American Psychologist, 2011
This report presents the 2010 annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA). It provides the highlights of the association's and individual directorate's activities to APA members. APA continued its efforts to advance psychological practice and ensure the public's access to high-quality psychological services, apply psychological…
American Psychologist, 2010
This annual report of the American Psychological Association (APA) describes the association's activities and accomplishments in 2009. It describes strides made toward the goal of infusing psychology into the health care marketplace and of bringing psychology--and the unique skills of psychologists--to the attention of the public. This report aims…
Alvarez, Alvin N.; Singh, Anneliese A.; Wu, Jenny
This article provides an overview of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the AAPA. AAPA was created in 1972 in response to psychology's neglect…
Finch, S; Thomason, N; Cumming, G
We review the publication guidelines of the American Psychological Association (APA) since 1929 and document their advice for authors about statistical practice. Although the advice has been extended with each revision of the guidelines, it has largely focused on null hypothesis significance testing
Presents the 2015 Annual Report of the American Psychological Association. In his introduction, President Barry Anton describes how 2015 was among APA's most challenging. Although 2015 ushered in an era of greater transparency within the association and enhanced communications to members and the public, it also required painful self-reflection stemming from the revelations of an independent review by an outside law firm. The review examined the question of whether APA played any role related to the Bush administration's use of abusive interrogation techniques during the war on terror. Anton's introduction also discusses (1) the APA convention, (2) representing APA at a White House meeting with health care providers and insurance companies, (3) APA's effort to increase the number of APA-accredited internships, (4) international activities, and (5) the global summit on psychology and integrated care. (PsycINFO Database Record
Morse, Gwen Goetz
This article explores current faculty methods with the application and evaluation of the American Psychological Association (APA) style. Specific aims were to determine concerns related to APA style, review faculty grading practices, identify institutional resources, and report potential solutions for improving application of APA style. A survey with an exploratory descriptive research design was developed and distributed online to academic chairs and deans, requesting their support in distributing the survey to their faculty. Responses (N = 704) were grouped into five categories: departmental and personal concerns; faculty grading practices; institutional resources; format, writing style, and grammar; and suggestions and potential solutions. Sixty percent reported that application and evaluation of APA style is a concern in their department. Content analysis identified four categories as proposed solutions: consistency, education, resources, and dialogue. On the basis of the feedback of the participants, the CRED program is proposed for the issues that were identified.
Leong, Frederick T L; Okazaki, Sumie
An overview of the history of Asian American psychology is provided by reviewing the context for the development of the field as well as the early founding of the Asian American Psychological Association (AAPA). The presidents of AAPA as well as key events and conferences are noted. The involvement of AAPA leaders in national mental health policies and activities are reviewed. The substantive areas of Asian American psychology and the education and training of Asian American psychologists are also discussed. The article ends with some comments about the future of Asian American psychology.
Franz, Timothy M.; Spitzer, Tam M.
Students have to learn two distinctly different tasks when writing research papers: a) creating and organizing prose, and b) formatting a manuscript according to the nuances and mechanics of a pre-determined format, such as Modern Language Association (MLA) or American Psychological Association (APA) guidelines. Two studies examined different…
American Psychologist, 2012
As we have throughout the association's history, we focused in 2011 on multiple initiatives--all designed to further, support, and communicate the important work that psychologists do. This year we had the benefit of APA's first-ever strategic plan as well as funding for the following seven initiatives that are specifically designed to execute the…
Merma Molina, Gladys; Peña Alfaro, Hilda; Peña Alfaro González, Silvia Rosa
In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the "American Psychological Association" (APA). The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific…
Hallock, Robert M; Dillner, Kari M
The publication manual for the American Psychological Association (APA) suggests that title lengths do not exceed 12 words, yet journals do not prevent longer titles. Here, we examined title lengths in APA journals to see how many exceeded the APA's suggested limit. First, we conducted a systematic analysis of 235 articles in the current issues of 23 APA journals. A total of 52% of titles were more than 12 words long. Second, we examined articles from APA journals that were at least 50 years old to examine whether title lengths have changed over time. Our results suggested that the average title lengths have indeed increased with time. One of 2 courses should be taken. Perhaps science is becoming more complex that longer titles are needed in order to convey the primary message to the reader. If this is the case, then the APA's word limit should be increased. On the other hand, however, maybe editor and reviewers should try to enforce the current word limit to force writers to be succinct. Either way, editors should make their preferences clear so that the trend for longer titles does not continue unchecked.
Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.
This article provides the introduction, background and rationale for the Major Contribution focused on five national ethnic minority psychological associations: the Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, the National Latina/o Psychological Association, the Society of Indian Psychologists, and the Society…
Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Perry, Brea; Pullen, Erin; Jewell, Jennifer; Oser, Carrie B
African-American women may be susceptible to stressful events and adverse health outcomes as a result of their distinct social location at the intersection of gender and race. Here, racism and sexism are examined concurrently using survey data from 204 African-American women residing in a southeastern U.S. urban city. Associations among racism, sexism, and stressful events across social roles and contexts (i.e., social network loss, motherhood and childbirth, employment and finances, personal illness and injury, and victimization) are investigated. Then, the relationships among these stressors on psychological distress are compared, and a moderation model is explored. Findings suggest that racism and sexism are a significant source of stress in the lives of African-American women and are correlated with one another and with other stressful events. Implications for future research and clinical considerations are discussed.
Lau, Michael Y.; Forrest, Linda; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.
This article provides a summary of the Major Contribution on the Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations (Asian American Psychological Association, The Association of Black Psychologists, National Latina/o Psychological Association, Society of Indian Psychologists, and American Psychological Association Division 45) and their connections to…
Kincaid, Carlye; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Gonzalez, Michelle
A distinction between parental behavioral control and psychological control has been elucidated in the literature, yet far less is known about the role of psychological control in youth adjustment broadly or risky behavior in particular. We examined the interrelationship of maternal psychological control, youth psychosocial adjustment, and youth…
Gladys Merma Molina
Full Text Available In this study, the researchers will explore the process of designing and validating a rubric to evaluate the adaptation of scientific articles in the format of the American Psychological Association (APA. The rubric will evaluate certain aspects of the APA format that allow authors, editors, and evaluators to decide if the scientific article is coherent with these rules. Overall, the rubric will concentrate on General Aspects of the article and on the Citation System. To do this, 10 articles that were published within 2012-2016 and included in the Journal Citation Report will be analyzed using technical expertise. After doing 5 pilot studies, the results showed the validity and the reliability of the instrument. Furthermore, the process showed the evidence of the possibilities of the rubric to contribute to uniform criteria that can be used as a didactic tool in different scenarios.
Flanagan, Rosemary; Miller, Jeffrey A.; Jacob, Susan
The Ethical Principles for Psychologists and Code of Conduct has been recently revised. The organization of the code changed, and the language was made more specific. A number of points relevant to school psychology are explicitly stated in the code. A clear advantage of including these items in the code is the assistance to school psychologists…
Calvert, Sandra L; Appelbaum, Mark; Dodge, Kenneth A; Graham, Sandra; Nagayama Hall, Gordon C; Hamby, Sherry; Fasig-Caldwell, Lauren G; Citkowicz, Martyna; Galloway, Daniel P; Hedges, Larry V
A task force of experts was convened by the American Psychological Association (APA) to update the knowledge and policy about the impact of violent video game use on potential adverse outcomes. This APA Task Force on Media Violence examined the existing literature, including the meta-analyses in the field, since the last APA report on media violence in 2005. Because the most recent meta-analyses were published in 2010 and reflected work through 2009, the task force conducted a search of the published studies from 2009-2013. These recently published articles were scored and assessed by a systematic evidentiary review, followed by a meta-analysis of the high utility studies, as documented in the evidentiary review. Consistent with the literature that we reviewed, we found that violent video game exposure was associated with: an increased composite aggression score; increased aggressive behavior; increased aggressive cognitions; increased aggressive affect, increased desensitization, and decreased empathy; and increased physiological arousal. The size of the effects was similar to that in prior meta-analyses, suggesting a stable result. Our task force concluded that violent video game use is a risk factor for adverse outcomes, but found insufficient studies to examine any potential link between violent video game use and delinquency or criminal behavior. Our technical report is the basis of this article. (PsycINFO Database Record
Abdulrahim, Sawsan; James, Sherman A; Yamout, Rouham; Baker, Wayne
The white racial category in the U.S. encompasses persons who have Arab ancestry. Arab Americans, however, have always occupied a precarious position in relationship to Whiteness. This study examined differences in reporting racial/ethnic discrimination among Arab Americans. It also investigated whether and how the association between discrimination and psychological distress varies by characteristics that capture an Arab American's proximity to/distance from Whiteness. We used data from the Detroit Arab American Study (2003; n = 1016), which includes measures of discrimination and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress. A series of logistic regression models were specified to test the discrimination-psychological distress association, stratified by five measures that capture Whiteness--subjective racial identification, religion, skin color, ethnic centrality, and residence in the ethnic enclave. Discrimination was more frequently reported by Muslim Arab Americans, those who racially identify as non-white, and who live in the ethnic enclave. Conversely, the association between discrimination and psychological distress was stronger for Christian Arab Americans, those who racially identify as white, who have dark skin color, and who live outside the ethnic enclave. Even though Arab Americans who occupy an identity location close to Whiteness are less subjected to discrimination, they are more negatively affected by it. The findings illuminate the complex pathways through which discrimination associates with psychological distress among 'white' immigrants. Further research on discrimination and health among Arab Americans can help unpack the white racial category and deconstruct Whiteness.
McCutcheon, Lynn E., Ed.
"North American Journal of Psychology" publishes scientific papers of general interest to psychologists and other social scientists. Articles included in volume 1 issue 1 (June 1999) are: "Generalist Looks at His Career in Teaching: Interview with Dr. Phil Zimbardo"; "Affective Information in Videos"; "Infant Communication"; "Defining Projective…
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Gatz, Margaret; Smyer, Michael A; DiGilio, Deborah A
In concert with 6 decennial White House Conferences on Aging, psychologists have considered how developments in psychological science can contribute to the well-being of older Americans. We suggest 5 illustrative areas of psychological research: Advances in neuroscience elucidate ways to promote healthy cognitive aging; associated developments in neuropsychological assessment can help in protecting older Americans with cognitive losses from financial exploitation, abuse, and neglect. Psychological research on decision making and behavioral economics has much to offer to planning for retirement security and reducing vulnerability to financial abuse. Psychological research on self-management and behavior change can contribute importantly to enhancing good health behaviors among older adults; similarly the power of context on behavior can be harnessed in long-term care settings. Psychological research on attitudes and stereotypes gives insight into age bias that can be detrimental to healthy aging. Adaptive technologies and information technologies are beginning to transform assessment in research and clinical settings; technology also holds the promise of improving long-term support for older adults in both institutional and community-based settings. Finally, with 1 in 7 Americans now ages 65 and older, compared with 1 in 11 50 years ago, the psychology workforce-including health services providers and faculty to train those providers-is insufficient to meet the challenge of the aging population. (PsycINFO Database Record
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Aleksandrova-Howell, Maria; Abramson, Charles I; Craig, David Philip Arthur
Internationalizing psychology is an important component of current globalization trends. American textbooks on the history of psychology and introductory psychology were surveyed for the presence of historical and contemporary important Russian psychologists to assess the current status of Russian-American crossfertilization. Of a list of 97 important Russian psychologists, as determined by the editors of the Russian journal Methodology and History in Psychology, less than 22% are mentioned in the reviewed texts. The most common names were Pavlov, Luria, and Vygotsky. As the internet is arguably the single most important factor affecting the increase of international communication and dissemination of knowledge, we also searched for these 97 names on various websites, most notably Wikipedia and Google. Forty-one internet sites contained some amount of biographical information about Russian psychologists. On Wikipedia, 14 Russian psychologists had articles documenting biographical information. We also developed a rubric to determine the amount of information available on the internet for these psychologists and compared Wikipedia's mean score with various other websites. Wikipedia pages on average had a significantly higher score than the rest of the internet. Recommendations to improve Russian coverage in America are provided and include: (1) developing pages on Wikipedia and other virtual venues highlighting Russian contributions, (2) soliciting articles for US journals from Russian psychologists, and (3) incorporating Russian contributions in introductory and historical textbooks. We provide a partial bibliography of Russian contributions that can be used by authors of such textbooks. We would like to thank Dr Viktor Fedorovich Petrenko and Dr Igor Nikolaevich Karitsky from the journal Methodology and History of Psychology for supplying the names of the Russian psychologists. We would also like to express our appreciation to Robert García for reviewing and
Benjamin, Ludy T., Jr.
Traces the history of psychology in the U.S. high school curriculum, beginning with the 19th century, and discussing the role of the American Psychological Association. Focuses on the social and educational contexts that led to changes in the nature of high school psychology classes, concluding with comments about the value of precollege…
After suggesting that all psychologies contain indigenous qualities and discussing differences and commonalities between German and North American historiographies of psychology, an indigenous reconstruction of German critical psychology is applied. It is argued that German critical psychology can be understood as a backlash against American psychology, as a response to the Americanization of German psychology after WWII, on the background of the history of German psychology, the academic impact of the Cold War, and the trajectory of personal biographies and institutions. Using an intellectual-historical perspective, it is shown how and which indigenous dimensions played a role in the development of German critical psychology as well as the limitations to such an historical approach. Expanding from German critical psychology, the role of the critique of American psychology in various contexts around the globe is discussed in order to emphasize the relevance of indigenous historical research.
Green, Christopher D
The first professorship in philosophy at Johns Hopkins University was contested in the early 1880s by two of the most prominent and influential scholars in America: Charles Sanders Peirce and George Sylvester Morris. A third figure also vied for the position, although he was much less well known at the time: Granville Stanley Hall. Through a series of unexpected circumstances, Hall ultimately won the professorship and then used it to leverage an extraordinary career that included his opening the first American research laboratory in psychology, establishing the American Journal of Psychology, becoming president of Clark University, founding the American Psychological Association, and profoundly affecting the character of developmental psychology in America.
Full Text Available El presente estudio descriptivo analiza los índices h de los presidentes de la American Psychological Association (APA desde 1940 hasta la actualidad. El índice h se calcula teniendo en cuenta el número de artículos publicados en las revistas de la Web of Science (WOS y las citas recibidas por los mismos en dicha base de datos. No se estableció un periodo de búsqueda y, por tanto, se analizaron todos los resultados incluidos en la WOS. El número total de resultados analizados fue de 16.676, de los cuales 3.734 fueron de los presidentes de la APA. Los resultados se presentan en forma de ranking y ponen de manifiesto que Albert Bandura y Alan Kazdin son los presidentes con un índice h más elevado, y en entre estos y los demás existe una diferencia considerable. Los resultados hacen especular que el criterio de productividad en artículos científicos no fue el criterio más importante para presidir esta institución.
Green, Christopher D.
American functionalist psychology constituted an effort to model scientific psychology on the successes of English evolutionary theory. In part it was a response to the stagnation of Wundt's psychological research program, which had been grounded in German experimental physiology. In part it was an attempt to make psychology more appealing within…
... HUMAN SERVICES Indian Health Service American Indians Into Psychology; Notice of Competitive Grant Applications for American Indians Into Psychology Program Announcement Type: New. Funding Opportunity Number... Indians into Psychology Program. This program is authorized under the authority of ``25 U.S.C....
Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.
The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…
Lowe, Benjamin; Walsh, Joseph
By the turn of the 20th century, research had begun dealing with the subject of sport psychology in America. In the early 1900's, Coleman Griffin, the father of sport psychology, led the way in researching sport psychology. It was not until the 1960's that research in this field became popular in Great Britain. In 1967, in both America and Great…
Chen, Yung-Chi; Tryon, Georgiana Shick
The present study investigated the direct and additive effects of racial minority stress and sexual minority stress on the psychological well-being among a community sample of 139 Asian American gay men. Self-esteem was tested to see whether it moderated or mediated the effects of perceived dual minority stress on psychological distress. Results…
This is a description of the creation of a research methods tool, the "Transformative, Mixed Methods Checklist for Psychological Research With Mexican Americans." For conducting literature reviews of and planning mixed methods studies with Mexican Americans, it contains evaluative criteria calling for transformative mixed methods, perspectives…
Holliday, Bertha Garrett
The author describes the multiple pathways of events and strategies that served to nurture African American psychology in the United States. Special attention is given to strategies for inclusion and empowerment used in 4 psychological professional and scholarly associations: the American Counseling Association, the American Psychological Association, the Association of Black Psychologists, and the Society for Research in Child Development. In addition, the author describes 4 major intellectual traditions that informed not only the strategies of inclusion but also the theoretical, research, and intervention perspectives and other professional and academic efforts of African American psychologists. Those perspectives are the Afrocentric/African-centered tradition derived from longstanding nationalist/Pan-African and culturally centered traditions within African American communities; the social contextual/multidisciplinary research tradition of the University of Chicago School of Social Science; the empirical social science research tradition of the University of Michigan; and the Black scholar/activist tradition of Howard University. This article also presents a chronological timeline of major events in the history of African American psychology.
Okazaki, Sumie; Saw, Anne
In response to a call to better integrate culture in community psychology (O'Donnell in American Journal of Community Psychology 37:1-7 2006), we offer a cultural-community framework to facilitate a collaborative engagement between community psychologists and ethnic minority communities, focusing on Asian American communities as illustrations. Extending Hays' (Addressing cultural complexities in practice: Assessment, diagnosis, and therapy, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, 2008) ADDRESSING framework for considering cultural influences on a counseling relationship, the proposed framework provides a broad but systematic guidepost for considering three major cultural-ecological influences on Asian American communities: Race and Ethnicity (R), Culture (C), and Immigration and Transnational Ties (I). We provide a sequence of steps that incorporate the ADDRESSING and the RCI frameworks to facilitate the collaborative community-based research or social action.
APA Bylaws Article XI.7 requires that the Policy and Planning Board report annually by publication to the membership and review the structure and function of the Association as a whole every fifth year. This report offers a framework for how to strategically and systematically provide a range of high-value engagement opportunities across membership cohorts and activities. The first section provides a selected overview of literature related to engagement and offers some general considerations for incorporating research into evaluating and refining member engagement activities. Next, survey findings on why individuals join membership organizations are reviewed. Finally, 10 engagement domains as a framework for designing, evaluating, and monitoring the impact of engagement initiatives and activities are presented.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records documenting the business, membership, and meetings of the American Association of State Climatologists, from 1976-92. Material donated in 2008 by the estate...
... in your area. Read more » AAGP Journal Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Read more ... RESEARCHERS GMHF Scholars Since my program is so small and there is not much interest among my ...
Zhang, Wei; Hong, Seunghye
Using data from the National Latino and Asian American Study, this work examines if and how perceived everyday discrimination is associated with psychological distress among Asian Americans and whether this association varies by important structural factors as education and place of education. Findings reveal that perception of discrimination is associated with increased levels of psychological distress. Most importantly, education moderates the discrimination-distress association such that the detrimental effect of discrimination is stronger for Asian Americans with college or more levels of education than for Asian Americans with less than college levels of education. Place of education further conditions the moderating effect of education: The foreign-educated Asian Americans with higher levels of education are affected most negatively by discrimination compared to others. This study highlights (1) the significant joint role of education and place of education in conditioning the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress, and (2) unique features of education in improving our understanding of Asian Americans' mental health.
Maton, Kenneth I; Wimms, Harriette E; Grant, Sheila K; Wittig, Michele A; Rogers, Margaret R; Vasquez, Melba J T
A national, Web-based survey of 1,219 African American, Latina/o, Asian American, and European American psychology graduate students revealed both similarities and differences in experiences and perspectives. Mentoring was found to be the strongest predictor of satisfaction across groups. Academic supports and barriers, along with perceptions of diversity within the academic environment, were also important predictors of satisfaction. Students of color perceived less fairness of representation of their ethnic group within psychology than European American students, and a greater linkage between aspects of the graduate school experience and their ethnicity. Limitations of the study and implications for future research and action are discussed.
Iturbide, Maria I.; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo
The current study investigated whether different ethnic identity components moderate the associations between acculturative stress and psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students (N = 148; 67% female) who completed self-report surveys. For women, ethnic affirmation/belonging and ethnic identity achievement moderated the…
Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.
This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what…
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Nyborg, Vanessa M; Curry, John F
Examined the relations among perceived racism and externalizing symptoms, internalizing symptoms, hopelessness, and self-concept in African American boys (N = 84). The experience of racism is a complex phenomenon that has been found to have negative psychological outcomes in adult studies of African Americans. There has been a gap in the empirical literature regarding the possible associations between perceived racism and children's psychological well-being. This study is an attempt to address that gap. Results demonstrated that experiences of racism were related to self- and parent-reported externalizing symptoms. Personal experiences of racism were related to self-reported internalizing symptoms, lower self-concept, and higher levels of hopelessness. Potential mediators (e.g., trait anger, hostile attribution bias) were analyzed. Additional analyses indicated that trait anger mediated a number of the observed relations between perceived racism and behavioral symptoms. The results of the study suggest that perceived racism is associated with multiple negative correlates for African American boys.
Deary, Ian J
A survey is made of intelligence research in the 125 years of The American Journal of Psychology. There are some major articles of note on intelligence, especially Spearman's (1904a) article that discovered general cognitive ability (g). There are some themes within intelligence on which articles appeared over the years, such as processing speed, age, and group differences. Intelligence has not been a major theme of the journal, nor has a differential approach to psychology more generally. There are periods of time--especially the 1970s--during which almost no articles appeared on intelligence. The key articles and themes on intelligence differences are discussed in detail.
Uqdah, Aesha L.; Tyler, Kenneth M.; DeLoach, Chante
The goal of this study is to explore the relationships between academic self-concept, perception of competency in related domains, and academic motivation (intrinsic, extrinsic, and amotivation), and reported anxiety and depression among Black American psychology graduate students. The major research question asks whether there is a relationship…
Johnston, Timothy D
Lewis Henry Morgan (1818-1881) is best known as the 1st ethnographer of Native American culture, but he also wrote on animal psychology, beginning in 1843, some 50 years before the founding of comparative psychology as a scientific discipline. Although not an evolutionist, Morgan argued that animals possess many human mental abilities, such as reason and moral judgment, and he rejected the scientific utility of the concept of instinct, a view that did not gain much currency in psychology until the rise of behaviorism in the 1920s. This 1857 manuscript, which is in the Lewis Henry Morgan Papers at the University of Rochester in Rochester, New York, formed the basis for the last chapter of his 1868 monograph on the American beaver but gives additional information on his sources and an expanded criticism of the concept of instinct.
Prieto, Loreto R.
Presents an interview with David B. Baker, Director of the Archives of the History of American Psychology. Covers topics such as: Baker's interest in the history of psychology, his work at the Archives of the History of American Psychology, and recommendations for teachers when addressing history in non-history courses. (CMK)
Cristian Carlos Abalos
Full Text Available Numerosas instituciones han hecho accesibles sus datos a través de la infraestructura de comunicaciones que ofrece la internet, a través de la World Wide Web. Su amplia versatilidad permite trabajar con ficheros de texto, sonido, imágenes fijas y/o en movimiento, así como la capacidad de acceder desde ella a todos los otros servicios de internet. Bajo este esquema tecnológico surgieron los distintos recursos electrónicos de información. Para la preparación de un informe en los ámbitos académicos y científicos, cada día es más necesario citar y referirse a documentos e información obtenida a través de medios electrónicos. La utilización de estos recursos hace necesario contar con un sistema que determine un criterio adecuado para citarlos. En este artículo, se presenta una síntesis del estilo sugerido por la American Psychological Association para citar documentos electrónicos consultados a través de la internet.
Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa
To examine the implications of fathers’ occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members’ psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the importance of acculturation as a moderator. Fathers’ income was negatively associated with depressive symptoms in highly acculturated families but not...
Kring, Sofia Iqbal; Brummett, Beverly H; Barefoot, John
To examine the association between apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene variants and waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, serum insulin, serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and serum triglycerides, all metabolic traits known as cardiovascular disease (CVD) endophenotypes, in a population ...... of stressed individuals and controls. Abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, elevated serum lipid concentration, and APOE polymorphisms have been associated with CVD risk. Current evidence supports the hypothesis that gene-environment interactions modulate serum lipid concentrations....
Haizlip, Breyan N.
Over the last two decades, there has been an upward trend in the number of African-American doctoral students completing counseling and psychology programs. However, despite these trends, African-American faculty continue to be significantly underrepresented as counseling educators and psychology faculty. Similarly, counseling education programs…
Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.
The present study examined whether combinations of ethnicity, gender, and age moderated the association between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being indicators (depressive symptoms, self-esteem, and life satisfaction) in a nationally representative sample of Black youth. The data were from the National Survey of American Life,…
Crockett, Lisa J; Iturbide, Maria I; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; McGinley, Meredith; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo
This study examined the relations between acculturative stress and psychological functioning, as well as the protective role of social support and coping style, in a sample of 148 Mexican American college students (67% female, 33% male; mean age = 23.05 years, SD = 3.33). In bivariate analyses, acculturative stress was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, active coping was associated with better adjustment (lower depression), whereas avoidant coping predicted poorer adjustment (higher levels of depression and anxiety). Tests of interaction effects indicated that parental support and active coping buffered the effects of high acculturative stress on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. In addition, peer support moderated the relation between acculturative stress and anxiety symptoms. Implications for reducing the effects of acculturative stress among Mexican American college students are discussed.
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Bynum, Mia Smith; Burton, E Thomaseo; Best, Candace
Previous research has documented the negative effects of racism on the psychological health of African Americans. However, consideration of racial socialization as a potential buffer against racism experiences has received limited attention. The present study investigated whether two types of parental racial socialization messages reduced the impact of racism on psychological functioning in a sample of 247 African American college freshmen (M=18.30). Results indicated that students who reported more racism experiences also had poorer levels of psychological functioning as indicated by higher levels of psychological stress and psychological distress. Parental messages emphasizing the use of African American cultural resources to cope with racism reduced the impact of racism on psychological stress only. Cultural pride messages predicted less psychological distress while messages emphasizing the use of cultural resources predicted greater psychological distress. However, neither message type moderated the relationship between racism experiences and psychological distress. These results suggest that racial socialization messages have complex relations to psychological functioning in African American college students.
Espinoza, Guadalupe; Gonzales, Nancy A; Fuligni, Andrew J
This study examined whether Mexican-American parents' experiences with discrimination are related to adolescent psychological adjustment over time. The extent to which associations between parent discrimination and adolescent adjustment vary as a function of parents' ethnic socialization of their children was also examined. Participants included 344 high school students from Mexican or Mexican-American backgrounds (primarily second generation; ages 14-16 at Wave 1) and their primary caregivers who completed surveys in a 2-year longitudinal study. Results revealed that parent discrimination predicted internalizing symptoms and self-esteem among adolescents 1 year later. Additionally, adolescents were more likely to report low self-esteem in relation to parents' increased experiences of discrimination when parents conveyed ethnic socialization messages to them.
Five principles developed by American Evaluation Associ intended to guide professional practice of evaluators & to inform evaluation clients and the general public about principles they can expect to be upheld by professional evaluators.
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Monique S. Roy
Conclusions. The development of hypertension in African-Americans living with type 1 diabetes appears to be multifactorial and includes both medical (overt proteinuria as well as psychological (high hostility risk factors.
The mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between harsh parental practices and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in Hispanic American, African American, and European American families.
Yildirim, Elif Dede; Roopnarine, Jaipaul L
Using data from the add-on 5-year cohort of In-Home Longitudinal Study of preschool aged Children of the Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study (FFCWS), we examined the mediating role of maternal warmth in the associations between positive and harsh maternal practices and children's externalizing and internalizing behaviors. The sample consisted of 1,922 low-income Hispanic American, African American, and European American families. For European Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression and hostility and children's externalizing behaviors were direct. Similarly, for Hispanic Americans, the links between maternal psychological aggression, physical assault, and hostility and externalizing behaviors were direct, as was the link between maternal physical assault and internalizing behaviors. For African Americans, maternal warmth partially mediated the links between maternal hostility and physical assault and externalizing behaviors. However, the associations between psychological aggression and externalizing and internalizing behaviors were direct. The data are discussed with respect to similarities in cultural pathways of influence between harsh maternal treatment and children's behavioral difficulties across ethnic groups.
Chambers, Anthony L.; Kravitz, Aliza
African Americans have the lowest marriage rate of any racial and ethnic group in America. Although the low marriage rate among African Americans has been largely examined through a sociological lens by documenting structural barriers, which has important policy implications, researchers have not sufficiently examined the psychological and…
Vela, Javier C.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Sparrow, Gregory Scott; Gonzalez, Stacey Lee
Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American adolescents' academic experiences. We used a quantitative, predictive design to explore how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, subjective happiness, hope, and family importance influenced 131 Mexican American adolescents' college-going beliefs. We used…
Hill, Nancy E., Ed.; Mann, Tammy L., Ed.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E., Ed.
This groundbreaking two-volume set examines the psychological, social, physical, and environmental factors that undermine or support healthy development in African American children while considering economic, historical, and public policies. African American children are at the highest risk for becoming school dropouts, for academic disengagement…
Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Watkins, Daphne C.; Chatters, Linda M.
This study examines the demographic correlates of depressive symptoms, serious psychological distress (SPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD; 12-month and lifetime prevalence) among a national sample of African American men. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) data set provides first-time substantiation of important…
Miller, Matthew J.; Yang, Minji; Hui, Kayi; Choi, Na-Yeun; Lim, Robert H.
In the present study, we tested a theoretically and empirically derived partially indirect effects acculturation and enculturation model of Asian American college students' mental health and attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help. Latent variable path analysis with 296 self-identified Asian American college students supported the…
Vela, Javier C.; Lu, Ming-Tsan P.; Lenz, A. Stephen; Savage, Miranda C.; Guardiola, Rebekah
Positive psychology is a useful framework to understand Mexican American college students' complete mental health. In the current study, we examined how presence of meaning in life, search for meaning in life, hope, mindfulness, and grit influenced 130 Mexican American college students' life satisfaction and depression. Within the first regression…
Alamilla, Saul G.; Kim, Bryan S. K.; Walker, Tamisha; Sisson, Frederick Riley
This study examined the potential moderating influences of behavioral and values acculturation and enculturation in a sample of 113 Asian Americans. Findings from regression analyses revealed that acculturation to European American cultural values, alone and in interaction with perceived racism, was related to less psychological symptoms, whereas…
Gold, Steven N
Reviews the book, The Theater of Trauma: American Modernist Drama and the Psychological Struggle for the American Mind, 1900-1930 by Michael Cotsell (2005). For most of the 20th century, psychoanalytic theory and its myriad offshoots so pervasively influenced literary criticism in the United States that for many it is difficult to imagine examining American literature of that era through any other psychological lens. In his new book The Theater of Trauma: American Modernist Drama and the Psychological Struggle for the American Mind, 1900-1930, Michael Cotsell alerts us to the existence of an alternate psychological perspective that dominated the American landscape before Freudian analysis gained widespread acceptance on this side of the Atlantic--dissociationism. He makes a compelling case that from the waning years of the 19th through the early decades of the 20th century American modernist drama was primarily shaped not by psychoanalytic thought, but by dissociationist psychology. Cotsell argues that it is dissociationism that informed and sustained the modernist sensibility in American drama, and that once dissociationist psychology was eclipsed by psychoanalytic theory, the demise of modernist playwriting was inevitable. Despite the breadth of this book, it is no more realistic that a single work could provide the last word on the relevance of dissociationism to drama than that one volume could offer a comprehensive discussion of the pertinence of psychoanalytic theory to the theater. Cotsell reminds us of the existence of a conceptual framework that carries tremendous explanatory power in its capacity to cogently link the realm of the psychological and personal to that of the social and political. The continued ubiquity of trauma and dissociation in contemporary life render the dissociationist perspective as relevant today as it was in the modernist epoch. Consequently, the significance of The Theater of Trauma extends well beyond the specific territory it
Green, Christopher D; Feinerer, Ingo
In an earlier article, we used digital historical methods to examine the first 14 volumes (1887-1903) of The American Journal of Psychology (AJP) by creating networks of the vocabularies used in every substantive article the journal published in those years. These networks showed us the major research groups that had been gathered together by the journal's founder-editor, G. Stanley Hall, and how the intellectual composition of the journal (and the discipline) changed over that 17-year period. In the present article we extended that study forward, creating networks for the next 15 volumes (1904-1918), broken into time blocks of 5 years each. Our findings, in brief, were that vision research (especially color) continued to play as consistent and prominent role in the journal as it had since the start; that memory, association, and some higher mental processes were active areas of research throughout; that Hall continued to have an on-again, off-again relationship with theoretical and philosophical psychology; that intelligence-measuring methods, psychoanalysis, and psychophysics were periodically popular enough that they each generated a cluster in 1 of the 3 time blocks; and that Titchener's participation in the editing of AJP led to its becoming the major outlet for his Structuralist research program (an absence that we noted in our earlier studies of the journal Psychological Review).
Sellers, Robert M; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen H; Zimmerman, Marc A
This study examines the direct and indirect relationships among racial identity, racial discrimination, perceived stress, and psychological distress in a sample of 555 African American young adults. A prospective study design was used to assess the influence of two dimensions of racial identity attitudes (i.e., centrality and public regard) on other study variables to investigate the relationship between racial identity attitudes and psychological distress. The results show some evidence of a direct relationship between racial centrality and psychological distress, as well as evidence of indirect relationships for both centrality and public regard through the impact of racial discrimination and perceived stress. In addition, racial centrality was both a risk factor for experiencing discrimination and a protective factor in buffering the negative impact of discrimination on psychological distress. Results are discussed within the context of identifying multiple pathways to psychological well-being for African American young adults within the context of racial discrimination.
Morgenthaler, Timothy; Kramer, Milton; Alessi, Cathy; Friedman, Leah; Boehlecke, Brian; Brown, Terry; Coleman, Jack; Kapur, Vishesh; Lee-Chiong, Teofilo; Owens, Judith; Pancer, Jeffrey; Swick, Todd
Insomnia is highly prevalent, has associated daytime consequences which impair job performance and quality of life, and is associated with increased risk of comorbidities including depression. These practice parameters provide recommendations regarding behavioral and psychological treatment approaches, which are often effective in primary and secondary insomnia. These recommendations replace or modify those published in the 1999 practice parameter paper produced by the American Sleep Disorders Association. A Task Force of content experts was appointed by the American Academy of Sleep Medicine to perform a comprehensive review of the scientific literature since 1999 and to grade the evidence regarding non-pharmacological treatments of insomnia. Recommendations were developed based on this review using evidence-based methods. These recommendations were developed by the Standards of Practice Committee and reviewed and approved by the Board of Directors of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine. Psychological and behavioral interventions are effective in the treatment of both chronic primary insomnia (Standard) and secondary insomnia (Guideline). Stimulus control therapy, relaxation training, and cognitive behavior therapy are individually effective therapies in the treatment of chronic insomnia (Standard) and sleep restriction therapy, multicomponent therapy (without cognitive therapy), biofeedback and paradoxical intention are individually effective therapies in the treatment of chronic insomnia (Guideline). There was insufficient evidence to recommend sleep hygiene education, imagery training and cognitive therapy as single therapies or when added to other specific approaches. Psychological and behavioral interventions are effective in the treatment of insomnia in older adults and in the treatment of insomnia among chronic hypnotic users (Standard).
Chung, Y. Barry; Wu, Kathy P.
This article is a response to the major contribution published in this volume regarding the history and relationship between the Society of Counseling Psychology and five ethnic minority psychological associations. Using a both-and approach, this response discusses the topics of (a) written and oral history, (b) interconnectedness and…
Forrest, Linda; Lau, Michael Y.; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.
In this rejoinder the authors respond to the three reactions to the major contribution, "Ethnic Minority Psychological Associations: Connections to Counseling Psychology," provided by Chung and Wu, Neville, Flores, and Dobson, and Yakushko, Wang, and Warrior. In their thoughtful reactions, these current and past leaders of the Society of…
Largely unacknowledged by historians of the human sciences, late-19th-century psychical researchers were actively involved in the making of fledgling academic psychology. Moreover, with few exceptions historians have failed to discuss the wider implications of the fact that the founder of academic psychology in America, William James, considered himself a psychical researcher and sought to integrate the scientific study of mediumship, telepathy and other controversial topics into the nascent discipline. Analysing the celebrated exposure of the medium Eusapia Palladino by German-born Harvard psychologist Hugo Münsterberg as a representative example, this article discusses strategies employed by psychologists in the United States to expel psychical research from the agenda of scientific psychology. It is argued that the traditional historiography of psychical research, dominated by accounts deeply averse to its very subject matter, has been part of an ongoing form of ‘boundary-work’ to bolster the scientific status of psychology. PMID:23355763
Nicholas, L J
Professional psychology associations in South Africa have overtly and covertly furthered the aims of apartheid. Guidance about the ethical obligations of psychologists in the South African context has been singularly lacking, and as a result blacks have not been attracted to the profession of psychology in sufficient numbers to administer to psychological needs of the client population. The political dimension of psychological practice in South Africa needs to be addressed directly so that healing strategies relevant to the burgeoning racial conflict in South Africa can be implemented.
Bean, Roy A.; Bush, Kevin R.; McKenry, Patrick C.; Wilson, Stephan M.
Relationships between adolescent functioning and parent support, behavioral control, and psychological control were examined among European American and African American adolescents. A number of correlations were significant, including maternal support and academic achievement and self-esteem, and paternal psychological control and self-esteem.…
Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Park, Chang G.; Dieber, William; Block, Richard
Objectives To (a) examine the relationships among objective and perceived indicators of neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and gestational age at birth; (b) determine if neighborhood environment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress; (c) determine if neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, and psychological distress predicted preterm birth; and (d) determine if psychological distress mediated the effects of neighborhood environment and racial discrimination on preterm birth. Design Descriptive correlational comparative. Setting Postpartum unit of a medical center in Chicago. Participants African American women (n1 = 33 with preterm birth; n2 = 39 with full-term birth). Methods Women completed the instruments 24 to 72 hours after birth. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Results Women who reported higher levels of perceived social and physical disorder and perceived crime also reported higher levels of psychological distress. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also had higher levels of psychological distress. Objective social disorder and perceived crime predicted psychological distress. Objective physical disorder and psychological distress predicted preterm birth. Psychological distress mediated the effect of objective social disorder and perceived crime on preterm birth. Conclusion Women’s neighborhood environments and racial discrimination were related to psychological distress, and these factors may increase the risk for preterm birth. PMID:23030593
Padilla, Amado M; Olmedo, Esteban
In this article, we present a brief synopsis of six early Latino psychologists, several key conferences, the establishment of research centers, and early efforts to create an association for Latino psychologists. Our chronology runs from approximately 1930 to 2000. This history is a firsthand account of how these early leaders, conferences, and efforts to bring Latinos and Latinas together served as a backdrop to current research and practice in Latino psychology. This history of individuals and events is also intertwined with the American Psychological Association and the National Institute of Mental Health and efforts by Latino psychologists to obtain the professional support necessary to lay down the roots of a Latino presence in psychology.
Goforth, Anisa N; Brown, Jacqueline A; Machek, Greg R; Swaney, Gyda
There is a clear underrepresentation of Native Americans in the field of school psychology. There are a number of factors that have led to this underrepresentation, including cultural and historical variables, barriers to accessing higher educational opportunities, and lack of financial support. Given the importance of having diverse perspectives in the field, as well as the need for mental health services and academic supports for Native American children and their families, school psychology trainers should consider actively recruiting and retaining Native American graduate students to doctoral and specialist programs. This article provides specific research-based recommendations for recruiting Native American students and strategies for supporting their success and matriculation in the program. (PsycINFO Database Record
Braun, Lynne T; Grady, Kathleen L; Kutner, Jean S; Adler, Eric; Berlinger, Nancy; Boss, Renee; Butler, Javed; Enguidanos, Susan; Friebert, Sarah; Gardner, Timothy J; Higgins, Phil; Holloway, Robert; Konig, Madeleine; Meier, Diane; Morrissey, Mary Beth; Quest, Tammie E; Wiegand, Debra L; Coombs-Lee, Barbara; Fitchett, George; Gupta, Charu; Roach, William H
The mission of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association includes increasing access to high-quality, evidence-based care that improves patient outcomes such as health-related quality of life and is consistent with the patients' values, preferences, and goals. Awareness of and access to palliative care interventions align with the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association mission. The purposes of this policy statement are to provide background on the importance of palliative care as it pertains to patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke and their families and to make recommendations for policy decisions. Palliative care, defined as patient- and family-centered care that optimizes health-related quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering, should be integrated into the care of all patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke early in the disease trajectory. Palliative care focuses on communication, shared decision making about treatment options, advance care planning, and attention to physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological distress with inclusion of the patient's family and care system. Our policy recommendations address the following: reimbursement for comprehensive delivery of palliative care services for patients with advanced cardiovascular disease and stroke; strong payer-provider relationships that involve data sharing to identify patients in need of palliative care, identification of better care and payment models, and establishment of quality standards and outcome measurements; healthcare system policies for the provision of comprehensive palliative care services during hospitalization, including goals of care, treatment decisions, needs of family caregivers, and transition to other care settings; and health professional education in palliative care as part of licensure requirements.
