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Sample records for american palm ethnomedicine

  1. American palm ethnomedicine: A meta-analysis

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    Balslev Henrik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many recent papers have documented the phytochemical and pharmacological bases for the use of palms (Arecaceae in ethnomedicine. Early publications were based almost entirely on interviews that solicited local knowledge. More recently, ethnobotanically guided searches for new medicinal plants have proven more successful than random sampling for identifying plants that contain biodynamic ingredients. However, limited laboratory time and the high cost of clinical trials make it difficult to test all potential medicinal plants in the search for new drug candidates. The purpose of this study was to summarize and analyze previous studies on the medicinal uses of American palms in order to narrow down the search for new palm-derived medicines. Methods Relevant literature was surveyed and data was extracted and organized into medicinal use categories. We focused on more recent literature than that considered in a review published 25 years ago. We included phytochemical and pharmacological research that explored the importance of American palms in ethnomedicine. Results Of 730 species of American palms, we found evidence that 106 species had known medicinal uses, ranging from treatments for diabetes and leishmaniasis to prostatic hyperplasia. Thus, the number of American palm species with known uses had increased from 48 to 106 over the last quarter of a century. Furthermore, the pharmacological bases for many of the effects are now understood. Conclusions Palms are important in American ethnomedicine. Some, like Serenoa repens and Roystonea regia, are the sources of drugs that have been approved for medicinal uses. In contrast, recent ethnopharmacological studies suggested that many of the reported uses of several other palms do not appear to have a strong physiological basis. This study has provided a useful assessment of the ethnobotanical and pharmacological data available on palms.

  2. African palm ethno-medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; Blach-Overgaard, Anne; Balslev, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    in traditional medicine, with most of the uses related to fruit (and palm oil), root, seed and leaf. Palms were used in traditional medicine mostly without being mixed with other plants, and less commonly in mixtures, sometimes in mixture with products of animal origin. Future ethno-botanical surveys should...... commonly used species were Elaeis guineensis, Phoenix dactylifera, Cocos nucifera, and Borassus aethiopum. Medicinal uses were in 25 different use categories of which the most common ones were Infections/Infestations and Digestive System Disorders. Twenty-four different parts of the palms were used...

  3. American palms used for medicine, in the ethnobotanical and pharmacological publications

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    Joanna Sosnowska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The center of diversity of palms (Arecaceae in tropical America is found in the Amazon basin and along the Panamanian isthmus.The greatest palm species richness has been reported for the Iquitos and Chocó areas. Many species of palms are used mainly for construction and due to their edible fruits. In addition, there are 104 palm species that are used for medicinal purposes in many regions of the Americas. Cocos nuciferaand Oenocarpus batauaare the most commonly used species for medicinal purposes. The fruit is the most commonly used part of palms for medicinal purposes (57 species. The traditional and medicinal use of plants has deep roots in indigenous communities of Latin America. The significance of ethnomedicine for health care of local populations can not be ignored anymore because it plays a significant role in basic health care in developing countries. Interdisciplinary research in antropology, ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology helps gather information on ethnomedicine and design new drugs for modern medicine. American palms are sources of useful bioactive compounds against diabetes, prostate hyperplasia and leishmaniasis.

  4. Molecular phylogeny, diversity and bioprospecting of endophytic fungi associated with wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae)

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    The endophytic fungal community associated with the wild ethnomedicinal North American plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 ...

  5. Bunch yield of interspecific hybrids of American oil palm with oil palm in the juvenile phase

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    Rui Alberto Gomes Junior

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To identify superior genotypes, 42 progenies of interspecific hybrids between American oil palm and oil palm were evaluated in an area with incidence of bud rot. The following variables were assessed: total bunch yield (TBY, number of bunches (NB and mean bunch weight (MBW from the third to the sixth year of cultivation and estimates of genetic parameters obtained by REML/BLUP procedures. High heritability values of the evaluated traits were observed. The gain estimates for TBY were 14.49% for the selection of the five best progenies and 33.36% for the selection of the five best trees, considering multiplication by cloning. A medium correlation was observed between TBY and NB (r2 = 0.33±0.021, a high correlation between TBY and MBW (r2 = 0.53±0.019 and a negative high correlation between NB and MBW (r2 = –0.60±0.018. The results indicate a high expectation of gains with selection for TBY.

  6. Testing the Water–Energy Theory on American Palms (Arecaceae) Using Geographically Weighted Regression

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    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Bjorholm, Stine; Svenning, J.-C.

    2011-01-01

    in the less oceanic northern hemisphere. American palms (Arecaceae, n = 547 spp.), whose species richness and distributions are known to respond strongly to water and energy, were used as a model group. The ability of water and energy to explain palm species richness was quantified locally at different...

  7. Species Diversity and Growth Forms in Tropical American Palm Communities

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    Balslev, Henrik; Kahn, Francis; Millán, Betty;

    2011-01-01

    To advance our understanding of the processes that govern the assembly of palm communities and the local coexistence of numerous palm species, we here synthesize available information in the literature on species diversity and growth-form composition in palm communities across the Americas. Ameri...

  8. Molecular Phylogeny, Diversity, and Bioprospecting of Endophytic Fungi Associated with wild Ethnomedicinal North American Plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae).

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    Carvalho, Camila R; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2016-07-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the ethnomedicinal plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 different taxa of 16 genera, of which Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum dematium, and Stagonosporopsis sp. 2 are the most frequent colonizers. The extracts of 29 endophytic fungi displayed activities against important phytopathogenic fungi. Eight antifungal extracts were selected for chemical analysis. Forty fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis. The compounds (-)-5-methylmellein and (-)-(3R)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin were isolated from Biscogniauxia mediterraneaEPU38CA crude extract. (-)-5-Methylmellein showed weak activity against Phomopsis obscurans, P. viticola, and Fusarium oxysporum, and caused growth stimulation of C. fragariae, C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botrytis cinerea. (-)-(3R)-8-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin appeared slightly more active in the microtiter environment than 5-methylmellein. Our results indicate that E. purpurea lives symbiotically with different endophytic fungi, which are able to produce bioactive fatty acids and aromatic compounds active against important phytopathogenic fungi. The detection of the different fatty acids and aromatic compounds produced by the endophytic community associated with wild E. purpurea suggests that it may have intrinsic mutualistic resistance against phytopathogen attacks in its natural environment.

  9. Fundamental species traits explain provisioning services of tropical American palms

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    Cámara-Leret, Rodrigo; Faurby, Søren; Macía, Manuel J

    2017-01-01

    Human well-being around the globe rests on the provisioning services delivered by 15% of the Earth’s 350,000 plant species. Species’ traits influence the way in which plants are utilised1, yet it is not well understood which traits underpin different human needs2. Here, we focus on palms, one...... of the most economically important plant groups globally3, and show that provisioning services related to basic needs, such as food and medicine, show a strong link with different combinations of traits. We integrate data from 2,201 interviews on plant utilisation from three biodiversity hotspots in South...... we show that our findings hold even when accounting for phylogenetic clustering of traits and utility due to phylogenetic relatedness5. Beyond expanding our understanding of how local stakeholders perceive and explore biodiversity in mega-diverse forests, our trait- and phylogeny-based approach helps...

  10. Testing the water-energy theory on American palms (Arecaceae using geographically weighted regression.

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    Wolf L Eiserhardt

    Full Text Available Water and energy have emerged as the best contemporary environmental correlates of broad-scale species richness patterns. A corollary hypothesis of water-energy dynamics theory is that the influence of water decreases and the influence of energy increases with absolute latitude. We report the first use of geographically weighted regression for testing this hypothesis on a continuous species richness gradient that is entirely located within the tropics and subtropics. The dataset was divided into northern and southern hemispheric portions to test whether predictor shifts are more pronounced in the less oceanic northern hemisphere. American palms (Arecaceae, n = 547 spp., whose species richness and distributions are known to respond strongly to water and energy, were used as a model group. The ability of water and energy to explain palm species richness was quantified locally at different spatial scales and regressed on latitude. Clear latitudinal trends in agreement with water-energy dynamics theory were found, but the results did not differ qualitatively between hemispheres. Strong inherent spatial autocorrelation in local modeling results and collinearity of water and energy variables were identified as important methodological challenges. We overcame these problems by using simultaneous autoregressive models and variation partitioning. Our results show that the ability of water and energy to explain species richness changes not only across large climatic gradients spanning tropical to temperate or arctic zones but also within megathermal climates, at least for strictly tropical taxa such as palms. This finding suggests that the predictor shifts are related to gradual latitudinal changes in ambient energy (related to solar flux input rather than to abrupt transitions at specific latitudes, such as the occurrence of frost.

  11. Testing the water-energy theory on American palms (Arecaceae) using geographically weighted regression.

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    Eiserhardt, Wolf L; Bjorholm, Stine; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Rangel, Thiago F; Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Water and energy have emerged as the best contemporary environmental correlates of broad-scale species richness patterns. A corollary hypothesis of water-energy dynamics theory is that the influence of water decreases and the influence of energy increases with absolute latitude. We report the first use of geographically weighted regression for testing this hypothesis on a continuous species richness gradient that is entirely located within the tropics and subtropics. The dataset was divided into northern and southern hemispheric portions to test whether predictor shifts are more pronounced in the less oceanic northern hemisphere. American palms (Arecaceae, n = 547 spp.), whose species richness and distributions are known to respond strongly to water and energy, were used as a model group. The ability of water and energy to explain palm species richness was quantified locally at different spatial scales and regressed on latitude. Clear latitudinal trends in agreement with water-energy dynamics theory were found, but the results did not differ qualitatively between hemispheres. Strong inherent spatial autocorrelation in local modeling results and collinearity of water and energy variables were identified as important methodological challenges. We overcame these problems by using simultaneous autoregressive models and variation partitioning. Our results show that the ability of water and energy to explain species richness changes not only across large climatic gradients spanning tropical to temperate or arctic zones but also within megathermal climates, at least for strictly tropical taxa such as palms. This finding suggests that the predictor shifts are related to gradual latitudinal changes in ambient energy (related to solar flux input) rather than to abrupt transitions at specific latitudes, such as the occurrence of frost.

  12. Innovative development path of ethnomedicines: an overview of ethnomedicines in China.

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    Zhu, Zhaoyun; Wang, Ting; Fu, Dehuan; Gui, Yali; Wang, Jingkun; Cui, Tao

    2016-06-01

    In the long history of disease prevention and treatment, ancestral populations worldwide have gained knowledge and experiences in traditional medicines. For instance, ethnomedicines of Chinese ethnic minorities constitute an important part of traditional medicines. In our study, we firstly clarified the concept of ethnomedicines and the connotations of ethnopharmacology. The particularity of ethnomedicine research were then summed up, and the development profiles of the ethnomedicines of Chinese ethnic minorities were discussed by investigating the current status and existing problems. On this basis, we abstracted the innovative development path of ethnomedicines for the first time, which was found to follows:resource study → standardized development research → industrialization of the achievements and efforts for internationalization. We found that platform establishment and team training are keys to achieving innovative development. Hence, this study provided a basis for ethnomedicine development.

  13. Evaluation and modeling of synergy to pheromone and plant kairomone in American palm weevil

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    Rochat Didier

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many behavioral responses to odors are synergistic, particularly in insects. In beetles, synergy often involves a pheromone and a plant odor, and pest management relies on them for the use of combined lures. To investigate olfactory synergy mechanisms, we need to distinguish synergistic effects from additive ones, when all components of the mixture are active. Results As versatile tools and procedures were not available, we developed a bioassay, and a mathematical model to evaluate synergy between aggregation pheromone (P and host plant odors (kairomone: K in the American palm weevil, a pest insect showing enhanced responses to P+K mixtures. Responses to synthetic P and natural K were obtained using a 4-arm olfactometer coupled to a controlled volatile delivery system. We showed that: (1 Response thresholds were ca. 10 and 100 pg/s respectively for P and K. (2 Both stimuli induced similar maximum response. (3 Increasing the dose decreased the response for P to the point of repellence and maintained a maximum response for K. (4 P and K were synergistic over a 100-fold range of doses with experimental responses to P+K mixtures greater than the ones predicted assuming additive effects. Responses close to maximum were associated with the mixture amounts below the response threshold for both P and K. Conclusion These results confirm the role of olfactory synergy in optimizing active host-plant localization by phytophagous insects. Our evaluation procedure can be generalized to test synergistic or inhibitory integrated responses of various odor mixtures for various insects.

  14. Palm Oil

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    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  15. The palms of South America: diversity, distribution and evolutionary history

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    Jean-Christophe Pintaud

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an inventory of South American palms including 457 species and 50 genera. The distribution of palms within seven phytogeographical entities is analyzed. Factors which influence the evolution of palms in South America are discussed.

  16. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines.......Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African...... ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis...

  17. FERN Ethnomedicinal Plant Database: Exploring Fern Ethnomedicinal Plants Knowledge for Computational Drug Discovery.

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    Thakar, Sambhaji B; Ghorpade, Pradnya N; Kale, Manisha V; Sonawane, Kailas D

    2015-01-01

    Fern plants are known for their ethnomedicinal applications. Huge amount of fern medicinal plants information is scattered in the form of text. Hence, database development would be an appropriate endeavor to cope with the situation. So by looking at the importance of medicinally useful fern plants, we developed a web based database which contains information about several group of ferns, their medicinal uses, chemical constituents as well as protein/enzyme sequences isolated from different fern plants. Fern ethnomedicinal plant database is an all-embracing, content management web-based database system, used to retrieve collection of factual knowledge related to the ethnomedicinal fern species. Most of the protein/enzyme sequences have been extracted from NCBI Protein sequence database. The fern species, family name, identification, taxonomy ID from NCBI, geographical occurrence, trial for, plant parts used, ethnomedicinal importance, morphological characteristics, collected from various scientific literatures and journals available in the text form. NCBI's BLAST, InterPro, phylogeny, Clustal W web source has also been provided for the future comparative studies. So users can get information related to fern plants and their medicinal applications at one place. This Fern ethnomedicinal plant database includes information of 100 fern medicinal species. This web based database would be an advantageous to derive information specifically for computational drug discovery, botanists or botanical interested persons, pharmacologists, researchers, biochemists, plant biotechnologists, ayurvedic practitioners, doctors/pharmacists, traditional medicinal users, farmers, agricultural students and teachers from universities as well as colleges and finally fern plant lovers. This effort would be useful to provide essential knowledge for the users about the adventitious applications for drug discovery, applications, conservation of fern species around the world and finally to create

  18. Preliminary screening of ethnomedicinal plants from India.

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    Perumal Samy, R; Ignacimuthu, S; Raja, D P

    1999-08-01

    Antibacterial activity of aqueous residues of 16 different ethnomedicinal plants have been studied. The effect of the aqueous extract at two different weights of plant residues, 30 and 40 mg, were tested against three gram positive bacteria and seven gram negative bacteria by the filter paper disc diffusion method. Among the tested plants, Cleome gynandropsis and Ageratum conyzoides showed a significant control of the growth of Alkaligens viscolactis, Klebsiella aerogenas, Bacillus cerues and Streptococcus pyogens. The maximum inhibitions were observed in Tridax procumbens, Cleome viscosa, Acalypha indica and Boerhaavia erecta against Aeromonas hydrophilla and Bacillus cerues.

  19. Important Poisonous Plants in Tibetan Ethnomedicine

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    Lijuan Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tibetan ethnomedicine is famous worldwide, both for its high effectiveness and unique cultural background. Many poisonous plants have been widely used to treat disorders in the Tibetan medicinal system. In the present review article, some representative poisonous plant species are introduced in terms of their significance in traditional Tibetan medicinal practices. They are Aconitum pendulum, Strychnos nux-vomica, Datura stramonium and Anisodus tanguticus, for which the toxic chemical constituents, bioactivities and pharmacological functions are reviewed herein. The most important toxins include aconitine, strychnine, scopolamine, and anisodamine. These toxic plants are still currently in use for pain-reduction and other purposes by Tibetan healers after processing.

  20. Innovative development path of ethnomedicines: the interpretation of the path.

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    Zhu, Zhaoyun; Fu, Dehuan; Gui, Yali; Cui, Tao; Wang, Jingkun; Wang, Ting; Yang, Zhizhong; Niu, Yanfei; She, Zhennan; Wang, Li

    2017-03-01

    One of the primary purposes of the innovative development of ethnomedicines is to use their excellent safety and significant efficacy to serve a broader population. To achieve this purpose, modern scientific and technological means should be referenced, and relevant national laws and regulations as well as technical guides should be strictly followed to develop standards and to perform systemic research in producing ethnomedicines. Finally, ethnomedicines, which are applied to a limited extent in ethnic areas, can be transformed into safe, effective, and quality-controllable medical products to relieve the pain of more patients. The innovative development path of ethnomedicines includes the following three primary stages: resource study, standardized development research, and industrialization of the achievements and efforts for internationalization. The implementation of this path is always guaranteed by the research and development platform and the talent team. This article is based on the accumulation of long-term practice and is combined with the relevant disciplines, laws and regulations, and technical guidance from the research and development of ethnomedicines. The intention is to perform an in-depth analysis and explanation of the major research thinking, methods, contents, and technical paths involved in all stages of the innovative development path of ethnomedicines to provide useful references for the development of proper ethnomedicine use.

  1. Antibacterial activity of selected Egyptian ethnomedicinal plants

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    Mashait, M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Medicinal plants have recently received the attention of the antimicrobial activity of plants and their metabolites due to the challenge of growing incidences of drug-resistant pathogens. The aims of this study were to determine the antibacterial activities of plant extracts used as ethnomedicinal in Egypt. Methodology and Results: Investigations were carried out to assess the antibacterial efficiency of 11 plant extracts used as ethnopharmacological among Egyptian native people against infectious diseases. Crude methanol, ethanol,chloroform, hexane, acetone and aqueous extract of plants were tested for antibacterial activity in vitro against ten bacterial isolates using the disc diffusion method test. Discs were impregnated with 2 mg/mL of different solvent extracts. Among all the crude extracts, the methanol extract showed the highest activity than other extracts. P. harmala and S. officinalis exhibited highest antibacterial activity against gram positive and negative bacteria while the remainingplants extracts showed less activity. All the plant extracts showed no significant effect against the Bordetella bronchisepta ATCC 4617 except the extracts of M. fragrans and L. sativum. E. coli is the most sensitive microorganism tested, with the lowest MIC value (0.5 mg/mL in the presence of the plant extract of P. harmala and S. officinalis.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Results obtained herein, may suggest that the ethnomedicinal Egyptian plants possess antimicrobial activity and therefore, they can be used in biotechnological fields as natural preservative ingredients in food and/or pharmaceutical industry.

  2. Palm Harvest Impact on Tropical Forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

    Palms are the most useful group of plants in tropical American forests and in this project we study the effect of extraction and trade of palms on forest in the western Amazon, Andes and Pacific lowlands. We determine the size of the resource by making palm community studies in the different forest...... palms are used for subsistence purposes by carrying out quantitative, ethnobotanical research in different forest types and we also study trade patterns for palm products from local markets to markets that involve export to other countries and continents. We study different ways in which palms...

  3. Diversity and use of ethnomedicinal plants in coastal Karnataka, India

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    M. JAYAKARA BHANDARY

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bhandary MJ, Chandrashekar KR. 2014. Diversity and use of ethnomedicinal plants in coastal Karnataka, India. Biodiversitas 15: 89-93. A study was undertaken in Coastal Karnataka, a culturally and floristically diverse region between the Western Ghats and the Arabian sea in India, to document the diversity and uses of ethnomedicinal plants of the area. This study resulted in the documentation of ethnomedicinal uses of 342 species of plants belonging to 34 families. The dominant families of ethnomedicinal plants were: Fabaceae (38 species, Euphorbiaceae (22 species, Rubiaceae (11 species, Acanthaceae, Asteraceae, Apocynaceae and Rutaceae (10 species each. Among the plants used, 30% are herbs, 27% trees, 25% climbers and 18% shrubs. Majority of the plants are used against several diseases, either alone or in combination with other plants. The most popular medicinal plants, in terms of the number of diseases against which they are used, are Cyclea peltata, Aristolochia indica, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma longa, Tamarindus indica, Asparagus racemosus, Ficus racemosa, Hemidesmus indicus, Ficus religiosa, Calotropis gigantea, Vitex negundo, Aegle marmelos and Leucas aspera. A list of 50 important ethnomedicinal plants of the region which are used in the treatment of 5 or more disorders is provided.

  4. To what extent does Tobler's law of geography apply to macroecology? A case study using American palms (Arecaceae)

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    Bjorholm, Stine Wendelboe; Svenning, J.-C.; Skov, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    palms (Arecaceae) as an example, we assess the extent to which Tobler's first law applies to species richness and species composition, two fundamental aspects of ecological community structure. To shed light on the mechanisms driving distance decays in community structure, we also quantify the relative...

  5. Ritual uses of palms in traditional medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

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    Gruca, Marta; van Andel, Tinde R; Balslev, Henrik

    2014-07-23

    Palms (Arecaceae) are prominent elements in African traditional medicines. It is, however, a challenge to find detailed information on the ritual use of palms, which are an inextricable part of African medicinal and spiritual systems. This work reviews ritual uses of palms within African ethnomedicine. We studied over 200 publications on uses of African palms and found information about ritual uses in 26 of them. At least 12 palm species in sub-Saharan Africa are involved in various ritual practices: Borassus aethiopum, Cocos nucifera, Dypsis canaliculata, D. fibrosa, D. pinnatifrons, Elaeis guineensis, Hyphaene coriacea, H. petersiana, Phoenix reclinata, Raphia farinifera, R. hookeri, and R. vinifera. In some rituals, palms play a central role as sacred objects, for example the seeds accompany oracles and palm leaves are used in offerings. In other cases, palms are added as a support to other powerful ingredients, for example palm oil used as a medium to blend and make coherent the healing mixture. A better understanding of the cultural context of medicinal use of palms is needed in order to obtain a more accurate and complete insight into palm-based traditional medicines.

  6. Some Nigerian Anti-Tuberculosis Ethnomedicines: A Preliminary Efficacy Assessment

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    Ibekwe, Nneka N.; Nvau, John B.; Oladosu, Peters O.; Usman, Auwal M.; Ibrahim, Kolo; Boshoff, Helena I.; Dowd, Cynthia S.; Orisadipe, Abayomi T.; Aiyelaagbe, Olapeju; Adesomoju, Akinbo A.; Barry, Clifton E.; Okogun, Joseph I.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological significance Nigerian herbalists possess indigenous ethnomedicinal recipes for the management of tuberculosis and related ailments. Aim of the study To carry out a collaborative preliminary modern scientific evaluation of the efficacy of some Nigerian ethnomedicines used by traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) in the management of tuberculosis and related ailments Materials and methods Ethnomedicinal recipes (ETMs) were collected from TMPs from locations in various ecological zones of Nigeria under a collaborative understanding. The aqueous methanolic extracts of the ETMs were screened against Mycobacterium bovis, BCG and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb.) strain H37Rv using the broth microdilution method. Results Extracts of ETMs screened against BCG showed 69% activity against the organism. The activities varied from weak, ≤ 2500μg /mL to highly active, 33μg /mL 64% of the extracts were active against M. tb. The activities of the extracts against M.tb. varied from weak, ≤ 2500μg /mL to highly active, 128μg/mL. There was 77% agreement in results obtained using BCG or M. tb. as test organisms Conclusion The results show clear evidence for the efficacy of the majority of indigenous Nigerian herbal recipes in the ethnomedicinal management of tuberculosis and related ailments. BCG may be effectively used, to a great extent, as the organism for screening for potential anti-M. tb. agents. A set of prioritization criteria for the selection of plants for initial further studies for the purpose of antituberculsis drug discovery research is proposed. PMID:24911338

  7. Genetic diversity and relationship in American and African oil palm as revealed by RFLP and AFLP molecular markers

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    Barcelos Edson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity, its organization and the genetic relationships within oil palm (Elaeis oleifera (Kunth Cortés, from America, and E. guineensis (Jacq., from Africa germplasm using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP. In complement to a previous RFLP study on 241 E. oleifera accessions, 38 E. guineensis accessions were analyzed using the same 37 cDNA probes. These accessions covered a large part of the geographical distribution areas of these species in America and Africa. In addition, AFLP analysis was performed on a sub-set of 40 accessions of E. oleifera and 22 of E. guineensis using three pairs of enzyme/primer combinations. Data were subjected to Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC and cluster analysis, with parameters of genetic diversity being also studied. Results appeared congruent between RFLP and AFLP. In the E. oleifera, AFLP confirmed the strong structure of genetic diversity revealed by RFLP, according to geographical origin of the studied material, with the identification of the same four distinct genetic groups: Brazil, French Guyana/Surinam, Peru, north of Colombia/Central America. Both markers revealed that genetic divergence between the two species is of the same magnitude as that among provenances of E. oleifera. This finding is in discrepancy with the supposed early tertiary separation of the two species.

  8. Phytochemical, ethnomedicinal uses and pharmacological profile of genus Pistacia.

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    Rauf, Abdur; Patel, Seema; Uddin, Ghias; Siddiqui, Bina S; Ahmad, Bashir; Muhammad, Naveed; Mabkhot, Yahia N; Hadda, Taibi Ben

    2017-02-01

    Pistacia genus belong to family Anacardiaceae and it is versatile in that its member species have food (P. vera), medicinal (P. lentiscus) and ornamental (P. chinensis) values. Various species of this genus have folkloric uses with credible mention in diverse pharmacopeia. As a trove of phenolic compounds, terpenoids, monoterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, fatty acids, and sterols, this genus has garnered pharmaceutical attention in recent times. With adequate clinical studies, this genus might be exploited for therapy of a multitude of inflammatory diseases, as promised by preliminary studies. In this regard, the ethnomedicinal, phytochemistry, biological potencies, risks, and scopes of Pistacia genus have been reviewed here.

  9. Pangolins in eastern Nepal: trade and ethno-medicinal importance

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    Hem Bahadur Katuwal

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pangolin populations are declining globally due to illicit trade for meat and ethno-medicinal practices. We performed semi-structured interviews to analyze scenario of trade activities and documented the ethno-medicinal importance of pangolins in four districts of eastern Nepal. Out of 106 respondents, 78.3% had seen live pangolins, 90.6% had seen their burrows and 66% respondents speculated their decreasing population. Although 64% of the respondents were aware that pangolin is protected species, 44% of respondents had eaten its meat. We found the trade as an organized network where poachers of one village supply pangolins and its parts to poachers of another village and so on until it reaches the international border. Trade flow was more across the Chinese border via different routes where the prices varied from US$ 500–625/kg or even more. For this illegal trade, poachers provoke unemployed youths especially from ethnic communities. Most people hunt pangolins merely for trade without knowing its exact medicinal value. Some people, however, use meat and scales to supposedly cure gastro-intestinal disease, skin disease, cardiac problem, pregnancy pains, back pain; and also for making rings, bags, jackets, purses and musical instruments. As most pangolin habitats lie outside protected areas, illicit trade is increasing rapidly. We recommend immediate strategic plans, effective monitoring techniques and inter-border cooperation to thwart the trade, and raise awareness of their importance.  

  10. Bryophytes: Hoard of remedies, an ethno-medicinal review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Satish; Chandra, Dinesh; Barh, Anupam; Pankaj; Pandey, Raj Kumar; Sharma, Ishwar Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Bryophytes are the second largest group of land plants after angiosperms. There is very less knowledge available about medicinal properties of these plants. Bryophytes are popular remedy among the tribal people of different parts of the world. Tribal people use these plants to cure various ailments in their daily lives. Bryophytes are used to cure hepatic disorders, skin diseases, cardiovascular diseases, used as antipyretic, antimicrobial, wound healing and many more other ailments by different tribal communities of Africa, America, Europe, Poland, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Turkey, Japan, Taiwan, Pakistan, China, Nepal and different parts of South, North and Eastern India. Apart from ethno-medicinal uses some bryophytes possesses antitumor activities against different cancer cell lines and this property of bryophytes needs to be more focused in the future. Compile information about medicinal properties and anticancer properties of bryophytes is lacking till date. In the present review, the authors tried to compile all the ethno-medicinal and other related information of bryophytes and fill the knowledge lacuna in this particular field. Some published reviews are available but the information is segregated. This manuscript will help people doing research in the bryophytes.

  11. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants. Among all the plant parts fruit (24%, whole plants and leaves (23% each were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each, abdominal pain (0.9, and diarrhea (0.89. Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86% followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each. Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation.

  12. Ethnomedicinal and phytopharmacological potential of Crataegus oxyacantha Linn. - A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CP Kashyap; Vikrant Arya; Narender Thakur

    2012-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicines are practiced in the entire world and their ethnopharmacological records reveal that most of the people of the world have been using plants, animals, micro-organisms and minerals for treating various diseases. Crataegus oxyacantha (C. oxyacantha) Linn. (Rosaceae) commonly known as Hawthorn is an official plant in Homeopathic System of Medicine to treat various conditions of cardiovascular system. In recent times, this drug has been subjected to phytochemical, pharmacological, pre-clinical and clinical investigations and many new investigations have been indicated. Current review finds ethnomedicinal and phytopharmacological potential of leaves, flowers, berries, bark etc. for exploring the immense medicinal potential of Hawthorn. At the same time, studies to evaluate the dosage, toxicity and interactions with drugs and herbs on simultaneous use, which is imperative for optimal and safe utilization of this plant, are explained. There are few comprehensive reports available on clinical use of Hawthorn in chronic heart failure patients have shown promising results.

  13. ETHNOMEDICINAL AND PHYTOECONOMIC ELABORATION OF LILOWNAI VALLEY, DISTRICT SHANGLA, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Zafar Alam

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The flora of Pakistan and especially that of Northren Part has tremendous scope to evaluate their ethnomedicinal importance for more realistic way to justify their traditional usage and applications. Based on this, an ethnomedicinal survey was carried out in the Lilownai valley, District Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan in summer 2008 and reinvestigated during 2010-2011.The study showed that the local population not only use indigenous medicinal plants for curing various diseases but also earn their livelihood by selling some of them in the local market. One hundred and twenty five medicinal plants are being used by local people in the study valley in which a diversified application of these species have been observed. These include (24 species astringent and for other skin problems, (16 species laxative, (14 species stomachic, (14 species diuretic, (11 species carminative, (10 species anthelmintic, (10 species used in reproductive disorders, (9 species are used in various hepatic disorders, (9 species used in various CNS disorders, (8 species antispasmodic, (8 species expectorant, (7 species antirheumatic, (5 species antiseptic, (4 species antidiabetic, (4 species purgative, (4 species aphrodisiac, (3 speciesanticancer, (2 species antihypertensive and (2 species for ophthalmic use. Similarly the remaining species have one or more medicinal use(s. Seventeen species of them are also collected for trade purposes that include Ajuga bracteosa, Paeonia emodi, Berberis lycium, Mentha longifolia, Diospyrus lotus, Skimmia lauriola, Zanthoxylum alatum, Morchella esculenta, , Bistorta amplexicaulis, Podophyllum emodi, Dryopteris jaxtapostia, Allium sativum, Cichorum intybus, Plectranthus rugosus, Dioscorea deltoidea, Juglans regia and Polygonatum multiflorum. Market survey revealed that the collectors are often not aware of the high market value and medicinal application so most of the collected material is sold to local middle man at very low price

  14. Sugar from Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders

    Throughout the tropics and subtropics a large number of products are derived from the sugar-rich sap tapped from palms. I will give an overview of the most important species being exploited, harvesting practices and yields. I will further provide insights in the biomechanmics of sugar...... transportation in palms, which remain an enigma. Finally, the prospects for developing palm sugar into a commodity of worlswide significance will be discussed....

  15. Vanglateenistuse enesekaitsekoolitus / Henri Palm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Henri

    2014-01-01

    Vanglateenistus korraldab Tartus, Tallinnas ja Jõhvis enesekaitsekoolitusi gümnaasiumiõpilastele. Jakob Westholmi abiturient Henri Palm on osalenud treeningutel osalenud kolm aastat ning jagab kogemusi

  16. Palm harvest impacts in north-western South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Tropical forests harbor thousands of useful plants that are harvested and used in subsistence economies or traded in local, regional or international markets. The effect on the ecosystem is little known, and the forests resilience is badly understood. Palms are the most useful group of plants...... in tropical American forests. This paper introduces a cross-disciplinary study of the effects of harvesting palm products from the tropical forests in north-western South America. The size of the resource is estimated through palm community studies in the different forest formations that determines the number...... for subsistence purposes Quantitative ethno-botanical research in different forest types have identified thousands of different ways of using palms for food, construction, tool-making, etc. Although most palms are used by the person harvesting them, many are sold on local markets as fruits, fiber, tools...

  17. [Characteristics and innovation in projects of ethnomedicine and ethnopharmacology funded by National Natural Science Foundation of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li-wei

    2015-09-01

    The overall situation of projects of ethnomedicine and ethnopharmacology funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) since 2008 has been presented in this paper. The main source of characteristics and innovation of the funded projects were summarized, which may come from several aspects, such as the ethnomedical theories, the dominant diseases of ethnomedicine, special diseases in ethnic minorities inhabited areas, unique ethnomedical therapy, special methods for applying medication, endemic medicinal materials in ethnic minorities inhabited areas, same medicinal materials with different applications. Examples have been provided to give references to the applicants in the fields of ethnomedicine and ethnopharmacology.

  18. Ethnomedicinal plant knowledge and practice of the Oromo ethnic group in southwestern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yewhalaw Delenasaw

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document the indigenous medicinal plant knowledge and use by traditional healers in southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Data were collected from 45 randomly selected traditional healers using semi-structured interviews and observations. Sixty-seven ethnomedicinal plant species used by traditional healers to manage 51 different human ailments were identified and documented. Healers' indigenous knowledge was positively correlated with their reported age but not with their educational level. High degree of consensus was observed among traditional healers in treating tumor (locally known as Tanacha, rabies (Dhukuba Seree and insect bite (Hadhaa. The use of more than one species was significantly cited for remedy preparations. The reported abundance of the ethnomedicinal plant species varied significantly with respect to the presence of multiple uses of the reported species. Our results showed that ethnomedicinal plant species used by healers are under serious threat due to several factors, which indicates the need for urgent attention towards their conservation and sustainable utilization.

