Attitudinal Balance with Psychological Well-being and Eating Behaviors

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.

    2013-01-01

    This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and...

  4. A longitudinal investigation of changes to social resources associated with psychological distress among Kurdish torture survivors living in Northern Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Brian J; Bonanno, George A; Bolton, Paul A; Bass, Judith K

    2014-08-01

    Social resources can buffer against psychological distress following potentially traumatic events. Psychological distress can also lead to social resource deterioration. This longitudinal study evaluated whether baseline psychological distress symptoms and changes in these symptoms were associated with changes in social resources 5 months later among 96 adult male (52.6%) and female treatment-seeking torture survivors residing in Kurdistan, Iraq. Adapted versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, and a traumatic grief measure were used. Locally derived scales measured perceived social support, social integration, and frequency of social contact. Multinomial logistic regression models assessed the association between symptoms and loss or gain in social resources. We hypothesized that higher mental health symptoms would relate to decreased social resources. Higher baseline depression (adjusted conditional odds ratio [ACOR] = 1.14), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; ACOR = 1.09), and traumatic grief symptoms (ACOR = 1.14) increased the odds of loss of social integration. For some, higher traumatic grief symptoms were associated with increased social integration (ACOR = 1.17). Increased anxiety (ACOR = 1.23) and PTSD symptoms (ACOR = 1.07) was associated with declines in social contact; decreased depression (ACOR = 1.06) and PTSD symptoms (ACOR = 1.04) were related to gaining social contact. This study highlights the complex relationship between mental health symptoms and losses and gains in social resources among torture survivors. PMID:25079708

  5. An Initial Exploration of the Association between Psychological Distress and Sedentary Behaviour in First Year Undergraduates. A Practice Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charmaine Graham

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available University students are reported to have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than the general population. Consequently, research surrounding factors that may contribute to poor mental health of students is imperative in order to identify interventions for this at-risk population. Previous research has determined that sedentary behaviour is associated with physical health, with an emerging focus on the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health. As the role of student consists of primarily sedentary behaviours such as reading, writing and computer use, the relationship between these activities and student mental wellbeing is particularly relevant. The presentation reported on the findings of study conducted on a sample of first year undergraduates and their reported levels of psychological distress and use of time. The findings highlight the diverse and demanding lifestyles of today’s student and the need for further research into student mental well-being.

  6. Comparison between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Alves de Moraes

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: the study aims to evaluate the reproducibility between the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association criteria to classify the physical activity profile in an adult population living in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. METHODS: population-based cross-sectional study, including 930 adults of both genders. The reliability was evaluated by Kappa statistics, estimated according to socio-demographic strata. RESULTS: the kappa estimates showed good agreement between the two criteria in all strata. However, higher prevalence of "actives" was found by using the American College of Sports Medicine/American Heart Association. CONCLUSIONS: although the estimates have indicated good agreement, the findings suggest caution in choosing the criteria to classify physical activity profile mainly when "walking" is the main modality of physical activity.

  7. Heroin addiction in African Americans: a hypothesis-driven association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levran, O; Londono, D; O'Hara, K; Randesi, M; Rotrosen, J; Casadonte, P; Linzy, S; Ott, J; Adelson, M; Kreek, M J

    2009-07-01

    Heroin addiction is a chronic complex disease with a substantial genetic contribution. This study was designed to identify gene variants associated with heroin addiction in African Americans. The emphasis was on genes involved in reward modulation, behavioral control, cognitive function, signal transduction and stress response. We have performed a case-control association analysis by screening with 1350 variants of 130 genes. The sample consisted of 202 former severe heroin addicts in methadone treatment and 167 healthy controls with no history of drug abuse. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), haplotype and multi-SNP genotype pattern analyses were performed. Seventeen SNPs showed point-wise significant association with heroin addiction (nominal Pvulnerability. PMID:19500151

  8. Knowledge Gaps in Cardiovascular Care of the Older Adult Population: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, and American Geriatrics Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L

    2016-05-24

    The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The

  9. Association of psychological risk factors and acute myocardial infarction in China: the INTER-HEART China study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao; LI Wei; Koon Teo; WANG Xing-yu; LIU Li-sheng; Salim Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Background Most data about psychological factors relating to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were obtained from studies carried out in western countries. Results from small descriptive cross-sectional studies in China were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to explore possible associations between psychological risk factors and AMI among the Chinese population with a large-scale case-control study.Methods This study was part of the INTER-HEART China study, itself part of the large international INTER-HEART study of cardiovascular risk factors. In this case-control study, 2909 cases and 2947 controls were recruited from 17 cities.Psychological stress, negative life events, depression and controllability of life circumstances were assessed.Results Cases reported more psychological stress at home or work and odds ratios (ORs) were 3.2 (95% CI 2.1-4.9)for permanent stress and 2.1 (95% CI 1.5-2.8) for several periods of stress respectively. More cases experienced depression compared with controls (19.6% vs. 9.3%) and ORs were 2.2 (95% CI 1.9-2.6). Subjects with 1, 2 and 3 or more depressive symptoms had increased risk of AMI by 2.1, 2.2 and 2.6 fold, respectively, i.e., more depressive symptoms were associated with higher risks of AMI (P for trend <0.0001). Women had a greater risk of AMI from depression (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.2-4.0) compared to men (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6-2.4), P for interaction =0.0364. Negative life events in subjects were associated with increased risk of AMI, OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.4-2.0) for one event and 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.4) for two or more events. High levels of controllability of life circumstances reduced the risk for AMI (OR 0.8, 95%CI 0.7-1 .0).Conclusions Several psychological factors were closely associated with increased AMI risk among Chinese population.Psychological stress had a greater AMI risk in men but depression was more significant among women.

  10. Psychological Quality of Life and its association with Academic Employability Skills among newly-registered students from three European Faculties.

    OpenAIRE

    Ionescu Ion; Baumann Michèle; Chau Nearkasen

    2011-01-01

    In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objectives were to assess psychological quality of life (QoL) and to analyse its associations with academic employability skills (AES) among students from the Faculty of Language, Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education, Walferdange Luxembourg (F1, mostly vocational/applied courses); the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Liege, Belgium (F2, mainly general courses); and the Faculty of Social Work, Iasi,...

  11. An Implicit Measure of Anti-Gay Attitudes: Prospective Associations with Emotion Regulation Strategies and Psychological Distress

    OpenAIRE

    Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Dovidio, John F.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan; Phills, Curtis E.

    2009-01-01

    Members of stigmatized groups are at increased risk for mental health problems, and recent research has suggested that emotion dysregulation may be one mechanism explaining the stigma-distress association. However, little is known regarding characteristics that predict vulnerabilities to emotion dysregulation and subsequent distress. We examined whether anti-gay attitudes would predict poorer emotion regulation and greater psychological distress in 31 lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) responde...

  12. Preliminary evidence that exercise dependence is associated with blunted cardiac and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress

    OpenAIRE

    Heaney, Jennifer L. J.; Ginty, Annie T; Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C

    2011-01-01

    Low or blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress have been shown to characterise those with a tobacco or alcohol dependency. The present study tested the hypothesis that exercise dependency would be similarly associated with blunted reactivity. Young female exercisers (N = 219) were screened by questionnaire for exercise dependence. Ten women with probable exercise dependence and 10 non dependent controls were selected for laboratory stress testing....

  13. Associations of Pass-Fail Outcomes with Psychological Health of First-Year Medical Students in a Malaysian Medical School

    OpenAIRE

    Yusoff, Muhamad S. B.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The demanding and intense environment of medical training can create excessive pressures on medical students that eventually lead to unfavorable consequences, either at a personal or professional level. These consequences can include poor academic performance and impaired cognitive ability. This study was designed to explore associations between pass-fail outcome and psychological health parameters (i.e. stress, anxiety, and depression symptoms). Methods: A cross-sectional study w...

  14. Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV-Seropositive African American Women: Effects on Psychological Distress, Family Hassles, and Family Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapocznik, Jose; Feaster, Daniel J.; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Prado, Guillermo; Smith, Lila; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Mauer, Magaly H.; Robbins, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    This study tests the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family-ecological intervention, in improving psychosocial functioning when compared with an attention-comparison person-centered condition and a community control condition. A sample of 209 HIV-seropositive, urban, low-income, African American women was randomized into 1 of…

  15. Examining the Impact of Historical/Developmental, Sociodemographic, and Psychological Factors on Passive Suicide among African-American Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Tameka M.

    2009-01-01

    Nationally published reports on death rates for substance abuse (drug-alcohol related), violence (homicide), and risky sexual behaviors (HIV/AIDS) among African-American men are deeply concerning. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between historical/developmental factors (masculine identity, racial identity, racism),…

  16. Is the Moratorium over? African American Psychology Professionals' Views on Intelligence Testing in Response to Changes to Federal Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Scott; Mitchell, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Collectively, advocates for the well-being of African American children have long called for a moratorium on the use of intelligence testing for the placement of children in special education. With the 2004 reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, intelligence testing is no longer required and in some states prohibited…

  17. A Comparative Study on American and Turkish Students? Self Esteem in Terms of Sport Participation: A Study on Psychological Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yigiter, Korkmaz

    2014-01-01

    The present research was conducted in order to compare self-esteem of American students with Turkish students in terms of the sport participation at the universities. For this purpose, a total of 460 students (M age = 19,61 ± 1,64) voluntarily participated in the study from two universities. As data collection tool, Rosenberg (1965) Self-esteem…

  18. Moderating effects of salivary testosterone levels on associations between job demand and psychological stress response in Japanese medical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirokawa, Kumi; Miwa, Machiko; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito

    2016-06-10

    Levels of job stress have been shown to be inversely associated with testosterone levels, but some inconsistent results have been documented. We investigated the moderating effects of testosterone levels on associations between job stress-factors and psychological stress responses in Japanese medical workers. The participants were 63 medical staff (20 males and 43 women; mean age: 30.6 years; SD=7.3) in Okayama, Japan. Their job-stress levels and psychological stress responses were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires, and their salivary testosterone collected. Multiple regression analyses showed that job demand was positively associated with stress responses in men and women. An interaction between testosterone and support from colleagues had a significant effect on depression and anxiety for women. In women with lower testosterone levels, a reducing effect of support from colleagues on depression and anxiety was intensified. In women with higher testosterone levels, depression and anxiety levels were identical regardless of support from colleagues. Testosterone may function as a moderator between perceived work environment and psychological stress responses for female medical workers. PMID:26632120

  19. Psychological violence against pregnant women in a prenatal care cohort: rates and associated factors in São Luís, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Marizélia Rodrigues Costa; da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; e Alves, Maria Teresa Seabra Soares de Britto; Batista, Rosângela Fernandes Lucena; de Rocha, Lourdes Maria Leitão Nunes; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Medeiros, Nilzângela Lima; Costa, Danielle Cristina Silva; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antônio

    2014-01-01

    Background Violence against pregnant women has been associated with gestational and perinatal disorders. Psychological violence is the type least investigated and its associated factors have been little studied. The present study was conducted in order to estimate prevalence rates and analyze the factors associated with exclusive and recurrent psychological violence in the municipality of São Luís, Brazil. Methods Data regarding 982 pregnant women, aged from 14 to 45 years, interviewed in 201...

  20. A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholette D Palmer

    Full Text Available African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071, were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05. Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8. SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9, OR (95% CI = 0.75 (0.67-0.84 is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217 were associated with T2DM (P<0.05 and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5 in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.

  1. How Planners Deal with Uncomfortable Knowledge: The Dubious Ethics of the American Planning Association

    OpenAIRE

    Bent Flyvbjerg

    2013-01-01

    With a point of departure in the concept "uncomfortable knowledge," this article presents a case study of how the American Planning Association (APA) deals with such knowledge. APA was found to actively suppress publicity of malpractice concerns and bad planning in order to sustain a boosterish image of planning. In the process, APA appeared to disregard and violate APA's own Code of Ethics. APA justified its actions with a need to protect APA members' interests, seen as preventing planning a...

  2. The Policy Views of American Economic Association Members: The Results of a New Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Whaples

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the results of a 2007 policy-views survey of a random sample of members of the American Economic Association. The new survey contains questions about many policy issues not treated by previous surveys. The questions treat such issues as trade restrictions, social insurance for those put out of work by international competition, genetically modified foods, curbside recycling, health insurance (several questions), medical malpractice, barriers to entering the medical profe...

  3. Drug Addiction and Stress-Response Genetic Variability: Association Study in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Levran, Orna; Randesi, Matthew; Li, Yi; Rotrosen, John; Ott, Jurg; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Stress is a significant risk factor in the development of drug addictions and in addiction relapse susceptibility. This hypothesis-driven study was designed to determine if specific SNPs in genes related to stress response are associated with heroin and/or cocaine addiction in African Americans. The analysis included 27 genes (124 SNPs) and was performed independently for each addiction. The sample consisted of former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance treatment (n = 314), cocaine addict...

  4. Examination of Association with Candidate Genes for Diabetic Nephropathy in a Mexican American Population

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Sulgi; Abboud, Hanna E.; Pahl, Madeleine V.; Tayek, John; Snyder, Susan; Tamkin, James; Alcorn, Harry; Ipp, Eli; Nast, Cynthia C.; Elston, Robert C.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Adler, Sharon G.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a multifactorial complication characterized by persistent proteinuria in susceptible individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Disease burden in people of Mexican-American descent is particularly high, but there are only a few studies that characterize genes for DN in this ethnic group. Two genes, carnosine dipeptidase 1 (CNDP1) and engulfment and cell motility 1 (ELMO1) previously showed association with DN in other ethnic groups. CN...

  5. Yogurt consumption is associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile in American men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Huifen; Livingston, Kara A.; Fox, Caroline S; Meigs, James B.; Jacques, Paul F.

    2012-01-01

    The evidence-based Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommends increasing the intake of fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products. However, yogurt, a nutrient-dense milk product, has been understudied. This cross-sectional study examined whether yogurt consumption was associated with better diet quality and metabolic profile among adults (n = 6526) participating in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (1998-2001) and Third Generation (2002-2005) cohorts. A validated food frequency questionna...