Fuchs, Alfred H
The American journal of Psychology celebrates 125 years of publication this year. From its inception, the Journal has attempted to record and communicate the results of research conducted in laboratories of psychology. It has also provided its readers with laboratory plans and designs for apparatus for research and demonstrations and described experimental procedures to facilitate the conduct of research. Its attention to reviews of books over a wide range of psychological topics and its inclusion of articles that provide historical perspectives on the development of psychology and its concerns broaden the context in which laboratory research is carried out. This brief overview of the Journal's history offers a perspective on the role of the Journal in, and its contributions to, the development of scientific psychology.
Following Dr Edward Hitchcock's lead at Amherst College in 1861, soon other institutions of higher education established physical education departments that evolved into independent college health programs. As the field of college health expanded, leaders from numerous campuses began meeting to share information and discuss formation of a national organization. As a result, the American Student Health Association was founded in 1920 to promote campus health care for students and advance the interests of college health. The name was changed to the American College Health Association in 1948. The past history of this organization has been well documented in the literature, so this review will focus more on ACHA's accomplishments over the past 20 years.(1)(,) (2)(,) (3)(,) (4).
Brown, Tony N; Bell, Mary Laske; Patterson, Evelyn J
The stress process model predicts that current incarceration of a family member should damage the health status of the inmate's relatives. We address this prediction with data from the National Survey of American Life, focusing exclusively on African American men (n = 1,168). In survey-adjusted generalized linear models, we find that familial incarceration increases psychological distress, but its effect attenuates ostensibly after controlling for other chronic strains. Familial incarceration remains statistically insignificant with the introduction of mastery and family emotional support and their respective interactions with familial incarceration. However, a statistical interaction between familial incarceration and former incarceration reveals that levels of psychological distress are significantly higher among never-incarcerated respondents whose family members are incarcerated but significantly lower among formerly incarcerated respondents whose family members are incarcerated. We conclude that familial incarceration's influence on black men's mental health status may be more complex than extant theory predicts.
Li, Miao; Anderson, James G
Drawing on the life course perspective and the assumptive world theory, this paper examines whether pre-migration trauma exposure is associated with psychological distress through post-migration perceived discrimination for Asian American immigrants. The study is based on cross-sectional data from the National Latino and Asian American Study (N = 1639). Structural equation model is used to estimate the relationship between pre-migration trauma, post-migration perceived discrimination, and psychological distress. Additional models are estimated to explore possible variations across ethnic groups as well as across different types of pre-migration trauma experience. Pre-migration trauma exposure is associated with higher levels of psychological distress, both directly and indirectly through higher level of perceived discrimination, even after controlling for demographic/acculturative factors and post-migration trauma exposure. This pattern holds for the following sub-types of pre-migration trauma: political trauma, crime victimization, physical violence, accidental trauma, and relational trauma. Multi-group analyses show that this pattern holds for all Asian immigrant subgroups except the Vietnamese. Studies of immigrant mental health primarily focus on post-migration stressors. Few studies have considered the link between pre- and post-migration contexts in assessing mental health outcomes. The study illustrates the usefulness of bridging the pre- and post-migration context in identifying the mental health risks along the immigrant life course.
Crouter, Ann C.; Davis, Kelly D.; Updegraff, Kimberly; Delgado, Melissa; Fortner, Melissa
To examine the implications of fathers' occupational conditions (i.e., income, work hours, shift work, pressure, workplace racism, and underemployment) for family members' psychological adjustment, home interviews were conducted with fathers, mothers, and two adolescent offspring in each of 218 Mexican American families. Results underscored the…
Mehryar, A. H.; And Others
Eysenck's PEN Inventory and Lanyon's Psychological Screening Inventory were given to groups of male and female American undergraduates from a state university. A factorial analysis of the intercorrelations showed that three major factors could account for the bulk of correlations among the nine differently labeled characteristics covered by the…
Maker, Azmaira; Heiple, Becky
This study specifically explored the relationships among childhood trauma, long-term psychological consequences, beliefs about family violence, and gender role stereotypes in Asian and Asian American women. A prediction was made that childhood physical violence and witnessing family violence would create long-term negative symptoms; higher levels…
Street, Jalika; Harris-Britt, April; Walker-Barnes, Chanequa
Ethnic identity has been linked to a number of healthy psychological outcomes for African American adolescents. The levels of conflict and cohesion in the family environment have also been found to be predictive of adolescent mental health. This study examined whether the ethnic identity and levels of conflict and cohesion in the family…
Amer, Mona M.; Bagasra, Anisah
Like other minority groups in North America, Muslim Americans have been largely ignored in the psychological literature. The overwhelming pressures faced by this group, including surveillance, hate crimes, and institutional discrimination, stimulate an urgent need for psychologists to better understand and ensure the well-being of this population.…
Chae, Mark H.; Foley, Pamela F.
The current investigation examined the relationship of ethnic identity, acculturation, and psychological functioning among 334 Chinese, Japanese, and Korean American participants. Multiple regression analyses revealed that ethnic identity and acculturation differentially predicted well-being on the basis of ethnic group membership. Results also…
Lincoln, Karen D; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Watkins, Daphne C; Chatters, Linda M
This study examines the demographic correlates of depressive symptoms, serious psychological distress (SPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD; 12-month and lifetime prevalence) among a national sample of African American men. Analysis of the National Survey of American Life (NSAL) data set provides first-time substantiation of important demographic differences in depressive symptoms (measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale [CES-D]), SPD (measured by the K6), and 12-month and lifetime MDD among African American men. Findings illuminate the heterogeneity within the African American male population. Findings also demonstrate the need for additional research focusing on within-group differences and a comprehensive research and mental health promotion agenda that recognizes the importance of improving access to education and employment and promoting healthy coping behaviors, while acknowledging the larger social context in which African American men live.
Dinizulu, Sonya Mathies; Grant, Kathryn E.; Bryant, Fred B.; Boustani, Maya M.; Tyler, Donald; McIntosh, Jeanne M.
Background: African American youth residing in urban poverty have been shown to be at increased risk for exposure to violence and for psychological symptoms, but there has been little investigation of mediating processes that might explain this association. Objectives: This study tested the quality of parent-adolescent relationships and adolescent…
Shehan S Williams
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The psychological impact of snakebite on its victims, especially possible late effects, has not been systematically studied. OBJECTIVES: To assess delayed somatic symptoms, depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and impairment in functioning, among snakebite victims. METHODS: The study had qualitative and quantitative arms. In the quantitative arm, 88 persons who had systemic envenoming following snakebite from the North Central Province of Sri Lanka were randomly identified from an established research database and interviewed 12 to 48 months (mean 30 after the incident. Persons with no history of snakebite, matched for age, sex, geograpical location and occupation, acted as controls. A modified version of the Beck Depression Inventory, Post-Traumatic Stress Symptom Scale, Hopkins Somatic Symptoms Checklist, Sheehan Disability Inventory and a structured questionnaire were administered. In the qualitative arm, focus group discussions among snakebite victims explored common somatic symptoms attributed to envenoming. RESULTS: Previous snakebite victims (cases had more symptoms than controls as measured by the modified Beck Depression Scale (mean 19.1 Vs 14.4; p<0.001 and Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (38.9 vs. 28.2; p<0.001. 48 (54% cases met criteria for depressive disorder compared to 13 (15% controls. 19 (21.6% cases also met criteria for PTSD. 24 (27% claimed that the snakebite caused a negative change in their employment; nine (10.2% had stopped working and 15 (17% claimed residual physical disability. The themes identified in the qualitative arm included blindness, tooth decay, body aches, headaches, tiredness and weakness. CONCLUSIONS: Snakebite causes significant ongoing psychological morbidity, a complication not previously documented. The economic and social impacts of this problem need further investigation.
Pickren, Wade E
The history of race and ethnicity in North America is long and complex. It has been fraught with racism and various forms of oppression--intellectual, social, and physical--and defies easy analysis. This article examines the history of race and ethnicity in the United States, and how it played out in the field of psychology. Although other articles in this issue examine the specific impact of racism and internal colonialism on racial and ethnic minorities, this article places these events within an international context, specifically the post-World War II era when oppressed peoples around the world sought liberation from colonial oppressors. The article suggests that the struggles and successes of racial and ethnic minority psychologists may provide the best opportunity for American psychology to connect with emerging indigenous psychologies in other parts of the world, which represent the future of psychology in a globalizing world.
Proceedings of the American Psychological Association for the legislative year 2012: minutes of the annual meeting of the Council of Representatives, February 24-26, 2012, Washington, DC, and August 2 and 5, 2012, Orlando, Florida, and minutes of the February, June, August, October, and December 2012 meetings of the Board of Directors.
Anton, Barry S
These minutes are the official record of the actions of the Association taken during the year by both the Board of Directors (the Board) and the Council of Representatives (Council). The roll of representatives was called at each Council meeting, and more than a quorum answered to their names. Reference is made in these minutes to various reports, some of which will be published elsewhere. Copies of these reports were distributed to Council and are on file in the Central Office. As long as the supply lasts, extra copies of many of the reports are available from the Central Office. These minutes are arranged in topical rather than chronological order, and subheadings are used when appropriate. The main topical headings are I. Minutes of Meetings; II. Elections, Awards, Membership, and Human Resources; III. Ethics; IV. Board of Directors; V. Divisions and State, Provincial, and Territorial Associations; VI. Organization of the APA; VII. Publications and Communications; VIII. Convention Affairs; IX. Educational Affairs; X. Professional Affairs; XI. Scientific Affairs; XII. Public Interest; XIII. Ethnic Minority Affairs; XIV. International Affairs; XV. Central Office; and XVI. Financial Affairs. Changes to the language of the American Psychological Association (APA) Bylaws, Association Rules, or motions of the items are noted as follows throughout these proceedings: Bracketed material is to be deleted; underlined material is to be added.
This article describes the elements of the undergraduate core in kinesiology that have been established by the American Kinesiology Association. The American Kinesiology Association also describes a set of ten student-learning outcomes that emanate from the four core content elements. This information has been developed by the American Kinesiology…
da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Pontes, Lívia Malta; Faria, Augusto Duarte; Souza, Luciano Dias de Mattos; Cruzeiro, Ana Laura Sica; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares
This study aimed to evaluate the factors associated with psychological well-being among adolescents in a southern Brazilian city. A cross-sectional study was performed with a representative sample (n = 960) of adolescents (15-18 years). Eighty-six households were visited in each of the 90 randomized census tracts. Parents signed a written consent form before the adolescent answered a self-reported questionnaire. Psychological well-being was evaluated with a scale containing seven figures representing expressions varying from extreme happiness to extreme sadness. Adolescents were asked to mark the figure that best resembled the way they felt about their lives, and 72.33% reported a high level of psychological well-being. Prevalence of psychological well-being was higher in families with better economic status and higher maternal schooling. Adolescents who practiced a religion, did not smoke or consume alcohol, and wished to lose weight showed a higher level of psychological well-being, suggesting an interrelationship between health behaviors.
Chavez-Korell, Shannon; Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Illes, Roseanne
This article addresses the re-founding of the National Hispanic Psychological Association into the National Latina/o Psychological Association. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling psychology, and implications for the Society of Counseling Psychology and for the future of the National…
La escritura de documentos, artículos, ensayos etc. implica seguir cuidadosamente algunas normas. La Revista EMA se guía para la edición de sus artículos por las normas de la American Psychological Association (APA). El presente documento tiene como objeto dar a conocer algunas de estas normas de tal modo que quien envíe un artículo para su publicación las utilice. Encontrarán algunas pautas para citar textos y hacer listas de referencias según las normas de la American Psychological Associat...
The Hawthorne interview program between 1929 and 1932 was one of the most significant industrial studies in the United States. The Hawthorne researchers applied Jean Piaget's clinical method in their extensive interviews with tens of thousands of workers. Chiefly responsible for the program's methodology was Elton Mayo, an Australian who saw interviewing as a means to promote social cooperation. Previous discussions of the Hawthorne experiments have ignored the influence of Piaget in the social sciences. This article provides an account of Mayo's and the Hawthorne researchers' efforts to fuse Piaget's innovation with burgeoning American industrial psychology. The endeavor was not an isolated event but rather drew on the theories and practice of Janet-Piaget psychology, on the support of the Laura Spelman Rockefeller Memorial Foundation, and on the discourse among social scientists about Piaget's work.
Utsey, Shawn O.; Giesbrecht, Norman; Hook, Joshua; Stanard, Pia M.
This study tested a sociocultural model of stress and coping in a sample of 215 African Americans. Psychological resources (optimism, ego resilience) were modeled as a "nested self" (S. E. Hobfoll, 2001), supported by social resources (family adaptability and cohesion) and cultural resources (racial pride, religiosity). Race-related stress was a…
Ishak, Shaziela; Salter, Nicholas P.
There is no comprehensive guide for teaching psychological writing, and little is known about how often instructors teach the topic. We present a best practices guide for teaching psychological writing beyond just American Psychological Association style, discuss psychology-specific writing assignments, and examine psychological writing…
American Educational Research Association (AERA), 2014
Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, "Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing" (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and…
Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.
Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 12 April). ALOUD psychological: Adult Learning Open University Determinants Study – Association between psychological factors and study success in formal lifelong learners. Presentation given at the plenary meeting of Learning & Cognition, He
Yoo, Hyung Chol; Miller, Matthew J; Yip, Pansy
There is limited research examining psychological correlates of a uniquely racialized experience of the model minority stereotype faced by Asian Americans. The present study examined the factor structure and fit of the only published measure of the internalization of the model minority myth, the Internalization of the Model Minority Myth Measure (IM-4; Yoo et al., 2010), with a sample of 155 Asian American high school adolescents. We also examined the link between internalization of the model minority myth types (i.e., myth associated with achievement and myth associated with unrestricted mobility) and psychological adjustment (i.e., affective distress, somatic distress, performance difficulty, academic expectations stress), and the potential moderating effect of academic performance (cumulative grade point average). Results suggested the 2-factor model of the IM-4 had an acceptable fit to the data and supported the factor structure using confirmatory factor analyses. Internalizing the model minority myth of achievement related positively to academic expectations stress; however, internalizing the model minority myth of unrestricted mobility related negatively to academic expectations stress, both controlling for gender and academic performance. Finally, academic performance moderated the model minority myth associated with unrestricted mobility and affective distress link and the model minority myth associated with achievement and performance difficulty link. These findings highlight the complex ways in which the model minority myth relates to psychological outcomes.
Lundberg, George D.
Primary source peer reviewed journals are the gold standard for biomedical science. Relationships between journal owners, who have total business authority, and editors, who have total intellectual authority, are often strained. Adherence to "Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals" of the International Committee of…
Phelps, LeAdelle; Swerdlik, Mark E.
Current issues relevant to school psychology internships are reviewed. The movement toward professional competencies and behavioral benchmarks as they relate to school psychology internships is discussed, with a concentration on American Psychological Association and National Association of School Psychologists standards. Given the emphasis on…
Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to…
Weckowicz, T. E.
Discusses the differences and similarities between Dabrowski's theory of positive disintegration and the theories of the American humanistic psychologists. Stresses the suffering associated with attaining higher levels of spiritual development. Suggests that Dabrowski and humanists followed different theodicies. (Author/ABL)
Verhulst, Brad; Hatemi, Peter K; Eaves, Lindon J
Ideological preferences within the American electorate are contingent on both the environmental conditions that provide the content of the contemporary political debate and internal predispositions that motivate people to hold liberal or conservative policy preferences. In this article we apply Jost, Federico, and Napier's (2009) top-down/bottom-up theory of political attitude formation to a genetically informative population sample. In doing so, we further develop the theory by operationalizing the top-down pathway to be a function of the social environment and the bottom-up pathway as a latent set of genetic factors. By merging insights from psychology, behavioral genetics, and political science, we find strong support for the top-down/bottom-up framework that segregates the two independent pathways in the formation of political attitudes and identifies a different pattern of relationships between political attitudes at each level of analysis.
Seaton, Eleanor K.
The present study examined the influence of cognitive development in the relationship between multiple types of racial discrimination and psychological well-being. A sample of 322 African American adolescents (53% female), aged 13-18, completed measures of cognitive development, racial discrimination, self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Based on…
Green, Christopher D; Feinerer, Ingo
The American Journal of Psychology (AJP) was the first academic journal in the United States dedicated to the "new" scientific form of the discipline. But where did the journal's founding owner/editor, G. Stanley Hall, find the "psychologists" he needed to fill the pages of such a venture 1887, when he was still virtually the only professor of psychology in the country? To investigate this question we used the substantive vocabularies of every full article published in AJP's first 14 volumes to generate networks of verbally similar articles. These networks reveal the variety of research communities that Hall drew on to launch and support the journal. Three separate networks, corresponding to 3 successive time blocks, show how Hall's constellation of participating research communities changed over AJP's first 17 years. Many of these communities started with rather nebulous boundaries but soon began to differentiate into groups of more distinct specialties. Some topics declined over time, but new ones regularly appeared to replace them. We sketch a quasievolutionary model to describe the intellectual ecology of AJP's early years.
Voisin, Dexter R; Neilands, Torsten B; Hunnicutt, Shannon
This study examines whether the relationship between violence exposure and school engagement is mediated by psychological problem behaviors and whether such relationships are gendered. Five hundred and sixty-three high school African American adolescents (ages 13-19 years) completed questionnaires that assessed two types of violence exposure (community violence and marital conflict), psychological problem behaviors (e.g., posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, anxiety, withdrawal, and aggressive behaviors), and school engagement (i.e., student-teacher connectedness and grade point average [GPA] obtained from school records). For male adolescents, psychological problem behaviors collectively mediated the relationship between community violence exposure and student-teacher connectedness. For female adolescents, both community violence and marital conflict exposure were negatively related to both GPA and student-teacher connectedness via aggressive behavior. Findings suggest that the differential impact of type of violence exposure and its sequela based on gender should be considered when addressing low school engagement among African American youth.
Full Text Available In a large national sample of American and Japanese older adults, this study investigated how bicultural identity affects perception of health and well-being in 11 individual psychological variables (i.e. positive well-being: self-esteem, optimism, subjective well-being Japanese equivalent, gratitude, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–positive adjectives, and satisfaction with life; negative well-being: depression, pessimism, social anxiety, Positive and Negative Affect Schedule–negative adjectives, and perceived stress. This sample consisted of 1248 Americans from the Midlife in the United States survey, 2004–2006, and 380 Japanese from the Midlife in Japan survey in Tokyo, Japan, 2008–2010. Results showed that bicultural individuals (having both highly independent and interdependent self-construals in both countries tend to exhibit higher scores across most perceived health and well-being measures when compared to other groups (i.e. marginal, interdependent, and independent. Cultural-specific aspects of self-construal, health, and well-being are explained to support the findings. Discussion of these findings and their implications is also provided.
Developed jointly by the American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education, Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing (Revised 2014) addresses professional and technical issues of test development and use in education, psychology, and employment. It includes changes in federal law and measurement trends affecting validity, testing individuals with disabilities or different linguistic backgrounds, and new types of tests, as well as new uses of existing tests.
Full Text Available Background: Personality can be defined as the dynamic arrangement of psycho-physical systems. This study was conducted with aim to assess the prevalence of personality traits and their relation with psychological factors in the general population. Methods: The present research was designed as a cross-sectional study. We extracted our data from the framework of the Study on the Epidemiology of Psychological, Alimentary Health, and Nutrition (SEPAHAN, in 2013. Participants (4763 adults were selected from among healthy people in 20 counties across Isfahan Province, Iran, through convenience sampling. Personality traits and psychological factors including depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were assessed using the NEO Five‐Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to ﬁnd the association among the personality traits and psychological variables. Odds ratios were reported with the corresponding 95% conﬁdence intervals. Results: The mean score ± SD of neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness were 18.72 ± 7.87, 29.03 ± 7.08, 24.04 ± 5.28, 31.05 ± 6.37, and 36.26 ± 7.22, respectively. In depressed and anxious subjects and subjects with high psychological distress, the score of neuroticism was higher, but the scores of other factors were significantly lower (P < 0.05. Through multivariate analysis, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of extraversion and agreeableness were associated with being depressed, anxious, or having significantly high psychological distress. Conclusion: In conclusion, in our population, high levels of neuroticism and low levels of agreeableness and extraversion were associated with being depressed or anxious, or having high psychological distress. Keywords: Personality, Trait, Depression, Anxiety, Stress
Full Text Available Maryam Shaygan,1 Andreas Böger,2 Birgit Kröner-Herwig11Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Göttingen, Germany; 2Pain Management Clinic at the Red Cross Hospital, Kassel, GermanyBackground: A large number of population-based studies of chronic pain have considered neuropathic sensory symptoms to be associated with a high level of pain intensity and negative affectivity. The present study examines the question of whether this association previously found in non-selected samples of chronic pain patients can also be found in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of neuropathic sensory symptoms.Methods: Neuropathic sensory symptoms in 306 patients with chronic pain diagnosed as typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, fibromyalgia, or nociceptive back pain were assessed using the Pain DETECT Questionnaire. Two separate cluster analyses were performed to identify subgroups of patients with different levels of self-reported neuropathic sensory symptoms and, furthermore, to identify subgroups of patients with distinct patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms (adjusted for individual response bias regarding specific symptoms.Results: ANOVA (analysis of variance results in typical neuropathic pain, radiculopathy, and fibromyalgia showed no significant differences between the three levels of neuropathic sensory symptoms regarding pain intensity, pain chronicity, pain catastrophizing, pain acceptance, and depressive symptoms. However, in nociceptive back pain patients, significant differences were found for all variables except pain chronicity. When controlling for the response bias of patients in ratings of symptoms, none of the patterns of neuropathic sensory symptoms were associated with pain and psychological factors.Conclusion: Neuropathic sensory symptoms are not closely associated with higher levels of pain intensity and cognitive-emotional evaluations in chronic pain patients with underlying pathology of
Johnson, Norine G.
Since World War II, American psychology's role in health care has significantly expanded. This was formally recognized in 2001 when the membership of the American Psychological Association (APA) approved a bylaw change in its mission statement to include the word health. An accumulating body of research demonstrates and recent reviews conclude…
Schuller, Hildegard M. [Experimental Oncology Laboratory, Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, 2407 River Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)
Smoking has been extensively documented as a risk factor for all histological types of lung cancer and tobacco-specific nitrosamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons reproducibly cause lung cancer in laboratory rodents. However, the most common lung cancer, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), frequently develops in never smokers and is particularly common in women and African Americans, suggesting that factors unrelated to smoking significantly impact this cancer. Recent experimental investigations in vitro and in animal models have shown that chronic psychological stress and the associated hyperactive signaling of stress neurotransmitters via β-adrenergic receptors significantly promote the growth and metastatic potential of NSCLC. These responses were caused by modulation in the expression and sensitization state of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that regulate the production of stress neurotransmitters and the inhibitory neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Similar changes in nAChR-mediated neurotransmitter production were identified as the cause of NSCLC stimulation in vitro and in xenograft models by chronic nicotine. Collectively, these data suggest that hyperactivity of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system caused by chronic psychological stress or chronic exposure to nicotinic agonists in cigarette smoke significantly contribute to the development and progression of NSCLC. A recent clinical study that reported improved survival outcomes with the incidental use of β-blockers among patients with NSCLC supports this interpretation.
EAPL conference is held in Russia for the first time. The theme for 2014 is "Actual Problems of Legal Psychology. Victims and witnesses: from research to effective practice". Psychological characteristics of testimony, in particular, children's testimony, the possibility of recognition of lies and errors in the readings were in the focus of researchers at the dawn of the development of Legal Psychology as a science and remain relevant to this day. Currently in Russia, these topics are of part...
Overgaard, Dorthe; Gamborg, M; Gyntelberg, Finn
AIMS: To examine associations between psychological workload and subsequent 6-y weight changes. METHODS: In total, 6704 Danish nurses, aged 45-65 y and employed both in 1993 and 1999, answered questionnaires about psychological workload, including busyness in job, job speed and job influence...... who attained influence in job over the 6-y period. CONCLUSION: : Psychological workload, particularly both low and high busyness in job and low influence in job, was associated with higher 6-y weight gain among female Danish nurses....
Using mid-twentieth-century American psychology as my focus, I explore how scientific psychology was constructed as a distinctly masculine enterprise and was navigated by those who did not conform easily to this masculine ideal. I show how women emerged as problems for science through the vigorous gatekeeping activities and personal and professional writings of disciplinary figurehead Edwin G. Boring. I trace Boring's intellectual and professional socialization into masculine science and his efforts to understand women's apparent lack of scientific eminence, efforts that were clearly undergirded by preexisting and widely shared assumptions about men's and women's capacities and preferences.
Vassard, Ditte; Olsen, Maja Halgren; Zinckernagel, Line
BACKGROUND: The aim of this prospective cohort study of women attending a rehabilitation course at the Dallund Rehabilitation Centre was to explore the emotional and psychological aspects of living with lymphoedema, expressed as psychological distress, poorer quality of life and poorer self...
Cheng, Hsiu-Lan; Kwan, Kwong-Liem Karl; Sevig, Todd
Many college students underuse professional psychological help for mental health difficulties. The stigma associated with seeking such help appears to be one of the reasons for this underuse. Levels of psychological distress and past use of counseling/psychotherapy have been found to be important correlates of stigma associated with seeking…
Mitchell, Stephanie J; Lewin, Amy; Horn, Ivor B; Valentine, Dawn; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Joseph, Jill G
Urban, minority, adolescent mothers are particularly vulnerable to violence exposure, which may increase their children's developmental risk through maternal depression and negative parenting. The current study tests a conceptual model of the effects of community and contextual violence exposure on the mental health and parenting of young, African-American mothers living in Washington, DC. A path analysis revealed significant direct effects of witnessed and experienced violence on mothers' depressive symptoms and general aggression. Experiences of discrimination were also associated with increased depressive symptoms. Moreover, there were significant indirect effects of mothers' violence exposure on disciplinary practices through depression and aggression. These findings highlight the range of violence young African-American mothers are exposed to and how these experiences affect their mental health, particularly depressive symptoms, and thus disciplinary practices.
Elkins, David E.; Deaver, Sarah P.
The American Art Therapy Association (AATA) surveys its members biennially to gather information on general demographics, employment-related characteristics, licensing, and professional affiliations. The surveys are used in the development of national media opportunities and public policy initiatives to help increase recognition for the field of…
Elkins, David E.; Deaver, Sarah P.
The American Art Therapy Association (AATA) surveys its members biennially to collect data regarding membership demographics as well as variables concerning the work environment for art therapists. These surveys can provide a detailed description of these characteristics and how they may change over time. This article statistically compares the…
Journal of Dental Education, 1980
Oral radiology curricular guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools are provided. The guidelines describe minimal conditions under which a satisfactory educational experience can be offered. Principles of x-radiation, radiobiological concepts, radiological health, radiographic technique, radiographic quality, and darkroom…
The history committee within the American Psychiatric Association was actively involved in the history of psychiatry in the early decades of the twentieth century, as well as from 1942 to 2009.This paper explores the role of this committee in the context of changes in the psychiatric profession over the twentieth century.
American Association of Physics Teachers (NJ1), 2008
The American Association of Physics Teachers (AAPT) mission is to enhance the understanding and appreciation of physics through teaching. Aspiring to advance the greater good through physics, AAPT strives to be the leading voice, primary resource, advocate of choice, and driving force in physics education, serving professionals who teach physics…
Journal of Dental Education, 1980
Guidelines reviewed and approved by the American Association of Dental Schools and sent to the Council on Dental Education in June 1979 are outlined. Educational goals and objectives and sequence of instruction (including growth and development, preclinical orthodontics, and clinical experience) are discussed. (MLW)
Niwa, Erika Y; Way, Niobe; Hughes, Diane L
Using longitudinal data, the authors assessed 585 Dominican, Chinese, and African American adolescents (Grades 6-8, M(age) at W1 = 11.83) to determine patterns over time of perceived ethnic-racial discrimination from adults and peers; if these patterns varied by gender, ethnicity, and immigrant status; and whether they are associated with psychological (self-esteem, depressive symptoms) and social (friend and teacher relationship quality, school belonging) adjustment. Two longitudinal patterns for adult discrimination and three longitudinal patterns for peer discrimination were identified using a semiparametric mixture model. These trajectories were distinct with regard to the initial level, shape, and changes in discrimination. Trajectories varied by gender and ethnicity and were significantly linked to psychological and social adjustment. Directions for future research and practice are discussed.
Leah A. Cardwell
Full Text Available Background: Conditions affecting the face are particularly prone to causing psychological comorbidity; patients may be reluctant to inform their physician about their psychological distress. Unscripted comments could provide novel insight regarding the psychological impact of rosacea. Aim: To assess psychologically distressing aspects of rosacea reported in an informal medical setting. Methods: Random sample of 10% of 27,051 posts analyzed, 446 comments addressed psychological effects of rosacea. Comments analyzed for symptoms of depression, anxiety, low confidence/self-esteem, and aspects of rosacea which cause distress, including symptoms, lifestyle change and difficulty with treatments. Brand names were changed to generic equivalent. Results: Symptoms of depression (n = 44 and the desire to end life (n = 6 were mentioned, but no comments expounded on any suicide plan. Anxiousness (n = 7 and negative impact on confidence/self-esteem (n = 5 were mentioned. Symptoms, or clinical manifestations (n = 29, were the most frequently mentioned distress factor, followed by lifestyle change (n = 20. Patients also voiced difficulty with treatments (n = 15. Limitations: Online forums may provide patient perceptions that patients would not share with a doctor, but the sample may not be representative of all rosacea patients. Conclusions: Inquiring about psychological impact of rosacea might be helpful in identifying patients who would benefit from supportive psychological measures.
Sokal, Michael M
Despite widespread interest in individual life histories, few biographies of scientists make use of insights derived from psychology, another discipline that studies people, their thoughts, and their actions. This essay argues that recent theoretical work in psychology and tools developed for clinical psychological practice can help biographical historians of science create and present fuller portraits of their subjects' characters and temperaments and more nuanced analyses of how these traits helped shape their subjects' scientific work. To illustrate this thesis, the essay examines the early career of James McKeen Cattell--an influential late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century experimental psychologist--through a lens offered by psychology and argues that Cattell's actual laboratory practices derived from an "accommodation" to a long-standing "cognitive deficit." These practices in turn enabled Cattell to achieve more precise experimental results than could any of his contemporaries; and their students readily adopted them, along with their behavioral implications. The essay concludes that, in some ways, American psychology's early twentieth-century move toward a behavioral understanding of psychological phenomena can be traced to Cattell's personal cognitive deficit. It closes by reviewing several "remaining general questions" that this thesis suggests.
During the last decade, rural extension has received interest as being a key tool for rural development. Despite rural extension being affected by many psychosocial processes, psychology has made scarce contributions to it. An investigation was conducted with the aim of gaining knowledge of rural extensionists' expectations of psychology, as well as to contribute to shaping community psychologists' role in the context of rural extension . 652 extensionists from 12 Latin American countries were surveyed. The survey included closed socio-demographic questions as well as open ones addressing extension practice and psychologists' potential contributions. 90.6 % of surveyed extensionists considered psychology could help them improve their practice. Most mentioned areas of contribution go in line with community psychology, including managing farmers groups, facilitating participatory processes and training extensionists; while others, such as the expectation of changing farmers' mindset and increasing the adoption of external technologies, go against its principles. Thus, in some cases, extensionists' expectations could help generate an interesting interaction between community psychology and rural extension, while in others, they need to be put up for discussion. In brief, community psychology has the potential to contribute to rural extension, but it needs to acknowledge extension practice as an interesting area for intervention.
Hall, Ronald E; Breland-Noble, Alfiee
Due to the historical preponderance of racial and/or intellectual homogeneity in the field of psychology, Eurocentrism set the "gold standard" for its method of intervention. As such, it might be argued that psychology remains a bastion of Eurocentric thought despite the globalization of knowledge and the influx of racially and ethnically diverse scientists into the research endeavor. At the same time and the significant increase in the immigrant Arab population, Arab Americans remain a less familiar component of society. Among the various Arab populations, spirituality through Islam is fundamental. Thus, psychologists would be remiss to exclude a critical aspect of Arab American life from intervention when it is essential to well-being.
Pollock, Warhol, Basquiat and Haring made an international reputation for themselves with their art foremost of the American artists of the 20th century, and became pop cultural icons for the man in the street and for the media as well. Accordingly to the habits of the consumer society their art and even themselves become product and consumer's goods. Their not mistaken, individual style - which also became their trademark - makes that possible. The connection between the four artists is that each of them had a dependent personality, their fine art activity was arguable in their period, and after all themselves and his artworks get into the increased attention of the media. These four artists embody the brand-new artist type, who steps into a star status. Besides the artworks the artist also get into the focus of interest. Through psychological aspect their artworks tell a lot about their way of life, their personality, and the social estate around them. Four of them were catalysts, they set new art trends. The influence of Basquiat and Haring stretched over to the 21st century, and keeps going in the graffiti street-art which gets into the "high art" at last, and captivates the art galleries and critics as well.
Marcos Adegas de Azambuja
Full Text Available This paper problematizes the Brazilian Social Psychology and its knowledge production on the registers of the Work Group (WG of symposiums of the National Association of Research and Post-Graduation in Psychology (ANPEPP, during 1988 to 2010. Using Michel Foucault's archeo-genealogical perspective and the contributions by Ian Hacking about the historical ontology of subjects, we analyzed technologies of power and knowledge in the disciplines of Social Psychology. We selected the WG abstracts in which circulate the utterances that make up the discursive field of Brazilian Social Psychology. Using the narrative of WGs we outlined a discursive formation of identities/technologies of the subject. The knowledges of Social Psychology in the history of the ANPEPP's WGs contribute to the constitution of categories and psychological classifications which objectivize subjects. We think Social Psychology, in its criticisms related to psychological and social concepts comprises practices and regimes of truth about the subject of Social Psychology.
Blackmore, Susan; Fouad, Nadya; Kagan, Jerome; Kosslyn, Stephen; Posner, Michael; Sternburg, Robert; Driscoll, Marcy; Ge, Xun; Parrish, Patrick
Scholars representing the field of psychology were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Susan Blackmore, Nadya Fouad, Jerome Kagan, Stephen Kosslyn, Michael Posner, and Robert Sternberg.…
Hansen, M S; Horjales-Araujo, E; Dahl, J B
. Translational studies performed in healthy volunteers may provide knowledge concerning psychological factors in healthy individuals as well as basic pain physiology. The aim of this review was to investigate whether psychological vulnerability or specific psychological variables in healthy volunteers...... are predictive of the level of pain following experimental pain models. METHODS: A systematic search on the databases, PubMed, Embase, Cochcrane library, and Clinicaltrials.gov was performed during September 2014. All trials investigating the association between psychological variables and experimental pain...... a sufficiently homogenous group to perform meta-analysis. The collected results were diverse. A total of 16 trials suggested that psychological factors may predict the level of pain, seven studies found divergent results, and six studies found no significant association between psychological variables...
Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; King, Janet C
Given the detrimental influence of maternal overweight and obesity on reproductive and pregnancy outcomes for the mother and child, it is the position of the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition that all overweight and obese women of reproductive age should receive counseling on the roles of diet and physical activity in reproductive health prior to pregnancy,during pregnancy, and in the inter conceptional period, in order to ameliorate these adverse outcomes. The effect of maternal nutritional status prior to pregnancy on reproduction and pregnancy outcomes is of great public health importance. Obesity in the United States and worldwide has grown to epidemic proportions, with an estimated 33% of US women classified as obese. This position paper has two objectives: (a) to help nutrition professionals become aware of the risks and possible complications of overweight and obesity for fertility,the course of pregnancy, birth outcomes, and short- and long-term maternal and child health outcomes;and (b) related to the commitment to research by the American Dietetic Association and the American Society for Nutrition, to identify the gaps in research to improve our knowledge of the risks and complications associated with being overweight and obese before and during pregnancy.Only with an increased knowledge of these risks and complications can health care professionals develop effective strategies that can be implemented before and during pregnancy as well as during the inter conceptional period to ameliorate adverse outcomes.
Marteinsdottir, Ina; Ernerudh, Jan; Jonasson, Lena; Kristenson, Margareta; Garvin, Peter
Purpose To elucidate possible independent associations of psychological resources with inflammatory markers, all linked with coronary heart disease (CHD). Method In a middle-aged general population (n = 944), psychological resources (coping, self-esteem, and sense of coherence (SOC)), a global measure of quality of life (Cantrils self-anchoring ladder, also called "ladder of life"), and psychological risk factors (hopelessness, vital exhaustion, and depressive symptoms) were used in linear re...
Alleyne-Green, Binta; Coleman-Cowger, Victoria H.; Henry, David B.
The purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of physical and psychological dating violence victimization and perpetration reported by inner-city African American and Hispanic adolescent girls as well as associated risky sexual behaviors among this population. Participants in this study were 10th- and 11th-grade female students from seven…
Raque-Bogdan, Trisha L.; Torrey, Carrie L.; Lewis, Brian L.; Borges, Nicole J.
Training directors of American Psychological Association-approved counseling psychology doctoral programs completed a questionnaire assessing (a) student and faculty involvement in health-related research, practice, and teaching; (b) health-related research conducted by students and faculty; and (c) programs' expectations and ability to…
Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.
Morales, Eduardo; Lau, Michael Y.; Ballesteros, Andrea
This article covers the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Psychology, Division 45 of the American Psychological Association (APA) in understanding the relationship of ethnic minority psychological associations with Division 17. A brief history is provided, followed by current status and resources, connections to counseling…
Mahoney, Emery B.; Perfect, Michelle M.; Edwinson, Roxanne M.
Since the mid-1990s, an imbalance between the number of available American Psychological Association (APA)-accredited internships and applicants has existed. In 2014, 14% of predoctoral psychology students who applied for internships accredited by the APA or members of the Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) did…
Sheldon, Jeffrey A.; Wolfe, Susan M.
In 2012, the American Evaluation Association (AEA) added community psychology (CP) to its roster of topical interests groups (TIG). One of the highlights of the CP TIG program at the 2012 AEA Conference and the genesis of this "American Journal of Evaluation" Forum was a panel of accomplished community psychologists and evaluation…
Higashioka, Hiroaki; Yonemori, Terutake; Maeda, Daigen
The American Heart Association (AHA) and other member councils of International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) complete review of resuscitation science every 5 years. And ILCOR publishes Consensus on Science with Treatment Recommendations(CoSTR). The AHA published "American Heart Association (AHA) Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation(CPR) and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC)" (G2010), that basis on CoSTR 2010 on Oct. 18th, 2010. The switchover to new curriculum based on G2010 on and after Mar. 1st, 2011 is the policy of AHA in their all training courses. The AHA maintains the quality of their training courses by some systems. AHA instructors are trained by some steps of instructor courses and monitoring systems and update their scientific knowledge on resuscitation by e-learning. The authors introduce an outline of basic life support for healthcare providers, the instructor training systems of AHA and summary of basic life support basis on G2010.
Varela, R Enrique; Vernberg, Eric M; Sanchez-Sosa, Juan Jose; Riveros, Angelica; Mitchell, Montserrat; Mashunkashey, Joanna
This study examined whether Mexican (n = 53), Mexican American (n = 50), and European American (n = 51) children differed in their reporting of anxiety symptoms and whether parental influence and specific cognitive schemas associated with Mexican culture were related to differences in anxiety reporting. As expected, Mexican and Mexican American children reported significantly more physiological and worry symptoms than the European American children. Mexican and Mexican American children endorsed collectivism as a cultural value more strongly than European American children, and the Mexican children evidenced greatest use of social strategies reflecting simpatia. In family discussions of ambiguous, potentially anxiety-arousing situations, Mexican and Mexican American parents verbalized a greater percentage of somatic interpretations than the European American parents. Results indicate potential linkages between cultural values, socialization practices, and anxiety reporting.
Recommendations for responsible monitoring and regulation of clinical software systems. American Medical Informatics Association, Computer-based Patient Record Institute, Medical Library Association, Association of Academic Health Science Libraries, American Health Information Management Association, American Nurses Association.
Miller, R A; Gardner, R M
In mid-1996, the FDA called for discussions on regulation of clinical software programs as medical devices. In response, a consortium of organizations dedicated to improving health care through information technology has developed recommendations for the responsible regulation and monitoring of clinical software systems by users, vendors, and regulatory agencies. Organizations assisting in development of recommendations, or endorsing the consortium position include the American Medical Informatics Association, the Computer-based Patient Record Institute, the Medical Library Association, the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries, the American Health Information Management Association, the American Nurses Association, the Center for Healthcare Information Management, and the American College of Physicians. The consortium proposes four categories of clinical system risks and four classes of measured monitoring and regulatory actions that can be applied strategically based on the level of risk in a given setting. The consortium recommends local oversight of clinical software systems, and adoption by healthcare information system developers of a code of good business practices. Budgetary and other constraints limit the type and number of systems that the FDA can regulate effectively. FDA regulation should exempt most clinical software systems and focus on those systems posing highest clinical risk, with limited opportunities for competent human intervention.