  19. Ethnomedicinal plant knowledge and practice of the Oromo ethnic group in southwestern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yineger, Haile; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Teketay, Demel

    2008-04-29

    An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document the indigenous medicinal plant knowledge and use by traditional healers in southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Data were collected from 45 randomly selected traditional healers using semi-structured interviews and observations. Sixty-seven ethnomedicinal plant species used by traditional healers to manage 51 different human ailments were identified and documented. Healers' indigenous knowledge was positively correlated with their reported age but not with their educational level. High degree of consensus was observed among traditional healers in treating tumor (locally known as Tanacha), rabies (Dhukuba Seree) and insect bite (Hadhaa). The use of more than one species was significantly cited for remedy preparations. The reported abundance of the ethnomedicinal plant species varied significantly with respect to the presence of multiple uses of the reported species. Our results showed that ethnomedicinal plant species used by healers are under serious threat due to several factors, which indicates the need for urgent attention towards their conservation and sustainable utilization.

  20. Ethnomedicinal Wisdom Among Local Tribes in Hamirpur Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current investigation was focused at documentation, analysis and interpretation of ethnomedicinal phyto wisdom in Hamirpur District of Himachal Pradesh. The impoverished tribal and rural people of Hamirpur District (Himachal Pradesh, India do not receive satisfactory primary healthcare. They have crudely been stillexploiting traditionally the medicinal plants existing in their surrounding environment for diverse purposes including ethnomedicine use. The objective of the study was to document ethnobotanical knowledge primarily of notable herbs employed by the different backward people, whether tribal or rural, in the area under study.Ethnomedicinal data was accessed through structural interviews, and discussions with the tribal/rural informants, healers, medicine-men/women, etc. (with age between 45-65. Minimum five to eight informants were taken into consideration for each claim. This investigation brought on record that people of the study area(Hamirpur generally utilize about 50 plants species belonging several distinct families. Different plant parts such as leaves, flowers, fruit, stem-bark and root are most commonly employed. A fair wide range of diseases are treated by people of Hamirpur district using local medicinal plants. These ethnomedicinal claims may aid in finding novel phytoconstituents for welfare of mankind. The data would be useful for further scientific exploration.

  1. Palm oil and palm olein frying applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Razali

    2005-01-01

    Several million tones of palm oil and palm olein are used annually in the world for frying. This paper will discuss their frying performances in three major applications - industrial production of potato chips/crisps, industrial production of pre-fried frozen French fries and in fast food outlets. In the first study, about four tones of potato chips were continuously fried 8 hours a day and five days a week. The palm olein used (with proper management) performed well and was still in excellent condition and usable at the end of the trial. This was reflected in its low free fatty acid (FFA) content of around 0.23%, peroxide value of 4 meq/kg, anisidine value of 16, low polar and polymer contents of 10% and 2%, respectively, induction period (OSI) of 21 hours and high content of tocopehrols and tocotrienols of 530 ppm even after >1900 hours. In the second study in which an average 12 tones pre-fried frozen French fries were continuously fried a day for 5 days a week, palm oil performed excellently as reflected by its low FFA of 0.34%, food oil sensor reading of 1.1, low polar and polymer contents of 17% and 2.8%, respectively, over the 12 days of trial. In the third study in which palm shortening, palm oil and palm olein were simultaneously used to intermittently fry chicken parts in the laboratory simulating the conditions in fast food outlets, the three frying oils also performed very satisfactorily as reflected by their reasonably low FFA of 180 degrees C, and polar and polymer contents of <25% and <6%, respectively, after 5 days of consecutive frying. All the quality indicators did not exceed the maximum discard points for frying oils/fats in the three applications, while the fried food product was well accepted by the in-house train sensory panel using a-nine point hedonic score.

  2. Ethnomedicinal plants of Jodhpur District, Rajasthan used in herbal and folk remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.S.Kapoor

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Jodhpur district a part of Thar Desert is very rich in medicinal plant wealth. The medicinal plants of this region have great potential to be used in drug and pharmaceutical industries. These herbal plants have been used by local people, tribal communities, vendors, native doctors such as Ojhas, Bhagats Bhopas and experts of Ayurvedic fields since long time in herbal and folk remedies. Kalbelia, Nats, Bhils, Raika, Bhopas, Banjara, Gadolia-Lohar, Saharia and Meena communities of this district have a rich knowledge of plants based traditional medicines. Ten ethnomedicinal plants like Cleome gynandra Linn., Clerodendrum phlomidis Linn., Cassia angustifolia Vahl., Echinops echinatus Roxb., Leucas aspera (Willd. Spreng., Mimosa hamata Willd., Moringa oleifera Lamk., Pedalium murex Linn., Peganum harmala Linn., Sida cordifolia Linn. have been selected for this research work. The present investigation is aimed to create awareness about the ethnomedicinal value of the plants and their uses to draw the attention of pharmacologists, phytochemists and pharmaceuticals.

  3. Use, production and conservation of palm fiber in South America: A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Isaza, C.; Bernal, R.; Howard, P.L.

    2013-01-01

    South American ethnic groups traditionally use palm fiber, which provides materials for domestic, commercial, and ceremonial purposes. A literature review of 185 references was carried out in order to identify and understand the extent of palm fiber production and the sustainability of harvesting an

  4. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshhetri Hari B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species.

  5. Mapping and Assessment of Ethno-Medicinal Trees in Built Up Areas - University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunde Sunday Eludoyin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Several urban tree species are important in ethno-medicine, especially in the developing tropical regions. Their assessment in urban landscapes is becoming an important issue. The study assessed and mapped the ethno-medicinal trees in the built up area land use type of the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria, with a view to examining their spatial variation in terms of composition and diversity between the residential and non-residential areas of the University Park. Materials and Methods: The study employed the use of geographic information system (ArcGIS 9.3 for the mapping. Built up area land use was subdivided into residential and non-residential where the ethno-medicinal trees were recorded, identified and enumerated. Global positioning system was used to determine the coordinates of each tree. The species composition and diversity were calculated and a comparison was made between the residential and non- residential land use types. The pattern of spread of the ethno-medicinal trees was determined by the nearest neighbour analysis. Results: A total of 37 ethno-medicinal trees species were found in the study area, while the species composition was 499 in the residential area and 438 in the non-residential area. Azadirachta indica was the highest (233 in composition. Ethno-medicinal tree species in the study area consist of 19 families of which Anacardiaceae, Rutaceae, Moraceae and Combretaceae were the highest. Species diversity was higher in the non-residential land use (2.698 than in the residential land use (2.222. Conclusion: The nearest neighbour analysis reveals that the z-score value was higher in the non-residential area (-23.06 than in the residential area (-0.30, but the pattern of distribution in both areas were clustered. The study recommended periodic monitoring and the assessment of ethno-medicinal trees in the study area for conservation purposes.

  6. FRUIT AND SEED DRUGS USED AS ETHNOMEDICINES IN NORTH - EASTERN PART OF SABARKANTHA DISTRICT OF NORTH GUJARAT

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    S. K. PATEL, V. B. PANDEY AND P. R. DESAI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The ethnomedicinal plant survey was carried out during 2011-2013 in Sabarkantha district (Gujarat- India to document the folk medicinal plants used by tribes residing in villages of Vijaynagar and Bhiloda taluka. A total of 19 wild plant species were collected and information on their ethnomedicinal values which are traditionally used as medicines by local people have been documented. The source of information with traditional practices and process to make a medicine is based on interviews with local Vaidyas, Bhagats and local tribal people of the area. In addition, we had also confirmed all the collected indigenous information with available published and un-published literature from above areas.

  7. The Brahea edulis palm forest in Guadalupe Island: A North American fog oasis? El palmar de Brahea edulis de Isla Guadalupe: ¿Un oasis de niebla en Norteamérica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PEDRO P GARCILLÁN

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Fog is a factor that affects deeply the structure of vegetation of coastal deserts. Guadalupe is an oceanic island located 260 km off the coast of Baja California, and is one of the few places of the Sonoran Desert coasts with scarped coastal topography and frequent fog. With the aim to identify the effect of fog on the community of the palm forest (palmar of Brahea edulis located in the northern tip of the island: (1 we analyzed the richness and composition of vascular plants in the palmar compared to the remainder of the island, and (2 we analyzed the altitudinal variation of the abundance of palms, herbs and mosses to identify if there is altitudinal variation of the vegetation. Although species composition was not different between palmar and the rest of island, species richness and vascular plant cover were greater in the palmar. On the other hand, we found a clear altitudinal zonation of the vegetation in the palmar that is similar to that found in South American fog-driven plant communities such as the lomas. Thus, the palmar community of Guadalupe Island may be considered as a fog oasis, one of the very few that occur in North America.La niebla es un factor que afecta profundamente la estructura de la vegetación de los desiertos costeros. Guadalupe es una isla oceánica a 260 km de la costa de Baja California y constituye uno de los pocos lugares de la costa del Desierto Sonorense donde se reúnen una topografía escarpada próxima a la costa y una alta frecuencia de nieblas. Con el objeto de identificar el efecto de la niebla sobre la comunidad del palmar de Brahea edulis presente en la ladera norte de la isla: (1 analizamos la diferencia de la riqueza y la composición de plantas vasculares del palmar respecto del resto de la isla, y (2 analizamos la variación altitudinal de la abundancia de palmas, plantas acompañantes y musgo para determinar si existe variación altitudinal de la vegetación. Encontramos que, aunque la composici

  8. The palm family (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadot, Sophie; Alapetite, Elodie; Baker, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Among the 416 angiosperm families, palms (Arecaceae) are striking in possessing almost all possible combinations of hermaphroditic and/or unisexual flowers, making them a particularly interesting subject for studies of the evolution of plant sexuality. The purpose of this review is to highlight...

  9. Asháninka Palm Management and Domestication in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnowska, Joanna; Walanus, Adam; Balslev, Henrik

    Palms are a natural resource that has been abundantly used by Amerindians for centuries. Only a few palm domestications have been reported in the American tropics, where there is great diversity of the Arecaceae family. We report the results of a survey combining ethnobotanical and ecological methods to study the past and present management and distribution of palms by the Asháninka indigenous people from the Tambo river region in the Peruvian Amazon. Our objectives were to document palm-related traditional ecological knowledge, to examine correlation between palm abundance and Asháninka management practices and social exchange of palm resources, and to address the question of how the Asháninka have modified palm diversity and distribution in their territory. We found that most palm species have multiple uses; the most intensively managed were palms that provide thatch, notably Attalea phalerata, Oenocarpus mapora and Phytelephas macrocarpa. Of these, Attalea phalerata was the most commonly cultivated and was found only in cultivated stands. Our results have implications for understanding the domestication of Attalea weberbaueri, which is a landrace within the Attalea phalerata complex. A closer understanding of this process would require morphometric and genetic methods to compare wild and managed populations.

  10. Use of Ethnomedicinal Plants by the People Living around Indus River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakina Mussarat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present study was to document and preserve ethnomedicinal knowledge use to treat different human ailments by traditional healers of Dera Ismail Khan region, Pakistan. Field work was conducted between February 2012 and January 2013 using semistructured questionnaires. Data was collected from 120 traditional healers through questionnaire survey. Traditional healers in the study area use 70 plant species mostly herbs (57% for ethnomedicinal and other purposes. The highest FIC values (0.80 were obtained each for gastrointestinal and kidney problems followed by respiratory infections (0.72 and skin infections (0.73. There was a significant correlation (r2=0.950;  p<0.01 between the age and traditional knowledge of respondent. Direct matrix ranking indicated Morus alba and Dalbergia sissoo as highly multipurpose and threatened species in the study area. The results showed high dependency of local inhabitants on medicinal plants in meeting their primary health care needs. Moreover, the traditional knowledge has been restricted to elder people. Protection measures should be taken in order to conserve precious multipurpose species that are facing overexploitation. Medicinal plants treating major ailments in the region may be subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological investigations for the identification of bioactive compounds.

  11. Participatory Ethnomedicinal Cancer Research with Fante-Akan Herbalists in Rural Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Summer Ragosta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An ethnomedicinal study was initiated with herbalists in coastal Central Region Ghana to explore how cancer is defined, diagnosed, and treated within a traditional Fante-Akan context. The participatory, service-oriented investigation included international collaboration with herbalists and traditional plant experts. On-site meetings informed community leaders and members of project intent and methods, guided protocol, and gauged critical support. To provide immediate educational and economic opportunities, hands-on activities with villagers transferred academic and applied skills. Ethnographic interviews and voucher specimen collections were conducted with seven herbalists. Plant samples were dried and housed locally in a community herbarium cabinet constructed in Kormantse. Ten cancer ethnopharmacopoeia plants were identified, most of which are species considered native to tropical Africa. Fante Akan herbalists listed various types of cancers they treat with herbal remedies, along with ethnomedicinal descriptions of disease etiology, diagnoses, and treatments. The most common cancer type mentioned was “breast cancer.” Topical application was the most often cited method of administering remedies. Researchers established key contacts in the Kormantse, Salt Pond, and Elmina communities, and identified local and international research collaborators for a proposed interdisciplinary project focused on longitudinal case studies with herbalists, patients, and medical physicians.

  12. Ethnomedicinal Plants of Barmer District, Rajasthan Used in Herbal and Folk Remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.S. Kapoor1* and Sunil Kumar2

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Barmer district a part of Thar Desert is very rich in herbal plant wealth. The herbal plants of this region havegreat potential to be used in drug and pharmaceutical industries. These herbal plants have been used by local people,tribal communities, vendors, native doctors such as Ojhas, Bhagats Bhopas and experts of Ayurvedic fields sincelong time in herbal and folk remedies. Kalbelia, Nats, Bhils, Raika, Bhopas, Banjara, Gadolia-Lohar Langa andManganiars communities of this district have a rich knowledge of plants based traditional medicines.Ethnomedicinal plants like Aristolochia bracteolata Lamk., Calligonum polygonoides Linn., Cardiospermumhalicacabum Linn., Clerodendrum phlomoidis Linn., Evolvulus alsinoides Linn., Grewia tenax (Forsk. Fiori.,Maytenus emarginata (Willd. Ding Hau., Mollugo Cerviana (Linn. Seringe. Neurada procumbens Linn., Ocimumamericanum Linn., Peganum harmala Linn., Pergularia daemia (Forsk Chiov., Portulaca oleracea Linn.,Sarcostemma acidum (Roxb. Voigt. and Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. have been selected for this researchwork.The present investigation is aimed to create awareness about the ethnomedicinal value of the plants and theiruses to draw the attention of pharmacologists, phytochemists and pharmaceuticals.

  13. The Practice of Ethnomedicine in the Northern and Southern Provinces of Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu. C. Divakar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies related to ethnomedicines investigate the way people manage illness and diseases because of their cultural perspective. Fields like ecology, epidemiology, and medical history jointly contribute to the broad field of ethnomedical study. The knowledge gathered by traditional healers in the villages and tribal communities on natural medicines remains unfamiliar to the majority of scientists and the general population. The study of ethnomedicine principally involves the compilation of empirical data, particularly the patterns of illness and treatments from folklore. Due to deforestation, and urbanization of the desert jungles, many valuable medicinal plants present in the study areas appear to be facing extinction in the near future if no proper conservation plans are carried out. This survey documented 33 different herbs used by the natives of Oman for various ailments. Parts of a particular plant, fresh or dried, might be crushed and drunk as an infusion or used externally as a poultice, ground into a paste, or inhaled as smoke. The survey identified 22 plant families, and 18 traditional treatment groups.

  14. Coconut, date and oil palm genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of genomics research is presented for the three most economically important palm crops, coconut (Cocos nucifera), date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), encompassing molecular markers studies of genetic diversity, genetic mapping, quantitative trait loci discovery...

  15. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röll, A.; Niu, F.; Meijide, A.; Hardanto, A.; Hendrayanto; Knohl, A.; Hölscher, D.

    2015-10-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25-year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12-year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of 2 years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day-1 in a 2-year old to 2.5 mm day-1 in a 12-year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Comparing sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2-year old stand and 53 % in the 12-year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g., from the soil, the ground vegetation and from trunk

  16. Transpiration in an oil palm landscape: effects of palm age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Röll

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. plantations cover large and continuously increasing areas of humid tropical lowlands. Landscapes dominated by oil palms usually consist of a mosaic of mono-cultural, homogeneous stands of varying age, which may be heterogeneous in their water use characteristics. However, studies on the water use characteristics of oil palms are still at an early stage and there is a lack of knowledge on how oil palm expansion will affect the major components of the hydrological cycle. To provide first insights into hydrological landscape-level consequences of oil palm cultivation, we derived transpiration rates of oil palms in stands of varying age, estimated the contribution of palm transpiration to evapotranspiration, and analyzed the influence of fluctuations in environmental variables on oil palm water use. We studied 15 two- to 25 year old stands in the lowlands of Jambi, Indonesia. A sap flux technique with an oil palm specific calibration and sampling scheme was used to derive leaf-, palm- and stand-level water use rates in all stands under comparable environmental conditions. Additionally, in a two- and a 12 year old stand, eddy covariance measurements were conducted to derive evapotranspiration rates. Water use rates per leaf and palm increased 5-fold from an age of two years to a stand age of approx. 10 years and then remained relatively constant. A similar trend was visible, but less pronounced, for estimated stand transpiration rates of oil palms; they varied 12-fold, from 0.2 mm day−1 in a 2 year old to 2.5 mm day−1 in a 12 year old stand, showing particularly high variability in transpiration rates among medium-aged stands. Confronting sap flux and eddy-covariance derived water fluxes suggests that transpiration contributed 8 % to evapotranspiration in the 2 year old stand and 53 % in the 12 year old stand, indicating variable and substantial additional sources of evaporation, e.g. from the soil, the ground

  17. Palm webOS

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    A Note from the Author and from O'Reilly Media about what this bookdoes--and doesn't--do: Palm webOS is a brand new platform and represents a very different type ofoperating system where the web runtime is used as the basis for the UI andApplication model. Palm and O'Reilly felt that it was important to have abook available to help developers get a basic understanding of the new Palmplatform at the time that the SDK was released; this timing played a majorrole in the content and structure of the book. Ideally this book would have been a complete reference of the new platformbut that wasn't

  18. Invasioni biologiche. Il caso drammatico delle palme e di due specie di insetti, il Punteruolo rosso delle palme (Rynchophorus ferrugineus, Coleotteri e il castnide delle palme (Paysandisia archon, Lepidotteri in Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Di Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological invasions represent today a serious ecological problem, and is one of the main threats to biodiversity, in Italy as in the rest of the world. In the last century several species of palm trees have been introduced in gardens, parks and lanes of great part of Italy, where climate allows their life and growth. Among the others Phoenix canariensis, P. dactylifera, Washingtonia robusta, W. filifera, Jubaea spectabilis and Trachycarpus fortunei. All of these species are exotic, as the only indigenous palm in Italy is the dwarf fan palm (Chamaerops humilis, which occurs along the tirrenian coast from Sicily to Liguria, in Sardinia and most of the smaller islands. Palm trees have become by now part of the Italian landscape, as do pine tree in Rome or cypress in Tuscany. Recently, two different species of exotic insects where recorded for the first time in Italy: the south American moth Paysandisia archon and the chinese beetle Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Both of them lay their eggs on palm trees, and their larvae feed into the stem and kill the palms. Both arrived in Italy and in other Mediterranean countries as larvae or eggs hidden into the plants imported from the native regions. These insects are rapidly spreading through Italy, following palm plantations, and destroying palms from north to south, with a huge economic damage. Furthermore, they are locally changing probably for ever the Italian landscape. More recently, there is evidence of infestation on dwarf fan palm by both the moth and the beetle. This could cause a local extinction of the palm.

  19. Chemical control of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in banana and coconut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Jose Carlos Verle; Peña, J E

    2012-08-01

    The red palm mite (RPM), Raoiella indica Hirst, is a predominant pest of coconuts, date palms and other palm species, as well as a major pest of bananas (Musa spp.) in different parts of the world. Recently, RPM dispersed throughout the Caribbean islands and has reached both the North and South American continents. The RPM introductions have caused severe damage to palm species, and bananas and plantains in the Caribbean region. The work presented herein is the result of several acaricide trials conducted in Puerto Rico and Florida on palms and bananas in order to provide chemical control alternatives to minimize the impact of this pest. Spiromesifen, dicofol and acequinocyl were effective in reducing the population of R. indica in coconut in Puerto Rico. Spray treatments with etoxanole, abamectin, pyridaben, milbemectin and sulfur showed mite control in Florida. In addition, the acaricides acequinocyl and spiromesifen were able to reduce the population of R. indica in banana trials.

  20. Synthesis And Characterization of Biodiesel From Nigerian Palm Kernel oil.

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    IGBOKWE, J. O.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced from Nigerian Palm kernel oil through direct base- catalyzed transesterification process using methanol and sodium hydroxide as alcohol and catalyst respectively. The transesterification process involved 1 liter of Palm kernel oil, 200ml of methanol, 1.0% NaOH, reaction temperature of 65 degree Celsius and reaction time of 90mins and an average biodiesel yield of 87.67% was obtained. The produced biodiesel was blended with diesel fuel at a ratio of 20% biodiesel to 80% diesel fuel (by volume. The neat biodiesel and its blend were characterized using the ASTM methods. The results showed that the properties of the neat palm kernel oil biodiesel and its blend fall within the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM specifications for Biodiesel fuels hence confirming their suitability as alternative fuels for modern diesel engines.

  1. Nuclear phylogenomics of the palm subfamily Arecoideae (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comer, Jason R; Zomlefer, Wendy B; Barrett, Craig F; Stevenson, Dennis Wm; Heyduk, Karolina; Leebens-Mack, James H

    2016-04-01

    Palms (Arecaceae) include economically important species such as coconut, date palm, and oil palm. Resolution of the palm phylogeny has been problematic due to rapid diversification and slow rates of molecular evolution. The focus of this study is on relationships of the 14 tribes of subfamily Arecoideae and their inferred ancestral areas. A targeted sequencing approach was used to generate a data set of 168 single/low copy nuclear genes for 34 species representing the Arecoideae tribes and the other palm subfamilies. Species trees from the concatenated and coalescent based analyses recovered largely congruent topologies. Three major tribal clades were recovered: the POS clade (Podococceae, Oranieae, Sclerospermeae), the RRC clade (Roystoneeae, Reinhardtieae, Cocoseae), and the core arecoid clade (Areceae, Euterpeae, Geonomateae, Leopoldinieae, Manicarieae, Pelagodoxeae). Leopoldinieae was sister to the rest of the core arecoids (Geonomateae, Manicarieae+Pelagodoxeae, and Areceae+Euterpeae). The nuclear phylogeny supported a North American origin for subfamily Arecoideae, with most tribal progenitors diversifying within the Americas. The POS clade may have dispersed from the Americas into Africa, with tribe Oranieae subsequently spreading into the Indo-Pacific. Two independent dispersals into the Indo-Pacific were inferred for two tribes within the core arecoids (tribes Areceae and Pelagodoxeae).

  2. Making Palm Print Matching Mobile

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Li; Chian, Cheng Shao

    2009-01-01

    With the growing importance of personal identification and authentication in todays highly advanced world where most business and personal tasks are being replaced by electronic means, the need for a technology that is able to uniquely identify an individual and has high fraud resistance see the rise of biometric technologies. Making biometric based solution mobile is a promising trend. A new RST invariant square based palm print ROI extraction method was successfully implemented and integrated into the current application suite. A new set of palm print image database captured using embedded cameras in mobile phone was created to test its robustness. Comparing to those extraction methods that are based on boundary tracking of the overall hand shape that has limitation of being unable to process palm print images that has one or more fingers closed, the system can now effectively handle the segmentation of palm print images with varying finger positioning. The high flexibility makes palm print matching mobile ...

  3. Melastoma malabathricum (L. Smith Ethnomedicinal Uses, Chemical Constituents, and Pharmacological Properties: A Review

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    S. Mohd. Joffry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma malabathricum L. (Melastomataceae is one of the 22 species found in the Southeast Asian region, including Malaysia. Considered as native to tropical and temperate Asia and the Pacific Islands, this commonly found small shrub has gained herbal status in the Malay folklore belief as well as the Indian, Chinese, and Indonesian folk medicines. Ethnopharmacologically, the leaves, shoots, barks, seeds, and roots of M. malabathricum have been used to treat diarrhoea, dysentery, hemorrhoids, cuts and wounds, toothache, and stomachache. Scientific findings also revealed the wide pharmacological actions of various parts of M. malabthricum, such as antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antidiarrheal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities. Various types of phytochemical constituents have also been isolated and identifed from different parts of M. malabathricum. Thus, the aim of the present review is to present comprehensive information on ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of M. malabathricum.

  4. Ethnomedicinal Uses of Honeybee Products in Lithuania: The First Analysis of Archival Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranskuniene, Zivile; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Simaitiene, Zenona; Pranskunas, Andrius; Mekas, Tauras

    2016-01-01

    Lithuania has old ethnomedicine traditions, consisting of many recipes with herbal, animal, and mineral original ingredients. All these findings were mostly collected in Lithuanian language, often in local community's dialects, and stored only in archives. We analyzed archival sources about honeybee and its products used for medicinal purposes dated from 1886 till 1992 in different parts of Lithuania. We systematized and presented the most important information about bees and their products: indication for usage, ingredients used in the recipe, their preparation techniques, and application for therapeutic purposes. Researchers in Lithuania are now looking for new evidence based indications and preparation and standardization methods of bee products. Archival sources are a foundation for studies in Lithuania. The results can be integrated into scientifically approved folk medicine practices into today's healthcare.

  5. Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the district of Acquapendente (Latium, Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Forti, Gianluca; Marignoli, Silvia

    2005-01-15

    In the years 2002-2003 research was carried out concerning ethnomedicine in the Acquapendente district (Viterbo, Latium, central Italy), an area so far less frequently studied from the perspective of plant folk traditions. The district, from the ethnobotanical point of view, shows traces of the influences of the neighbouring regions. In this study 96 plant entities are described, belonging to 45 families, of which 64 are employed in human medicine, 15 in veterinary medicine, 22 in the feeding of domestic animals, 5 as antiparasitics and 5 for other uses. Some medicinal uses are linked to beliefs or residual forms of magic prescriptions (11 plants). Amongst the more notable uses the most interesting are those of: Verbena officinalis (rheumatic pains, wounds), Juglans regia (antiparasitic use for cheeses), Santolina etrusca (antimoth use), Stellaria media and Lupinus albus (birdseed for poultry and fodder for lambs), and Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis (used to curdle milk).

  6. A COMPREHENSIVE ETHNOMEDICINAL DOCUMENTATION OF MEDICINAL PLANTS OF ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY, REGION, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazi Ziaul Haque Masum*, Biplab Kumar Dash, Shital Kumar Barman and M. Kumer Sen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: An ethnobotanical survey was carried out through semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method in Islamic University, Kushtia, Bangladesh to document the utilization of medicinal plants by local people for general ailments. A total of 87 species belonging to 51 families with their local names, useable parts and mode of application were recorded for their usages for curing at least 70 ailments. Ethnomedicinally most important families are Asteraceae, Combretaceae, Moraceae, Solanaceae, Apocynaceae. These plant species are utilized by local peoples against various ailments such as dysentery, fever, cough, sexual debility, asthma, skin disease, diarrhea, indigestion, wound healing, toothache, malaria, etc. Indigenous knowledge of Kavirajes or knowledgeable local persons have great contributions in formulating applicable strategy for the development of various medicine using plants as either fresh or raw sources or both. These scattered, selective, fast eroding and highly valuable knowledge needs proper documentation.

  7. Medicinal Plants and Ethnomedicine in Peril: A Case Study from Nepal Himalaya

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    Ripu M. Kunwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change were severe on indigenous medicinal plant species and their dependent communities. The harvesting calendar and picking sites of these species were no longer coinciding and the changes were affecting harvesters’ and cultivators’ abilities to collect and use those species. Secondary sites: road-heads, wastelands, regenerated forests, and so forth, were being prioritized for collection and the nonindigenous medicinal plant species were being increasingly introduced into the medical repertoire as a substitution and to diversify the local medicinal stock. Acceptance and application of nonindigenous species and sites for livelihood and ethnopharmacopoeias with caution were considered as an important adaptation strategy. Findings on species and site specific accounts urged further researches on medicinal plants, ethnomedicine, and their interrelationship with impacts of climate change.

  8. Palm fruit chemistry and nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, Kalyana; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi; Tan, Yew-Ai

    2003-01-01

    The palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) yields palm oil, a palmitic-oleic rich semi solid fat and the fat-soluble minor components, vitamin E (tocopherols, tocotrienols), carotenoids and phytosterols. A recent innovation has led to the recovery and concentration of water-soluble antioxidants from palm oil milling waste, characterized by its high content of phenolic acids and flavonoids. These natural ingredients pose both challenges and opportunities for the food and nutraceutical industries. Palm oil's rich content of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids has actually been turned into an asset in view of current dietary recommendations aimed at zero trans content in solid fats such as margarine, shortenings and frying fats. Using palm oil in combination with other oils and fats facilitates the development of a new generation of fat products that can be tailored to meet most current dietary recommendations. The wide range of natural palm oil fractions, differing in their physico-chemical characteristics, the most notable of which is the carotenoid-rich red palm oil further assists this. Palm vitamin E (30% tocopherols, 70% tocotrienols) has been extensively researched for its nutritional and health properties, including antioxidant activities, cholesterol lowering, anti-cancer effects and protection against atherosclerosis. These are attributed largely to its tocotrienol content. A relatively new output from the oil palm fruit is the water-soluble phenolic-flavonoid-rich antioxidant complex. This has potent antioxidant properties coupled with beneficial effects against skin, breast and other cancers. Enabled by its water solubility, this is currently being tested for use as nutraceuticals and in cosmetics with potential benefits against skin aging. A further challenge would be to package all these palm ingredients into a single functional food for better nutrition and health.

  9. Oil palm seed distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durand-Gasselin Tristan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available For a tropical plant, the oil palm commodity chain has the peculiarity of possessing a major seed production sector for reasons that are primarily genetic. This seed sector has numerous original aspects. Breeders are also propagators and usually also distribute their seeds. Oil palm seeds are semi-recalcitrant: they display pseudo-dormancy. Achieving seed germination is difficult and requires lengthy treatments and special installations. This restriction greatly influences seed distribution and the role of the different stakeholders in the commodity chain. It was only once it had been discovered how the “sh” gene functioned, which controls shell thickness, and when it became necessary to produce “tenera” seeds derived from exclusively “dura x pisifera” crosses, that a true seed market developed. In addition it is difficult to organize seed distribution to smallholders. This is partly due to difficulties that the profession, or a State-run organization, has in controlling middlemen networks, and partly to the absence of any protective systems (UPOV, plant breeder certificate, etc. that generally oblige breeders to preserve and propagate parents in their own installations. In fact there are major inequalities in the access to seeds between agroindustry and smallholders. Another peculiarity of the oil palm seed market is the virtually total absence of guarantees for buyers: the quality of the research conducted by breeders, the seed production strategies necessary for transferring genetic progress, and the technical quality of production. The only guarantee today comes from the relations of confidence established year after year between breeders/distributors and growers. In this fields, research can lead to some proposals: molecular biology offers some interesting prospects for certifying seed quality and social science develop effective communication methods.

  10. Ethnomedicinal studies on plants used by Yanadi tribe of Chandragiri reserve forest area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataru Savithramma

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: There is no record of traditional medicinal knowledge of these villages so far, hence the present study is aimed to document the information on medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe in Chandragiri reserve forest area. Correlation of ethnomedicinal uses with Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical database clearly indicates the high medicinal significance of claimed data of this Yanadi tribe. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2016; 5(1.000: 49-56

  11. Towards exploration of plant-based ethno-medicinal knowledge of rural community: basis for biodiversity conservation in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Shaheed Hossain; Koike, Masao

    2010-01-01

    Because lack of data impedes the assessment of the conservation of medicinal plants, ethno-medicinal studies are important to fill this gap. This study considered the traditional use of plants for health care by the rural communities in two forested and non-forested regions of Bangladesh. A total of 230 respondents were interviewed accompanied by field observation and voucher specimen collection. Altogether, 68 species of medicinal plants belonging to 38 families distributing over 58 genera w...

  12. Characterizing commercial oil palm expansion in Latin America: land use change and trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumo, Paul Richard; Aide, T. Mitchell

    2017-02-01

    Commodity crop expansion has increased with the globalization of production systems and consumer demand, linking distant socio-ecological systems. Oil palm plantations are expanding in the tropics to satisfy growing oilseed and biofuel markets, and much of this expansion has caused extensive deforestation, especially in Asia. In Latin America, palm oil output has doubled since 2001, and the majority of expansion seems to be occurring on non-forested lands. We used MODIS satellite imagery (250 m resolution) to map current oil palm plantations in Latin America and determined prior land use and land cover (LULC) using high-resolution images in Google Earth. In addition, we compiled trade data to determine where Latin American palm oil flows, in order to better understand the underlying drivers of expansion in the region. Based on a sample of 342 032 ha of oil palm plantations across Latin America, we found that 79% replaced previously intervened lands (e.g. pastures, croplands, bananas), primarily cattle pastures (56%). The remaining 21% came from areas that were classified as woody vegetation (e.g. forests), most notably in the Amazon and the Petén region in northern Guatemala. Latin America is a net exporter of palm oil but the majority of palm oil exports (70%) stayed within the region, with Mexico importing about half. Growth of the oil palm sector may be driven by global factors, but environmental and economic outcomes vary between regions (i.e. Asia and Latin America), within regions (i.e. Colombia and Peru), and within single countries (i.e. Guatemala), suggesting that local conditions are influential. The present trend of oil palm expanding onto previously cleared lands, guided by roundtable certifications programs, provides an opportunity for more sustainable development of the oil palm sector in Latin America.