  6. Genome-wide association study of age at menarche in African-American women

    OpenAIRE

    Demerath, Ellen W; Liu, Ching-Ti; Franceschini, Nora; Chen, Gary; Palmer, Julie R.; Smith, Erin N.; Chen, Christina T. L.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Arnold, Alice M.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berenson, Gerald S.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Cappola, Anne R.; Carlson, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    African-American (AA) women have earlier menarche on average than women of European ancestry (EA), and earlier menarche is a risk factor for obesity and type 2 diabetes among other chronic diseases. Identification of common genetic variants associated with age at menarche has a potential value in pointing to the genetic pathways underlying chronic disease risk, yet comprehensive genome-wide studies of age at menarche are lacking for AA women. In this study, we tested the genome-wide associati...

  7. Management of Hyperthyroidism in Pregnancy: Comparison of Recommendations of American Thyroid Association and Endocrine Society

    OpenAIRE

    Shahram Alamdari; Fereidoun Azizi; Hossein Delshad; Farzaneh Sarvghadi; Atieh Amouzegar; Ladan Mehran

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate diagnosis and treatment of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy are of outmost importance, because hyperthyroidism has major adverse impact on both mother and fetus. Since data on the management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is rapidly evolving, two guidelines have been developed by the American Thyroid Association and the Endocrine society in the last 2 years. We compare here the recommendations of these two guidelines regarding management of hyperthyroidism during pregnanc...

  8. Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci association with fasting insulin and insulin resistance in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanjie; Bentley, Amy; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Shriner, Daniel; Zhou, Jie; Doumatey, Ayo; Huang, Hanxia; Ramos, Edward; Erdos, Michael; Gerry, Norman; Herbert, Alan; Christman, Michael; Rotimi, Charles

    2012-10-15

    Insulin resistance (IR) is a key determinant of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other metabolic disorders. This genome-wide association study (GWAS) was designed to shed light on the genetic basis of fasting insulin (FI) and IR in 927 non-diabetic African Americans. 5 396 838 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for associations with FI or IR with adjustments for age, sex, body mass index, hypertension status and first two principal components. Genotyped SNPs (n = 12) with P KLF14 and PPARG) which exert their action via IR. In summary, variants in/near SC4MOL, and TCERG1L were associated with FI and IR in this cohort of African Americans and were replicated in West Africans. SC4MOL is under-expressed in an animal model of T2D and plays a key role in lipid biosynthesis, with implications for the regulation of energy metabolism, obesity and dyslipidemia. TCERG1L is associated with plasma adiponectin, a key modulator of obesity, inflammation, IR and diabetes. PMID:22791750

  9. Rare variant associations with waist-to-hip ratio in European-American and African-American women from the NHLBI-Exome Sequencing Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Mengyuan; Auer, Paul L; Wang, Gao T; Bucasas, Kristine L; Hooker, Stanley; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Li, Biao; Ellis, Jaclyn; Adrienne Cupples, L; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Dupuis, Josée; Fox, Caroline S; Gross, Myron D; Smith, Joshua D; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Meigs, James B; Pankow, James S; Rotter, Jerome I; Siscovick, David; Wilson, James G; Shendure, Jay; Jackson, Rebecca; Peters, Ulrike; Zhong, Hua; Lin, Danyu; Hsu, Li; Franceschini, Nora; Carlson, Chris; Abecasis, Goncalo; Gabriel, Stacey; Bamshad, Michael J; Altshuler, David; Nickerson, Deborah A; North, Kari E; Lange, Leslie A; Reiner, Alexander P; Leal, Suzanne M

    2016-08-01

    Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), a relative comparison of waist and hip circumferences, is an easily accessible measurement of body fat distribution, in particular central abdominal fat. A high WHR indicates more intra-abdominal fat deposition and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic loci influencing WHR, but the contributions of rare variants have not been previously reported. We investigated rare variant associations with WHR in 1510 European-American and 1186 African-American women from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Exome Sequencing Project. Association analysis was performed on the gene level using several rare variant association methods. The strongest association was observed for rare variants in IKBKB (P=4.0 × 10(-8)) in European-Americans, where rare variants in this gene are predicted to decrease WHRs. The activation of the IKBKB gene is involved in inflammatory processes and insulin resistance, which may affect normal food intake and body weight and shape. Meanwhile, aggregation of rare variants in COBLL1, previously found to harbor common variants associated with WHR and fasting insulin, were nominally associated (P=2.23 × 10(-4)) with higher WHR in European-Americans. However, these significant results are not shared between African-Americans and European-Americans that may be due to differences in the allelic architecture of the two populations and the small sample sizes. Our study indicates that the combined effect of rare variants contribute to the inter-individual variation in fat distribution through the regulation of insulin response. PMID:26757982

  10. A usability evaluation exploring the design of American Nurses Association state web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Gregory L; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Anbari, Allison B; Lyons, Vanessa; Prentice, Donna; Shepherd, Marilyn; Strecker, E Bradley; Weston, Marla J

    2014-08-01

    National leaders are calling for opportunities to facilitate the Future of Nursing. Opportunities can be encouraged through state nurses association Web sites, which are part of the American Nurses Association, that are well designed, with appropriate content, and in a language professional nurses understand. The American Nurses Association and constituent state nurses associations provide information about nursing practice, ethics, credentialing, and health on Web sites. We conducted usability evaluations to determine compliance with heuristic and ethical principles for Web site design. We purposefully sampled 27 nursing association Web sites and used 68 heuristic and ethical criteria to perform systematic usability assessments of nurse association Web sites. Web site analysis included seven double experts who were all RNs trained in usability analysis. The extent to which heuristic and ethical criteria were met ranged widely from one state that met 0% of the criteria for "help and documentation" to states that met greater than 92% of criteria for "visibility of system status" and "aesthetic and minimalist design." Suggested improvements are simple yet make an impact on a first-time visitor's impression of the Web site. For example, adding internal navigation and tracking features and providing more details about the application process through help and frequently asked question documentation would facilitate better use. Improved usability will improve effectiveness, efficiency, and consumer satisfaction with these Web sites. PMID:24818790

  11. Affective and sensory dimensions of pruritus severity: associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life in psoriasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, R.; Zachariae, C.O.; Lei, U.;

    2008-01-01

    The subjective dimensions of pruritus and their associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life were explored in a sample of 40 psoriasis patients. The patients completed a scale with descriptors from the Structured Itch Questionnaire together with measures of depression, distress...... severity, showed affective, but not sensory, pruritus severity to be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, global distress, impairment of sleep, and pruritus-related quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that impaired sleep quality partly mediated the association between pruritus severity...

  12. Affective and sensory dimensions of pruritus severity: Associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life in psoriasis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Robert; Zachariae, Claus; Lei, Ulrikke;

    2008-01-01

    The subjective dimensions of pruritus and their associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life were explored in a sample of 40 psoriasis patients. The patients completed a scale with descriptors from the Structured Itch Questionnaire together with measures of depression, distress...... severity, showed affective, but not sensory, pruritus severity to be a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, global distress, impairment of sleep, and pruritus-related quality of life. Mediation analyses indicated that impaired sleep quality partly mediated the association between pruritus severity...

  13. Psychological and Organizational Variables Associated with Workplace Learning in Small and Medium Manufacturing Businesses in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Se-Yeon; Na, Seung-Il

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between workplace learning and psychological variables, such as learning competency, motivation, curiosity, self-esteem and locus of control, and organizational variables, such as centralization of power, formality, merit system and communication. The studied population consisted entirely…

  14. An Analysis of Independent, Non-Academic Characteristics of Chinese and American Business Students Associated with Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.; Hignite, Michael A.; Moses, Duane R.

    2014-01-01

    In a continuation of their prior research which focused on the differences in Emotional Intelligence (EI) levels between Chinese and American business students and the academic variables associated with those scores, the authors extend their efforts to investigate those personal (non-academic) characteristics of both American and Chinese business…

  15. Prevalence of psychological distress and associated factors in tuberculosis patients in public primary care clinics in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peltzer Karl

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress has been rarely investigated among tuberculosis patients in low-resource settings despite the fact that mental ill health has far-reaching consequences for the health outcome of tuberculosis (TB patients. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of psychological distress as a proxy for common mental disorders among tuberculosis (TB patients in South Africa, where over 60 % of the TB patients are co-infected with HIV. Methods We interviewed 4900 tuberculosis public primary care patients within one month of initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment for the presence of psychological distress using the Kessler-10 item scale (K-10, and identified predictors of distress using multiple logistic regressions. The Kessler scale contains items associated with anxiety and depression. Data on socio-demographic variables, health status, alcohol and tobacco use and adherence to anti-TB drugs and anti-retroviral therapy (ART were collected using a structured questionnaire. Results Using a cut off score of ≥28 and ≥16 on the K-10, 32.9 % and 81 % of tuberculosis patients had symptoms of distress, respectively. In multivariable analysis older age (OR = 1.52; 95 % CI = 1.24-1.85, lower formal education (OR = 0.77; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.91, poverty (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI = 1.57-2.31 and not married, separated, divorced or widowed (OR = 0.74; 95 % CI = 0.62-0.87 were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥28, and older age (OR = 1.30; 95 % CI = 1.00-1.69, lower formal education (OR = 0.55; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.71, poverty (OR = 2.02; 95 % CI = 1.50-2.70 and being HIV positive (OR = 1.44; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.74 were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥16. In the final model mental illness co-morbidity (hazardous or harmful alcohol use and non-adherence to anti-TB medication and/or antiretroviral therapy were not

  16. Treating psychological trauma among Rwandan orphans is associated with a reduction in HIV risk-taking behaviors: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Annie; Uwihoreye, Chaste; Kamen, Charles; Grant, Philip; McGlynn, Lawrence; Mugabe, Isaac; Nshimyumukiza, Martin; Dongier, Pierre; Slamowitz, Debbie; Padilla, Cindy; Uvamahoro, Jaqueline; Musayidire, Irene; Mukarubuga, Ancilla; Zolopa, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    The nongovernmental organization, Uyisenga N'Manzi (UNM), provides Rwandan orphans of genocide and HIV/AIDS with education, social, and mental health services. Many orphans in UNM report symptoms of psychological trauma. The primary study objective was to evaluate a multidisciplinary program integrating HIV prevention with an existing package of mental health services. We randomly selected 120 orphans between ages 15-25 years served by UNM and evaluated sexually-transmitted infections, HIV risk-taking behaviors and knowledge, and mental health at baseline, 5, 9, and 12 months. Increased trauma symptoms at baseline were associated with poorer coping skills and social functioning, and increased psychological distress and HIV risk-taking behavior. Following the 12-month intervention, trauma symptoms declined significantly, with those accessing counseling services showing greatest improvement. Orphans with the highest trauma scores benefited most from the intervention. In this at-risk population, addressing mental health issues in the context of HIV prevention is critical. PMID:24245594

  17. Residential exposure to visible blue space (but not green space) associated with lower psychological distress in a capital city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutsford, Daniel; Pearson, Amber L; Kingham, Simon; Reitsma, Femke

    2016-05-01

    As urbanisation escalates globally, urban neighbourhood features which may improve physical and mental health are of growing importance. Using a cross-sectional survey of adults and the application of novel geospatial techniques, this study investigated whether increased visibility of nature (green and blue space) was associated with lower psychological distress (K10 scores), in the capital city of Wellington, New Zealand. To validate, we also tested whether visibility of blue space was associated missing teeth in the same sample. Cluster robust, linear regression models were fitted to test the association between visibility of nature and K10 scores, adjusted for age, sex, personal income, neighbourhood population density, housing quality, crime and deprivation. Higher levels of blue space visibility were associated with lower psychological distress (β=-0.28, p<0.001). Importantly, blue space visibility was not significantly associated with tooth loss. Further research is needed to confirm whether increased visibility of blue space could promote mental well-being and reduce distress in other cities. PMID:26974233

  18. The Nutrition Attitude Survey: associations with dietary habits, psychological and physical well-being, and coronary risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollis, J F; Carmody, T P; Connor, S L; Fey, S G; Matarazzo, J D

    1986-01-01

    Attitudes play an important role in the adoption and maintenance of a variety of health habits. In the present study, the Nutrition Attitude Survey (NAS) was developed to measure attitudes pertaining to the adoption of a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Factor analysis identified four primary attitudinal factors: Helpless and Unhealthy, Food Exploration, Meat Preference, and Health Consciousness. For a community sample of 415 healthy men and women, relationships were examined among these attitudinal factors and dietary habits, family food patterns, medical and psychological symptoms, and traditional coronary risk factors. For both men and women, the Helpless and Unhealthy factor was associated with increased meat consumption, weight, emotional distress, reported medical and psychological symptoms, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The Food Exploration factor was more characteristic of younger men and women and positively associated with men's reported involvement in family food preparation activities. For both sexes, Meat Preference scores were positively associated with meat consumption and inversely associated with consumption of meatless meals, beans, and fruit. Health Consciousness factor scores were associated with less meat consumption, more meatless meals, and better overall dietary adherence scores for both men and women. Overall, the findings provide initial support for the reliability and predictive validity of the NAS and underscore the importance of assessing and addressing the attitudes and preferences of participants in dietary intervention programs. PMID:3757988

  19. Advancing further the history of Soviet psychology: moving forward from dominant representations in Western and Soviet psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Rey, Fernando L

    2014-02-01

    This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology. PMID:24548071

  20. Position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine: Nutrition and athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie

    2009-03-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin

  1. The Trait Psychology Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, William P.

    1980-01-01

    Arguments associated with trait psychology are reviewed with an application in the field of sport psychology. The role of cognition and perception in sport and physical activities is also discussed. (CJ)

  2. Publication Criteria and Recommended Areas of Improvement within School Psychology Journals as Reported by Editors, Journal Board Members, and Manuscript Authors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Craig A.; Floyd, Randy G.; Fuhrmann, Melanie J.; Martinez, Rebecca S.