The American Thyroid Association guidelines on thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer, published in 2009, provide valuable recommendations based on current evidence. Inevitably, controversies and uncertainties will continue to challenge clinicians and patients. On topics where evidence is not clear-cut, judgement may be coloured by pre-existing practises and the structure of the health service in each country, so one has to be aware of the pitfalls of transferring recommendations to one's own practise.
Bazargan, Mohsen; And Others
Used data from Aging in the Eighties national survey to examine impact of health rating and life satisfaction as well as other socio-psychological characteristics on voting turnout among elderly Caucasian and African Americans. For Caucasians, self-assessment of health was significantly related to voting behavior; whereas among African Americans,…
Rae, James R; Lonborg, Susan D
Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users' motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N = 119), we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for connection purposes (e.g., making new friends). We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g., anxiety and life satisfaction). The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide a possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being.
Full Text Available Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g. time spent online and underlying motivations (e.g. making new friends of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory findings of quantity of Facebook use could be explained by considering users’ motivations for accessing Facebook. We predicted that quantity of use would be positively associated with psychological well-being when users primarily accessed Facebook to maintain existing relationships but negatively associated with psychological well-being when primarily accessed to create new relationships. In a sample of college undergraduates (N=119, we found that the relationship of quantity of Facebook use on psychological well-being was moderated by the motivation of the user. Quantity of Facebook use was associated with higher levels of psychological well-being among users that accessed Facebook for friendship purposes but was negatively associated with psychological well-being among users that accessed for connection purposes (e.g. making new friends. We also replicated our results across dimensions of psychological well-being (e.g. anxiety and life satisfaction. The current findings provide initial evidence that quantity and motivations of Facebook use interact with potentially serious implications for psychological well-being and also provide possible explanation for why quantity of Facebook use can be linked with both positive and negative psychological well-being.
Neroni, Joyce; De Groot, Renate; Kirschner, Paul A.
Neroni, J., De Groot, R. H. M., & Kirschner, P. A. (2012, 7 November). Adult Learning Open University Determinants (ALOUD) study: Psychological factors associated with study success. Poster presentation at the International ICO Fall School, Girona, Spain.
Garde, Anne Helene; Albertsen, Karen; Persson, Roger
The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive and negat......The aim was to elucidate the possible bi-directional relation between daytime psychological arousal, cortisol, and self-reported sleep in a group of healthy employees in active employment. Logbook ratings of sleep (Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire), stress, and energy, as well as positive...... and problems during the day. The results underpin the possibility that arousal and poor sleep might create a self-reinforcing vicious circle that negatively affects a person's well-being....
Janice V. Bowie, PhD, MPH
Full Text Available IntroductionHispanics are the fastest growing demographic group in the United States; however, “Hispanic” is a broad term that describes people who are from or whose ancestors are from multiple countries of origin. This study examines, separately, the social, cultural, and behavioral factors associated with overweight and obesity among Mexican American adults and among Central American adults. MethodsTo estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans living in California, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from the 2001 California Health Interview Survey using SUDAAN software to account for the survey’s multistage sampling design.ResultsOf the 8304 Mexican Americans participating in the survey, 36.8% were overweight and 26.2% were obese. Of the 1019 Central Americans, 39.2% were overweight and 22.2% were obese. Among Mexican American men, age and marital status were associated with overweight and obesity; and education, acculturation, health insurance status, health status, and use of vitamins were associated with obesity only. Among Mexican American women, age, education, number of children, health status, and health behavior were associated with overweight and obesity. Among Central American men, age, education, and access to health care were associated with overweight, whereas marital status, acculturation, health care, and binge drinking were associated with obesity. Among Central American women, number of children was associated with overweight and obesity; and age and education were associated with obesity only. ConclusionsOur findings of high rates of overweight and obesity among Mexican and Central Americans in California indicate the need for a wide variety of effective weight-loss interventions targeting these populations, and the differences we found in the factors associated with overweight and obesity may suggest the need for unique intervention strategies for different
Aschbacher, Kirstin; Derakhshandeh, Ronak; Flores, Abdiel J; Narayan, Shilpa; Mendes, Wendy Berry; Springer, Matthew L
Psychological stress and glucocorticoids are associated with heightened cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether stress or cortisol would be associated with reduced circulating angiogenic cell (CAC) function, an index of impaired vascular repair. We hypothesized that minority-race individuals who experience threat in interracial interactions would exhibit reduced CAC function, and that this link might be explained by cortisol. To test this experimentally, we recruited 106 African American participants for a laboratory interracial interaction task, in which they received socially evaluative feedback from Caucasian confederates. On a separate day, a subset of 32 participants (mean age=26years, 47% female) enrolled in a separate biological substudy and provided blood samples for CAC isolation and salivary samples to quantify the morning peak in cortisol (the cortisol awakening response, CAR). CAC function was quantified using cell culture assays of migration to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and secretion of VEGF into the culture medium. Heightened threat in response to an interracial interaction and trait anxiety in vivo were both associated with poorer CAC migratory function in vitro. Further, threat and poorer sustained attention during the interracial interaction were associated with a higher CAR, which in turn, was related to lower CAC sensitivity to glucocorticoids. In vitro, higher doses of cortisol impaired CAC migratory function and VEGF protein secretion. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist RU486 reversed this functional impairment. These data identify a novel, neuroendocrine pathway by which psychological stress may reduce CAC function, with potential implications for cardiovascular health.
Tice, Thomas E.
The Revised Standards for Providers of Psychological Services, developed by a committee of the American Psychological Association, have an important impact on industrial/organizational psychologists. Currently, four types of controls exist as assurances to the public that appropriate psychological services are being provided. They are: graduate…
Ozier, Amy D; Henry, Beverly W
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition intervention, including nutritional counseling by a registered dietitian (RD), is an essential component of team treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders (EDs) during assessment and treatment across the continuum of care. Diagnostic criteria for EDs provide important guidelines for identification and treatment. In addition, individuals may experience disordered eating that extends along a range from food restriction to partial conditions to diagnosed EDs. Understanding the roles and responsibilities of RDs is critical to the effective care of individuals with EDs. The complexities of EDs, such as epidemiologic factors, treatment guidelines, special populations, and emerging trends highlight the nature of EDs, which require a collaborative approach by an interdisciplinary team of mental health, nutrition, and medical specialists. RDs are integral members of treatment teams and are uniquely qualified to provide medical nutrition therapy for the normalization of eating patterns and nutritional status. However, this role requires understanding of the psychologic and neurobiologic aspects of EDs. Advanced training is needed to work effectively with this population. Further efforts with evidenced-based research must continue for improved treatment outcomes related to EDs, along with identification of effective primary and secondary interventions. This paper supports the "Practice Paper of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Intervention in the Treatment of Eating Disorders" published online at www.eatright.org/positions.
Full Text Available Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457. Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the environment (smoking at home and at work. Statistical tests included Chi Square and Fisher’s Exact test, as well as multiple logistic regression analysis among never, former, and current smokers. Results: Findings confirm high smoking prevalence among male and female participants (44% and 37% respectively. American Indians begin smoking in early adolescence (age 14.7. Also, 65% of current smokers are less than 50% Indian blood and 76% of current smokers have no intention to quit smoking. Current and former smokers are statistically more likely to report having suicidal ideation than those who never smoked. Current smokers also report being neglected and physically abused in childhood and adolescence, are statistically more likely to smoke ½ pack or less (39% vs. 10% who smoke 1+ pack, smoke during pregnancy, and have others who smoke in the house compared with former and never smokers. Conclusion: Understanding the factors associated with smoking will help to bring about policy changes and more effective programs to address the problem of high smoking rates among American Indians.
The history and legacy of the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minority Issues (American Psychological Association Division 45) for its first 20 years are reviewed. The legitimization of the ethnic minority scholarship within organized psychology is chronicled, highlighting the central role of advocacy and activism. Multiculturalism is presented as a paradigm for the globalization of the United States. It is concluded that ethnic minority psychology has changed the field and equips us for the challenges of the internationalization of the world.
Seagle, Helen M; Strain, Gladys Witt; Makris, Angela; Reeves, Rebecca S
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that successful weight management to improve overall health for adults requires a lifelong commitment to healthful lifestyle behaviors emphasizing sustainable and enjoyable eating practices and daily physical activity. Given the increasing incidence of overweight and obesity along with the escalating health care costs associated with weight-related illnesses, health care providers must discover how to effectively treat this complex condition. Food and nutrition professionals should stay current and skilled in weight management to assist clients in preventing weight gain, optimizing individual weight loss interventions, and achieving long-term weight loss maintenance. Using the American Dietetic Association's Evidence Analysis Process and Evidence Analysis Library, this position paper presents the current data and recommendations for weight management. The evidence supporting the value of portion control, eating frequency, meal replacements, and very-low-energy diets are discussed as well as physical activity, behavior therapy, pharmacotherapy, and surgery. Public policy changes to create environments that can assist all populations to achieve and sustain healthful lifestyle behaviors are also reviewed.
Full Text Available With the support of Tianjin Municipal People’s Government and the People’s Government of Binhai New Area, the “First China (Tianjin International Telemedicine Technology Exhibition” hosted by the American Telemedicine Association (ATA, will be held October 28- 30, 2014 at the Tianjin Binhai International Convention and Exhibition Center. The three day event will feature keynote sessions, concurrent discussion forums, exhibits (e.g., telemedicine, information technology, mHealth, a venture summit, meet-and-greet sessions for international and domestic companies for potential business collaboration, and policy discussions on China healthcare. For registration information: http://www.atacn.org/en/
Full Text Available Abstract Background Globally, mental health promotion related to psychological distress in the workplace has become a great concern, and a focus of much research attention. However, a sense of contribution to society and sense of bonding with the workplace have not been examined in relation to psychological distress. Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine whether these two factors are associated with psychological distress. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1137 full-time employees who worked in systems engineering, sales, or administration at a Japanese company. Participant's sense of contribution to society, sense of bonding with the workplace, psychological distress, and qualitative job stress (quantitative and qualitative workloads, job-control latitude, and support from supervisors, co-workers and family were assessed with a questionnaire. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to examine associations between psychological distress and sense of contribution to society and of bonding with the workplace. Results A high sense of contribution to society was significantly associated with a high sense of bonding with the workplace (Spearman's ρ = 0.47, p Conclusions Psychological distress in the workplace was associated with sense of contribution to society. Therefore, workplace mental health promotion should consider the workers' sense of contribution to society.
Divya Sood; Arun V Subramaniam; Tulsi Subramaniam
Aims/Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and presence of psychological factors (i.e.,anxiety and depression levels) in dental undergraduate students. Second purpose was to assess the association and correlation between TMD degree and psychological factors viz. anxiety and depression. Materials and methods: The sample comprised of 400 Dental undergraduatestudents aged 18- 25 years, including both the genders. TMD degree was evaluated usi...
Li WANG; Xiao-jin WANG; Xiao-wen TU; Chao-hua LOU; Er-sheng GAO
Objective To evaluate the association of sex behavior with sexual related psychological suppression and coping modes among students in three vocational schools in Shanghai.Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1368 grade one students from three vocational schools in a district of Shanghai,with Computer Assisted Self-Interview(CASI).The field work began in the April,2003 for a baseline survey,and completed in the December,2003.Data on students'sexual intercourse,sexual related psychological suppression and psychological coping modes,and communication with parents were collected and analyzed.Binary logistic regression was used to adjust the potential confounding factors.Results After controlling for demographic factors,adolescents with middle or high scores of active psychological coping strategies on sexual related events were less likely to have sexual intercourse(ORadj=0.48,95% CI=0.30-0.77 and ORadj=0.49,95%CI=0.30-0.83,respectively),while association between psychological suppression on sex related events and sexual intercourse was not statistically significant(ORadj=0.93,95%CI=0.63-1.37);sexual related psychological suppression and active coping modes were positively associated with adolescents'communicating with parents for 2-7 h/week about school things.but negatively associated with parents'open attitudes towards heterosexual contacts and talking sex related things with others.Conclusion Vocational school students with active psychological coping strategies on sexual related events were less likely to engage in sexual intercourse,so interventions focus on reducing unprotected sexual behaviors should target on psychological coping modes skills training.
Counseling Psychologist, 2009
Respect for diversity and for values different from one's own is a central value of counseling psychology training programs. The valuing of diversity is also consistent with the profession of psychology as mandated by the American Psychological Association's (APA's) Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct and as discussed in the Guidelines and…
Howard, George S.
The American Psychological Association recently released its Presidential Task Force report on Psychology and Global Climate Change. Its principles and proposals would inaugurate a long and productive program of psychological research on climate change. But is it too little, too late? Climatologists have been growing progressively gloomier over…
Stoloff, Michael L.; Good, Megan Rodgers; Smith, Kristen L.; Brewster, JoAnne
We conducted a national survey of psychology department chairs, and, based on their responses, we concluded that psychology programs differ in the number of students enrolled in various types of classes; the degree of focus on each of the goals recommended by the "American Psychological Association (APA) Guidelines for an Undergraduate…
Michalski, Daniel S.; Kohout, Jessica L.
Numerous efforts to describe the health service provider or clinical workforce in psychology have been conducted during the past 30 years. The American Psychological Association (APA) has studied trends in the doctoral education pathway and the resultant effects on the broader psychology workforce. During this period, the creation and growth of…
Piotrowski, Chris; Keller, John W.
The utility and popularity of psychodiagnostic testing has been investigated in applied clinical settings, but little data exist concerning academicians' attitudes toward psychological testing. To assess attitudes toward psychodiagnostic training in doctoral, clinical psychology programs, all fully APA-approved (American Psychological Association)…
Dennhardt, Ashley A; Murphy, James G
Although levels of heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems are high in college students, there is significant variability in the number and type of problems experienced, even among students who drink heavily. African American students drink less and experience fewer alcohol-related problems than European American students, but are still at risk, and little research has investigated the potentially unique patterns and predictors of problems among these students. Depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting have been implicated in adult substance abuse and may be important predictors of alcohol problem severity among college students. We examined the relationship between these variables and alcohol-related problems among African American and European American students (N = 206; 53% female; 68% European American; 28% African American) who reported recent heavy drinking. In regression models that controlled for drinking level, depression, distress tolerance, and delay discounting were associated with alcohol problems among African American students, but only depression was associated with alcohol problems among European American students. These results suggest that negative affect is a key risk factor for alcohol problems among college student drinkers. For African American students, the inability to tolerate negative emotions and to organize their behavior around future outcomes may also be especially relevant risk factors.
Robbins, Rockey R.
The tribal-cultural milieu in which the author was raised incited awareness that Native American people live in a great tapestry of life where everything and everyone is interconnected. It is an awareness that cannot be taught through lectures or books. It is an awareness of connectedness that Native American people had in early childhood but was…
Addressed to educators who have the responsibility for developing curriculums or educational programs that will serve Native American students, the document does not present new information on the status of education in Native American communities. Rather, it discusses ways in which available information, such as the 1928 Meriam Report, can be…
Docherty, D.E.; Converse, K.A.; Hansen, W.R.; Norman, G.W.
A virus isolate associated with a 1989-90 die-off in American woodcock (Scolopax minor) was identified as a reovirus. Emaciation was a consistent necropsy finding in the woodcock involved in this die-off. This reovirus infection appeared to be systemic, had the potential for fecal-oral virus transmission, and was associated with deterioration of body condition. To our knowledge this is the first report of a virus isolate from wild American woodcock. A survey conducted in 1990-92 indicated that this virus was not present at detectable levels in the woodcock breeding and wintering population. /// Un virus asociado con la mortalidad de becadas o perdices americanas (Scolopax minor) en 1989-1990-fue identificado como reovirus. La emaciaci??n fue un resultado com??n a la necropsia de las aves que murieron. Esta infecci??n por reovirus pareci?? ser sist??mica, ten?-a el potencial de transmisi??n fecal-oral y estuvo asociada con el deterioro del ave. Creemos que este sea el primer reporte de aislamiento viral a partir de becadas americanas. Una encuesta hecha entre 1990 y 1992 indic?? que este virus no estaba presente en los niveles detectables en los reproductores y en las aves invernales.
Paula Camila Ramírez Muñoz
Full Text Available Introduction: Increased stress levels became a problem for the general population’s health. Research studies show that individuals engaging regular physical activity have a decreased perception of psychological stress. The relationship between physical activity and perceived psychological stress has been suggested to vary across domains of physical activity and across population groups. Objective: To establish the association between physical activity and perceived psychological stress in adults living in neighborhoods of the 2nd and 3rd socio-economic strata of Bucaramanga. Materials and methods: This observational analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in a population of 502 adult residents in the city of Bucaramanga. Individuals were interviewed to obtain information about physical activity and their level of perceived psychological stress. Data analysis will account for socio-demographic and behavior patterns using linear regression models, and it was performed in stata® 11.0. Results: Meeting the physical activity recommendations was associated with a decrease in psychological stress levels in study participants (β = -1,90 IC 95 % -3,73 a -0,06; P = 0,043. Conclusions: Complying with the recommendations of physical activity was associated with a decrease in the psychological stress level in the participants, who had an average -1.9 points lower PSS score than those who do not comply.
Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.
Betrayal trauma, or trauma perpetrated by someone with whom a victim is close, is strongly associated with a range of negative psychological and physical health outcomes. However, few studies have examined associations between different forms of trauma and emotional and physical symptoms. The present study compared betrayal trauma to other forms…
Joyce, Jeneka A; O'Neil, Maya E; Stormshak, Elizabeth A; McWhirter, Ellen H; Dishion, Thomas J
This study sought to examine the relationship between coping strategies and prosocial and deviant peer associations for urban, African American adolescents. In addition, the study analyzed the mediating role of ethnic identity for coping strategies and peer associations. Results of the African American models were then compared with models for European American adolescents. Results indicated that African American and European American adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were more likely to associate with prosocial peers, and those who reported using self-destruction strategies were less likely to associate with prosocial peers. Adolescents who reported using distraction coping strategies were less likely to associate with deviant peers, and adolescents who reported using self-destruction strategies were more likely to associate with deviant peers. Ethnic identity mediated the relationship between coping and prosocial peer association for African American adolescents. Limitations of the study and future research directions are also presented.
Full Text Available Background. Previous studies have shown that psychological stress is linked to asthma prevalence. Parental psychological stress may potentially influence inflammatory responses in their allergic children. The purpose of this study is to clarify the association between maternal psychological status and inflammatory response of allergic young children.Methods. The study subjects were 152 young allergic children (median age: 13 months who had not shown any allergic symptoms in the past one month. mRNA expression levels of the inflammatory response genes IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-22 were quantified by qRT-PCR. Maternal psychological status was assessed by standardized questionnaires: the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D for depression and the Japanese Perceived Stress Scale (JPSS for perceived stress.Results. A significant positive association was observed between maternal CES-D scores and IL-6 mRNA expression in the children with asthma. The JPSS scores were also positively associated with IL-8 mRNA expression in asthmatic children and IL-6 mRNA expression in children with allergic rhinitis. Similar trends were observed among children positive for house dust mite-specific IgE, but these associations were not significant.Conclusion. This study supports the hypothesis that maternal psychological stress affects the inflammatory response in their allergic children.
Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Webb, Marcia
The authors examined the moderating role of positive and negative religious coping in the relation between racism and psychological well-being in a sample of Catholic and Protestant Asian American college students (N = 107). On the basis of prior theorizing on the 2 types of religious coping, combined with some limited empirical evidence, they predicted that positive religious coping would have a buffering effect (Hypothesis 1) on the racism-mental health relation and that negative religious coping would have an exacerbating effect (Hypothesis 2). Participants completed an online survey containing measures corresponding to the study variables. Results indicated that the interaction between positive religious coping and racism was nonsignificant, so Hypothesis 1 was not supported. For Hypothesis 2, the negative religious coping and racism interaction term was statistically significant, but the moderating effect was in an unexpected direction, such that negative religious coping actually protected against the deleterious impact of racism on mental health. The findings suggest that the theorized deleterious influence of negative religious coping may need to be reconsidered in an Asian American setting. The findings have the potential to inform practitioners who work with Asian American college students to better cope with the detrimental consequences of racism.
Committee on Professional Standards
Discusses three cases involving quality assurance problems in clinical, industrial/organizational, and school psychology. Gives a statement of problem, applicable American Psychological Association policies, an interpretation of policy and principles in light of major questions posed by each case, and educative ramifications. (CMG)
The topic of social justice is not new to dialogue and research within disciplines that serve children, such as education and psychology. The commitment to social justice within the fields of education and psychology is evidenced by the attention that their organizations--the American Educational Research Association (AERA) and the American…
Ayala-Alcantar, Christina; Stritto, Mary Ellen Dello; Guzman, Bianca L.
This article is an archival document which chronicles a herstory project organized and directed by the Society for Community Research and Action (Division 27 of the American Psychological Association) Women's Committee. The experiences of 55 trailblazing women in the field of community psychology are examined, and the authors' journey in…
Aravamudhan, K; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie
Time and access have often been cited as barriers to implementing Evidence-Based Dentistry (EBD). This paper describes a new web-based resource launched by the American Dental Association to enable practitioners to incorporate evidence into treatment planning. The website offers a database of systematic reviews, critical summaries of systematic reviews, evidence-based clinical recommendations and links to external resources to enable practitioners to access evidence at the point of care. In addition the site offers an online space for clinicians to suggest clinical scenarios where evidence is lacking. This could potentially be a source of topics to drive future research. With the explosion in the use of information technology within a dental office, this web-site will serve as the one-stop resource for credible scientific information for practitioners.
Colca, Jerry R
The 67 th meeting of the American Diabetes Association was held in Chicago on 22 - 26 June. This annual meeting continues to grow in size and scope and is a unique combination of basic science and medical science but also incorporates all aspects of healthcare and pharmaceutical business relating to the treatment of diabetes. The meeting was composed of general sessions, symposia summarizing the status of various fields of study and medical practice, together with both oral and poster presentations of new, previously unpublished research. The abstracts are published in Diabetes and a collection of the information can be found online with very useful summaries from the final day. These contain personalized summaries of key findings of the meetings as seen by key researches in the field. In this Meeting Highlights article, the key take-away messages are summarized from the author's point of view.
Full Text Available For 18 years, the American Telemedicine Association (ATA Annual International Meeting & Exposition has been the premier forum for professionals in the telemedicine, telehealth and mHealth space -- one of the fastest growing meetings in the country. ATA 2013 is on course to be the largest ATA meeting ever, with over 6,000 projected attendees. The program will include 500 educational sessions and posters, highlighting the latest innovations, applications and research in telemedicine. The 2013 exhibit hall will feature nearly 300 of the leading vendors in remote healthcare technologies. With over 6000 projected attendees, from all around the world, there's no better place to meet and network with your peers and thought leaders in the field. Detailed program information--including courses, sessions and CME information--will be available January 2013 at:http://www.americantelemed.org.
Luk, Jeremy W; King, Kevin M; McCarty, Carolyn A; Stoep, Ann Vander; McCauley, Elizabeth
While the interpretation and effects of parenting on developmental outcomes may be different across European and Asian/Pacific Islander (API) American youth, measurement invariance of parenting constructs has rarely been examined. Utilizing multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, we examined whether the latent structure of parenting measures are equivalent or different across European and API American youth. Perceived parental warmth, psychological control, and knowledge were reported by a community sample of 325 adolescents (242 Europeans and 83 APIs). Results indicated that one item did not load on mother psychological control for API American youth. After removing this item, we found metric invariance for all parenting dimensions, providing support for cross-cultural consistency in the interpretation of parenting items. Scalar invariance was found for father parenting, whereas three mother parenting items were non-invariant across groups at the scalar level. After taking into account several minor forms of measurement non-invariance, non-invariant factor means suggested that API Americans perceived lower parental warmth and knowledge but higher parental psychological control than European Americans. Overall, the degree of measurement non-invariance was not extensive and was primarily driven by a few parenting items. All but one parenting item included in this study may be used for future studies across European and API American youth.
Gerald, Bonnie L; Perkin, Judy E
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public has the right to a safe food and water supply. The Association supports collaboration among dietetics professionals, academics, representatives of the agriculture and food industries, and appropriate government agencies to ensure the safety of the food and water supply by providing education to the public and industry, promoting technologic innovation and applications, and supporting further research. Numerous bacterial, viral, and chemical food and water threats exist with certain populations such as the elderly, children, pregnant women, those in institutionalized settings, and the immune compromised being at high risk. Recent outbreaks of food and waterborne disease and threats of bioterrorism have focused attention on the safety of US food and water systems. The US government and other entities have developed programs to address challenges associated with maintaining food and water safety. Safety initiatives such as the Pathogen Reduction/Hazard Analysis Critical Point (HACCP), revisions to the Food Code, and the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations provide a framework to evaluate current and future challenges to the safety of food and water systems. Dietetics professionals should take a proactive role in ensuring that appropriate food and water safety practices are followed and can also assume major roles in food and water safety education and research.
Devi Kittu, Rohan Patil
Full Text Available Background: Medical education across the globe is perceived as being inherently stressful. Studies on psychological problems such as stress, depression and anxiety among medical students have found that these disorders are under diagnosed and under treated. In this background the present study was undertaken with the objectives to assess the magni-tude of depression and its association with stress among medical students. Methods: A Cross sectional study was undertaken among 235 medical students in a private medical college, Pondicherry. Tools similar to General Health Questionaire (GHQ-12 and Beck depression Inventory (BDI was used to screen psychological stress and depression respectively. Results: The prevalence of depression was 71% among medical students. Psychological stress was associated with depression. Conclusion: Emphasize should be laid on the importance of screening for depression of medical students on a regular basis for early detection and rendering appropriate intervention like group counseling, stress management training etc. to protect the future professionals.
Albrecht, Julie A; Nagy-Nero, Debe
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the public has the right to a safe food and water supply. The Association supports collaboration among food and nutrition professionals, academics, representatives of the agricultural and food industries, and appropriate government agencies to ensure the safety of the food and water supply by providing education to the public and industry, promoting technological innovation and applications, and supporting further research. New food and water safety issues evolve as the environment changes. Food and nutrition professionals should collaborate with food and agriculture industries and members of the medical community in a joint effort to address these issues. Recent food- and waterborne illnesses have occurred in new settings and/or unique foods not traditionally associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. New issues associated with food safety and security that have emerged support the need for continued education and research. Government programs have developed powerful tools such as FoodNet and PulseNet to detect food- and waterborne illness outbreaks in the United States. These government programs have provided the data to enhance public policy and educational programs such as FightBac! Mandatory and voluntary adoption of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points in the foodservice and processing industries have contributed to a decrease in foodborne illness outbreaks from traditional foods and some microorganisms usually associated with foodborne illnesses. Food and nutrition professionals are positioned to provide food and water safety education in community, clinical settings, and foodservice operations and food industries. With an aging population and an increased number of people at risk due to medical conditions for food- and waterborne illness, food and nutrition professionals should be involved in collaborative food and water safety issues in educational, research, and policy agenda settings. As
Rose, Anne C
In nineteenth-century science, the emotions played a crucial role in explaining the social behavior of animals and human beings. Beginning in the 1890s, however, the first American psychologists, resolutely parsimonious in method, dismissed affective experience as intellectually imprecise. Yet in practice, feelings continued to influence at least one research setting: animal experiments. Laboratory reports, although focused on learning, became a repository of informal observations about the animals' temperaments and moods. When American psychologists began to reexamine the emotions between the world wars, they drew on this empirical legacy in animal studies. They also devised a conceptual approach to emotion consistent with their expectation of experimental precision.
Perfect, Michelle M.; Thompson, Miriam E.; Mahoney, Emery
Completion of an internship that is accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA) is considered to be to the "gold standard" for health service psychology training programs. The Association of Psychology Postdoctoral and Internship Centers (APPIC) facilitates a Match process between participating applicants and internship…
Sanjay R Patel
Full Text Available Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is known to have a strong familial basis, no genetic polymorphisms influencing apnea risk have been identified in cross-cohort analyses. We utilized the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe to identify sleep apnea susceptibility loci. Using a panel of 46,449 polymorphisms from roughly 2,100 candidate genes on a customized Illumina iSelect chip, we tested for association with the apnea hypopnea index (AHI as well as moderate to severe OSA (AHI≥15 in 3,551 participants of the Cleveland Family Study and two cohorts participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study.Among 647 African-Americans, rs11126184 in the pleckstrin (PLEK gene was associated with OSA while rs7030789 in the lysophosphatidic acid receptor 1 (LPAR1 gene was associated with AHI using a chip-wide significance threshold of p-value<2×10(-6. Among 2,904 individuals of European ancestry, rs1409986 in the prostaglandin E2 receptor (PTGER3 gene was significantly associated with OSA. Consistency of effects between rs7030789 and rs1409986 in LPAR1 and PTGER3 and apnea phenotypes were observed in independent clinic-based cohorts.Novel genetic loci for apnea phenotypes were identified through the use of customized gene chips and meta-analyses of cohort data with replication in clinic-based samples. The identified SNPs all lie in genes associated with inflammation suggesting inflammation may play a role in OSA pathogenesis.
Lewis, Phyllis Trujillo; Shipman, Virginia C.; May, Philip A.
The relationship of selected demographic, socioeconomic status (SES), and psychological characteristics was examined in interviews with 176 Northern Plains American Indian mothers whose children were referred to diagnostic clinics for evaluation of developmental disabilities, including fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Thirty-nine mothers…
Zhou, H; Peng, J; Wang, D; Kou, L; Chen, F; Ye, M; Deng, Y; Yan, J; Liao, S
WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Studies show that psychological capital (PsyCap) is a protective factor against psychological distress, such as depressive symptoms. However, few have attempted to address the role of coping styles in the relationship between PsyCap and psychological distress. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: Our study found moderate levels of PsyCap among nurses in China. Among the subcategories of PsyCap, optimism and hope were most highly correlated with psychological distress. Psychological distress was positively associated with negative coping and negatively associated with positive coping. This study confirmed the partial mediating effect of coping styles in PsyCap and psychological distress among Chinese nurses. In other words, this study found direct and indirect effects of PsyCap on psychological distress mediated via coping styles. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: The significant mediating effect of negative and positive coping styles between PsyCap and psychological distress has implications for hospital administrators, especially nurse leaders. Effective strategies should be implemented to improve PsyCap and coping styles among Chinese nurses, and alleviate psychological distress. Optimism and hope should be emphasized in PsyCap investment. Different styles of coping are influenced and modified by teaching and experience. Therefore, it is essential that nurse managers organize educational and training programmes to provide nurses with relative coping knowledge and techniques, and improve their coping ability. Several studies suggest that coping styles are affected by social support. Thus, nurse managers should assist nurses with social support and enhance coping strategies to reduce psychological distress.
Storch, Eric A.; Nock, Matthew K.; Masia-Warner, Carrie; Barlas, Mitchell E.
We examined the relation of overt and relational victimization to depressive symptoms, fear of negative evaluation (FNE), social avoidance, and loneliness in a sample of Hispanic and African-American children. The Social Experience Questionnaire, Children's Depression Inventory, Social Anxiety Scale for Children--Revised, and Asher Loneliness…
Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Jain, Sachin; Flores-Torres, Leila L.; Perez, Roxanna; Carlson, Ralph
This investigation evaluated the effects of cuento therapy (an intervention using Spanish-language tales) on children's self-esteem, affect, and reading test performance. The sample was composed of 58 third-grade Mexican-American students who were randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. The results showed a mean self-esteem gain…
More research is needed that investigates how positive psychology-associated traits are predicted by neurocognitive processes. Correspondingly, the purpose of this study was to ascertain how, and to what extent, four traits, namely, grit, optimism, positive affect, and life satisfaction were predicted by the executive functioning (EF) dimensions…
Costa, Yuri; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi;
AIMS: To evaluate the possible association between the nociceptive blink reflex (nBR) and various pain-related psychological measures: the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3), the Fear of Pain Questionnaire III (FPQ-III), the Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire (PVAQ), the Somatosensory...
Boehm, Julia K.; Kubzansky, Laura D.
This review investigates the association between positive psychological well-being (PPWB) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We also consider the mechanisms by which PPWB may be linked with CVD, focusing on the health behaviors (e.g., smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sleep quality and quantity, and food consumption) and biological…
Van der Mussele, Stefan; Marien, Peter; Saerens, Jos; Somers, Nore; Goeman, Johan; De Deyn, Peter P.; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan
Objectives: The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of psychosis in mild cognitive impairment (MCI, Petersen's criteria) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia, and to characterize the associated behavioral and psychological signs and symptoms of dementia (BPSD). Method: A cross-section
Uchiyama, Ayako; Odagiri, Yuko; Ohya, Yumiko; Suzuki, Ayako; Hirohata, Kayoko; Kosugi, Shotaro; Shimomitsu, Teruichi
Nursing is a highly stressful occupation. Because nursing work involves interaction with patients and colleagues, competence in social skills may be a key issue in stress management among nurses. However, there are very few studies among nurses focused on social skills together with social support, both of which are important aspects of job stress. The aim of this study was to examine the interrelationships between social skills and social support with job stressors, problem-solving coping, and psychological distress among Japanese nurses. Data from a self-administered questionnaire of 1,197 female nurses who worked for 5 general hospitals in Japan were analyzed. Covariance structure analysis with structural equation modeling techniques showed that social skills and social support were positively related to each other, while they were negatively associated with psychological distress and job stressors, and positively associated with problem-solving coping. Furthermore, the direct association between social skills and psychological distress was stronger than the association between social support and psychological distress. These findings suggested that improving not only social support at work but also individual social skills is important for nurses' mental health.
Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Murray-Close, Dianna; Crick, Nicki R.
The purpose of this short-term longitudinal study was to examine Chinese children's trajectories of physical and relational aggression and their association with social-psychological adjustment problems (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency) and gender. Fourth and fifth grade children in Taiwan (n = 739, age 9-11) were followed across 1 year.…
Casad, Bettina J.; Flores, Abdiel J.; Didway, Jessica D.
People are reluctant to admit they harbor implicit biases. Students (N = 68) from four social psychology courses completed an assignment designed to raise awareness about implicit biases. After completing an Implicit Association Test (IAT), students answered six essay questions, read two articles on the IAT, and answered five additional essay…
Brouwers, Corline; Spindler, Helle; Larsen, Mogens Lytken;
ABSTRACT Objective: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a promising marker for heart failure diagnosis and prognosis. Although psychological factors also influence heart failure (HF) prognosis, this might be attributed to confounding by BNP. Our aim was to examine the association between multiple...
Sarkova, Maria; Bacikova-Sleskova, Maria; Orosova, Olga; Geckova, Andrea Madarasova; Katreniakova, Zuzana; Klein, Daniel; van den Heuvel, Wim; van Dijk, Jitse P.
This study explored the associations between adolescents assertive behavior, psychological well-being, and self-esteem. The sample consisted of 1,023 students (14.9 +/-.51; 47.6% boys). Two dimensions of the Scale for Interpersonal Behavior (distress and performance), 2 factors of the General Health
Chang, Jen Jen; Theodore, Adrea D.; Martin, Sandra L.; Runyan, Desmond K.
Objective: This study examined the association between partner psychological abuse and child maltreatment perpetration. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined a population-based sample of mothers with children aged 0-17 years in North and South Carolina (n = 1,149). Mothers were asked about the occurrence of potentially neglectful or abusive…
O'Shea, Geoffrey; Bashore, Theodore R
The American Journal of Psychology (AJP) was founded in 1887 by G. Stanley Hall during what Edwin G. Boring (1950) called the Period of Mental Chronometry and, consistent with the prevailing interests of the time, featured articles of relevance to scientists in this research domain. Contained in the early volumes of AJP were several articles that examined what have become some of the enduring issues faced by researchers studying the structure and timing of mental processing using reaction time (RT) procedures. Collectively, RT research published in AJP during its early years contributed to establishing mental chronometry as an important subfield of psychology. From 1900 to 1950 interest in mental chronometry waned, during what has been called its Dark Age. Nonetheless, interest in the effects of factors such as age and intelligence on total RT continued unabated. Numerous articles pertinent to these effects appeared in AJP. Finally, with the publication of Neisser's (1963) seminal work on visual search, AJP played an important role in reviving interest in mental chronometry in the latter half of the 20th century and continues in its 125th year of existence to contribute pertinent articles on contemporary research in mental chronometry.
Robert A Semel
Full Text Available The validity of self-report psychological test results in forensic contexts may be compromised as a result of examinee response style bias to over report or underreport psychological problems. This paper briefly discusses two forensic contexts associated with tendencies of examinees to underreport problems, i.e., child custody evaluations and juvenile delinquency evaluations for disposition. Despite the finding that most examinees in both of these populations obtain within normal limits scores on clinical scales, it is suggested that testing may be helpful in identifying potential problems in some segment of each of these forensic populations. This opinion is supported by findings in empirical studies.
Richard, A.; Rohrmann, S; Vandeleur, C.L.; Mohler-Kuo, M.; Eichholzer, M
BACKGROUND: Several studies observed associations of various aspects of diet with mental health, but little is known about the relationship between following the 5-a-day recommendation for fruit and vegetables consumption and mental health. Thus, we examined the associations of the Swiss daily recommended fruit and vegetable intake with psychological distress. METHODS: Data from 20,220 individuals aged 15+ years from the 2012 Swiss Health Survey were analyzed. The recommended portions of f...
Chronic neck pain, a common cause of disability, seems to be the result of several interacting mechanisms. In addition to degenerative and inflammatory changes and trauma, psychological and psychosocial factors are also involved. One common type of trauma associated with chronic neck pain is whiplash injury; this sometimes results in whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), a controversial condition with largely unknown pathogenetic mechanisms. We studied the prevalence of chronic neck pain of tra...
...; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), DOT... decision to grant the application for exemption from the American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) on behalf.... Christine Hydock, FMCSA Driver and Carrier Operations Division, Office of Bus and Truck Standards...
Palmer, Nicholette D; McDonough, Caitrin W; Hicks, Pamela J
African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wid...
Palmer, Nicholette D.; McDonough, Caitrin W.; Hicks, Pamela J.; Roh, Bong H.; Wing, Maria R.; An, S. Sandy; Hester, Jessica M.; Cooke, Jessica N.; Bostrom, Meredith A.; Rudock, Megan E.; Talbert, Matthew E.; Lewis, Joshua P.; Ferrara, Assiamira; Lu, Lingyi; Ziegler, Julie T.; Sale, Michele M.; Divers, Jasmin; Shriner, Daniel; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N.; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Langefeld, Carl D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Bowden, Donald W.
African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide A
... Exemption; American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration... the list of member motor carriers of the American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) that were granted an... covered renewal of 53 APA-member motor carriers and added 9 new APA-member carriers. It allowed drivers...
Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Levov, Kathy; Schultz, Yakov; Radomislensky, Ira
This study examined the adult attachment styles, interpersonal distance from potential attachment figures and strangers, coping strategies, perceived social support, and stress-related self-variables among patients diagnosed with adjustment disorders (AJD). Seventy patients at an outpatient clinic and 61 matched controls completed a battery of standardized questionnaires. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were used to evaluate the parameters of interest. Using attachment theory (J. Bowlby, 1988) and the dynamic stress-vulnerability model of depressive disorder (G. W. Brown & T. O. Harris, 1989) as the analytical frameworks, the authors hypothesized that participants with AJD would: (a) display more insecure attachment styles, (b) be less tolerant of close interpersonal proximity, (c) use more emotion-oriented coping strategies, (d) display lower self-efficacy and self-esteem, and (e) perceive less social support from family, friends, and significant others. We further hypothesized that these variables would be predictive of depressive symptoms. All of the hypotheses were confirmed. The results suggest that the insecure fearful-avoidant attachment style is associated with severe depressive symptoms in patients with AJD. However, other psychosocial factors, such as low self-esteem and poor social support from friends, were more predictive of AJD symptoms. The findings warrant further studies on the risk and protective effects of these factors in the development of AJD and other stress-induced disorders.
Full Text Available A report of the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for practice guidelines.
Full Text Available A report of the American College of Cardiology, American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for practice guidelines.
... American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF) for Continuing CMS Approval of Its Ambulatory Surgical Center Accreditation Program AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid... Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities (AAAASF) for continued recognition as...