  13. A comparative analysis of ethnomedicinal practices for treating gastrointestinal disorders used by communities living in three national parks (Korea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang; Brian, Heldenbrand; Choi, Kyoungho

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to comparatively analyze the ethnomedicinal practices on gastrointestinal disorders within communities in Jirisan National Park, Gayasan National Park, and Hallasan National Park of Korea. Data was collected through participant observations and indepth interviews with semistructured questionnaires. Methods for comparative analysis were accomplished using the informant consensus factor, fidelity level, and internetwork analysis. A total of 490 ethnomedicinal practices recorded from the communities were classified into 110 families, 176 genera, and 220 species that included plants, animals, fungi, and alga. The informant consensus factor values in the disorder categories were enteritis, and gastralgia (1.0), followed by indigestion (0.94), constipation (0.93), and abdominal pain and gastroenteric trouble (0.92). In terms of fidelity levels, 71 plant species showed fidelity levels of 100%. The internetwork analysis between disorders and all medicinal species are grouped in the center by the four categories of indigestion, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and gastroenteric trouble, respectively. Regarding the research method of this study, the comparative analysis methods will contribute to the availability of orally transmitted ethnomedicinal knowledge. Among the methods of analysis, the use of internetwork analysis as a tool for analysis in this study provides imperative internetwork maps between gastrointestinal disorders and medicinal species.

  14. Ethnomedicinal studies on plants used by Yanadi tribe of Chandragiri reserve forest area, Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savithramma, Nataru; Yugandhar, Pulicherla; Prasad, Koya Siva; Ankanna, Sade; Chetty, Kummara Madhava

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Ethnomedicinal studies on medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe of Chandragiri reserve forest area are documented during the period of 2014-2015. The study is mainly focused on medicinal importance of plants used by Yanadi tribe to treat various ailments. Materials and Methods: The information collected on treated ailments, part used, preparation, combination, and addition of ingredients to prepare herbal medicines with the help of standard questionnaire. Results: During the study, 53 types of ailments were treated using 48 medicinal plants belongs to 26 families were documented. Among the medicinal plants, shrubs (15) were most using life form of plants for the preparation of herbal medicines. Leaf part (40%), paste form (33%), and oral administration (63%) of herbal medicines were most preferable. The documented ethnomedicinal importance of this tribe was cross-checked with Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical database shows most of the plants were correlated with this database. Conclusion: There is no record of traditional medicinal knowledge of these villages so far, hence the present study is aimed to document the information on medicinal plants used by Yanadi tribe in Chandragiri reserve forest area. The correlation of ethnomedicinal uses with Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical database clearly indicates the high medicinal significance of claimed data of this Yanadi tribe. PMID:27069725

  15. PALM: a Parallel Dynamic Coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevenin, A.; Morel, T.

    2008-12-01

    In order to efficiently represent complex systems, numerical modeling has to rely on many physical models at a time: an ocean model coupled with an atmospheric model is at the basis of climate modeling. The continuity of the solution is granted only if these models can constantly exchange information. PALM is a coupler allowing the concurrent execution and the intercommunication of programs not having been especially designed for that. With PALM, the dynamic coupling approach is introduced: a coupled component can be launched and can release computers' resources upon termination at any moment during the simulation. In order to exploit as much as possible computers' possibilities, the PALM coupler handles two levels of parallelism. The first level concerns the components themselves. While managing the resources, PALM allocates the number of processes which are necessary to any coupled component. These models can be parallel programs based on domain decomposition with MPI or applications multithreaded with OpenMP. The second level of parallelism is a task parallelism: one can define a coupling algorithm allowing two or more programs to be executed in parallel. PALM applications are implemented via a Graphical User Interface called PrePALM. In this GUI, the programmer initially defines the coupling algorithm then he describes the actual communications between the models. PALM offers a very high flexibility for testing different coupling techniques and for reaching the best load balance in a high performance computer. The transformation of computational independent code is almost straightforward. The other qualities of PALM are its easy set-up, its flexibility, its performances, the simple updates and evolutions of the coupled application and the many side services and functions that it offers.

  16. [PALME--Arrival in Reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, M; Weihrauch, L; Schäfer, R

    2015-09-01

    PALME is an emotion-centred parental training for single mothers and their children based on attachment theory. It was designed for the prevention of maternal depression and its long-term effects on the mother-child relation and the infant's development. Using the example of the PALME programme, inherent and external factors are demonstrated which can contribute to the successful transfer of prevention programmes into psychosocial care and other practice areas.

  17. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the people of Manang district, central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Ram P

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The district of Manang (2000 – 6000 m is located in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. The majority of local inhabitants of the area are Gurungs, of Tibetan origin. The remoteness of the region has resulted in continued use of plants as medicine in an area where the ethnobotany has sparsely been documented. Methods Interviews were conducted with amchi (Tibetan medicinal practitioners, local healers (including priests locally known as 'lamas', plant traders, and knowledgeable villagers (including herders regarding local plant names and their medicinal uses during several field visits (2002–2005. When convenient to the locals, a jungle or forest walk was done with the healers, allowing for both plant collection and detailed information gathering. Results This present research documented 91 ethnomedicinal plant species, belonging to 40 families under 73 genera, and 45 new ethnomedicinal plant species are added. These 91 locally used medicinal plants are found to treat 93 ailments. This study provides information on 45 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in Manang. The indication for use, mode of preparation, dose and administration of medicine are described in detail for each species. Conclusion This wealth of ethnobotanical knowledge persists, and is being transferred to the next generation in some areas in upper Manang, in a country where this is often not the case. The senior amchi of the area (Karma Sonam Lama, who has been practicing Tibetan medicine for three generations, feels that it is of utmost importance to conserve the traditional healing system and to pass his knowledge on to the local community about the importance of medicinal plants. He hopes that this will lead to the conservation and sustainable management of medicinal plants in the villages. Over the duration of this research, the prices of several rare medicinal plants of Manang increased dramatically, highlighting both the scarcity and

  18. Integrating evolution into geographical ecology: a phylogenetic perspective on palm distributions and community composition across scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kissling, W. Daniel;

    Species distributions, assemblage composition, and species richness depend on both current environment and the diversification of lineages in past environments. On broad scales, processes that constrain diversifying lineages to certain regions or environments are particularly important. Through...... species pool effects, those processes also affect local community composition and richness. In addition, evolution directly affects local communities directly via niche-based assembly. We studied these effects with palms (Arecaceae) as a model group, using a) a dataset including >340,000 palm individuals...... in 430 transects in the Western Amazon, b) a set of range maps for all American palms (550 spp.), and c) global country-level presence/ absence data of all (>2400) palm species. These data were analysed with novel phylogenetic community structure and turnover methods. Globally, the phylogenetic structure...

  19. Phenology of the oil palm interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Hormaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of the most important oil crops in the world. Because of its high productivity and perennial nature, it has been expanding quickly. Commercial plantations consist mostly of the African palm E. guineensis Jacq. However, producers in Latin America are increasingly planting the O × G interspecific hybrid, a cross between African palm (E. guineensis and the American palm (E. oleifera (Kunth Cortés. This interspecific hybrid has emerged as a promising solution to diseases such as the bud rot of oil palm because of the apparent partial resistance of this genotype to the disease. This work studied and described the phenology of the O × G interspecific hybrid. The phenology stages were coded using the BBCH scale. The scale for the phenophases was defined using a three-digit code. Due to the nature of the palm, no descriptions were used for stage two (formation of side shoots/tillering and stage four (development of harvestable vegetative plant parts or vegetative reproductive organs because these stages do not apply to oil palm. The scale was constructed using germinating seeds, pre-nursery and nursery plants and five year-old palms. For the description of the stem elongation, different age palms of the same O × G hybrid were used. Observations were performed during an 18-month period. Additionally, the interval for the change from one phenology stage to another was determined both in days and degree-days (DD. The interspecific O × G hybrid required 6408 DD from when the spear leaf unfolds until the bunch was ripened and harvested, and 4427.6 DD from leaf unfolding to anthesis.

  20. Ethnomedicinal, pharmaceutical and pesticidal uses of Calotropis procera (Aiton (Family: Asclepiadaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kant Upadhyay

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Caloropis procera is a multipurpose plant that is extensively used by traditional folk healers and local people for preparation of different drugs and ailments of choice to treat different diseases and disorders. Plant contains diverse phyto-chemicals which show various pharmaceutical and ethno-medicinal properties. Two related species are of Asclepiadaceae, Caloropis procera and Calotropis gigantea, and both possess enormous disease curing potential against various infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoans and worms; and are widely used for treatment of different diseases and physiological disorders. Active components of Calotropis procera displayed cytostatic, cytotoxic, wound healing, procogulant, analgesic, anticonvulsant, anti-arthritic, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, anti-fertility, antipyretic, anti-coccidial, anticancer, antitumor and anti-inflammatory properties. Natural Calotropis latex in preserved and concentrated forms finds many pharmaceutical applications and may be more useful in interventional therapies, complementary and alternative medicine to cure different types of cancers. Latex can be used for preparation of various herbal drugs and drug templates which might be non-steroidal and show wider cancer suppressing efficacy in patients. Plant can become a future source of therapeutic drugs, pesticides and industrial products. It can be used for phyto-extraction of toxic chemicals and reclamation of polluted derelict lands.

  1. Screening of selected ethnomedicinal plants from South Africa for larvicidal activity against the mosquito Anopheles arabiensis

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    Maharaj Rajendra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was initiated to establish whether any South African ethnomedicinal plants (indigenous or exotic, that have been reported to be used traditionally to repel or kill mosquitoes, exhibit effective mosquito larvicidal properties. Methods Extracts of a selection of plant taxa sourced in South Africa were tested for larvicidal properties in an applicable assay. Thirty 3rd instar Anopheles arabiensis larvae were exposed to various extract types (dichloromethane, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1, methanol and purified water of each species investigated. Mortality was evaluated relative to the positive control Temephos (Mostop; Agrivo, an effective emulsifiable concentrate larvicide. Results Preliminary screening of crude extracts revealed substantial variation in toxicity with 24 of the 381 samples displaying 100% larval mortality within the seven day exposure period. Four of the high activity plants were selected and subjected to bioassay guided fractionation. The results of the testing of the fractions generated identified one fraction of the plant, Toddalia asiatica as being very potent against the An. arabiensis larvae. Conclusion The present study has successfully identified a plant with superior larvicidal activity at both the crude and semi pure fractions generated through bio-assay guided fractionation. These results have initiated further research into isolating the active compound and developing a malaria vector control tool.

  2. Determination of Some Ethnomedicinally Important Constituents of Aegle marmelos Fruit During Different Stages of Ripening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisha Yadav; Parul Singh; Ranjana Mehrotra

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Aegle marmelos is a medicinal herb belonging to the Rutacae family. The fruit of A. marmelos at each stage of ripening is used as ethnomedicine to cure various diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the components contributing to the medicinal value of the A. marmelos fruit at different stages of ripening. METHODS: High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine polyphenol, vitamins, organic acids and sugars in A. marmelos fruit at different stages of ripening. RESULTS: Tannin, a polyphenol responsible for astringent and antimicrobial properties of A. marmelos fruit was found to increase during ripening. Riboflavin, a vital medicinal component was detected in traceable amount only in full-ripe A. marmelos fruit. Ribofla-vin contributes towards body growth, reproduction and red cell production. The content of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) which is useful in preventing scurvy decreased significantly as fruit ripens. CONCLUSIONS: The difference in the medicinal effect of A. marmelos fruit at each stage of ripening might be due to the presence of different amount of polyphenol, vitamins and organic acids.

  3. Antibacterial and antifungal activities from leaf extracts of Cassia fistula l.: An ethnomedicinal plant

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    Nayan R Bhalodia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potentials of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. The aim of the study is to assess the antimicrobial activity and to determine the zone of inhibition of extracts on some bacterial and fungal strains. In the present study, the microbial activity of hydroalcohol extracts of leaves of Cassia fistula Linn. (an ethnomedicinal plant was evaluated for potential antimicrobial activity against medically important bacterial and fungal strains. The antimicrobial activity was determined in the extracts using agar disc diffusion method. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts (5, 25, 50, 100, 250 ΅g/ml of Cassia fistula were tested against two Gram-positive--Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes; two Gram-negative--Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa human pathogenic bacteria; and three fungal strains--Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus clavatus, Candida albicans. Zone of inhibition of extracts were compared with that of different standards like ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and chloramphenicol for antibacterial activity and nystatin and griseofulvin for antifungal activity. The results showed that the remarkable inhibition of the bacterial growth was shown against the tested organisms. The phytochemical analyses of the plants were carried out. The microbial activity of the Cassia fistula was due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, these plants can be used to discover bioactive natural products that may serve as leads in the development of new pharmaceuticals research activities.

  4. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh

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    Protiva Rani Das

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Medicinal practices of the tribes of Bangladesh remain largely un-documented. Aims: The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey and documentation among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe of Bangladesh. Settings and Design: The survey was carried out among the Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribal community of Moulvibazar district. The clan, according to them, is the only Nag clan of the Rai Ghatual tribe in Bangladesh. The clan has three tribal healers, still continuing their traditional medicinal practices. Materials and Methods: Interviews of the healers were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: The Nag clan healers were observed to use 28 different plant species distributed into 22 families for treatment of ailments such as fever, loss of appetite, male infertility, dysentery, lower abdominal pain during menstruation, jaundice, stomachache, burning sensations during urination, bodily pain and weak health. Conclusions: This is the first reported study of the traditional medicinal practices of Nag clan healers. Several of the plants can be validated in their uses on the basis of existing scientific literature. The medicinal plants used by the Nag healers warrant further scientific studies, for the plants are readily available and can form alternative medicinal sources instead of costlier biomedical drugs.

  5. Ethnomedicinal study of plants used in villages around Kimboza forest reserve in Morogoro, Tanzania

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    Amri Ezekiel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnomedicinal study was conducted to document medicinal plants used in the treatment of ailments in villages surrounding Kimboza forest reserve, a low land catchment forest with high number of endemic plant species. Methods Ethnobotanical interviews on medicinal plants used to treat common illnesses were conducted with the traditional medical practitioners using open-ended semi -structured questionnaires. Diseases treated, methods of preparation, use and habitat of medicinal plants were recorded. Results A total of 82 medicinal plant species belonging to 29 families were recorded during the study. The most commonly used plant families recorded were Fabaceae (29%, Euphorbiaceae (20%, Asteraceae and Moraceae (17% each and Rubiaceae (15% in that order. The most frequently utilized medicinal plant parts were leaves (41.3%, followed by roots (29.0%, bark (21.7%, seeds (5.31%, and fruits (2.6%. The study revealed that stomach ache was the condition treated with the highest percentage of medicinal plant species (15%, followed by hernia (13%, diarrhea (12, fever and wound (11% each, and coughs (10%. Majority of medicinal plant species (65.9% were collected from the wild compared to only 26.7% from cultivated land. Conclusions A rich diversity of medicinal plant species are used for treating different diseases in villages around Kimboza forest reserve, with the wild habitat being the most important reservoir for the majority of the plants. Awareness programmes on sustainable utilization and active involvement of community in conservation programmes are needed.

  6. Unrecorded Ethnomedicinal Uses of Biodiversity from Tadgarh-Raoli Wildlife Sanctuary, Rajasthan, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anita JAIN; S. S. KATEWA; P. K. GALAV; Ambika NAG

    2007-01-01

    Extensive ethnomedicinal survey was carried out during the year 2003-2005 to document the precious indigenous health care practices prevalent among the different ethnic groups (Bhil, Meena, Garasia, etc) of Tadgarh-Raoli wildlife sanctuary. This sanctuary is located in Rajsamand, Pali, and Ajmer districts of South-east Rajasthan, India. The tribals belonging to primitive or aboriginal culture possess a good deal of information about medicinal utility of biodiversity. During the survey, it was noted that plant or plant parts as well as animals and substances derived from animal origin were commonly used by the tribals to cure various diseases and disorders. Indigenous healthcare practices, provide low cost alternatives in situation where modern health care services are not available or too expensive.Analysis of data based on 85 remedies indicates that 70 remedies are based on 45 different species of plants belonging to 28 families and 17 remedies are based on several substances of animal origin to cure various ailments through indigenous health care practices. A list of plant and animal species along with their scientific name, parts used and the mode of administration for effective control in different ailments are given.

  7. Cichorium intybus: A concise report on its ethnomedicinal, botanical, and phytopharmacological aspects

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    Sneha Das

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cichorium intybus L. (chicory is a Mediterranean plant species belonging to the Asteraceae family. Chicory is gaining interests because of its culinary features, nutritional values and medicinal characteristics. C. intybus has been implemented in folk medicine from North Africa to South Asia for several 100 years. In Indian medicine, it has been used to treat fever, diarrhea, spleen enlargement, jaundice, liver enlargement, gout, and rheumatism. In China, it is valued for its tonic effects upon the liver and digestive tract. In Germany, chicory has been used as a folk medicine for everyday ailments. Thus, C. intybus is a plant of great economic potential due to high concentrations of fructooligosacharide, known as inulin, in its roots, used as a replacement ingredient for sugar and fat. The other various phytoconstituents reported in chicory are sucrose, cellulose, proteins, caffeic acid derivatives, flavonoids, polyphenols, carotenoids, anthocyanins, tannins, coumarins, sesquiterpene lactones, fatty acids, pectin, cholins, benzo-isochromenes, alkaloids, vitamins, amino acids, and minerals. The therapeutic investigations reveal that C. intybus is useful for maintaining normal health and has nematicidal, antihepatotoxic, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, antiallergic, antihyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory, antineoplastic, calcium homeostater, bulking agent, immunostimulatory, prebiotic, protective against pancreatitis, antimicrobial, and antioxidant effects. This review encompasses botany, ethnomedicinal uses, phytoconstituents, pharmacological uses, and toxicity studies of C. intybus L.

  8. Mechanical Properties of Palm Fiber Mattress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Qian; Wu, Jia-Yu; Gu, Hao-Wei; Chen, Zong-Yong; Shi, Xiao-Bing; Liao, Ting-Mao; An, Cheng; Yuan, Hong; Liu, Ren-Huai

    2016-05-01

    Palm fiber mattress is increasingly accepted by many families. This study aims at evaluating the mechanical properties of palm fiber mattress. Two experiments were conduct to investigate the Young's modulus of palm fiber mattress in three directions. In addition, finite element models were established to characterize palm fiber mattress under uniform distributed pressure. Finally, results from finite element analysis are presented to illustrate that the thick mattress will stick with human body curve perfectly, which can support vertebral column effectively.

  9. Biodiesel production from palm oil

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    Kiatsimkul, P.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Methyl ester was produced from many sources of oil palm products, namely used frying oil, RBD palm oil, degummed and deacidified palm oil, palm stearin and superhard palm stearin. Production process was a conventional transesterification batch process using methanol as reactant and sodium hydroxide as catalyst. Production procedure consisted of oil preparation, solvent preparation, reaction step, glycerol separation, washing step and finishing step. Thin layer chromatograph was used to determine the composition of product and nearly 100% methyl ester was obtained at a suitable condition. Molar ratio of oil: methanol was about 1:6, which equal to 20% by weight of methanol. Sodium hydroxide was 0.5-1 %wt. of oil. The production temperature was 60-80ºC, mixing time was only 15-30 minutes and reaction time was 3-4 hours. Many fuel properties of methyl ester were very close to high-speed diesel such as viscosity, density, heating value and boiling point range. Pour point of methyl ester was higher than diesel owing to the high composition of saturated methyl ester that has a high melting point.

  10. Date palm production and pest management challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract: Date palm, Phoenix dactylifera, is a monocotyledonous species belong- ing to the palm family (Arecaceae or Palmae) which is perennial and dioecious and cultivated mostly in the arid regions of the world. Date palm is important to the agrarian economy of several countries, with the ability ...

  11. Transgenic oil palm: production and projection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, G K; Masri, M M; Zainal, A; Majid, N A; Yunus, A M; Fadilah, H H; Rasid, O; Cheah, S C

    2000-12-01

    Oil palm is an important economic crop for Malaysia. Genetic engineering could be applied to produce transgenic oil palms with high value-added fatty acids and novel products to ensure the sustainability of the palm oil industry. Establishment of a reliable transformation and regeneration system is essential for genetic engineering. Biolistic was initially chosen as the method for oil palm transformation as it has been the most successful method for monocotyledons to date. Optimization of physical and biological parameters, including testing of promoters and selective agents, was carried out as a prerequisite for stable transformation. This has resulted in the successful transfer of reporter genes into oil palm and the regeneration of transgenic oil palm, thus making it possible to improve the oil palm through genetic engineering. Besides application of the Biolistics method, studies on transformation mediated by Agrobacterium and utilization of the green fluorescent protein gene as a selectable marker gene have been initiated. Upon the development of a reliable transformation system, a number of useful targets are being projected for oil palm improvement. Among these targets are high-oleate and high-stearate oils, and the production of industrial feedstock such as biodegradable plastics. The efforts in oil palm genetic engineering are thus not targeted as commodity palm oil. Due to the long life cycle of the palm and the time taken to regenerate plants in tissue culture, it is envisaged that commercial planting of transgenic palms will not occur any earlier than the year 2020.

  12. STEAM EXPLOSION PULPING OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBER

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    Xiwen Wang,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Steam explosion pulping was evaluated for oil palm empty fruit bunches fiber. The fiber morphology was observed by SEM and TEM. Results indicated that lignin was molten and the cell wall damaged after the steam explosion pulping and that the fiber was partly separated at the same time. The results of handsheet tests showed that the steam exploded pulp had a high yield (78.2%, good physical properties (especially for ring crush 8.6 N•m/g, and low effluent load (SS=910 mg/L; BOD5=3952 mg/L; CODCr=8140 mg/L. The SEP pulp from oil palm EFB fiber was very suitable for packaging paper when combined with American OCC pulp.

  13. Sustainability in the Malaysian palm oil industry

    OpenAIRE

    Choong, CG; McKay, A

    2014-01-01

    With a rapidly growing world population, the demand for palm oil is increasing. In 2010, palm oil accounted for 36.5% of the world's vegetable oil production and it is projected to be the leading vegetable oil in the world by 2016. As the Malaysian palm oil industry is committed to delivering sustainable palm oil products to meet customer demand, this research was to enable identification and prioritisation of areas for improvement. As an example, the Roadmap of Malaysian Palm Oil Industry 20...

  14. Averrhoa bilimbi Linn.: A review of its ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology

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    Alhassan Muhammad Alhassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Averrhoa bilimbi Linn. is principally cultivated for medicinal purposes in many tropical and subtropical countries of the world. Literature survey about this plant shows that A. bilimbi is mainly used as a folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and as an antimicrobial agent. The prime objective of this review is to accumulate and organize literature based on traditional claims and correlate those with current findings on the use of A. bilimbi in the management of different ailments. Through interpreting already published scientific manuscripts (1995 through 2015 retrieved from the different scientific search engines, namely Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, and Science Direct databases, published articles and reports covering traditional and scientific literature related to A. bilimbi's potential role against various ailments have been thoroughly evaluated, interpreted, and discussed. Several pharmacological studies have demonstrated the ability of this plant to act as antidiabetic, antihypertensive, thrombolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and hypolipidemic agent. A. bilimbi holds great value in the complementary and alternative medicine as evidenced by the substantial amount of research on it. Therefore, we aimed to compile an up-to-date and comprehensive review of A. bilimbi that covers its traditional and folk medicine uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. Hence, this paper presents an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the ethnomedicinal uses, different chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi. So far, the biologically active agents have not been isolated from this plant and this can be a good scientific study for the future antidiabetic, antihypertensive, and antimicrobial implications. Hence, this review targets at emphasizing the diverse traditional claims and pharmacological activities of A. bilimbi with respect to carrying out more scientific studies to isolate

  15. Identification of ethnomedicinal plants (Rauvolfioideae: Apocynaceae through DNA barcoding from northeast India

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    Pradosh Mahadani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: DNA barcode-based molecular characterization is in practice for plants, but yet lacks total agreement considering the selection of marker. Plant species of subfamily Rauvolfioideae have long been used as herbal medicine by the majority of tribal people in Northeast (NE India and at present holds mass effect on the society. Hence, there is an urgent need of correct taxonomic inventorization vis-à-vis species level molecular characterization of important medicinal plants. Objective: To test the efficiency of matK in species delineation like DNA barcoding in Rauvolfiadae (Apocynaceae. Materials and Methods: In this study, the core DNA barcode matK and trnH-psbA sequences are examined for differentiation of selected ethnomedicinal plants of Apocynaceae. DNA from young leaves of selected species was isolated, and matK gene (~800 bp and trnH-psbA spacer (~450 bp of Chloroplast DNA was amplified for species level identification. Results: The ~758 bp matK sequence in comparison to the trnH-psbA showed easy amplification, alignment, and high level of discrimination value among the medicinal Rauvolfioidae species. Intergenic spacer trnH-psbA is also exhibited persistent problem in obtaining constant bidirectional sequences. Partial matK sequences exhibited 3 indels in multiple of 3 at 5 end. Evidently, generated matK sequences are clustered cohesively, with their conspecific Genbank sequences. However, repeat structures with AT-rich regions, possessing indels in multiple of 3, could be utilized as qualitative molecular markers in further studies both at the intra-specific and shallow inter-specific levels like the intergenic spacers of CpDNA. Conclusion: matK sequence information could help in correct species identification for medicinal plants of Rauvolfioideae.

  16. Cytokinin induced shoot regeneration and flowering of Scoparia dulcis L. (Scrophulariaceae)-an ethnomedicinal herb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Premkumar G; Sankaranarayanan R; Jeeva S; Rajarathinam K

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop an improved protocol for micropropagation of ethnomedicinally important Scoparia dulcis (S. dulcis) L. Methods: Explants were inoculated on MS basal medium supplemented with kinetin and 6-benzylaminopurine for shoot bud induction. To enhance the shoot induction, various auxins like 3-indoleacetic acid or 3-indolebutyric acid or α-naphthylacetic acid were tested along with 2.32 M KI and 4.44 μM BAP. The regenerated shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with various concentrations of IAA, IBA or NAA. After roots were developed, the plantlets were transplanted to pots filled with vermiculate and sand and kept in growth chamber with 70%-80% humidity under 16 h photoperiod. After acclimatization, the plantlets were transferred to the garden and survival percentage was calculated. Data were statistically analyzed and means were compared using Duncan's multiple range test (P<0.05). Results: An in vitro method was developed to induce high frequency shoots regeneration from stem, mature leaf and young leaf explants of S. dulcis. Shoot induction on young leaf explants was most successful in MS medium supplemented with combination of two cytokinins (2.32 μM KI and 4.44 μM BAP) 2.85 μM IAA, 10% CM and 1 483.79 μM adenine sulfate. A single young leaf explant was capable of producing 59 shoots after 13 days of culture. Flower was induced in medium supplemented with combination of KI and BAP. Conclusions:Cytokinins are the key factor to induce the direct shoot regeneration and flowering of S. dulcis.

  17. Ethnomedicinal values of some selected plant species in Fed-eral College of Wildlife Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osunsina IOO; Ogunjinmi AA; Ajani MO

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The objective of this study was to identify the ethno-medicinal values of some selected plant species in Federal College of Wildlife Management,New Bussa,Niger state,Nigeria.Methods:Three methods of da-ta collection were employed:(1)reconnansance survey of the College Estate was carried out to identify some selected medicinal plants found within the area;(2)field observations alongside personal recognition of some of these plant species were carried out and (3)interview was also carried out in three villages around the Col-lege Estate to determine the plants being utilized by the villagers.The villages were Kere,Labararu and Pop-poi.The various uses of the identified plants and their parts used for the said purposes were recorded.One hundred people were interviewed altogether in these villages.Recorded information gathered on the medicinal uses of plants includes the type of plants,the part used to cure sickness,preparation of concoction,and the type of sickness cured.The data gathered were presented and analyzed using tables.Results:The results re-vealed that the identified plant species were being used in curing various diseases such as dysentery,fever, stomach pains,cough,malaria,yellow fever,diarrhea,gonorrhea,pile,body pains and other diseases.Con-clusion:The study concluded that since the vast numbers of species in the study area possess medicinal values, there is need to conserve and protect the vegetation of the area from unsustainable exploitations which are the common features of vegetation in the surrounding land uses.

  18. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-01-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life c...

  19. Yield gaps in oil palm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woittiez, Lotte S.; Wijk, van Mark T.; Slingerland, Maja; Noordwijk, van Meine; Giller, Ken E.

    2017-01-01

    Oil palm, currently the world's main vegetable oil crop, is characterised by a large productivity and a long life span (≥25 years). Peak oil yields of 12 t ha−1 yr−1 have been achieved in small plantations, and maximum theoretical yields as calculated with simulation models are 18.5 t oil ha−1 yr−1,

  20. Ethnomedicinal plant use by Lepcha tribe of Dzongu valley, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in North Sikkim, India

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    Badola Hemant K

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lepcha is the oldest and the first tribe reported from Sikkim, India; majority of its population inhabiting in Dzongu valley, an officially demarcated reserve for Lepcha community, bordering Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, in north district. Lepchas of Dzongu are known for their retention of rich cultural heritage. In view of the on-going cultural and economic changes brought in by the process of globalization, the immediate need was felt to document in details the under-explored ethnomedicinal practices of Lepchas of Dzongu valley. This paper reports 118 species, belonging to 71 families and 108 genera, under ethnomedicinal utility by the Lepchas for curing approximately 66 ailments, which could be grouped under 14 broad categories. Zingiberaceae appeared as the most used family (8 species and 5 genera. As per use pattern, maximum of 30.50% species are to cure stomach related disorders/ailments, followed by 19.49% for curing cut, wounds, inflammation, sprains and joint pains. Administration of medicine orally is recorded in 75% cases. Root and rhizome harvesting targeted 30 species. The changing scenario over time both at socio-cultural front and passing traditional knowledge interests from older to younger generation and rich ethnomicinal wealth of the oldest tribe of Sikkim are discussed in the light of conservation strategies and techniques to adopt.

  1. Research advancements in palm oil nutrition*

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Choo Yuen; Nesaretnam, Kalanithi

    2014-01-01

    Palm oil is the major oil produced, with annual world production in excess of 50 million tonnes. About 85% of global palm oil produced is used in food applications. Over the past three decades, research on nutritional benefits of palm oil have demonstrated the nutritional adequacy of palm oil and its products, and have resulted in transitions in the understanding these attributes. Numerous studies have demonstrated that palm oil was similar to unsaturated oils with regards to effects on blood lipids. Palm oil provides a healthy alternative to trans-fatty acid containing hydrogenated fats that have been demonstrated to have serious deleterious effects on health. The similar effects of palm oil on blood lipids, comparable to other vegetable oils could very well be due to the structure of the major triglycerides in palm oil, which has an unsaturated fatty acid in the stereospecific numbers (sn)-2 position of the glycerol backbone. In addition, palm oil is well endowed with a bouquet of phytonutrients beneficial to health, such as tocotrienols, carotenoids, and phytosterols. This review will provide an overview of studies that have established palm oil as a balanced and nutritious oil. PMID:25821404

  2. Implementation of Palm Print Biometric Identification System Using Ordinal Measures

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    V.K. Narendira Kumar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Personal identification is one of the most important requirements in all e-commerce and criminal detection applications. In this framework, a novel palm print representation method, namely orthogonal line ordinal features, is proposed. The palm print registration, feature extraction, palm print verification and palm print recognition modules are designed to manage the palm prints and the palm print database module is designed to store their palm prints and the person details in the database. The feature extraction module is proposed to extract the ordinal measurements for the palm prints. The verification module is designed to verify the palm print with the personal identification record. The recognition module is proposed to find out the relevant person associated with the palm print image. The proposed palm print recognition scheme uses the intensity and brightness to measure the ordinal measurement. The ordinal measures are estimated for the 4 x 4 regions of the palm print images.

  3. An ethnomedicinal survey of cucurbitaceae family plants used in the folk medicinal practices of Bangladesh 1

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    Mohammed Rahmatullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Cucurbitaceae family comprising about 125 genera and 960 species is a family that is further characterized by commonly having five-angled stems and coiled tendrils and is also known as gourd family of flowering plants. Plant species belonging to this family have a worldwide distribution, but most species can be found in tropical and subtropical countries. A number of the plants belonging to this family have reported important pharmacological activities. Cucurbitaceae family plants are also in use in the folk medicinal system of Bangladesh-a traditional medicinal system, which mainly relies on medicinal plants for treatment of diverse ailments. Aims: Since folk medicinal practitioners form the first tier of primary health care in Bangladesh, the objective of this study was to conduct ethnomedicinal surveys among 75 folk medicinal practitioners (Kavirajes practicing among the mainstream Bengali-speaking population of randomly selected 75 villages in 64 districts of Bangladesh and 8 tribal practitioners (1 each from 8 major indigenous communities or tribes, namely, Bede, Chakma, Garo, Khasia, Marma, Murong, Santal, and Tripura of the country. Materials and Methods: Surveys were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. Results: It was observed that the folk and tribal medicinal practitioners use a total of 19 Cucurbitaceae family species for treatment of ailments such as dysentery, diabetes, edema, skin disorders, leukoderma, hypertension, jaundice, typhoid, spleen disorders, respiratory problems, leprosy, rheumatoid arthritis, chicken pox, and cancer. The 19 species of Cucurbitaceae family plants in use were Benincasa hispida, Bryonopsis laciniosa, Citrullus colocynthis, Citrullus lanatu, Coccinia grandis, Cucumis melo, Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita maxima, Cucurbita pepo, Hodgsonia macrocarpa, Lagenaria vulgaris, Luffa acutangula, Luffa cylindrica, Momordica charantia, Momordica

  4. Barking up the same tree: a comparison of ethnomedicine and canine ethnoveterinary medicine among the Aguaruna

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    Jernigan Kevin A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This work focuses on plant-based preparations that the Aguaruna Jivaro of Peru give to hunting dogs. Many plants are considered to improve dogs' sense of smell or stimulate them to hunt better, while others treat common illnesses that prevent dogs from hunting. This work places canine ethnoveterinary medicine within the larger context of Aguaruna ethnomedicine, by testing the following hypotheses: H1 -- Plants that the Aguaruna use to treat dogs will be the same plants that they use to treat people and H2 -- Plants that are used to treat both people and dogs will be used for the same illnesses in both cases. Methods Structured interviews with nine key informants were carried out in 2007, in Aguaruna communities in the Peruvian department of Amazonas. Informants provided freelists of plants given to dogs and explained the purpose, preparation and route of administration used. For each plant, informants also described any uses for treating people. Botanical voucher specimens were collected and additional informal observations were made, accompanying people on hunting trips. Results Out of 35 plant species given to dogs, 29 (83% are also given to humans for some medicinal purpose, while five are used only for dogs. However, the same plant is used to treat the same illness in both humans and dogs in only 53% of the cases. Forty-three percent of plants used to treat a particular illness for both dogs and people are administered in the same manner for both. Conclusion Results suggest that Aguaruna canine ethnoveterinary medicine is, at least partly, an independent cognitive domain. Some of the difference in plant use between dogs and people can be explained by the fact that certain diseases mentioned only apply to dogs. Although reports of canine ethnoveterinary medicine are very sparse in the literature, Aguaruna practices show some similarities with a few trends reported for other Amazonian societies, particularly, in the

  5. Palm oil and the heart: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, Osaretin J; Ofori, Sandra; Maduka, Omosivie

    2015-03-26

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a PubMed, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in mono

  6. Commercially available alternatives to palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichsen, Nils

    2016-04-01

    Since several years there has been a demand for food products free of palm oil, noticeable in the Western European market. Alternatives based on liquid oils, fully hydrogenated fats, and exotic fats like shea and sal etc., have been developed by the research groups of several specialty oils and fats suppliers. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of those products and compares them to similar products based on palm oil. It is also discussed how reasonable the replacement of palm products would be, since sustainable and 3-MCPD/glycidolester-reduced palm based specialty oils are also available on the market.