    2011-01-01

    Two online surveys were completed by editors, associate editors, editorial board members, and members or fellows of the Division 16 of the American Psychological Association. These surveys targeted (a) the criteria for a manuscript to be published in school psychology journals, and (b) the components of the peer-review process that should be…

  3. Sodium, blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease: further evidence supporting the American Heart Association sodium reduction recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelton, Paul K; Appel, Lawrence J; Sacco, Ralph L; Anderson, Cheryl A M; Antman, Elliott M; Campbell, Norman; Dunbar, Sandra B; Frohlich, Edward D; Hall, John E; Jessup, Mariell; Labarthe, Darwin R; MacGregor, Graham A; Sacks, Frank M; Stamler, Jeremiah; Vafiadis, Dorothea K; Van Horn, Linda V

    2012-12-11

    Recent reports of selected observational studies and a meta-analysis have stirred controversy and have become the impetus for calls to abandon recommendations for reduced sodium intake by the US general population. A detailed review of these studies documents substantial methodological concerns that limit the usefulness of these studies in setting, much less reversing, dietary recommendations. Indeed, the evidence base supporting recommendations for reduced sodium intake in the general population remains robust and persuasive. The American Heart Association is committed to improving the health of all Americans through implementation of national goals for health promotion and disease prevention, including its recommendation to reduce dietary sodium intake to <1500 mg/d. PMID:23124030

  4. Associations between metabolomic compounds and incident heart failure among African Americans: the ARIC Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Yu, Bing; Alexander, Danny; Manolio, Teri A; Aguilar, David; Coresh, Josef; Heiss, Gerardo; Boerwinkle, Eric; Nettleton, Jennifer A

    2013-08-15

    Heart failure is more prevalent among African Americans than in the general population. Metabolomic studies among African Americans may efficiently identify novel biomarkers of heart failure. We used untargeted methods to measure 204 stable serum metabolites and evaluated their associations with incident heart failure hospitalization (n = 276) after a median follow-up of 20 years (1987-2008) by using Cox regression in data from 1,744 African Americans aged 45-64 years without heart failure at baseline from the Jackson, Mississippi, field center of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. After adjustment for established risk factors, we found that 16 metabolites (6 named with known structural identities and 10 unnamed with unknown structural identities, the latter denoted by using the format X-12345) were associated with incident heart failure (P < 0.0004 based on a modified Bonferroni procedure). Of the 6 named metabolites, 4 are involved in amino acid metabolism, 1 (prolylhydroxyproline) is a dipeptide, and 1 (erythritol) is a sugar alcohol. After additional adjustment for kidney function, 2 metabolites remained associated with incident heart failure (for metabolite X-11308, hazard ratio = 0.75, 95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.86; for metabolite X-11787, hazard ratio = 1.23, 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.37). Further structural analysis revealed X-11308 to be a dihydroxy docosatrienoic acid and X-11787 to be an isoform of either hydroxyleucine or hydroxyisoleucine. Our metabolomic analysis revealed novel biomarkers associated with incident heart failure independent of traditional risk factors. PMID:23788672

  5. Psychological, Social, and Environmental Factors Associated With Utilization of Senior Centers Among Older Adults in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hyun-Shik; Miyashita, Masashi; Harada, Kazuhiro; PARK, JONG-HWAN; So, Jae-Moo; Nakamura, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among the psychological, social, and environmental factors influencing the utilization of senior centers among older adults in Korea. Methods A questionnaire survey was administered to two types of older adults who lived in Seoul, Korea: 262 older adults who used senior centers (3 places) and 156 older adults who did not use senior centers. Results Our results showed clearly that the utilization of the senior centers in Kore...

  6. Association of genetic and psychological factors with persistent pain after cosmetic thoracic surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova V; Lötsch J; Hühne K; Winterpacht A; Heesen M; Parthum A; Weber PG; Carbon R; Griessinger N; Sittl R; Lautenbacher S

    2015-01-01

    Violeta Dimova,1–3 Jörn Lötsch,3 Kathrin Hühne,4 Andreas Winterpacht,4 Michael Heesen,5 Andreas Parthum,1,2 Peter G Weber,6 Roman Carbon,6 Norbert Griessinger,2 Reinhard Sittl,2 Stefan Lautenbacher1 1Physiological Psychology, Otto-Friedrich University Bamberg, 2Pain Center, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, 3Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, 4Department of Human Genetics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlange...

  7. Psychological consequences and associated risk factors among adult survivors of the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Zhibin; Xu, Jiuping; He, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2008, a devastating earthquake measuring 8.0 on the Richter scale struck Wenchuan, China. Following this disaster, several studies were conducted which assessed the degree of mental disorders in the affected population, but very few considered that several disorders may occur at the same time. This paper aims to investigate the psychological effects and risk factors among adult survivors one-year after the earthquake event. Methods 2080 adult earthquake survivors from 19 countie...

  8. Association between Subcortical Lesions and Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmqvist, Sebastian; Sarwari, Agmall; Wattmo, Carina; Bronge, Lena; ZHANG Yi; Wahlund, Lars Olof; Nägga, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: The most devastating features of Alz-heimer's disease (AD) are often the behavioral and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD). There is controversy as to whether subcortical lesions contribute to BPSD. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between BPSD and subcortical lesions (white-matter lesions and lacunes) in AD. Methods: CT or MRI from 259 patients with mild-to-moderate AD were assessed with the Age-Related White Matter Changes scale. Line...

  9. Associations among body size dissatisfaction, perceived dietary control, and diet history in African American and European American women

    OpenAIRE

    Chandler-Laney, Paula; Hunter, Gary; Bush, Nikki; Alvarez, Jessica; Roy, Jane; Byrne, Nuala; Gower, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    European American (EA) women report greater body dissatisfaction and less dietary control than do African American (AA) women. This study investigated whether ethnic differences in dieting history contributed to differences in body dissatisfaction and dietary control, or to differential changes that may occur during weight loss and regain. Eighty-nine EA and AA women underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to measure body composition and completed questionnaires to assess body dissatisfact...

  10. Psychological symptoms and associated risk factors in Chinese freshmen: a three-year follow-up study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Qi; HUANG Yue-qin; LIU Zhao-rui; WANG Hong

    2013-01-01

    Background The first year of attending university induces a stressful experience for many college students.The experience exposes these students to challenging circumstances and raises expectations,which consequently increases the risk of psychiatric disorders and may exacerbate pre-existing problems.This study was designed to explore the risk factors of psychological symptoms among freshmen in China.Methods A three-year follow-up study was designed in a sample of Chinese college freshmen.To set up the baseline interviews,subjects from 25 high schools in Beijing were interviewed during the first year in high school.Three years later,we followed up with the 1547 students from 15 of the previously-selected 25 high schools after they had entered universities.Association between potential risk factors and the occurrence of psychological symptoms measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 was evaluated in unconditional logistic regression models with Wald test.Results Among the 1547 interviewed college freshmen in the study,120 students (7.8%) manifested at least one psychological symptom.Personality dysfunction (OR=3.655,95% Cl 1.967-6.793),parental rejection (OR=2.619,95% Cl 1.544-4.442),age > 20 (OR=2.578,95% Cl 1.227-5.418),disfavored university (OR=2.054,95% Cl 1.376-3.066),nonfirst-choice academic major (OR=1.887,95% Cl 1.255-2.837) and no orientation (OR=1.739,95% Cl 1.025-2.951) were determined to be the risk factors of psychological symptoms among the college freshmen in China.Conclusions Psychological symptoms of college freshmen are associated with personality traits,parental rearing behavior and study environment.Therefore,it is important to pay attention to changes in mental health as students enter or decide on colleges and increase education geared towards mental health issues for students in high school and universities in China.

  11. A preliminary report on a new measure: Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4) and its psychological correlates among Asian American college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Burrola, Kimberly S; Steger, Michael F

    2010-01-01

    This investigation is a preliminary report on a new measure of internalization of the model minority myth. In 3 studies, there was evidence for the validation of the 15-item Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4), with 2 subscales. The Model Minority Myth of Achievement Orientation referred to the myth of Asian Americans' greater success than other racial minority groups associated with their stronger work ethics, perseverance, and drives to succeed. The Model Minority Myth of Unrestricted Mobility referred to the myth of Asian Americans' greater success than other racial minority groups associated with their stronger belief in fairness of treatment and lack of perceived racism or barriers at school or work. The 2-subscale structure of the IM-4 was supported by a combination of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, with support of discriminant, convergent, and incremental validity, as well as internal reliability and stability over 2 weeks. The IM-4 is a new measure that taps into a uniquely racialized experience of Asian Americans with research and clinical implications. PMID:21133563

  12. Associations of racial discrimination and parental discrimination coping messages with African American adolescent racial identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2015-06-01

    Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization. PMID:25300508

  13. Fundamentalism in Psychological Science. The Publication Manual as "Bible."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh-Bowers, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the content of the fourth edition of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (1994) as if it were a biblical text. Draws on socio-historical studies and critical feminist perspectives to discuss the manual's function as a fundamentalist "bible" in relation to psychologists' culture. (SLD)

  14. Workforce and Salary Survey Trends: Opportunities and Challenges for the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Association of Medical Dosimetrists (AAMD) designed and directed 2 surveys of the AAMD membership. The first was in 2011 and the second in 2014. There were a number of questions common to both surveys, and this article seeks to evaluate these common questions to determine trends among the professional membership of the AAMD. It is demonstrated that the observed trends are consistent with the goals and objectives established by the leadership of the AAMD and the Medical Dosimetry Certification Board (MDCB) for the medical dosimetry community. In addition, certain challenges and opportunities involving the scope of practice for the medical dosimetry profession are discussed

  15. Homophobic Attitudes and Associated Factors Among Adolescents: A Comparison of Six Latin American Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaux, Enrique; León, Manuela

    2016-09-01

    Homophobic attitudes are still very common in the world, although there are large differences between countries. This study analyzed the responses of almost 30,000 8th- and 9th-grade students from six countries who participated in the Latin American component of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study. Higher levels of homophobia were found in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay than in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Homophobic attitudes were positively associated with being male, having lower levels of empathy, spending less time with friends and the media, having aggressive attitudes, and being more religious, in particular non-Catholic Christian. PMID:26861958

  16. Workforce and Salary Survey Trends: Opportunities and Challenges for the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Michael D., E-mail: mdmill03@exchange.louisville.edu

    2015-07-01

    The American Association of Medical Dosimetrists (AAMD) designed and directed 2 surveys of the AAMD membership. The first was in 2011 and the second in 2014. There were a number of questions common to both surveys, and this article seeks to evaluate these common questions to determine trends among the professional membership of the AAMD. It is demonstrated that the observed trends are consistent with the goals and objectives established by the leadership of the AAMD and the Medical Dosimetry Certification Board (MDCB) for the medical dosimetry community. In addition, certain challenges and opportunities involving the scope of practice for the medical dosimetry profession are discussed.

  17. A dataset to assess providers׳ knowledge and attitudes towards the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Cholesterol Management Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Yashashwi; Steinberg, Lynne; Chan, Winston; Akeroyd, Julia M; Jones, Peter H; Nambi, Vijay; Nasir, Khurram; Petersen, Laura; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S

    2016-06-01

    We previously examined provider׳s understanding of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) cholesterol management guideline (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2015.11.002)(Virani et al., 2013) [1], and also assessed whether a case-based educational intervention could improve providers׳ knowledge gaps and attitudes towards the guideline (DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.12.044) (Pokharel, et al., 2016) [2]. Here we describe the dataset that we used to examine our objectives. PMID:27054163

  18. Association of Psychological Factors to Alcohol Consumption Behavior among U.S. College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladunni Oluwoye

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explores college students’ alcohol consumption behavior and evaluates theeffect of different psychological factors on consumption patterns. Randomly selectedstudents from two different universities completed surveys with perceived scales for stress,self esteem and anxiety and an alcohol consumption questionnaire. Non-parametricanalyses suggests that low self esteem, higher stress and anxiety level and younger ageincrease the likelihood of drinking alcohol. These findings were consistent between bothuniversities. These findings have important implications for the selection of appropriateinterventional strategies and health education among college populations.

  19. On the history of cultural psychiatry: Georges Devereux, Henri Ellenberger, and the psychological treatment of Native Americans in the 1950s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delille, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Henri Ellenberger (1905-1993) wrote the first French-language synthesis of transcultural psychiatry ("Ethno-psychiatrie") for the French Encyclopédie Médico-Chirurgicale in 1965. His work casts new light on the early development of transcultural psychiatry in relation to scientific communities and networks, particularly on the role of Georges Devereux (1908-1985). The Ellenberger archives offer the possibility of comparing published texts with archival ones to create a more nuanced account of the history of transcultural psychiatry, and notably of the psychological treatment of Native Americans. This paper examines some key moments in the intellectual trajectories of Devereux and Ellenberger, including Devereux's dispute with Ackerknecht, the careers of Devereux and Ellenberger as therapists at the Menninger Foundation (Topeka, Kansas) in the 1950s, and their respective positions in the research network developed by McGill University (Montreal, Quebec) with the newsletter Transcultural Research in Mental Health Problems Finally, I consider their ties to other important figures in this field as it transitioned from colonial medicine to academic medicine, including Roger Bastide (France), Henri Collomb and the Ortigues (France and Africa), as well as Eric Wittkower and Brian Murphy (Canada) and Alexander Leighton (United States and Canada). PMID:27235144

  20. Health seeking behavioral analysis associated with breast cancer screening among Asian American women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma GX

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast

  1. A systematic review of the factors associated with delays in medical and psychological help-seeking among men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousaf, Omar; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A; Hunter, Myra S

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing literature on the factors associated with men's low rates of medical and psychological help-seeking, a systematic review of these is missing. Such an overview can help to inform health psychologists of the barriers to the performance of adaptive health behaviours, such as prompt help-seeking, and could inform theoretical advancements and the development of targeted interventions to facilitate prompt help-seeking among men. We systematically reviewed quantitative and qualitative empirical papers on factors associated with delays in men's medical and psychological help-seeking. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed, and we used the databases PsycINFO, Medline, Embase and PsycARTICLES (with keywords: men/male*/gender*, help*/seek* and health*/service*/utili*[sation]) for papers in English. 41 citations (amounting to 21,787 participants aged 15-80 + ) met the inclusion criteria. Approximately half of these used qualitative methodologies (i.e., semi-structured interviews and focus groups), while half used quantitative methodologies (i.e., questionnaires). We identify a number of recurring cognitive, emotional, health-service related and socio-demographic help-seeking factors/predictors from the 41 papers. Of these, the most prominent barriers to help-seeking were disinclination to express emotions/concerns about health, embarrassment, anxiety and fear, and poor communication with health-care professionals. PMID:26209212