Craig, Winston J; Mangels, Ann Reed
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that appropriately planned vegetarian diets, including total vegetarian or vegan diets, are healthful, nutritionally adequate, and may provide health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases. Well-planned vegetarian diets are appropriate for individuals during all stages of the life cycle, including pregnancy, lactation, infancy, childhood, and adolescence, and for athletes. A vegetarian diet is defined as one that does not include meat (including fowl) or seafood, or products containing those foods. This article reviews the current data related to key nutrients for vegetarians including protein, n-3 fatty acids, iron, zinc, iodine, calcium, and vitamins D and B-12. A vegetarian diet can meet current recommendations for all of these nutrients. In some cases, supplements or fortified foods can provide useful amounts of important nutrients. An evidence- based review showed that vegetarian diets can be nutritionally adequate in pregnancy and result in positive maternal and infant health outcomes. The results of an evidence-based review showed that a vegetarian diet is associated with a lower risk of death from ischemic heart disease. Vegetarians also appear to have lower low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, lower blood pressure, and lower rates of hypertension and type 2 diabetes than nonvegetarians. Furthermore, vegetarians tend to have a lower body mass index and lower overall cancer rates. Features of a vegetarian diet that may reduce risk of chronic disease include lower intakes of saturated fat and cholesterol and higher intakes of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, soy products, fiber, and phytochemicals. The variability of dietary practices among vegetarians makes individual assessment of dietary adequacy essential. In addition to assessing dietary adequacy, food and nutrition professionals can also play key roles in educating vegetarians about sources of specific nutrients
Ng, Sin Man; Hou, Wai Kai
Relatively little is known about the emotional processes underlying the association between adult attachment styles and psychological distress. This study aims to examine the role of contentment in terms of intensity and duration in the positive associations between anxious and avoidant attachment styles and psychological distress. A sample of 284 Chinese university students completed a self-reported questionnaire on attachment styles, intensity and duration of contentment, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that duration of contentment mediated the positive associations of anxious attachment style with anxiety symptoms [β = 0.05, p = 0.004; BC 95% CI (0.02,0.11)] and depressive symptoms [β = 0.04, p = 0.03; BC 95% CI (0.003,0.09)], model fit: χ2(259) = 455.06, p < 0.001, CFI = 0.95, TLI = 0.94, RMSEA = 0.05, SRMR = 0.07. Participants with higher anxious attachment style were more likely to report shorter duration of contentment, which was, in turn, associated with higher anxiety and depressive symptoms. The results suggest a positive emotional pathway underlying the association between anxious attachment style and psychological distress. Implications based on the findings are discussed. PMID:28275363
van Dijk Jitse P
Full Text Available Abstract Background Knowledge about the prevalence of sexual risk behaviour (SRB in adolescence is needed to prevent unwanted health consequences. Studies on SRB among adolescents in Central Europe are rare and mostly rely on a single indicator for SRB. This study aims to assess the association of behavioural and psychological factors with three types of SRB in adolescents in Central Europe. Methods We obtained data on behavioural factors (having been drunk during previous month, smoking during previous week, early sexual initiation, psychological factors (self-esteem, well-being, extroversion, neuroticism, religiousness, and SRB (intercourse under risky conditions, multiple sexual partners, and inconsistent condom use in 832 Slovak university students (response 94.3%. Results Among those with sexual experience (62%, inconsistent condom use was the most prevalent risk behaviour (81% in females, 72% in males. With the exception of having been drunk in males, no factor was associated with inconsistent condom use. Regarding the other types of SRB, early sexual initiation was most strongly associated. In addition, other, mostly behavioural, factors were associated, in particular having been drunk. Conclusion Results suggest that behavioural factors are more closely related to SRB than psychological factors. Associations differ by type of SRB and gender but offer few clues to target risk groups for inconsistent condom use. Results show a high need for health-promotion programmes in early adolescence that target SRB in conjunction with other health risk behaviours such as alcohol abuse.
Mahoney, John W; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Mallett, Cliff J; Mallet, Cliff J
We argue that basic psychological needs theory (BPNT) offers impetus to the value of mental toughness as a mechanism for optimizing human functioning. We hypothesized that psychological needs satisfaction (thwarting) would be associated with higher (lower) levels of mental toughness, positive affect, and performance and lower (higher) levels of negative affect. We also expected that mental toughness would be associated with higher levels of positive affect and performance and lower levels of negative affect. Further, we predicted that coaching environments would be related to mental toughness indirectly through psychological needs and that psychological needs would indirectly relate with performance and affect through mental toughness. Adolescent cross-country runners (136 male and 85 female, M(age) = 14.36) completed questionnaires pertaining to BPNT variables, mental toughness, and affect. Race times were also collected. Our findings supported our hypotheses. We concluded that BPNT is generative in understanding some of the antecedents and consequences of mental toughness and is a novel framework useful for understanding mental toughness.
Silva, Mabile Francine Ferreira
Full Text Available Introduction: The peripheral facial paralysis (PFP results from the reduction or interruption of the axonal transport to the seventh cranial nerve resulting in complete or partial paralysis of the facial movements. The facial deformity and limitation of movements, besides affecting the aesthetics and functionality, can significantly interfere with interpersonal communication. Objective: Investigate the psychological contents and other social effects associated to PFP in adult subjects, performing a comparative analysis in three groups of subjects with PFP: at flaccid, recovery and sequel phases. Method: Quantitative and qualitative research. 16 adult subjects, from both sexes, aging between 43 and 88 years old, with PFP. Procedure: Open interviews with subjects. The material was recorded in audio and video, literally transcribed, systematized through categorical and statistical analysis. Results: The subjects bearing sequels presented higher statistical significance of psychological contents and social effects associated to PFP. Followed, respectively, by those that were on flaccid and recovery phases. The results suggest that the speech-language therapist, besides performing functional and aesthetical rehabilitation with the subject with PFP, needs to be aware of psychological and social aspects that may be involved, in order to evaluate and seek to reduce the degree of psychological distress and promote the social adjustment of these patients. Conclusion: The biopsychosocial approach to patients with PFP revealed a wide and significant range of subjective contents that warrant new studies that may contribute to the effectiveness of the speech-language clinical method to approach this medical condition.
Gruber, June; Kogan, Aleksandr; Quoidbach, Jordi; Mauss, Iris B
Positive emotion has been shown to be associated with adaptive outcomes in a number of domains, including psychological health. However, research has largely focused on overall levels of positive emotion with less attention paid to how variable versus stable it is across time. We thus examined the psychological health correlates of positive emotion variability versus stability across 2 distinct studies, populations, and scientifically validated approaches for quantifying variability in emotion across time. Study 1 used a daily experience approach in a U.S. community sample (N = 244) to examine positive emotion variability across 2 weeks (macrolevel). Study 2 adopted a daily reconstruction method in a French adult sample (N = 2,391) to examine variability within 1 day (microlevel). Greater macro- and microlevel variability in positive emotion was associated with worse psychological health, including lower well-being and life satisfaction and greater depression and anxiety (Study 1), and lower daily satisfaction, life satisfaction, and happiness (Study 2). Taken together, these findings support the notion that positive emotion variability plays an important and incremental role in psychological health above and beyond overall levels of happiness, and that too much variability might be maladaptive.
Koocher, G P
The 1992 version of the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct brings some changes in requirements and new specificity to the practice of psychology. The impact of the new code on therapeutic contracts, informed consent to psychological services, advertising, financial aspects of psychological practice, and other topics related to the commerce of professional psychology are discussed. The genesis of many new thrusts in the code is reviewed from the perspective of psychological service provider. Specific recommendations for improved attention to ethical matters in professional practice are made.
Barry, M J; Fowler, F J; O'Leary, M P; Bruskewitz, R C; Holtgrewe, H L; Mebust, W K; Cockett, A T
A symptom index for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) was developed and validated by a multidisciplinary measurement committee of the American Urological Association (AUA). Validation studies were conducted involving a total of 210 BPH patients and 108 control subjects. The final AUA symptom index includes 7 questions covering frequency, nocturia, weak urinary stream, hesitancy, intermittence, incomplete emptying and urgency. On revalidation, the index was internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) and the score generated had excellent test-retest reliability (r = 0.92). Scores were highly correlated with subjects' global ratings of the magnitude of their urinary problem (r = 0.65 to 0.72) and powerfully discriminated between BPH and control subjects (receiver operating characteristic area 0.85). Finally, the index was sensitive to change, with preoperative scores decreasing from a mean of 17.6 to 7.1 by 4 weeks after prostatectomy (p < 0.001). The AUA symptom index is clinically sensible, reliable, valid and responsive. It is practical for use in practice and for inclusion in research protocols.
Shupe, Ellen I.
In its recent report outlining principles for teaching undergraduate students in psychology, the American Psychological Association Board of Educational Affairs recommended including experiential learning in the curriculum and identified study abroad opportunities as being particularly valuable. Unfortunately, although American universities offer…
Full Text Available Maternal psychological distress is one of the most common perinatal complications, affecting up to 25% of pregnant and postpartum women. Research exploring the association between prenatal and postnatal distress and toddler cognitive development has not been systematically compiled. The objective of this systematic review was to determine the association between prenatal and postnatal psychological distress and toddler cognitive development.Articles were included if: a they were observational studies published in English; b the exposure was prenatal or postnatal psychological distress; c cognitive development was assessed from 13 to 36 months; d the sample was recruited in developed countries; and e exposed and unexposed women were included. A university-based librarian conducted a search of electronic databases (Embase, CINAHL, Eric, PsycInfo, Medline (January, 1990-March, 2014. We searched gray literature, reference lists, and relevant journals. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles/abstracts for inclusion, and quality using the Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network appraisal tool for observational studies. One reviewer extracted data using a standardized form.Thirteen of 2448 studies were included. There is evidence of an association between prenatal and postnatal distress and cognitive development. While variable effect sizes were reported for postnatal associations, most studies reported medium effect sizes for the association between prenatal psychological distress and cognitive development. Too few studies were available to determine the influence of the timing of prenatal exposure on cognitive outcomes.Findings support the need for early identification and treatment of perinatal mental health problems as a potential strategy for optimizing toddler cognitive development.
Proposes guidelines for revising the American Psychological Association (APA) publication manual or other APA materials to clarify the application of statistics in research reports. The guidelines are intended to induce authors and editors to recognize the thoughtless application of statistical methods. Contains 54 references. (SLD)
Hasler, Clare M; Brown, Amy C
All foods are functional at some physiological level, but it is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA) that functional foods that include whole foods and fortified, enriched, or enhanced foods have a potentially beneficial effect on health when consumed as part of a varied diet on a regular basis, at effective levels. ADA supports research to further define the health benefits and risks of individual functional foods and their physiologically active components. Health claims on food products, including functional foods, should be based on the significant scientific agreement standard of evidence and ADA supports label claims based on such strong scientific substantiation. Food and nutrition professionals will continue to work with the food industry, allied health professionals, the government, the scientific community, and the media to ensure that the public has accurate information regarding functional foods and thus should continue to educate themselves on this emerging area of food and nutrition science. Knowledge of the role of physiologically active food components, from plant, animal, and microbial food sources, has changed the role of diet in health. Functional foods have evolved as food and nutrition science has advanced beyond the treatment of deficiency syndromes to reduction of disease risk and health promotion. This position paper reviews the definition of functional foods, their regulation, and the scientific evidence supporting this evolving area of food and nutrition. Foods can no longer be evaluated only in terms of macronutrient and micronutrient content alone. Analyzing the content of other physiologically active components and evaluating their role in health promotion will be necessary. The availability of health-promoting functional foods in the US diet has the potential to help ensure a healthier population. However, each functional food should be evaluated on the basis of scientific evidence to ensure appropriate integration
Full Text Available Aims: Investigate subjective health complaints (SHC in chronic whiplash associated disorder (WAD, grade I & II patients, and to identify physical, psychological, and collision associated factors that might be associated with high levels of comorbidity. Method: During the years 2000-2002 171 chronic WAD patients filled in questionnaires and underwent physical examination. The prevalence of SHC was recorded and compared with a representative sample of the Norwegian population (n=1014. Results: The chronic WAD patients reported higher number of subjective health complaints (median: 9 than the general population (median: 5. They showed significantly higher risk of reporting all musculoskeletal complaints, palpitation, heat flushes, sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, breathing difficulties, chest pain, coughing, heartburn, gas discomfort, and obstipation. The patients with the highest level of comorbid subjective health complaints also reported more function loss, reading difficulties, poorer quality of life, higher psychological distress, higher use of medication, and less optimism about their situation. There were no differences however, in any collision factors or physical meassures recorded by physiotherapists between the high, medium and low comorbidity groups. Conclusion: The high comorbidity of other complaints, the strong relationships between degree of comorbidity and psychological factors, and the lack of relationships between degree of comorbidity and collision factors and physical tests, suggest that chronic WAD is best understood as a syndrome and not simply as a neck injury. Sensitization is suggested as a possible psychobiological mechanism
Jurado, Dolores; Alarcón, Renato D; Martínez-Ortega, José M; Mendieta-Marichal, Yaiza; Gutiérrez-Rojas, Luis; Gurpegui, Manuel
We systematically review factors associated with the presence of psychological distress or common mental disorders in migrant populations. Articles published between January 2000 and December 2014 were reviewed and 85 applying multivariate statistical analysis were selected. Common mental disorders were significantly associated with socio-demographic and psychological characteristics, as observed in large epidemiological studies on general populations. The probability of common mental disorders occurrence differs significantly among migrant groups according to their region of origin. Moreover, traumatic events prior to migration, forced, unplanned, poorly planned or illegal migration, low level of acculturation, living alone or separated from family in the host country, lack of social support, perceived discrimination, and the length of migrants' residence in the host country all increase the likelihood of CMD. In contrast, language proficiency, family reunification, and perceived social support reduce such probability. Factors related with the risk of psychiatric morbidity among migrants should be taken into account to design preventive strategies.
Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, social psychologists diagnosed their field as suffering a state of disciplinary crisis. The crisis was a multifaceted one, but issues of methodology, social relevance, and disciplinary, philosophical, and theoretical orientation were the primary areas of concern. Given that these issues have been prominent ones throughout the history of the social and behavioral sciences, it becomes necessary to look to the immediate context of the 1970s crisis to understand how and why a disciplinary crisis came to be diagnosed. The present analysis suggests that the crisis reflected the larger crisis in American society and also drew on the language of crisis prevalent at the time. Employing this language may have offered the field a method of making sense of, reframing, and redirecting internal and external critiques of the discipline.
Risser, Jan M H; Timpson, Sandra C; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Ross, Michael W; Williams, Mark L
This article compares demographic characteristics, sexual practices, and psychosocial status among 193 African American female crack cocaine users who currently, previously, or never traded sex for money. Current traders were less likely to have a main sexual partner, more likely to have a casual sexual partner, and more likely to smoke larger quantities of crack. There was a significant trend towards current traders reporting lower self-esteem, greater depression and anxiety, poorer decision-making confidence, more hostility, less social conformity, greater risk taking behaviors, and more problems growing up, compared to previous and never traders. These differences suggest that interventions should address self-esteem, risk-taking practices, depression and anxiety as well as other psychosocial factors.
Atkinson, J S; Schönnesson, L Nilsson; Williams, M L; Timpson, S C
Adherence to HIV medication regimens is a function of multiple dimensions including psychological functioning, social support, adherence self-efficacy and optimism regarding treatment. Active substance use can also negatively affect adherence. An understanding of the nature of the associations among the correlates of adherence can better inform the design of interventions to improve adherence. This study developed an exploratory path model of schedule adherence using data from a sample 130 African-American HIV-positive crack cocaine users on highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART). This model was based on the Transactional Model of Stress and Coping developed by Lazarus and Folkman. Following the theory, the effects of psychological distress on schedule adherence were mediated by patients' relationship with their doctor and optimism towards antiretroviral treatment. Adherence was also associated with patients' self-efficacy regarding their medical regimen which, in turn, was associated with their social support.
Liu, Li; Xu, Xin; Wu, Hui; Yang, Yilong; Wang, Lie
Background As a specific male occupational group, underground coal miners have been commonly found to have a high prevalence of cigarette smoking. It is of urgent need to explore some factors that could be intervened to reduce smoking from personal or internal perspective. The purpose of the present study was to examine the associations of psychological capital (PsyCap), demographic and occupational factors with smoking among Chinese underground coal miners. Methods A cross-sectional survey w...
Devi Kittu, Rohan Patil
Background: Medical education across the globe is perceived as being inherently stressful. Studies on psychological problems such as stress, depression and anxiety among medical students have found that these disorders are under diagnosed and under treated. In this background the present study was undertaken with the objectives to assess the magni-tude of depression and its association with stress among medical students. Methods: A Cross sectional study was undertaken among 235 medical st...
Viñas i Poch, Ferran; Canals Sans, Josepa; Gras Pérez, María Eugenia; Ros, Claudia; Domènech, Edelmira
To assess the psychological and family factors associated with suicidal ideation in preadolescent children, we studied a sample of 361 students, average age 9 years old. Two groups were formed, on the basis of the presence (n = 34) or absence (n = 44) of suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation was assessed with the Children’s Depression Inventory and the Children’s Depression Rating Scale-Revised. Depression, hopelessness, self-esteem, and perceived family environment were compared in both th...
Skovbjerg, Signe; Rasmussen, Alice; Zachariae, Robert
this association has not been clarified. The objective of this study was to examine the association between psychological distress and IEI and to determine whether the association is confounded by social support and major life events. Methods Data were collected by postal questionnaires; other results from...... consequences, as the dependent variables, and psychological distress, social support and major life events as the independent variables. Results Our study confirmed positive and statistically significant associations between psychological distress and IEI. The associations remained statistically significant......Objectives Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) is a disorder characterized by non-specific symptoms attributed to common airborne chemicals. Increasing evidence points to an association between IEI and symptoms of psychological distress. However, whether other risk factors influence...
This study was to investigate the association of psychological characteristics and functional dyspepsia treatment outcome. 109 patients who met the criteria for FD were enrolled. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL90), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were used to measure personality, psychological symptoms, and sleep quality in our patients. Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ) was used to assess dyspeptic symptoms at baseline and after eight weeks of treatment. The LDQ scores change after therapy, and the degraded rate of LDQ was used to assess the prognosis of patients. Logistic regression model was used to assess the effect of the personality, psychological symptoms, and sleep quality on the prognosis of patients. Our result revealed that poor sleep quality (OR = 7.68, 95% CI 1.83–32.25) and bad marriage status (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.10–1.36) had the negative effect on the prognosis of FD, while extroversion in personality traits (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.76–0.96) had positive effect on the prognosis of FD. We should pay attention to the sleep quality, the personality, and the marriage status of FD patients; psychological intervention may have benefit in refractory FD. PMID:27547220
Soffer-Dudek, Nirit; Shahar, Golan
Sleep-related experiences [Watson, D. (2001). Dissociations of the night: Individual differences in sleep-related experiences and their relation to dissociation and schizotypy. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 526-535] refer to a host of nocturnal altered-consciousness phenomena, including narcoleptic tendencies, nightmares, problem-solving dreams, waking dreams, and lucid dreams. In an attempt to clarify the meaning of this construct, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of sleep-related experiences (SREs), altered-consciousness tendencies (i.e., dissociation and transliminality), psychological distress, childhood maltreatment (i.e., abuse and neglect), and life stress in young adults. Both types of SREs (general SREs and lucid dreaming) were found to be distinguishable from altered-consciousness tendencies. Transliminality emerged as a longitudinal predictor of both general SREs and lucid dreams. Psychological distress and an increase in life stress predicted an increase in general SREs over a 3-month interval. We conclude that transliminality is a general altered-consciousness trait that accounts for some of the individual differences in sleep-related experiences, and that general sleep experiences are an outcome of psychological distress and life stress.
Weaver, Kenneth A
The National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula (American Psychological Association, 2013b) require a teacher with considerable psychology content knowledge to teach high school psychology courses effectively. In this study, I examined the initial teaching credential requirements for high school psychology teachers in the 50 states plus the District of Columbia. Thirty-four states (the District of Columbia is included as a state) require the social studies credential to teach high school psychology. An analysis of the items on standardized tests used by states to validate the content knowledge required to teach social studies indicates little or no presence of psychology, a reflection of psychology's meager presence in the social studies teacher preparation curricula. Thus, new teachers with the social studies teaching credential are not prepared to teach high school psychology according to the National Standards. Approval of The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards: Guidance for Enhancing the Rigor of K-12 Civics, Economics, Geography, and History (National Council for the Social Studies, 2013) presents an opportunity to advocate for establishing a psychology credential in the 34 states.
Doron, Julie; Gaudreau, Patrick
This study aimed to revisit the complex nature of serial dependency of performance during a match, examining the prospective associations between psychological processes and subsequent performance at the within-person level of analysis, and explore whether psychological processes are associated with the likelihood of winning series of points. A process-oriented sequential approach was used with 16 elite fencers during a simulated competition. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that serial dependency of performance fluctuates within a match. Results of a Bayesian multilevel structural equation model showed that prior performance subsequently influenced psychological processes. Although psychological processes did not predict performance in the subsequent point, successive winnings were associated with higher perceived control and task-oriented coping and lower negative affectivity compared with both losing streaks and nonstreaks. Overall, serial dependencies of performance are nonstationary during a match whereas psychological processes significantly differ in episodes of winning after winning versus losing after losing.
Borg, Mark B
This article follows the development and progress of the US Department of Housing and Urban Development's 'Healthy and Safe Communities' initiative as it was implemented by a community empowerment organization during a four-year community revitalization project in the aftermath of the Los Angeles riots. The author explores practical aspects of Community Health Psychology through assessing the ways in which its organizing principles were manifest in community-wide processes of individual and community change in one low-income housing project in South Central Los Angeles called Avalon Gardens. Specifically highlighted is how a group of African American and Latino men in the community created a group forum that helped foster, support and sustain an empowerment process that supported health promotion, health consciousness and significant health improvement in the community.
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Early Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Marguerita Lightfoot for her leadership, innovation, and commitment to applying psychological principles to develop behavioral health interventions for…
Ord, Anna S.; Ripley, Jennifer S.; Hook, Joshua; Erspamer, Tiffany
Although statistical methods and research design are crucial areas of competency for psychologists, few studies explore how statistics are taught across doctoral programs in psychology in the United States. The present study examined 153 American Psychological Association-accredited doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology and aimed…
Norcross, John C.; Sayette, Michael A.; Stratigis, Katerina Y.; Zimmerman, Barrett E.
Students often inquire about which psychology courses to complete in preparation for graduate school. This study provides data that enable students and their advisors to make research-informed decisions. We surveyed the directors of the 304 American Psychological Association-accredited doctoral programs in clinical and counseling psychology (97%…
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Laurie R. Santos for creative and insightful investigations of cognition across a broad range of species and psychological domains, illuminating cognitive…
Becerra, Benjamin J; Scroggins, Christy M; Becerra, Monideepa B
Our objective was to study the comorbidity of asthma and obesity among foreign-born Asian Americans, by subgroups. Public data from the California Health Interview Survey, 2001-2011, were analyzed by using independent logistic regressions, yielding the association between asthma and obesity (Asian and standard cutoffs for body mass index [BMIs]) of 19,841 Asian American immigrant respondents. Chinese, Filipino, South Asian, and Japanese immigrants had a positive association between lifetime asthma and obesity, whereas among Korean immigrants, a positive association was found between lifetime asthma and overweight status (standard BMI cutoffs). Routine screening for this comorbidity is warranted among immigrant Asian Americans.
Денисова, Наталия; Ефимова, Алла
В статье дается представление об истории возникновения «Публикационного руководства Ассоциации американских психологов» (Publication Manual of American Psychological Association). Данное пособие является базовым для написания научных работ по психологии и некоторым социальным дисциплинам, требующим следованию стиля АРА (American Psychological Association). В статье рассматривается влияние процесса информационной перегрузки и принципа индустриальной рационализации, определивших основные подход...
Americans with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John Harley, M.D., Ph.D...September 2012 – 31 August 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Genome-Wide Association Study in African-Americans with Systemic Lupus ...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Systemic lupus erythematosus ( lupus ) is a potentially deadly systemic autoimmune disease that disproportionately
Full Text Available Background: Extraintestinal symptoms are common in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. In the present study, we determined the relationship between psychological disorders and extraintestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. Methods: Adult patients with IBS referred to 4 gastroenterology clinics in Isfahan, Iran, completed the irritable bowel severity scoring system, extraintestinal symptoms scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life (IBS-QOL Questionnaire. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: The patients included 113 females and 45 males with mean age of 34.8 ± 11.1 years. Cumulative frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was 3.3 ± 2.4 (0 to 10. Anxiety and depression were present in 79.7% and 54.4% of the patients, respectively. Frequency of extraintestinal symptoms was correlated with anxiety and depression (r = 0.289 to 0.531, IBS severity (r = 0.373 to 0.505, and quality of life (r = -0.317 to -0.398. Severity of IBS was independently associated with extraintestinal digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = 0.248. Female gender, education level, and anxiety were independently associated with extraintestinal non-digestive symptoms’ frequency (β = -0.225 to 0.260. Severity of IBS and frequency of non-digestive symptoms were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.494 and -0.218. After controlling for psychological factors, IBS severity and depression were independent predictors of quality of life (β = -0.435 and -0.318. Conclusion: Extraintestinal symptoms and psychological disorders are common in patients with IBS and impact their quality of life. Psychological disorders are associated with extraintestinal symptoms, especially non-digestive symptoms. These results highlight the need for an integrated biopsychosocial approach to the management of IBS patients with physical and mental comorbidities.
言語事実の記述・分析により,言語の本質を追及することを目指す今日の科学的言語学において,「文法」は規範文法-言葉による正確な自己表現を可能にするためのルール-を意味しない.しかし,思考内容を正しく文章に表現するための技術への要請は消滅することなく,その伝統は文章読本,論文執筆マニュアルといった形で続いている.本稿では,今日を代表する英語論文執筆マニュアルであるアメリカ心理学会発行のPublication Manual of the American Psychological Associationの"g...
Iwamoto, Derek Kenji; LIU, WILLIAM MING
The current study investigated the direct and moderating effects of racial identity, ethnic identity, Asian values, and race-related stress on positive psychological well-being among 402 Asian American and Asian international college students. Results revealed that the racial identity statuses Internalization, Immersion-Emersion, Dissonance, Asian values and Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Belonging were significant predictors of well-being. Asian values, Dissonance and Conformity were found ...
Silva, Mauro Rubens
Starting with the excellent collective work done by the European Community (EC)-funded Virtual Reality Environments for Psycho-Neuro-physiological Assessment and Rehabilitation (VREPAR) projects, I try to indicate some possible pathways that would allow a better integration of this advanced technology into the reality of Latin American psychology. I myself use analyses that I did in my master's degree in the PUCSP-Catholic University in São Paulo, Brazil. I also include a brief description of the CD-ROM Clinical Psychology Uses of Virtual Reality (CPUVR) that accompanies my thesis. I point out the importance of collaboration between psychology and other disciplines, including computer science. I explain the method that I used to work with digital information, important for the formation of a critical mass of people thinking in Portuguese and Spanish to accelerate a technological jump.
Moskowitz, J T; Duncan, L G; Moran, P J; Acree, M; Epel, E S; Kemeny, M E; Hecht, F M; Folkman, S
We used a Stress and Coping model to examine the association of dispositional mindfulness, defined as the tendency to intentionally bring nonjudgmental attention and awareness to one's experience in the present moment, with psychological and physical health in adults with HIV. Data were collected at baseline of a randomized controlled trial of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). Four facets of mindfulness (acting with attention/awareness, nonjudging of inner experience, observing, and describing) were examined as correlates of appraisal, positive and negative affect, coping, and indicators of psychological well-being and physical health. We found that mindfulness was inversely related to depression, stress appraisal, and negative affect, and positively related to positive affect. Mindfulness was also inversely related to escape/avoidance and self-blame forms of coping. Mediational analyses indicate that perceived stress and negative affect were the most consistent mediators of the association of mindfulness and psychological well-being. The findings from this paper contribute to a growing understanding of the potential adaptive role of mindfulness in people living with the stress of serious illness.
Holtgrewe, H L
The American Urological Association, in a survey of all American urologists, found that TURP accounts for 38 per cent of their major surgery and also found that activities associated with the operation account for nearly 25 per cent of their total patient workload. American urologists regard TURP as complex, and they believe proficiency requires more practical case experience during residency training than is required for any other urologic operation. American urologists assign TURP a significantly higher relative value than that proposed in the pending national Medicare Fee Schedule formulated by medical economists and the Physician Payment Review Commission. The legislated reductions in allowable Medicare fees for TURP and the possible shift in management of benign prostatic hyperplasia to nonsurgical methods create a financial vulnerability for American urologists who remain economically dependent on this dominant operation. Adjustments in practice patterns and manpower policy planning may well be required.
Greiner, Lori A.
Frank C. Gwazdauskas of Blacksburg, Va., the David and Margaret Lincicome Professor in the Department of Dairy Science in Virginia Tech's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, received the 2008 American Dairy Science Association (ADSA) Fellow Award.
... American Association for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities for Continued Deeming Authority for Ambulatory Surgical Centers AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS). ACTION: Final notice... for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities' (AAAASF) request for continued recognition as...
Powers, E M; Ay, C C; Eckfeldt, G A; Rowley, D B
The American Public Health Association method for counting low numbers of yeast and mold in cottage cheese was unsatisfactory due to altered pH of the culture medium. A modification of this method is presented.
Zachariae, Robert; Zachariae, Claus; Lei, Ulrikke
The subjective dimensions of pruritus and their associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life were explored in a sample of 40 psoriasis patients. The patients completed a scale with descriptors from the Structured Itch Questionnaire together with measures of depression, distress...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality....
Zachariae, R.; Zachariae, C.O.; Lei, U.
The subjective dimensions of pruritus and their associations with psychological symptoms and quality of life were explored in a sample of 40 psoriasis patients. The patients completed a scale with descriptors from the Structured Itch Questionnaire together with measures of depression, distress...... and psychological symptoms. The results confirm that pruritus is multidimensional and indicate that the affective dimension may be the most important predictor of pruritus-related psychological morbidity, and that the association may be mediated by its negative impact on sleep quality Udgivelsesdato: 2008...
Holmes, Jeffrey D.; Beins, Bernard C.
The American Psychological Association's (2007) curricular guidelines recommend that students develop both an understanding of how psychologists do research and an appreciation for why scientific thinking is necessary. We surveyed a large sample of psychology majors on specific interests, as well as individual difference variables relevant to…
Morganett, L. Lee
The latest contribution to the content standards boom that began in the 1990s comes from the American Psychological Association (APA), which recently published "National Standards for the Teaching of High School Psychology." This Digest discusses: (1) the origin and purposes of the project to develop standards for high school psychology…
Haverkamp, Beth E.
The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…
Daniel, Robert S.
Reviews the publishing history of "Teaching of Psychology" from its days as a Division Two (within the American Psychological Association) newsletter to its current role as a leading academic journal. Discusses content, format, and personnel changes from 1950 to the present. Includes a table of editors and publication data. (MJP)
Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Wood, Rebecca M.; Austad, Carol Shaw; Fallahi, Hamid
We examined the effects of in-class writing instruction, practice, peer review, and feedback on writing skills of undergraduates enrolled in a general psychology course. We rated writing for grammar, writing style, mechanics, and American Psychological Association referencing style. Significant differences emerged on the 4 writing skill domains (p…
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in…
Harris, Abigail M.
Currently, only a small percentage of internships accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA) are filled by school psychology interns and only a few of the available APA internship positions are in schools. Program data submitted online to APA indicate that many interns are in sites that meet the guidelines adopted by the Council of…
Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the prevalence and social, psychological and environmental-structural determinants of tobacco experimentation among adolescents in Shanghai, China. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study based on a two-stage cluster sample design by using the Chinese version of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS to investigate smoking behavior among 19,117 students from 41 junior and senior high schools in Shanghai, China. The association between potential factors and tobacco experimentation were assessed using complex samples procedure logistic regression. Results: Of the 19,117 respondents, 10.5% (15.3% boys and 6.2% girls reported the tobacco experimentation. The main social, psychological, and environmental-structural factors associated with tobacco experimentation were having close friends who smoke (AOR = 8.21; 95% CI: 6.49–10.39; one or both parents smoking (AOR 1.57; CI: 1.39–1.77; a poor school tobacco control environment (AOR 1.53; CI: 1.37–1.83; a high acceptance level of tobacco use (AOR 1.44; CI: 1.28–1.82; and a high level of media tobacco exposure (AOR 1.23; CI: 1.10–1.37. Peer smoking might contribute to smoking experimentation among girls (AOR 8.93; CI: 5.84–13.66 more so than among boys (AOR 7.79; CI: 5.97–9.94 and media tobacco exposure had no association with tobacco experimentation among female students. Conclusions: Social, psychological, and environmental factors are closely associated with tobacco experimentation among adolescents. Prevention programs aimed at reducing teen tobacco experimentation should be conducted at home and school with support by parents, peers and teachers. Our findings should prove useful for future development of intervention strategies among adolescents in Shanghai, China.
Marks, Amy Kerivan; Coll, Cynthia García
Research regarding the development of early academic skills among American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) students has been very limited to date. Using a nationally representative sample of AIAN, Hispanic, African American, and White children at school entry, the authors used latent growth models to estimate the associations among poverty, low parental education, living in a rural location, as well as child attitudes toward learning and internalizing/externalizing behaviors, with mathematical and reading cognitive skill development across the 1st 4 years of school. Results indicate that AIAN children entered kindergarten with scores on both mathematical and reading cognitive tests that were comparable to their peers from other ethnic groups of color. Importantly, all children who entered kindergarten with lower cognitive skill scores also acquired skills more slowly over the next 4 years. Having a positive approach to learning at the start of kindergarten was associated with cognitive skill levels at school entry nearly 1 standard deviation above the population average. Results are discussed with reference to the shared early educational profiles observed between AIAN and other children of color. These findings provide a much-needed update regarding early academic development among AIAN children.
von Hofe, I; Latza, U; Lönnfors, S; Muckelbauer, R
Objective: The aim of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of online health services for the prevention of stress-associated psychological impairments at the workplace. Methods: The databases EMBASE, PubMed and PsycINFO were systematically searched for English, French and German references. Included were RCTs that examined the influence of online health services on stress-associated impairment in adult employees at the workplace. The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist was used for quality appraisal. Results: Out of 5 632 identified references, 13 RCTs were included in this study. The intervention approaches included movement and relaxation exercises, imparting of knowledge, cognitive-behavioral/social-behavioral interventions, risk communication, health coaching, mindfulness training, and career identity training. In 4 RCTs among mainly white collar employees, the interventions led to improvements in stress-associated outcomes (2 RCTs of high, one of medium and one of low quality level). 9 further RCTs (5 of them of a medium and 4 of a low quality level) did not show a beneficial intervention effect. Conclusion: There are effective health services for the prevention of stress-associated psychological impairments at the workplace. A final conclusion on the kind of intervention that is effective cannot be drawn due to the limited number of RCTs using various intervention approaches. Interventions of at least 12 weeks and a combination of multiple approaches were more often effective.
Sis-Medina, Reacheal Connie; Reyes, Alexa; Becerra, Monideepa B.
Introduction Food insecurity has been associated with negative health outcomes, but the relationship between psychological distress and food insecurity among ethnic minorities has not been extensively examined in the literature. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether low food security and very low food security were significantly associated with past month serious psychological distress (SPD) among Hispanic adults living in poverty. Methods We studied 10,966 Hispanic respondents to the California Health Interview Survey for 2007, 2009, and 2011–2012 whose income was below 200% of the federal poverty level. The relationship between food insecurity and SPD was evaluated by using survey-weighted univariate and logistic regression analyses. Results Nearly 30% of the study population had low food security and 13% had very low food security. Low food security and very low food security were associated with 1.99 and 4.43 odds of past month SPD, respectively, and perceived low neighborhood safety was related to 1.47 odds of past month SPD. Conclusions We found that food insecurity was prevalent among Hispanic people living in poverty and was significantly associated with past month SPD. These results demonstrate the need for further targeted public health efforts, such as community gardens led by promotores, faith-based initiatives, and initiatives to reduce barriers to participation in food-assistance programs. PMID:26605706
Júnia M. Serra-Negra
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between childhood dental experiences and dental fear in adulthood among dentistry, psychology and mathematics undergraduate students. A cross-sectional study of 1,256 students from the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil, was performed. Students responded to the Brazilian version of the Dental Fear Survey (DFS and a questionnaire regarding previous dental experiences. Both the DFS and the questionnaire were self-administered. Association was tested using descriptive, bivariate and multivariate linear regression analysis, with a 5% significance level. Dentistry undergraduates reported lower scores than psychology (p < 0.001 and mathematics undergraduates (p < 0.05 for all three dimensions of the DFS. Negative dental experiences in childhood was associated with dimensions of Avoidance (B = 2.70, p < 0.001, Physiological arousal (B = 1.42, p < 0.001 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 3.44, p < 0.001. The reason for first visit to dentist was associated with dimensions of Physiological arousal (B = 0.76, p < 0.01 and Fears of specific stimuli/situations (B = 1.29, p < 0.01. Dentists should be encouraged to evaluate the dental fear of their patients before treatment. The DFS has been found to be an effective instrument for this purpose.
Jarpa, E; Babul, M; Calderón, J; González, M; Martínez, M E; Bravo-Zehnder, M; Henríquez, C; Jacobelli, S; González, A; Massardo, L
Psychiatric diagnosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is controversial: variations have been reported in frequency, diagnostic assays, associations with disease activity, autoantibodies, and contributing social factors. Eighty-three consecutive non-selected Chilean patients with SLE were evaluated for: (i) 26 common mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-plus); (ii) psychological suffering measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); (iii) ACR 1999 neuropsychiatric (NP)SLE criteria; (iv) SLE disease activity (SLEDAI-2K); (v) cumulative damage (SLICC/ACR); and (vi) anti-ribosomal P antibodies by enzyme-linked immunoassay and immunoblot. Psychiatric diagnoses occurred in 44.6% of patients; the most frequent (21.7%) was major depressive episode (MDE). No association with lupus activity was observed in patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis or MDE or psychological suffering. ACR 1999 NPSLE criteria were present in 42.2% of patients, the majority corresponding to mood (28.9%) or anxiety disorders (15.6%). Suicidal risk was present in 9.6% of patients. Anti-ribosomal P antibodies (13.3%) were not associated with DSM-IV diagnosis. Severe psychiatric disorders in SLE are common and not associated with disease activity.
Karabi Nandy; Felicia Hodge
Introduction: This paper reports on the prevalence, factors and patterns of cigarette smoking among rural California American Indian (AI) adults. Methods: Thirteen Indian health clinic registries formed the random household survey sampling frame (N = 457). Measures included socio-demographics, age at smoking initiation, intention to quit, smoking usage, smoking during pregnancy, health effects of smoking, suicide attempts or ideation, history of physical abuse, neglect and the role of the env...
Grus, Catherine L.
Quality education and training is a commitment made to future generations of psychologists by those assuming the role of a faculty member or supervisor. One widely recognized hallmark of quality in professional psychology education and training is accreditation of doctoral programs by the American Psychological Association's Commission on…
MÓNICA M. NOVOA GÓMEZ
Full Text Available This research aim was to evaluate the Burnout syndrome and its association to psychological profile and quality of lifein nurses from urgency, oncology and neonatology services at a third level hospital in Bogotá city. The research pertainsto the investigation group in Psychology and Health of the Psychology Faculty at the Pontificia Universidad Javeriana.It is a non-experimental research within a correlational descriptive design. The instruments used were the Catell’s 16Personality Factors Inventory (16PF, the Maslash Burnout Inventory (MBI, a semi-structured interview and anobservational register. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics and Spearman correlation. Additionally, multivariatecovariance analysis (MANCOVA and Pearson correlation were used in special cases. SSPS programme was used for thisdata analysis. Results showed that the Burnout syndrome was not present in the evaluated nurses but they had somesymptoms, like emotional tiredness and depersonalisation; personality factors as impulsive-prudent, confident-jealousand dominant-submisive were found as predictors of occupational performance.
Sutter, Carolyn; Nishina, Adrienne; Adams, Ryan E
Being overweight and having negative self-perceptions (body dissatisfaction) can have problematic consequences for adolescents physically, socially, and psychologically. Understanding associations between weight, self-perceptions, and peer experiences across ethnicities is particularly important given recent increases in obesity among ethnic minorities. The current study aimed to address these issues by examining Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores and body dissatisfaction predicting change in general self-worth over time via peer victimization experiences in a diverse sample of 236 youth (ages 10-16 years). Body dissatisfaction predicted decreases in self-worth over time even after controlling for BMI z-score. BMI z-scores predicted decreases in self-worth over time only for white adolescents, whereas body dissatisfaction directly predicted decreases in self-worth for African American youth and indirectly via peer victimization for white youth. Associations were also considered by gender. Implications for intervention efforts for both white and African American adolescents are discussed.