  7. Model and experiences of initiating collaboration with traditional healers in validation of ethnomedicines for HIV/AIDS in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinsembu Kazhila C

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS in Namibia have access to antiretroviral drugs but some still use traditional medicines to treat opportunistic infections and offset side-effects from antiretroviral medication. Namibia has a rich biodiversity of indigenous plants that could contain novel anti-HIV agents. However, such medicinal plants have not been identified and properly documented. Various ethnomedicines used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections have not been scientifically validated for safety and efficacy. These limitations are mostly attributable to the lack of collaboration between biomedical scientists and traditional healers. This paper presents a five-step contextual model for initiating collaboration with Namibian traditional healers in order that candidate plants that may contain novel anti-HIV agents are identified, and traditional medicines used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections are subjected to scientific validation. The model includes key structures and processes used to initiate collaboration with traditional healers in Namibia; namely, the National Biosciences Forum, a steering committee with the University of Namibia (UNAM as the focal point, a study tour to Zambia and South Africa where other collaborative frameworks were examined, commemorations of the African Traditional Medicine Day (ATMD, and consultations with stakeholders in north-eastern Namibia. Experiences from these structures and processes are discussed. All traditional healers in north-eastern Namibia were willing to collaborate with UNAM in order that their traditional medicines could be subjected to scientific validation. The current study provides a framework for future collaboration with traditional healers and the selection of candidate anti-HIV medicinal plants and ethnomedicines for scientific testing in Namibia.

  8. Characterization and determination of six flavonoids in the ethnomedicine “Dragon’s Blood” by UPLC-PAD-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Tao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background “Dragon’s Blood” (DB has long been used as an ethnomedicine in China to invigorate blood circulation for the treatment of traumatic injuries, blood stasis and pain. To comprehensively assess the quality of DB medicine, a precise and accurate method that can rapidly separate, characterize and quantify multiple active components of DB is crucial. Results An ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC coupled with photodiode array detection (PAD and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS method was developed for characterization and determination of six flavonoids in DB. A comprehensive validation of the developed method was conducted, and confirmed that the method presented good sensitivity, precision and accuracy. All linear regressions were acquired with R2 > 0.99, and the limits of detection ranged from 0.06 to 0.83 ng. The relative standard deviation (RSD values were found to be within the range 1.4–3.8% for the method repeatability test. Recovery studies for the quantified compounds were found to be within the range 94.2–102.8% with RSD less than 4.9%. DB samples collected from different geographical regions were analyzed by the present method, and the results demonstrated that the contents of the six flavonoids in DB samples varied significantly. Three major active components among the six flavonoids, namely dracorhodin, (2S-5-methoxyflavan-7-ol and (2S-5-methoxy-6-methylflavan-7-ol, are suggested as the index for DB quality evaluation. Conclusions Overall, the present hyphenation method is highly efficient and reliable, and hence suitable for the characterization and determination of the flavonoids of DB ethnomedicine.

  9. Model and experiences of initiating collaboration with traditional healers in validation of ethnomedicines for HIV/AIDS in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinsembu, Kazhila C

    2009-10-23

    Many people with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in Namibia have access to antiretroviral drugs but some still use traditional medicines to treat opportunistic infections and offset side-effects from antiretroviral medication. Namibia has a rich biodiversity of indigenous plants that could contain novel anti-HIV agents. However, such medicinal plants have not been identified and properly documented. Various ethnomedicines used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections have not been scientifically validated for safety and efficacy. These limitations are mostly attributable to the lack of collaboration between biomedical scientists and traditional healers. This paper presents a five-step contextual model for initiating collaboration with Namibian traditional healers in order that candidate plants that may contain novel anti-HIV agents are identified, and traditional medicines used to treat HIV/AIDS opportunistic infections are subjected to scientific validation. The model includes key structures and processes used to initiate collaboration with traditional healers in Namibia; namely, the National Biosciences Forum, a steering committee with the University of Namibia (UNAM) as the focal point, a study tour to Zambia and South Africa where other collaborative frameworks were examined, commemorations of the African Traditional Medicine Day (ATMD), and consultations with stakeholders in north-eastern Namibia. Experiences from these structures and processes are discussed. All traditional healers in north-eastern Namibia were willing to collaborate with UNAM in order that their traditional medicines could be subjected to scientific validation. The current study provides a framework for future collaboration with traditional healers and the selection of candidate anti-HIV medicinal plants and ethnomedicines for scientific testing in Namibia.

  10. A Palynological study in cocoid palms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, W.; Wessels Boer, J.G.

    1967-01-01

    Because the palm family is almost entirely tropical with many species of a very great size, it has attracted only a few botanists to study them. As a consequence palms are poorly represented in herbaria and little understood in almost every respect. Notably their taxonomy is in a very poor condition

  11. Phylogeny and palm diversity across scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Baker, William J.

    Palms lend themselves to exploring approaches at the intersection of ecology and phylogenetics. They are taxonomically diverse, often key functional components of ecosystems, and form complex assemblages of different co-existing life-forms. Recent advances in palm phylogenetics, including a dated...

  12. 揭密 Palm OS Cobalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    PalmSource公司于去年年底宣布向许可商提供Palm OS Cobalt,Palm OS Cobalt就是大家所谈论的Palm OS6操作系统。那么Palm OS6到底有什么新的特性?到底是何方神圣?能不能在争夺日益激烈的掌上设备操作系统中取得优势?在大家对Palm OS Cobalt盼望、猜测和充满疑问的时候,《数码·移动通讯》整理了一些读者们最感觉兴趣问题,通过越洋电话对Palm Source公司Palm OS Cobalt产品经理John Cook先生进行了独家专访,以下就是此次越洋电话专访的内容。

  13. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...

  14. Palm Vein Verification Using Gabor Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohsin Al-Juboori

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm vein authentication is one of the modern biometric techniques, which employs the vein pattern in the human palm to verify the person. The merits of palm vein on classical biometric (e.g. fingerprint, iris, face are a low risk of falsification, difficulty of duplicated and stability. In this research, a new method is proposed for personal verification based on palm vein features. In the propose method, the palm vein images are firstly enhanced and then the features are extracted by using bank of Gabor filters. Then Fisher Discriminated Analysis (FDA is used to reduce the dimension of the features vectors. For vein pattern verification, this work uses Nearest Neighbors method. The EER of the proposed method is 0.2335%.

  15. Palm Oil Milling Wastes and Sustainable Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Er

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil milling generates solid wastes, effluent and gaseous emissions. The aim of this study is to assess the progress made in waste management by the Malaysian palm oil milling sector towards the path of sustainable development. Sustainable development is defined as the utilization of renewable resources in harmony with ecological systems. Inclusive in this definition is the transition from low value-added to higher value-added transformation of wastes into resources. Approach: A longitudinal study was carried out from 2003-2010 via, initially a field survey and subsequently a key informant approach with observation as a complementation for both. Results: Solid wastes, inclusive of solid wastes derived from air emissions and palm oil mil effluent, have a utility function with zero wastage. The principal source of effluent is palm oil mill effluent. Treated palm oil mill effluent is utilized for cropland application by plantation-based palm oil mills. However, independent mills discharge treated palm oil mill effluent in accordance to environmental parameters into receiving waterways. Methane is also released by palm oil mill effluent. Biogas from palm oil mill effluent and biomass energy from solid wastes are potential sources of renewable energy in Malaysia. Conclusion: In general, the wastes from palm oil milling are returned to the field for cropland application, utilized in-house or in the plantation, or sold to third parties. Thus, there is progress made towards sustainable development. The addition of new technologies and replacement of old mills will help to reduce the carbon footprint. However, at this juncture, the feed-in tariff for renewable energy is not financially attractive. If the biogas and biomass renewable energy sector were to take-off, enhancement in the value chain would occur and in tandem further progress towards sustainable development can be attained.

  16. Co-occurrence and community assembly in Amazonian palms (Arecaceae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Balslev, Henrik; Kristiansen, Thea

    Palms (Arecaceae) are a distinctive, diverse and ecologically important element of tropical rainforest. Often numerous palm species co-occur locally in "palm communities" that span all strata of the forest. In South America, the palm family has a centre of diversity in the western Amazon basin...

  17. Mating Compatibility and Restriction Analysis of Ganoderma Isolates from Oil Palm and Other Palm Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Chan Jer; Seman, Idris Abu; Zakaria, Latiffah

    2015-12-01

    Mating compatibility and restriction analyses of Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions were performed to determine the relations between Ganoderma boninense, the most common species associated with basal stem rot in oil palm and Ganoderma isolates from infected oil palm, two ornamental palms, sealing wax palm (Cyrtostachys renda) and MacArthur palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii), an isolate from coconut stump (Cocos nucifera), Ganoderma miniatocinctum, Ganoderma zonatum and Ganoderma tornatum. The results showed that G. boninense was compatible with Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, G. miniatocinctum and G. zonatum, Ganoderma isolates from sealing wax palm, MacArthur palm and coconut stump. G. boninense was not compatible with G. tornatum. Therefore, the results suggested that the G. boninense, G. miniatocinctum, G. zonatum, and Ganoderma isolates from oil palm, ornamental palms and coconut stump could represent the same biological species. In performing a restriction analysis of the ITS regions, variations were observed in which five haplotypes were generated from the restriction patterns. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis showed that all the Ganoderma isolates were grouped into five primary groups, and the similarity values of the isolates ranged from 97% to 100%. Thus, a restriction analysis of the ITS regions showed that G. boninense and the Ganoderma isolates from other palm hosts were closely related. On the basis of the mating compatibility test and the restriction analysis of the ITS regions performed in this study, a diverse group of Ganoderma species from oil palm and other palm hosts are closely related, except for G. tornatum and Ganoderma isolates from tea and rubber.

  18. Phylogenetic analysis of seven WRKY genes across the palm subtribe Attaleinae (Areceaceae) identifies Syagrus as sister to the coconut

    Science.gov (United States)

    The origins of the coconut (Cocos nucifera) have been one of the "abominable mysteries" of palm systematics for decades. Previous studies with predominantly plastid genes have indicated an American ancestry for the coconut but with weak support and ambiguous sister relationships. We used primers d...

  19. Simultaneous determination of six index constituents and comparative analysis of four ethnomedicines from genus Gentiana using a UPLC-UV-MS method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yu; Shen, Tao; Zhang, Ji; Zhao, Yan-Li; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Li, Wan-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Many species from genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) have a long history of applications as folk medicines in the world. A simple rapid UPLC-UV-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of six index constituents (gentiopicroside, swertiamarin, loganic acid, sweroside, mangiferin and ferulic acid) from the four ethnomedicines (G. rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl., G. rhodantha Franch. ex Hemsl., G. scabra Bunge and G. farreri Balf. f.). The UPLC analysis was performed on Shim-Pack XR-ODS III (150 × 2.0 mm, 2.2 µm). The mobile phase was consisted of acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid water using gradient elution. The wavelength 242 nm was chose for the four iridoids as well as mangiferin and 320 nm was set for ferulic acid. Mass spectrometry was applied for identification and quantification for analytes with low concentration. All the regression equations revealed a good linear relationship (R(2)  > 0.9993). Accuracy and precision were all within the required limits. The chromatogram fingerprints analysis combined with principal component analysis showed the similarity values of the four species were scabra Bunge and G. rigescens Franch. ex Hemsl. were >0.993, which provided reasonable foundation for utilization and clinical application of the four ethnomedicines. This developed method appears to be a useful tool for quality control of the four ethnomedicines.

  20. Contemporary land-use transitions: The global oil palm expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsager, Rico; Reenberg, Anette

    The present report aims at providing an overview of the magnitude and geographical distribution of oil palm cultivation. It also considers recent trends in the palm oil market and the future prospects for palm oil. By way of background, we briefly summarize the agroecological characteristics of oil...... palms. The main aim of the paper is, however, to present a quantitative overview of the extent of land transformations related to the global oil palm production....

  1. Modulation of human lipids and lipoproteins by dietary palm oil and palm olein: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundram, K

    1997-03-01

    Several human clinical trials have now evaluated palm oil's effects on blood lipids and lipoproteins. These studies suggest that palm oil and palm olein diets do not raise plasma TC and LDL-cholesterol levels to the extent expected from its fatty acid composition. With maximum substitution of palm oil in a Western type diet some coronary heart disease risk factors were beneficially modulated: HDL2-cholesterol was significantly increased while the apolipoprotein B/A1 ratio was beneficially lowered by palm oil. Comparison of palm olein with a variety of monounsaturated edible oils including rapeseed, canola, and olive oils has shown that plasma and LDL-cholesterol were not elevated by palm olein. To focus these findings, specific fatty acid effects have been evaluated. Myristic acid may be the most potent cholesterol raising saturated fatty acid. Palmitic acid effects were largely comparable to the monounsaturated oleic acid in normolipidaemic subjects while trans fatty acids detrimentally increased plasma cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, lipoprotein Lp(a) and lowered the beneficial HDL-cholesterol. Apart from these fatty acids there is evidence that the tocotrienols in palm oil products may have a hypocholesterolaemic effect. This is mediated by the ability of the tocotrienols to suppress HMG-CoA reductase. These new findings on palm oil merit a scientific reexamination of the classical saturated fat-lipid hypothesis and its role in lipoprotein regulation.

  2. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jundika C. Kurnia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further develop these technologies, it is essential to understand the current stage of the industry and technology developments. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the palm oil industry, review technologies available to process oil palm and palm oil residues into biofuel, and to summarise the challenges that should be overcome for further development. The paper also discusses the research and development needs, technoeconomics, and life cycle analysis of biofuel production from oil-palm and palm-oil wastes.

  3. Advances in biofuel production from oil palm and palm oil processing wastes: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Jundika C. Kurnia; Sachin V. Jangam; Saad Akhtar; Sasmito, Agus P.; Mujumdar, Arun S.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decades, the palm oil industry has been growing rapidly due to increasing demands for food, cosmetic, and hygienic products. Aside from producing palm oil, the industry generates a huge quantity of residues (dry and wet) which can be processed to produce biofuel. Driven by the necessity to find an alternative and renewable energy/fuel resources, numerous technologies have been developed and more are being developed to process oil-palm and palm-oil wastes into biofuel. To further...

  4. Eero Palm arhitekt / intervjueerinud Kristjan Prii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Eero, 1974-

    2011-01-01

    Eero Palm arhitektiks saamisest, oma töödest, tööprotsessist, enda eramust, küsimustest, mida arhitekt peab lahendama objekti luues, kompromissidest, arengutest ehitusturul. Loetletud Eero Palmi töid

  5. Mexican Fan Palm - Orange Co. [ds350

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Mexican fan palm (Washingtonia robusta) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007...

  6. Present and future position of palm oil industry in Malasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Akio

    1988-04-20

    This paper introduces the present and future problems on the palm oil industry in Malaysia. The author was dispatched as an expert to the Malaysia Palm Oil Laboratory which is a governmental investigation organization. The cultivation area of oil palms were increased with the production of palm oil in 1990 - 1985. The oil mills produce average 20,000 tons/year of raw palm oil. 38 refining factories of the approved 75 factories are in work. The treatment capability of raw palm oil is 8.86 million tons/year. The palm oil is a solid vegetable oil at room temperature. For use the palm oil is fractionated into liquid palm olein, solid palm stearin, and palm oil with an intermediate melting point. About 90% of palm oil is edible. The leaves contain about 0.49% of alpha-tocopherol. The future problems to be solved lie in that the palm oil is improved to have a high liquid content, the production cost is reduced, and new uses for the palm oil are developed. (15 tabs, 37 refs)

  7. Useful palms (Arecaceae near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Balslev

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the uses of 64 species of palms in 28 villages in Departamento de Loreto, Peru. There, the palms are of great use as food (Bactris gasipaes, Mauritia flexuosa, Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, for fiber production (Astrocaryum chambira, Aphandra natalia, for construction of houses (Euterpe precatoria, Iriartea deltoidea,Socratea exorrhiza, thatching (many species of Attalea, Lepidocaryum tenue and for many medicinal purposes (Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua.

  8. Biology of the Mangrove Palm, Nypa fruticans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.

    The Southeast Asian mangrove palm Nypa fruticans Wurmb occurs in large, monospecific stands in estuaries and along rivers. It is the only member of the subfamily Nypoideae, which derived early in palm evolution and is known from a fossil record extending back in time at least 70 millions years...... of the biology of Nypa fruticans and discuss its reproductive ecology from an evolutionary and management planning perspective....

  9. Commercially available alternatives to palm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Hinrichsen, Nils

    2016-01-01

    Since several years there has been a demand for food products free of palm oil, noticeable in the Western European market. Alternatives based on liquid oils, fully hydrogenated fats, and exotic fats like shea and sal etc., have been developed by the research groups of several specialty oils and fats suppliers. This article describes the advantages and disadvantages of those products and compares them to similar products based on palm oil. It is also discussed how reasonable the replacement of...

  10. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibragimov Abdulla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011, to encourage more downstream investments and production of refined palm oil products. Under the revised export duty structure, crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil are cheaper for downstream activities in Indonesia. The new structure is expected to reduce Malaysia’s competitiveness in the world market as its export duty is relatively higher. A high export duty results in high price of crude palm oil which is the raw material for processed palm oil. The research questions are: (i What are the likely future trends of crude palm oil exports under the new crude palm oil export duties? Will it increase, reduce or stabilize? (ii What are the likely future trends of processed palm oil exports? Will it increase exponentially, stabilize or reduce? To answer these questions, a system dynamics model was developed for the Malaysian palm oil. Application of the system dynamics model provides a framework to understand the feedback structure and how changes in variables impact the behavior of the palm oil industry. This research suggests that with low crude palm oil export duties crude palm oil domestic price, profitability of plantation owners, immature crop, mature crop, total planted area, production and exports of crude palm oil increase, however exports of processed palm oil decrease.

  11. Horizontal Gene Transfer of the Non-ribosomal Peptide Synthetase Gene Among Endophytic and Epiphytic Bacteria Associated with Ethnomedicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nongkhlaw, Fenella Mary War; Joshi, S R

    2016-01-01

    This study genetically screened endophytic and epiphytic bacteria associated with ethnomedicinal plants for the presence of the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) gene and identified horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of the NRPS gene between the bacterial species. NRPSs are large multimodular enzymes that synthesize a wide range of biologically active natural compounds that are pharmacologically important. Twenty-nine plant-associated culturable bacteria were screened for the presence of the NRPS gene, of which seven bacterial NRPS gene fragments were successfully detected. According to our findings the presence of NRPS gene among the isolates does not always equate to their antagonistic ability. Phylogenetic analysis of the NRPS and 16S rRNA-encoding genes was used to predict HGT that may have occurred during gene evolution. The occurrence of HGT was demonstrated in the isolates (one inter-phylum and four intra-phyla) and was supported by phylogenetic analysis, mol% G+C content, and tetranucleotide usage pattern and codon usage frequency. Among the four intra-phyla HGT, one isolate showed inter-class HGT and three other isolates showed intra-class HGT.

  12. Sugar palm (Argena pinnata). Potential of sugar palm for bio-ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Oyen, L.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    The energetic and economic feasibility of bioethanol production from sugar palm is virtually unknown. A positive factor are the potentially very high yields while the long non-productive juvenile phase and the high labor needs can be seen as problematic. Expansion to large scale sugar palm cultivati

  13. Evolution and Floral Development in Wax Palms (Ceroxylon) and Vegetable Ivory Palms (Tribe Phytelepheae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.; Stauffer, Fred W.; Balhara, Manju;

    To most palm systematists it came as a surprise when molecular evidence pointed to a sister group relationship between the tribe Ceroxyleae in the subfamily Ceroxyloideae and the Phytelephantoid palms formerly referred to a subfamily of their own, now placed in the tribe Phytelepheae. Here we com...

  14. Life Cycle Assessment for the Production of Oil Palm Seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad, Halimah; Ai, Tan Yew; Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Amiruddin, Mohd Din; May, Choo Yuen

    2014-12-01

    The oil palm seed production unit that generates germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain, followed by the nursery to produce seedling, the plantation to produce fresh fruit bunches (FFB), the mill to produce crude palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel, the kernel crushers to produce crude palm kernel oil (CPKO), the refinery to produce refined palm oil (RPO) and finally the palm biodiesel plant to produce palm biodiesel. This assessment aims to investigate the life cycle assessment (LCA) of germinated oil palm seeds and the use of LCA to identify the stage/s in the production of germinated oil palm seeds that could contribute to the environmental load. The method for the life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) is modelled using SimaPro version 7, (System for Integrated environMental Assessment of PROducts), an internationally established tool used by LCA practitioners. This software contains European and US databases on a number of materials in addition to a variety of European- and US-developed impact assessment methodologies. LCA was successfully conducted for five seed production units and it was found that the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm was not significant. The characterised results of the LCIA for the production of 1000 germinated oil palm seeds showed that fossil fuel was the major impact category followed by respiratory inorganics and climate change.

  15. Ecological adaptation of wild peach palm, its in situ conservation and deforestation-mediated extinction in southern Brazilian Amazonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles R Clement

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Arc of Fire across southern Amazonia seasonally attracts worldwide attention as forests are cut and burned for agricultural expansion. These forests contain numerous wild relatives of native South American crops, such as peach palm. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our prospecting expeditions examined critical areas for wild peach palm in the Arc of Fire in Mato Grosso, Pará, Maranhão and Tocantins, as well as areas not previously examined in Amazonas and Amapá states. Recent digitization of the RADAM Brasil project permitted comparison among RADAM's parataxonomists' observations, previous botanical collections and our prospecting. Mapping on soils and vegetation types enabled us to hypothesize a set of ecological preferences. Wild peach palm is best adapted to Ultisols (Acrisols in open forests across the Arc of Fire and westward into the more humid western Amazonia. Populations are generally small (fewer than 10 plants on slopes above watercourses. In northern Mato Grosso and southern Pará soybean fields and pastures now occupy numerous areas where RADAM identified wild peach palm. The controversial BR-163 Highway is already eroding wild peach palm as deforestation expands. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Many of these populations are now isolated by increasing forest fragmentation, which will lead to decreased reproduction via inbreeding depression and eventual extinction even without complete deforestation. Federal conservation areas are less numerous in the Arc of Fire than in other parts of Brazilian Amazonia, although there are indigenous lands; these conservation areas contain viable populations of wild peach palm and require better protection than they are currently receiving. Ex situ conservation of these populations is not viable given the relative lack of importance of domesticated peach palm and the difficulty of maintaining even economically interesting genetic resources.

  16. Image Fusion Techniques for Multispectral Palm Image Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Rajashree Bhokare; Deepali Sale; Dr. (Mrs. ) M. A. Joshi; Dr. M. S. Gaikwad

    2013-01-01

    We proposed the multispectral image enhancement through image fusion by combining the data from the multiple spectrum to address the problem of accuracy and make the system robust against spoofing and to improve the accuracy of recognition, using more discriminating of palm images. Palm line features are clearer in the blue and green bands while red band can reveal some palm vein structure. The NIR band can show the palm vein structure as well as partial line information. Image fusion improve...

  17. Palms and Palm Communities in the Upper Ucayali River Valley - a Little-Known Region in the Amazon Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kristiansen, Thea;

    2010-01-01

    The Amazon region and its palms are inseparable. Palms make up such an important part of the rain forest ecosystem that it is impossible to imagine the Amazon basin without them. Palms are visible in the canopy and often fill up the forest understory. Palms – because of their edible fruits...... – are cornerstone species for the survival of many animals, and palms contribute substantially to forest inventories in which they are often among the ten most important families. Still, the palms and palm communities of some parts of the Amazon basin remain poorly studied and little known. We travelled to a little......-explored corner of the western Amazon basin, the upper Ucayali river valley. There, we encountered 56 different palms, 18 of which had not been registered for the region previously, and 21 of them were found 150–400 km beyond their previously known limits....

  18. Assessing the environmental impact of palm oil produced in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, W.; Hein, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    There are several concerns related to the increasing production of palm oil in Southeast Asia, including pollution, greenhouse gas emissions and land conversion. The RSPO (Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil) certification standard provides an incentive for reducing environmental impacts of palm oil

  19. Comparison of Acoustic Characteristics of Date Palm Fibre and Oil Palm Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyaa Abd ALRahman

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated and compared the acoustic characteristics of two natural organic fibres: date palm fibre and oil palm fibre, these materials eligible for acoustical absorption. During the processing stage, both fibre sheets are treated with latex. The two fibres are compressed after latex treatment Circular samples (100 mm in diameter and 28 mm, based on the measurement tube requirements are cut out of the sheets. The density of the date palm fibre sheet is 150 kg/m3 for a 50 mm thickness and 130 kg/m3 for a 30 mm thickness. In contrast, the density of oil palm fibre is 75 kg/m3 for a 50 mm thickness and 65 kg/m3 for a 30 mm thickness. An impedance tube was used to test the thicknesses of both samples based on international standards. The results show that the date palm fibre exhibits two Acoustic Absorption Coefficient (AAC peaks: 0.93 at 1356 Hz and 0.99 at 4200-4353 Hz for the 50-mm-thick sample. In contrast, the 30-mm-thick sample has a single AAC peak of 0.83 at 2381.38-2809.38 Hz. However, the 50-mm-thick oil palm fibre has an AAC peak of 0.75 at 1946.88-2178.13 Hz and the 30-mm-thick oil palm fibre has an acoustic absorption coefficient peak 0.59 at 3225-3712.5 Hz. Thus, the date palm fibre has a higher acoustic absorption coefficient for high and low frequencies than does oil palm fibre. Both fibres are promising for use as sound absorber materials to protect against environmental noise pollution.

  20. Exploratory Study of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Muthusamy, K.; Z. Nur Azzimah

    2014-01-01

    In Malaysia, issue of environmental pollution resulting from disposal of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA) which is a by-product from palm oil mill has initiated research to incorporate this waste in Oil Palm Shell (OPS) lightweight aggregate concrete production. The current study investigates the effect of palm oil fuel ash content as partial cement replacement towards compressive strength OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Several OPS lightweight aggregate concrete mixes were produced by replacing ...

  1. The effect of red palm olein and refined palm olein on lipids and haemostatic factors in hyperfibrinogenaemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtz, Susanna C; Pieters, Marlien; Oosthuizen, Welma; Jerling, Johann C; Bosman, Magdalena J C; Vorster, Hester H

    2004-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological effects of red palm olein (RPO). The effects of red palm olein and palm olein (POL) compared to sunflower oil (SFO), on lipids, haemostatic factors and fibrin network characteristics in hyperfibrinogenaemic volunteers were investigated. Fifty-nine free-living, hyperfibrinogenaemic volunteers participated in this randomized, controlled, single blind parallel study. After a 4-week run-in, during which subjects received sunflower oil products, they were paired and randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups receiving products containing 25 g/day ( approximately 12% of total energy intake) of either red palm olein, palm olein or sunflower oil for another 4 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, blood samples and dietary intakes were measured before run-in, and before and after intervention. The differences in changes in total serum cholesterol response between palm olein and red palm olein (+0.59 vs. +0.18 mmol/l; p=0.053), and between palm olein and sunflower oil (+0.59 vs. -0.003 mmol/l; p palm olein-and sunflower oil-groups also differed significantly (+0.42 vs. -0.11 mmol/l; p palm olein group compared to the palm olein-and sunflower oil-groups. No effects were found in other haemostatic variables. Palm olein and red palm olein had no independent effect on fibrin network characteristics. In conclusion, compared to palm olein, red palm olein had less detrimental effects on the lipid profile and decreased tissue plasminogen activator antigen. Studies in larger groups are advised for confirmation of results, elucidation of mechanisms and effects of nonglyceride constituents of red palm oil (PO).

  2. On palms, bugs, and Chagas disease in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Lima, Marli M; Sarquis, Otília; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Sánchez-Martín, María; Calzada, José; Saldaña, Azael; Monteiro, Fernando A; Palomeque, Francisco S; Santos, Walter S; Angulo, Victor M; Esteban, Lyda; Dias, Fernando B S; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Bar, María Esther; Gottdenker, Nicole L

    2015-11-01

    Palms are ubiquitous across Neotropical landscapes, from pristine forests or savannahs to large cities. Although palms provide useful ecosystem services, they also offer suitable habitat for triatomines and for Trypanosoma cruzi mammalian hosts. Wild triatomines often invade houses by flying from nearby palms, potentially leading to new cases of human Chagas disease. Understanding and predicting triatomine-palm associations and palm infestation probabilities is important for enhancing Chagas disease prevention in areas where palm-associated vectors transmit T. cruzi. We present a comprehensive overview of palm infestation by triatomines in the Americas, combining a thorough reanalysis of our published and unpublished records with an in-depth review of the literature. We use site-occupancy modeling (SOM) to examine infestation in 3590 palms sampled with non-destructive methods, and standard statistics to describe and compare infestation in 2940 palms sampled by felling-and-dissection. Thirty-eight palm species (18 genera) have been reported to be infested by ∼39 triatomine species (10 genera) from the USA to Argentina. Overall infestation varied from 49.1-55.3% (SOM) to 62.6-66.1% (dissection), with important heterogeneities among sub-regions and particularly among palm species. Large palms with complex crowns (e.g., Attalea butyracea, Acrocomia aculeata) and some medium-crowned palms (e.g., Copernicia, Butia) are often infested; in slender, small-crowned palms (e.g., Euterpe) triatomines associate with vertebrate nests. Palm infestation tends to be higher in rural settings, but urban palms can also be infested. Most Rhodnius species are probably true palm specialists, whereas Psammolestes, Eratyrus, Cavernicola, Panstrongylus, Triatoma, Alberprosenia, and some Bolboderini seem to use palms opportunistically. Palms provide extensive habitat for enzootic T. cruzi cycles and a critical link between wild cycles and transmission to humans. Unless effective means to

  3. Amerindian names of Colombian palms (Palmae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Marmolejo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A glossary of 1276 Amerindian names or name variants of palms is presented, representing at least 121 species in 64 aboriginal languages of Colombia. The species with documented names in the largest number of languages are Bactris gasipaes, Oenocarpus bataua, Mauritia flexuosa,Euterpe precatoria, andAstrocaryum chambira, which are five of the most used palms in South America. The languages with the largest number of named species are uitoto (48, tikuna (47, muinane (43, siona (34, sikuani (31 and miraña (30. These figures reflect the detailed studies carried out with these ethnic groups, besides the palm diversity of their territories and their knowledge about it. The names are presented in three separate lists –arranged by species, by language, and a global list of names that includes references for each individual record.

  4. Characteristic Drying Curve of Oil Palm Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifa Puspasari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The drying of crushed oil palm fronds was studied in a fluidized bed dryer assisted with mechanical agitation at different inlet air temperature, superficial air velocity, bed loading and agitation speed. The drying kinetics of the fibers under various drying conditions could be described by a single characteristic drying curve. A combined exponential and power law model is proposed to represent the characteristic drying curve which described both the increasing rate and the falling rate periods. The proposed model is also tested for drying kinetics of oil palm empty fruit bunch from previous researcher. It was found that the characteristic curve for both oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunch fibers has similar shape and that the proposed model is acceptable for describing the complete drying characteristics of the fibers.

  5. Status and ethno-medicinal usage of invasive plants in traditional health care practices: a case study from northeastern Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammed Abu Sayed Arfin Khan; Fahmida Sultana; Md. Habibur Rahman; Bishwajit Roy; Sawon Istiak Anik

    2011-01-01

    Species diversity and ethno-medicinal usage of 39 species of invasive plants were explored in and around two protected areas,Khadinmagar National Park (KNP) and Rema-Kalenga Wildlife Sanctuary (RKWS),of northeastern Bangladesh,.Status of invasive plants were investigated in 60 sample plots with 5 different habitat types,including forest,roadside,homestead,fallow land and others (ponds,canals,water logged areas,agricultural land,etc.).Data about the usage of invasive plants in traditional health care were collected through interviewing 110 households.Among the five habitat types,fallow land (28 species) possessed the highest number of species,followed by roadside (25 species),forest (23 species),homestead (22 species) and others (13 species).Based on the survey,invasive plants of study areas were also categorized into five degrees of invasiveness e.g.,naturalized,introduced,possibly invasive,moderately invasive and highly invasive.Additionally,there is the linear trend between degrees of invasiveness and use percentage of invasive plants.Total 39 species of invasive plants belonging to 29 families were recorded,which are generally used to treat 37 diseases,ranging from simple headache to highly complicated eye and heart diseases.The majority of the species used by the local inhabitants were herbs (16 species),followed by some shrubs (11 species),climbers (5 species),trees (5 species) and grasses (2 species).The use percentage of aboveground plant parts were higher (70.58%) than that of underground plant parts (16.18%).

  6. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC ...

  7. Lichen nitidus of palms and soles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gandhi Vijay

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Lichen nitidus occurs uncommonly on the palms and soles and has an unusual morphology at these sites. Two patients who presented with lesions on the palms and soles are reported. The first patient had rough papules with prominent keratotic plugs. In the second patient, the lesion was an irregular plaque with peripheral papules showing keratotic plugs. Both patients had typical lesions elsewhere on the body. Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis. Awareness of this variant will help in prompt recognition of the condition.

  8. Open palm technique in Dupuytren's disease treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Carpi Malta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of the open palm technique for the treatment of Dupuytren's disease. METHOD: The authors used the technique described by McCash. Twelve patients (13 hands were surgically treated, between october 2002 and september 2011. RESULTS: The wounds healed in a medium of 25 days (variation of 17 to 30 days. There were no complications, such as infection, haematoma formation, skin necrosis, residual edema. CONCLUSION: The open palm technique remains a safe alternative for the treatment of Dupuytren's disease, with satisfactory results and low risk of complications.