  2. Association of acculturative stress, Islamic practices, and internalizing symptoms among Arab American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, Anisa N; Pham, Andy V; Chun, Heejung; Castro-Olivo, Sara M; Yosai, Erin R

    2016-06-01

    Although the numbers of Arab American immigrant youth in schools is increasing, there is little understanding of their mental health and the sociocultural factors that might influence it. This study examined the relationship between 2 sociocultural factors (i.e., acculturative stress and religious practices) and internalizing symptoms in first- and second-generation Muslim Arab American adolescents. Adolescents (n = 88) ages 11 to 18 completed measures related to acculturative stress, religious practices, internalizing symptoms, and general demographic information. Results of multiple regression analyses found that acculturative stress significantly predicted internalizing symptoms. Gender was found to moderate this association. No differences in the reported acculturative stress and internalizing symptoms were found between youth of different generational status (i.e., first- vs. second-generation). Finally, adolescents' organizational religious practices, but not their private religious practices, were found to be associated with lower acculturative stress. Implications are discussed related to how school psychologists can provide culturally responsive services to this population. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243243

  3. Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis in American Bulldogs Is Associated With NIPAL4 (ICHTHYIN) Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, E A; Wang, P; Evans, E; Cantner, C A; Ferracone, J D; Credille, K M; Casal, M L

    2015-07-01

    A minority of patients with nonsyndromic autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) display mutations in NIPAL4 (ICHTHYIN). This protein plays a role in epidermal lipid metabolism, although the mechanism is unknown. The study describes a moderate form of ARCI in an extended pedigree of American Bulldogs that is linked to the gene encoding ichthyin. The gross phenotype was manifest as a disheveled pelage shortly after birth, generalized scaling, and adherent brown scale with erythema of the abdominal skin. Pedigree analysis indicated an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. Ultrastructurally, the epidermis showed discontinuous lipid bilayers, unprocessed lipid within corneocytes, and abnormal lamellar bodies. Linkage analysis, performed by choosing simple sequence repeat markers and single-nucleotide polymorphisms near genes known to cause ACRI, revealed an association with NIPAL4. NIPAL4 was identified and sequenced using standard methods. No mutation was identified within the gene, but affected dogs had a SINE element 5' upstream of exon 1 in a highly conserved region. Of 545 DNA samples from American Bulldogs, 32 dogs (17 females, 15 males) were homozygous for the polymerase chain reaction fragment. All affected dogs were homozygous, with parents heterozygous for the insertion. Immunolabeling revealed an absence of ichthyin in the epidermis. This is the first description of ARCI associated with decreased expression of NIPAL4 in nonhuman species. PMID:25322746

  4. Pregnancy as a psychological event

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelica Artur L.; Kapor-Stanulović Petronila

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Apart from physiological and somatic changes, pregnancy is a complex phenomenon which also includes psychological and social changes. Pregnancy, especially the first one, represents a powerful psychological event. This paper deals with pregnancy as a psychological event, considering psychological changes in the course of pregnancy as a stressful event. Psychological changes during pregnancy Pregnancy is always associated with changes in psychological functioning of pregnant women...

  5. Fear of crime and psychological and physical abuse associated with ill health in a Swedish population aged 65-84 years

    OpenAIRE

    Olofsson, Niclas; Lindqvist, Kent; Danielsson, I

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the association between fear of crime and/or psychological and/or physical abuse in relation to self-reported physical and psychological health, using a large representative sample of elderly women and men in Sweden. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanStudy design: Cross-sectional national survey. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods: Data were taken from a nationwide representative public health survey (2006). Men and women between the ages...

  6. Estimation of Psychological Stress in Humans: A Combination of Theory and Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Parul; Priyadarshini, Sushri; Aich, Palok

    2013-01-01

    Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Takin...

  7. Guidelines for psychological practice with transgender and gender nonconforming people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In 2015, the American Psychological Association adopted Guidelines for Psychological Practice with Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Clients in order to describe affirmative psychological practice with transgender and gender nonconforming (TGNC) clients. There are 16 guidelines in this document that guide TGNC-affirmative psychological practice across the lifespan, from TGNC children to older adults. The Guidelines are organized into five clusters: (a) foundational knowledge and awareness; (b) stigma, discrimination, and barriers to care; (c) lifespan development; (d) assessment, therapy, and intervention; and (e) research, education, and training. In addition, the guidelines provide attention to TGNC people across a range of gender and racial/ethnic identities. The psychological practice guidelines also attend to issues of research and how psychologists may address the many social inequities TGNC people experience. PMID:26653312

  8. Psychological Status and Associated Factors among Korean Cancer Survivors: a Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Fourth & Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Sang Min

    2016-07-01

    It is important to assess psychological distress after a diagnosis for cancer survivors, a population with a high risk for psychological distress. The aim of this study is to assess psychological distress among cancer survivors and to clarify the associated factors. In this cross-sectional analysis, data were obtained from standardized questionnaires administered to 1,163 cancer survivors and 49,243 non-cancer survivors who participated in the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2012). We identified the adjusted rates for psychological distress and assessed factors associated with this kind of distress using multivariate logistic regression. Cancer survivors tended to have a higher adjusted rate of psychological distress than the general population. The current depressive symptom rate for cancer survivors was 16.69%, and the adjusted rate for history of depression in cancer survivors was 15.61%. The adjusted rate for higher level of stress was 25.51% in cancer survivors. Among the cancer survivors, younger subjects, female subjects, and those with limited social support were more prone to psychological distress. In addition, current smokers or risky drinkers, those with chronic diseases, and those with a poor self-perception of their health status were also identified as a high-risk group for psychological distress. As the number of cancer survivors has increased, the importance of assessing psychological distress after a cancer diagnosis should be emphasized among all cancer survivors. Further, psychological supportive care interventions for cancer survivors are needed to improve the survival rate and improve their quality of life. PMID:27366010

  9. Adam M. Reid: APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology is awarded on an annual basis by the APA Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students (APAGS) to a graduate student who has demonstrated outstanding practice and application of psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Adam M. Reid, who received this award "for his community service, in which he has integrated the highest standards of professional psychological clinical practice and science." Adam's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PMID:26618976

  10. Global DNA methylation loss associated with mercury contamination and aging in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Frances M; Parrott, Benjamin B; Bowden, John A; Kassim, Brittany L; Somerville, Stephen E; Bryan, Teresa A; Bryan, Colleen E; Lange, Ted R; Delaney, J Patrick; Brunell, Arnold M; Long, Stephen E; Guillette, Louis J

    2016-03-01

    Mercury is a widespread environmental contaminant with exposures eliciting a well-documented catalog of adverse effects. Yet, knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms by which mercury exposures are translated into biological effects remains incomplete. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is sensitive to environmental cues, and alterations in DNA methylation at the global level are associated with a variety of diseases. Using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS/MS) approach, global DNA methylation levels were measured in red blood cells of 144 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from 6 sites with variable levels of mercury contamination across Florida's north-south axis. Variation in mercury concentrations measured in whole blood was highly associated with location, allowing the comparison of global DNA methylation levels across different "treatments" of mercury. Global DNA methylation in alligators across all locations was weakly associated with increased mercury exposure. However, a much more robust relationship was observed in those animals sampled from locations more highly contaminated with mercury. Also, similar to other vertebrates, global DNA methylation appears to decline with age in alligators. The relationship between age-associated loss of global DNA methylation and varying mercury exposures was examined to reveal a potential interaction. These findings demonstrate that global DNA methylation levels are associated with mercury exposure, and give insights into interactions between contaminants, aging, and epigenetics. PMID:26748003

  11. Global DNA methylation loss associated with mercury contamination and aging in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Frances M.; Parrott, Benjamin B.; Bowden, John A.; Kassim, Brittany L.; Somerville, Stephen E.; Bryan, Teresa A.; Bryan, Colleen E.; Lange, Ted R.; Delaney, J. Patrick; Brunell, Arnold M.; Long, Stephen E.; Guillette, Louis J.

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a widespread environmental contaminant with exposures eliciting a well-documented catalog of adverse effects. Yet, knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms by which mercury exposures are translated into biological effects remains incomplete. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is sensitive to environmental cues, and alterations in DNA methylation at the global level are associated with a variety of diseases. Using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS/MS) approach, global DNA methylation levels were measured in red blood cells of 144 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from 6 sites with variable levels of mercury contamination across Florida’s north-south axis. Variation in mercury concentrations measured in whole blood was highly associated with location, allowing the comparison of global DNA methylation levels across different “treatments” of mercury. Global DNA methylation in alligators across all locations was weakly associated with increased mercury exposure. However, a much more robust relationship was observed in those animals sampled from locations more highly contaminated with mercury. Also, similar to other vertebrates, global DNA methylation appears to decline with age in alligators. The relationship between age-associated loss of global DNA methylation and varying mercury exposures was examined to reveal a potential interaction. These findings demonstrate that global DNA methylation levels are associated with mercury exposure, and give insights into interactions between contaminants, aging, and epigenetics. PMID:26748003

  12. Drug addiction and stress-response genetic variability: association study in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levran, Orna; Randesi, Matthew; Li, Yi; Rotrosen, John; Ott, Jurg; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2014-07-01

    Stress is a significant risk factor in the development of drug addictions and in addiction relapse susceptibility. This hypothesis-driven study was designed to determine if specific SNPs in genes related to stress response are associated with heroin and/or cocaine addiction in African Americans. The analysis included 27 genes (124 SNPs) and was performed independently for each addiction. The sample consisted of former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance treatment (n = 314), cocaine addicts (n = 281), and controls (n = 208). Fourteen SNPs showed nominally significant association with heroin addiction (p gene (GALR1) and the functional FKBP5 intronic SNP rs1360780. Thirteen SNPs showed association with cocaine addiction, including the synonymous SNPs rs237902, in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), and rs5374 in GALR1. No signal remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Four additional SNPs (GALR1 rs2717162, AVP rs2282018, CRHBP rs1875999, and NR3C2 rs1040288) were associated with both addictions and may indicate common liability. The study provides preliminary evidence for novel association of variants in several stress-related genes with heroin and/or cocaine addictions and may enhance the understanding of the interaction between stress and addictions. PMID:24766650

  13. Daily School Peer Victimization Experiences Among Mexican-American Adolescents: Associations with Psychosocial, Physical and School Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    School bullying incidents, particularly experiences with victimization, are a significant social and health concern among adolescents. The current study extended past research by examining the daily peer victimization experiences of Mexican-American adolescents and examining how chronic (mean-level) and episodic (daily-level) victimization incidents at school are associated with psychosocial, physical and school adjustment. Across a two-week span, 428 ninth and tenth grade Mexican-American st...

  14. Differential Associations Between Partner Violence and Physical Health Symptoms Among Caucasian and African American Help-Seeking Women

    OpenAIRE

    Iverson, Katherine M.; Bauer, Margret R.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Pineles, Suzanne L.; Harrington, Ellen F.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between partner violence and physical health symptoms is well-established. Although some researchers have theorized that the physical health effects of partner violence may be worse for ethnic minority women, there is little research addressing this topic. The current study examined whether African American women demonstrate a differential association in this relationship than Caucasian women. This study included 323 women (232 African American, 91 Caucasian) who participated...

  15. AEA Ideology: Campaign Contributions of American Economic Association Members, Committee Members, Officers, Editors, Referees, Authors, and Acknowledgees

    OpenAIRE

    William A. McEachern

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the 2004-election-cycle campaign contributions of the leadership of the American Economic Association. By cross-checking a name with an occupation, employer, and address, I develop a contribution profile for a sample of 2,000 AEA members, then use this profile as a benchmark to examine contributions of editors, referees, authors, and acknowledgees of the 2003 and 2004 issues of the American Economic Review, Journal of Economic Literature, and Journal of Economic Perspe...

  16. Psychological distress and associated factors among the attendees of traditional healing practices in Jinja and Iganga districts, Eastern Uganda: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okello Elialilia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental health problems are a major public health concern worldwide. Evidence shows that African communities, including Uganda, use both modern and traditional healing systems. There is limited literature about the magnitude of psychological distress and associated factors among attendees of traditional healing practices. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and associated factors of psychological distress among attendees of traditional healing practices in two districts in Uganda. Methods Face-to-face interviews with the Lusoga version of the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20 were carried out with 400 patients over the age of 18 years attending traditional healing in Iganga and Jinja districts in Eastern Uganda. Patients were recruited consecutively in all the traditional healers' shrines that could be visited in the area. Persons with 6 or more positive responses to the SRQ were identified as having psychological distress. Prevalence was estimated and odds ratios of having psychological distress were obtained with multiple logistic regression analysis. Results 387 questionnaire responses were analyzed. The prevalence of psychological distress in connection with attendance at the traditional healers' shrines was 65.1%. Having a co-wife and having more than four children were significantly associated with psyclogical distress. Among the socioeconomic indicators, lack of food and having debts were significantly associated with psychological distress. The distressed group was more likely to need explanations for ill health. Those who visited both the healer and a health unit were less likely to be distressed. Conclusion This study provides evidence that a substantial proportion of attendees of traditional healing practices suffer from psychological distress. Associated factors include poverty, number of children, polygamy, reason for visiting the healer and use of both traditional healing and biomedical health units

  17. Academic Freedom and Educational Responsibility: A Statement of the Board of Directors of the Association of American Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberal Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a statement of the Board of Directors of the Association of American Colleges and Universities, which was endorsed by member representatives at the association's 2006 annual meeting. In their statement, the Board of Directors revisit the basic principles and discuss the role of academic freedom. Four misconceptions about…

  18. The Association of Resilience with Mental and Physical Health among Older American Indians: The Native Elder Care Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schure, Marc B.; Odden, Michelle; Goins, R. Turner

    2013-01-01

    We examined the association of resilience with measures of mental and physical health in a sample of older American Indians (AIs). A validated scale measuring resilience was administered to 185 noninstitutionalized AIs aged greater than or equal to 55 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed that higher levels of resilience were associated with lower…

  19. American Psychologist Task Force Report: Clarifying Mission, Coverage, Communication, and Review Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2002-01-01

    An American Psychological Association task force reviewed the role and function of "American Psychologist," (AP) focusing on its coverage domain and issues related to its editorial review process. This report examines AP editorial domain, AP editorial instructions, AP editorship, communications within the AP editorial process, use of ad hoc action…

  20. Has the Association between Parental Divorce and Young Adults' Psychological Problems Changed over Time? Evidence from Sweden, 1968-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahler, Michael; Garriga, Anna

    2013-01-01

    A large number of studies have shown that parental divorce is associated with psychological maladjustment in children. Less is known about whether the magnitude of this association has changed over time. This is mainly because of the lack of repeated data, containing identical measures over time. In the present article, the authors use data from…

  1. Relaciones Entre Psicología Social Comunitaria, Psicología Crítica y Psicología de la Liberación: Una Respuesta Latinoamericana Relations Between Community-Social Psychology, Critical-Social Psychology, and Social Psychology of Liberation: A Latin American Answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Montero

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se plantea la idea de que la psicología social comunitaria, la psicología social crítica y la psicología social de la liberación configuraron una forma de respuesta neoparadigmática (las dos primeras surgen en América Latina en los años 70, la tercera es delineada en los ochenta, concebida en función de las necesidades de las sociedades latinoamericanas, expresada en mutuas influencias. Para ello se realizó una investigación analítica y comparativa en literatura latinoamericana concerniente a las tres áreas, buscando las características identificadoras principales de esos movimientos, las similitudes y las diferencias. Los resultados aquí presentados muestran la influencia que ha existido entre los tres ámbitos y cómo se complementan, comparten fuentes, objetivos y conceptos.In this paper it is argued that Community-Social Psychology; Critical-Social Psychology and, Social Psychology of Liberation configured a neo-paradigmatic (the two former being born in the seventies, the latter in the eighties response to the problems and needs suffered by societies in Latin America, expressed through mutual influences between the three movements. To reach this conclusion an analytical-comparative research was carried out in the Latin American literature concerning the three areas, looking for the main characteristics identifying each one, for their similarities and their differences. The results show the influence between them, as well as similarities in sources, some objectives and concepts.