Maibach, E W; Maxfield, A; Ladin, K; Slater, M
This article presents a health lifestyle audience segmentation analysis based primarily on social cognitive theory. Two linked mail surveys were conducted among a representative group of US adults (N = 2967). Segmentation variables included data on five health behaviors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, nutrition and weight control), internal personal and social/ environmental variables associated with each of the health behaviors, as well as health value, sensation- seeking, life satisfaction and age. K-means classification analysis was employed; seven health lifestyles were identified. The majority of the health lifestyles are reliable, and as a whole, all demonstrate both discriminative, construct and predictive validity. The health-lifestyle audience segments are briefly profiled, and an argument is made that health- lifestyle segmentation, more than demographic or behavioral segmentation alone, can advance the goals of public health communication.
Sofia I Iqbal Kring
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In a previous study, we observed that associations between APOE rs439401 and metabolic traits were moderated by chronic stress. Thus, in a population of stressed and non-stressed Danish men, we examined whether associations between APOE rs439401 and a panel of metabolic quantitative traits, all metabolic traits which may lead to T2D and CVD were moderated by psychological stress. METHODS: Obese young men (n = 475, BMI ≥ 31.0 kg/m(2 and a randomly selected control group (n = 709 identified from a population of 141,800 men were re-examined in two surveys (S-46: mean age 46, S-49: mean age 49 years where anthropometric and biochemical measures were available. Psychological stress factors were assessed by a self-administered 7-item questionnaire. Each item had the possible response categories "yes" and "no" and assessed familial problems and conflicts. Summing positive responses constituted a stress item score, which was then dichotomized into stressed and non-stressed. Logistic regression analysis, applying a recessive genetic model, was used to assess odds ratios (OR of the associations between APOE rs439401 genotypes and adverse levels of metabolic traits. RESULTS: The APOE rs439401 TT-genotype associated positively with BMI (OR = 1.09 [1.01; 1.17], waist circumference (OR = 1.09 [1.02; 1.17] in stressed men at S-46. Positive associations were observed for fasting plasma glucose (OR = 1.42 [1.07; 1.87], serum triglycerides (OR = 1.41 [1.05; 1.91] and with fasting plasma insulin (OR = 1.48 [1.05; 2.08] in stressed men at S-49. Rs439401 TT-genotype also associated positively with surrogate measures of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR; OR = 1.21 [1.03; 1.41] and inversely with insulin sensitivity (Stumvoll index; OR = 0.90 [0.82; 0.99], BIGTT-S(I; OR = 0.60 [0.43; 0.85] in stressed men. No significant associations were observed in non-stressed men, albeit the estimates showed similar but weaker trends as in stressed men. CONCLUSION: The
Fox, Ervin R.; Young, J. Hunter; Li, Yali; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Keating, Brendan J.; Musani, Solomon K.; Liu, Kiang; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ganesh, Santhi; Kutlar, Abdullah; Ramachandran, Vasan S.; Polak, Josef F.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Dries, Daniel L.; Farlow, Deborah N.; Redline, Susan; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Hirschorn, Joel N.; Sun, Yan V.; Wyatt, Sharon B.; Penman, Alan D.; Palmas, Walter; Rotter, Jerome I.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Lyon, Helen N.; Kang, Sun J.; Rotimi, Charles N.; Cooper, Richard S.; Franceschini, Nora; Curb, J. David; Martin, Lisa W.; Eaton, Charles B.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Taylor, Herman A.; Caulfield, Mark J.; Ehret, Georg B.; Johnson, Toby; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Levy, Daniel
The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans (AAs) is higher than in other US groups; yet, few have performed genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in AA. Among people of European descent, GWASs have identified genetic variants at 13 loci that are associated with blood pressure. It is unkno
Briggs, Marilyn; Mueller, Constance G.; Fleischhacker, Sheila
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), School Nutrition Association (SNA), and Society for Nutrition Education (SNE) that comprehensive, integrated nutrition services in schools, kindergarten through grade 12, are an essential component of coordinated school health programs and will improve the nutritional status, health,…
Winsper, Catherine; Tang, Nicole K Y
Insomnia can be lethal, increasing the risk of suicide and accidental death by overdose. In this review we present a synthesis of the literature investigating the insomnia-suicide link and the psychological mechanisms underpinning the association. Specifically, we review the findings of prospective epidemiological studies demonstrating the insomnia-suicide link in adult and adolescent community populations. Robust associations between insomnia and suicide are observed in clinically depressed and anxious populations, and there are indications across a number of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that these linkages are attributable to a disrupted sleep pattern, dysfunctional beliefs about sleep and nightmares, independent of depression and anxiety symptoms. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and chronic pain (CP) are highlighted as high-risk subgroups given the elevated rates of insomnia and suicidality in both conditions. Aside from the influence of comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms, emerging evidence has identified impulsivity and emotional dysregulation as possible mechanisms driving the insomnia-suicide link in BPD, and catastrophizing and the sense of defeat/entrapment as potential cognitive pathways through which insomnia aggravates suicidality in CP. Screening for, and interventions that tackle, insomnia and these associated psychological mechanisms, offer a novel avenue for reducing suicidality across a range of clinical and non-clinical populations.
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that nutrition intervention, including nutritional counseling, by a registered dietitian (RD) is an essential component of the team treatment of patients with anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and other eating disorders during assessment and treatment across the continuum of care. Diagnostic criteria for eating disorders provide important guidelines for identification and treatment. However, it is thought that a continuum of disordered eating may exist that ranges from persistent dieting to subthreshold conditions and then to defined eating disorders, which include anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Understanding the complexities of eating disorders, such as influencing factors, comorbid illness, medical and psychological complications, and boundary issues, is critical in the effective treatment of eating disorders. The nature of eating disorders requires a collaborative approach by an interdisciplinary team of psychological, nutritional, and medical specialists. The RD is an integral member of the treatment team and is uniquely qualified to provide medical nutrition therapy for the normalization of eating patterns and nutritional status. RDs provide nutritional counseling, recognize clinical signs related to eating disorders, and assist with medical monitoring while cognizant of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy that are cornerstones of eating disorder treatment. Specialized resources are available for RDs to advance their level of expertise in the field of eating disorders. Further efforts with evidenced-based research must continue for improved treatment outcomes related to eating disorders along with identification of effective primary and secondary interventions.
Gaete, Jorge; Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A; Olivares, Esterbina; Araya, Ricardo
Mental health problems among adolescents are prevalent and are associated with important difficulties for a normal development during this period and later in life. Understanding better the risk factors associated with mental health problems may help to design and implement more effective preventive interventions. Several personal and family risk factors have been identified in their relationship to mental health; however, much less is known about the influence of school-related factors. One of these school factors is school belonging or the psychological sense of school membership. This is a well-known protective factor to develop good academic commitment, but it has been scarcely studied in its relationship to mental health. We explored this association in a sample of early adolescents and found that students who reported having a high level of school membership had lower mental health problems, even after controlling for several personal and family factors.
Brown, H. Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P.; Angel, Jacqueline L.
Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-01 and 2004-05 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family suppor...
Brooke C. Schneider
Full Text Available An older adult's ability to perform physical tasks is predictive of disability onset and is associated with declines in cognition. Risk factors for physical performance declines among African Americans, a group with the highest rates of disability, remain understudied. This study sought to identify demographic, health, and cognitive factors associated with lower-extremity physical performance in a sample of 106 African American women ages 56 to 91. After controlling for global cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Exam, physical performance was associated with executive functioning (Stroop Color/Word, but not visuospatial construction (WASI Block Design or processing speed (Trail Making Test, Part A. Executive functioning remained associated with physical performance after entry of demographic variables, exercise, depression, disease burden, and body mass index (BMI. Age, and BMI were also significant in this model. Executive functioning, age and BMI are associated with lower-extremity physical performance among older African American women.
Fu Jing; Yang Ruifen; Ma Xiaodong; Xia Huimin
Background The prevalence reported of maternal depression from the first to the third trimester was 7.4％,12.8％,12.0％ respectively,which implies that around one-tenth of pregnant women suffer from psychological disorder during the whole pregnancy.It is assumed that during pregnancy the maternal-fetal circulation unit is also affected by maternal psychological status.The aim of this study is to explore the association between maternal psychological status and fetal dynamic blood flow circulation during pregnancy.Methods We recruited 102 singleton low risk pregnant women between 30 to 33 gestational weeks.The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90) was used to assess maternal psychological status.Ultrasound Doppler was used to measure blood flow changes in maternal-fetal circulation.Pulsatility index (PI) value was measured in umbilical artery (UA),fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) and maternal uterine arteries (UTA).Peak systolic velocity (PSV) was measured in MCA and velocity was measured in umbilical vein (UV).Statistical analysis was performed with standard nonparametric MannWhitney U tests.Two-tailed P values ＜0.05 were considered statistical significance.Results Of the 102 pregnant women,12 patients show high levels of poor mental health.Women with poor mental health have higher umbilical artery PI values than good mental health patients (P=0.020).A higher MCA PI value is found in poor mental health patients but this does not reach statistical significance (P=0.053).Women with hostility show lower placental scores (P=0.030).Women with somatization demonstrate higher values in UA PI,MCA PI and MCA PSV (P=0.049,0.030 and 0.035 respectively).A higher MCA PSV value is also found in phobic anxiety patients (P=0.046).Conclusions Poor mental health during pregnancy is found to have an adverse effect on maternal-fetal circulation.Umbilical artery and fetal cerebral circulation are more sensitive and affected by maternal psychological disorder.
Niitsu, Tomihisa; Okamoto, Hideki; Iyo, Masaomi
Pharmacotherapies for the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia are limited; novel agents for the symptoms are still needed. Herein, we report the case of an 80-year-old male patient with Alzheimer's disease whose severe agitation, insomnia and sexual delusions were successfully treated with a traditional natural Japanese (Kampo) medicine, keishi-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to. We found that administrating keishi-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to increased his serum luteinizing hormone level, which could be inversely associated with his behavioural and psychological symptoms. This report suggests that keishi-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to is a possible alternative treatment for the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia, especially sexual delusions.
McHugh, Joanna E; Lawlor, Brian A
Exercise reduces the likelihood of psychological distress, but this may be due to incidental socializing. We gathered information on exercise, social support and three aspects of psychological distress from 583 community-dwelling older adults. Exercise and social support from friends were both associated with lower scores of depression, anxiety and perceived stress. For infrequent exercisers, having a low level of social support indicated higher levels of depression, whereas for frequent exercisers, having a low level of social support did not affect depression levels. Both exercise and social support have roles in regulating psychological well-being in older populations and exercisers are less susceptible to effects of low social support on depression.
Manning, Wendy D; Fettro, Marshal Neal; Lamidi, Esther
Recent legal cases before the Supreme Court of the United States were challenging federal definitions of marriage created by the Defense of Marriage Act and California's voter approved Proposition 8 which limited marriage to different-sex couples only. Social science literature regarding child well-being was being used within these cases, and the American Sociological Association sought to provide a concise evaluation of the literature through an amicus curiae brief. The authors were tasked in the assistance of this legal brief by reviewing literature regarding the well-being of children raised within same-sex parent families. This article includes our assessment of the literature, focusing on those studies, reviews and books published within the past decade. We conclude that there is a clear consensus in the social science literature indicating that American children living within same-sex parent households fare just, as well as those children residing within different-sex parent households over a wide array of well-being measures: academic performance, cognitive development, social development, psychological health, early sexual activity, and substance abuse. Our assessment of the literature is based on credible and methodologically sound studies that compare well-being outcomes of children residing within same-sex and different-sex parent families. Differences that exist in child well-being are largely due to socioeconomic circumstances and family stability. We discuss challenges and opportunities for new research on the well-being of children in same-sex parent families.
McArthur, Michelle L; Andrews, Jena R; Brand, Conor; Hazel, Susan J
Compassion fatigue, compassion satisfaction, and other characteristics such as mindfulness and mental health stigma have not been investigated in veterinary students. The aims of this study were twofold: first to determine the prevalence of compassion, satisfaction, burnout, and secondary traumatic stress among Australian veterinary students and second to investigate the association between these factors and self-stigma, coping, empathy, and mindfulness. A cross-sectional online survey consisting of demographic questions and four validated psychological measures sampled 828 students, with a response rate of 31% (255/828). We obtained a usable sample of completed surveys from 193 of 828 (23%) veterinary students from six of the seven Australian veterinary schools. Bivariate correlations and multiple regression analyses were used to examine associations between the psychological predictors and the outcome variables. Approximately 30% of veterinary students were at high risk of burnout, 24% were at high risk of secondary traumatic stress, and 21% reported low compassion satisfaction. High empathic concern, low personal distress, female gender, and employment history at a veterinary clinic were associated with high compassion satisfaction. High dysfunctional coping, low nonjudgmental and acting-with-awareness mindfulness, and lack of previous employment at a veterinary clinic were associated with high burnout. High dysfunctional coping, low acting-with-awareness mindfulness, high self-stigma, and high personal distress were associated with high secondary traumatic stress. As a result of these findings, certain emotional characteristics can be identified as targets for intervention to minimize the frequency and potentially negative impact of compassion fatigue and burnout in veterinary students.
Full Text Available Aims/Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD and presence of psychological factors (i.e.,anxiety and depression levels in dental undergraduate students. Second purpose was to assess the association and correlation between TMD degree and psychological factors viz. anxiety and depression. Materials and methods: The sample comprised of 400 Dental undergraduatestudents aged 18- 25 years, including both the genders. TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire (modified version of Helkimo’s anamnestic index. Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was used to assess of levels of anxiety (HADSa and depression (HADSd in the dental undergraduate students. Results: Onbasisof the TMD anamnestic index, 74% of students were TMD free. 24.5% of subjects presented with mild degree of TMD and only 1.5% of subjects presented with moderate degree of TMD. According to the results obtained from HADSa, 35.3% of subjects presented with mild anxiety level, 13.8% with moderate anxiety level, and only 1.3% with severe anxiety level. According to the results obtained from HADSd, 10.3% of subjects presented with mild depression level and only 2.3% with moderate depression level. A definite association between TMD degree and Anxiety level (HADSa was found. A definite association between TMD degree and Depression level (HADSd was found. Therewas significant association between TMD degree and occlusion. Conclusions: On the basis of anamnestic index, this study revealed a 26% TMD prevalence in the dental undergraduate students included in the study; majority of cases being of mild degree. Both anxiety and depression were found to be associated with TMD degree/severity. Both anxiety and depression are weakly correlated with TMD in the present study.
Costa, Rui Miguel; Brody, Stuart
Immature psychological defense mechanisms are psychological processes that play an important role in suppressing emotional awareness and contribute to psychopathology. In addition, unhealthy food, television viewing, and alcohol consumption can be among the means to escape self-awareness. In contrast, engaging in, and responding fully to specifically penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI) is associated with indices of better emotional regulation, including less use of immature defense mechanisms. There was a lack of research on the association of immature defense mechanisms with personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. In an online survey, 334 primarily Scottish women completed the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40), and rated the personal importance of junk food, alcohol, television, PVI, and noncoital sex. Immature defense mechanisms correlated with importance of junk food, alcohol, and television. Importance of PVI correlated with mature defenses, and less use of some component immature defenses. Importance of alcohol correlated with importance of junk food, television, and noncoital sex. Importance of junk food was correlated with importance of television and noncoital sex. The findings are discussed in terms of persons with poorer self-regulatory abilities having more interest in junk food, television, and alcohol, and less interest in PVI.
Jessica T Delaney
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a greater burden of risk factors, atrial fibrillation (AF is less common among African Americans than European-descent populations. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS for AF in European-descent populations have identified three predominant genomic regions associated with increased risk (1q21, 4q25, and 16q22. The contribution of these loci to AF risk in African American is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 73 African Americans with AF from the Vanderbilt-Meharry AF registry and 71 African American controls, with no history of AF including after cardiac surgery. Tests of association were performed for 148 SNPs across the three regions associated with AF, and 22 SNPs were significantly associated with AF (P<0.05. The SNPs with the strongest associations in African Americans were both different from the index SNPs identified in European-descent populations and independent from the index European-descent population SNPs (r(2<0.40 in HapMap CEU: 1q21 rs4845396 (odds ratio [OR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13-0.67, P = 0.003, 4q25 rs4631108 (OR 3.43, 95% CI 1.59-7.42, P = 0.002, and 16q22 rs16971547 (OR 8.1, 95% CI 1.46-45.4, P = 0.016. Estimates of European ancestry were similar among cases (23.6% and controls (23.8%. Accordingly, the probability of having two copies of the European derived chromosomes at each region did not differ between cases and controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Variable European admixture at known AF loci does not explain decreased AF susceptibility in African Americans. These data support the role of 1q21, 4q25, and 16q22 variants in AF risk for African Americans, although the index SNPs differ from those identified in European-descent populations.
Never before has the focus on the health benefits of commonly available foods been so strong. The philosophy that food can be health promoting beyond its nutritional value is gaining acceptance within the public arena and among the scientific community as mounting research links diet/food components to disease prevention and treatment. Dietitians are uniquely qualified and positioned to translate the available sound scientific evidence into practical dietary applications for the consumer and to provide the food industry and the government with valuable insight and expertise for future research, product development, and regulation of phytochemicals and functional foods. Increasing the availability of healthful foods, including functional foods, in the American diet is critical to ensuring a healthier population. As the nutrition experts, dietetics professionals must be the leaders in this new, exciting, and meaningful field as it evolves.
Morgan, Alberta J.
This archival study used constructivist grounded theory to document the educational and professional lives of seventeen women who founded the Association of Collegiate Alumnae (ACA) in 1881, which later became known as the American Association of University Women (AAUW). This study resulted in a collective biography of the seventeen women which…
Journal of Dental Education, 1999
The proceedings of the annual meeting of the American Association of Dental Schools include the president's annual report, president-elect's and executive director's addresses, a summary of proceedings, the revised constitution, a list of competencies for entry into the dental hygiene profession, association bylaws, member administrators,…
... Pyrotechnics Association (APA) for Exemption From the 14-Hour Rule During Independence Day Celebrations AGENCY...; request for comments. SUMMARY: The American Pyrotechnics Association (APA) has applied for a limited... designated APA-member motor carriers in conjunction with staging fireworks shows celebrating Independence...
... Association Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health... the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013... updated Guidelines. DATES: Public concerns regarding the updated AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 172 Gruma Corporation, Spina Bifida Association... Corporation, Spina Bifida Association, March of Dimes Foundation, American Academy of Pediatrics, Royal DSM...
Bernal-Marcos, Marcos José; Castro-Tejerina, Jorge; Loredo-Narciandi, José Carlos
This study focuses on the analysis of the early work of Howard W. Odum (1884-1954) and the examination of the psychological aspects that marked his reflection on African American music. This analysis reveals many of the aspects that were generically shared by the psychological agenda of the period when analyzing aesthetic experience and activity. Outstanding among these are the relationship of the musical phenomenon with very basic or primary affective-emotional dimensions, the conception of the musical phenomenon as an indicator of the cognitive-affective development of human groups, its expression in the form of cultural and complex intersubjective products, or its possible participation in the technoscientific design of social reform and progress. The simultaneous treatment of all of these aspects in Odum's work brings to light the interdisciplinary framework in which early psychology moved, while revealing the theoretical and ideological contradictions and controversies that enveloped the discipline, above all, at the point where it attempted to place itself at the service of the constitution of self-governed individuals. All in all, Odum's work also reflects the crucial role that early psychology attributed to art as a privileged medium to give meaning to experience and the human being's vital purposes. (PsycINFO Database Record
Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, Incorporated, for the legislative year 2015: Minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives February 20-22, 2015, Washington, DC, and August 5 and August 7, 2015, Washington, DC, and minutes of the February, June, August, and December 2015 meetings of the Board of Directors.
Kelly, Jennifer F
This article provides the minutes of the Annual Meeting of the Council of Representatives February 20-22, 2015, Washington, DC, and August 5 and August 7, 2015, Washington, DC, and minutes of the February, June, August, and December 2015 meetings of the Board of Directors. These minutes are the official record of the actions of the Association taken during the year by both the Board of Directors (the Board) and the Council of Representatives (Council). They are arranged in topical rather than chronological order, and subheadings are used when appropriate. (PsycINFO Database Record
altering abstract reasoning may be the level of phobic anxiety and paranoid ideation which the individual experiences (marginal significance were...proposed to evaluate the relationship among psychological distress ( anxiety and intrusive thoughts about breast cancer), executive cognitive function...women with a family history of breast cancer experience high levels of anxiety and intrusive thoughts, and that elevated levels of psychological
Zimbardo, Philip G
Philip G. Zimbardo outlines the challenges and opportunities he faces as the American Psychological Association's (APA's) 110th president. This article expands on remarks made in his introduction to Patrick H. DeLeon's presidential address at the APA's 2001 annual convention in San Francisco, California. Appearing now, mid-term in his presidency, that vision is a working blueprint of his activities and what he hopes to accomplish in his remaining tenure: enhancing psychologists' pride in psychology; developing more productive relationships with all media as gatekeepers to the public; publishing the standard high school psychology textbook; developing a compendium of all psychological research that illustrates how psychologists have made a significant difference in improving various aspects of the quality of life of individuals, groups, communities, and the United States; and encouraging greater unity of purpose and respect among psychologists across their many diverse domains and specialties.
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Angela J. Grippo for her creative contributions in investigating the association between depression and cardiovascular disease in preclinical animal models.…
Kwon, Yongju; Oh, Sangwoo; Park, Sangshin; Park, Yongsoon
The prevalence of overweight in children has been dramatically increasing worldwide, and socioeconomic status is an important risk factor. The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that household income is negatively associated with overweight in Korean and American girls and boys. In the study, 2117 children 7 to 12 years of age from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2007 and 3016 children from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2001 and 2006 were included. Overweight is defined as the sex- and age-specific body mass index cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. Lower household income significantly increased the risk for overweight in Korean boys, irrespective of adjustments. The negative association between household income and overweight of American boys disappeared after adjusting for the frequency of dining out and TV viewing time. There was no significant association between household income and overweight of Korean and American girls. As household income increased, the intake of energy from protein was increased, but energy from carbohydrates was decreased in Korean boys. On the other hand, as household income increased, energy intake from carbohydrates was increased and energy intake from proteins decreased in American boys. In conclusion, positive association between household income and overweight was found in Korean boys, but not in Korean girls and American boys and girls. Effects solely targeting reduction in income disparities cannot effectively reduce sex disparities in overweight of children.
Due to increasing discrimination and marginalization, Arab Americans are at a greater risk for mental health disorders. Social networks that include ties to the country of origin could help promote mental well-being in the face of discrimination. The role of countries of origin in immigrant mental health receives little attention compared to adjustment in destination contexts. This study addresses this gap by analyzing the relationship between nativity, cross-border ties, and psychological distress and happiness for Arab Americans living in the greater Detroit Metropolitan Area (N = 896). I expect that first generation Arab Americans will have more psychological distress compared to one and half, second, and third generations, and Arab Americans with more cross-border ties will have less psychological distress and more happiness. Data come from the 2003 Detroit Arab American Study, which includes measures of nativity, cross-border ties--attitudes, social ties, media consumption, and community organizations, and the Kessler-10 scale of psychological distress and self-reported happiness. Ordered logistic regression analyses suggest that psychological distress and happiness do not vary much by nativity alone. However, cross-border ties have both adverse and protective effects on psychological distress and happiness. For all generations of Arab Americans, cross-border attitudes and social ties are associated with greater odds of psychological distress and for first generation Arab Americans, media consumption is associated with greater odds of unhappiness. In contrast, for all generations, involvement in cross-border community organizations is associated with less psychological distress and for the third generation, positive cross-border attitudes are associated with higher odds of happiness. These findings show the complex relationship between cross-border ties and psychological distress and happiness for different generations of Arab Americans.
Brown, H Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P; Angel, Jacqueline L
Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family support (kin availability and co-residence) relative to health care needs (quality-adjusted life years (QALY) weighted scores and functional limitations) on women's risk of entry into a nursing home. A small percentage (~5%) of men and women had entered a long-term care facility. Women had lower weights for QALY weights and greater disability than men, but on average were more likely to live with or in closer proximity to an adult child. Higher disability rates (p long-term care use.
Dawson, Laura H; Shih, Mei-Chiung; de Moor, Carl; Shrier, Lydia
This study examined associations of psychological characteristics and sexual behavior with types of reasons for episodes of sexual intercourse among youth. After completing a baseline assessment, 62 adolescents (47 female) used a handheld computer to report when they had sex as soon as possible after the event as well as in response to random signals. Youth indicated for each sex event the main reason, categorized as intimacy/desire, external, affect management, and other; analyses were restricted to sex with a main partner (234 events). Baseline sexual behavior was not related to reasons for sex. Higher anxiety was associated with external reasons for sex; younger age and lower self-esteem were associated with affect management reasons. Female youth with higher impulsiveness reported more external reasons and fewer intimacy/desire reasons. Among male youth, lower self-esteem was associated with intimacy/desire reasons, but lower depression was associated with affect management reasons. These findings may aid health care providers and researchers in understanding the differences in young people's motivations for sex.
Smith, Ashley Wilder; Dougall, Angela Liegey; Posluszny, Donna M; Somers, Tamara J; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Baum, Andrew
This study investigated short- and long-term psychological outcomes associated with BRCA1/2 genetic testing in women with a personal or family history of breast cancer. Participants included 126 women considering genetic testing. Questionnaires were administered prior to testing, one week, three and six months after result disclosure. Results indicated no systematic effects of testing based on personal cancer history. Mutation carriers and women who elected not to be tested reported greater perceived risk and intrusive and avoidant thoughts at follow-up time points than did women who received negative (uninformative) or variant results. Mutation carriers reported more distress at the three-month follow-up but by six months the effects of test result on distress dissipated and groups were comparable. Cluster analyses identified two groups of individuals based on distress at baseline; these groups were used to predict psychological outcomes after testing. Distress remained constant in both groups: those who were high at baseline remained high and those who were low remained low. Test results did not moderate this effect. Results suggest that genetic testing for BRCA1/2 does not increase distress or have deleterious effects on quality of life over the long term. However, sub-groups of women may report more distress over time. These data indicate the need for more targeted counseling to individuals who report high levels of distress when considering genetic testing.
Full Text Available Objective: Based on the evidence regarding the relationship between inflammatory processes and stress responses, the present study investigated the association between psychological stress and elevation of inflammatory mediators related to periodontal disease in adult patients.Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 50 patients including 25 patients with chronic periodontitis and 25 cases with aggressive periodontitis. Twenty-five healthy subjects without any evidence of periodontal disorder were also randomly selected as the control group. The clinical parameters including plaque index (PI, bleeding on probing (BOP, probing depth (PPD and clinical attachment loss (CAL were recorded and GCF samples were collected for analysis of GCF contents of IL-6 and IL-1β levels. The Kettle stress questionnaire was also used to determine stress severity.Results: IL-1β was significantly higher, but IL-6 was only slightly higher(marginal p-value=0.058The median score of stress was higher in aggressive periodontitis than the chronic disorder and also in the two periodontal disease groups than the healthy subjects. Among studied clinical parameters, CAL and PPD were positively correlated with the GCF IL-1β level. No significant correlations were found between clinical parameters and GCF IL-6 level. There were strong positive relationships between stress severity and in both aggressive and chronic periodontitis; however stress did not influence GCF contents of IL-6.Conclusion: Psychological stress has a pivotal role in the stimulation of inflammatory processes via IL-1β increase in aggressive and chronic periodontitis.
Thomas, P R; Schlinker, P J; Over, R
Psychological and psychomotor skills associated with prowess at ten-pin bowling were identified through factor analysis of ratings provided by 172 bowlers (87 males, 85 females) across a range of current averages (a measure based on recent performance in competition). Skilled bowlers (current average of 170 pins or more) differed significantly from less skilled bowlers (current average of less than 135 pins) on seven component skills. They demonstrated greater mental toughness, a higher degree of planning and evaluation, greater consistency, more interest in improvement, less use of luck attributions, more confidence in equipment and technique, and greater competitiveness. Since men and women of the same overall standard (current average) have similar component skill profiles, ten-pin bowling is a gender-neutral sport. Older bowlers (45-79 years) matched by current average with younger bowlers (16-30 years) differed significantly on only one component, level of commitment. We discuss several contexts for use of the three self-report assessment scales (measures of psychological skills, psychomotor skills and involvement in bowling) developed in this study.
Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Lewis, Rosamund F
Social networking sites (SNSs) have gained substantial popularity among youth in recent years. However, the relationship between the use of these Web-based platforms and mental health problems in children and adolescents is unclear. This study investigated the association between time spent on SNSs and unmet need for mental health support, poor self-rated mental health, and reports of psychological distress and suicidal ideation in a representative sample of middle and high school children in Ottawa, Canada. Data for this study were based on 753 students (55% female; Mage=14.1 years) in grades 7-12 derived from the 2013 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the associations between mental health variables and time spent using SNSs. Overall, 25.2% of students reported using SNSs for more than 2 hours every day, 54.3% reported using SNSs for 2 hours or less every day, and 20.5% reported infrequent or no use of SNSs. Students who reported unmet need for mental health support were more likely to report using SNSs for more than 2 hours every day than those with no identified unmet need for mental health support. Daily SNS use of more than 2 hours was also independently associated with poor self-rating of mental health and experiences of high levels of psychological distress and suicidal ideation. The findings suggest that students with poor mental health may be greater users of SNSs. These results indicate an opportunity to enhance the presence of health service providers on SNSs in order to provide support to youth.
Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.
This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…
The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2012 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Science of Psychology is Philip G. Zimbardo. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 120th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 3, 2012, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2012 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; Charles L. Brewer, vice president/secretary; Gerald Koocher, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; Brian N. Baird; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Connie Chan; William Howell; Anthony Jackson; Ronald F. Levant; Aurelio Prifitera; Sandra Shullman; Archie L. Turner; and Kurt Geisinger, APA Board of Directors liaison.
The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2012 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Practice of Psychology is Carol D. Goodheart. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 120th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 3, 2012, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2012 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; Charles L. Brewer, vice president/secretary; Gerald Koocher, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; Brian N. Baird; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Connie Chan; William Howell; Anthony Jackson; Ronald F. Levant; Aurelio Prifitera; Sandra Shullman; Archie L. Turner; and Kurt Geisinger, APA Board of Directors' liaison.
The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Gold Medal Awards recognize distinguished and enduring records of accomplishment in four areas of psychology: the application of psychology, the practice of psychology, psychology in the public interest, and the science of psychology. The 2012 recipient of the Gold Medal Award for Life Achievement in the Application of Psychology is Marsha Linehan. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Gold Medal Awards at the 120th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association on August 3, 2012, at 4:00 p.m. Members of the 2012 APF Board of Trustees are Dorothy W. Cantor, president; Charles L. Brewer, vice president/secretary; Gerald Koocher, treasurer; Elisabeth R. Straus, executive vice president/executive director; Norman Anderson; Brian N. Baird; David H. Barlow; Camilla Benbow; Sharon Stephens Brehm; Connie Chan; William Howell; Anthony Jackson; Ronald F. Levant; Aurelio Prifitera; Sandra Shullman; Archie L. Turner; and Kurt Geisinger, APA Board of Directors liaison.
Wagner, Caitlin R; Abaied, Jamie L
When studying factors that may heighten risk for relational aggression in youth, it is important to consider characteristics of both the individual and their environment. This research examined the associations between parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression in emerging adults in college. Given that sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation may underlie differences between reactive and proactive aggression and has been shown to moderate the effects of parenting on youth development, the moderating role of SNS reactivity [indexed by skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR)] was also examined. Emerging adults (N = 180; 77.2 % female) self-reported on perceptions of parental psychological control and reactive and proactive relational aggression. SCLR was assessed in response to an interpersonal laboratory challenge task. Parental psychological control was positively associated with reactive relational aggression only for emerging adults who exhibited high SCLR. Parental psychological control was positively associated with proactive relational aggression only among emerging adults who showed low SCLR. This study extends previous research on parenting and aggression and suggests that parental psychological control is differentially associated with reactive versus proactive relational aggression, depending on emerging adults' SCLR to interpersonal stress.
Hintsa, Taina; Elovainio, Marko; Jokela, Markus; Ahola, Kirsi; Virtanen, Marianna; Pirkola, Sami
Burnout has been suggested to be related to depression. We examined the relationship between burnout and allostatic load, and whether this association is independent of psychological distress and depression. We measured burnout psychological distress, depression, and allostatic load in 3283 participants. Higher burnout (β = 0.06, p =0.003) and cynicism (β = 0.03, p = 0.031) and decreased professional efficacy (β = 0.03, p = 0.007) were related to higher allostatic load independent of age, sex, education, occupation and psychological distress. Depression, however, explained 60 percent of the association. Burnout is related to higher allostatic load, and this association partly overlaps with co-occurring depression.
Sagone, Elisabetta; De Caroli, Maria Elvira; Nima, Ali Al
Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect) and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255) and Swedish (n = 277) adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden) using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective component, of
Full Text Available Background One important aspect of subjective judgments about one’s well-being (i.e., subjective well-being: life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect is that cultural features, such as, nationality seem to shape cognitive judgments about the “the ideal life.” In this comparative study we examined differences in subjective well-being and psychological well-being between Italian and Swedish adolescents and tested if the relationship between the three constructs of subjective well-being (i.e., satisfaction with life, positive affect, and negative affect and psychological well-being was moderated by the adolescents’ nationality. Method Italian (n = 255 and Swedish (n = 277 adolescents answered to the Satisfaction with Life Scale, the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule, and Ryff’s Scales of Psychological Well-Being. Differences between samples were tested using a Multiple Analysis of Variance. We also conducted a multiple group analysis (Italy and Sweden using Structural Equation Modelling to investigate the relationship between all three subjective well-being constructs and psychological well-being. Results Italian adolescents scored significantly higher in satisfaction with life than Swedish adolescents. Additionally, across countries, girls scored significantly higher in negative affect than boys. In both countries, all three constructs of subjective well-being were significantly associated to adolescents’ psychological well-being. Nevertheless, while the effect of the relationship between affect and psychological well-being was almost the same across countries, life satisfaction was more strongly related to psychological well-being among Swedish adolescents. Conclusions The present study shows that there are larger variations between these two cultures in the cognitive construct of subjective well-being than in the affective construct. Accordingly, associations between the cognitive component, not the affective
DeGutis, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; McCulloch, Bay; Rosenblatt, Andrew; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina
Although there is mounting evidence that greater PTSD symptoms are associated with reduced executive functioning, it is not fully understood whether this association is more global or specific to certain executive function subdomains, such as inhibitory control. We investigated the generality of the association between PTSD symptoms and executive function by administering a broad battery of sensitive executive functioning tasks to a cohort of returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with varying PTSD symptoms. Only tasks related to inhibitory control explained significant variance in PTSD symptoms as well as symptoms of depression, while measures of working memory, measures of switching, and measures simultaneously assessing multiple executive function subdomains did not. Notably, the two inhibitory control measures that showed the highest correlation with PTSD and depressive symptoms, measures of response inhibition and distractor suppression, explained independent variance. These findings suggest that greater posttraumatic psychological symptoms are not associated with a general decline in executive functioning but rather are more specifically related to stopping automatic responses and resisting internal and external distractions.
Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos M.; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta
Creativity generally involves the conception of original and valuable ideas. Previous studies have suggested an association between creativity and the dopaminergic system, and that physical activity facilitates creativity. Iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and physical activity. Here, we newly investigated the associations between hair iron levels and creativity, dopamine-related traits and states [novelty seeking, extraversion, and vigor (motivational state)], as well as the physical activity level. In the present study, we addressed this issue by performing a hair mineral analysis to determine iron levels and a behavioral creativity test of divergent thinking and related psychological measures among young adults (254 men, 88 women; mean age 20.79 ± 2.03 years). Iron levels did not show any significant association with creativity but displayed significant positive associations with novelty seeking, extraversion, and physical activity level. These results may be partly congruent with the notion that iron plays a key role in the dopaminergic system and imply that iron is important for traits and physical activity, which facilitate creativity. Future interventional or longitudinal studies are warranted to identify any causal effects. PMID:24385960
Full Text Available Few studies have examined the risk factors of serious psychological distress (SPD and behavioral factors for heart disease separately stratified as young (18–44 years, middle aged (45–64 years, and elderly (65 years or older. A total of 3,540 adults with heart disease and 37,703 controls were selected from the 2005 California Health Interview Survey. Data were weighted to be representative and adjusted for potential undercoverage and nonresponse biases. Multiple logistic regression models were used to estimate the associations of the factors with heart disease at different ages. The prevalence of SPD was 8% in cases and 4% in controls, respectively. For young adults, SPD and higher federal poverty level (FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease while for middle-aged adults, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, and unemployment were associated with an increased risk of heart disease. In addition, SPD, past smoking, lack of physical activity, obesity, male, unemployment, White, and lower FPL were associated with an increased risk of heart disease in elderly. Our findings indicate that risk factors for heart disease vary across all ages. Intervention strategies that target risk reduction of heart disease may be tailored accordingly.
Marion E T McMurdo
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess physical activity levels objectively using accelerometers in community dwelling over 65 s and to examine associations with health, social, environmental and psychological factors. DESIGN: Cross sectional survey. SETTING: 17 general practices in Scotland, United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: Random sampling of over 65 s registered with the practices in four strata young-old (65-80 years, old-old (over 80 years, more affluent and less affluent groups. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accelerometry counts of activity per day. Associations between activity and Theory of Planned Behaviour variables, the physical environment, health, wellbeing and demographic variables were examined with multiple regression analysis and multilevel modelling. RESULTS: 547 older people (mean (SD age 79(8 years, 54% female were analysed representing 94% of those surveyed. Accelerometry counts were highest in the affluent younger group, followed by the deprived younger group, with lowest levels in the deprived over 80 s group. Multiple regression analysis showed that lower age, higher perceived behavioural control, the physical function subscale of SF-36, and having someone nearby to turn to were all independently associated with higher physical activity levels (R(2 = 0.32. In addition, hours of sunshine were independently significantly associated with greater physical activity in a multilevel model. CONCLUSIONS: Other than age and hours of sunlight, the variables identified are modifiable, and provide a strong basis for the future development of novel multidimensional interventions aimed at increasing activity participation in later life.
Gao, Wanzhen; Ma, Grace X; Tan, Yin; Fang, Carolyn; Weaver, JoEllen; Jin, Ming; Lai, Philip
A paucity of information exists on the recruitment of Asian Americans for biospecimen research. Although studies show that Chinese Americans are at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, little is known about their willingness to participate in HBV-related biospecimen research and how knowledge, attitudes, and cultural factors impact their willingness to participate. The study was guided by Community-Based Participatory Research principles. Data were derived from an assessment study on HBV-related biospecimen research participation among Chinese Americans in the Philadelphia region. The assessment was conducted with 415 Chinese Americans recruited from eight Chinese community-based organizations. Cultural beliefs, knowledge, and attitudes toward biospecimen research were examined for associations with their willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Overall, 192 (46.3%) of 415 participants who completed the assessment indicated they were willing to participate if they were invited to donate blood to be frozen and stored for future HBV biospecimen studies. Cultural variables significant in bivariate analysis included collectivism, knowledge about biospecimen research, and Yin-Yang beliefs. Fatalism and individualism were not associated with participation willingness. In multivariate analysis, age, health care attitudes, and trust were significantly associated with willingness to participate in biospecimen banking research. Asian American communities have little knowledge of biospecimen banking and will benefit from educational campaigns that emphasize collective benefits and attitudes towards and trust in the health care system. Understanding cultural factors is important for improving Chinese Americans' knowledge, awareness, and intentions of participation in biospecimen research. Similar efforts need to be undertaken to develop culturally appropriate educational intervention programs to increase participation in biospecimen research
Full Text Available Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population.In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ, General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS was applied to screen for anxiety and depression.After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01-0.27 and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01-0.15, compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47-0.88 and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48-0.81 compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10-0.16 and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08-0.12 than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59-0.87 than those with a non-healthy diet.We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders.