  9. Treatment of Palm Burns in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Argirova, M.; Hadzhiyski, O.

    2005-01-01

    The timing and methods of treatment of palm burns in children vary widely. From January 2002 to November 2004, 492 children with burns - 125 of them with hand burns or other body burns - were hospitalized and treated at the N.I. Pirogov Clinic for Burns and Plastic Surgery in Bulgaria. Fifty-four children (for a total of 73 burned hands) presented isolated palm burns.Twenty-two hands were operated on. In this review we present the incidence, causes, treatment methods, functional results, and ...

  10. Quality assessment of palm products upon prolonged heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai

    2008-01-01

    Extending the frying-life of oils is of commercial and economic importance. Due to this fact, assessment on the thermal stability of frying oils could provide considerable savings to the food processors. In this study, the physico-chemical properties of five palm products mainly palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein, double-fractionated palm olein, red palm olein and palm-based shortening during 80 hours of heating at 180 degrees C were investigated. Heating properties of these products were then compared with that of high oleic sunflower oil, which was used as reference oil. The indices applied in evaluating the quality changes of oils were free fatty acid, smoke point, p-anisidine value, tocols, polar and polymer compounds. Three palm products i.e. palm oil, single-fractionated palm olein and double-fractionated palm olein were identified to be the most stable in terms of lower formation of free fatty acid, polar and polymer compounds as well as preserving higher smoke point and tocols content compared to the other three oils. The low intensity of hydrolytic and oxidative changes due to prolonged heating, suggests that these palm products are inherently suitable for frying purposes.

  11. Palm fruit in traditional African food culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atinmo, Tola; Bakre, Aishat Taiwo

    2003-01-01

    The centre of origin of the oil palm is the tropical rain forest region of West Africa. It is considered to be the 200-300 kilometre wide coastal belt between Liberia and Mayumbe. The oil palm tree has remained the 'tree of life' of Yoruba land as well as of other parts of southern West Africa to which it is indigenous. The Yoruba are adept at spinning philosophical and poetical proverbs around such ordinary things as hills, rivers, birds, animals and domestic tools. Hundreds of the traditional proverbs are still with us, and through them one can see the picture of the environment that contributed to the moulding of the thoughts of the people. Yoruba riddles or puzzles were also couched in terms of the environment and the solutions to them were also environmental items. They have a popular saying: A je eran je eran a kan egungun, a je egungun je egungun a tun kan eran: 'A piece of meat has an outer layer of flesh, an intermediate layer of bone and an inner layer of flesh'. What is it? A palm fruit: it has an outer edible layer, the mesocarp; then a layer of shell, inedible, and the kernel inside, edible. The solution to this puzzle summarises the botanical and cultural characteristics of the palm fruit.

  12. Global Biogeography and Diversification History of Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, William J.; Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Kissling, W. Daniel

    and habitat heterogeneity variables. Incorporation of phylogenetic evidence reveals strong imprints of in situ diversification in the Neotropics and on islands, of biotic interchange, and of forest loss in Africa. We inferred an origin for palms in the mid-Cretaceous of Laurasia, which is significant for our...

  13. A palynological study in Geonomoid palms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Punt, W.; Wessels Boer, J.G.

    1966-01-01

    In a previous palynological study in Cocoid palms the present authors (Punt and Wessels Boer, 1966) were able to demonstrate a rather strong but not absolute correlation between the pollen types and the staminate flower types within the genus Attalea in the broad sense. The existence of partly appar

  14. Simulation of oil palm growth and yield.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraalingen, van D.W.G.; Breure, C.J.; Spitters, C.J.T.

    1989-01-01

    A dynamic model is presented to simulate growth and yield formation of oil palm (Elaeis quineensis Jacq.) in dependence of weather data and plant characteristics. From incoming amounts of light, light interception of the foliage and photosynthetic characteristics of individual leaflets, daily rates

  15. Will oil palm's homecoming spell doom for Africa's great apes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wich, Serge A; Garcia-Ulloa, John; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Humle, Tatanya; Lee, Janice S H; Koh, Lian Pin

    2014-07-21

    Expansion of oil palm plantations has led to extensive wildlife habitat conversion in Southeast Asia [1]. This expansion is driven by a global demand for palm oil for products ranging from foods to detergents [2], and more recently for biofuels [3]. The negative impacts of oil palm development on biodiversity [1, 4, 5], and on orangutans (Pongo spp.) in particular, have been well documented [6, 7] and publicized [8, 9]. Although the oil palm is of African origin, Africa's production historically lags behind that of Southeast Asia. Recently, significant investments have been made that will likely drive the expansion of Africa's oil palm industry [10]. There is concern that this will lead to biodiversity losses similar to those in Southeast Asia. Here, we analyze the potential impact of oil palm development on Africa's great apes. Current great ape distribution in Africa substantially overlaps with current oil palm concessions (by 58.7%) and areas suitable for oil palm production (by 42.3%). More importantly, 39.9% of the distribution of great ape species on unprotected lands overlaps with suitable oil palm areas. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines for the expansion of oil palm in Africa to minimize the negative effects on apes and other wildlife. There is also a need for research to support land use decisions to reconcile economic development, great ape conservation, and avoiding carbon emissions.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Sago Palm, Oil Palm, and Paddy Cultivated on Peat Land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarining Wulan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The continuously increasing population growth more than food agriculture growth on the existing land, has been encouraging to this research. The land use competition for agriculture and housing purposes have caused the land use change from forest to agriculture and housing. Within forested landscapes food production, commodity agriculture, biodiversity, resource extraction and other land uses are also competing for space. The forest land use change (deforestation is one of the climate change causes. The impact of climate change among others is the uncertain climate, such as the long drought period, flood, and the extreme temperature that cause decreasing in agriculture production. Therefore, at present, many people use the marginal land, such as peat land for agriculture cultivation to increase the food agriculture production and to achieve the domestic and export demand. Indonesia has a huge peat land and the fourth biggest in the world after Rusia, Canada, and America. The focus of this study is comparing the life cycle assessment of three agriculture commodities: sago palm, oil palm, and paddy cultivated on peat land. The purpose of this research is to contribute a recommendation of the most sustainable commodity from the aspect carbon dioxide (CO2 emission among three food agriculture commodities include oil palm and paddy that currently as excellent commodities, and sago palm, the neglected indigenous plant, which are cultivated on peat land. The method applied for this research to analyze the environmental aspect using life cycle assessment (LCA started from seedling, plantation, harvesting, transportation, and production process. The analysis result reveals that sago palm is the most environmental friendly. The lowest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is sago palm (214.75 ± 23.49 kg CO2 eq, then paddy (322.03 ± 7.57 kg CO2 eq and the highest CO2 emission (ton/ha/year is oil palm (406.88 ± 97.09 kg CO2 eq.

  17. Estimating babassu palm density using automatic palm tree detection with very high spatial resolution satellite images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alessio Moreira; Mitja, Danielle; Delaître, Eric; Demagistri, Laurent; de Souza Miranda, Izildinha; Libourel, Thérèse; Petit, Michel

    2017-05-15

    High spatial resolution images as well as image processing and object detection algorithms are recent technologies that aid the study of biodiversity and commercial plantations of forest species. This paper seeks to contribute knowledge regarding the use of these technologies by studying randomly dispersed native palm tree. Here, we analyze the automatic detection of large circular crown (LCC) palm tree using a high spatial resolution panchromatic GeoEye image (0.50 m) taken on the area of a community of small agricultural farms in the Brazilian Amazon. We also propose auxiliary methods to estimate the density of the LCC palm tree Attalea speciosa (babassu) based on the detection results. We used the "Compt-palm" algorithm based on the detection of palm tree shadows in open areas via mathematical morphology techniques and the spatial information was validated using field methods (i.e. structural census and georeferencing). The algorithm recognized individuals in life stages 5 and 6, and the extraction percentage, branching factor and quality percentage factors were used to evaluate its performance. A principal components analysis showed that the structure of the studied species differs from other species. Approximately 96% of the babassu individuals in stage 6 were detected. These individuals had significantly smaller stipes than the undetected ones. In turn, 60% of the stage 5 babassu individuals were detected, showing significantly a different total height and a different number of leaves from the undetected ones. Our calculations regarding resource availability indicate that 6870 ha contained 25,015 adult babassu palm tree, with an annual potential productivity of 27.4 t of almond oil. The detection of LCC palm tree and the implementation of auxiliary field methods to estimate babassu density is an important first step to monitor this industry resource that is extremely important to the Brazilian economy and thousands of families over a large scale.

  18. Future prospects for palm oil refining and modifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibon Véronique

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil is rich in minor components that impart unique nutritional properties and need to be preserved. In this context, refining technologies have been improved, with the dual temperature deodorizer, the double condensing unit and the ice condensing system. The DOBI is a good tool to assess quality of the crude palm oil and its ability to be properly refined. Specially refined oils open a market for new high quality products (golden palm oil, red palm oil, white soaps, etc.. Palm oil is a good candidate for the multi-step dry fractionation process, aiming to the production of commodity oils and specialty fats (cocoa butter replacers. New technological developments allow quality and yield improvements. Palm oil and fractions are also valuable feedstock for enzymatic interesterification in which applications are for commodity oil (low-trans margarines and shortenings and for special products (cocoa butter equivalents, infant formulation, ….

  19. Endemic insular and coastal Tunisian date palm genetic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehdi-Azouzi, Salwa; Cherif, Emira; Guenni, Karim; Abdelkrim, Ahmed Ben; Bermil, Aymen; Rhouma, Soumaya; Salah, Mohamed Ben; Santoni, Sylvain; Pintaud, Jean Christophe; Aberlenc-Bertossi, Frédérique; Hannachi, Amel Salhi

    2016-04-01

    The breeding of crop species relies on the valorisation of ancestral or wild varieties to enrich the cultivated germplasm. The Tunisian date palm genetic patrimony is being threatened by diversity loss and global climate change. We have conducted a genetic study to evaluate the potential of spontaneous coastal resources to improve the currently exploited Tunisian date palm genetic pool. Eighteen microsatellite loci of Phoenix dactylifera L. were used to compare the genetic diversity of coastal accessions from Kerkennah, Djerba, Gabès and continental date palm accessions from Tozeur. A collection of 105 date palms from the four regions was analysed. This study has provided us with an extensive understanding of the local genetic diversity and its distribution. The coastal date palm genotypes exhibit a high and specific genetic diversity. These genotypes are certainly an untapped reservoir of agronomically important genes to improve cultivated germplasm in continental date palm.

  20. SE Asian Palms for Agroforestry and Home Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders S. Barfod

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout SE Asia, palms are important in agroforestry systems and homegardens. Most species are used for multiple purposes based on both physical and nutritional properties of the palms. Except for a few commodities of worldwide importance such as palm oil and coconut, many palm products either do not figure in trade statistics, or they are merged with other products in a way, which makes it difficult to assess their importance. Here we focus on these products that are not prominent in national trade statistics and we review their sustainability and economic importance in SE Asia. We rank the most important palms according to their versatility, which is an extremely important property, especially for smallholders who practice subsistence agriculture. We conclude by listing a number of recommendations for future research directions based on experiences from the recently completed EU 7th Framework project (EU-PALMS 2009-2013.

  1. Experimental and numerical evaluations on palm microwave heating for Red Palm Weevil pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Rita; Panariello, Gaetano; Pinchera, Daniele; Schettino, Fulvio; Caprio, Emilio; Griffo, Raffaele; Migliore, Marco Donald

    2017-01-01

    The invasive Red Palm Weevil is the major pest of palms. Several control methods have been applied, however concern is raised regarding the treatments that can cause significant environmental pollution. In this context the use of microwaves is particularly attractive. Microwave heating applications are increasingly proposed in the management of a wide range of agricultural and wood pests, exploiting the thermal death induced in the insects that have a thermal tolerance lower than that of the host matrices. This paper describes research aiming to combat the Red Palm pest using microwave heating systems. An electromagnetic-thermal model was developed to better control the temperature profile inside the palm tissues. In this process both electromagnetic and thermal parameters are involved, the latter being particularly critical depending on plant physiology. Their evaluation was carried out by fitting experimental data and the thermal model with few free parameters. The results obtained by the simplified model well match with both that of a commercial software 3D model and measurements on treated Phoenix canariensis palms with a ring microwave applicator. This work confirms that microwave heating is a promising, eco-compatible solution to fight the spread of weevil. PMID:28361964

  2. Gene coexpression network analysis of oil biosynthesis in an interspecific backcross of oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Chloé; Joët, Thierry; Serret, Julien; Lashermes, Philippe; Vaissayre, Virginie; Agbessi, Mawussé D T; Beulé, Thierry; Severac, Dany; Amblard, Philippe; Tregear, James; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Morcillo, Fabienne; Dussert, Stéphane

    2016-09-01

    Global demand for vegetable oils is increasing at a dramatic rate, while our understanding of the regulation of oil biosynthesis in plants remains limited. To gain insights into the mechanisms that govern oil synthesis and fatty acid (FA) composition in the oil palm fruit, we used a multilevel approach combining gene coexpression analysis, quantification of allele-specific expression and joint multivariate analysis of transcriptomic and lipid data, in an interspecific backcross population between the African oil palm, Elaeis guineensis, and the American oil palm, Elaeis oleifera, which display contrasting oil contents and FA compositions. The gene coexpression network produced revealed tight transcriptional coordination of fatty acid synthesis (FAS) in the plastid with sugar sensing, plastidial glycolysis, transient starch storage and carbon recapture pathways. It also revealed a concerted regulation, along with FAS, of both the transfer of nascent FA to the endoplasmic reticulum, where triacylglycerol assembly occurs, and of the production of glycerol-3-phosphate, which provides the backbone of triacylglycerols. Plastid biogenesis and auxin transport were the two other biological processes most tightly connected to FAS in the network. In addition to WRINKLED1, a transcription factor (TF) known to activate FAS genes, two novel TFs, termed NF-YB-1 and ZFP-1, were found at the core of the FAS module. The saturated FA content of palm oil appeared to vary above all in relation to the level of transcripts of the gene coding for β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase II. Our findings should facilitate the development of breeding and engineering strategies in this and other oil crops.

  3. Synthesis of Transesterified Palm Olein-Based Polyol and Rigid Polyurethanes from this Polyol

    OpenAIRE

    Arniza, Mohd Zan; Hoong, Seng Soi; Idris, Zainab; Yeong, Shoot Kian; Hassan, Hazimah Abu; Din, Ahmad Kushairi; Choo, Yuen May

    2015-01-01

    Transesterification of palm olein with glycerol can increase the functionality by introducing additional hydroxyl groups to the triglyceride structure, an advantage compared to using palm olein directly as feedstock for producing palm-based polyol. The objective of this study was to synthesize transesterified palm olein-based polyol via a three-step reaction: (1) transesterification of palm olein, (2) epoxidation and (3) epoxide ring opening. Transesterification of palm olein yielded approxim...

  4. Palm oil and the heart:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osaretin; J; Odia; Sandra; Ofori; Omosivie; Maduka

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil consumption and its effects on serum lipid levels and cardiovascular disease in humans is still a subject of debate. Advocacy groups with varying agenda fuel the controversy. This update intends to identify evidence-based evaluations of the influence of palm oil on serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, it suggests a direction for future research. The sources of information were based on a Pub Med, Google Scholar, African Journal online and Medline search using key words including: palm oil, palmitic acid, saturated fatty acids and heart disease. Published animal and human experiments on the association of palm oil and its constituents on the serum lipid profile and cardiovascular disease were also explored for relevant information. These papers are reviewed and the available evidence is discussed. Most of the information in mainstream literature is targeted at consumers and food companies with a view to discourage the consumption of palm oil. The main argument against the use of palm oil as an edible oil is the fact that it contains palmitic acid, which is a saturated fatty acid and by extrapolation should give rise to elevated total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. However, there are many scientific studies, both in animals and humans that clearly show that palm oil consumption does not give rise to elevated serum cholesterol levels and that palm oil is not atherogenic. Apart from palmitic acid, palm oil consists of oleic and linoleic acids which are monounsaturated and polyunsaturated respectively. Palm oil also consists of vitamins A and E, which are powerful antioxidants. Palm oil has been scientifically shown to protect the heart and blood vessels from plaques and ischemic injuries. Palm oil consumed as a dietary fat as a part of a healthy balanced diet does not have incremental risk for cardiovascular disease. Little or no additional benefit will be obtained by replacing it with other oils rich in

  5. Feasibility study of gasification of oil palm fronds

    OpenAIRE

    Sulaiman, S. A.; S. Balamohan; M.N.Z. Moni; S.M. Atnaw; Mohamed, A O

    2015-01-01

    Considering the large and consistent supply, oil palm fronds could be a promising source of biomass energy through gasification. There is very scarce information on the characteristics of oil palm fronds, which is vital in deciding if such biomass is technically suitable for gasification. In the present work, the feasibility of oil palm fronds for biomass gasification is studied. The study is conducted experimentally via standard tests to determine their thermochemical characteristics. Ultim...

  6. Sugar palm ethanol. Analysis of economic feasibility and sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Staaij, J.; Van den Bos, A.; Hamelinck, C. [Ecofys Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Martini, E.; Roshetko, J.; Walden, D. [Winrock, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2011-08-15

    This study evaluates whether sugar palm is a suitable crop for biofuels and how production of ethanol from sugar palm in a large-scale setting is sustainable and economically feasible. Key questions are: Are the assumed high yields realistic in practice for sustained periods in largescale plantations?; Can sugar palm indeed compete economically with other crops for biofuels?; What are the effects of large-scale cultivation and processing of sugar palm for the natural environment and the local community? To answer these questions, Ecofys and Winrock have assessed the feasibility of largescale sugar palm cultivation for the production of ethanol using empirical data from existing sugar palm plantings. We analysed two production models to investigate the range of outcomes when varying important parameters: (1) a conservative system, whereby sugar palms are mixed with other crops and (2) an intensive system to explore the theoretical maximum yield when solely focusing on sugar palm. As background, Chapter 2 first describes the process of sugar palm cultivation, the 'tapping' and conversion into ethanol. Chapter 3 describes the data collection by Winrock. It presents an overview of the collected field data and explains the main empirical findings. Chapter 4 elaborates the two production systems and presents the results of the economic analyses (summarized in cash flow diagrams showing the timing of costs and benefits). Chapter 5 analyses the possible sustainability risks and benefits of sugar palm ethanol and investigates the integration possibilities of sugar palm in agro-forestry systems with other crops. Finally, Chapter 6 concludes by evaluating the potential of sugar palm as a source of biofuel and providing recommendations.

  7. Palm theory for random time changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masakiyo Miyazawa

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm distributions are basic tools when studying stationarity in the context of point processes, queueing systems, fluid queues or random measures. The framework varies with the random phenomenon of interest, but usually a one-dimensional group of measure-preserving shifts is the starting point. In the present paper, by alternatively using a framework involving random time changes (RTCs and a two-dimensional family of shifts, we are able to characterize all of the above systems in a single framework. Moreover, this leads to what we call the detailed Palm distribution (DPD which is stationary with respect to a certain group of shifts. The DPD has a very natural interpretation as the distribution seen at a randomly chosen position on the extended graph of the RTC, and satisfies a general duality criterion: the DPD of the DPD gives the underlying probability P in return.

  8. KARAKTERISTIK MINYAK CAMPURAN RED PALM OIL DENGAN PALM KERNEL OLEIN (Characteristics of Oil Blends from Red Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ulfah

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of oil blends has been produced from red palm oil (RPO and palm kernel olein (PKOo with seven ratios with a total of 100, namely A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 and G (100:0 v/v investigated with randomized complete block design. The result showed that different of ratio levels RPO and PKOo have some effects on peroxide value, saponification value, melting point, cloud point and β-carotene content from RPO-PKOo oil blends, but has not effect on free fatty acid content. Higher level of PKOo content on formulas oil blends were decreased of saponification value and melting point, but was increased of cloud point. The best of RPOPKOo oil blends has been obtained at ratio 50:50 (v/v, with 459.52 ppm β-carotene, 1.35 meq/kg peroxide value, 0.09 % free fatty acid, 202.60 saponification value, 24.15 oC melting point and 7.15 oC cloud point. Fatty acids composition were 1.24 % capric acid, 29.00 % lauric acid, 10.09 % miristic acid, 23.10 % palmitic acid, 5.84 linoleic acid, 27.30 % oleic acid and 3.43 % stearic acid. Keywords: Red palm oil, palm kernel olein, oil blends, chemical and physical properties ABSTRAK Sifat-sifat minyak campuran yang dihasilkan dari red palm oil (RPO dan palm kernel olein (PKOo dengan tujuh tingkat rasio yang totalnya 100, yaitu A (0:100, B (25:75, C (40:60, D (50:50, E (60:40, F (75:25 dan G (100:0 (v/v dikaji menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap kelompok. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa rasio RPO:PKOo mempengaruhi angka peroksida, angka penyabunan, melting point, cloud point dan kadar β-karoten dari minyak campuran RPO-PKOo yang dihasilkan, namun tidak mempengaruhi kadar asam lemak bebas. Peningkatan jumlah PKOo yang ditambahkan dalam minyak campuran RPO-PKOo, akan menurunkan angka penyabunan dan melting point, namun akan menaikkan cloud point. Produk minyak campuran RPO-PKOo terbaik diperoleh pada rasio 50:50 (v/v, dengan kadar β-karoten 459,52 ppm, angka peroksida 1,35 meq

  9. Palm Personal Identification for Vehicular Security with a Mobile Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Yu Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Security certification is drawing more and more attention in recent years; the biometric technology is used in a variety of different areas of security certification. In this paper, we propose a palm image recognition method to identify an individual for vehicular application; it uses palm image as a key for detecting the car owner. We used mobile phone cameras to take palm images and performed a new identification approach by using feature regularization of palm contour. After identification is confirmed, the phone uses Bluetooth/WiFi to connect the car to unlock it. In our evaluation, the experiments show that our approach is effective and feasible.

  10. IMPACT OF CPO EXPORT DUTIES ON MALAYSIAN PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Ibragimov Abdulla; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; B. K. Bala; Kusairi Mohd Noh; Muhammad Tasrif

    2014-01-01

    In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011...

  11. Poor prospects for avian biodiversity in Amazonian oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Alexander C; Moura, Nárgila G; de Almeida, Arlete Silva; Vieira, Ima C G

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of oil palm plantations across the humid tropics has precipitated massive loss of tropical forest habitats and their associated speciose biotas. Oil palm plantation monocultures have been identified as an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity, but there are no quantitative studies exploring the impact of these plantations on the biome's biota. Understanding these impacts is extremely important given the rapid projected expansion of oil palm cultivation in the basin. Here we investigate the biodiversity value of oil palm plantations in comparison with other dominant regional land-uses in Eastern Amazonia. We carried out bird surveys in oil palm plantations of varying ages, primary and secondary forests, and cattle pastures. We found that oil palm plantations retained impoverished avian communities with a similar species composition to pastures and agrarian land-uses and did not offer habitat for most forest-associated species, including restricted range species and species of conservation concern. On the other hand, the forests that the oil palm companies are legally obliged to protect hosted a relatively species-rich community including several globally-threatened bird species. We consider oil palm to be no less detrimental to regional biodiversity than other agricultural land-uses and that political pressure exerted by large landowners to allow oil palm to count as a substitute for native forest vegetation in private landholdings with forest restoration deficits would have dire consequences for regional biodiversity.

  12. Nutrition & health implications of palm oil in Indian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoorunissa

    1995-11-01

    To boost the edible oil production and attain self-sufficiency, one of the long-term strategies undertaken by the Indian government is promotion of palm oil production through oil palm cultivation. Compared to other traditional oils (except coconut oil) used in India, palm oil and palmolein have high saturated fatty acids and low linoleic acid levels. Studies conducted to evaluate the nutritional and health implications of substituting other oils with palmolein show that despite having low linoleic acid, the use of palm oil may not adversely affect the linoleic acid status of Indian population. Substitution of groundnut oil with palmolein in cereal based lactovegetarian diets providing about 30 per cent total fat calories, doubles the saturated fatty acids and reduces by half the linoleic acid content. The effects of this substitution in volunteers from the middle income group did not raise serum cholesterol and aggregability of platelets indicating that palm oil may not produce the deleterious effects associated with saturated fatty acids. The tocols present in palm oil are natural biological antioxidants and can therefore augment the antioxidant potential of Indian diets. Red palm oil is the richest natural source of carotenes which are powerful biological antioxidants. The major carotene in red palm oil is beta-carotene. Therefore, red palm oil can be used to prevent vitamin A deficiency which is widespread in India.

  13. Potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon for transesterification of palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Raman, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam Nik [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    In this study, potassium hydroxide catalyst supported on palm shell activated carbon was developed for transesterification of palm oil. The Central Composite Design (CCD) of the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was employed to investigate the effects of reaction temperature, catalyst loading and methanol to oil molar ratio on the production of biodiesel using activated carbon supported catalyst. The highest yield was obtained at 64.1 C reaction temperature, 30.3 wt.% catalyst loading and 24:1 methanol to oil molar ratio. The physical and chemical properties of the produced biodiesel met the standard specifications. This study proves that activated carbon supported potassium hydroxide is an effective catalyst for transesterification of palm oil. (author)

  14. Risk presented by Copernicia prunifera palm trees in the Rhodnius nasutus distribution in a Chagas disease-endemic area of the Brazilian northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Marli M; Coutinho, Carolina F S; Gomes, Taís F; Oliveira, Tiago G; Duarte, Rosemere; Borges-Pereira, José; Bóia, Márcio N; Sarquis, Otília

    2008-11-01

    With the aid of live-bait traps, we studied the risk that Copernicia prunifera palm trees, present in both periurban and rural localities of an endemic Brazilian northeast Chagas disease region, represent to domestic infestation by Rhodnius nasutus. In this area, this important vector has been encountered harboring and transmitting Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of the American trypanosomiasis, to mammals, possibly including humans. Results indicate that this bug colonizes C. prunifera palm trees of both regions, mainly in dry seasons, and is infected with high levels of T. cruzi. Although more triatomines were captured in rural areas, proportionally the number of infected bugs from peri-urban regions was much higher. Herein we address the epidemiologic implications and challenge for the Brazilian health authorities to control the disease in this region, where the native palm trees have been largely destroyed causing a severe disturbance in the environmental equilibrium.

  15. Physicochemical Properties of Palm Kernel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira P. Olaniyi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical analyses were carried out on palm kernel oil (Adin and the following results were obtained: Saponification value; 280.5±56.1 mgKOH/g, acid value; 2.7±0.3 mg KOH/g, Free Fatty Acid (FFA; 1.35±0.15 KOH/g, ester value; 277.8±56.4 mgKOH/g, peroxide value; 14.3±0.8 mEq/kg; iodine value; 15.86±4.02 mgKOH/g, Specific Gravity (S.G value; 0.904, refractive index; 1.412 and inorganic materials; 1.05%. Its odour and colour were heavy burnt smell and burnt brown, respectively. These values were compared with those obtained for groundnut and coconut oils. It was found that the physico-chemical properties of palm kernel oil are comparable to those of groundnut and coconut oils except for the peroxide value (i.e., 14.3±0.8 mEq which was not detectable in groundnut and coconut oils. Also the odour of both groundnut and coconut oils were pleasant while that of the palm kernel oil was not as pleasant (i.e., heavy burnt smell.

  16. The Palm Desert renewable [hydrogen] transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberlin, C.E.; Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States). Schatz Energy Research Center

    1998-08-01

    This paper describes the Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period June 1997 through May 1998. The project began in March 1996. The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project demonstrates the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a vehicle power system. The project includes designing and building 4 fuel cell powered vehicles, a solar hydrogen generating and refueling station, and a fuel cell vehicle diagnostic center. Over this last year, SERC has built a fuel cell powered neighborhood electric vehicle and delivered it to the City of Palm Desert. The design of the hydrogen refueling station is near completion and it is anticipated that construction will be complete in the fall of 1998. The vehicles are currently being refueled at a temporary refueling station. The diagnostic center is being designed and maintenance procedures as well as computer diagnostic programs for the fuel cell vehicles are being developed. City employees are driving the vehicles daily and monitoring data are being collected. The drivers are pleased with the performance of the vehicles.

  17. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Palm Carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puah C. Wei

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of carotenoids from crude palm oil was carried out in a dynamic (flow- through supercritical fluid extraction system. The carotenoids obtained were quantified using off-line UV-visible spectrophotometry. The effects of operating pressure and temperature, flow rate of the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2, sample size of feed used on the solubility of palm carotenoids were investigated. The results showed that the extraction of carotenoids was governed by its solubility in the SC-CO2 and can be enhanced by increasing pressure at a constant temperature or decreasing temperature at a constant pressure. Increasing the flow rate and decreasing the sample size can reduce the extraction time but do not enhance the solubility. Palm carotenoids have very low solubility in SC-CO2 in the range of 1.31 x 10-4 g kg-1 to 1.58 x 10-3 g kg-1 for the conditions investigated in this study. The experimental data obtained were compared with those published by other workers and correlated by a density-based equation as proposed by Chrastil.

  18. Palm to finger ulnar sensory nerve conduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Davidowich

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  19. Palm to Finger Ulnar Sensory Nerve Conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidowich, Eduardo; Nascimento, Osvaldo J M; Orsini, Marco; Pupe, Camila; Pessoa, Bruno; Bittar, Caroline; Pires, Karina Lebeis; Bruno, Carlos; Coutinho, Bruno Mattos; de Souza, Olivia Gameiro; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Bastos, Victor Hugo

    2015-12-29

    Ulnar neuropathy at the wrist (UNW) is rare, and always challenging to localize. To increase the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnosis of UNW many authors advocate the stimulation of the ulnar nerve (UN) in the segment of the wrist and palm. The focus of this paper is to present a modified and simplified technique of sensory nerve conduction (SNC) of the UN in the wrist and palm segments and demonstrate the validity of this technique in the study of five cases of type III UNW. The SNC of UN was performed antidromically with fifth finger ring recording electrodes. The UN was stimulated 14 cm proximal to the active electrode (the standard way) and 7 cm proximal to the active electrode. The normal data from amplitude and conduction velocity (CV) ratios between the palm to finger and wrist to finger segments were obtained. Normal amplitude ratio was 1.4 to 0.76. Normal CV ratio was 0.8 to 1.23.We found evidences of abnormal SNAP amplitude ratio or substantial slowing of UN sensory fibers across the wrist in 5 of the 5 patients with electrophysiological-definite type III UNW.

  20. Oil palm genetic improvement and sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochard Benoît

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic improvement of the oil palm may have a role to play in the sustainability of this crop. Given the criticism aimed at this commodity chain, notably due to the extension of oil palm plantations to the detriment of forests, providing very high-yielding planting material might be a solution, particularly as world demand is continually increasing. This crop is mostly managed by agroindustrialists, but the smallholder sector is developing. It happens that this sector is classed as a sustainable type of agriculture by numerous NGOs, which are also asking plant breeders to take the specificities of smallholdings into consideration. Oil palm genetic improvement takes numerous criteria into account, many of which fit in with sustainable agriculture. For example, this crop is subject to pressure from different pests and diseases. In each case, a genetic hence eco-friendly approach has been taken and, in particular, vascular wilttolerant planting material has been a successfully produced. Moreover, for the future of this crop, planting material needs to be developed that requires fewer inputs, and consideration has to be given to extending this crop in less favourable zones, by developing planting material that consumes less water. Lastly, it is important to disseminate genetically diversified planting material.

  1. A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products including p...

  2. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ajiboye, John A.; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A.; Nwachukwu, Viola A.; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O.; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N.

    2015-01-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p 

  3. Water footprints of products of oil palm plantations and palm oil mills in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttayakul, Phetrada; H-Kittikun, Aran; Suksaroj, Chaisri; Mungkalasiri, Jitti; Wisansuwannakorn, Ruthairat; Musikavong, Charongpun

    2016-01-15

    The water footprint (WF) of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) from oil palm plantations and crude palm oil (CPO) from palm oil mills in southern and eastern Thailand were determined over 25 years. Climatic conditions, soil characteristics, and the characteristics of oil palm growth were considered. The WF of FFBs was 1063 m(3)/ton (t) on average. Green, blue, and grey waters comprised of 68, 18, and 14% of total WF, respectively. The oil palm plantations in Thailand required smaller amounts of indirect blue water. The average WF for producing a ton of CPO of seven mills was 5083 m(3). Most of the waters used in the mills originated from indirect green, blue and grey waters from the plantations. The direct blue water used in the mills had less impact on the total WF, lower than 1% of the total WF. Average percentages of green, blue, and grey waters of 69, 16, and 15% of total WF were determined for the mills, respectively. The water deprivation of the FFBs and CPO ranged from 0.73-12.9 and 3.44-58.3 m(3)H2Oeq/t, respectively. In 2013, the CPO production in Thailand including green, blue, and grey waters from plantation and blue water from mills required 11,343 million m(3) water. If the oil palm variety Suratthani 7 is used in the plantation, it would increase the yield from 15.2 to 22.8 t FFBs/ha-year and decrease the WF to 888 m(3)/t FFBs. The average value of the oil extraction rate (OER) of mills was 18.1%. With an increase in the OER of 1%, a reduction of the WF of 250 m(3)/t CPO or 5.1% of total WF could be obtained.

  4. Biomass-based palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve as gas separation adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethupathi, Sumathi; Bashir, Mohammed Jk; Akbar, Zinatizadeh Ali; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman

    2015-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has been widely recognised as a potential low-cost source for the production of high added value materials and proved to be a good precursor for the production of activated carbons. One of such valuable biomasses used for the production of activated carbons is palm shell. Palm shell (endocarp) is an abundant by-product produced from the palm oil industries throughout tropical countries. Palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve has been widely applied in various environmental pollution control technologies, mainly owing to its high adsorption performance, well-developed porosity and low cost, leading to potential applications in gas-phase separation using adsorption processes. This mini-review represents a comprehensive overview of the palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve preparation method, physicochemical properties and feasibility of palm shell activated carbon and palm shell carbon molecular sieve in gas separation processes. Some of the limitations are outlined and suggestions for future improvements are pointed out.