  2. Socioeconomic and nutritional factors account for the association of gastric cancer with Amerindian ancestry in a Latin American admixed population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latife Pereira

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans, we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls and a very low African ancestry (<5%. We determined that higher Native American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group.

  3. Beyond parenting practices: extended kinship support and the academic adjustment of African-American and European-American teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallock, Linda L; Lamborn, Susie D

    2006-10-01

    This study examined adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices and extended kinship support in relation to academic adjustment for 104 African American and 60 European American 9th and 10th graders (14 and 15 year olds). For African-American teens, parental acceptance was associated with school values, teacher bonding, and work orientation. Higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of psychological control were associated with a stronger work orientation. After accounting for the demographic variables and the three parenting practices, higher levels of extended kinship support related to stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. For European-American teens, parental acceptance related to academic adjustment, including stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. European-American adolescents with stronger extended kinship networks reported higher teacher bonding and a stronger work orientation. Results indicate the importance of extended kinship support for both African-American and European-American adolescents. PMID:16455133

  4. Racial disparity: substance dependency and psychological health problems among welfare recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Hag; Hines, Lisa D

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the racial disparity of substance dependency and psychological health among White, African American, and Hispanic Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients as well as the relationship between substance dependency and psychological health. It analyzed 1,286 TANF recipients from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data. Analysis of variance indicated that Whites were experiencing more nicotine and alcohol dependency and psychological distress than others, but African Americans and Hispanics were experiencing more cocaine dependency than Whites. Ordinary least squares regression revealed that nicotine dependency is significantly related to the psychological distress of Whites. Alcohol dependency is significantly associated with the psychological distress of three groups. Culturally competent programs are suggested. PMID:24802216

  5. Complication associated with abdominal surgical implantation of a radio transmitter in an American badger (Taxidea taxus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jessica H; Gaffney, Patricia M; Gilardi, Kirsten; Murray, Michael; Jessup, David A; Johnson, Christine K

    2010-03-01

    Radio telemetry has greatly advanced the understanding of wild animal ecology. Telemetry studies must ensure that placement of transmitters does not influence the health and behavior of study animals. Here, 10 American badgers (Taxidea taxus) were implanted with beeswax-coated abdominal radio transmitters under general anesthesia and tracked for an average of 14 mo. Behavior and movements of all badgers indicated successful short-term recovery from implantation; however, three mortalities were observed between 5 mo and 15 mo after capture. Cause of death could not be determined for two badgers due to decomposition of the carcasses. A third badger that was recovered in good postmortem condition died from sepsis secondary to a transmitter-related omental torsion. This study indicates that there is some risk associated with abdominally implanted radio transmitters in badgers. Future studies involving implanted transmitters in mammals should focus on identifying safe and effective telemetry devices that do not affect the health of study animals. American badger, omental adhesion, peritoneal implant, telemetry, Taxidea taxus. PMID:20722276

  6. An update on the regional organizations of the american burn association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, David; Holmes, James; Conlon, Kathe; Jeng, James

    2014-01-01

    In 1985, the American Burn Association (ABA) created 10 regions in the United States and charged the Chiefs of these regions with the development of regional disaster plans. Now more than 25 years after this mandate, the ABA's Organizational and Delivery of Burn Care Committee assessed the status of regional development. The extant region leaders were contacted by email and queried as to the activities of their region and their opinion as to the success or failure of the regionalization initiative. Several regional organizational meetings were attended at the annual ABA meeting and many phone interviews were conducted to clear up any conflicting information. The original map of the burn regions was based on the American College of Surgeons Committee on Trauma regions, but these have undergone significant redistricting. The organizational structure, age, and activities of the regions vary significantly. The financial costs of maintaining a regional organization and holding an annual meeting are a major concern for most regions. For the most part the regional organizations are a good source of professional networking and a cost-effective source of continuing medical education/continuing education units for burn centers. The regionalization experiment of the ABA been reasonably successful in its first 25 years, but the ABA and the regions should take this opportunity to consider the next steps for the regions in the coming 25 years. PMID:23799483

  7. Korean American Women's Experiences with Smoking and Factors Associated with Their Quit Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun S.; Kim, Seongho; Seward, Gregory; Fortuna, Lisa; McKee, Sherry A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored Korean American women's experiences with smoking and tested the theory of planned behavior to identify factors associated with their intentions to quit smoking. It employed a mixed-methods research design, using qualitative and quantitative data. Participants were recruited via a combination of random (N = 49) and convenience (N = 45) sampling techniques. Women in this study initiated smoking at age of 23 on average, and nearly half smoked at indoor houses. They initiated smoking out of curiosity about the effect and belief that smoking would relieve their stress. Reasons for continued smoking were (a) to avoid nicotine withdrawal symptoms, (b) to cope with life stressors, including acculturative stress, and (c) to fulfill one's destiny as a lifetime smoker. Many attempted to quit due to health issues and pregnancy. Fear of disclosure and limited English proficiency were found to be major barriers to seeking help for quitting. Past-year quit attempt(s), attitudes toward quitting, and perceived family norm favoring quitting explained 25% of the variance in intentions to quit smoking (F[3,90] = 11.58, P < 0.001). Findings suggest that gender- and culture-specific intervention strategies are needed to assist Korean American women in smoking cessation. PMID:25938119

  8. TRANSCULTURALIZATION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEVELOPING LATIN AMERICAN CLINICAL PRACTICE ALGORITHMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY--PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2015 PAN-AMERICAN WORKSHOP BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Harrell, R Mack; Allende-Vigo, Myriam Z; Alvayero, Carlos; Arita-Melzer, Onix; Aschner, Pablo; Camacho, Pauline M; Castillo, Rogelio Zacarias; Cerdas, Sonia; Coutinho, Walmir F; Davidson, Jaime A; Garber, Jeffrey R; Garvey, W Timothy; González, Fernando Javier Lavalle; Granados, Denis O; Hamdy, Osama; Handelsman, Yehuda; Jiménez-Navarrete, Manuel Francisco; Lupo, Mark A; Mendoza, Enrique J; Jiménez-Montero, José G; Zangeneh, Farhad

    2016-04-01

    The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) convened their first Workshop for recommendations to optimize Clinical Practice Algorithm (CPA) development for Latin America (LA) in diabetes (focusing on glycemic control), obesity (focusing on weight loss), thyroid (focusing on thyroid nodule diagnostics), and bone (focusing on postmenopausal osteoporosis) on February 28, 2015, in San Jose, Costa Rica. A standardized methodology is presented incorporating various transculturalization factors: resource availability (including imaging equipment and approved pharmaceuticals), health care professional and patient preferences, lifestyle variables, socio-economic parameters, web-based global accessibility, electronic implementation, and need for validation protocols. A standardized CPA template with node-specific recommendations to assist the local transculturalization process is provided. Participants unanimously agreed on the following five overarching principles for LA: (1) there is only one level of optimal endocrine care, (2) hemoglobin A1C should be utilized at every level of diabetes care, (3) nutrition education and increased pharmaceutical options are necessary to optimize the obesity care model, (4) quality neck ultrasound must be part of an optimal thyroid nodule care model, and (5) more scientific evidence is needed on osteoporosis prevalence and cost to justify intervention by governmental health care authorities. This 2015 AACE/ACE Workshop marks the beginning of a structured activity that assists local experts in creating culturally sensitive, evidence-based, and easy-to-implement tools for optimizing endocrine care on a global scale. PMID:27031655

  9. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APA) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2008 recipient of the American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in Psychology in the Public Interest is Raymond D. Fowler. A citation, biography, and selected bibliography for Raymond D. Fowler are provided in this article. PMID:18665669

  10. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APA) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2008 recipient of the American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology is Theodore Millon. A citation, biography, and selected bibliography for Theodore Millon are provided in this article. PMID:18665667

  11. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APA) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2008 recipient of the American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology is Florence W. Kaslow. A citation, biography, and selected bibliography for Florence W. Kaslow are provided in this article. PMID:18665668

  12. Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APA) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2008 recipient of the American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology is Alice H. Eagly. A citation, biography, and selected bibliography for Alice H. Eagly are provided in this article. PMID:18665670

  13. Position of the American Dietetic Association, School Nutrition Association, and Society for Nutrition Education: comprehensive school nutrition services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G; Fleischhacker, Sheila

    2010-11-01

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health, and academic performance of our nation's children. Local school wellness policies may strengthen comprehensive nutrition services by encouraging multidisciplinary wellness teams, composed of school and community members, to work together in identifying local school needs, developing feasible strategies to address priority areas, and integrating comprehensive nutrition services with a coordinated school health program. This joint position paper affirms schools as an important partner in health promotion. To maximize the impact of school wellness policies on strengthening comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools nationwide, ADA, SNA, and SNE recommend specific strategies in the following key areas: nutrition education and promotion, food and nutrition programs available on the school campus, school-home-community partnerships, and nutrition-related health services. PMID:21061737

  14. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Anne M; Wellenius, Gregory A; Wu, Wen-Chih; Hickson, DeMarc A; Kamalesh, Masoor; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of left and pulmonary vascular function in African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS): left ventricular ejection fraction, E-wave velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, left atrial diameter index, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. We examined these associations using multivariable linear or logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 4866 participants at study enrollment, 106 lived African Americans. PMID:27304962

  15. Report from the American Nurses' Association council on psychiatric and mental health nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, L A; Baldwin, B; Stevens, G

    1989-01-01

    Society has demonstrated a major need for expanded gerontological and geropsychiatric nursing services. Current needs have not yet been met and the call for service will increase throughout the balance of this century and beyond. Social responsiveness demands that nurses: (1) formally establish their clinical authority in care of the aged; (2) lobby for public policy which enables the provider professional to control the practice environment, rather than be controlled by it; (3) improve the educational preparation of nurses to care for the aged; and (4) expand the professions' scientific and research base in this area. The national professional organization of registered nurses, the American Nurses' Association, provides leadership to influence the course of nursing as it continues to provide vital services in a dramatically changing environment. PMID:2744491

  16. Fourth joint meeting of the American Urological Association and the Japanese Urological Association Specialty Society program at the 104th annual meeting of the American Urological Association at Chicago 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperberg, Matthew R; Hinotsu, Shiro; Chancellor, Michael B; Homma, Yukio; Nelson, Peter S; Matsuyama, Hideyasu; Menon, Mani; Kucuk, Omer; Hara, Isao; Egawa, Shin; Uzzo, Robert G; Kanayama, Hiro-Omi; Okuyama, Akihiko; Akaza, Hideyuki

    2009-08-01

    We are heartily grateful for the warm support of all of the people concerned, including the moderators and panelists of both societies for giving us the opportunity to hold the 4th American Urological Association/Japanese Urological Association (AUA/JUA) Joint Meeting, held once again at the 104th Annual Meeting of the American Urological Association (25-30 April 2009, Chicago, Illinois, USA). 2009 is a memorable year, being the start of new collaborations between AUA and JUA. The JUA in collaboration with AUA is promoting an academic exchange program whereby outstanding and promising Japanese and American junior faculty members will be given the opportunity to work in the USA and Japan for one month. The program not only allows the sharing of knowledge and experience, but is designed to foster a closer alliance between the AUA and JUA, and assists in identifying future leaders within both organizations. The JUA will have an exhibit booth at the AUA annual meeting, promoting our new joint activities. The Journal of Urology and International Journal of Urology will share reviewers. The JUA will participate in developing AUA guidelines. With all of these activities, the JUA hopes it will provide greater opportunities to young Japanese urologists to participate in educational projects in the US. We would like to thank Professor Robert C. Flanigan, the Secretary General of AUA, Professor Glenn M. Preminger, the Chairman of the AUA Office of Education and the staff of AUA and JUA for supporting our program. We hope to keep holding the joint meeting and have plenty of ideas on themes and forums. We believe that this international program helps to establish a closer relationship between JUA and AUA in the scientific field. PMID:19682110

  17. Association between symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and gender, morphological occlusion, and psychological factors in a group of university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonjardim Leonardo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this study was to find out the prevalence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD in a sample of university students and its relationship to gender, occlusion, and psychological factors. Materials and Methods: The sample comprised 196 subjects, aged 18-25 years. The TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification (classes I, II, and III. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, a 14-item self-administered rating scale developed specifically to identify anxiety and depression in nonpsychiatric medical outpatients, was used to assess the levels of anxiety (HADSa and depression (HADSd. Statistical Analysis: The incidence of TMD level, malocclusion, anxiety, and depression in both genders was calculated as percentages. Association between TMD degree and occlusion, HADSa, and HADSd was tested using the Chi-square test. Results: According to our results, 50% of the subjects had TMD, but it was of moderate or severe degree in only 9.18% of them. No statistically significant association could be found between TMD and gender or occlusion. TMD was found to have statistically significant association with HADSa but not with HADSd. Conclusion : A high prevalence of TMD was found in this student population; however, most of the cases could be classified as mild. Of the variables studied, only HADSa had a statistically significant association with TMD.