Saneei, Parvane; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Ammar; Reza Roohafza, Hamid; Afshar, Hamid; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman
Background and Aims Joint association of lifestyle-related factors and mental health has been less studied in earlier studies, especially in Middle Eastern countries. This study aimed to examine how combinations of several lifestyle-related factors related to depression and anxiety in a large group of middle-age Iranian population. Methods In a cross-sectional study on 3363 Iranian adults, a healthy lifestyle score was constructed by the use of data from dietary intakes, physical activity, smoking status, psychological distress and obesity. A dish-based 106-item semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPPAQ), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) and other pre-tested questionnaires were used to assess the components of healthy lifestyle score. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was applied to screen for anxiety and depression. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, we found that individuals with the highest score of healthy lifestyle were 95% less likely to be anxious (OR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01–0.27) and 96% less likely to be depressed (OR: 0.04; 95% CI: 0.01–0.15), compared with those with the lowest score. In addition, non-smokers had lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47–0.88) and depression (OR: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.48–0.81) compared with smokers. Individuals with low levels of psychological distress had expectedly lower odds of anxiety (OR: 0.13; 95% CI: 0.10–0.16) and depression (OR: 0.10; 95% CI: 0.08–0.12) than those with high levels. Individuals with a healthy diet had 29% lower odds of depression (OR: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.59–0.87) than those with a non-healthy diet. Conclusion We found evidence indicating that healthy lifestyle score was associated with lower odds of anxiety and depression in this group of Iranian adults. Healthy diet, psychological distress, and smoking status were independent predictors of mental disorders. PMID:26771311
Full Text Available Edgar Ramos Vieira,1,2 Ruth Tappen,3 Gabriella Engstrom,3 Bruno R da Costa11Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Neuroscience, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA; 3Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USAPurpose: To evaluate rates and factors associated with older adult falls in different ethnic groups.Participants and methods: Information on demographics, medical and falls history, and pain and physical activity levels was collected from 550 community-dwelling older adults (75±9 years old, 222 European Americans, 109 Afro-Caribbeans, 106 African-Americans, and 113 Hispanics.Results: Taking medications for anxiety (risk ratio [RR] =1.4, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.1–2.0, having incontinence (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.1–1.8, P=0.013, back pain (RR =1.4, 95% CI =1.0–1.8, feet swelling (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.1–1.7, and age ≥75 years (RR =1.3, 95% CI =1.0–1.6 were associated with falls. The associations were stronger for Afro-Caribbeans, but they presented approximately 40% lower prevalence of falls than the other groups.Conclusion: Taking anxiety medication, incontinence, back pain, feet swelling, and age ≥75 years were associated with falls, and Afro-Caribbeans presented lower prevalence of falls. These findings need to be taken into consideration in clinical interventions in aging.Keywords: ethnicity, falls, risks, community dwelling, older adults
Doan, Stacey N; Tardif, Twila; Miller, Alison; Olson, Sheryl; Kessler, Daniel; Felt, Barbara; Wang, Li
Parenting strategies involving psychological control are associated with increased adjustment problems in children. However, no research has examined the extent to which culture and psychological control predict children's stress physiology. We examine cultural differences in maternal psychological control and its associations with children's cortisol. Chinese (N = 59) and American (N = 45) mother-child dyads participated in the study. Mothers reported on psychological control. Children's cortisol was collected during a stressor and two indices of Area Under the Curve (AUC) were computed: AUCg which accounts for total output, and AUCi, which captures reactivity. Results indicate that Chinese mothers reported higher levels of psychological control and Chinese children had higher levels of AUCg than their American counterparts. Across both cultures, psychological control was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels as indexed by AUCg. There were no associations for AUCi. Finally, mediation analyses demonstrated that psychological control fully explained cultural differences in children's cortisol stress response as indexed by AUCg.
Sharf, James C.
The Board of Professional Affairs (BPA) of the American Psychological Association is dominated by the health care providers whose agenda in issuing accreditation standards and influencing state licensing requirements may be as much to protect the clinician from less expensive competition as it is to protect the client. Tension exists between the…
Full Text Available Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women. Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank
Li, Xirui; Kan, Dan; Liu, Li; Shi, Meng; Wang, Yang; Yang, Xiaoshi; Wang, Jiana; Wang, Lie; Wu, Hui
Although job burnout is common among bank employees, few studies have explored positive resources for combating burnout in this population. This study aims to explore the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees, and particularly the mediating role of psychological capital. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Liaoning, China, during June to August of 2013. A questionnaire that included the effort-reward imbalance scale, the Psychological Capital Questionnaire and the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey, as well as demographic and working factors, was distributed to 1739 employees of state-owned banks. This yielded 1239 effective respondents (467 men, 772 women). Asymptotic and resampling strategies explored the mediating role of psychological capital in the relationship between occupational stress and job burnout. Both extrinsic effort and overcommitment were positively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Meanwhile, reward was negatively associated with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, but positively associated with personal accomplishment. There was a gender difference in the mediating role of Psychological capital on the occupational stress-job burnout. In male bank employees, Psychological capital mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort and reward with emotional exhaustion and depersonalization; in female bank employees, it partially mediated the relationships of extrinsic effort, reward and overcommitment with emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation, as well as the relationship between reward and personal accomplishment. Psychological capital was generally a mediator between occupational stress and job burnout among Chinese bank employees. Psychological capital may be a potential positive resource in reducing the negative effects of occupational stress on job burnout and relieving job burnout among bank employees, especially female bank employees.
SONG Mi-Rong; LIU Ji-Ping; LIU Hai-Long; REN Xiao-Bo; WANG Xiu-Cheng
Associations between the autumn Arctic sea ice concentrations （SICs） and North American winter precipitation were examined using singular value decomposition. The results show that a reduced SIC in the majority of the Arctic is accompanied by dry conditions over the Great Plains, the southern United States, Mexico, eastern Alaska, and southeastern Greenland, and by wet conditions over the majority of Canada, the northeastern United States, and the majority of Greenland. Atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with the SIC variability show a wave train structure that is persistent from autumn to winter and is responsible for the covariability between the autumn Arctic SICs and North American winter precipitation. This relationship suggests a potential long-term outlook for the North American winter precipitation.
Hessels, Marco G.P.
Abstracts and program of the 2012 European Regional Conference "Cognitive development and learning from kindergarten to university" of the International Association for Cognitive Education and Psychology.
Yoon, Eunju; Langrehr, Kimberly; Ong, Lee Za
The authors conducted a 22-year (1988-2009) content analysis of quantitative empirical research that included acculturation and/or enculturation as a study variable(s). A total of 138 studies in 134 articles were systematically evaluated from 5 major American Psychological Association and American Counseling Association journals in counseling and…
Evaluation of association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis - Estimation of relationship between psychological stress and periodontal status
Full Text Available Background: Stress classically describes a destructive notion that can have a bearing on one's physical and mental health. It may also add to an increased propensity to periodontal disease. Aim: To investigate the association between psychological stress and serum cortisol levels in patients with chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: Forty subjects were recruited from the outpatient department at the Department of Periodontics, from a college in Mangalore, divided into two groups, i.e., twenty as healthy controls and twenty were stressed subjects with chronic periodontitis. The clinical examination included the assessment of probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level and oral hygiene index-simplified. Serum cortisol levels were estimated biochemically using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and the estimation of psychological stress was done by a questionnaire. Results: Descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation was used to review the collected data. Independent sample t-test was used for comparison and correlation was evaluation using Pearson's correlation test. As per our observation, high serum cortisol levels and psychological stress are positively linked with chronic periodontitis establishing a risk profile showing a significant correlation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Routine serum cortisol assessment may be a reasonable and a valuable investigative indicator to rule out stress in periodontitis patients as it should be considered as an imperative risk factor for periodontal disease.
Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent, large genome-wide association study (GWAS of European ancestry individuals has identified multiple genetic variants influencing serum lipids. Studies of the transferability of these associations to African Americans remain few, an important limitation given interethnic differences in serum lipids and the disproportionate burden of lipid-associated metabolic diseases among African Americans. Methods We attempted to evaluate the transferability of 95 lipid-associated loci recently identified in European ancestry individuals to 887 non-diabetic, unrelated African Americans from a population-based sample in the Washington, DC area. Additionally, we took advantage of the generally reduced linkage disequilibrium among African ancestry populations in comparison to European ancestry populations to fine-map replicated GWAS signals. Results We successfully replicated reported associations for 10 loci (CILP2/SF4, STARD3, LPL, CYP7A1, DOCK7/ANGPTL3, APOE, SORT1, IRS1, CETP, and UBASH3B. Through trans-ethnic fine-mapping, we were able to reduce associated regions around 75% of the loci that replicated. Conclusions Between this study and previous work in African Americans, 40 of the 95 loci reported in a large GWAS of European ancestry individuals also influence lipid levels in African Americans. While there is now evidence that the lipid-influencing role of a number of genetic variants is observed in both European and African ancestry populations, the still considerable lack of concordance highlights the importance of continued ancestry-specific studies to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of these traits.
Full Text Available From the 14th to the 19th of November 2009 we spent five intense days during the Congress developing this electoral platform with the input offered by national delegations to all candidates for the General Coordinator position. The contributions by the national delegations demonstrated their interest in the future of ALAMES. It was an intensive learning experience for us made up of conversations with delegations and participants, the challenge and effort of incorporating the various mandates given to us by the pre-Congress courses, the round table discussions, the commission, the plenary and multiple conversations in coffe breaks and the corridors. We have also attempted to incorporate those declarations which seemed to generate the most enthusiasm and those commentaries which we heard over and over again in our conversations. Finally, we congratulate all those who have made this Congress so productive, so moving, and so diverse; the presence of social movements has expanded the diversity and wealth of voices heard at the Congress. We know from previous experiences that elections are often associated with tension. Yet elections can also serve to stimulate discussion at a Congress. In our case, the election has encouraged us to create this proposal. This is a proposal which could not have been developed prior to the Congress since it is the outcome of dialogues, expectations, and discoveries made during our conversations. We offer it to the members and institutions associated with ALAMES as a roadmap for their commentary, discussion, and criticism.
Susi, Frank; Mundell, Robert
Guidelines developed by the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Association for Dental Schools are presented. These guidelines were drawn up as an effort to provide a general criterion-referenced standard against which a school can measure its course content in histology. (MLW)
Banks, James A.
During the civil rights movement of the 1960s and 1970s, the quest for civil rights by African Americans and other groups of color reverberated throughout the United States and the world, including within educational professional and research organizations, such as the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, the National Council of…
Cottledge, Michael Christopher
Objective of the Study: The objective of this research study was to investigate whether an association exists between teacher demographic factors (years of teaching experience and gender), 2 educational factors (certification type and certification pathway) and the percent passing rate of tenth grade African American male students on the 2010…
Schweinsburg, Jane D.
To protect children from material it considers harmful, Family Friendly Libraries (FFL) seeks to limit access to information in public libraries. This article describes the conflict between the FFL and the American Library Association (ALA). Provides an overview of censorship and U.S. legislative history, presents the FFL position and the ALA…
Kraft, David P.
In 1910, the first college mental health service sought to help college students with personality development and building a healthy mind. In 1920, the meeting that founded the American College Health Association (ACHA) identified "mental hygiene" as important, although a separate Mental Health Section was not established in ACHA until 1957.…
The Blended Learning Toolkit supports the course redesign approach, and interest in its openly available clearinghouse of online tools, strategies, curricula, and other materials to support the adoption of blended learning continues to grow. When the resource originally launched in July 2011, 20 AASCU [American Association of State Colleges and…
We report the characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi of southern South American origin among humans, domestic vectors, and peridomestic hosts in Colombia using high-resolution nuclear and mitochondrial genotyping. Expanding our understanding of the geographic range of lineage TcVI, which is associated with severe Chagas disease, will help clarify risk of human infection for improved disease control.
Pallone, Nathanial J.
Offers historical overview of "criminal sexual psychopath" legislation, which customarily prescribes confinement for treatment (rather than incarceration for punishment) for offenders whose sex crimes are attributed to sexual psychopathology. Discusses desire of American Bar Association and Group for the Advancement of Psychiatry to…
Helwig, Andrew A.; Schmidt, Lisa L. L.
A content analysis of American Counseling Association convention sessions offered from 1977 to 2008 was conducted. The intent was to identify changes and trends in the counseling profession. Content of more than 15,000 sessions, including educational programs, keynote presentations, and training sessions, was assigned to 1 of 86 categories. A…
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Educational Researcher, 2011
The Code of Ethics of the American Educational Research Association (AERA) articulates a common set of values upon which education researchers build their professional and scientific work. The Code is intended to provide both the principles and the rules to cover professional situations encountered by education researchers. It has as its primary…
African Americans report a greater number of modifiable risk factors, such as overweight/obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits, putting them at increased risk of developing and dying from chronic diseases. These risk factors are also associated with poorer health-related quality of li...
Neuman, M; Bitton, A.; Glantz, S
Objective: The Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, third edition (DSM-III), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) in 1980, included the first official definitions by the APA of tobacco dependence and tobacco withdrawal. Tobacco industry efforts to influence the DSM-III were investigated.
De CIA heeft in de periode na 11september 2001, in het kader van de bestrijding van terrorisme, bij ondervragingstechnieken gebruik gemaakt van marteling. Psychologen speelden hierbij een niet onbelangrijke rol . In dit artikel wordt aan de orde gesteld dat de betrokkenheid van psychologen bij verho
Hilliard, Asa G., III
The effects of language in education are rarely accounted for in (1) measurement of intelligence; (2) diagnosis of language, speech, or learning pathology; (3) reading ability measurement; and (4) educator attitudes toward language variations. Educational malpractice in these areas may have negative effects on identity development among…
Female genital mutilation is the medically unnecessary modification of female genitalia. Female genital mutilation typically occurs at about 7 years of age, but mutilated women suffer severe medical complications throughout their adult lives. Female genital mutilation most frequently occurs in Africa, the Middle East, and Muslim parts of Indonesia and Malaysia, and it is generally part of a ceremonial induction into adult society. Recent political and economic problems in these regions, however, have increased the numbers of students and refugees to the United States. Consequently, US physicians are treating an increasing number of mutilated patients. The Council on Scientific Affairs recommends that US physicians join the World Health Organization, the World Medical Association, and other major health care organizations in opposing all forms of medically unnecessary surgical modification of the female genitalia.
Okumu, Roselyne Anyango; Muiva, Margret; Wagoro, Miriam; Abdallah, Fatmah; Oweya, Erick
Objective: The survival rate for children with leukemia has increased dramatically since the late 1990s; treatment effects of the disease can be extremely stressful for families. Research on psychological and socioeconomic effects of leukemia treatment had been conducted in Western countries, but little is known within Africa including Kenya. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with a sample of 62 out of 72 parents of children undergoing leukemia treatment at Kenyatta National Hospital. Data were collected between May and August 2015 using structured questionnaires while qualitative data were collected using focus group discussions. This manuscript is based on quantitative data which were entered into EpiData version 3.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Psychological distress index was created by counting the number of psychological experiences reported by respondents. Kendall's tau-b was used to test the association between the psychological distress index and socioeconomic characteristics; P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The respondents experienced anxiety, shock, and fatigue. Spending a higher proportion of family's income was associated with higher psychological distress index (P = 0.009). The economic challenge led to significantly heightened tension in the family (P = 0.021). Conclusions: Financial challenge is a major cause of psychological distress thus needs for financial support through collaboration with government institutions, for example, NHIF, development agencies, and nongovernment organization who can contribute toward the treatment cost. Need to decentralize effective leukemia treatment centers. Psychological support and counseling should be done to alleviate tension. The nurse needs to be empathetic when caring for the child and family as well as to apply the ethical principles of justice and beneficence so that the child gets the best care despite the financial challenge. PMID:28217728
Valicenti, Richard K., E-mail: Richard.email@example.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis School of Medicine, Davis, California (United States); Thompson, Ian [Department of Urology, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, Texas (United States); Albertsen, Peter [Division of Urology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Medical School, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Goldenberg, S. Larry [Department of Urologic Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Wolf, J. Stuart [Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sartor, Oliver [Department of Medicine and Urology, Tulane Medical School, New Orleans, Louisiana (United States); Klein, Eric [Glickman Urological Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hahn, Carol [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina (United States); Michalski, Jeff [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Roach, Mack [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Faraday, Martha M. [Four Oaks, Inc (United States)
Purpose: The purpose of this guideline was to provide a clinical framework for the use of radiation therapy after radical prostatectomy as adjuvant or salvage therapy. Methods and Materials: A systematic literature review using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane database was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to the use of radiation therapy after prostatectomy. The review yielded 294 articles; these publications were used to create the evidence-based guideline statements. Additional guidance is provided as Clinical Principles when insufficient evidence existed. Results: Guideline statements are provided for patient counseling, use of radiation therapy in the adjuvant and salvage contexts, defining biochemical recurrence, and conducting a restaging evaluation. Conclusions: Physicians should offer adjuvant radiation therapy to patients with adverse pathologic findings at prostatectomy (ie, seminal vesicle invastion, positive surgical margins, extraprostatic extension) and salvage radiation therapy to patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) or local recurrence after prostatectomy in whom there is no evidence of distant metastatic disease. The offer of radiation therapy should be made in the context of a thoughtful discussion of possible short- and long-term side effects of radiation therapy as well as the potential benefits of preventing recurrence. The decision to administer radiation therapy should be made by the patient and the multidisciplinary treatment team with full consideration of the patient's history, values, preferences, quality of life, and functional status. The American Society for Radiation Oncology and American Urological Association websites show this guideline in its entirety, including the full literature review.
Trompetter, Hester R; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T; Fox, Jean-Paul; Schreurs, Karlein M G
The underlying mechanisms of the effectiveness of cognitive behavioural interventions for chronic pain need further clarification. The role of, and associations between, pain-related psychological flexibility (PF) and pain catastrophizing (PC) were examined during a randomized controlled trial on internet-based Acceptance & Commitment Therapy (ACT) for chronic pain. We assessed (1) the unique and combined indirect effects of PF and PC on outcomes, and (2) the causality of relations between PF, PC and the primary outcome pain interference in daily life (MPI) during ACT. A total of 238 pain sufferers were allocated to either ACT, a control condition on Expressive Writing, or a waiting list condition. Non-parametric cross-product of coefficients mediational analyses and cross-lagged panel designs were applied. Compared to control conditions, both baseline to post-intervention changes in PF and PC seemed to uniquely mediate baseline to three-month follow-up changes in pain interference and psychological distress. Only PF mediated changes in pain intensity. Indirect effects were twice as large for PF (κ2 = .09-.19) than for PC (κ² PCS = .05-.10). Further assessment of changes during ACT showed, however, that only PF, and not PC, predicted subsequent changes in MPI, while early and late changes in both PF and PC predicted later changes in each other. In conclusion, only PF functioned as a direct, causal working mechanism during ACT, with larger indirect effects that occurred earlier than changes in PC. Additionally, PC may function as an indirect mechanism of change during ACT for chronic pain via its direct influence on PF.
Pratyay Pratim Datta
Full Text Available Background: The psychological morbidity of the geriatric people is very common. There are different socio-demographic factors affecting the psychological health of elderly, which have not been studied in detail in India. Objective: The present study was framed to find out the association of different socio-demographic factors with the psychological morbidity of the elderly. Materials and Methods: It was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted in Municipal area of Tarakeswar, Hooghly District, West Bengal, India among the geriatric people using a pre-designed, pre-tested, semi-structured schedule to collect the socio-demographic data. General Health Questionnaire-28 was used to collect data regarding psychological morbidity. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16.0. Results: It was revealed that only 29.4% of the respondents scored within normal range. Multiple linear regression taking total as well as domain-wise scoring as dependent variable revealed that increasing age, female sex, illiteracy, financial dependency on other family members, not living with spouse, and poor socio-economic status are significantly associated with psychological morbidity. Conclusion: Overall mental health condition of geriatric people is not good. Proper rehabilitation measures have to be taken by family members, society, and government like engaging them in light activities of their interest, old age pension scheme or forming self-help group among elderly, which would result in making them happy.
Schmitt, M.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van; Wijer, A. de; Genderen, F.R. van; Graaf, Y.D. van; Helders, P.J.
Schmitt MA, van Meeteren NL, de Wijer A, van Genderen FR, van der Graaf Y, Helders PJ: Patients with chronic whiplash-associated disorders: Relationship between clinical and psychological factors and functional health status. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2009;88:231-238. Objectives: To examine the relative
van Driel, C M G; Oosterwijk, J C; Meijers-Heijboer, E J; van Asperen, C J; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, I A; de Vries, J; Mourits, M J E; Henneman, L; Timmermans, D R M; de Bock, G H
Objectives: Women seeking counseling because of familial breast cancer occurrence face difficult decisions, such as whether and when to opt for risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in case of BRCA1/2 mutation. Only limited research has been done to identify the psychological factors associated with the de
van Driel, C M G; Oosterwijk, J C; Meijers-Heijboer, E J; van Asperen, C J; Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, I A; de Vries, J; Mourits, M J E; Henneman, L; Timmermans, D R M; de Bock, G H
OBJECTIVES: Women seeking counseling because of familial breast cancer occurrence face difficult decisions, such as whether and when to opt for risk-reducing mastectomy (RRM) in case of BRCA1/2 mutation. Only limited research has been done to identify the psychological factors associated with the de
Combs, Dennis R.; Penn, David L.; Cassisi, Jeffrey; Michael, Chris; Wood, Terry; Wanner, Jill; Adams, Scott
Recent theoretical models suggest that perceived racism acts as a stressor for African Americans and may be associated with a variety of negative psychological consequences, notably paranoia. Paranoia among African Americans is believed to reflect the lower end of the paranoia continuum based on experiences with racism. Thus, it may be beneficial…
Evans, Joy; Hsieh, Peggy Pei-Hsuan; Robinson, Daniel H.
Previously, Robinson, McKay, Katayama, and Fan (1998) examined women's involvement in six educational psychology journals ("American Educational Research Journal," "Contemporary Educational Psychology," "Educational Psychologist," "Educational Psychology Review," "Journal of Experimental Education," and "Journal of Educational Psychology") from…
Zinken, Jorg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna; Butler, Lisa; Skinner, T. Chas
Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress…
This manual presents information on motivation, communication, stress management, the use of mental imagery, and other topics for enhancing coach-athlete relationships and for stimulating improved sport performances. Part I, "Psychological Perspectives," contains two chapters dealing with the philosophy of coaching and motivation. Part II,…
Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Herr, Raphael; Zijlstra, Wobbe P
BACKGROUND: Reviews have shown that depression is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is limited evidence for general psychological distress to be associated with incident diabetes. The aim of the present study was to test whether persons who report higher levels...... of psychological distress are at increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes during 18 years follow up, adjusted for confounders. METHODS: A prospective analysis using data from 9,514 participants (41 years, SD=14; 44% men) of the British Household Panel Survey. The General Health Questionnaire 12 item version...... was used to assess general psychological distress, diabetes was measured by means of self-report. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of incident diabetes during 18 years follow up, comparing participants with low versus high...
Alfonsson, Sven; Olsson, Erik; Hursti, Timo
Purpose A large group of women (20–30 %) report psychological distress shortly after breast cancer diagnosis, and some experience continued or increased symptoms over time. The aim of this study was to investigate socio-demographic and clinical variables associated with sustained psychological...... distress in this patient group. Methods Women with breast cancer (n = 833) completed self-report questionnaires regarding socio-demographic and clinical variables shortly after (T1) and 3 years after diagnosis (T2) while data on illness severity were collected from a quality register. The Hospital Anxiety...... and Depression Scale was used as a measure of psychological distress at both time points. Results The number of participants who reported elevated levels of anxiety was 231 (28 %) at T1 and 231 (28 %) at T2 while elevated depressive symptoms was reported by 119 (14 %) women at T1 and 92 (11 %) at T2. Despite non...
Tang, Jie; Yu, Yizhen; Du, Yukai; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Dongying; Wang, Jiaji
Internet addiction (IA) among adolescents is a serious public health problem around the world. However, there have been few studies that examine the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among Chinese adolescent internet users. We examined the association between IA and stressful life events and psychological symptoms among a random sample of school students who were internet users (N=755) in Wuhan, China. Internet addiction, stressful life events, coping style and psychological symptoms were measured by self-rated scales. The prevalence rate of internet addiction was 6.0% among adolescent internet users. Logistic regression analyses indicated that stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with IA after controlling for demographic characteristics. Analyses examining the coping style with the IA revealed that negative coping style may mediate the effects of stressful life events to increase the risk of IA. However, no significant interaction of stressful life events and psychological symptoms was found. These findings of the current study indicate a high prevalence of internet addiction among Chinese adolescent internet users and highlight the importance of stressors from interpersonal problem and school related problem as a risk factor for IA which mainly mediated through negative coping style.
Odgaard, Eric C.; Fowler, Robert L.
Objective: In 2005, the "Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology" ("JCCP") became the first American Psychological Association (APA) journal to require statistical measures of clinical significance, plus effect sizes (ESs) and associated confidence intervals (CIs), for primary outcomes (La Greca, 2005). As this represents the single largest…
Position of the American Dietetic Association, Society for Nutrition Education, and American School Food Service Association--Nutrition services: an essential component of comprehensive school health programs.
Briggs, Marilyn; Safaii, SeAnne; Beall, Deborah Lane
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association (ADA), the Society for Nutrition Education (SNE), and the American School Food Service Association (ASFSA) that comprehensive nutrition services must be provided to all of the nation's preschool through grade twelve students. These nutrition services shall be integrated with a coordinated, comprehensive school health program and implemented through a school nutrition policy. The policy should link comprehensive, sequential nutrition education; access to and promotion of child nutrition programs providing nutritious meals and snacks in the school environment; and family, community, and health services' partnerships supporting positive health outcomes for all children. Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is directly attributed to physical inactivity and diet. Schools can play a key role in reversing this trend through coordinated nutrition services that promote policies linking comprehensive, sequential nutrition education programs, access to and marketing of child nutrition programs, a school environment that models healthy food choices, and community partnerships. This position paper provides information and resources for nutrition professionals to use in developing and supporting comprehensive school health programs. J Am Diet Assoc. 2003;103:505-514.
Full Text Available Abstract Background In accord with new European university reforms initiated by the Bologna Process, our objectives were to assess psychological quality of life (QoL and to analyse its associations with academic employability skills (AES among students from the Faculty of Language, Literature, Humanities, Arts and Education, Walferdange Luxembourg (F1, mostly vocational/applied courses; the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences, Liege, Belgium (F2, mainly general courses; and the Faculty of Social Work, Iasi, Romania (F3, mainly vocational/professional courses. Method Students who redoubled or who had studied at other universities were excluded. 355 newly-registered first-year students (145 from F1, 125 from F2, and 85 from F3 were invited to complete an online questionnaire (in French, German, English or Romanian covering socioeconomic data, the AES scale and the QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment subscales as measured with the World Health Organisation Quality of Life short-form (WHOQoL-BREF questionnaire. Analyses included multiple regressions with interactions. Results QoL-psychological, QoL-social relationships and QoL-environment' scores were highest in F1 (Luxembourg, and the QoL-psychological score in F2 (Belgium was the lower. AES score was higher in F1 than in F3 (Romania. A positive link was found between QoL-psychological and AES for F1 (correlation coefficient 0.29, p Conclusions Psychological quality of life is associated with acquisition of skills that increase employability from the faculties offering vocational/applied/professional courses in Luxembourg and Romania, but not their academically orientated Belgian counterparts. In the context of developing a European Higher Educational Area, these measurements are major indicators that can be used as a guide to promoting programs geared towards counseling, improvement of the social environment, and services to assist with university work and facilitate
Full Text Available Emory L Perkins,1 Dexter R Voisin,2 Kesslyn A Brade Stennis1 1Department of Social Work, Bowie State University, Bowie, MD, USA; 2School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA Introduction: African American women living in Washington, DC have one of the highest Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV incidence rates in the US. However, this population has been understudied, especially as it relates to factors associated with HIV status. Methods: This cross-sectional study examined sociodemographic factors that were associated with having a negative or positive HIV status among a sample of 115 African American women between the ages of 24 and 44 years. We assessed such factors as age, education, sexual orientation, household income, sources of income, number of children, length of residency tenure in Washington, DC, and level of HIV-prevention knowledge. Results: Among the overall sample, 53 women self-identified as HIV-positive and 62 as HIV-negative. Compared to their HIV-negative counterparts, women who reported being HIV-positive were less educated, had lower household income, and had longer residency tenure in Washington, DC. There were no differences in HIV knowledge between HIV-positive and -negative study participants. Conclusion: These findings may provide important directions for targeting specific subpopulations of African Americans for HIV-prevention/intervention programs. Keywords: HIV status, African American women, sociodemographic factors
Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L
The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The
Rich, Michael W; Chyun, Deborah A; Skolnick, Adam H; Alexander, Karen P; Forman, Daniel E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Maurer, Mathew S; McClurken, James B; Resnick, Barbara M; Shen, Win K; Tirschwell, David L
The incidence and prevalence of most cardiovascular disorders increase with age, and cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death and major disability in adults ≥75 years of age; however, despite the large impact of cardiovascular disease on quality of life, morbidity, and mortality in older adults, patients aged ≥75 years have been markedly underrepresented in most major cardiovascular trials, and virtually all trials have excluded older patients with complex comorbidities, significant physical or cognitive disabilities, frailty, or residence in a nursing home or assisted living facility. As a result, current guidelines are unable to provide evidence-based recommendations for diagnosis and treatment of older patients typical of those encountered in routine clinical practice. The objectives of this scientific statement are to summarize current guideline recommendations as they apply to older adults, identify critical gaps in knowledge that preclude informed evidence-based decision making, and recommend future research to close existing knowledge gaps. To achieve these objectives, we conducted a detailed review of current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association and American Stroke Association guidelines to identify content and recommendations that explicitly targeted older patients. We found that there is a pervasive lack of evidence to guide clinical decision making in older patients with cardiovascular disease, as well as a paucity of data on the impact of diagnostic and therapeutic interventions on key outcomes that are particularly important to older patients, such as quality of life, physical function, and maintenance of independence. Accordingly, there is a critical need for a multitude of large population-based studies and clinical trials that include a broad spectrum of older patients representative of those seen in clinical practice and that incorporate relevant outcomes important to older patients in the study design. The
Norcross, John C.; Evans, Krystle L.; Ellis, Jeannette L.
This study collected information on the acceptance rates, admission standards, financial assistance, student characteristics, theoretical orientations, and select outcomes of American Psychological Association-accredited counseling psychology programs (99% response rate). Results are presented collectively for all 66 counseling programs as well as…
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of one of the co-recipients of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology. One of the 2012 winners is Daniel Landis for his unparalleled contribution to the field of intercultural research in a distinguished academic career spanning almost…
White, Bryana F. C.
The American Psychological Association (APA), which is the advocating body for the field of psychology, emphasizes the importance of multicultural competencies for researchers and clinicians (APA, 2003; 2010). Graduate students are the field's future professionals. The multicultural training of doctoral level clinical and counseling…
Fidler, Fiona; Cumming, Geoff; Thomason, Neil; Pannuzzo, Dominique; Smith, Julian; Fyffe, Penny; Edmonds, Holly; Harrington, Claire; Schmitt, Rachel
Philip Kendall's (1997) editorial encouraged authors in the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology (JCCP) to report effect sizes and clinical significance. The present authors assessed the influence of that editorial--and other American Psychological Association initiatives to improve statistical practices--by examining 239 JCCP articles…
Ruiz, Ana; Warchal, Judith
The American Psychological Association (APA) recently approved a new set of "Guidelines for the undergraduate psychology major, version 2.0" (APA, 2013a) which addressed ethics specifically. Yet the teaching of ethics receives little attention in publications, national and international institutes, and conferences. Few guidelines for…
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology. The 2012 winner is Bob McMurray for pioneering research on speech and language processing in infants and adults. McMurray has conducted influential work on the graded nature of…
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology (2012). Thomas L. Griffiths won the award for bringing mathematical precision to the deepest questions in human learning, reasoning, and concept formation. In his pioneering work,…
Grapin, Sally L.; Kranzler, John H.; Daley, Matt L.
The primary objective of this study was to conduct a normative assessment of the research productivity and scholarly impact of tenured and tenure-track faculty in school psychology programs accredited by the American Psychological Association (APA). Using the PsycINFO database, productivity and impact were examined for the field as a whole and by…
American Psychologist, 2012
Presents a short biography of the winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Senior Career Contributions to Psychology in the Public Interest. The 2012 winner is Bernice Lott. Lott's commitment to the public interest has always guided her career, as her groundbreaking research on gender, ethnicity, and race…
Melissa A. Napolitano
Full Text Available Examining behavioral and psychological factors relating to weight stability over a 1-year period is of public health importance. We conducted a physical activity (PA intervention trial for women (N=247; mean age=47.5±10.7; mean BMI=28.6±5.3 in which participants were assigned to one of three groups (two PA and one contact-control. By Month 12, participants achieved 140.4±14.82 min of PA/week, with no group differences. Weight status change from baseline to Month 12 was categorized: no change (N=154; 62.4%; increase (N=34; 13.8%; decrease (N=59; 23.9%. Discriminant function analyses indentified two statistically significant dimensions associated with weight change. Dimension 1 was positively weighted by mood (0.73 and self-efficacy (0.79; dimension 2 was positively weighted to change in physical activity (0.58 and fat consumption (0.55. Results provide further evidence for the importance of behavior in long-term weight maintenance, particularly physical activity and dietary fat. These findings also provide evidence for the importance of addressing psychosocial variables, in particular depressed mood and self-efficacy.
Wickrama, Kandauda A S; Bae, Dayoung; O'Neal, Catherine Walker
Previous studies have documented that early adversity increases young adults' risk for diabetes resulting in morbidity and comorbidity with adverse health conditions. However, less is known about how inter-related physiological (e.g., body mass index [BMI]), psychological (e.g., depressive symptoms), and behavioral mechanisms (e.g., unhealthy eating and sedentary behavior) link early adversity to young adults' diabetes outcomes, although these mechanisms appear to stem from early stressful experiences. The current study tested the patterning of these longitudinal pathways leading to young adults' diabetes using a nationally representative sample of 13,286 adolescents (54% female) over a period of 13 years. The findings indicated that early adversity contributed to elevated BMI, depressive symptoms, and stress-related health behaviors. The impact of these linking mechanisms on hierarchical diabetes outcomes (i.e., prediabetes and diabetes) remained significant after taking their associations with each other into account, showing that these mechanisms operate concurrently. The findings emphasize the importance of early detection for risk factors of young adults' diabetes in order to minimize their detrimental health effects.
The debate about whether or not one could/should ascribe reasoning abilities to animals has deep historical roots and seems very up-to-date in the light of the immense body of new empirical data originating from various species and research paradigms. Associative learning (AL) seems to be a ubiquitous low-level contender for any cognitive interpretation of animal behavior, mostly because of the assumed mechanistic simplicity and phylogenetic prevalence. However, the implicit assumption that AL is simple and therefore the most parsimonious mechanism to describe seemingly complex behavior can and must be questioned on various grounds. Using recent empirical findings with chimpanzees as an example, I argue that at times inferential reasoning might be the most likely candidate to account for performance differences between experimental and control conditions. Finally, a general conclusion drawn from the current debate(s) in the field of comparative psychology could be that a dichotomist battle of 2 conceptual camps-each of which is lacking a clear and homogeneous theoretical framework-is a scientific deadlock. (PsycINFO Database Record
Full Text Available Violeta Dimova,1–3 Jörn Lötsch,3 Kathrin Hühne,4 Andreas Winterpacht,4 Michael Heesen,5 Andreas Parthum,1,2 Peter G Weber,6 Roman Carbon,6 Norbert Griessinger,2 Reinhard Sittl,2 Stefan Lautenbacher1 1Physiological Psychology, Otto-Friedrich University Bamberg, 2Pain Center, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, 3Institute of Clinical Pharmacology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main, 4Department of Human Genetics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, Germany; 5Department of Anaesthesia, Kantonsspital Baden, Baden, Switzerland; 6Department of Pediatric Surgery, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen, Germany Abstract: The genetic control of pain has been repeatedly demonstrated in human association studies. In the present study, we assessed the relative contribution of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms in pain-related genes, such as cathechol-O-methyl transferase gene (COMT, fatty acid amino hydrolase gene (FAAH, transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, member 1 gene (TRPV1, and δ-opioid receptor gene (OPRD1, for postsurgical pain chronification. Ninety preoperatively pain-free male patients were assigned to good or poor outcome groups according to their intensity or disability score assessed at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and 1 year after funnel chest correction. The genetic effects were compared with those of two psychological predictors, the attentional bias toward positive words (dot-probe task and the self-reported pain vigilance (Pain Vigilance and Awareness Questionnaire [PVAQ], which were already shown to be the best predictors for pain intensity and disability at 6 months after surgery in the same sample, respectively. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant effects of any of the genetic predictors up to the end point of survival time at 1 year after surgery. Adding the genetics to the prediction by the attentional bias to positive words for pain intensity and the PVAQ for pain disability, again
Eagly, Alice H; Riger, Stephanie
Starting in the 1960s, many of the critiques of psychological science offered by feminist psychologists focused on its methods and epistemology. This article evaluates the current state of psychological science in relation to this feminist critique. The analysis relies on sources that include the PsycINFO database, the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (American Psychological Association, 2010), and popular psychology methods textbooks. After situating the feminist critique within the late-20th-century shift of science from positivism to postpositivism, the inquiry examines feminists' claims of androcentric bias in (a) the underrepresentation of women as researchers and research participants and (b) researchers' practices in comparing women and men and describing their research findings. In most of these matters, psychology manifests considerable change in directions advocated by feminists. However, change is less apparent in relation to some feminists' criticisms of psychology's reliance on laboratory experimentation and quantitative methods. In fact, the analyses documented the rarity in high-citation journals of qualitative research that does not include quantification. Finally, the analysis frames feminist methodological critiques by a consideration of feminist epistemologies that challenge psychology's dominant postpositivism. Scrutiny of methods textbooks and journal content suggests that within psychological science, especially as practiced in the United States, these alternative epistemologies have not yet gained substantial influence.
Lemsalu, Liis; Rüütel, Kristi; Laisaar, Kaja-Triin; Lõhmus, Liilia; Raidvee, Aire; Uusküla, Anneli
People living with HIV (PLHIV) have higher rates of suicidal behavior than the general population. This study assessed suicidal behavior (ideation and/or attempts, ever and in the past 12 months) among PLHIV receiving outpatient HIV medical care in Estonia and associations between suicidal behavior and psychological treatment. The cross-sectional study collected data from January to November 2013 using a self-report questionnaire. Eight hundred PLHIV participated, 39 % (n = 306) of whom had been suicidal. Lifetime prevalence was 36 % for suicidal ideation and 20 % for attempts. Younger age, incarceration, having ever abused alcohol and also injected drugs, having lived with HIV for more than 10 years, and being depressed were associated with lifetime suicidal behavior. Suicidal behavior within the past 12 months was reported by 20 % (n = 156) of respondents. Of these, 27 % received psychological treatment (counseling and/or psychotherapy), 20 % had taken antidepressants, and 49 % sedatives. Individuals perceiving a need for treatment were significantly more likely to receive psychological treatment when experiencing suicidal behavior (OR 25.65, 95 % CI 2.92-225.47). In conclusion, suicidal behavior is frequent among PLHIV but psychological treatment is not often received. One of the barriers to treatment is patients' lack of perceived need for help.
Brian E Roe
Full Text Available With recent advances in understanding of the neuroscience of risk taking, attention is now turning to genetic factors that may contribute to individual heterogeneity in risk attitudes. In this paper we test for genetic associations with risk attitude measures derived from both the psychology and economics literature. To develop a long-term prospective study, we first evaluate both types of risk attitudes and find that the economic and psychological measures are poorly correlated, suggesting that different genetic factors may underlie human response to risk faced in different behavioral domains. We then examine polymorphisms in a spectrum of candidate genes that affect neurotransmitter systems influencing dopamine regulation or are thought to be associated with risk attitudes or impulsive disorders. Analysis of the genotyping data identified two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the gene encoding the alpha 4 nicotine receptor (CHRNA4, rs4603829 and rs4522666 that are significantly associated with harm avoidance, a risk attitude measurement drawn from the psychology literature. Novelty seeking, another risk attitude measure from the psychology literature, is associated with several COMT (catechol-O-methyl transferase SNPs while economic risk attitude measures are associated with several VMAT2 (vesicular monoamine transporter SNPs, but the significance of these associations did not withstand statistical adjustment for multiple testing and requires larger cohorts. These exploratory results provide a starting point for understanding the genetic basis of risk attitudes by considering the range of methods available for measuring risk attitudes and by searching beyond the traditional direct focus on dopamine and serotonin receptor and transporter genes.
Nicholette D Palmer
Full Text Available African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n = 550 independent loci were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n = 98 independent loci were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071, were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05. Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8. SNP rs7560163 (P = 7.0×10(-9, OR (95% CI = 0.75 (0.67-0.84 is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217 were associated with T2DM (P<0.05 and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5 in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.
Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the North American Chapter of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) (3rd, Minneapolis, Minnesota, September 10-12, 1981).
Post, Thomas R., Ed.; Roberts, Mary Pat, Ed.
This document primarily consists of papers scheduled for presentation at the third annual meeting of the North American chapter of the International Group for Psychology in Mathematics Education (NA-PME), held in September 1981, at the University of Minnesota. A total of 27 papers are arranged alphabetically by author. An additional three late…
Bornstein, Robert F
In recent years there has been increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice in psychology (EBPP), and as is true in most health care professions, the primary focus of EBPP has been on treatment. Comparatively little attention has been devoted to applying the principles of EBPP to psychological assessment, despite the fact that assessment plays a central role in myriad domains of empirical and applied psychology (e.g., research, forensics, behavioral health, risk management, diagnosis and classification in mental health settings, documentation of neuropsychological impairment and recovery, personnel selection and placement in organizational contexts). This article outlines the central elements of evidence-based psychological assessment (EBPA), using the American Psychological Association's tripartite definition of EBPP as integration of the best available research with clinical expertise in the context of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences. After discussing strategies for conceptualizing and operationalizing evidence-based testing and evidence-based assessment, 6 core skills and 3 meta-skills that underlie proficiency in psychological assessment are described. The integration of patient characteristics, culture, and preferences is discussed in terms of the complex interaction of patient and assessor identities and values throughout the assessment process. A preliminary framework for implementing EBPA is offered, and avenues for continued refinement and growth are described.