  5. An ethnomedicinal survey and documentation of important medicinal folklore food phytonims of flora of Samahni valley, (Azad Kashmir) Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Hanif, Wajahat; Khan, M A; Ashraf, M; Butt, Ansar M

    2007-07-01

    ; Veronica anthelmintica for bandage of broken bones and Withania coagulans is used to treat small pox. Many wild plants are eaten green and raw as salad, or in boiled form of soup as blood and intestine cleansing tonics. Moreover, some plants are spiritually recorded as sacred and used as ritual plant for good omens or against the evil eye and removal of giant. About 95 species of 38 families were recorded to be important part of phyto heritage of folk pharmacopoeia of Samahni valley. Among most frequent used families are Papilionaceae 9.47%, Solanaceae and Poaceae 8.42% each, Cucurbitaceae 7.36% and Brassicaceae and Rosaceae 6.31% each. Among the surveyed families used to treat various diseases, Solanaceae is at first rank with 9.74%, Brassicaceae 8.23% and Cucurbitaceae 7.39% subsequently. Most commonly used families with highest percentage of plants used as food medicines are Solanaceae (11.37%), Brassicaceae (8.38%) and Papilionaceae (7.18%) respectively. Most frequent plant parts used are; roots, leaves, seeds and flowers while popular forms of plants uses are decoction, poultice, infusions, soups and raw form as salad. Importance of ethnobotanical inventory constructed from ethnomedicinal uses and folklore phytonims of flora in perspectives of initiative for future phytochemical and pharmacological research on these taxa to develop and discover of new drugs is present and discussed.

  6. Minimizing the biodiversity impact of Neotropical oil palm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilroy, James J; Prescott, Graham W; Cardenas, Johann S; Castañeda, Pamela González del Pliego; Sánchez, Andrés; Rojas-Murcia, Luis E; Medina Uribe, Claudia A; Haugaasen, Torbjørn; Edwards, David P

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm agriculture is rapidly expanding in the Neotropics, at the expense of a range of natural and seminatural habitats. A key question is how this expansion should be managed to reduce negative impacts on biodiversity. Focusing on the Llanos of Colombia, a mixed grassland-forest system identified as a priority zone for future oil palm development, we survey communities of ants, dung beetles, birds and herpetofauna occurring in oil palm plantations and the other principal form of agriculture in the region--improved cattle pasture--together with those of surrounding natural forests. We show that oil palm plantations have similar or higher species richness across all four taxonomic groups than improved pasture. For dung beetles, species richness in oil palm was equal to that of forest, whereas the other three taxa had highest species richness in forests. Hierarchical modelling of species occupancy probabilities indicated that oil palm plantations supported a higher proportion of species characteristic of forests than did cattle pastures. Across the bird community, occupancy probabilities within oil palm were positively influenced by increasing forest cover in a surrounding 250 m radius, whereas surrounding forest cover did not strongly influence the occurrence of other taxonomic groups in oil palm. Overall, our results suggest that the conversion of existing improved pastures to oil palm has limited negative impacts on biodiversity. As such, existing cattle pastures of the Colombian Llanos could offer a key opportunity to meet governmental targets for oil palm development without incurring significant biodiversity costs. Our results also highlight the value of preserving remnant forests within these agricultural landscapes, protecting high biodiversity and exporting avian 'spill-over' effects into oil palm plantations.

  7. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Edson; Rios, Sara de Almeida; Cunha, Raimundo N V; Lopes, Ricardo; Motoike, Sérgio Y; Babiychuk, Elena; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Kushnir, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfill the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t) should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step toward this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  8. Oil palm natural diversity and the potential for yield improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson eBarcelos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available African oil palm has the highest productivity amongst cultivated oleaginous crops. Species can constitute a single crop capable to fulfil the growing global demand for vegetable oils, which is estimated to reach 240 million tons by 2050. Two types of vegetable oil are extracted from the palm fruit on commercial scale. The crude palm oil and kernel palm oil have different fatty acid profiles, which increases versatility of the crop in industrial applications. Plantations of the current varieties have economic life-span around 25-30 years and produce fruits around the year. Thus, predictable annual palm oil supply enables marketing plans and adjustments in line with the economic forecasts. Oil palm cultivation is one of the most profitable land uses in the humid tropics. Oil palm fruits are the richest plant source of pro-vitamin A and vitamin E. Hence, crop both alleviates poverty, and could provide a simple practical solution to eliminate global pro-vitamin A deficiency. Oil palm is a perennial, evergreen tree adapted to cultivation in biodiversity rich equatorial land areas. The growing demand for the palm oil threatens the future of the rain forests and has a large negative impact on biodiversity. Plant science faces three major challenges to make oil palm the key element of building the future sustainable world. The global average yield of 3.5 tons of oil per hectare (t should be raised to the full yield potential estimated at 11-18t. The tree architecture must be changed to lower labor intensity and improve mechanization of the harvest. Oil composition should be tailored to the evolving needs of the food, oleochemical and fuel industries. The release of the oil palm reference genome sequence in 2013 was the key step towards this goal. The molecular bases of agronomically important traits can be and are beginning to be understood at the single base pair resolution, enabling gene-centered breeding and engineering of this remarkable crop.

  9. Improving environmental sustainability of Thai palm oil production in 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit; Hein, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Palm oil production has increased in Thailand with considerable environmental impacts. The aim of this study is to analyse possibilities to examine how the environmental sustainability of Thai palm oil production can be improved in the coming decades. To this end, we integrated a sectoral and a l

  10. Functional palm oil-based margarine by enzymatic interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Nuzul Amri Bin; Xu, Xuebing

    Palm stearin, palm kernel and fish oils were blended to a various composition ratios and enzymatically interesterified by Lipozyme TL IM lipase (Thermomyces lanuginosa) using a continuous packed bed reactor. The ratio of the oils ranged from 60-90%, 10-40% and 0-10% respectively. The enzyme...

  11. PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SEED DEVELOPMENT IN A HAWAIIAN PALM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genetic diversity of palms (Arecaceae) is threatened and ex situ conservation efforts are hampered by a poor understanding of their seed biology and storage behavior. Pritchardia remota is fan palm endemic to Hawaii (subtribe Corypheae). Flowering of P. remota occurs mostly during the dry seas...

  12. OIL PALM FIBERS AS PAPERMAKING MATERIAL: POTENTIALS AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the physical and chemical characteristics of fibers from the stem, fronds, and empty fruit bunches of oil palm tree in relation to their papermaking properties. Challenges regarding the use of this nonwood material for papermaking are raised, and possible solutions to them are given. A vision for the complete utilization of oil palm biomass is also outlined.

  13. New Initiatives for Management of Red Palm Weevil Threats to Historical Arabian Date Palms *

    KAUST Repository

    Mukhtar, Muhammad

    2011-12-01

    The date palm is an important part of the religious, cultural, and economic heritage of the Arabian Peninsula. This heritage is threatened by the recent invasion of the red palm weevil (RPW) from Southeast Asia. In Saudi Arabia, a national campaign for control of RPW by containment/destruction of infested plants, injection and spraying of biochemical and chemical pesticide treatments in heavily infested and newly infested areas, and the use of pheromone/ kairomone traps for monitoring and reduction of RPW populations has been only partially successful in controlling its spread. New methods are needed to help manage the RPW populations. At a workshop in Riyadh in March 2010, plans were recommended to 1) devise and test new biological, chemical, and biotechnological methods to manage RPW in farms and urban palms; 2) compare the economic and logistic feasibility of acoustic and other detection methods against RPW larvae; and 3) develop biosensor indicators of RPW infestation in date palms. If these initiatives are successful, they will be of great assistance to landscape and orchard managers dealing with such a challenging pest of a highly valuable tree.

  14. Palm oil mill effluent treatment and utilization to ensure the sustainability of palm oil industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanudin, U; Sugiharto, R; Haryanto, A; Setiadi, T; Fujie, K

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the current condition of palm oil mill effluent (POME) treatment and utilization and to propose alternative scenarios to improve the sustainability of palm oil industries. The research was conducted through field survey at some palm oil mills in Indonesia, in which different waste management systems were used. Laboratory experiment was also carried out using a 5 m(3) pilot-scale wet anaerobic digester. Currently, POME is treated through anaerobic digestion without or with methane capture followed by utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer or further treatment (aerobic process) to fulfill the wastewater quality standard. A methane capturing system was estimated to successfully produce renewable energy of about 25.4-40.7 kWh/ton of fresh fruit bunches (FFBs) and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by about 109.41-175.35 kgCO2e/tonFFB (CO2e: carbon dioxide equivalent). Utilization of treated POME as liquid fertilizer increased FFB production by about 13%. A palm oil mill with 45 ton FFB/hour capacity has potential to generate about 0.95-1.52 MW of electricity. Coupling the POME-based biogas digester and anaerobic co-composting of empty fruit bunches (EFBs) is capable of adding another 0.93 MW. The utilization of POME and EFB not only increases the added value of POME and EFB by producing renewable energy, compost, and liquid fertilizer, but also lowers environmental burden.

  15. Bioactive Compounds of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD from Several Palm Oil Refineries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Estiasih

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the characteristics of Palm Fatty Acids Distillates (PFADs from several palm oil refineries. It was aimed to know the potency of PFAD as bioactive compounds source, including vitamin E (mainly tocotrienols, phytosterols, squalene and possibly co-enzyme Q10 and polycosanol. Sampling was conducted at 6 palm oil refineries. The results showed that PFAD was dominated by free fatty acids of 85-95% with low oxidation level indicated by peroxide value of 1-10 meq/kg and anisidin value of 6-31. Bioactive compounds found were vitamin E 60-200 ppm, phytosterols 400-7500 ppm and squalene 400-2800 ppm, meanwhile polycosanol and co-enzyme Q10 were not found. Vitamin E was dominated by tocotrienols and γ tocotrienol was the major vitamin E, followed by α and δ tocotrienols. Phytosterols in PFADs from several palm oil refineries had variety in quantity and composition. Generally it was dominated by &beta sitosterol, followed by stigmasterol and campesterol

  16. Pollination mechanisms in palms – a synoecological perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.; Hagen, Melanie; Borchsenius, Finn

    Apidae), and flies (order Diptera). Less is known about variations in the composition of the visiting insect fauna across the geographic range of a given palm species. A number canopy studies have contributed to our understanding of palms in broader palm-pollinator networks and provided insight...... on the specificity of the visiting insects and the temporal variation in their assemblage at a particular species. Preliminary observations in beetle-pollinated palms suggest that insects similar in size, shape and behaviour may substitute for each another both in space and in time. Hence to compare pollination...... as adaptation to diverging pollination mechanisms. Future pollination studies should focus on the dynamics of palm-pollinator interactions including comparative studies in groups where transitions in pollination mechanism may be predicted from differences in floral morphology and phenology. Reconstructions...

  17. Predicting fresh fruit bunch yield of oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilnond, C.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop the simulation model for predicting fresh fruit bunch (FFB yield of oil palm through multiple linear regression analysis. Two experiments were conducted at the oil palm plantation of Agricultural and Technology College, Krabi province. Six-year-old Tenera hybrid palms were used for the experiments. These palms were planted in Tha-sae soil series (Typic Paleudults; Fine loamy mixedwith spacing of 9x9x9 m. In the first experiment, 151 Tenera palms were selected and marked randomly throughout an area of plantation about 16 ha. For each selected palm, FFB yield and yield component characters (FFB number and bunch weight were recorded at every harvesting time for four consecutive years (June 1993 to May 1997. The results showed that the FFB number and bunch weight could be used to predict the FFB oil palm yield. In the second experiment, nine plots of Tenera hybrid palms were arranged. The plot size was 0.48 ha and had twenty palms per plot for data collection for three consecutive years (January 1994 to December 1996. These data included leaf nutrient (N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the 17th frond, the fresh fruit bunch (FFB yield and the amount of rainfall. The results showed that N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the leaves, the amount of rainfall and FFB yield in the previous year, together with the N, P, K, Mg and B contents in the leaves (in the predicting year could be used to predict the FFB oil palm yield.

  18. Thermophilic anaerobic co-digestion of oil palm empty fruit bunches with palm oil mill effluent for efficient biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O-Thong, Sompong; Boe, Kanokwan; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    The effect of pretreatment methods for improved biodegradability and biogas production of oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and its co-digestion with palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. The maximum methane potential of POME was 502mL CH4/gVS-added corresponding to 33.2m3 CH4/ton POME...

  19. DNA polymorphism among Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. elaeidis populations from oil palm, using a repeated and dispersed sequence "Palm".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouyna, I; Renard, J L; Brygoo, Y

    1996-07-31

    A worldwide collection, of 76 F. oxysporum f.sp. elaeidis isolates (Foe), and of 21 F. oxysporum isolates from the soil of several palm grove was analysed by RFLP. As a probe, we used a random DNA fragment (probe 46) from a genomic library of a Foe isolate. This probe contains two different types of sequence, one being repeated and dispersed in the genome "Palm", the other being a single-copy sequence. All F. oxysporum isolates from the palm-grove soils were non-pathogenic to oil palm. They all had a simple restriction pattern with one band homologous to the single-copy sequence of probe 46. All Foe isolates were pathogenic to oil palm and they all had complex patterns due to hybridization with "Palm". This repetitive sequence reveals that Foe isolates are distinct from the other F. oxysporum palm-grove soils isolates. The sequence can reliably discriminate pathogenic from non-pathogenic oil palm isolates. Based on DNA fingerprint similarities, Foe populations were divided into ten groups consisting of isolates with the same geographic origin. Isolates from Brazil and Ecuador were an exception to that rule as they had the same restriction pattern as a few isolates from the Ivory Coast, suggesting they may originated from Africa.

  20. The Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The present paper describes, for purposes of the Department of Energy (DoE) Hydrogen Program Review, Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) progress on the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project for the period January through June 1996. This period represents the first six months of the three year project. The estimated cost over three years is $3.9M, $1.859M of which is funded by the DoE ($600 k for fiscal year 1996). The goal of the Palm Desert Project is to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community. The project will demonstrate the practical utility of hydrogen as a transportation fuel and proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells as vehicle power plants. This transportation system will be developed in the City of Palm Desert in southern California and will include a fleet of 8 fuel cell powered vehicles, solar and wind powered hydrogen generating facilities, a consumer-ready refueling station, and a service infrastructure. The system holds the promise of a clean environment and an energy supply that is predictable, domestic, safe, and abundant. During, the first part of 1996 SERC has nearly completed building a fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle, which features an upgraded safety and computer system; they have designed and built a test bench that is able to mimic golf cart loads and test fuel cell system auxiliary components; they have begun the design of the solar hydrogen generating station; they have worked with Sandia National Laboratory on an advanced metal hydride storage system; they have increased the power density of the SERC fuel cell by as much as 50%; and they have reached out to the rest of the world with a new fact sheet, world wide web pages, a press release, video footage for a television program. and instruction within the community.

  1. Neuroprotective Effects of Palm vitamin E Tocotrienols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Kah Hay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cell and animal studies have convincingly shown the tocotrienols to be neuro protective. However, many compounds have been proven neuro protective in pre-clinical studies but none succeeded in human trials. Such failures can be attributed to the use of a wrong study model, example acute ischemic stroke. Stroke has a short treatment time window of about 4.5 hours and hence the difficulty of giving the compound within this time period. Furthermore, disruption of blood flow to the affected areas will limit the administered agent from reaching the target tissues. Therefore, the compound should best be given before the stroke event, like in the animal studies. Considering the above, the present study was conducted to investigate the neuro protective effects of palm vitamin E tocotrienols using human volunteers with white matter lesions (WMLs. WMLs are associated with ischemic small blood vessel disease of the brain leading to bundles of nerve fibers degenerating. The lesions are self-progressive and can be quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In the present study, 121 volunteers with WMLs were randomized 200mg palm tocotrienols twice daily or placebo and imaged at baseline, after 1 year and 2 years of supplementation. Changes in the volume of WMLs from baseline were then determined. Results obtained showed that the mean WML volume of the treated group remained essentially unchanged after 2 years, whereas the placebo group showed a mark progression. The change in the mean WML volume of the 2 groups was significantly different (p<0.05 after 2 years. Hence, the present study provided clinical evidence that palm vitamin E tocotrienols are neuro protective and may help to minimize tissue injury of the brain during a stroke event, thus making a difference in the stroke outcome when taken as a supplement.

  2. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenario

  3. The fate of populations of Euterpe oleracea harvested for palm heart in Colombia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallejo, M.I.; Galeano, G.; Bernal, R.; Zuidema, P.

    2014-01-01

    Palm heart is an important non-timber forest product obtained from various palm species in tropical forests. We studied the effect of four decades of palm heart extraction from the clonal palm Euterpe oleracea at the southern Pacific coast of Colombia. We monitored populations that had been subject

  4. Valorization of palm oil (mill) residues. Identifyin and solving the challenges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, H.W.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Bakker, R.R.C.

    2013-01-01

    This report explains in brief how the palm oil production system is set-up and how by-products of palm oil extraction (Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB), Mesocarp Fibre, Shells and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME)) are generated in the Palm oil Mill and what the composition of each stream is. Then the options ar

  5. American Religion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜

    2008-01-01

    It is said that American religion,as a great part of American culture,plays an important role in American culture. It is hoped that some ideas can be obtained from this research paper,which focuses on analyzing the great impact is produced to American culture by American religion. Finally, this essay gives two useful standpoints to English learners:Understunding American religion will help understand the American history, culture and American people,and help you to communic.ate with them better. Understanding American religion will help you understand English better.

  6. An Investigation of Sustainable Power Generation from Oil Palm Biomass: A Case Study in Sarawak

    OpenAIRE

    Nasrin Aghamohammadi; Stacy Simai Reginald; Ahmad Shamiri; Ali Akbar Zinatizadeh; Li Ping Wong; Nik Meriam Binti Nik Sulaiman

    2016-01-01

    Sarawak is the largest state in Malaysia, with 22% of the nation's oil palm plantation area, making it the second largest contributor to palm biomass production. Despite the enormous amount of palm biomass in the state, the use of biomass as fuel for power generation remains low. This study is designed to investigate the sustainability of power generation from palm biomass specifically in Sarawak by conducting a survey among the palm oil mill developers. To conduct this investigation, several...

  7. A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine L.Y. Man

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products including palm oil, palm kernel oil, palm kernel cake, oleo-chemicals and finished products, equivalent to RM 49.59 billion of export revenue. However, cost of production for Crude Palm Oil (CPO varies in a big gap. Therefore, it is essential to identify the major cost influencing factors in the production of CPO. Approach: The study system started with collection of Fresh Fruits Bunches (FFB from oil palm plantation to the production of CPO at palm oil mills. Two palm oil mills of different production capacity were chosen for this study. Statistical analysis was done to identify the major cost influencing factors of production cost for CPO. Results: The production cost of CPO for small scale palm oil mills preferably lied between RM 45 to RM 50 per metric tons while large scale palm oil mills lied below RM 45 per metric tons. Conclusion: Palm oil mills with higher production capacity were efficient in producing CPO than lower production capacity palm oil mills. Thus, the production cost of CPO was lower compared to that of small scale palm oil mills.

  8. Energetic Efficiency of red palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron Jiménez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to determine the energy efficiency in the production of red palm oil (Elaeis guineensis by using the biophysical indicator EROI, postulated by the Ecological Economics. This indicator is applied to compare the energy used in the preparation of synthetic fertilizers (to fill its nutritional demands versus the energy contained in the oil. In 2009, there were 195.550 hectares of land planted with African palm in Ecuador (INEC, 2011. In addition, between 2002 and 2009, there were 2,7 million tons of red oil (FEDEPAL, 2010. It is determined that for each unit of energy consumed, 4.82 units of energy are contained in the red oil. The energy used in making pesticides for cultivation, consumed in transportation, refining, and post harvest is excluded because this other energy would drastically reduce the absolute data of the indicator, which is already inefficient for the high energy consumption it requires to generate the energy contained in the oil. On the other hand, agroecology has proven to be more efficient in the generation of energy per unit of invested energy (Altieri et. al., 2010; Moore, 2004.

  9. Two-step procedures in Palm theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Nieuwenhuis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Random time changes (RTCs are right-continuous and non-decreasing random functions passing the zero-level at 0. The behavior of such systems can be studied from a randomly chosen time-point and from a randomly chosen level. From the first point of view, the probability characteristics are described by the time-stationary distribution P. From the second point of view, the detailed Palm distribution (DPD is the ruling probability mechanism. The main topic of the present paper is a relationship between P and its DPD. Under P, the origin falls in a continuous part of the graph. Under the DPD, there are two typical situations: the origin lies in a jump-part of the extended graph or it lies in a continuous part. These observations lead to two conditional DPDs. We derive two-step procedures, which bridge the gaps between the several distributions. One step concerns the application of a shift, the second is just a change of measure arranged by a weight-function. The procedures are used to derive local characterization results for the distributions of Palm type. We also consider simulation applications. For instance, a procedure is mentioned to generate a simulation of the RTC as seen from a randomly chosen level in a jump-part when starting with simulations from a randomly chosen time-point. The point process with batch-arrivals is often used as an application.

  10. Molecular defense response of oil palm to Ganoderma infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, C-L; Tan, Y-C

    2015-06-01

    Basal stem rot (BSR) of oil palm roots is due to the invasion of fungal mycelia of Ganoderma species which spreads to the bole of the stem. In addition to root contact, BSR can also spread by airborne basidiospores. These fungi are able to break down cell wall components including lignin. BSR not only decreases oil yield, it also causes the stands to collapse thus causing severe economic loss to the oil palm industry. The transmission and mode of action of Ganoderma, its interactions with oil palm as a hemibiotroph, and the molecular defence responses of oil palm to the infection of Ganoderma boninense in BSR are reviewed, based on the transcript profiles of infected oil palms. The knowledge gaps that need to be filled in oil palm-Ganoderma molecular interactions i.e. the associations of hypersensitive reaction (HR)-induced cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) kinetics to the susceptibility of oil palm to Ganoderma spp., the interactions of phytohormones (salicylate, jasmonate and ethylene) at early and late stages of BSR, and cell wall strengthening through increased production of guaiacyl (G)-type lignin, are also discussed.

  11. Potential of palm oil utilisation in aquaculture feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Wing-Keong

    2002-01-01

    One key ingredient used in the formulation of aquafeed is fish oil, which is produced from small marine pelagic fish and represents a finite fishery resource. At the present time, global fish oil production has reached a plateau and is not expected to increase beyond current levels. Recent estimates suggest that fish oils may be unable to meet demands from the rapidly growing aquaculture industry by as early as 2005. Therefore, there is currently great interest within the aquafeed industry in evaluating alternatives to fish oils. The ever-expanding oil palm cultivation in Malaysia and other tropical countries offers the possibility of an increased and constant availability of palm oil products for aquafeed formulation. Research into the use of palm oil in aquafeed begun around the mid-1990s and this review examines some of the findings from these studies. The use of palm oil in fish diets has generally shown encouraging results. Improved growth, feed efficiency, protein utilisation, reproductive performance and higher concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in fish fillets have been reported. Recent evidence for the ability of palm oil to substitute for fish oil in catfish diets is reviewed. The potential of palm oil use in aquafeed and future experimental directions are suggested. The aquaculture feed industry offers a great avenue to increase and diversify the use of palm oil-based products.

  12. The use of biomedicine, complementary and alternative medicine, and ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy among people of South Asian origin in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Hanif

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have shown that a significant proportion of people with epilepsy use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM. CAM use is known to vary between different ethnic groups and cultural contexts; however, little attention has been devoted to inter-ethnic differences within the UK population. We studied the use of biomedicine, complementary and alternative medicine, and ethnomedicine in a sample of people with epilepsy of South Asian origin living in the north of England. Methods Interviews were conducted with 30 people of South Asian origin and 16 carers drawn from a sampling frame of patients over 18 years old with epilepsy, compiled from epilepsy registers and hospital databases. All interviews were tape-recorded, translated if required and transcribed. A framework approach was adopted to analyse the data. Results All those interviewed were taking conventional anti-epileptic drugs. Most had also sought help from traditional South Asian practitioners, but only two people had tried conventional CAM. Decisions to consult a traditional healer were taken by families rather than by individuals with epilepsy. Those who made the decision to consult a traditional healer were usually older family members and their motivations and perceptions of safety and efficacy often differed from those of the recipients of the treatment. No-one had discussed the use of traditional therapies with their doctor. The patterns observed in the UK mirrored those reported among people with epilepsy in India and Pakistan. Conclusion The health care-seeking behaviour of study participants, although mainly confined within the ethnomedicine sector, shared much in common with that of people who use global CAM. The appeal of traditional therapies lay in their religious and moral legitimacy within the South Asian community, especially to the older generation who were disproportionately influential in the determination of treatment choices. As a second

  13. Diversity of palm uses in the western Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paniagua Zambrana, N.Y.; Byg, A.; Svenning, J.-C.;

    2007-01-01

    Abstract  We used palm knowledge to understand the interaction between people and the rainforests and the factors that influence this dynamic process. We interviewed 278 informants in 12 villages in the Pastaza and Madidi areas of the western Amazon basin. Together they used 38 different palm......, the great variation in the knowledge they possess, and the fact that the differences between villages is so great, are important elements to consider when developing management plans for the sustainable use of the rainforest resources in the western Amazon. Keywords  Local knowledge - Palms - Western Amazon...

  14. Recycled palm oil spoilage: Correlation between physicochemical properties and oleophilicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, Ili Afiqa Ab; Zubairi, Saiful Irwan; Jurid, Lailatul Syema

    2016-11-01

    Palm oil is widely used for domestic and commercial frying due to its techno-economic advantages as compared to other vegetable oils. However, if the oil is used beyond its recommended usage cycle, it might lead to oil spoilage. Therefore this study focuses on the comprehensive analysis of chemical and physical properties of recycled palm oil. Recycled palm oil was prepared by frying potato strips up to 4 batches; 5 cycles for each batch) was carried out with potato (g)-to-oil (ml) ratio of 3/20 prior to physico-chemical analysis (moisture content, color measurement, viscosity, density and iodine value. From 5 tests used to indicate physico-chemical properties of recycled palm oil, only color measurement, viscosity and IV shows results accordingly to theories. Whereas moisture content and density were not comply to theories. With increasing frying times, recycled palm oil color has been darker due to chemical reaction that occurs during frying. The trend line illustrates that with increasing frying times, recycled palm oil lightness decreases. It also means that its color has been darker. Meanwhile, b* rate increase indicating that recycled palm oil show tendency towards green color. Whereas, a* rate decreased, showing low tendency towards red color. Viscosity and moisture content increase with frying cycle. This situation occurred might be due to formation of hydrolysis products which are volatile while frying process. But the remaining non-volatile compounds among the hydrolysis products might also accumulate in palm oil and thus affect the total oil/fat chemical changes. Meanwhile the density of palm oil was quite constant at 0.15 g/cm3 except for cycle 2 with 0.17 g/cm3. The result obtained from this experiment were comply with previous study that stated frying batch number is a significant variable (a = 0.05) affecting the density of oil only after 20 frying batch. The contact angle of recycled palm oil on PHBV thin film was more than 90 °. Hence it shows

  15. Cultivation of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus on oil palm residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongwised, A.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed to use oil palm residues to cultivate the oyster mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, which is one of the most important mushrooms cultivated worldwide. Spawn was prepared on sorghum seeds and inoculated on substrate in plastic bags. Oil palm fronds were cut and used to grow Pleurotus ostreatus. The first fructification occurred 20 days after waterring. The biological efficiency reached at 28.6%. When sawdust of para rubber logs was added to the cut oil palm fronds at the rate of 1:1 (vol : vol., the biological efficiency reached at 39.3%.Supplementary material at the rate of 5% was also added into the combination of cut oil palm frond and sawdust. The result showed that rice bran, corn meal or oil palm-kernel meal give yields between 142.2-165.0 g/bag (B.E. = 42.8-49.6, which were not statistically different. Oil palm pericarp waste was also used as main substrate for P. ostreatus cultivation. The average yield obtained during 40 days havesting period was 112.6 g/bag (B.E. = 64.3%. Addition of sawdust or rice bran into pericarp waste decreased the yield of the basidiocarps. Palm-kernel meal at the rate of 5-20% was used as a supplement material. Addition of 20% palmkernel meal into sawdust supported higher yield. The biological efficiency reached 55.8%. From the above results, four formulae of the substrate were prepared. Treatment of oil palm pericarp waste + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca(OH2 supported higher yield of the basidiocarps. The average yield obtained from 950 g of substrate was 190.2 g during 60 days havesting (B.E. = 57.2%. Using 6% palm-kernel substitute 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal supported the same yield (B.E. = 56.2% Using sawdust as the main substrate, the yield achieved was less than that obtained with oil palm pericarp waste. The average yield from treatment of sawdust + 3% rice bran + 3% corn meal + 0.75% Ca (OH2 was 154.0 g/bag (B.E. = 46.3% while treatment of sawdust + 6% palm-kernel meal + 0

  16. Transesterification of Palm Oil for the Production of Biodiesel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalizani Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Palm oil is known as an important source of edible oil with significant values of renewable energy. Depletion of petroleum had captured much attention on producing biodiesel from the palm oil. Approach: The most concerning methods for the production of biodiesel were discussed, namely transesterification (alkali and acid, enzymetic approach and supercritical alcohol. Results: The results showed the vis-a-vis of the methods for possible consideration of research. Conclusion: Concerning the importance of this vegetable oil, the contribution of palm oil towards diminution of fossil fuel, possible methods for the production of biodiesel and the opportunity for the futures is very much important.

  17. PRODUCTION OF PALM OIL WITH METHANE AVOIDANCE AT PALM OIL MILL: A CASE STUDY OF CRADLE-TO-GATE LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiew Wei Puah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study discusses a case study of cradle to gate life cycle assessment for the production of Crude Palm Oil (CPO with methane avoidance at palm oil mill. The improved milling process enables total utilization of the oil palm fruit to produce alow oil palm based food source. The minimal modification in the mill includes cleaning of Fresh Fruit Bunches (FFB and obtaining the low oil food source from the aqueous stream. The oil palm fruit processing plant enables the significant reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG such as methane and carbon dioxide emissions by avoiding the formation of liquid biomass in the form of Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME. The attributional Life Cycle Assessment (LCA shows the improved milling process contributes to significant reduction of GHG emission from palm oil mills as compared to the process of capturing biogas from POME. The palm based food source contains phytonutrients, namely carotenoids, tocols (tocopherol and tocotrienols and water soluble polyphenols.

  18. Population density of oil palm pollinator weevil Elaeidobius kamerunicus based on seasonal effect and age of oil palm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Syarifah Nadiah Syed Mat; Ghani, Idris Abd.

    2016-11-01

    The pollinating weevil, Elaedobius kamerunicus (EK) has been known to be the most efficient insect pollinator of oil palm, and has successfully improved the oil palm pollination and increased the yield. Its introduction has greatly reduced the need for assisted pollination. The purpose of this study was to identify the population density of oil palm pollinator weevil EK using the concept of pollinator force and to relate the population density with the seasonal effect and the age of oil palm at Lekir Oil Palm Plantation Batu 14, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. The pollinator force of the weevil was sustained at a range between 3095.2 to 19126.1 weevils per ha. The overall mean of weevil per spikelet shows that the range of weevil was between 13.51 and 54.06 per spikelet. There was no correlation between rainfall and population density of EK. However, positive correlation was obtained between weevil density and the number of anthesising female inflorescence of oil palm (r= 0.938, ppopulation density than that of a 8-year old oil palm stand. The information of this study should be useful as a baseline data to investigate why there is such a wide range of weevils per ha or spikelet. Further study should also be done to relate the number pollinator force per spikelete and the Fresh fruit Bunch (FFB), fruit set or fruit to bunch ratio.

  19. SSR mining in oil palm EST database: application in oil palm germplasm diversity studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ngoot-Chin Ting; Noorhariza Mohd Zaki; Rozana Rosli; Eng-Ti Leslie Low; Maizura Ithnin; Suan-Choo Cheah; Soon-Guan Tan; Rajinder Singh

    2010-08-01

    This study reports on the detection of additional expressed sequence tags (EST) derived simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers for the oil palm. A large collection of 19243 Elaeis guineensis ESTs were assembled to give 10258 unique sequences, of which 629 ESTs were found to contain 722 SSRs with a variety of motifs. Dinucleotide repeats formed the largest group (45.6%) consisting of 66.9% AG/CT, 21.9% AT/AT, 10.9% AC/GT and 0.3% CG/CG motifs. This was followed by trinucleotide repeats, which is the second most abundant repeat types (34.5%) consisting of AAG/CTT (23.3%), AGG/CCT (13.7%), CCG/CGG (11.2%), AAT/ATT (10.8%), AGC/GCT (10.0%), ACT/AGT (8.8%), ACG/CGT (7.6%), ACC/GGT (7.2%), AAC/GTT (3.6%) and AGT/ACT (3.6%) motifs. Primer pairs were designed for 405 unique EST-SSRs and 15 of these were used to genotype 105 E. guineensis and 30 E. oleifera accessions. Fourteen SSRs were polymorphic in at least one germplasm revealing a total of 101 alleles. The high percentage (78.0%) of alleles found to be specific for either E. guineensis or E. oleifera has increased the power for discriminating the two species. The estimates of genetic differentiation detected by EST-SSRs were compared to those reported previously. The transferability across palm taxa to two Cocos nucifera and six exotic palms is also presented. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of three primer-pairs detected in E. guineensis, E. oleifera, C. nucifera and Jessinia bataua were cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed mutations within the SSR site and the flanking regions. Phenetic analysis based on the sequence data revealed that C. nucifera is closer to oil palm compared to J. bataua; consistent with the taxanomic classification.

  20. Perbandingan Hasil Analisis Beberapa Parameter Mutu Pada Crude Palm Olein Yang Diperoleh Dari Pencampuran Cpo Dan Rbd Palm Olein Terhadap Teoretis

    OpenAIRE

    Alfian, Zul

    2010-01-01

    Telah dilakukan analisis crude palm olein yang diperoleh dari pencampuran crude palm oil dan RBD palm olein. Hasil analisisnya telah dibandingkan dengan hasil teoretisnya. Analisis crude palm olein tersebut didasarkan pada parameter-parameter kadar asam lemak bebas (ALB), kadar air, kadar pengotor. Hasil perbandingan menyimpulkan bahwa hasil analisis yang dilakukan untuk kadar asam lemak bebas: 1,02%, kadar air: 0,056%, kadar pengotor: 0,012%. Sedangkan hasil teoretis untuk kadar asam lemak...