  18. Management of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer in Children: Focus on the American Thyroid Association Pediatric Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Marguerite T; Eslamy, Hedieh; Mankoff, David

    2016-03-01

    First introduced in 1946, radioactive iodine (I-131) produces short-range beta radiation with a half-life of 8 days. The physical properties of I-131 combined with the high degree of uptake in the differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs) led to the use of I-131 as a therapeutic agent for DTC in adults. There are two indications for the potential use of I-131 therapy in pediatric thyroid disorders: nonsurgical treatment of hyperthyroidism owing to Graves' disease and the treatment of children with intermediate- and high-risk DTC. However, children are not just miniature adults. Not only are children and the pediatric thyroid gland more sensitive to radiation than adults but also the biologic behavior of DTC differs between children and adults as well. As opposed to adults, children with DTC typically present with advanced disease at diagnosis; yet, they respond rapidly to therapy and have an excellent prognosis that is significantly better than that in adult counterparts with advanced disease. Unfortunately, there are also higher rates of local and distant disease recurrence in children with DTC compared with adults, mandating lifelong surveillance. Further, children have a longer life expectancy during which the adverse effects of I-131 therapy may become manifest. Recognizing the differences between adults and children with DTC, the American Thyroid Association commissioned a task force of experts who developed and recently published a guideline to address the unique issues related to the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in children. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, staging, treatment, therapy-related effects, and suggestions for surveillance in children with DTC, focusing not only on the differences between adults and children with this disease but also on the latest recommendations from the inaugural pediatric management guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. PMID:26897719

  19. Readability of Patient Education Materials on the American Association for Surgery of Trauma Website

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltorai, Adam E. M.; Ghanian, Soha; Adams, Charles A.; Born, Christopher T.; Daniels, Alan H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Because the quality of information on the Internet is of dubious worth, many patients seek out reliable expert sources. As per the American Medical Association (AMA) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommendations, readability of patient education materials should not exceed a sixth-grade reading level. The average reading skill of U.S. adults is at the eighth-grade level. Objectives: This study evaluates whether a recognized source of expert content, the American Association for Surgery of Trauma (AAST) website’s patient education materials, recommended readability guidelines for medical information. Materials and Methods: Using the well-validated Flesch-Kincaid formula to analyze grade level readability, we evaluated the readability of all 16 of the publicly-accessible entries within the patient education section of the AAST website. Results: Mean ± SD grade level readability was 10.9 ± 1.8 for all the articles. All but one of the articles had a readability score above the sixth-grade level. Readability of the articles exceeded the maximum recommended level by an average of 4.9 grade levels (95% confidence interval, 4.0-5.8; P < 0.0001). Readability of the articles exceeded the eighth-grade level by an average of 2.9 grade levels (95% confidence interval, 2.0-3.8; P < 0.0001). Only one of the articles had a readability score below the eighth-grade level. Conclusions: The AAST’s online patient education materials may be of limited utility to many patients, as the readability of the information exceeds the average reading skill level of adults in the U.S. Lack of patient comprehension represents a discrepancy that is not in accordance with the goals of the AAST’s objectives for its patient education efforts. PMID:25147778

  20. Information Management Strategies in Early Adolescence: Developmental Change in Use and Transactional Associations with Psychological Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Robert D.; Marrero, Matthew D.; Melching, Jessica A.; Kuhn, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents use various strategies to manage their parents' access to information. This study tested developmental change in strategy use, longitudinal associations between disclosing and concealing strategies, and longitudinal associations linking disclosing and concealing strategies with antisocial behavior and depressive symptoms. Self-report…

  1. Associations between APOE variants and metabolic traits and the impact of psychological stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia Inez Iqbal; Barefoot, John; Brummett, Berverly H.;

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all m...

  2. Long-Term Effects of Stressors on Relationship Well-Being and Parenting among Rural African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murry, Velma M.; Harrell, Amanda W.; Brody, Gene H.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Simons, Ronald L.; Black, Angela R.; Cutrona, Carolyn E.; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of stressful life events on rural African American women's relationship well-being, psychological functioning, and parenting included 361 married or long-term cohabiting women. Associations among stressful events, socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination, coping strategies, psychological functioning,…

  3. Variants in intron 13 of the ELMO1 gene are associated with diabetic nephropathy in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Leak, T. S.; Perlegas, P.S.; Smith, S. G.; Keene, K.L.; Hicks, P. J.; Langefeld, C. D.; Mychaleckyj, J. C.; Rich, S S; Kirk, J.K.; Freedman, B.I.; Bowden, D. W.; Sale, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Variants in the engulfment and cell motility 1 (ELMO1) gene are associated with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in a Japanese cohort. We comprehensively evaluated this gene in African American (AA) T2DM patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Three hundred nine HapMap tagging SNPs and 9 reportedly associated SNPs were genotyped in 577 AA T2DM-ESRD patients and 596 AA non-diabetic controls, plus 43 non-diabetic European American controls and 45 Yoruba Nigerian samples ...

  4. Association of Long Runs of Homozygosity With Alzheimer Disease Among African American Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Mahdi; Reitz, Christiane; Cheng, Rong; Vardarajan, Badri Narayan; Jun, Gyungah; Sato, Christine; Naj, Adam; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Wang, Li-San; Valladares, Otto; Lin, Chiao-Feng; Larson, Eric B.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Evans, Denis; De Jager, Philip L.; Crane, Paul K.; Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Murrell, Jill R.; Raj, Towfique; Ertekin-Taner, Nilufer; Logue, Mark; Baldwin, Clinton T.; Green, Robert C.; Barnes, Lisa L.; Cantwell, Laura B.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Go, Rodney C. P.; Griffith, Patrick A.; Obisesan, Thomas O.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Lopez, Oscar L.; Bennett, David A.; Hendrie, Hugh; Hall, Kathleen S.; Goate, Alison M.; Byrd, Goldie S.; Kukull, Walter A.; Foroud, Tatiana M.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Farrer, Lindsay A.; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A.; Lee, Joseph H.; Schellenberg, Gerard D.; St. George-Hyslop, Peter; Mayeux, Richard; Rogaeva, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Mutations in known causal Alzheimer disease (AD) genes account for only 1% to 3% of patients and almost all are dominantly inherited. Recessive inheritance of complex phenotypes can be linked to long (>1-megabase [Mb]) runs of homozygosity (ROHs) detectable by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between ROHs and AD in an African American population known to have a risk for AD up to 3 times higher than white individuals. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Case-control study of a large African American data set previously genotyped on different genome-wide SNP arrays conducted from December 2013 to January 2015. Global and locus-based ROH measurements were analyzed using raw or imputed genotype data. We studied the raw genotypes from 2 case-control subsets grouped based on SNP array: Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium data set (871 cases and 1620 control individuals) and Chicago Health and Aging Project–Indianapolis Ibadan Dementia Study data set (279 cases and 1367 control individuals). We then examined the entire data set using imputed genotypes from 1917 cases and 3858 control individuals. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The ROHs larger than 1 Mb, 2 Mb, or 3 Mb were investigated separately for global burden evaluation, consensus regions, and gene-based analyses. RESULTS The African American cohort had a low degree of inbreeding (F ~ 0.006). In the Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics Consortium data set, we detected a significantly higher proportion of cases with ROHs greater than 2 Mb (P = .004) or greater than 3 Mb (P = .02), as well as a significant 114-kilobase consensus region on chr4q31.3 (empirical P value 2 = .04; ROHs >2 Mb). In the Chicago Health and Aging Project–Indianapolis Ibadan Dementia Study data set, we identified a significant 202-kilobase consensus region on Chr15q24.1 (empirical P value 2 = .02; ROHs >1 Mb) and a cluster of 13 significant genes on Chr3p21.31 (empirical P value 2 = .03

  5. Prevalence and clinical characteristics associated with pulmonary hypertension in African-Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Choudhary

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PH is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. It is frequently associated with cardiopulmonary diseases that are prevalent in African Americans (AAs. However, the prevalence or determinants of PH in the AA population is not known. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of PH (defined as trans-tricuspid gradient ≥ 35 mm Hg and associated clinical characteristics in AAs using the Jackson Heart Study cohort (n=3,282 who underwent echocardiography and had a measurable trans-tricuspid regurgitant jet. Echocardiography is frequently used for screening for PH despite its limitations in estimating accurate PA systolic pressures. Overall and age-adjusted gender-specific prevalence were estimated and modified Poisson regression was used to identify independent clinical, spirometric, and echocardiographic characteristics associated with PH. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 56.1 ± 12.6 years with 67.5% female. The prevalence of PH was 6.8%, with higher prevalence in female AAs (age-adjusted prevalence: Men 4.9%, 95% CI 3.6-6.2%; Women 7.7%, 95% CI 6.6-8.8%. Pulmonary hypertension prevalence increased with age (Prevalence Ratio: 10.0, 95%CI 4.0-25.1, >65 versus <45 years old, presence of obesity, higher pulse pressure, diabetes, obstructive or restrictive spirometry pattern, and severe left heart valvular disease. Also, PH was significantly associated with left atrial size and left ventricular ejection fraction. CONCLUSIONS: Pulmonary hypertension is prevalent in AAs, more in women than in men. The identified cardiopulmonary risk factors that increase the prevalence of PH may assist in diagnosis and management of these at-risk subjects in the AA population.

  6. Association of hair iron levels with creativity and psychological variables related to creativity

    OpenAIRE

    Hikaru Takeuchi

    2013-01-01

    Creativity generally involves the conception of original and valuable ideas. Previous studies have suggested an association between creativity and the dopaminergic system, and that physical activity facilitates creativity. Iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and physical activity. Here, we newly investigated the associations between hair iron levels and creativity, dopamine-related traits and states [novelty seeking, extraversion, and vigor (motivational state)], as well as the p...

  7. Hugo Munsterberg's Attack on the Application of Scientific Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    No individual in the early history of American psychology is more identified with the promotion of applied psychology than Hugo Munsterberg, whose books and articles on applied topics such as industrial psychology, forensic psychology, psychotherapy, and educational psychology made him one of the most visible psychologists of his day. But there is…

  8. Conservation psychology as a field of study

    OpenAIRE

    Polona Kalc

    2016-01-01

    During the past decades the importance of psychology has become more prominent when addressing environmental issues. At the turn of the millennium a new field of psychological research was introduced to scientific community. The so-called conservation psychology strives to merge and spur basic and applied psychological research from the field of (pro)environmental behaviour and sustainable development. Together with environmental and population psychology, it forms Division 34 of American Psy...

  9. Implicit theories of online trolling: Evidence that attention-seeking conceptions are associated with increased psychological resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, John; Day, Liz; Hatcher, Ruth M; Tazzyman, Sarah; Flowe, Heather D; Palmer, Emma J; Frosch, Caren A; O'Reilly, Michelle; Jones, Ceri; Buckley, Chloe; Knieps, Melanie; Cutts, Katie

    2016-08-01

    Three studies were conducted to investigate people's conceptions of online trolls, particularly conceptions associated with psychological resilience to trolling. In Study 1, a factor analysis of participants' ratings of characteristics of online trolls found a replicable bifactor model of conceptions of online trolls, with a general factor of general conceptions towards online trolls being identified, but five group factors (attention-conflict seeking, low self-confidence, viciousness, uneducated, amusement) as most salient. In Study 2, participants evaluated hypothetical profiles of online trolling messages to establish the validity of the five factors. Three constructs (attention-conflict seeking, viciousness, and uneducated) were actively employed when people considered profiles of online trolling scenarios. Study 3 introduced a 20-item 'Conceptions of Online Trolls scale' to examine the extent to which the five group factors were associated with resilience to trolling. Results indicated that viewing online trolls as seeking conflict or attention was associated with a decrease in individuals' negative affect around previous trolling incidents. Overall, the findings suggest that adopting an implicit theories approach can further our understanding and measurement of conceptions towards trolling through the identification of five salient factors, of which at least one factor may act as a resilience strategy. PMID:26403842

  10. A Call for Considering Color Vision Deficiency When Creating Graphics for Psychology Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frane, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Although color vision deficiency (CVD) is fairly common, it is often not adequately considered when data is presented in color graphics. This study found that CVD tends to be mentioned neither in the author guidelines of psychology journals nor in the standard publication manuals of the field (e.g., the publication manuals of the American Psychological Association and the American Medical Association). To illustrate the relevance of this problem, a panel of scholars with CVD was used to evaluate the color figures in three respected psychological science journals. Results suggested that a substantial proportion of those figures were needlessly confusing for viewers with CVD and could have been easily improved through simple adjustments. Based on prior literature and on feedback from the panelists, recommendations are made for improving the accessibility of graphics in psychology reports. PMID:26273941