Einstein, Andrew J; Lloyd, Steven G; Chaudhry, Farooq A; AlJaroudi, Wael A; Hage, Fadi G
Multiple novel studies were presented at the 2015 American Heart Association Scientific Sessions which was considered a successful conference at many levels. In this review, we will summarize key studies in nuclear cardiology, cardiac magnetic resonance, echocardiography, and cardiac computed tomography that were presented at the Sessions. We hope that this bird's eye view will keep readers updated on the newest imaging studies presented at the meeting whether or not they were able to attend the meeting.
<正>Cheng Siwei,former Vice Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress and President of the China -Latin America Friendship Association (CLAFA),led a CLAFA delegation on a visit to four Central and South American countries from October 25 to November 11,2009 during which they met national leaders and other influential persons in the fields of foreign and cul-
Liao, Duanping; Mo, Jingping; Duan, Yinkang; Klein, Ronald; Scott, Ingrid U.; Huang, Kui A; Zhou, Haibo
Objective: To investigate whether age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is associated with the development of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke among elderly Americans. Design: Population-based cohort study. Participants: The five percent random sample of 2000-2003 Medicare enrollees was obtained. The cohort (n=1,519,086) consisted of enrollees who were aged 65 or older at the first two-year (January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2001). Methods: Baseline demographic variables and chronic conditions ...
Jeejeebhoy, Farida M; Zelop, Carolyn M; Lipman, Steve; Carvalho, Brendan; Joglar, Jose; Mhyre, Jill M; Katz, Vern L; Lapinsky, Stephen E; Einav, Sharon; Warnes, Carole A; Page, Richard L; Griffin, Russell E; Jain, Amish; Dainty, Katie N; Arafeh, Julie; Windrim, Rory; Koren, Gideon; Callaway, Clifton W
This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on maternal resuscitation. This document will provide readers with up-to-date and comprehensive information, guidelines, and recommendations for all aspects of maternal resuscitation. Maternal resuscitation is an acute event that involves many subspecialties and allied health providers; this document will be relevant to all healthcare providers who are involved in resuscitation and specifically maternal resuscitation.
Cillo, Joseph E; Basi, David; Peacock, Zachary; Aghaloo, Tara; Bouloux, Gary; Dodson, Thomas; Edwards, Sean P; Kademani, Deepak
The Fifth Biennial Research Summit of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons and its Committee on Research Planning and Technology Assessment was held in Rosemont, Illinois on May 6 and 7, 2015. The goal of the symposium is to provide a forum for the most recent clinical and scientific advances to be brought to the specialty. The proceedings of the events of that summit are presented in this report.
Sood, Parul; Priyadarshini, Sushri; Aich, Palok
Stress has long been known to increase susceptibility to health disorders. In 2009, American Psychological Association further established association of stress to serious health problems. However, a quantitative and accurate way to evaluate and estimate stress status of individuals is still a big challenge. It has been shown, in large animal models using cattle, that psychological stress can be quantified as well as disease susceptibility could be predicted through biomarker discovery. Taking cue from those studies, we have evaluated and estimated psychological stress level of individuals theoretically and validated experimentally. Various biomarkers have also been identified which can be associated to psychological stress to predict stress status of unknown individuals.
The present research was conducted in order to compare self-esteem of American students with Turkish students in terms of the sport participation at the universities. For this purpose, a total of 460 students (M age = 19,61 ± 1,64) voluntarily participated in the study from two universities. As data collection tool, Rosenberg (1965) Self-esteem…
Kan, Mengyuan; Auer, Paul L; Wang, Gao T; Bucasas, Kristine L; Hooker, Stanley; Rodriguez, Alejandra; Li, Biao; Ellis, Jaclyn; Adrienne Cupples, L; Ida Chen, Yii-Der; Dupuis, Josée; Fox, Caroline S; Gross, Myron D; Smith, Joshua D; Heard-Costa, Nancy; Meigs, James B; Pankow, James S; Rotter, Jerome I; Siscovick, David; Wilson, James G; Shendure, Jay; Jackson, Rebecca; Peters, Ulrike; Zhong, Hua; Lin, Danyu; Hsu, Li; Franceschini, Nora; Carlson, Chris; Abecasis, Goncalo; Gabriel, Stacey; Bamshad, Michael J; Altshuler, David; Nickerson, Deborah A; North, Kari E; Lange, Leslie A; Reiner, Alexander P; Leal, Suzanne M
Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), a relative comparison of waist and hip circumferences, is an easily accessible measurement of body fat distribution, in particular central abdominal fat. A high WHR indicates more intra-abdominal fat deposition and is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Recent genome-wide association studies have identified numerous common genetic loci influencing WHR, but the contributions of rare variants have not been previously reported. We investigated rare variant associations with WHR in 1510 European-American and 1186 African-American women from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-Exome Sequencing Project. Association analysis was performed on the gene level using several rare variant association methods. The strongest association was observed for rare variants in IKBKB (P=4.0 × 10(-8)) in European-Americans, where rare variants in this gene are predicted to decrease WHRs. The activation of the IKBKB gene is involved in inflammatory processes and insulin resistance, which may affect normal food intake and body weight and shape. Meanwhile, aggregation of rare variants in COBLL1, previously found to harbor common variants associated with WHR and fasting insulin, were nominally associated (P=2.23 × 10(-4)) with higher WHR in European-Americans. However, these significant results are not shared between African-Americans and European-Americans that may be due to differences in the allelic architecture of the two populations and the small sample sizes. Our study indicates that the combined effect of rare variants contribute to the inter-individual variation in fat distribution through the regulation of insulin response.
Fuglestad, Paul T.; Bruening, Meg; Graham, Dan J.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne R.
This study used balance theory to illuminate the relations of eating-related attitudinal consistency between self and friends to psychological well-being and eating behaviors. It was hypothesized that attitudinal inconsistency, relative to consistency, would predict lower well-being and poorer eating habits. A population-based sample of 2287 young adults participating in Project EAT-III (Eating Among Teens and Young Adults) completed measures of psychological well-being, eating behaviors, and...
Previous investigations of the relationship between Facebook use and psychological well-being have most commonly considered variables relating to the quantity (e.g., time spent online) and underlying motivations (e.g., making new friends) of Facebook consumption. However, previous research has reached contradictory conclusions in that quantity of Facebook use has been linked to both higher and lower levels of psychological well-being. The current study investigated whether these contradictory...
Background: Exercise is often used in the treatment of chronic neck and shoulder muscle pain. It is likely that psychological aspects have an impact on the results of exercise-based treatments. Objectives: (1) To examine the associations between psychological factors and the effect of a home-based physical exercise intervention. (2) To examine differences in psychological factors at baseline between (a) subjects who continued in the trial and those who did not and (b) subjects who completed t...
Lundgren, Oskar; Garvin, Peter; Jonasson, Lena; Andersson, Gerhard; Kristenson, Margareta
Background A large number of studies have provided clear evidence for a link between the risk of coronary heart disease and psychological risk factors. Much less attention has been given to the potential protective effect of psychological resources. Purpose The major aim of this study was to investigate the independent association between psychological resources and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in an 8-year follow-up study of a Swedish community-based cohort. Methods The cohort c...
J Gustav Smith
Full Text Available The PR interval on the electrocardiogram reflects atrial and atrioventricular nodal conduction time. The PR interval is heritable, provides important information about arrhythmia risk, and has been suggested to differ among human races. Genome-wide association (GWA studies have identified common genetic determinants of the PR interval in individuals of European and Asian ancestry, but there is a general paucity of GWA studies in individuals of African ancestry. We performed GWA studies in African American individuals from four cohorts (n = 6,247 to identify genetic variants associated with PR interval duration. Genotyping was performed using the Affymetrix 6.0 microarray. Imputation was performed for 2.8 million single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs using combined YRI and CEU HapMap phase II panels. We observed a strong signal (rs3922844 within the gene encoding the cardiac sodium channel (SCN5A with genome-wide significant association (p<2.5 x 10⁻⁸ in two of the four cohorts and in the meta-analysis. The signal explained 2% of PR interval variability in African Americans (beta = 5.1 msec per minor allele, 95% CI = 4.1-6.1, p = 3 x 10⁻²³. This SNP was also associated with PR interval (beta = 2.4 msec per minor allele, 95% CI = 1.8-3.0, p = 3 x 10⁻¹⁶ in individuals of European ancestry (n = 14,042, but with a smaller effect size (p for heterogeneity <0.001 and variability explained (0.5%. Further meta-analysis of the four cohorts identified genome-wide significant associations with SNPs in SCN10A (rs6798015, MEIS1 (rs10865355, and TBX5 (rs7312625 that were highly correlated with SNPs identified in European and Asian GWA studies. African ancestry was associated with increased PR duration (13.3 msec, p = 0.009 in one but not the other three cohorts. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of common variants to African Americans at four loci previously associated with PR interval in European and
Alexander, Gregory L; Wakefield, Bonnie J; Anbari, Allison B; Lyons, Vanessa; Prentice, Donna; Shepherd, Marilyn; Strecker, E Bradley; Weston, Marla J
National leaders are calling for opportunities to facilitate the Future of Nursing. Opportunities can be encouraged through state nurses association Web sites, which are part of the American Nurses Association, that are well designed, with appropriate content, and in a language professional nurses understand. The American Nurses Association and constituent state nurses associations provide information about nursing practice, ethics, credentialing, and health on Web sites. We conducted usability evaluations to determine compliance with heuristic and ethical principles for Web site design. We purposefully sampled 27 nursing association Web sites and used 68 heuristic and ethical criteria to perform systematic usability assessments of nurse association Web sites. Web site analysis included seven double experts who were all RNs trained in usability analysis. The extent to which heuristic and ethical criteria were met ranged widely from one state that met 0% of the criteria for "help and documentation" to states that met greater than 92% of criteria for "visibility of system status" and "aesthetic and minimalist design." Suggested improvements are simple yet make an impact on a first-time visitor's impression of the Web site. For example, adding internal navigation and tracking features and providing more details about the application process through help and frequently asked question documentation would facilitate better use. Improved usability will improve effectiveness, efficiency, and consumer satisfaction with these Web sites.
Zamri, E. N.; Moy, F. M.; Hoe, V. C. W.
Background Musculoskeletal pain is common among teachers. Work-related psychosocial factors are found to be associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain, however psychological distress may also play an important role. Objectives To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP), and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted among teachers in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited via a two stage sampling method. Information on demographic, psychological distress, work-related psychosocial factors, and musculoskeletal pain (LBP and NSP) in the past 12 months was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) for the associations between psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors with LBP and NSP. Results The prevalence of self-reported LBP and NSP among 1482 teachers in the past 12 months was 48.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 45.2%, 50.9%) and 60.1% (95% CI 57.4%, 62.9%) respectively. From the multivariate analysis, self-reported LBP was associated with teachers who reported severe to extremely severe depression (PR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.25, 2.32), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.46, 95% CI 1.22, 1.75), high psychological job demand (1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.57), low skill discretion (1.28, 95% CI 1.13, 1.47) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Self-reported NSP was associated with mild to moderate anxiety (1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.33), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.25, 95% CI 1.09, 1.43), low supervisory support (1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.25) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Conclusions Self-reported LBP and NSP were common among secondary school teachers. Interventions targeting psychological distress and work
Margavio, Thomas M.; Margavio, Geanie W.; Hignite, Michael A.; Moses, Duane R.
In a continuation of their prior research which focused on the differences in Emotional Intelligence (EI) levels between Chinese and American business students and the academic variables associated with those scores, the authors extend their efforts to investigate those personal (non-academic) characteristics of both American and Chinese business…
N. Franceschini (Nora); Hu, Y. (Yijuan); A. Reiner (Alexander); S. Buyske (Steven); M.A. Nalls (Michael); L.R. Yanek (Lisa); Y. Li (Yun); L.A. Hindorff (Lucia A); Cole, S.A. (Shelley A.); Howard, B.V. (Barbara V.); J.M. Stafford (Jeanette M.); C. Carty (Cara); P. Sethupathy (Praveen); Martin, L.W. (Lisa W.); D.Y. Lin (Dan); Johnson, K.C. (Karen C.); L.C. Becker (Lewis); K.E. North (Kari); A. Dehghan (Abbas); J.C. Bis (Joshua); Y. Liu (Yongmei); P. Greenland (Philip); J.E. Manson (Joann); Maeda, N. (Nobuyo); M.E. Garcia (M.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); D.M. Becker (Diane); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); G. Heiss (Gerardo); C. Kooperberg (Charles); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric)
textabstractBackground: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in African Americans. However, there is a paucity of studies assessing genetic determinants of CHD in African Americans. We examined the association of published variants in CHD loci with incident CHD,
Jenkins, Carol G; Bader, Shelley A
The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries has made collaboration with other organizations a fundamental success strategy throughout its twenty-five year history. From the beginning its relationships with Association of American Medical Colleges and with the Medical Library Association have shaped its mission and influenced its success at promoting academic health sciences libraries' roles in their institutions. This article describes and evaluates those relationships. It also describes evolving relationships with other organizations including the National Library of Medicine and the Association of Research Libraries.
Full Text Available University students are reported to have a higher prevalence of psychological distress than the general population. Consequently, research surrounding factors that may contribute to poor mental health of students is imperative in order to identify interventions for this at-risk population. Previous research has determined that sedentary behaviour is associated with physical health, with an emerging focus on the association between sedentary behaviour and mental health. As the role of student consists of primarily sedentary behaviours such as reading, writing and computer use, the relationship between these activities and student mental wellbeing is particularly relevant. The presentation reported on the findings of study conducted on a sample of first year undergraduates and their reported levels of psychological distress and use of time. The findings highlight the diverse and demanding lifestyles of today’s student and the need for further research into student mental well-being.
XU Tao; LI Wei; Koon Teo; WANG Xing-yu; LIU Li-sheng; Salim Yusuf
Background Most data about psychological factors relating to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were obtained from studies carried out in western countries. Results from small descriptive cross-sectional studies in China were inconclusive. The aim of this study was to explore possible associations between psychological risk factors and AMI among the Chinese population with a large-scale case-control study.Methods This study was part of the INTER-HEART China study, itself part of the large international INTER-HEART study of cardiovascular risk factors. In this case-control study, 2909 cases and 2947 controls were recruited from 17 cities.Psychological stress, negative life events, depression and controllability of life circumstances were assessed.Results Cases reported more psychological stress at home or work and odds ratios (ORs) were 3.2 (95% CI 2.1-4.9)for permanent stress and 2.1 (95% CI 1.5-2.8) for several periods of stress respectively. More cases experienced depression compared with controls (19.6% vs. 9.3%) and ORs were 2.2 (95% CI 1.9-2.6). Subjects with 1, 2 and 3 or more depressive symptoms had increased risk of AMI by 2.1, 2.2 and 2.6 fold, respectively, i.e., more depressive symptoms were associated with higher risks of AMI (P for trend ＜0.0001). Women had a greater risk of AMI from depression (OR 3.0, 95% CI 2.2-4.0) compared to men (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.6-2.4), P for interaction =0.0364. Negative life events in subjects were associated with increased risk of AMI, OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.4-2.0) for one event and 1.8 (95% CI 1.3-2.4) for two or more events. High levels of controllability of life circumstances reduced the risk for AMI (OR 0.8, 95%CI 0.7-1 .0).Conclusions Several psychological factors were closely associated with increased AMI risk among Chinese population.Psychological stress had a greater AMI risk in men but depression was more significant among women.
Reininghaus, Ulrich; Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte Emily Juliette; Valmaggia, Lucia Rita; Kempton, Matthew; Calem, Maria De Almeida Ribeiro; Onyejiaka, Adanna; Hubbard, Kathryn Mary Frances; Dazzan, Paola; Beards, Stephanie Frances Richmond; Fisher, Helen; Mills, John Gregory; McGuire, Philip; Craig, Tom K.J; Garety, Philippa Anne; Van Os, Johannas
Background: Evidence has accumulated that implicates childhood trauma in the aetiology of psychosis, but our understanding of the putative psychological processes and mechanisms through which childhood trauma impacts on individuals and contributes to the development of psychosis remains limited. We aimed to investigate whether stress sensitivity and threat anticipation underlie the association between childhood abuse and psychosis. Method: We used the Experience Sampling Method to measure str...
Rodriguez, Nancy R; DiMarco, Nancy M; Langley, Susie
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of foods and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This updated position paper couples a rigorous, systematic, evidence-based analysis of nutrition and performance-specific literature with current scientific data related to energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training and competition, the use of supplements and ergogenic aids, nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes, and the roles and responsibilities of sports dietitians. Energy and macronutrient needs, especially carbohydrate and protein, must be met during times of high physical activity to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein to build and repair tissue. Fat intake should be sufficient to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as contribute energy for weight maintenance. Although exercise performance can be affected by body weight and composition, these physical measures should not be a criterion for sports performance and daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Adequate food and fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before exercise and drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Sports beverages containing carbohydrates and electrolytes may be consumed before, during, and after exercise to help maintain blood glucose concentration, provide fuel for muscles, and decrease risk of dehydration and hyponatremia. Vitamin
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs--especially carbohydrate and protein intake--must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help
It is the position of Dietitians of Canada, the American Dietetic Association, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to athletes' energy needs, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, athletes' nutrient and fluid needs, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs - especially carbohydrate and protein intake - must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repairing tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20-25% of energy); there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose levels during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well hydrated before beginning exercise; they should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain blood glucose levels and the
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association, Dietitians of Canada, and the American College of Sports Medicine that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance. This position paper reviews the current scientific data related to the energy needs of athletes, assessment of body composition, strategies for weight change, the nutrient and fluid needs of athletes, special nutrient needs during training, the use of supplements and nutritional ergogenic aids, and the nutrition recommendations for vegetarian athletes. During times of high physical activity, energy and macronutrient needs-especially carbohydrate and protein intake-must be met in order to maintain body weight, replenish glycogen stores, and provide adequate protein for building and repair of tissue. Fat intake should be adequate to provide the essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins, as well as to help provide adequate energy for weight maintenance. Overall, diets should provide moderate amounts of energy from fat (20% to 25% of energy); however, there appears to be no health or performance benefit to consuming a diet containing less than 15% of energy from fat. Body weight and composition can affect exercise performance, but should not be used as the sole criterion for sports performance; daily weigh-ins are discouraged. Consuming adequate food and fluid before, during, and after exercise can help maintain blood glucose during exercise, maximize exercise performance, and improve recovery time. Athletes should be well-hydrated before beginning to exercise; athletes should also drink enough fluid during and after exercise to balance fluid losses. Consumption of sport drinks containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during exercise will provide fuel for the muscles, help maintain
Lawrence, W Thomas
The American Association of Plastic Surgeons was founded in 1921 and is the oldest of the plastic surgery societies. It was born out of the enthusiasm of reconstructive surgeons who had recently increased in numbers and expanded the scope of their activities as a result of the challenges posed by battle-injured soldiers during World War I. Early meetings were small, focused exclusively on the head and neck, and often included live surgical demonstrations. The Association has grown in size and scope with time, but it has maintained its academic focus. This article focuses on the most recent 15 years of the Association's history, as prior publications have chronicled the history of the organization up to 2000. The organization has remained robust in the new millennium, with the national meetings being its most prominent activity. The format of the meetings has continually been improved to remain relevant and of interest to the membership and other attendees. The organization continues to support the development of young academic plastic surgeons through the Academic Scholars Program. It has established new programs such as the Constable Fellowship to support international exchange and has also sponsored two consensus conferences to help define standards of care in plastic surgery-related issues. The Association annually recognizes significant contributors to the field through the variety of awards that it bestows as well. The mission of the American Association of Plastic Surgeons is to provide scholarly leadership in plastic surgery, and the organization continues to successfully accomplish this mission.
Nitzke, Susan; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that the total diet or overall pattern of food eaten is the most important focus of a healthful eating style. All foods can fit within this pattern, if consumed in moderation with appropriate portion size and combined with regular physical activity. The American Dietetic Association strives to communicate healthful eating messages to the public that emphasize a balance of foods, rather than any one food or meal. Public policies that support the total diet approach include the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, MyPyramid, the DASH Diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension), Dietary Reference Intakes, and nutrition labeling. The value of a food should be determined within the context of the total diet because classifying foods as "good" or "bad" may foster unhealthful eating behaviors. Alternative approaches may be necessary in some health conditions. Eating practices are dynamic and influenced by many factors, including taste and food preferences, weight concerns, physiology, lifestyle, time challenges, economics, environment, attitudes and beliefs, social/cultural influences, media, food technology, and food product safety. To increase the effectiveness of nutrition education in promoting sensible food choices, food and nutrition professionals should utilize appropriate behavioral theory and evidence-based strategies. A focus on moderation and proportionality in the context of a healthful lifestyle, rather than specific nutrients or foods, can help reduce consumer confusion. Proactive, empowering, and practical messages that emphasize the total diet approach promote positive lifestyle changes.
Nicklas, Thersea; Johnson, Rachel
It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical activity. The health status of American children has generally improved over the past three decades. However, the number of children who are overweight has more than doubled among 2- to 5-year-old children and more than tripled among 6- to 11-year-old children, which has major health consequences. This increase in childhood overweight has broadened the focus of dietary guidance to address children's over consumption of energy-dense, nutrient-poor foods and beverages and physical activity patterns. Health promotion will help reduce diet-related risks of chronic degenerative diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, obesity, and osteoporosis. This position paper reviews what US children are eating and explores trends in food and nutrient intakes as well as the impact of school meals on children's diets. Dietary recommendations and guidelines and the benefits of physical activity are also discussed. The roles of parents and caregivers in influencing the development of healthy eating behaviors are highlighted. The American Dietetic Association works with other allied health and food industry professionals to translate dietary recommendations and guidelines into achievable, healthful messages. Specific recommendations to improve the nutritional well-being of children are provided for dietetics professionals, parents, and caregivers.
Kao, W H Linda; Klag, Michael J; Meoni, Lucy A; Reich, David; Berthier-Schaad, Yvette; Li, Man; Coresh, Josef; Patterson, Nick; Tandon, Arti; Powe, Neil R; Fink, Nancy E; Sadler, John H; Weir, Matthew R; Abboud, Hanna E; Adler, Sharon G; Divers, Jasmin; Iyengar, Sudha K; Freedman, Barry I; Kimmel, Paul L; Knowler, William C; Kohn, Orly F; Kramp, Kristopher; Leehey, David J; Nicholas, Susanne B; Pahl, Madeleine V; Schelling, Jeffrey R; Sedor, John R; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Winkler, Cheryl A; Smith, Michael W; Parekh, Rulan S
As end-stage renal disease (ESRD) has a four times higher incidence in African Americans compared to European Americans, we hypothesized that susceptibility alleles for ESRD have a higher frequency in the West African than the European gene pool. We carried out a genome-wide admixture scan in 1,372 ESRD cases and 806 controls and found a highly significant association between excess African ancestry and nondiabetic ESRD (lod score = 5.70) but not diabetic ESRD (lod = 0.47) on chromosome 22q12. Each copy of the European ancestral allele conferred a relative risk of 0.50 (95% CI = 0.39-0.63) compared to African ancestry. Multiple common SNPs (allele frequencies ranging from 0.2 to 0.6) in the gene encoding nonmuscle myosin heavy chain type II isoform A (MYH9) were associated with two to four times greater risk of nondiabetic ESRD and accounted for a large proportion of the excess risk of ESRD observed in African compared to European Americans.
Cavanagh, Sarah R; Fitzgerald, Erin J; Urry, Heather L
Frequent and successful use of cognitive reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy that involves rethinking the meaning of an emotional event in order to change one's emotional response, has been linked in everyday life to positive outcomes such as higher well-being. Whether we should expect this association to be maintained in a strong, temporally and spatially close emotional context is an unexplored question that might have important implications for our understanding of emotion regulation and its relations to psychological functioning. In this study of members of the U. S. Embassy Tokyo community in the months following the March 2011 earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear crisis in Japan, self-reported use of cognitive reappraisal was not related to psychological functioning, but demonstrated success using cognitive reappraisal to decrease feelings of unpleasantness in response to disaster-related pictures on a performance-based task was associated with fewer symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress. Moreover, emotional reactivity to these pictures was associated with greater symptomatology. These results suggest that situational intensity may be an important moderator of reappraisal and psychological functioning relationships.
Hirokawa, Kumi; Miwa, Machiko; Taniguchi, Toshiyo; Tsuchiya, Masao; Kawakami, Norito
Levels of job stress have been shown to be inversely associated with testosterone levels, but some inconsistent results have been documented. We investigated the moderating effects of testosterone levels on associations between job stress-factors and psychological stress responses in Japanese medical workers. The participants were 63 medical staff (20 males and 43 women; mean age: 30.6 years; SD=7.3) in Okayama, Japan. Their job-stress levels and psychological stress responses were evaluated using self-administered questionnaires, and their salivary testosterone collected. Multiple regression analyses showed that job demand was positively associated with stress responses in men and women. An interaction between testosterone and support from colleagues had a significant effect on depression and anxiety for women. In women with lower testosterone levels, a reducing effect of support from colleagues on depression and anxiety was intensified. In women with higher testosterone levels, depression and anxiety levels were identical regardless of support from colleagues. Testosterone may function as a moderator between perceived work environment and psychological stress responses for female medical workers.
Wong, Shane Shucheng; Kletter, Hilit; Wong, Yukwal; Carrion, Victor G
This study investigated the influence of caregiver psychological symptoms on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in traumatized children. One-hundred eleven children and caretakers were assessed in this study. Children (N = 59) with a history of exposure to interpersonal violence were evaluated for reexperiencing, avoidance/numbing, and hyperarousal symptom clusters using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for Children and Adolescents (CAPS-CA). The 52 primary caregivers were evaluated using the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) on 9 domains of psychological symptomatology: anxiety, depression, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive disorder, paranoid ideation, phobic anxiety, psychoticism, and somatization. At 14-month follow-up, 45 of the children were re-evaluated with the CAPS-CA. Caregiver psychological symptoms in the domains of anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and paranoid ideation were associated with less improvement in total pediatric PTSD symptoms. Analysis of PTSD symptoms by cluster showed that greater caregiver symptomatology in the domains of anxiety, depression, interpersonal sensitivity, and obsessive-compulsive disorder were associated with less improvement in the hyperarousal symptom cluster. These results suggest caregiver symptomatology may be specifically associated with hyperarousal symptoms in pediatric trauma.
Tesfaye M Baye
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Candidate gene case-control studies have identified several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that are associated with asthma susceptibility. Most of these studies have been restricted to evaluations of specific SNPs within a single gene and within populations from European ancestry. Recently, there is increasing interest in understanding racial differences in genetic risk associated with childhood asthma. Our aim was to compare association patterns of asthma candidate genes between children of European and African ancestry. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a custom-designed Illumina SNP array, we genotyped 1,485 children within the Greater Cincinnati Pediatric Clinic Repository and Cincinnati Genomic Control Cohort for 259 SNPs in 28 genes and evaluated their associations with asthma. We identified 14 SNPs located in 6 genes that were significantly associated (p-values <0.05 with childhood asthma in African Americans. Among Caucasians, 13 SNPs in 5 genes were associated with childhood asthma. Two SNPs in IL4 were associated with asthma in both races (p-values <0.05. Gene-gene interaction studies identified race specific sets of genes that best discriminate between asthmatic children and non-allergic controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We identified IL4 as having a role in asthma susceptibility in both African American and Caucasian children. However, while IL4 SNPs were associated with asthma in asthmatic children with European and African ancestry, the relative contributions of the most replicated asthma-associated SNPs varied by ancestry. These data provides valuable insights into the pathways that may predispose to asthma in individuals with European vs. African ancestry.
Chronic neck pain, a common cause of disability, seems to be the result of several interacting mechanisms. In addition to degenerative and inflammatory changes and trauma, psychological and psychosocial factors are also involved. One common type of trauma associated with chronic neck pain is whiplash injury; this sometimes results in whiplash-associated disorder (WAD), a controversial condition with largely unknown pathogenetic mechanisms. We studied the prevalence of chronic neck pain of traumatic and non-traumatic origin and compared the prevalence of, sociodemographic data, self-perceived health, workload and chronic low-back pain in these groups. In a ready-made questionnaire (MONICA study), we added questions about cervical spine and low-back complaints. 6,000 (72%) completed a self-administered questionnaire. 43% reported neck pain: 48% of women and 38% of men. Women of working age had more neck pain than retired women, a phenomenon not seen in men. 19% of the studied population suffered from chronic neck pain and it was more frequent in women. A history of neck trauma was common in those with chronic neck pain. Those with a history of neck trauma perceived their health worse and were more often on sick-leave. About 50% of those with traumatic and non-traumatic chronic neck pain also had chronic low-back pain. We assessed the subjective and objective neuropsychological functioning in 42 patients with chronic neck pain, 21 with a whiplash trauma, and 21 without previous neck trauma. Despite cognitive complaints, the WAD patients had normal neuropsychological functioning, but the WAD group especially had deviant MMPI results-indicating impaired coping ability and somatization. WAD patients had no alterations in cerebral blood-flow pattern, as measured by rCBF-SPECT and SPM analysis, compared to healthy controls. This contrasts with the non-traumatic group with chronic neck pain, which showed marked blood-flow changes. The blood-flow changes in the non
Mehta, Laxmi S; Beckie, Theresa M; DeVon, Holli A; Grines, Cindy L; Krumholz, Harlan M; Johnson, Michelle N; Lindley, Kathryn J; Vaccarino, Viola; Wang, Tracy Y; Watson, Karol E; Wenger, Nanette K
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in American women. Since 1984, the annual cardiovascular disease mortality rate has remained greater for women than men; however, over the last decade, there have been marked reductions in cardiovascular disease mortality in women. The dramatic decline in mortality rates for women is attributed partly to an increase in awareness, a greater focus on women and cardiovascular disease risk, and the increased application of evidence-based treatments for established coronary heart disease. This is the first scientific statement from the American Heart Association on acute myocardial infarction in women. Sex-specific differences exist in the presentation, pathophysiological mechanisms, and outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction. This statement provides a comprehensive review of the current evidence of the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, treatment, and outcomes of women with acute myocardial infarction.
Young, Deborah Rohm; Hivert, Marie-France; Alhassan, Sofiya; Camhi, Sarah M; Ferguson, Jane F; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Lewis, Cora E; Owen, Neville; Perry, Cynthia K; Siddique, Juned; Yong, Celina M
Epidemiological evidence is accumulating that indicates greater time spent in sedentary behavior is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adults such that some countries have disseminated broad guidelines that recommend minimizing sedentary behaviors. Research examining the possible deleterious consequences of excess sedentary behavior is rapidly evolving, with the epidemiology-based literature ahead of potential biological mechanisms that might explain the observed associations. This American Heart Association science advisory reviews the current evidence on sedentary behavior in terms of assessment methods, population prevalence, determinants, associations with cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality, potential underlying mechanisms, and interventions. Recommendations for future research on this emerging cardiovascular health topic are included. Further evidence is required to better inform public health interventions and future quantitative guidelines on sedentary behavior and cardiovascular health outcomes.
Valentin Viktorovich Fadeev
Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the discussion about to guidelines for the treatment of hypothyroidism prepared by the American thyroid association task force on thyroid hormone replacement.
Full Text Available Background: Compared with European Americans, African Americans (AA exhibit lower levels of the cardio-metabolically protective adiponectin even after accounting for adiposity measures. Because few studies have examined in AA the association between adiponectin and genetic admixture, a dense panel of ancestry informative markers (AIMs was used to estimate the individual proportions of European ancestry (PEA for the African Americans enrolled in a large community-based cohort, the Jackson Heart Study (JHS. We tested the hypothesis that plasma adiponectin and PEA are directly associated and assessed the interaction with a series of cardio-metabolic risk factors.Methods: Plasma specimens from 1,439 JHS participants were analyzed by ELISA for adiponectin levels. Using pseudo-ancestral population genotype data from the HapMap Consortium, PEA was estimated with a panel of up to 1,447 genome-wide preselected AIMs by a maximum likelihood approach. Interaction assessment, stepwise linear and cubic multivariable-adjusted regression models were used to analyze the cross-sectional association between adiponectin and PEA.Results: Among the study participants (62% women; mean age 48 ± 12 years, the median (interquartile range of PEA was 15.8 (9.3%. Body mass index (p = 0.04 and insulin resistance (p = 0.0001 modified the association between adiponectin and PEA. Adiponectin was directly and linearly associated with PEA (β = 0.62 ± 0.28, p = 0.03 among non-obese (n = 673 and insulin sensitive participants (n = 1,141; β = 0.74 ± 0.23, p = 0.001, but not among those obese or with insulin resistance. No threshold effect was detected for non-obese participants.Conclusions: In a large African American population, the individual proportion of European ancestry was linearly and directly associated with plasma adiponectin among non-obese and non insulin-resistant participants, pointing to the interaction of genetic and metabolic factors influencing adiponectin
Tabb, Winston; Birdsall, William F.
Includes two reports: one from the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that discusses digital libraries, standards, collaboration, and membership and structure of IFLA; and one that considers Canadian-American librarianship in the 21st century, including federal government policy, copyright reform, and…
Valdes, Olivia M; Laursen, Brett; Guimond, Fanny A; Hartl, Amy C; Denner, Jill
Mothers and adolescents hold distinct albeit correlated views of their relationship and of one another. The present study focuses on disentangling these independent views. Concurrent associations between maternal psychological control and children's adjustment are examined at two time points in order to identify the degree to which associations reflect (a) views that are shared by mothers and adolescents, and (b) views that are unique to mothers and adolescents. A total of 123 (56 % female) U.S. Latino/a adolescents (M = 10.4 years old at the outset) and their mothers reported on maternal psychological control, children's conduct problems, and children's anxiety, twice within a 5-month period. Data were collected at the close of primary school when the adolescents were in grade 5 and again at the beginning of middle school, when they were in grade 6. Results from conventional correlations indicated that mother- and adolescent-reports yielded similar associations between maternal psychological control and adolescent adjustment. Common fate model analyses partitioned results into variance shared across mother and adolescent reports and variance unique to mother and adolescent reports. Results differed for anxiety and conduct problems. Shared views indicated that greater maternal psychological control was associated with heightened child conduct problems; there were no associations unique to either reporter. In contrast, unique reporter views indicated that greater maternal psychological control was associated with child anxiety; there were no associations involving shared views. Although mother- and adolescent-reports agree that maternal psychological control is correlated with children's adjustment, there is considerable divergence in results when associations are partitioned according to shared and unique reporter views. Associations between maternal psychological control and children's anxiety are more apt to be inflated by same-reporter variance bias than are
Winston, A S
From the 1920s to the 1950s, Edwin G. Boring wrote letters of reference for Jewish students and colleagues in which he followed the common practice of identifying them as Jews and assessing whether they showed "objectionable traits" thought to characterize Jews. These practices are discussed in relation to the increasing antisemitism of the interwar period, with specific reference to Abraham A. Roback and Kurt Lewin. In Roback's case, the "defect" of Jewishness was thought to explain his undesirable personality: with Lewin, personal charm mitigated the "defect" of Jewishness. Boring's unsuccessful attempts to place Jewish students, his subsequent pessimism, and his postwar discussions of Jewish identity are examined in relation to the general issue of antisemitism in the history of academic psychology.
Oshio, Takashi; Inoue, Akiomi; Tsutsumi, Akizumi
Our current study investigated how workplace social capital (WSC) mediates and moderates the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress among Japanese workers. We collected cross-sectional data (N=9,350) from a baseline survey of an occupational Japanese cohort study. We focused on individual WSC and considered job demands/control, effort/reward, and two types (i.e., procedural and interactional) of organizational justice as work-characteristic variables. We defined psychological distress as a score of ≥5 on the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6 scale). Multivariate logistic regression analyses predicted a binary variable of psychological distress by individual WSC and adverse work characteristics, adjusting for individual-level covariates. Individual WSC mediated the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress in almost all model specifications. Additionally, individual WSC moderated the associations of psychological distress with high job demands, high effort, and low interactional justice when we used a high WSC cutoff point. In contrast, individual WSC did not moderate such interactions with low job control, reward, or procedural justice. We concluded that individual WSC mediated the associations between adverse work characteristics and psychological distress among Japanese workers while selectively moderating their associations at high levels of WSC.
Albers, Craig A.; Floyd, Randy G.; Fuhrmann, Melanie J.; Martinez, Rebecca S.
Two online surveys were completed by editors, associate editors, editorial board members, and members or fellows of the Division 16 of the American Psychological Association. These surveys targeted (a) the criteria for a manuscript to be published in school psychology journals, and (b) the components of the peer-review process that should be…
less small differences in means, with a great degree of distribution overlap, except in athletic ability. Maccoby and Jacklin Pef. iiJ conclude that...Human Nature, Harvard University Press, 1978. 11. Maccoby , E. E., Jacklin, C. N., The Psychology of Sex Differences, Stanford University Press, 1974. 12
Moon, Se-Yeon; Na, Seung-Il
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between workplace learning and psychological variables, such as learning competency, motivation, curiosity, self-esteem and locus of control, and organizational variables, such as centralization of power, formality, merit system and communication. The studied population consisted entirely…
Hughes, Diane; Del Toro, Juan; Harding, Jessica F.; Way, Niobe; Rarick, Jason R. D.
The authors explored trajectories of perceived discrimination over a 6-year period (five assessments in 6th-11th grade) in relation to academic, behavioral, and psychological adjustment in 8th and 11th grades. They distinguished discrimination from adults versus peers in addition to overt versus covert discrimination from peers. The sample…
González Rey, Fernando L
This article discusses the works of some Soviet scholars of psychology, their theoretical positions, and the times within which their works were developed. Dominant representations of Soviet psychology and some of the main Soviet authors are revisited in the light of a blending of facts actively associated with their emergence in both Soviet and Western psychology. From the beginning, Soviet psychology was founded upon Marxism. However, the ways by which that psychology pretended to become Marxist in its philosophical basis were diverse and often contradictory. Other philosophical and theoretical positions also influenced Soviet psychologists. Different moments of that contradictory process are discussed in this article, and through this, I bring to light their interrelations and the consequences for the development of Soviet psychology. This article reinterprets several myths found within Soviet psychology, in which different theoretical representations have become institutionalized for long periods in both Soviet and Western psychology. Particular attention is given to identifying the conditions that presented Vygotsky, Luria, and Leontiev as part of the same paradigm, and which paved the way for a perception of Leontiev and his group as paralleling Vygotsky's importance among American psychologists. Many of the sources that are used in this article were published in Soviet psychology only after the 1970s. Unlike the different and interesting works that began to appear on diverse trends in Soviet psychology, this article details in depth the articulation of topics and questions that still now are presented as different chapters in the analysis of Soviet psychology.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological distress has been rarely investigated among tuberculosis patients in low-resource settings despite the fact that mental ill health has far-reaching consequences for the health outcome of tuberculosis (TB patients. In this study, we assessed the prevalence and predictors of psychological distress as a proxy for common mental disorders among tuberculosis (TB patients in South Africa, where over 60 % of the TB patients are co-infected with HIV. Methods We interviewed 4900 tuberculosis public primary care patients within one month of initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment for the presence of psychological distress using the Kessler-10 item scale (K-10, and identified predictors of distress using multiple logistic regressions. The Kessler scale contains items associated with anxiety and depression. Data on socio-demographic variables, health status, alcohol and tobacco use and adherence to anti-TB drugs and anti-retroviral therapy (ART were collected using a structured questionnaire. Results Using a cut off score of ≥28 and ≥16 on the K-10, 32.9 % and 81 % of tuberculosis patients had symptoms of distress, respectively. In multivariable analysis older age (OR = 1.52; 95 % CI = 1.24-1.85, lower formal education (OR = 0.77; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.91, poverty (OR = 1.90; 95 % CI = 1.57-2.31 and not married, separated, divorced or widowed (OR = 0.74; 95 % CI = 0.62-0.87 were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥28, and older age (OR = 1.30; 95 % CI = 1.00-1.69, lower formal education (OR = 0.55; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.71, poverty (OR = 2.02; 95 % CI = 1.50-2.70 and being HIV positive (OR = 1.44; 95 % CI = 1.19-1.74 were associated with psychological distress (K-10 ≥16. In the final model mental illness co-morbidity (hazardous or harmful alcohol use and non-adherence to anti-TB medication and/or antiretroviral therapy were not
AAD/ACMS/ASDSA/ASMS 2012 appropriate use criteria for Mohs micrographic surgery: a report of the American Academy of Dermatology, American College of Mohs Surgery, American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery.