  1. Utilization of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Binder in Lightweight Oil Palm Shell Geopolymer Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Yong Jing Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally fly ash (FA has been used to replace cement as binder in the geopolymer concrete. The utilization of palm oil industrial waste materials known as palm oil fuel ash (POFA and oil palm shell (OPS that are abundantly available in South East Asia as binder and coarse aggregate in geopolymer concrete would give an added advantage in both the environmental and economic aspects. The mechanical properties of the OPS geopolymer concrete (OPSGC through the use of POFA, FA, and OPS are investigated and reported. A total of ten OPSGC mixtures were prepared with varying percentages of POFA and FA such as 0, 10, 20, 40, and 100%. The specimens prepared with two alkaline solution to binder (AK/B ratios of 0.35 and 0.55 were oven cured at 65°C for 48 hours. The experimental results showed that the highest compressive strength of 30 MPa was obtained for the mix with 20% replacement of FA by POFA and AK/B ratio of 0.55, which underwent oven curing. Further, the mix of up to 20% POFA (with AK/B ratio of 0.55 can be categorized as structural lightweight concrete. An increase of the POFA content beyond 20% decreases the mechanical properties, and hence this mix is recommended to be used.

  2. Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don.-a potential ethnomedicinal species in a subtropical forest of Meghalaya, northeast India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Solomon Jeeva; Febreena Grace Lyndem; Jasmine Therese Sawian; Roytre Christopher Laloo; Banu Prakash Mishra

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of anthropogenic activities on the population structure and regeneration efficacy of Myrica esculenta (M. esculenta), an ethnomedicinally important tree species in sub-tropical forests of Meghalaya. Methods: The population structure and regeneration potential of M. esculenta were studied by using quadrat method. Results: The regeneration status of M. esculenta was highly influenced by disturbance. Presence of limited number of seedlings in the forest floor denotes the lack of seeds in the forests. The low conversion of seedling into saplings was mainly due to the removal saplings by the indigenous community, who residing in the vicinity of the forest for meeting their requirement of fuel wood. Conclusions:The findings of the present study indicate that overexploitation of M. esculenta may cause threat to extinction from wild. There is an obvious need to explore non timber forest products to a desired pace that will minimize the pressure on a particular species by providing alternative to a species, leading to sustainable utilization of genetic resources.

  3. Isothermal Crystallization Kinetics of Palm Oil with Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the isothermal crystallization kinetics of palm oil with additives by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. The induction time of nucleation and crystallization are obtained by simulating the crystal process using the Gompertz model. The equilibrium melting temperature is obtained via the Hoffman-Weeks methods. The Gibbs free energy of nucleation was calculated by using the Fisher-Turnbull equation and the equilibrium melting temperature. The results indicate that the span 85 has an inhibition effect on nucleation and crystallization kinetics of palm oil. The span 85 can raise the equilibrium melting temperature of palm oil. The span 85 can obviously delay the induction time of nucleation and crystallization at 0.01 and 0.1% level. Although span 85 at 0.05% concentration level also can delay the induction time, it exhibits an effect of promoting nucleation. However, the crystal is uncomplicated in the system containing additives compared to the pure palm oil.

  4. Exploring Opportunities for Sustainability in the Malaysian Palm Oil Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Padfield, Rory; Hansen, Sune Balle; Preece, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    The global thirst for vegetable oil can be regarded as one of the greatest environmental challenges of the 21st Century and interest has intensified with the prospect of biofuels. Palm oil has risen to become the dominant player on the vegetable oil market – and the main recipient of environmental...... scrutiny. Focusing specifically on the Malaysian context, this paper analyses the major environmental, social and economic impacts associated with palm oil production. Drawing on recently published research, publicly available data and a comparison made with a recent sustainability initiative undertaken...... by the hydropower industry – an equally controversial and highly scrutinised sector – it is argued that the full extent of the impacts of palm oil should be acknowledged by those on both sides of the debate. Moreover, it is argued that by moving towards a less polarised version of the palm oil narrative and one...

  5. Canary Island Date Palm - Orange Co. [ds349

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This dataset provides the known distribution of Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June,...

  6. Assembly and phylogenetic structure of Neotropical palm communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Balslev, Henrik

    Diversity, composition and dynamics of Neotropical palm communities are receiving an increasing amount of attention due to their economic importance, but also because their high species richness and functional diversity render them valuable model systems for overall forest biodiversity. However...

  7. PALM-COEIN Nomenclature for Abnormal Uterine Bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deneris, Angela

    2016-05-01

    Approximately 30% of women will experience abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) during their life time. Previous terms defining AUB have been confusing and imprecisely applied. As a consequence, both clinical management and research on this common problem have been negatively impacted. In 2011, the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Menstrual Disorders Group (FMDG) published PALM-COEIN, a new classification system for abnormal bleeding in the reproductive years. Terms such as menorrhagia, menometrorrhagia, metrorrhagia, dysfunctional uterine bleeding, polymenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, and uterine hemorrhage are no longer recommended. The PALM-COEIN system was developed to standardize nomenclature to describe the etiology and severity of AUB. A brief description of the PALM-COEIN nomenclature is presented as well as treatment options for each etiology. Clinicians will frequently encounter women with AUB and should report findings utilizing the PALM-COEIN system.

  8. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm, Rodolfo

    2005-11-01

    This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. The results suggest that, within the spatial scale considered, the seed rain of A. maripa is more restricted to the area surrounding around reproductive conspecifics than that of A. aculeatum. Furthermore, in comparison with those of A. aculeatum, the smaller seeds of A. maripa might be less attractive to scatterhoarding rodents (e.g. Dasyprocta aguti). The pattern observed emphasizes the importance of scatterhoarding rodents as dispersers of large-seeded plant species in Neotropical forests.

  9. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Salm

    Full Text Available This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl. Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. The results suggest that, within the spatial scale considered, the seed rain of A. maripa is more restricted to the area surrounding around reproductive conspecifics than that of A. aculeatum. Furthermore, in comparison with those of A. aculeatum, the smaller seeds of A. maripa might be less attractive to scatterhoarding rodents (e.g. Dasyprocta aguti. The pattern observed emphasizes the importance of scatterhoarding rodents as dispersers of large-seeded plant species in Neotropical forests.

  10. Microwave-assisted biodiesel production by esterification of palm fatty acid distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokman, Ibrahim M; Rashid, Umer; Zainal, Zulkarnain; Yunus, Robiah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin

    2014-01-01

    In the current research work, effect of microwave irradiation energy on the esterification of palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) to produce PFAD methyl ester / biodiesel was intensively appraised. The PFAD is a by-product from refinery of crude palm oil consisting >85% of free fatty acid (FFA). The esterification reaction process with acid catalyst is needed to convert the FFA into fatty acid methyl ester or known as biodiesel. In this work, fabricated microwave-pulse width modulation (MPWM) reactor with controlled temperature was designed to be capable to increase the PFAD biodiesel production rate. The classical optimization technique was used in order to study the relationship and the optimum condition of variables involved. Consequently, by using MPWM reactor, mixture of methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio of 9:1, 1 wt.% of sulfuric acid catalyst, at 55°C reaction temperature within 15 min reaction time gave 99.5% of FFA conversion. The quality assessment and properties of the product were analyzed according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), European (EN) standard methods and all results were in agreement with the standard requirements. It revealed that the use of fabricated MPWM with controlled temperature was significantly affecting the rate of esterification reaction and also increased the production yield of PFAD methyl ester.

  11. Production and characterization of biodiesel using palm kernel oil; fresh and recovered from spent bleaching earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiodun Aladetuyi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel oil (PKO was recovered from spent bleaching earth with a yield of 16 %, using n-hexane while the fresh oil was extracted from palm kernel with n-hexane and a yield of 40.23% was obtained. These oils were trans-esterified with methanol under the same reaction conditions: 100 oC, 2 h reaction time, and oil-methanol ratio of 5:1 (w/v. The cocoa pod ash (CPA was compared with potassium hydroxide (KOH as catalyst. The percentage yields of biodiesel obtained from PKO catalysed by CPA and KOH were 94 and 90%, respectively. While the yields achieved using the recovered oil catalysed by CPA and KOH were measured at 86 and 81.20 %. The physico-chemical properties of the biodiesel produced showed that the flash point, viscosity, density, ash content, percentage carbon content, specific gravity and the acid value fell within American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM specifications for biodiesel. The findings of this study suggest that agricultural residues such as CPA used in this study could be explored as alternatives for KOH catalyst for biodiesel production.

  12. The Kalimantan Border Oil Palm Mega-project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakker, E. [AIDEnvironment, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2006-04-15

    A few years ago, the Indonesian government and sections of the palm oil industry united in the Indonesian Palm Oil Commission (IPOC) to undertake efforts to restore the atrocious public image that the palm oil industry had earned abroad for its role in the demise of Indonesia's tropical rainforests, the massive forest fires and haze in 1997-1998, and for the widespread conflicts between plantation companies and local communities. If IPOC succeeded in restoring the palm oil industry's image abroad, it was shattered again after June 2005 when the Indonesian Minister of Agriculture revealed details of a government plan to develop the world's largest oil palm plantation in a 5-10 kilometer band along the border of Kalimantan and Malaysia. To finance the USD 567 million plantation project, the Indonesian President and Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KADIN) had already met up with the Chinese government and private sector several times, resulting in Memoranda of Understanding between (among other) the Artha Graha and Sinar Mas groups from Indonesia and the Chinese CITIC group and Chinese Development Bank (CDB). The oil palm mega-project, launched in Indonesia under the banner of 'bringing prosperity, security and environmental protection to the Kalimantan border area', turned sour when a business plan developed by the Indonesian State Plantation Corporation (PTPN) began to circulate. This document contained a map that showed beyond doubt how the 1.8 million hectare oil palm project would trash the primary forests of three National Parks, cut through rugged slopes and mountains utterly unsuitable for oil palm cultivation and annihilate the customary rights land of the indigenous Dayak communities in the border area. This report describes what has come of the Kalimantan border oil palm mega-plan since it was announced, who is involved and what research, lobby and campaigning has led to so far. In particular, this study aims to inform civil

  13. Oil palm plantation effects on water quality in Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, K. M.; Curran, L. M.

    2011-12-01

    Global demand for palm oil has stimulated a 7-fold increase in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantation area in Indonesia since 1990. Expansion will continue as Indonesia plans to double current production by 2020. Oil palm fertilizers, effluent from oil palm mills, and erosion from land clearing and roads threaten river water quality near plantations. These rivers provide essential ecosystem services including water for drinking, cooking, and washing. Robust empirical measurements of plantation expansion impacts on water resources are necessary to discern the effects of agribusiness on local livelihoods and ecosystems. In Ketapang District, West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo, we evaluated the effects of land cover change on water quality by assessing water chemistry in streams draining four end-member watersheds ( ~600-1900 ha watershed-1): Logged forest, mixed agro-forest dominated by rubber and upland rice fallows, young oil palm forest (0-5 years), and old oil palm forest (10-15 years). To assess land cover change, we used CLASLite software to derive fractional cover from a time series (1989-2008) of Landsat data. Nearest neighbor classification and post-classification change detection yielded classes including primary forest, logged forest, secondary forest regrowth, smallholder agriculture, and oil palm. Stream water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, optical chlorphyll, and pH) and quantity (discharge) were quantified with the YSI 6600-V2 sonde. The sonde was deployed in each stream for month-long intervals 2-3 times from 2009-2010. Such extended deployment captures episodic events such as intense storms and allows examination of interdiel dynamics by sampling continuously and at high frequency, every 10 minutes. We find that across the Ketapang District study region (~12,000 km2), oil palm has cleared mostly forests (49%) and agroforests (39%). What are the impacts of such land cover changes on water quality? Compared to forests and

  14. Palm diversity and abundance in the Colombian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Copete, Juan Carlos; Pedersen, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    We studied diversity and abundance of palms in the eastern Colombian Amazon in 71 transects, 61 measuring 5×500 m and 10 transects measuring 4×500 m, innventoring a total of 17.25 hectares. We found a total of 74 species in 21 genera. In terra firme we found 68 species in 20 genera and an average...... found in this study (Euterpe precatoria, Oenocarpus bataua, Attalea butyracea, Iriartella setigera) coincide with dominant species in other Amazonian palm communities....

  15. Pulping and paper properties of Palmyra palm fruit fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Waranyou Sridach

    2010-01-01

    Palmyra palm fruit fibers have the properties to be used as an alternative raw material of cellulosic pulps for papermaking.Acid and alkali pulping were investigated by using nitric acid and caustic soda on a laboratory scale, with the purpose of producing printing or writing grade pulp. The chemical composition of fiber strands from palmyra palm fruits were examined, such as holocellulose, cellulose, pentosan, lignin and extractives. The yields of acid and soda pulps were below 40%. The main...

  16. The heart of date palm: its nutritional and functional constituents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Movahed

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L. is one of the three important fruit crops in the palm family. Kabkub is the main cultivated species in southern part of Iran, Bushehr. Every part of this tree has its own uses. The tree's terminal buds (heart of palm or palmitos are believed to have many nutritional values. As a folk medicine, it has been used for the improvement of stamina and treatment of sexual weakness. In order to evaluate the nutritional values of this product of date palm, we analyzed the total carbohydrates, proteins, minerals, and fats in the sample. Methods: The palm hearts were obtained from local trees, minced, dried, and ground to powder. Fats were extracted and analyzed using Bligh-Dyer method and gas chromatography. Total proteins and carbohydrates were determined by Kjeldahl and Lane-Eynon methods, respectively. The minerals were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: The total fat content of the sample was 0.27g/28g. The unsaturated fatty acids present in the sample were mainly linoleic, linolenic and oleic acids, all together comprised 27.2% of the fats. Palmitic acid was the main saturated fat. The total protein estimated was 0.3g/28g. The carbohydrate content of the palm heart was 2.29 g and the minerals present in the sample were mainly Zn, Fe, Mg, P, Mn, Ca, Cu, Na, K, and Se. Conclusion: Date palm contains many essential fatty acids and known anti-inflammatory nutrients including zinc. The amount of crude fiber present in the heart of palm makes it as a valuable dietary product to be used as a tasty fat-cholesterol free nutrient.

  17. Is the secondary thickening in palms always diffuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARLI P. BOTaNICO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other arboreal monocotyledons, the secondary growth of palms has for the past 100 years been described as diffuse. Solely cell enlargement and random parenchyma divisions, without the activity of a meristem, characterize such growth. Some previous works of the early 20th century have, however, mentioned the presence of a secondary meristem in the stems of palms, but this information was forgotten since then. Addressing to this question, we analysed palm stems of four species, with the aim to understand the possible presence of such secondary growth. We found that a meristematic band occurs between the cortex and the central cylinder and gives rise to new vascular bundles and parenchyma internally, producing parenchyma and fibres externally. It appears secondarily, i.e., it undergoes meristematic activity in the median and basal stem regions, far away from the apical region. In fact, a meristematic band is present and may be more common than currently believed, but uneasy to detect in certain palms for being restricted to specific regions of their stems. In conclusion, the diffuse secondary thickening is here shown not to be the only mechanism of secondary growth in palms. The presence of a meristem band in the stems of palms merits careful reconsideration.

  18. Frying performance of palm-based solid frying shortening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, M N; Nor-Nazuha, M N; Nor-Dalilah, M N; Sahri, M M

    2010-03-15

    In order to evaluate the frying performance of palm-based solid frying shortening against standard olein, the fresh potato chips were fried in both frying media using an open fryer. After frying the chips for 40 h in an open batch fryer, it was found that the frying quality of palm-based solid frying shortening was better than standard palm olein in terms of Free Fatty Acid (FFA) values, Total Polar Content (TPC) and Total Polymeric Material (TPM). Solid shortening gave FFA, TPC and TPM values of 0.7, 15.3 and 2.67%, respectively, whilst standard palm olein gave values for FFA, TPC and TPM of 1.2, 19.6 and 3.10%, respectively. In terms of sensory mean scores, sensory panelists preferred the color of potato chips fried in solid shortening on the first day of frying, while on the third and fifth day of frying there were no significant differences (p palm olein when used for deep fat frying in terms of FFA values, total polar content and total polymeric material, especially for starch-based products such as potato chips. The result also shows that, in terms of sensory mean scores, after frying for 40 h, the sensory panelists gave higher scores in terms of taste, flavor and crispiness for potato chips fried in palm-based solid shortening.

  19. Feasibility study of gasification of oil palm fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.A. Sulaiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the large and consistent supply, oil palm fronds could be a promising source of biomass energy through gasification. There is very scarce information on the characteristics of oil palm fronds, which is vital in deciding if such biomass is technically suitable for gasification. In the present work, the feasibility of oil palm fronds for biomass gasification is studied. The study is conducted experimentally via standard tests to determine their thermochemical characteristics. Ultimate analysis is conducted to determine the contents of carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and sulphide in oil palm fronds. Proximate analysis is performed to identify the burning characteristics of the biomass. The energy content in the fronds is determined by using a bomb calorie meter and is around 18 MJ/kg. The ignitability of the fronds is also studied experimentally to assess the ease to start-up combustion of the fronds. The characteristics of the flame of the resulting syngas from gasification of oil palm fronds are qualitatively studied. Simulated syngas composition study reveals potentials of 22% CO, 1.3% H2, 18.5% CO2 and traces of CH4. The study is extended to computer simulation to predict composition of the syngas. It is found from this work that oil palm fronds are feasible for gasification and has a good potential as a renewable energy source.

  20. Utilization of Palm Oil Clinker as Cement Replacement Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegathish Kanadasan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of waste materials from the palm oil industry provides immense benefit to various sectors of the construction industry. Palm oil clinker is a by-product from the processing stages of palm oil goods. Channelling this waste material into the building industry helps to promote sustainability besides overcoming waste disposal problems. Environmental pollution due to inappropriate waste management system can also be drastically reduced. In this study, cement was substituted with palm oil clinker powder as a binder material in self-compacting mortar. The fresh, hardened and microstructure properties were evaluated throughout this study. In addition, sustainability component analysis was also carried out to assess the environmental impact of introducing palm oil clinker powder as a replacement material for cement. It can be inferred that approximately 3.3% of cement production can be saved by substituting palm oil clinker powder with cement. Reducing the utilization of cement through a high substitution level of this waste material will also help to reduce carbon emissions by 52%. A cleaner environment free from pollutants can be created to ensure healthier living. Certain industries may benefit through the inclusion of this waste material as the cost and energy consumption of the product can be minimized.

  1. Silage quality of Piata palisadegrass with palm kernel cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rângelis de Sousa Figueredo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed to evaluate silage quality of Piata palisadegrass with palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.. The experiment was carried out at the Federal Institute of Goiás State, Campus Rio Verde, in a completely randomized design with four treatments and five repetitions. The treatments consisted of Piata palisadegrass ensiled with palm kernel in the levels of 0, 5, 10 and 15% on a natural basis of the Piata palisadegrass. The material was minced, mixed, packed into experimental silos and opened after 60 days of fermentation. The palm kernel cake is an agro-industrial by-product that can enrich the silage, increasing its nutritional value.The addition of palm kernel cake improved the fermentative and bromatological parameters of the silage, increasing the dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, and total digestible nutrients, with a reduction in the fiber fraction, values of pH, ammonia nitrogen, and titratable acidity. The use of palm kernel cake in Piata palisadegrass silage increase the fractions A, B1, B2 and in vitro dry matter digestibility, and decrease the fractions B3 and C. For achieving the best quality silage it is recommended the addition of 15% palm kernel cake.

  2. Development of an aerial counting system in oil palm plantations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulyma Miserque Castillo, Jhany; Laverde Diaz, Rubbermaid; Rueda Guzmán, Claudia Leonor

    2016-07-01

    This paper proposes the development of a counting aerial system capable of capturing, process and analyzing images of an oil palm plantation to register the number of cultivated palms. It begins with a study of the available UAV technologies to define the most appropriate model according to the project needs. As result, a DJI Phantom 2 Vision+ is used to capture pictures that are processed by a photogrammetry software to create orthomosaics from the areas of interest, which are handled by the developed software to calculate the number of palms contained in them. The implemented algorithm uses a sliding window technique in image pyramids to generate candidate windows, an LBP descriptor to model the texture of the picture, a logistic regression model to classify the windows and a non-maximum suppression algorithm to refine the decision. The system was tested in different images than the ones used for training and for establishing the set point. As result, the system showed a 95.34% detection rate with a 97.83% precision in mature palms and a 79.26% detection rate with a 97.53% precision in young palms giving an FI score of 0.97 for mature palms and 0.87 for the small ones. The results are satisfactory getting the census and high-quality images from which is possible to get more information from the area of interest. All this, achieved through a low-cost system capable of work even in cloudy conditions.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF PALM OIL MILL EFFLUENT AND OIL PALM FROND WASTE MIXTURE AS AN ALTERNATIVE BIOMASS FUEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. HASSAN, L. S. KEE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil mill effluent (POME sludge generated from palm oil mill industry and oil palm frond (OPF from oil palm plantation are considered biomass wastes that can be fully utilized as a renewable energy sources. In this study, an attempt has been made to convert these residues into solid biomass fuel. The study was conducted by developing experimental testing on the POME and OPF mixture. The performance of each sample with different weight percentage was investigated using standard tests. The biomass mixture was converted into compressed form of briquette through a simple process. The properties of the briquettes were observed and compared at different weight percentage following standard testing methods included ultimate and proximate analyses, burning characteristics, dimensional stability and crack analysis. Experimental results showed that POME sludge and OPF mixture is feasible as an alternative biomass fuel, with briquette of 90:10 POME sludge to OPF ratio has a good combination of properties as an overall.

  4. Red palm oil-supplemented and biofortified cassava gari increase the carotenoid and retinyl palmitate concentrations of triacylglycerol-rich plasma in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghao; Cai, Yimeng; Gertz, Erik R; La Frano, Michael R; Burnett, Dustin J; Burri, Betty J

    2015-11-01

    Boiled biofortified cassava containing β-carotene can increase retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma. Thus, it might alleviate vitamin A deficiency. Cassava requires extensive preparation to decrease its level of cyanogenic glucosides, which can be fatal. Garification is a popular method of preparing cassava that removes cyanogen glucosides. Our objective was to compare the effectiveness of biofortified gari to gari prepared with red palm oil. The study was a randomized crossover trial in 8 American women. Three gari preparations separated by 2-week washout periods were consumed. Treatments (containing 200-225.9 g gari) were as follows: biofortified gari (containing 1 mg β-carotene), red palm oil-fortified gari (1 mg β-carotene), and unfortified gari with a 0.3-mg retinyl palmitate reference dose. Blood was collected 6 times from -0.5 to 9.5 hours after ingestion. Triacylglycerol-rich plasma was separated by ultracentrifugation and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection. Area under the curve for β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate increased after the fortified meals were fed (P palm oil treatment was greater than that induced by the biofortified treatment (P palm oil and biofortified gari, respectively. These results show that both treatments increased β-carotene, α-carotene, and retinyl palmitate in triacylglycerol-rich plasma concentrations in healthy well-nourished adult women, supporting our hypothesis that both interventions could support efforts to alleviate vitamin A deficiency.

  5. Surveillance of multidrug resistance of 6 uropathogens in a teaching hospital and in vitro control by 25 ethnomedicinal plants used by an aborigine of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shakti Rath; Debasmita Dubey; Mahesh C Sahu; Nagen K Debata; Rabindra N Padhy

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antimicrobial potencies of 25 plants with reports on ethnomedicinal uses for infectious ailments by the aborigine Kandha tribe of Kalahandi district, Odisha state, India for urinary tract infections. Methods: Over a period of 6 months, multidrug resistant (MDR) strains of 6 uropathogenic bacteria Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii), Citrobacter freundii (C. freundii), Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca), Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis), Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were isolated from clinical samples in a teaching hospital; their antibiograms were ascertained. Concentrated aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves and barks of plants were used for monitoring their antimicrobial potencies, by the agar-well diffusion method. Phytochemical analyses of plant parts were done. Results: All isolated bacterial strains were resistant to 15 antibiotics of 6 groups including β-lactams. From a surveillance of bacterial isolates, it was evident that the distribution of MDR strains of each was more in hospital acquired isolates than the community acquired ones. Both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of plants, Aegle marmelos (A. marmelos), Azadirachta indica (A. indica) and Withaniasomnifera Several plants were moderately effective during in vitro control of the pathogens. Plants, Anthocephalus cadamba (A. cadamba), Cleistanthus collinus (C. collinus) and Oroxylum indicum (O. indicum) were totally ineffective in the control of isolated MDR uropathogen. A. indica, T. arjuna and T. alata contained the full range of phytochemicals (alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, reducing sugars, saponins, tannins, flavonoids and steroids), which could be attributed to the significant anti-uropathogenic activities. Conclusion: Plants, A. indica, A. marmelos, Cassiafistula (W. somnifera) were highly effective against MDR isolates of all these pathogens. (C. fistula), T. arjuna, Salvadora persica (S. persica), W. somnifera and Vitex

  6. The Factors Influencing on Consumption of Palm Cooking Oil in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Ermy Teti; Sakti Hutabarat; Asriati Nofionna

    2011-01-01

    Cooking oil is one of the most sensitive basic needs in Indonesia. The aims of the researchare to analyze factors influencing consumption of cooking oil, the cooking oil price, and theCrude Palm Oil price in Indonesia. Using simultaneous equation model, the study show thatpalm cooking oil consumption is significantly affected by domestic palm cooking oil priceand number of population. Whilst palm cooking oil price is significantly influenced by thecooking palm oil production and the domestic ...

  7. Pollution Control: How Feasible is Zero Discharge Concepts in Malaysia Palm Oil Mills

    OpenAIRE

    Yahaya S. Madaki

    2013-01-01

    Many palm oil mills in Malaysia still discharged either partially treated or raw palm oil mill effluent (POME) into nearby rivers. Either partially treated or untreated POME depletes a water body of its oxygen and suffocates aquatic life. Vast amounts of biogas are also generated during anaerobic digestion of POME. This paper presented the key findings from the survey mailed to 86 palm oil mills located in Sarawak and Sabah. The survey results provide an overview of the position of the palm o...

  8. Palm Based Mono-Diacylglyceride as an Emulsifier in Producing Chocolate with Cocoa Butter Substitute

    OpenAIRE

    Hasrul Abdi Hasibuan; , Ijah; Aga Prima Hardika

    2015-01-01

    Emulsifier used in the preparation of chocolate has the function to stabilize fat and water that can prevent the occurrence of blooming. Emulsifier generallyused in the preparation of chocolate is lecithin. However as an alternative monodiacylglycerol (MDAG) can be used. MDAG can be synthesized from vegetableoil such as palm oil and its fraction. This research was conducted to study the effect of palm MDAG and variation of its concentration on quality of chocolate. The palm MDAG used was palm...

  9. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Shamim Ahmad; Vijaya Subramaniam; Halimah Mohammad; Anis Mokhtar; Ismail, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefor...

  10. Linking Agricultural Trade, Land Demand and Environmental Externalities: Case of Oil Palm in South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Othman, Jamal

    2003-01-01

    Reduction of support measures affecting soybean oil in the major soybean producing countries, as a consequence of WTO rules, coupled with rising demand for palm oil in non-traditional palm oil importing countries may lead to pronounced increases in agricultural land demand for oil palm expansion in Malaysia and Indonesia – two main palm oil producing and exporting countries. However, it is expected that the effects on agricultural land demand and consequently impact upon the environment will ...

  11. Palm oil and derivatives: fuels or potential fuels?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pioch Daniel

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Scientific and technical information including field trials about uses of palm oil as fuel has been available for more than half a century now. Several ways were investigated, from the simple mixture with petroleum Diesel fuel, to more sophisticated solutions. The quality of vegetable oils in natura as fuel is difficult to assess because of interferences between properties of the triacylglycerols – the main components – and those of the many minor components, their content varying significantly from sample to sample. A methodology set up at Cirad allowed to investigate separately natural triacylglycerols alone and the effect of minor components. In addition to these laboratory experiments, engine test at bench and field trials performed in palm oil producing countries, show that this oil is among the best oils as fuel; palm kernel oil whose chemical and physical properties are very close to those of the best of the series investigated, namely copra oil, should display also very interesting properties as Diesel biofuel. Both oils do require external adaptation of the engine when using an indirect injection type engine but even heavier adaptations for a direct injection model. Thus for use as Diesel fuel palm and palm kernel oils are suitable for captive fleets or for engine gensets, to balance the adaptation cost by a scale-up effect either on the number of identical engines or on the nominal vegetable oil consumption per set. Direct use of palm et palm kernel oils fits very well with technical and economical conditions encountered in remote areas. It is also possible to mix palm oil to Diesel fuel either as simple blend or as micro-emulsion. Out of the direct use, palm oil methyl or ethyl ester, often referred to as biodiesel, displays properties similar to those of petroleum Diesel fuel. This technical solution which is suitable to feed all kinds of standard compression ignited engines requires a chemical plant for carrying out the

  12. Palm oil: a healthful and cost-effective dietary component.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, A S H; Goh, S H

    2002-03-01

    Palm oil is an excellent choice for food manufacturers because of its nutritional benefits and versatility. The oil is highly structured to contain predominantly oleic acid at the sn2-position in the major triacylglycerols to account for the beneficial effects described in numerous nutritional studies. Oil quality and nutritional benefits have been assured for the variety of foods that can be manufactured from the oil directly or from blends with other oils while remaining trans-free. The oxidative stability coupled with the cost-effectiveness is unparalleled among cholesterol-free oils, and these values can be extended to blends of polyunsaturated oils to provide long shelf-life. Presently the supply of genetic-modification-free palm oil is assured at economic prices, since the oil palm is a perennial crop with unparalleled productivity. Numerous studies have confirmed the nutritional value of palm oil as a result of the high monounsaturation at the crucial 2-position of the oil's triacylglycerols, making the oil as healthful as olive oil. It is now recognized that the contribution of dietary fats to blood lipids and cholesterol modulation is a consequence of the digestion, absorption, and metabolism of the fats. Lipolytic hydrolysis of palm oil glycerides containing predominantly oleic acid at the 2 position and palmitic and stearic acids at the 1 and 3 positions allows for the ready absorption of the 2-monoacrylglycerols while the saturated free fatty acids remain poorly absorbed. Dietary palm oil in balanced diets generally reduced blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides while raising the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Improved lipoprotein(a) and apo-A1 levels were also demonstrated from palm oil diets; an important benefits also comes from the lowering of blood triglycerides (or reduced fat storage) as compared with those from polyunsaturated fat diets. Virgin palm oil also provides carotenes apart from

  13. Ensilage of cardboard and date palm leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroon, Z; El-Nawawy, A S; Al-Othman, A

    2004-01-01

    Eight treatments of cardboard (CB) and date palm leaves (DPL) with or without alkali treatments plus molasses, dates, and ammonium sulfate were ensiled in laboratory silos. Latobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculants were added at an application rate of 10(5) cfu/g of silage to study their possible influence on the fermentation process. Silos were sealed and incubated at 30 degrees C. The anaerobic ensiling was evaluated for chemical and microbiological variables by opening the silos after 30, 60, and 90 days. After 90 days, significantly low pH values (5.2-3.5) were obtained. The percentages of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and ash were determined. Concentrations of reducing sugars, ether extract, and crude protein tended to be acceptable among treatments. Silages showed a significantly high lactic acid concentration (up to 4.3%) and only traces of butyric acid (below 1%). Also changes in acetic and propionic acids concentrations were determined. Lactobacillus populations remained almost static while yeast and molds populations tended to be lower after 90 days of ensilage. Neither alkali treatment nor microbial inoculants showed a relationship with the ensiling process. Thus, overall, it was concluded that CB and DPL can be effectively ensiled and the resultant silages are acceptable to merit their use as ruminant feed in arid regions.

  14. Palm Date Fibers: Analysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Waste palm dates were subjected to analysis for composition and enzymatic hydrolysis of their flesh fibers. The fruit contained 32% glucose and 30% fructose, while the water-insoluble fibers of its flesh consisted of 49.9% lignin and 20.9% polysaccharides. Water-insoluble fibers were settled to 55% of its initial volume in 12 h. The presence of skin and flesh colloidal fibers results in high viscosity and clogging problems during industrial processes. The settling velocity of the fibers was improved by enzymatic hydrolysis. Hydrolysis resulted in 84.3% conversion of the cellulosic part of the fibers as well as reducing the settling time to 10 minutes and the final settled volume to 4% of the initial volume. It implies easier separation of the fibers and facilitates fermentation processes in the corresponding industries. Two kinds of high- and low-lignin fibers were identified from the water-insoluble fibers. The high-lignin fibers (75% lignin settled easily, while the low-lignin fibers (41.4% lignin formed a slurry suspension which settled very slowly. The hydrophilicity of these low-lignin fibers is the major challenge of the industrial processes.

  15. Ethyl ester production from (RBD palm oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Mauricio Martínez Ávila

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work develops a methodology for obtaining ethyl esters from RBD (refined, bleached and deodorised palm oil by evaluating the oil’s transesterification and separation. Two catalysts were first tested (KOH and NaOH by studying the effect of water presence on the reaction. The separation process was then evaluated by using water and water-salt and water-acid mixtures, establishing the agent offering the best results and carrying out the purification stage. Raw materials and products were characterised for comparing the latter with those obtained by traditional means and verifying the quality of the esters so produced; minimum differences were found bet-ween both. The proposed methodology thus allows esters to be used as raw material in petrochemical industry applications. A more profitable process can be obtained compared to those used today, given the amounts of separation agent so established (1% H3PO4 solution, in water. The overall process achieved 74.4% yield, based on the oil being used.