  11. Evaluation of the American Heart Association 2015 revised Jones criteria versus existing guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhutia, Euden; Kumar, Pradeep; Shankar, Binoy; Juneja, Atul; Chandelia, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the diagnostic yield of acute rheumatic fever (ARF) by the American Heart Association/ American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) 2015 revised Jones criteria with the WHO 2004 and Australian guidelines 2012. Methods Retrospective observational study in 93 cases of suspected ARF admitted to the Division of Paediatric Cardiology between January 2012 and December 2014. WHO 2004, Australian guidelines and AHA/ACC 2015 Jones criteria were applied to assess definite and probable ARF. Results Of the 93 cases, 50 were diagnosed as the first episode of ARF and 43 as a recurrence of the condition. Subclinical carditis was a predominant presentation (38%) in the first episode group (p<0.01) whereas in the recurrence group carditis (88%) was the main presentation (p<0.01). Among the joint manifestations, the majority of patients in both the first episode group and the recurrence group presented with arthralgia. Of all the patients with suspected ARF (50), 34% of cases did not fulfil the standard Jones criteria 2004; however, 86% qualified as having ARF on applying the Australian and AHA/ACC 2015 criteria. Surprisingly in the recurrence group only 67% of the patients fulfilled AHA/ACC 2015 despite the modifications incorporated beyond WHO 2004; however, all the patients fulfilled the Australian guidelines either as definite (88.4%) or probable (11.6%). Inclusion of subclinical carditis, polyarthralgia and monoarthritis as major criteria influenced the diagnosis to definite ARF in 20%, 10% and 4% of patients, respectively. Conclusions The clinical manifestations of ARF, comprising subclinical carditis and arthralgia, are possibly milder in the Indian population; hence, inclusion of subclinical carditis, polyarthralgia and monoarthritis as major criteria in the newer guidelines has improved the diagnostic yield of ARF. In the absence of a gold standard for the diagnosis of ARF, it is not possible to comment on sensitivity and specificity. PMID:27326228

  12. Health insurance and household income associated with mammography utilization among American women, 2000-2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Da-hai; ZHANG Zhi-ruo; RAO Ke-qin

    2011-01-01

    Background National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) has provided free or low-costmammograms to low-income or no health insurance women in all of the states of the United States (US) since 1997.The objective of this study was to understand whether health insurance and annual household income impacted the mammography utilization since the implementation of NBCCEDP,in order to evaluate how the implementation of NBCCEDP impacted mammography utilization among American women.Methods Data were from the database of Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) of the CDC in US.Mammography utilization was measured by whether the American woman aged 40 to 64 years had the mammography within the last two years.The chi square test and multivariate Logistic regression were used to evaluate the associations between mammography utilization and health insurance,annual household income,and other factors for any given year.Results From 2000 to 2008,the rate of mammography utilization among participants had a steady decrease on the whole from 86.7% to 83.8%.The results showed that the mammography utilization correlated significantly with health insurance and annual household income for any given year.The results also showed that compared with participants who were uninsured,those who were insured had a greater times higher rate of mammography in 2008 than any other year from 2000 to 2008,and compared with participants whose annual household income was below $15 000,those whose annual household income was above $50 000 had a greater times higher rate of mammography in 2008 than in 2004 and 2006.Conclusions Health insurance and annual household income impacted the mammography utilization for any given year from 2000 to 2008,and the implementation of NBCCEDP has not achieved its original goal on breast cancer screening.

  13. Position of the American Dietetic Association: use of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-01

    Sweeteners elicit pleasurable sensations with (nutritive) or without (nonnutritive) energy. Nutritive sweeteners (eg, sucrose, fructose) are generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), yet concern exists about increasing sweetener intakes relative to optimal nutrition and health. Dietary quality suffers at intakes above 25% of total energy (the Institutes of Medicine's suggested maximal intake level). In the United States, estimated intakes of nutritive sweeteners fall below this, although one in four children (ages 9 to 18 years) can surpass this level. Polyols (sugar alcohols), GRAS-affirmed or petitions filed for GRAS, add sweetness with reduced energy and functional properties to foods/beverages and promote dental health. Five nonnutritive sweeteners with intense sweetening power have FDA approval (acesulfame-K, aspartame, neotame, saccharin, sucralose) and estimated intakes below the Acceptable Daily Intake (level that a person can safely consume everyday over a lifetime without risk). By increasing palatability of nutrient-dense foods/beverages, sweeteners can promote diet healthfulness. Scientific evidence supports neither that intakes of nutritive sweeteners by themselves increase the risk of obesity nor that nutritive or nonnutritive sweeteners cause behavioral disorders. However, nutritive sweeteners increase risk of dental caries. High fructose intakes may cause hypertriglyceridemia and gastrointestinal symptoms in susceptible individuals. Thus, it is the position of The American Dietetic Association that consumers can safely enjoy a range of nutritive and nonnutritive sweeteners when consumed in a diet that is guided by current federal nutrition recommendations, such as the Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the Dietary References Intakes, as well as individual health goals. Dietetics professionals should provide consumers with science-based information about sweeteners and support research on the use of sweeteners

  14. New AP4B1 mutation in an African-American child associated with intellectual disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamichhane, Dronacharya

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of intellectual disability (ID) varies from 1–3%. Genetic causes of ID are being increasingly recognized. Although multiple mutations have been identified as a cause of syndromic ID, the genetic etiology of non-syndromic ID is poorly understood. However, more than 100 loci have been mapped that are associated with non-syndromic ID. There have been a couple of reports of AP4B1 gene mutation causing severe intellectual disability, absent speech, shy character, stereotypic laughter, muscular hypotonia that progressed to spastic paraplegia, microcephaly, foot deformity, decreased muscle mass of the lower limbs, inability to walk, and growth retardation. They had structural brain abnormalities and seizures. The reported cases were from Arab families where consanguineous marriage is common. We encountered an African-American child who presented first at the age of 24 mo with language difficulties and was subsequently found to have moderate to severe intellectual disability by standardized tests. Shortly, he started to have seizures and problems with ambulation. Although he was hypotonic at the time of presentation, legs slowly became spastic at the age of 4 yr. After a thorough work up, he was found to have heterozygous mutation in the AP4B1 gene along with another missense mutation in the same gene. There has been no report of mutation in this gene in the North American population. Although AP4B1 typically is said to be an autosomal recessive disease-causing gene, our case is different in the sense that there are two mutations in the same gene one of which has never been reported before and co-exists with a known disease causing mutation. Yet, the phenotype of the case closely resembles those published previously.

  15. Association of primary open-angle glaucoma with mitochondrial variants and haplogroups common in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudiseva, Harini V.; Trachtman, Benjamin; Bowman, Anita S.; Sagaser, Anna; Sankar, Prithvi; Miller-Ellis, Eydie; Lehman, Amanda; Addis, Victoria; O'Brien, Joan M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the population frequencies of all common mitochondrial variants and ancestral haplogroups among 1,999 subjects recruited for the Primary Open-Angle African American Glaucoma Genetics (POAAGG) Study, including 1,217 primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases and 782 controls, and to identify ancestral subpopulations and mitochondrial mutations as potential risk factors for POAG susceptibility. Methods Subject classification by characteristic glaucomatous optic nerve findings and corresponding visual field defects, as defined by enrolling glaucoma specialists, stereo disc photography, phlebotomy, extraction of total DNA from peripheral blood or saliva, DNA quantification and normalization, PCR amplification of whole mitochondrial genomes, Ion Torrent deep semiconductor DNA sequencing on DNA pools (“Pool-seq”), Sanger sequencing of 3,479 individual mitochondrial DNAs, and bioinformatic analysis. Results The distribution of common African haplogroups within the POAAGG study population was broadly similar to prior surveys of African Americans. However, the POAG case population was found to be enriched in L1c2 haplogroups, which are defined in part by missense mutations m.6150G>A (Val83Ile, odds ratio [OR] 1.8, p=0.01), m.6253C>T (Met117Thr, rs200165736, OR 1.6, p=0.04), and m.6480G>A (Val193Ile, rs199476128, OR 4.6, p=0.04) in the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (MT-CO1) gene and by a variant, m.2220A>G (OR 2.0, p=0.01), in MT-RNR2, which encodes the mitochondrial ribosomal 16s RNA gene. L2 haplogroups were predicted to be overrepresented in the POAG case population by Pool-seq, and the difference was confirmed to be significant with Sanger sequencing, that targeted the L2-associated variants m.2416T>C (rs28358580, OR 1.2, p=0.02) and m.2332C>T (OR 1.2, p=.02) in MT-RNR2. Another variant within MT-RNR2, m.3010G>A (rs3928306), previously implicated in sensitivity to the optic neuropathy-associated antibiotic linezolid, and arising on D4 and J1

  16. Identification of recently described porcine parvoviruses in archived North American samples from 1996 and association with porcine circovirus associated disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opriessnig, Tanja; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Gerber, Priscilla F; Halbur, Patrick G

    2014-09-17

    The association of porcine circovirus (PCV) type 2 and porcine parvovirus (PPV) type 1 as a cause of porcine circovirus associated disease (PCVAD) is well established. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence rates of classical PPV1 and recently recognized PPV2-5 in serum and lung samples from pigs and farms with known PCV2 status. A total of 586 serum samples and 164 lung homogenates collected from 1996 to 2013 in the USA and Canada were utilized. All samples were tested for PPV1-5 and PCV2. PCV2 was detected in 27.7% (162/586) and PPV in 48.8% (286/586) of the serum samples, whereas 78.7% (129/164) of the lung tissues were positive for PCV2 and 56.7% (93/164) were positive for PPV. Overall, PPV2 had the highest prevalence rates in sera (35.2%) and tissues (42.7%). Concurrent infection of PCV2 and PPV occurred in 14.3% (84/586) of the serum samples and in 49.4% (81/164) of the tissue samples. Moreover, the prevalence of PPV1 or PPV2 DNA was significantly higher in tissues containing high amounts of PCV2 DNA compared to non-PCVAD cases. The frequency of concurrent PPV/PCV2 infection was higher for PCVAD herds compared to negative or subclinically infected herds. PPV2, PPV3 and PPV4 were all identified in samples collected in 1998 and PPV5 was first identified in 2006. The obtained findings indicate that similar to PCV2, PPVs are widespread in North American pigs. Nevertheless, diagnostic investigations into PCVAD cases should give more consideration to the role of PPV1 and PPV2 as contributing cofactors. PMID:25081955

  17. 施拉姆在美国心理战中的角色扮演以及传播思想%Role and Communication Ideas of Schramm during Psychology Warfare in American History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯泽

    2014-01-01

    Several important communication books have created marvelous academic sight since 1990.Theses books are trying to prove such a point:The establishment of American Communication Science is the result of American Psychology Warfare which constituted real war and Cold War in American history.Schramm played important role in Psychology Warfare.His many researches are relevant to that.%20世纪90年代美国出版的一些传播学著作创造了令人惊讶的学术景观,这些著作试图证明:美国传播学学科的发展和建立是美国心理战的产物,心理战争是现实战争以及冷战的重要组成部分,而施拉姆在美国对内对外心理战中扮演了十分特殊的角色,他的许多研究与此密切相关。

  18. The 2008 financial crisis: Changes in social capital and its association with psychological wellbeing in the United Kingdom - A panel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin; Giordano, Giuseppe N

    2016-03-01

    The global financial crisis of 2008 was described by the IMF as the worst recession since the Great Depression. This historic event provided the backdrop to this United Kingdom (UK) longitudinal study of changes in associations between social capital and psychological wellbeing. Past longitudinal studies have reported that the presence of social capital may buffer against adverse mental health outcomes. This study adds to existing literature by employing data from the British Household Panel Survey and tracking the same individuals (N = 11,743) pre- and immediately post-crisis (years 2007-09). With longitudinal, multilevel logistic regression modelling, we aimed to compare the buffering effects of individual-level social capital (generalised trust and social participation) against worse psychological wellbeing (GHQ-12) during and immediately after the 2008 financial crisis. After comparing the same individuals over time, results showed that stocks of social capital (generalised trust) were significantly depleted across the UK during the crisis, from 40% trusting others in 2007 to 32% in 2008. Despite this drop, the buffering effect of trust against worse psychological wellbeing was pronounced in 2008; those not trusting had an increased risk of worse psychological wellbeing in 2008 compared with the previous year in fully adjusted models (OR = 1.49, 95% CI (1.34-1.65). Levels of active participation increased across the timeframe of this study but were not associated with psychological health. From our empirical evidence, decision makers should be made aware of how events such as the crisis (and the measures taken to counter its effects) could negatively impact on a Nation's trust levels. Furthermore, past research implies that the positive effects of trust on psychological wellbeing evident in this study may only be short-term; therefore, decision makers should also prioritise policies that restore trust levels to improve the psychological wellbeing of the

  19. Usability of American Nurses Association State Web Sites: A Follow-up Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Gina; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Alexander, Gregory L; Wilson, Melissa A; Becker, Colleen

    2016-05-01

    The American Nurses Association supports professional nurses through Web sites administered by state nursing associations, providing important information for current and potential members. Optimal usability of these Web sites is critical for nurses to obtain the information they seek. Heuristic evaluations are general criteria used to evaluate the usability of technology such as Web sites. A study published in 2014, using heuristic criteria from Nielsen's 10 principles and Health on The Web, evaluated 27 state nursing Web sites to identify usability concerns that could prevent nurses from obtaining accurate information regarding state nursing practice. The purpose of this study is to conduct a second heuristic evaluation to assess for changes in a subset of 12 Web sites. The analysis comparing the evaluation from 2012 to 2014 found that mean scores increased and variance decreased; however, no statistically significant difference was found between the two studies. Scores increased in 2014 for "help users to diagnose, and recover from errors," "match between the system and real world," and "consistency and standards." Scores decreased due to absence of mission statements and identification of intended audience. Ideally, Web site designers will use the feedback from this study and make changes that improve their usability to provide information to nurses. PMID:26950090

  20. Bacterial communities associated with healthy and Acropora white syndrome-affected corals from American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bryan; Aeby, Greta S; Work, Thierry M; Bourne, David G

    2012-05-01

    Acropora white syndrome (AWS) is characterized by rapid tissue loss revealing the white underlying skeleton and affects corals worldwide; however, reports of causal agents are conflicting. Samples were collected from healthy and diseased corals and seawater around American Samoa and bacteria associated with AWS characterized using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, from coral mucus and tissue slurries, respectively. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from coral tissue were dominated by the Gammaproteobacteria, and Jaccard's distances calculated between the clone libraries showed that those from diseased corals were more similar to each other than to those from healthy corals. 16S rRNA genes from 78 culturable coral mucus isolates also revealed a distinct partitioning of bacterial genera into healthy and diseased corals. Isolates identified as Vibrionaceae were further characterized by multilocus sequence typing, revealing that whilst several Vibrio spp. were found to be associated with AWS lesions, a recently described species, Vibrio owensii, was prevalent amongst cultured Vibrio isolates. Unaffected tissues from corals with AWS had a different microbiota than normal Acropora as found by others. Determining whether a microbial shift occurs prior to disease outbreaks will be a useful avenue of pursuit and could be helpful in detecting prodromal signs of coral disease prior to manifestation of lesions. PMID:22283330