Connolly, Suzanne M; Baker, Diane R; Coldiron, Brett M; Fazio, Michael J; Storrs, Paul A; Vidimos, Allison T; Zalla, Mark J; Brewer, Jerry D; Smith Begolka, Wendy; Berger, Timothy G; Bigby, Michael; Bolognia, Jean L; Brodland, David G; Collins, Scott; Cronin, Terrence A; Dahl, Mark V; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Hanke, C William; Hruza, George J; James, William D; Lober, Clifford Warren; McBurney, Elizabeth I; Norton, Scott A; Roenigk, Randall K; Wheeland, Ronald G; Wisco, Oliver J
The appropriate use criteria process synthesizes evidence-based medicine, clinical practice experience, and expert judgment. The American Academy of Dermatology in collaboration with the American College of Mohs Surgery, the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery Association, and the American Society for Mohs Surgery has developed appropriate use criteria for 270 scenarios for which Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) is frequently considered based on tumor and patient characteristics. This document reflects the rating of appropriateness of MMS for each of these clinical scenarios by a ratings panel in a process based on the appropriateness method developed by the RAND Corp (Santa Monica, CA)/University of California-Los Angeles (RAND/UCLA). At the conclusion of the rating process, consensus was reached for all 270 (100%) scenarios by the Ratings Panel, with 200 (74.07%) deemed as appropriate, 24 (8.89%) as uncertain, and 46 (17.04%) as inappropriate. For the 69 basal cell carcinoma scenarios, 53 were deemed appropriate, 6 uncertain, and 10 inappropriate. For the 143 squamous cell carcinoma scenarios, 102 were deemed appropriate, 7 uncertain, and 34 inappropriate. For the 12 lentigo maligna and melanoma in situ scenarios, 10 were deemed appropriate, 2 uncertain, and 0 inappropriate. For the 46 rare cutaneous malignancies scenarios, 35 were deemed appropriate, 9 uncertain, and 2 inappropriate. These appropriate use criteria have the potential to impact health care delivery, reimbursement policy, and physician decision making on patient selection for MMS, and aim to optimize the use of MMS for scenarios in which the expected clinical benefit is anticipated to be the greatest. In addition, recognition of those scenarios rated as uncertain facilitates an understanding of areas that would benefit from further research. Each clinical scenario identified in this document is crafted for the average patient and not the exception. Thus, the ultimate decision regarding the
Haynes, Douglas M
In May 1870 the American Medical Association (AMA) voted to deny the admission of black delegates and their white colleagues to the national meeting in Washington, D.C. Historians of race and medicine have customarily viewed this decision as marking a crucial milestone in the formation of the nexus between racism and the development of the American medical profession in the era after the Civil War (1861-64). This study recasts this narrative by locating the 1870 decision in relation to the antebellum practices of the association and their social consequences for American medicine. It argues that the viability of the AMA as the national voice of the profession was critically dependent on rejecting racial equality. Indeed, at a moment when the question of the abolition of slavery polarized the nation, the AMA was founded in 1847 to create a voluntary professional organization, national in scope, dedicated to raising the standards of medical training and practice. To this end, the AMA elected presidents and selected host cities for annual meetings in the North, South, and West. Seven out of the fourteen meetings and six out of fourteen presidents were from slave and/or border states. These institutional practices together with the representation of blacks as different and enjoying an appropriate status as slaves grounded the national identity of the profession in black subordination. Similarly, the gendered discourses about healing and practices of female exclusion privileged medical authority as male by drawing on and reinforcing patriarchy. In the wake of the war, leaders hoped to restore the national character of the organization by resuming antebellum practices. In response to the new possibilities for blacks in medicine--as represented by the biracial National Medical Society--the AMA took steps to vigorously police the racial boundaries of the national profession. As this study will show, the 1870 decision reflected the logic of the racial politics at the heart
Richardson, Bridget L; Macon, Tamarie A; Mustafaa, Faheemah N; Bogan, Erin D; Cole-Lewis, Yasmin; Chavous, Tabbye M
Research links racial identity to important developmental outcomes among African American adolescents, but less is known about the contextual experiences that shape youths' racial identity. In a sample of 491 African American adolescents (48% female), associations of youth-reported experiences of racial discrimination and parental messages about preparation for racial bias with adolescents' later racial identity were examined. Cluster analysis resulted in four profiles of adolescents varying in reported frequency of racial discrimination from teachers and peers at school and frequency of parental racial discrimination coping messages during adolescents' 8th grade year. Boys were disproportionately over-represented in the cluster of youth experiencing more frequent discrimination but receiving fewer parental discrimination coping messages, relative to the overall sample. Also examined were clusters of adolescents' 11th grade racial identity attitudes about the importance of race (centrality), personal group affect (private regard), and perceptions of societal beliefs about African Americans (public regard). Girls and boys did not differ in their representation in racial identity clusters, but 8th grade discrimination/parent messages clusters were associated with 11th grade racial identity cluster membership, and these associations varied across gender groups. Boys experiencing more frequent discrimination but fewer parental coping messages were over-represented in the racial identity cluster characterized by low centrality, low private regard, and average public regard. The findings suggest that adolescents who experience racial discrimination but receive fewer parental supports for negotiating and coping with discrimination may be at heightened risk for internalizing stigmatizing experiences. Also, the findings suggest the need to consider the context of gender in adolescents' racial discrimination and parental racial socialization.
Shakira M. Nelson
Full Text Available African American men have higher incidence rates of aggressive prostate cancer, where high levels of calcium and serum vitamin D deficient levels play a role in the racial differences in incidence. In this study, we examined associations of serum vitamin D with aggressive prostate cancer to improve our understanding of higher susceptibility of aggressive disease in this racial cohort. From Howard University Hospital, 155 African American men with clinically-identified prostate cancer were identified; 46 aggressive cases, and 58 non-aggressive cases. Serum vitamin D was assessed from fasting blood samples, and total calcium intake was assessed using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms from three different loci were genotyped; rs731236, rs1544410, and rs11568820. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to determine odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI comparing aggressive to non-aggressive prostate cancer. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL significantly increased risk of aggressive disease (OR: 3.1, 95% CI: 1.03–9.57, p-value = 0.04. Stratification by total calcium showed high calcium levels (≥800 mg/day modified this association (OR: 7.3, 95% CI: 2.15–47.68, p-interaction = 0.03. Genetic variant rs11568820 appeared to increase the magnitude of association between deficient serum vitamin D and aggressive prostate cancer (OR: 3.64, 95% CI: 1.12–11.75, p-value = 0.05. These findings suggest that high incidence of aggressive prostate cancer risk in African American men may be due in-part to deficient levels of serum vitamin D. Other factors, including genetics, should be considered for future studies.
Full Text Available The evidence for the existence of genetic susceptibility variants for the common form of hypertension ("essential hypertension" remains weak and inconsistent. We sought genetic variants underlying blood pressure (BP by conducting a genome-wide association study (GWAS among African Americans, a population group in the United States that is disproportionately affected by hypertension and associated complications, including stroke and kidney diseases. Using a dense panel of over 800,000 SNPs in a discovery sample of 1,017 African Americans from the Washington, D.C., metropolitan region, we identified multiple SNPs reaching genome-wide significance for systolic BP in or near the genes: PMS1, SLC24A4, YWHA7, IPO7, and CACANA1H. Two of these genes, SLC24A4 (a sodium/potassium/calcium exchanger and CACNA1H (a voltage-dependent calcium channel, are potential candidate genes for BP regulation and the latter is a drug target for a class of calcium channel blockers. No variant reached genome wide significance for association with diastolic BP (top scoring SNP rs1867226, p = 5.8 x 10(-7 or with hypertension as a binary trait (top scoring SNP rs9791170, p = 5.1 x 10(-7. We replicated some of the significant SNPs in a sample of West Africans. Pathway analysis revealed that genes harboring top-scoring variants cluster in pathways and networks of biologic relevance to hypertension and BP regulation. This is the first GWAS for hypertension and BP in an African American population. The findings suggests that, in addition to or in lieu of relying solely on replicated variants of moderate-to-large effect reaching genome-wide significance, pathway and network approaches may be useful in identifying and prioritizing candidate genes/loci for further experiments.
Nutsford, Daniel; Pearson, Amber L; Kingham, Simon; Reitsma, Femke
As urbanisation escalates globally, urban neighbourhood features which may improve physical and mental health are of growing importance. Using a cross-sectional survey of adults and the application of novel geospatial techniques, this study investigated whether increased visibility of nature (green and blue space) was associated with lower psychological distress (K10 scores), in the capital city of Wellington, New Zealand. To validate, we also tested whether visibility of blue space was associated missing teeth in the same sample. Cluster robust, linear regression models were fitted to test the association between visibility of nature and K10 scores, adjusted for age, sex, personal income, neighbourhood population density, housing quality, crime and deprivation. Higher levels of blue space visibility were associated with lower psychological distress (β=-0.28, p<0.001). Importantly, blue space visibility was not significantly associated with tooth loss. Further research is needed to confirm whether increased visibility of blue space could promote mental well-being and reduce distress in other cities.
Mills, Michael D., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
The American Association of Medical Dosimetrists (AAMD) designed and directed 2 surveys of the AAMD membership. The first was in 2011 and the second in 2014. There were a number of questions common to both surveys, and this article seeks to evaluate these common questions to determine trends among the professional membership of the AAMD. It is demonstrated that the observed trends are consistent with the goals and objectives established by the leadership of the AAMD and the Medical Dosimetry Certification Board (MDCB) for the medical dosimetry community. In addition, certain challenges and opportunities involving the scope of practice for the medical dosimetry profession are discussed.
Svensson, Lars G; Gillinov, A Marc; Weisel, Richard D; Keshavjee, Shaf; Bacha, Emile A; Moon, Marc R; Cameron, Duke E; Sugarbaker, David J; Adams, David H; Gaynor, J William; Coselli, Joseph S; Del Nido, Pedro J; Jones, David; Sundt, Thoralf M; Cohn, Lawrence H; Pomar, Jose L; Lytle, Bruce W; Schaff, Hartzell V
The time interval for the doubling of medical knowledge continues to decline. Physicians, patients, administrators, government officials, and payors are struggling to keep up to date with the waves of new information and to integrate the knowledge into new patient treatment protocols, processes, and metrics. Guidelines, Consensus Guidelines, and Consensus Statements, moderated by seasoned content experts, offer one method to rapidly distribute new information in a timely manner and also guide minimal standards of treatment of clinical care pathways as they are developed as part of bundled care programs. These proposed Consensus Guidelines advance The American Association for Thoracic Surgery's mission of leading in cardiothoracic health care, education, innovation, and modeling excellence.
Chaux, Enrique; León, Manuela
Homophobic attitudes are still very common in the world, although there are large differences between countries. This study analyzed the responses of almost 30,000 8th- and 9th-grade students from six countries who participated in the Latin American component of the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study. Higher levels of homophobia were found in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, and Paraguay than in Chile, Colombia, and Mexico. Homophobic attitudes were positively associated with being male, having lower levels of empathy, spending less time with friends and the media, having aggressive attitudes, and being more religious, in particular non-Catholic Christian.
Yashashwi Pokharel; Lynne Steinberg; Winston Chan; Akeroyd, Julia M; Jones, Peter H.; Vijay Nambi; Khurram Nasir; Laura Petersen; Ballantyne, Christie M.; Virani, Salim S.
We previously examined provider׳s understanding of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) cholesterol management guideline (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2015.11.002)(Virani et al., 2013) , and also assessed whether a case-based educational intervention could improve providers׳ knowledge gaps and attitudes towards the guideline (DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.12.044) (Pokharel, et al., 2016) . Here we describe the dataset that we used t...
Brandon, Thomas H; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Hanna, Nasser H; Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Herbst, Roy S; Hobin, Jennifer A; Ostroff, Jamie S; Shields, Peter G; Toll, Benjamin A; Tyne, Courtney A; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Warren, Graham W
Combustible tobacco use remains the number-one preventable cause of disease, disability, and death in the United States. Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), which include electronic cigarettes, are devices capable of delivering nicotine in an aerosolized form. ENDS use by both adults and youth has increased rapidly, and some have advocated these products could serve as harm-reduction devices and smoking cessation aids. ENDS may be beneficial if they reduce smoking rates or prevent or reduce the known adverse health effects of smoking. However, ENDS may also be harmful, particularly to youth, if they increase the likelihood that nonsmokers or former smokers will use combustible tobacco products or if they discourage smokers from quitting. The American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) recognize the potential ENDS have to alter patterns of tobacco use and affect the health of the public; however, definitive data are lacking. The AACR and ASCO recommend additional research on these devices, including assessing the health impacts of ENDS, understanding patterns of ENDS use, and determining what role ENDS have in cessation. Key policy recommendations include supporting federal, state, and local regulation of ENDS; requiring manufacturers to register with the US Food and Drug Administration and report all product ingredients, requiring childproof caps on ENDS liquids, and including warning labels on products and their advertisements; prohibiting youth-oriented marketing and sales; prohibiting child-friendly ENDS flavors; and prohibiting ENDS use in places where cigarette smoking is prohibited. This policy statement was developed by a joint writing group composed of members from the Tobacco and Cancer Subcommittee of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Science Policy and Government Affairs (SPGA) Committee and American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Tobacco Cessation and Control
Pokharel, Yashashwi; Steinberg, Lynne; Chan, Winston; Akeroyd, Julia M; Jones, Peter H; Nambi, Vijay; Nasir, Khurram; Petersen, Laura; Ballantyne, Christie M; Virani, Salim S
We previously examined provider׳s understanding of the 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) cholesterol management guideline (DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacl.2015.11.002)(Virani et al., 2013) , and also assessed whether a case-based educational intervention could improve providers׳ knowledge gaps and attitudes towards the guideline (DOI: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2015.12.044) (Pokharel, et al., 2016) . Here we describe the dataset that we used to examine our objectives.
Li, Peng; Tiwari, Hemant K.; Lin, Wan-Yu; Allison, David B.; Chung, Wendy K.; Leibel, Rudolph L.; Yi, Nengjun; Liu, Nianjun
Objective Obesity, which is frequently associated with diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases, is primarily the result of a net excess of caloric intake over energy expenditure. Human obesity is highly heritable, but the specific genes mediating susceptibility in non-syndromic obesity remain unclear. We tested candidate genes in pathways related to food intake and energy expenditure for association with body mass index (BMI). Methods We re-analyzed 355 common genetic variants of 30 candidate genes in 7 molecular pathways related to obesity in 1,982 unrelated European Americans from the New York Health Project. Data were analyzed by using a Bayesian hierarchical generalized linear model. The BMIs were log-transformed and then adjusted for covariates including age, age2, gender, and diabetes status. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were modeled as additive effects. Results With the stipulated adjustments, nine SNPs in eight genes were significantly associated with BMI: GHRL (rs35683), AGRP (rs5030980), CPE (rs1946816 and rs4481204), GLP1R (rs2268641), HTR2A (rs912127), NPY5R (Y5R1c52), SOCS3 (rs4969170), and STAT3 (rs4796793). We also found a gender-by-SNP interaction (rs1745837 in HTR2A), which indicated that variants in the gene HTR2A had a stronger association with BMI in males. In addition, NPY1R was detected as having a significant gene effect even though none of the SNPs in this gene was significant. Conclusion Variations in genes AGRP, CPE, GHRL, GLP1R, HTR2A, NPY1R, NPY5R, SOCS3, and STAT3 showed modest associations with BMI in European Americans. The pathways in which these genes participate regulate energy intake and thus these associations are mechanistically plausible in this context. PMID:23900445
Brown-Wright, Lynda; Tyler, Kenneth Maurice
The current study examined associations between home-school dissonance and several academic and psychological variables among 80 African American male high school students. Regression analyses revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted multiple academic and psychological variables, including amotivation, academic cheating,…
Tyler, Kenneth; Brown-Wright, Lynda; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Thomas, Deneia; Stevens, Ruby; Roan-Belle, Clarissa; Gadson, Nadia; Smith, La Toya
The current study examined associations between home-school dissonance and several academic and psychological variables among 239 African American high school students. Regression analyses revealed that home-school dissonance significantly predicted multiple academic and psychological variables, including academic cheating, disruptive classroom…
Yen, Cheng-Fang; Lai, Chien-Yu; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Tang, Tze-Chun; Wu, Yu-Yu; Yang, Pinchen
The objectives of this study were to examine the associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms and the moderators in 5,027 Taiwanese adolescents. The associations between suicidal ideation and attempt and anxiety symptoms on the Taiwanese version of the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC-T) were examined using logistic regression analysis. The moderating effects of demographic (gender and age), psychological (problematic alcohol use, severe depressive symptoms, and low self-esteem), and social factors (bullying victimization, and low family function) on the associations were examined. Adolescents who had anxiety symptoms were more likely to have suicidal ideation and attempt than those who did not have anxiety symptoms. Bullying victimization had a moderating effect on the association between suicidal ideation and anxiety symptoms. Assessment of suicidal ideation and attempt should be routine practice among adolescents who present with anxiety symptoms.
Full Text Available Grace X Ma,1 Wanzhen Gao,1 Sunmin Lee,2 MinQi Wang,3 Yin Tan,1 Steven E Shive,1,41Department of Public Health, Center for Asian Health, College of Health Professions, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA; 3Department of Public and Community Health, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, MD, USA; 4East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA, USAObjective: The purpose of this community-based study was to apply a Sociocultural Health Behavior Model to determine the association of factors proposed in the model with breast cancer screening behaviors among Asian American women.Methods: A cross-sectional design included a sample of 682 Chinese, Korean, and Vietnamese women aged 40 years and older. The frequency distribution analysis and Chi-square analysis were used for the initial screening of the following variables: sociodemographic, cultural, enabling, environmental, and social support. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted on factors for breast cancer screening using multinomial logistic regression analysis.Results: Correlates to positive breast cancer screening included demographics (ethnicity, cultural factors (living in the United States for 15 years or more, speaking English well, enabling factors (having a regular physician to visit, health insurance covering the screening, and family/social support factors (those who had a family/friend receiving a mammogram.Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that breast cancer screening programs will be more effective if they include the cultural and health beliefs, enabling, and social support factors associated with breast cancer screening. The use of community organizations may play a role in helping to increase breast cancer screening rates among Asian American women.Keywords: breast cancer screening, Vietnamese, Korean, Chinese, breast
Møller, P; Wallin, H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.
Oxidative stress is a cellular or physiological condition of elevated concentrations of reactive oxygen species that cause molecular damage to vital structures and functions. Several factors influence the susceptibility to oxidative stress by affecting the antioxidant status or free oxygen radical...... generation. Here, we review the effect of alcohol, air pollution, cigarette smoke, diet, exercise, non-ionizing radiation (UV and microwaves) and psychological stress on the development of oxidative stress. Regular exercise and carbohydrate-rich diets seem to increase the resistance against oxidative stress....... Air pollution, alcohol, cigarette smoke, non-ionizing radiation and psychological stress seem to increase oxidative stress. Alcohol in lower doses may act as an antioxidant on low density lipoproteins and thereby have an anti-atherosclerotic property....
warmth and unwavering support has made more of a difference to me than they can fathom. Finally, I want to thank the Programs and Research Team and...Coyne’s interpersonal theory of depression, psychological distress is, in part, a consequence of the response close others give to a distressed person’s...in unsupportive communication behaviors. According to Coyne’s interpersonal theory of depression, distressed individuals seek but then reject
Oladunni Oluwoye; Salam Khan; Jacob Oluwoye; Russell J. Fricano; Earl M. Gooding; Joan Fobbs-Wilson; Jitendra Kapoor
This study explores college students’ alcohol consumption behavior and evaluates theeffect of different psychological factors on consumption patterns. Randomly selectedstudents from two different universities completed surveys with perceived scales for stress,self esteem and anxiety and an alcohol consumption questionnaire. Non-parametricanalyses suggests that low self esteem, higher stress and anxiety level and younger ageincrease the likelihood of drinking alcohol. These findings were consi...
Analyzes the content of the fourth edition of the "Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association" (1994) as if it were a biblical text. Draws on socio-historical studies and critical feminist perspectives to discuss the manual's function as a fundamentalist "bible" in relation to psychologists' culture. (SLD)
Pereira, Latife; Zamudio, Roxana; Soares-Souza, Giordano; Herrera, Phabiola; Cabrera, Lilia; Hooper, Catherine C; Cok, Jaime; Combe, Juan M; Vargas, Gloria; Prado, William A; Schneider, Silvana; Kehdy, Fernanda; Rodrigues, Maira R; Chanock, Stephen J; Berg, Douglas E; Gilman, Robert H; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo
Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru) and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans), we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls) and a very low African ancestry (gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group.
GUO Qi; HUANG Yue-qin; LIU Zhao-rui; WANG Hong
Background The first year of attending university induces a stressful experience for many college students.The experience exposes these students to challenging circumstances and raises expectations,which consequently increases the risk of psychiatric disorders and may exacerbate pre-existing problems.This study was designed to explore the risk factors of psychological symptoms among freshmen in China.Methods A three-year follow-up study was designed in a sample of Chinese college freshmen.To set up the baseline interviews,subjects from 25 high schools in Beijing were interviewed during the first year in high school.Three years later,we followed up with the 1547 students from 15 of the previously-selected 25 high schools after they had entered universities.Association between potential risk factors and the occurrence of psychological symptoms measured by the Symptoms Check List-90 was evaluated in unconditional logistic regression models with Wald test.Results Among the 1547 interviewed college freshmen in the study,120 students (7.8％) manifested at least one psychological symptom.Personality dysfunction (OR=3.655,95％ Cl 1.967-6.793),parental rejection (OR=2.619,95％ Cl 1.544-4.442),age ＞ 20 (OR=2.578,95％ Cl 1.227-5.418),disfavored university (OR=2.054,95％ Cl 1.376-3.066),nonfirst-choice academic major (OR=1.887,95％ Cl 1.255-2.837) and no orientation (OR=1.739,95％ Cl 1.025-2.951) were determined to be the risk factors of psychological symptoms among the college freshmen in China.Conclusions Psychological symptoms of college freshmen are associated with personality traits,parental rearing behavior and study environment.Therefore,it is important to pay attention to changes in mental health as students enter or decide on colleges and increase education geared towards mental health issues for students in high school and universities in China.
Henri Ellenberger (1905-1993) wrote the first French-language synthesis of transcultural psychiatry ("Ethno-psychiatrie") for the French Encyclopédie Médico-Chirurgicale in 1965. His work casts new light on the early development of transcultural psychiatry in relation to scientific communities and networks, particularly on the role of Georges Devereux (1908-1985). The Ellenberger archives offer the possibility of comparing published texts with archival ones to create a more nuanced account of the history of transcultural psychiatry, and notably of the psychological treatment of Native Americans. This paper examines some key moments in the intellectual trajectories of Devereux and Ellenberger, including Devereux's dispute with Ackerknecht, the careers of Devereux and Ellenberger as therapists at the Menninger Foundation (Topeka, Kansas) in the 1950s, and their respective positions in the research network developed by McGill University (Montreal, Quebec) with the newsletter Transcultural Research in Mental Health Problems Finally, I consider their ties to other important figures in this field as it transitioned from colonial medicine to academic medicine, including Roger Bastide (France), Henri Collomb and the Ortigues (France and Africa), as well as Eric Wittkower and Brian Murphy (Canada) and Alexander Leighton (United States and Canada).
Haggard, Megan C; Kang, Linda L; Rowatt, Wade C; Shen, Megan Johnson
The connection between religiousness and volunteering for the community can be explained through two distinct features of religion. First, religious organizations are social groups that encourage members to help others through planned opportunities. Second, helping others is regarded as an important value for members in religious organizations to uphold. We examined the relationship between religiousness and self-reported community volunteering in two independent national random surveys of American adults (i.e., the 2005 and 2007 waves of the Baylor Religion Survey). In both waves, frequency of religious service attendance was associated with an increase in likelihood that individuals would volunteer, whether through their religious organization or not, whereas frequency of reading sacred texts outside of religious services was associated with an increase in likelihood of volunteering only for or through their religious organization. The role of religion in community volunteering is discussed in light of these findings.
Chen, Zhanghua; Salam, Muhammad T.; Karim, Roksana; Toledo-Corral, Claudia M.; Watanabe, Richard M.; Xiang, Anny H.; Buchanan, Thomas A.; Habre, Rima; Bastain, Theresa M.; Lurmann, Fred; Taher, Maryam; Wilson, John P.; Trigo, Enrique; Gilliland, Frank D.
Purpose Adults residing in rural areas have been linked with higher bone mineral density (BMD). We aimed to determine if this difference is due in part to air pollution by examining the relationships between traffic metrics and ambient air pollution with total body and pelvic BMD. Methods Mexican-American adults (n=1,175; mean 34 years; 72% female) who had participated in the BetaGene study of air pollution, obesity and insulin resistance were included in this analysis. Total body and pelvic BMD were estimated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Traffic and ambient air pollutant exposures were estimated at residences using location and ambient monitoring data. Variance component models were used to analyze the associations between residential distance to the nearest freeway and ambient air pollutants with BMD. Results Residential proximity to a freeway was associated with lower total body BMD (p-trend=0.01) and pelvic BMD (p-trend=0.03) after adjustment for age, sex, weight and height. The adjusted mean total body and pelvic BMD in participants living within 500m of a freeway were 0.02 g/cm2 and 0.03 g/cm2 lower than participants living greater than 1,500m from a freeway. These associations did not differ significantly by age, sex or obesity status. Results were similar after further adjustment for body fat and weekly physical activity minutes. Ambient air pollutants (NO2, O3 and PM2.5) were not significantly associated with BMD. Conclusions Traffic-related exposures in overweight and obese Mexican-Americans may adversely affect BMD. Our findings indicate that long-term exposures to traffic may contribute to the occurrence of osteoporosis and its consequences. PMID:25677718
Imada, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Matsumi, Junko
The purpose of this article is to provide information about Japan and its psychology in advance of the 31st International Congress of Psychology (ICP), to be held in Yokohama, Japan, in 2016. The article begins with the introduction of the Japanese Psychological Association (JPA), the hosting organization of the ICP 2016, and the Japanese Union of Psychological Associations consisting of 51 associations/societies, of which the JPA is a member. This is followed by a brief description of a history of psychology of Japan, with emphasis on the variation in our approach to psychology in three different periods, that is, the pre- and post-Pacific War periods, and the post-1960 period. Next, the international contributions of Japanese psychology/psychologists are discussed from the point of view of their visibility. Education and training in psychology in Japanese universities is discussed with a final positive remark about the long-awaited enactment of the Accredited Psychologist Law in September, 2015.
Elovainio, Marko; Raaska, Hanna; Sinkkonen, Jari; Mäkipää, Sanna; Lapinleimu, Helena
We examined the associations between attachment-related symptoms (symptoms of reactive attachment disorder (RAD), symptoms of disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED), and clinging) and later psychological problems among international adoptees. The study population comprised internationally adopted children (591 boys and 768 girls, 6-15 years) from the ongoing Finnish Adoption (FinAdo) study. Data were gathered with self-administered questionnaires both from adoptive parents and from adoptees aged over 9 years. Attachment-related symptoms were measured using of a short (8-item) questionnaire and later behavioral/emotional problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and the Five to Fifteen (FTF) scale for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. RAD and DSED symptom subscales were associated with an increased risk of emotional and behavioral problems and ADHD. Especially the mixed type of attachment-related symptoms was strongly associated with later emotional and behavioral problems.
Bowker, Julie C; Etkin, Rebecca G
The authors examined the associations between mixed-grade rejection (rejection by peers in a different school grade), anxious-withdrawal, aggression, and psychological adjustment in a middle school setting. Participants were 181 seventh-grade and 180 eighth-grade students (M age = 13.20 years, SD = 0.68 years) who completed peer nomination and self-report measures in their classes. Analyses indicated that in general, same- and mixed-grade rejection were related to overt and relational aggression, but neither type was related to anxious-withdrawal. Mixed-grade rejection was associated uniquely and negatively with self-esteem for seventh-grade boys, while increasing the loneliness associated with anxious-withdrawal. The results suggest that school-wide models of peer relations may be promising for understanding the ways in which different peer contexts contribute to adjustment in middle school settings.
Chen, Christina T L; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K; Andrews, Jeanette S; Arnold, Alice M; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E; Kerr, Kathleen F; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K; Musani, Solomon K; Nalls, Michael A; Raffel, Leslie J; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L; Goodarzi, Mark O; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L; Olshan, Andrew F; Press, Michael F; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F; Taylor, Herman A; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K; Harris, Tamara B; Henderson, Brian E; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G; Zonderman, Alan B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar
Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA.
Nilsen, Frances M; Parrott, Benjamin B; Bowden, John A; Kassim, Brittany L; Somerville, Stephen E; Bryan, Teresa A; Bryan, Colleen E; Lange, Ted R; Delaney, J Patrick; Brunell, Arnold M; Long, Stephen E; Guillette, Louis J
Mercury is a widespread environmental contaminant with exposures eliciting a well-documented catalog of adverse effects. Yet, knowledge regarding the underlying mechanisms by which mercury exposures are translated into biological effects remains incomplete. DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that is sensitive to environmental cues, and alterations in DNA methylation at the global level are associated with a variety of diseases. Using a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry-based (LC-MS/MS) approach, global DNA methylation levels were measured in red blood cells of 144 wild American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) from 6 sites with variable levels of mercury contamination across Florida's north-south axis. Variation in mercury concentrations measured in whole blood was highly associated with location, allowing the comparison of global DNA methylation levels across different "treatments" of mercury. Global DNA methylation in alligators across all locations was weakly associated with increased mercury exposure. However, a much more robust relationship was observed in those animals sampled from locations more highly contaminated with mercury. Also, similar to other vertebrates, global DNA methylation appears to decline with age in alligators. The relationship between age-associated loss of global DNA methylation and varying mercury exposures was examined to reveal a potential interaction. These findings demonstrate that global DNA methylation levels are associated with mercury exposure, and give insights into interactions between contaminants, aging, and epigenetics.
Pallock, Linda L; Lamborn, Susie D
This study examined adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices and extended kinship support in relation to academic adjustment for 104 African American and 60 European American 9th and 10th graders (14 and 15 year olds). For African-American teens, parental acceptance was associated with school values, teacher bonding, and work orientation. Higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of psychological control were associated with a stronger work orientation. After accounting for the demographic variables and the three parenting practices, higher levels of extended kinship support related to stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. For European-American teens, parental acceptance related to academic adjustment, including stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. European-American adolescents with stronger extended kinship networks reported higher teacher bonding and a stronger work orientation. Results indicate the importance of extended kinship support for both African-American and European-American adolescents.
Rogers, M R; Hoffman, M A; Wade, J
On the basis of the initial work of M.R. Rogers, J. Martin, and L. Druckman (1994) regarding exemplary multicultural training occurring at school psychology programs, the authors examined salient aspects of 5 American Psychological Association (APA)-approved counseling psychology and 5 APA-approved school psychology programs nominated for their reputation for multicultural training. Twenty-two percent of the program faculty represented a racial-ethnic minority group, at least 2 faculty members per program were involved in multicultural teaching, and 90% of the programs offered a multicultural course. Program faculty at the notable programs were actively involved in relevant research, routinely made presentations at national conferences regarding their scholarship, regularly participated in campuswide multicultural committees, and generally reported their university training environment to be supportive of multicultural issues.
Zimbardo, Philip G.
An American Psychological Association task force reviewed the role and function of "American Psychologist," (AP) focusing on its coverage domain and issues related to its editorial review process. This report examines AP editorial domain, AP editorial instructions, AP editorship, communications within the AP editorial process, use of ad…
Green, Ben Ezra; And Others
Places the limited knowledge of the psychological problems of American Indian and Alaska Native children in context of general child psychiatric epidemiology, using the taxonomy of the American Psychiatric Association's third "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual." Available from: White Cloud Center, Gaines Hall UOHSC, 840 Southwest Gaines…
Schure, Marc B.; Odden, Michelle; Goins, R. Turner
We examined the association of resilience with measures of mental and physical health in a sample of older American Indians (AIs). A validated scale measuring resilience was administered to 185 noninstitutionalized AIs aged greater than or equal to 55 years. Unadjusted analyses revealed that higher levels of resilience were associated with lower…
Full Text Available This study explores college students’ alcohol consumption behavior and evaluates theeffect of different psychological factors on consumption patterns. Randomly selectedstudents from two different universities completed surveys with perceived scales for stress,self esteem and anxiety and an alcohol consumption questionnaire. Non-parametricanalyses suggests that low self esteem, higher stress and anxiety level and younger ageincrease the likelihood of drinking alcohol. These findings were consistent between bothuniversities. These findings have important implications for the selection of appropriateinterventional strategies and health education among college populations.
TRANSCULTURALIZATION RECOMMENDATIONS FOR DEVELOPING LATIN AMERICAN CLINICAL PRACTICE ALGORITHMS IN ENDOCRINOLOGY--PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2015 PAN-AMERICAN WORKSHOP BY THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGISTS AND AMERICAN COLLEGE OF ENDOCRINOLOGY.
Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Harrell, R Mack; Allende-Vigo, Myriam Z; Alvayero, Carlos; Arita-Melzer, Onix; Aschner, Pablo; Camacho, Pauline M; Castillo, Rogelio Zacarias; Cerdas, Sonia; Coutinho, Walmir F; Davidson, Jaime A; Garber, Jeffrey R; Garvey, W Timothy; González, Fernando Javier Lavalle; Granados, Denis O; Hamdy, Osama; Handelsman, Yehuda; Jiménez-Navarrete, Manuel Francisco; Lupo, Mark A; Mendoza, Enrique J; Jiménez-Montero, José G; Zangeneh, Farhad
The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and American College of Endocrinology (ACE) convened their first Workshop for recommendations to optimize Clinical Practice Algorithm (CPA) development for Latin America (LA) in diabetes (focusing on glycemic control), obesity (focusing on weight loss), thyroid (focusing on thyroid nodule diagnostics), and bone (focusing on postmenopausal osteoporosis) on February 28, 2015, in San Jose, Costa Rica. A standardized methodology is presented incorporating various transculturalization factors: resource availability (including imaging equipment and approved pharmaceuticals), health care professional and patient preferences, lifestyle variables, socio-economic parameters, web-based global accessibility, electronic implementation, and need for validation protocols. A standardized CPA template with node-specific recommendations to assist the local transculturalization process is provided. Participants unanimously agreed on the following five overarching principles for LA: (1) there is only one level of optimal endocrine care, (2) hemoglobin A1C should be utilized at every level of diabetes care, (3) nutrition education and increased pharmaceutical options are necessary to optimize the obesity care model, (4) quality neck ultrasound must be part of an optimal thyroid nodule care model, and (5) more scientific evidence is needed on osteoporosis prevalence and cost to justify intervention by governmental health care authorities. This 2015 AACE/ACE Workshop marks the beginning of a structured activity that assists local experts in creating culturally sensitive, evidence-based, and easy-to-implement tools for optimizing endocrine care on a global scale.
Al-Swiahb, Jamil Nasser; Hwang, Eul Seung; Kong, Ji Sun; Kim, Woo Jin; Yeo, Sang Won; Park, Shi Nae
This study was performed to analyze clinical and audiologic characteristics of sensorineural tinnitus and to investigate the associating factors reflecting psychological aspects of stress and depression of the patients. This is a retrospective analytical study conducted in a tinnitus clinic of a tertiary referral center of a university hospital. The medical records of 216 patients suffering from sensorineural tinnitus were thoroughly evaluated to determine correlations between clinical and audiological characteristics, including age, sex, predisposing or etiologic factors, hearing levels up to extended high frequencies, and tinnitus severity. Psychological aspects of stress and depression were also evaluated and analyzed to seek the associations with tinnitus severity. All data were stored in our database bank and were statistically analyzed. Our study subjects showed a slight male predominance. The highest percentage of tinnitus was found in patients of 60-80 years old. Only 32.5 % of tinnitus patients were subjectively aware of their hearing loss, whereas 73 % of subjects had hearing deficits in some frequencies in their audiogram. Hearing impairments were of the low-frequency sensorineural type in 18.2 % of patients and were limited to the high frequencies in 77.9 % of patients. Tinnitus was unilateral in 51 % of patients and had a tonal nature in 45 % of patients. In total, 45.8 % of patients with high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss had high-pitched tinnitus. There were significant correlations between tinnitus severity, loudness and annoyance. Correlations with THI (Tinnitus Handicap Inventory) and Beck depression index scores were also found. Sensorineural tinnitus was related with hearing loss in some frequencies nevertheless of patients' own awareness of hearing loss. Loudness and annoyance of tinnitus seems to be two important factors reflecting psychological problems of patients' stress and depression.
Grover, M; Kanazawa, M; Palsson, O S; Chitkara, D K; Gangarosa, L M; Drossman, D A; Whitehead, W E
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), although the issue is still under debate. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of SIBO in those with IBS and its association with colonic motility, bowel symptoms and psychological distress. Sucrose hydrogen and methane breath tests were performed in 158 IBS patients and 34 healthy controls (HC). Thresholds for pain and urgency were tested by barostat in the descending colon. The motility index (MI) was calculated as the average area under the curve for all phasic contractions. Questionnaires assessed psychological distress, IBS symptom severity (IBS-SS), IBS quality of life (IBS-QOL) and self-reported bowel symptoms. Fifty-two of 158 (32.9%) IBS patients had abnormal breath tests compared with six of 34 (17.9%) HC (chi(2) = 0.079). SIBO (SIBO+) and non-SIBO (SIBO-) patients did not differ in the prevalence of IBS subtypes, IBS-SS, IBS-QOL and psychological distress variables. IBS patients had a greater post-distension increase in MI than HC, but there was no difference between SIBO+ and SIBO- patients. Predominant methane producers had higher urge thresholds (28.4 vs 18.3, P < 0.05) and higher baseline MI (461 vs 301.45, P < 0.05) than SIBO- IBS patients, and they reported more 'hard or lumpy stools' when compared with predominant hydrogen producers (P < 0.05) and SIBO- IBS patients (P < 0.05). SIBO is unlikely to contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of IBS. Methane production is associated with constipation.
Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans, we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls and a very low African ancestry (<5%. We determined that higher Native American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group.
The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM), a member society of the AIP is the largest professional society of medical physicists in the world with nearly 5700 members. Members operate in medical centers, university and community hospitals, research laboratories, industry, and private practice. Medical physics specialties include radiation therapy physics, medical diagnostic and imaging physics, nuclear medicine physics, and medical radiation safety. The majority of AAPM members is based in hospital departments of radiation oncology or radiology and provide technical support for patient diagnosis and treatment in a clinical environment. Job functions include support of clinical care, calibration and quality assurance of medical devices such as linear accelerators for cancer therapy, CT, PET, MRI, and other diagnostic imaging devices, research, and teaching. Pathways into a career in medical physics require an advanced degree in medical physics, physics, engineering, or closely related field, plus clinical training in one or more medical physics specialties (radiation therapy physics, imaging physics, or radiation safety). Most clinically based medical physicists also obtain certification from the American Board of Radiology, and some states require licensure as well.
Wang, Xiaoxi; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui
This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement. PMID:28168198
Wang, Xiaoxi; Liu, Li; Zou, Futing; Hao, Junhui; Wu, Hui
This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment), perceived organizational support (POS), and psychological capital (PsyCap) and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism) with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R) model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330) completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%). Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes' asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.
Full Text Available This study aimed to explore the associations of occupational stressors (extrinsic effort, reward, and overcommitment, perceived organizational support (POS, and psychological capital (PsyCap and its components (self-efficacy, hope, resilience, and optimism with work engagement and the mediating roles of PsyCap and its components among Chinese female nurses within the framework of the job demands-resources (JD-R model. A cross-sectional sample (1,330 completed the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Effort-Reward Imbalance Scale, Survey of POS, and PsyCap Questionnaire, and effective respondents were 1,016 (76.4%. Hierarchical regression analysis and Preacher and Hayes’ asymptotic and resampling strategies were used. Extrinsic effort was negatively associated with vigor, dedication, and absorption, while POS, PsyCap, and hope were positively associated with them. Reward and overcommitment were positively associated with dedication and absorption. Optimism was positively associated with vigor and dedication. Optimism mediated the associations of extrinsic effort, reward, and POS with vigor and dedication. PsyCap and hope mediated the associations of POS with vigor, dedication, and absorption. There is a low level of work engagement among Chinese female nurses. Extrinsic effort could reduce work engagement, while reward, overcommitment, POS, PsyCap, hope, and optimism could enhance work engagement. Hospital managers should develop the PsyCap of female nurses through controlling occupational stressors and establishing supportive organizational climate to enhance their work engagement.