  1. When in Rome: factors associated with changes in drinking behavior among American college students studying abroad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Eric R; Larimer, Mary E; Lee, Christine M

    2010-09-01

    Study abroad programs have the potential to promote cultural, experiential, and personal development for escalating numbers of American college students each year. Despite reports that study abroad students may be at particular risk for increased and problematic alcohol use, there is limited empirical documentation of this risk. Thus, the present study used a longitudinal design to examine the factors associated with changes in alcohol use among college students studying in foreign countries. A sample of 177 students completed measures of demographics, drinking behavior, and perceived peer drinking behavior 1 month before departure and 1-month postreturn from study abroad trips. Analyses revealed that participants more than doubled their drinking during study abroad trips and those who drank at heavier levels while abroad returned home drinking at significantly elevated levels. This pattern of increased use while abroad was moderated by several factors, with participants studying abroad in Europe (e.g., Italy, France) and Oceania (e.g., Australia, New Zealand), those under the age of 21, those with higher intentions of drinking while abroad, and those with higher drinking perceptions of other study abroad students in their host country increased their alcohol consumption to a greater extent than other participants. Results suggest drinking while abroad is a concern warranting further investigation, especially regarding how changes in drinking may contribute to the experience of alcohol-related consequences abroad. Continued identification of the risk factors associated with increased drinking can help inform targeted predeparture preventive interventions with these students. PMID:20853940

  2. The moderating effects of sex and age on the association between traumatic brain injury and harmful psychological correlates among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Ilie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although it is well established that sex is a risk factor in acquiring a traumatic brain injury (TBI among adolescents, it has not been established whether it also moderates the influence of other TBI psychological health correlates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Data were derived from a 2011 population-based cross-sectional school survey, which included 9,288 Ontario 7th-12th graders who completed anonymous self-administered questionnaires in classrooms. Response rate was 62%. Preliminary analyses found no evidence of nonresponse bias in the reporting of TBI. TBI was defined as a hit or blow to the head that resulted in a 5 minutes loss of consciousness or at least one overnight hospitalization due to symptoms associated with it. Reports of lifetime TBI were more common among males than females (23.1%, 95% CI: 20.5, 25.8 vs. 17.1%, 95% CI: 14.7, 19.8. Thirteen correlates were examined and included cigarette smoking, elevated psychological distress, suicide ideation, bully victimization (at school, as well as cyber bullying, bullying others, cannabis use, cannabis dependence and drug use problems, physical injuries, daily smoking, drinking alcohol, binge drinking, use of cannabis, and poor academic performance. Among the outcomes examined, sex moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and cigarette smoking. In addition, sex and age jointly moderated the relationship between lifetime TBI and daily smoking, alcohol use and physical injuries. Late adolescent males who reported lifetime TBI, relative to females, displayed elevated daily smoking and injuries, whereas their females counterparts displayed elevated past year drinking. Possible bias related to self-report procedures and the preclusion of causal inferences due to the cross-sectional nature of the data are limitations of this study. CONCLUSIONS: TBI differences in outcomes need to be assessed for potential moderating effects of sex and age. Results have important implications for

  3. Factors Associated With Tobacco Smoking Among Male Adolescents: the Role of Psychologic, Behavioral, and Demographic Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Tobacco smoking among adolescents has been a concern for researchers and health organizations in recent years. However, predisposing factors to smoking initiation among Iranian adolescents are not well recognized. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of tobacco smoking and to investigate the role of psychologic, behavioral, and demographic risk factors in adolescents' smoking status. Patients and Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 810 male adolescents recruited through cluster random sampling method in Hamadan in 2014. The participants received a self-administered questionnaire that contained questions about tobacco smoking behavior and demographic, behavioral, and psychologic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS16 through independent-samples t test, Chi square, and logistic regression. Results A total of 139 persons (17.1% were tobacco smoker and the mean (SD age at smoking initiation was 13.7 (2.2 years. Sense of need, decreasing stress, having a smoker friend, and inability to reject smoking suggestion were common reasons associated with tobacco smoking (P < 0.05. In addition, statistically significant differences between tobacco smokers and nonsmokers were found in the age, grade, mother's job, and education (P < 0.05. In comparison to non-smokers, tobacco smokers evaluated a typical smoker as less immature, more popular, more attractive, more self-confident, more independent, and less selfish person (P < 0.05. Conclusions The results showed that the effect of several psychosocial, behavioral, and demographic risk factors on adolescents' smoking status. Thus, design and implementation of interventions based on the results of the present study may be effective in preventing tobacco smoking among adolescents.

  4. Psychological Symptoms in Youth and Later Socioeconomic Functioning: Do Associations Vary by Informant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Melanie A.; Boyle, Michael H.; Georgiades, Katholiki

    2011-01-01

    We examined whether associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), depression, and anxiety assessed in a sample of 2,026 youth aged 6 to 16 years and socioeconomic functioning measured 18 years later varied as a function of whether parents or teachers had rated symptomatology.…

  5. Date Violence and Date Rape among Adolescents: Associations with Disordered Eating Behaviors and Psychological Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackard, Diann M.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2002-01-01

    A study assessed prevalence of date violence and rape in 81,247 adolescents. Approximately 9% of girls and 6% of boys had experienced date violence or rape. Date violence and rape was associated with higher rates of disordered eating behaviors and suicidal thoughts and attempts, and lower emotional well-being and self-esteem. (Contains…

  6. Are Teachers' Psychological Control, Autonomy Support and Autonomy Suppression Associated with Students' Goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madjar, Nir; Nave, Adi; Hen, Shiran

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated associations between student-perceived teacher behaviours and students' personal goal orientations. Thus, the study applied theoretical concepts from self-determination theory and parenting style in an attempt to enhance understanding of additional environmental characteristics possibly affecting personal goal orientation.…

  7. Psychological and behavioural factors associated with sexual risk behaviour among Slovak students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalina, Ondrej; Geckova, Andrea M.; Jarcuska, Pavol; Orosova, Olga; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB) in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behaviou

  8. Parental Inconsistency versus Parental Authoritarianism: Associations with Symptoms of Psychological Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwairy, Marwan Adeeb

    2008-01-01

    While in western countries, such as the US and Europe, authoritarian parenting is associated with negative psycho-social outcomes. Studies have indicated that this is not the case in collective/authoritarian cultures. It has been hypothesized that inconsistency in parenting style and culture contributes to these negative outcomes. In this study a…

  9. A genome-wide association study of serum uric acid in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerry Norman P

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Uric acid is the primary byproduct of purine metabolism. Hyperuricemia is associated with body mass index (BMI, sex, and multiple complex diseases including gout, hypertension (HTN, renal disease, and type 2 diabetes (T2D. Multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS in individuals of European ancestry (EA have reported associations between serum uric acid levels (SUAL and specific genomic loci. The purposes of this study were: 1 to replicate major signals reported in EA populations; and 2 to use the weak LD pattern in African ancestry population to better localize (fine-map reported loci and 3 to explore the identification of novel findings cognizant of the moderate sample size. Methods African American (AA participants (n = 1,017 from the Howard University Family Study were included in this study. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix® Genome-wide Human SNP Array 6.0. Imputation was performed using MACH and the HapMap reference panels for CEU and YRI. A total of 2,400,542 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were assessed for association with serum uric acid under the additive genetic model with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, glomerular filtration rate, HTN, T2D, and the top two principal components identified in the assessment of admixture and population stratification. Results Four variants in the gene SLC2A9 achieved genome-wide significance for association with SUAL (p-values ranging from 8.88 × 10-9 to 1.38 × 10-9. Fine-mapping of the SLC2A9 signals identified a 263 kb interval of linkage disequilibrium in the HapMap CEU sample. This interval was reduced to 37 kb in our AA and the HapMap YRI samples. Conclusions The most strongly associated locus for SUAL in EA populations was also the most strongly associated locus in this AA sample. This finding provides evidence for the role of SLC2A9 in uric acid metabolism across human populations. Additionally, our findings demonstrate the utility of following-up EA

  10. The Development of Psychology at National Southwestern Associated University%西南联大时期的心理学系科建设及发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳丽; 阎书昌

    2015-01-01

    The Department of Psychology was one of the systematically maintained departments at National Southwestern Associated University during the period of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Its faculty team, student training program,establishment of research laboratory and academic association,as well as application of psychological knowledge,reflected the department's dual emphasis on basic and applied researches under the directorship of Siegen K. Chou. Especially,the practices of military psychology,psychological counseling and youth advising played a pioneering role in Chinese psychology.%西南联大哲学心理学系心理学组是抗战时期保持健全设置的心理学系科之一,从师资力量到学生培养,从心理学实验室、心理学会的创建到心理学应用性实践的开拓,都反映着以周先庚为负责人的心理学组师生基础性研究和实用性研究并重的特点,尤其是军事心理学、心理服务社以及青年问题顾问处方面的工作,都具有开创性意义。

  11. Diagnosis of Fetal Anomaly and the Increased Maternal Psychological Toll Associated with Pregnancy Termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Priscilla K

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 4% of U.S. abortions occur in desired pregnancies, with many resulting from fetal anomalies. The majority of terminations occur in the second trimester; however in recent years first-trimester ultrasound measurement for nuchal translucency, calculation of risk based on maternal age, and biochemistry at 11-14 weeks gestation, have resulted in earlier prenatal diagnoses for chromosomal abnormalities. First trimester ultrasound can also now lead to diagnoses of major structural abnormalities including anecephaly, ventral wall defects, and limb abnormalities. The American College of Medical Genetics released recommendations underscoring the crucial importance of ethical counseling and substantive communication with parents facing a prenatal diagnosis of fetal anomaly. Unfortunately, the inability of health care providers to understand and empathize with the ardent desire of some parents to refuse termination is likely to be a large factor in the common practice of professionals attempting to steer expectant parents toward termination. Perinatal hospice is family-centered, comprehensive, and integrative in nature. The care provided by perinatal hospice units is delivered by an interdisciplinary team of obstetricians, pediatricians, nurses, social workers and chaplains in 130 locations throughout the U.S. Support is offered from diagnosis until death and beyond with time for "bonding, loving, and losing." "Hospice care is an interactive, and at times intense, form of care. Rather than simply 'letting nature take its course,' this approach empowers the family to take control of some of the consequences of their unfortunate situation." A primary focus of perinatal hospice is on fear reduction. Parents facing the death of an infant often fear isolation and abandonment in addition to worrying about their child experiencing pain. Parents are assured that they will be cared for and supported throughout this entire chapter of their lives, as their babies are kept

  12. Counselor Education Student Perceptions of the American Counseling Association Ethical Code as It Pertains to the Use of Facebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babb, Tanner A.

    2012-01-01

    Student use of online social networks has increased exponentially in the past five years. Facebook is one of the largest and most utilized by students. Many counseling students use Facebook on a regular basis to keep in touch with friends, family, and acquaintances. (Lenhart & Madden, 2007). Current American Counseling Association (ACA)…

  13. Teaching the Principles of Economics: Reconciling the Canon of the American Economics Association to Catholic Social Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    The American Economics Association, through its Committee on Economic Education, has worked since 1950 to develop a set of standards for what is taught in introductory economics courses. The result is the Test for Understanding in College Economics. The TUCE has come to define a canon of expectations for students in college business schools. Some…

  14. Molecular phylogeny, diversity and bioprospecting of endophytic fungi associated with wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 ...

  15. School Public Relations and the Principalship: An Interview with Mark Bielang, President of American Association of School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul

    2011-01-01

    From returning phone calls to traversing the political landscape to building trust, American Association of School Administrators (AASA) president Mark Bielang covers a lot of territory as he describes the public relations challenges confronting today's school administrators. Having just concluded his term as AASA president, Mr. Bielang has served…

  16. PROTECTING CHILDREN FROM ENVIRONMENTAL THREATS - A CONTINUING EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR NURSES OF THE AMERICAN NURSES FOUNDATION/ASSOCIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The American Nurses Association/Foundation will develop online, in print and pre conference continuing education (CE) children's environmental health protection programs to meet the objective of the program. The first CE program is on school environments, the second on home and ...

  17. American Bar Association Supplementary Guidelines for the Mitigation Function of Defense Teams in Death Penalty Cases: Implications for Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-01-01

    When a client faces a penalty of death, defense attorneys may call on social workers in many capacities: mitigation specialist, expert witness, consulting specialist, direct witness, or defense-initiated victim outreach worker. The American Bar Association set forth standards for capital defense attorneys, which led an interdisciplinary team to…

  18. Political Ideology and Its Relationship to Perceptions of Social Justice Advocacy among Members of the American Counseling Association (ACA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Janee Marie

    2010-01-01

    Social justice has become an increasingly controversial topic among members of the American Counseling Association (ACA). Specifically, concerns have been raised over what is perceived to be: (a) the liberal political agenda of social justice advocates, (b) the marginalization of conservative counselors, and (c) the inappropriate use of ACA…

  19. Advancing Multicultural and Diversity Competence in Art Therapy: American Art Therapy Association Multicultural Committee 1990-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potash, Jordan S.; Doby-Copeland, Cheryl; Stepney, Stella A.; Washington, Brittney N.; Vance, Lindsey D.; Short, Gwendolyn M.; Boston, Charlotte G.; Ballbé ter Maat, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    For 25 years the Multicultural Committee of the American Art Therapy Association has provided education, networking, and mentoring activities for all art therapists, as well as support for art therapists of color. The formation of the committee demonstrates increasing cultural competence within the profession, and its continuation promises future…

  20. Daily Stress and Emotional Well-Being among Asian American Adolescents: Same-Day, Lagged, and Chronic Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Lisa; Buchanan, Christy M.

    2014-01-01

    Daily-diary data from 180 Asian American 9th-10th graders (58% female, 75% second generation; "M" age = 14.97 years) were used to investigate how family, school, and peer stress are each associated with same-day and next-day (lagged) well-being, and vice versa. Hierarchical linear modeling provided support for reciprocal links when…