  16. Compatibility of elastomers in palm biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseeb, A.S.M.A.; Masjuki, H.H.; Siang, C.T.; Fazal, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2010-10-15

    In recent time, environmental awareness and concern over the rapid exhaustion of fossil fuels have led to an increased popularity of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for automobiles. However, there are concerns over enhanced degradation of automotive materials in biodiesel. The present study aims to investigate the impact of palm biodiesel on the degradation behavior of elastomers such as nitrile rubber (NBR), polychloroprene, and fluoro-viton A. Static immersion tests in B0 (diesel), B10 (10% biodiesel in diesel), B100 (biodiesel) were carried out at room temperature (25 C) and at 50 C for 500 h. At the end of immersion test, degradation behavior was investigated by measuring mass, volume, hardness as well as tensile strength and elongation. The exposed elastomer surface was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was carried out to identify the chemical and structural changes. Results showed that the extent of degradation was higher for both polychloroprene and NBR while fluoro-viton exhibited good resistance to degradation and was least attacked. (author)

  17. Fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell (OPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2015-04-01

    Biomass is an important renewable source of energy. Residues that are obtained from harvesting and agricultural products can be utilised as fuel for energy generation by conducting any thermal energy conversion technology. The conversion of biomass to bio oil is one of the prospective alternative energy resources. Therefore, in this study fast pyrolysis of oil palm shell was conducted. The main objective of this study was to find the optimum condition for high yield bio-oil production. The experiment was conducted using fixed-bed fluidizing pyrolysis system. The biomass sample was pyrolysed at variation temperature of 450°C - 650°C and at variation residence time of 0.9s - 1.35s. The results obtained were further discussed in this paper. The basic characteristic of the biomass sample was also presented here. The experiment shows that the optimum bio-oil yield was obtained at temperature of 500°C at residence time 1.15s.

  18. Synthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoate from palm oil and some new applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudesh, Kumar; Bhubalan, Kesaven; Chuah, Jo-Ann; Kek, Yik-Kang; Kamilah, Hanisah; Sridewi, Nanthini; Lee, Yan-Fen

    2011-03-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a potential substitute for some petrochemical-based plastics. This biodegradable plastic is derived from microbial fermentation using various carbon substrates. Since carbon source has been identified as one of the major cost-absorbing factors in PHA production, cheap and renewable substrates are currently being investigated as substitutes for existing sugar-based feedstock. Plant oils have been found to result in high-yield PHA production. Malaysia, being the world's second largest producer of palm oil, is able to ensure continuous supply of palm oil products for sustainable PHA production. The biosynthesis and characterization of various types of PHA using palm oil products have been described in detail in this review. Besides, by-products and waste stream from palm oil industry have also demonstrated promising results as carbon sources for PHA biosynthesis. Some new applications in cosmetic and wastewater treatment show the diversity of PHA usage. With proper management practices and efficient milling processes, it may be possible to supply enough palm oil-based raw materials for human consumption and other biotechnological applications such as production of PHA in a sustainable manner.

  19. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  20. Regioisomerism of triacylglycerols in lard, tallow, yolk, chicken skin, palm oil, palm olein, palm stearin, and a transesterified blend of palm stearin and coconut oil analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallio, H; Yli-Jokipii, K; Kurvinen, J P; Sjövall, O; Tahvonen, R

    2001-07-01

    Triacylglycerols (TAG) of lard, tallow, egg yolk, chicken skin, palm oil, palm olein, palm stearin, and a transesterified blend of palm stearin and coconut oil (82:18) were investigated by chemical ionization and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry. Accurate molecular level information of the regioisomeric structures of individual TAGs was achieved. When existing in a TAG molecule of lard, palmitic acid occupied 90-100% of the sn-2 position. Within the major fatty acid combinations in tallow TAGs, the secondary position sn-2 was preferentially occupied in the decreasing order by oleoyl > palmitoyl > stearoyl residues, the order in saturated TAGs being myristoyl > stearoyl = palmitoyl. TAGs in egg yolk were more asymmetric than in chicken skin, with linoleic acid highly specifically attached in the yolk sn-2 carbon. Nearly 50% of yolk TAGs contained 52 carbon atoms with two or three double bonds. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids were in the sn-2 location in decreasing quantities in palm oil and its fractions. Triacylglycerols of equal molecular weight behaved similarly in the fractionation process. Randomization of the parent oil TAGs was seen in the transesterified oil. The tandem mass spectrometric analysis applied provided detailed information of the distribution of fatty acids in individual combinations in TAGs.

  1. Powered exoskeleton with palm degrees of freedom for hand rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel S; Georgilas, Ioannis; Dagnino, Giulio; Dogramadzi, Sanja

    2015-08-01

    Robotic rehabilitation is a currently underutilised field with the potential to allow huge cost savings within healthcare. Existing rehabilitation exoskeletons oversimplify the importance of movement of the hand while undertaking everyday tasks. Within this study, an investigation was undertaken to establish the extent to which the degrees of freedom within the palm affect ability to undertake everyday tasks. Using a 5DT data glove, bend sensing resistors and restrictors of palm movement, 20 participants were recruited to complete tasks that required various hand shapes. Collected data was processed and palm arching trends were identified for each grasping task. It was found that the extent of utilizing arches in the palm varied with each exercise, but was extensively employed throughout. An exoskeleton was subsequently designed with consideration of the identified palm shapes. This design included a number of key features that accommodated for a variety of hand sizes, a novel thumb joint and a series of dorsally mounted servos. Initial exoskeleton testing was undertaken by having a participant complete the same exercises while wearing the exoskeleton. The angles formed by the user during this process were then compared to those recorded by 2 other participants who had completed the same tasks without exoskeleton. It was found that the exoskeleton was capable of forming the required arches for completing the tasks, with differences between participants attributed to individual ergonomic differences.

  2. Palm oil industry in Ecuador. Good business for small farmers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley P. Potter

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador is the second largest producer in Latin America of crude palm oil and is the seventh largest producer worldwide, but with yields per hectare still lower than Colombia and Costa Rica. Although producers with over 1 000 hectares have the leadership in the palm oil industry, 87% of producers produce with less than 50 hectares. Moreover, the deforestation rate in Ecuador is ranked by FAO as the ninth highest in the world and the highest in South America. The African palm plantations have been criticized for causing deforestation and worsening work conditions. However, government sectors see the oil palm companies as a source of employment and development for poor regions. This fieldwork shows that there is a difference in perception among small farmers. Farmers from Quinindé-La Concordia were satisfied with the income they earn and the rising prices of land planted with palm. Farmers in San Lorenzo, in contrast, are not happy since the survey shows that a disease devastated trees and as a result, land prices have fallen in San Lorenzo.

  3. CELLULOSE EXTRACTION FROM PALM KERNEL CAKE USING LIQUID PHASE OXIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARM YAN YAN

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose is widely used in many aspect and industries such as food industry, pharmaceutical, paint, polymers, and many more. Due to the increasing demand in the market, studies and work to produce cellulose are still rapidly developing. In this work, liquid phase oxidation was used to extract cellulose from palm kernel cake to separate hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The method is basically a two-step process. Palm kernel cake was pretreated in hot water at 180°C and followed by liquid oxidation process with 30% H2O2 at 60°C at atmospheric pressure. The process parameters are hot water treatment time, ratio of palm kernel cake to H2O2, liquid oxidation reaction temperature and time. Analysis of the process parameters on production cellulose from palm kernel cake was performed by using Response Surface Methodology. The recovered cellulose was further characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR. Through the hot water treatment, hemicellulose in the palm kernel cake was successfully recovered as saccharides and thus leaving lignin and cellulose. Lignin was converted to water soluble compounds in liquid oxidation step which contains small molecular weight fatty acid as HCOOH and CH3COOH and almost pure cellulose was recovered.

  4. Palm Vein Verification Using Multiple Features and Locality Preserving Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohsin Al-juboori

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person’s skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP, and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%.

  5. Palm vein verification using multiple features and locality preserving projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Juboori, Ali Mohsin; Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi

    2014-01-01

    Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person's skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP), and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP) have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%.

  6. Production of haploids and doubled haploids in oil palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croxford Adam E

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oil palm is the world's most productive oil-food crop despite yielding well below its theoretical maximum. This maximum could be approached with the introduction of elite F1 varieties. The development of such elite lines has thus far been prevented by difficulties in generating homozygous parental types for F1 generation. Results Here we present the first high-throughput screen to identify spontaneously-formed haploid (H and doubled haploid (DH palms. We secured over 1,000 Hs and one DH from genetically diverse material and derived further DH/mixoploid palms from Hs using colchicine. We demonstrated viability of pollen from H plants and expect to generate 100% homogeneous F1 seed from intercrosses between DH/mixoploids once they develop female inflorescences. Conclusions This study has generated genetically diverse H/DH palms from which parental clones can be selected in sufficient numbers to enable the commercial-scale breeding of F1 varieties. The anticipated step increase in productivity may help to relieve pressure to extend palm cultivation, and limit further expansion into biodiverse rainforest.

  7. Tool Wear Characteristics of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Particleboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnasingam, Jegatheswaran; Chew Tek, Tee; Farrokhpayam, Saied Reza

    A series of machining experiments on the Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) particleboard were carried out using a CNC router, to evaluate the tool wearing properties of the composite in comparison to the conventional wood-material particleboard. A single-fluted tungsten-carbide router bit (12 mm φ, 18 000 rpm), with a rake angle of 15° was used in this experiment, in which the depth of cut was 1.5 mm and feed speed was 4.5 m min-1. The router bit machined the edge of the board, moving along the full length before returning to repeat the cycle. The tool was examined for the extent of wear after complete failure had occurred. The result found that the wear pattern was similar in the oil-palm based particleboard and the wood-based particleboard, but the former was twice more abrasive compared to the latter. Microscopic examination of the cutter edge revealed greater incidence of micro-fracture when cutting the oil-palm based particleboard, indicating the presence of hard impurities in the composite. From an economic perspective, the tooling cost for machining oil-palm based particleboard is estimated to be twice of the cost for machining wood-based particleboard. This study shows that the machining properties of oil-palm based particleboard will be a primary concern, if the board is to find widespread application as a potential substitute for wood-based particleboard.

  8. Optimization of Palm Oil Plantation Revitalization in North Sumatera Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliza Hidayati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of making North Sumatera  as a barometer of national oil palm industry require efforts commodities and agro-industry development of oil palm. One effort that can be done is by successful execution plantation revitalization. The plantation Revitalization is an effort to accelerate the development of smallholder plantations, through expansion and replanting by help of palm estate company as business partner and bank financed plantation revitalization fund. Business partner agreement obliged and bound to make at least the same smallholder plantation productivity with business partners, so that the refund rate to banks become larger and prosperous people as a plantation owner. Generally low productivity of smallholder plantations under normal potential caused a lot of old and damaged plants with plant material at random. The purpose of revitalizing oil palm plantations which are to increase their competitiveness through increased farm productivity. The research aims to identify potential criteria in influencing plantation productivity improvement priorities to be observed and followed up in order to improve the competitiveness of destinations and make North Sumatera barometer of national palm oil can be achieved. Research conducted with Analytical Network Process (ANP, to find the effect of dependency relationships between factors or criteria with the knowledge of the experts in order to produce an objective opinion and relevant depict the actual situation. 

  9. Effect of high pressure microfluidization on the crystallization behavior of palm stearin - palm olein blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijuan; Li, Lin; Li, Bing; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Guoqin; Liu, Xinqi; Wang, Xuede

    2014-04-24

    Moderate and high microfluidization pressures (60 and 120 MPa) and different treatment times (once and twice) were used to investigate the effect of high-pressure microfluidization (HPM) treatment on the crystallization behavior and physical properties of binary mixtures of palm stearin (PS) and palm olein (PO). The polarized light microscopy (PLM), texture analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques were applied to analyze the changes in crystal network structure, hardness, polymorphism and thermal property of the control and treated blends. PLM results showed that HPM caused significant reductions in maximum crystal diameter in all treated blends, and thus led to changes in the crystal network structure, and finally caused higher hardness in than the control blends. The XRD study demonstrated that HPM altered crystalline polymorphism. The HPM-treated blends showed a predominance of the more stable β' form, which is of more interest for food applications, while the control blend had more α- and β-form. This result was further confirmed by DSC observations. These changes in crystallization behavior indicated that HPM treatment was more likely to modify the crystallization processes and nucleation mechanisms.

  10. Effect of High Pressure Microfluidization on the Crystallization Behavior of Palm Stearin — Palm Olein Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Han

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Moderate and high microfluidization pressures (60 and 120 MPa and different treatment times (once and twice were used to investigate the effect of high-pressure microfluidization (HPM treatment on the crystallization behavior and physical properties of binary mixtures of palm stearin (PS and palm olein (PO. The polarized light microscopy (PLM, texture analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC techniques were applied to analyze the changes in crystal network structure, hardness, polymorphism and thermal property of the control and treated blends. PLM results showed that HPM caused significant reductions in maximum crystal diameter in all treated blends, and thus led to changes in the crystal network structure, and finally caused higher hardness in than the control blends. The XRD study demonstrated that HPM altered crystalline polymorphism. The HPM-treated blends showed a predominance of the more stable β' form, which is of more interest for food applications, while the control blend had more α- and β-form. This result was further confirmed by DSC observations. These changes in crystallization behavior indicated that HPM treatment was more likely to modify the crystallization processes and nucleation mechanisms.

  11. Prospective study for the production of oleochemicals derivates from palm and palm kernel oil in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ibeth Jaimes Moreno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways get close to the future, being the prospective the one that concives the future, not like an unique reality but like a multiple one, obtained as a result of the identification of the human being future actions. For all this, the human being takes the knowledge, the yearnings and the fears that he sees for the actions he will undertake. Keeping in mind the characteristic of the palm cultivation (pereninal, of late growth, with a 25 years productive horizon, and the future of the sector captured in "Visión y estrategias de la palmicultura colombiana 2000 - 2020" together with the economic tendencies of the world, the methodology of planning denominated prospective, becomes an appropriate tool to establish the future of the oleochemical sector derived from the palm and palmist oils, which is right now very incipient in our country. Using the prospective, this article outlines the dynamics that will have the sector, starting from the definition of the keys that define the current and future behavior of the system, the position and the power that each one of the involved actors will have, and the determination of the scenarios (future representations will more probability to occur, as well as the definition of the scenario wanted and the strategies that will allow to reach it.

  12. Oman Traditional Date Palms: Production and Improvement of Date Palms in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Marshudi, AS.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Date production in the world is confined to a small number of countries, most of them being Arab. However, date industry in the Arab world is not yet fully developed and concerted efforts are still needed to fully utilize the tremendous date tree potential as a commodity that can be consumed in the local market or processed for export. Date palm cultivation is one of the most important agricultural activities in Oman. It occupies more than 82% of total fruit crop area and about 42% of total agricultural land. Not only is domestic demand met, but a surplus for export is also generated.Tremendous development has occurred in the production and distribution of dates during the last two decades. However, the contribution of dates to total agriculture exports was found to be low. This paper presents date palm crop in terms of its traditional practice and economic development in Oman. Results show that the quality of dates produced has not yet met approved standards and, therefore, the return to producers is not maximized.

  13. Oil palm expansion drives avifaunal decline in the Pucallpa region of Peruvian Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Srinivas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of the world’s most rapidly expanding crops, replacing humid forests across tropical regions. Studies examining the effect of this land conversion on biodiversity have tended to focus predominantly on Southeast Asia, where the majority of the world’s oil palm is produced. Because the Amazon possesses the greatest area of suitable land for oil palm expansion, oil palm is considered an emerging threat to Amazonian biodiversity. This is the first study to examine how oil palm agriculture affects avian diversity within the context of Western Amazonia. We used mist nets to conduct avifaunal surveys of forest and oil palm habitat in the Pucallpa region of Peruvian Amazonia. Bird species richness, species evenness, and overall abundance were all significantly higher in the forest than in oil palm habitat. Strikingly, less than 5% of all captured species were common to both forest and oil palm habitat. The species absent from the oil palm plantations were disproportionately habitat specialists, forest interior birds, birds with high sensitivity to disturbance, and insectivores and frugivores. The results suggest that oil palm is particularly poor habitat for Amazonian birds, and that the species that are persist on them are of lower conservation value. Given the apparent lack of diversity on oil palm plantations, preventing further conversion of forests to oil palm should be prioritized.

  14. 78 FR 25383 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    ... Beach County Park Airport, West Palm Beach, FL (78 FR 6258). Interested parties were invited to... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY... Airspace in the West Palm Beach, FL area, as new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) have...

  15. Climate, soil and land-use based land suitability evaluation for oil palm production in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhebergen, Tiemen; Fairhurst, Thomas; Zingore, Shamie; Fisher, Myles; Oberthür, Thomas; Whitbread, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    In the past decade, oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) has become the world's most important oil crop. The large demand for palm oil has resulted in a rapid expansion of oil palm cultivation across the globe. Because of the dwindling availability of land in Southeast Asia, most expansion of the i

  16. Options to reduce environmental impacts of palm oil production in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, Kanokwan; Kroeze, Carolien; Jawjit, Warit; Hein, Lars

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing demand for palm oil worldwide. In Thailand, oil palm is being promoted by the government but this expansion is associated with several environmental impacts. We identified 26 options for reducing the environmental impact of palm oil production in Thailand, and assessed their c

  17. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the triathlon. The special local...

  18. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon... Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1, 2013. Approximately 1,500 participants are anticipated to participate in the...

  19. 78 FR 11094 - Safety Zone; Lake Worth Dredge Operations, Lake Worth Inlet; West Palm Beach, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone on Lake Worth Inlet, West Palm Beach, Florida, to provide..., February 20, 2013, dredging operations will be conducted on Lake Worth Inlet in West Palm Beach, Florida... the southwestern corner of Singer Island and then due south across the inlet to Palm Beach...

  20. 76 FR 77383 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach International Airport, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... south by a 10-mile radius of the Palm Beach International Airport, and on the west by the Florida... Florida Turnpike (highway 91) and Lantana Road to the intersection of a 5-mile radius of the Palm Beach... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Palm Beach...

  1. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  2. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Ajiboye

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05 in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05 in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  3. Spatial Patterns of Palm Diversity from a Phylogenetic Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kissling, W. Daniel;

    With ~2,500 species and a Pantropical distribution, the palm family (Arecaceae) has emerged as an important model taxon for studies of tropical plant diversity. In a recent review we showed that palm species distributions, species composition, and species richness depend on ecological factors...... at various spatial scales, but there are also strong indications of historical legacies. The influence of contemporary environments notwithstanding, diversity patterns can be shaped over tens of millions of years by the processes of speciation, extinction, niche evolution, and long-term dispersal limitation....... Robust and well-resolved phylogenetic trees, in combination with comprehensive distributional and trait data, can provide important insights into the long-term causes of spatial biodiversity patterns. Palms lend themselves to such research not least due to an exceptionally good data basis, and several...

  4. Vegetative adaptability of the Peruvian palm Astrocaryum perangustatum to deforestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Aponte

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Variation in vegetative morphology of the palm Astrocaryum perangustatum as a response to deforestation was evaluated from a sample of 60 individuals (30 in forest and 30 in pasture located in the Pozuzo region of Pasco, Peru. Several parameters are significantly different between palms growing in the forest understory and those growing in pasture. These include: number of leaves in the crown, length of the stem, of the leaves, length and width of proximal pinnae, width of medial pinnae, size of spines in adult palms, and number and length of leaves in seedlings. Variation in vegetative morphology of Astrocaryum perangustatum between forest and pasture is discussed in relation to environmental conditions. Morphological variability in the Pozuzo region is compared with that obtained from herbarium vouchers collected throughout the distribution area of the species.

  5. Investigation on the Use of Palm Olein as Lubrication Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. RATCHEL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The research work is on the possibility of producing lubricating oil from vegetable oil with palm olein as a case study. The sample analysed was obtained from Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State. Some of the physical and chemical properties such as viscosity, flash/fire point, pour point and specific gravity were analysed. This sample was bleached to remove the red colour (carotene and gummy materials. The bleached sample was tested to determine the above mentioned properties. Comparison of the crude palm olein and the bleached sample with the conventional lubricants obtained from Elf Plc, Kaduna and Unipetrol Plc, Kaduna was made. Finally, it was discovered that the crude palm olein and the bleached sample exhibit a good base as a lubricant.

  6. Palm Ash as an Alternative Source for Silica Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pa Faizul Che

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural wastes such as palm ash and rice husk have a possibility to be used as a useful renewable source for the production of silica (SiO2. Extensive researches have been carried out to extract silica from agricultural wastes such as rice husk, due to silica as a useful raw material for industrial application. In this study, the environmentally benign and economically effective process to produce SiO2 materials from palm ash has been established by using citric acid leaching, not the conventional strong acids. Results showed that silica can be extracted from palm ash using the citric acid leaching method under the optimum extracting conditions with 700 °C of solution temperature, 60 minutes of reaction time and concentration of citric acid of more than 2 %. The purity of silica extracted is more than 90 %.

  7. Image Segmentation of Historical Handwriting from Palm Leaf Manuscripts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surinta, Olarik; Chamchong, Rapeeporn

    Palm leaf manuscripts were one of the earliest forms of written media and were used in Southeast Asia to store early written knowledge about subjects such as medicine, Buddhist doctrine and astrology. Therefore, historical handwritten palm leaf manuscripts are important for people who like to learn about historical documents, because we can learn more experience from them. This paper presents an image segmentation of historical handwriting from palm leaf manuscripts. The process is composed of three steps: 1) background elimination to separate text and background by Otsu's algorithm 2) line segmentation and 3) character segmentation by histogram of image. The end result is the character's image. The results from this research may be applied to optical character recognition (OCR) in the future.

  8. UBIQUITOUS PALM DISPLAY AND FINGERTIP TRACKER SYSTEM USING OPENCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathish Sekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitous Computing is the idea of embedding computation onto everyday objects of the environment we live in. It’s the approach towards making technology and computation available everywhere thereby making people interact with abundant information around them in a more natural and friendly manner. Our project, the palm display system is one such approach of using one’s palm as the graphical user interface enabling the user to interact with it using his/her fingertip. We have implemented this project using computer vision techniques. In this study, we describe the details of the palm display system and explain several issues regarding the challenges in implementation and show the result using a sample photo viewer application. The main idea behind the project is to detect the interaction using shadow based techniques without the use of a fingertip marker.

  9. BVOC fluxes from oil palm canopies in South East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P. K.; Cape, J. N.; Langford, B.; Nemitz, E.; Helfter, C.; Owen, S.; Heal, M. R.; Hewitt, C. N.; Fowler, D.

    2009-04-01

    Fluxes by virtual disjunct eddy covariance were measured for the first time in South-East Asia in 2008 from an oil palm plantation. Malaysia and Indonesia account for more than 80% of world oil palm production. Our in situ findings suggest much higher isoprene emissions from oil palms than from rainforest, which is consistent with earlier lab-based predictions of emissions from oil palms (Wilkinson et al., 2006). 50% of global biogenic VOC emissions are estimated to derive from tropical rainforests (Guenther et al., 1995) although in fact a large portion of the emission may derive from oil palms in the tropics. Isoprene and monoterpenes are regarded as the most important biogenic VOCs for the atmospheric chemistry. Overall, maximum isoprene emissions from oil palms were recorded at 11:00 local time, with a mean value of 13 mg m-2 h-1. At the rainforest, the maximum fluxes of isoprene were observed later in the day, at about 13:00 with an average of 2.5 mg m-2 h-1. Initial flux results for total monoterpenes indicate that their mass emission ratio with respect to isoprene was about 1:9 at the rainforest and 1:18 at the oil palm plantation. The results are presented with reference to temperature, photosynthetic radiation and meteorological drivers as well as in comparison with CO2 and H2O fluxes. Empirical parameters in the Guenther algorithm for MEGAN (Guenther et al, 2006), which was originally designed for the Amazon region, have been optimised for this oil palm study. The emission factor obtained from eddy covariance measurements was 18.8 mg m-2 h-1, while the one obtained from leaf level studies at the site was 19.5 mg m-2 h-1. Isoprene fluxes from both Amazonia (Karl et al., 2007) and from rainforest in Borneo 2008 seem to be much lower than from oil palms. This can have consequences for atmospheric chemistry of land use change from rainforest to oil palm plantation, including formation of ozone, SOA and particles and indirect effects on the removal rate of

  10. Variation patterns of pollen production in palm flowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alapetite, Elodie; Barfod, Anders; Albert, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    in polyandrous species ranges from 8-9 to several hundreds. It is often heard that the more stamens are produced, the more pollen is produced, particularly in the case of the so-called “pollen flowers”, i.e. flowers in which pollen is the main food resource for floral visitors. However, the correlation between...... pollen production and stamen number has never been so far investigated. The diversity in stamen number observed among palms species and genera provides an ideal case study to test for such a correlation, taking into account phylogenetic constraints. Based on a survey of flowers from 82 species...... representative of the various palm tribes and compared it to stamen number, we show that pollen production in palms ranges from hundreds to millions grains. There is a relationship between stamen number and pollen production in our sampling, particularly in Coryphoideae and Arecoideae where there is a tendency...

  11. A manufacturer's perspective on selected palm-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Neil O; Hogg, W Fraser

    2005-01-01

    An overview from the perspective of one manufacturer is provided on products that utilise either palm oil or palm kernel oil. The manufacturer is Macphie of Glenbervie while the products are of a wide-ranging nature for use in bakery, food service and food-manufacturing. Much of the discussion concerns cream alternatives on the grounds that this product-category places great demand on the type of fat needed and, to Macphie of Glenbervie, is responsible for most of the oil from oil palm used. However, other products are also touched on. The overview considers key product attributes the function that fat has within these products, together with research requirements and future opportunity.

  12. Torrefaction of Pelletized Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunches

    CERN Document Server

    Nyakuma, Bemgba Bevan; Johari, Anwar; Abdullah, Tuan Amran Tuan; Oladokun, Olagoke

    2015-01-01

    The torrefaction of oil palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) briquettes was examined in this study. The results indicate that temperature significantly influenced the mass yield, energy yield and heating value of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) briquettes during torrefaction. The solid uniform compact nature of EFB briquettes ensured a slow rate of pyrolysis or devolatization which enhanced torrefaction. The mass yield decreased from 79.70 % to 43.03 %, energy yield from 89.44 % to 64.27 % during torrefaction from 250 {\\deg}C to 300 {\\deg}C. The heating value (HHV) of OPEFB briquettes improved significantly from 17.57 MJ/kg to 26.24 MJ/kg after torrefaction at 300 {\\deg}C for 1 hour. Fundamentally, the study has highlighted the effects of pelletization and torrefaction on solid fuel properties of oil palm EFB briquettes and its potential as a solid fuel for future thermal applications.

  13. Indonesia palm oil production without deforestation and peat conversion by 2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriyanti, Dian; Kroeze, Carolien; Saad, Asmadi

    2016-07-01

    Palm oil is a promising source of cooking oil and biodiesel. The demand for palm oil has been increasing worldwide. However, concerns exist surrounding the environmental and socio-economic sustainability of palm oil production. Indonesia is a major palm oil producing country. We explored scenarios for palm oil production in Indonesia until 2050, focusing on Sumatra, Kalimantan and Papua. Our scenarios describe possible trends in crude palm oil production in Indonesia, while considering the demand for cooking oil and biodiesel, the available land for plantations, production capacity (for crude palm oil and fresh fruit bunches) and environmentally restricting conditions. We first assessed past developments in palm oil production. Next, we analysed scenarios for the future. In the past 20years, 95% of the Indonesian oil palm production area was in Sumatra and Kalimantan and was increasingly cultivated in peatlands. Our scenarios for the future indicate that Indonesia can meet a considerable part of the global and Asian demand for palm oil, while avoiding further cultivation of peatlands and forest. By 2050, 264-447Mt crude palm oil may be needed for cooking oil and biodiesel worldwide. In Indonesia, the area that is potentially suitable for oil palm is 17 to 26Mha with a potential production rate of 27-38t fresh fruit bunches/ha, yielding 130-176Mt crude palm oil. Thus Indonesia can meet 39-60% of the international demand. In our scenarios this would be produced in Sumatra (21-26%), Kalimantan (12-16%), and Papua (2%). The potential areas include the current oil palm plantation in mineral lands, but exclude the current oil palm plantations in peatlands.

  14. 77 FR 19663 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced from Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced from Palm Oil under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA... comment on EPA's analyses of palm oil used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel and renewable diesel...

  15. 77 FR 8254 - Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... AGENCY Notice of Data Availability Concerning Renewable Fuels Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS... Produced From Palm Oil Under the RFS Program'' (the notice is herein referred to as the ``palm oil NODA... of palm oil used as a feedstock to produce biodiesel and renewable diesel under the Renewable...

  16. Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm

    OpenAIRE

    Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-01-01

    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ≈880,000 ha) of...

  17. Exports of Palm Oil from Ghana: A Demand Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    John K.M. Kuwornu; Darko, Francis A.; Osei-Asare, Yaw B.; Irene S. Egyir

    2009-01-01

    Studies have shown that the economy of Ghana cannot afford to rely solely on cocoa exports. It is imperative to diversify the export base of the Ghanaian economy. In this respect, the palm oil sub-sector of the agricultural sector, which until the early part of the 20th century was the major agricultural export commodity of Ghana, needs to be considered for promotion. Currently the palm oil industry faces the challenge of bleak export potential. This study examines trends in the quantity expo...

  18. Sustainability of smallholder palm oil production in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Bertule, Maija; Degn, Lasse Twiggs

    2009-01-01

    Palm oil is a widely used commodity and is part of a number of daily products. It is the most used vegetable oil, not just for food consumption, but also for soap and cosmetics. Recently the search for co2 neutral fuels have spurred demand for palm oil to be used in diesel cars. The large demand have led to a dramatic increase in production in Malaysia and Indonesia, and those two producers make up over total production. This dramatic increase in plantations have led to severe environmental p...

  19. CELLULOSE EXTRACTION FROM PALM KERNEL CAKE USING LIQUID PHASE OXIDATION

    OpenAIRE

    FARM YAN YAN; DUDUKU KRISHNIAH; MARIANI RAJIN; AWANG BONO

    2009-01-01

    Cellulose is widely used in many aspect and industries such as food industry, pharmaceutical, paint, polymers, and many more. Due to the increasing demand in the market, studies and work to produce cellulose are still rapidly developing. In this work, liquid phase oxidation was used to extract cellulose from palm kernel cake to separate hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The method is basically a two-step process. Palm kernel cake was pretreated in hot water at 180°C and followed by liquid ...

  20. Kinetic Study on Pyrolysis of Oil Palm Frond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soon, V. S. Y.; Chin, B. L. F.; Lim, A. C. R.

    2016-03-01

    The pyrolysis of oil palm frond is studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. The present study investigates the thermal degradation behaviour and determination of the kinetic parameters such as the activation energy (EA ) and pre-exponential factor (A) values of oil palm frond under pyrolysis condition. The kinetic data is produced based on first order rate of reaction. In this study, the experiments are conducted at different heating rates of 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 K/min in the temperature range of 323-1173 K under non-isothermal condition. Argon gas is used as an inert gas to remove any entrapment of gases in the TGA equipment.

  1. An overview of palms in SE Asian Agroforestry and home gardens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Anders S.

    Throughout SE Asia palms constitute an important component in agroforestry systems and home gardens. Most species are used for multiple purposes based on their physical or nutritional properties. Except for a few commodities of worldwide importance such as palm oil and coconut, many palm products...... the most important palms according to their versatility, an extremely important property especially for smallholders who depend on subsistence agriculture. We will conclude by providing a number recommendations on future research directions based on experiences from a recently completed EU 7th Framework...... project (EU-PALMS 2009-2013)....

  2. Hydrogen rich gas from oil palm biomass as a potential source of renewable energy in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M.A.A.; Salmiaton, A.; Wan Azlina, W.A.K.G.; Mohammad Amran, M.S.; Fakhru' l-Razi, A. [Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Taufiq-Yap, Y.H. [Centre of Excellence for Catalysis Science and Technology and Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Oil palm is one of the major economic crops in many countries. Malaysia alone produces about 47% of the world's palm oil supply and can be considered as the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia also generates huge quantity of oil palm biomass including oil palm trunks, oil palm fronds, empty fruit bunches (EFB), shells and fibers as waste from palm oil fruit harvest and oil extraction processing. At present there is a continuously increasing interest in the utilization of oil palm biomass as a source of clean energy. One of the major interests is hydrogen from oil palm biomass. Hydrogen from biomass is a clean and efficient energy source and is expected to take a significant role in future energy demand due to the raw material availability. This paper presents a review which focuses on different types of thermo-chemical processes for conversion of oil palm biomass to hydrogen rich gas. This paper offers a concise and up-to-date scenario of the present status of oil palm industry in contributing towards sustainable and renewable energy. (author)

  3. Tropical rainforest palm communities in Madre de Dios in Amazonian Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Balslev

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We studied palm communities, in particular species-richness and abundance, in the tropical rainforests in southeastern Peru in 54 transects (5×500m covering an area of 13.5 hectares in flood plain, terra firme, terrace and premontane hills. We found 42 palm species in 18 genera in the transects. Terra firme forest had the highest species richness (38 species followed by floodplain and premontane hills with 27 species and terrace forests with 26 species. The highest palm abundances were found in premontane hill forest which had 3243 palms per hectare and terra firme forest which had 2968 palms per hectare. The floodplain forests were intermediate in palm abundance with 2647 and the terrace forests had the lowest abundance with 1709 palms per hectare. Intermediate sized palms were the most common being represented by 18 species, while large palms were represented with 16 species. There were only eight species of small palms of which one was acaulescent. Only one species of liana palm was registered. Of the 42 species observed in the 54 transects, 20 were cespitose, 21 solitary and two had colonial growth. Seven species were found 40–320 km outside of their previously known range.

  4. Palm-based standard reference materials for iodine value and slip melting point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Lin, Siew Wai; Kuntom, Ainie

    2008-09-22

    This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 +/- 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 +/- 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 +/- 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 +/- 0.3 degrees C in palm oil, 22.7 +/- 0.4 degrees C in palm olein and 53.4 +/- 0.2 degrees C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of -20 degrees C, 0 degrees C, 6 degrees C and 24 degrees C upon storage for one year.

  5. Development of young oil palm tree recognition using Haar- based rectangular windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliman, S.; Abu-Bakar, S. A. R.; Nor Azam, S. H. Md

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents development of Haar-based rectangular windows for recognition of young oil palm tree based on WorldView-2 imagery data. Haar-based rectangular windows or also known as Haar-like rectangular features have been popular in face recognition as used in Viola-Jones object detection framework. Similar to face recognition, the oil palm tree recognition would also need a suitable Haar-based rectangular windows that best suit to the characteristics of oil palm tree. A set of seven Haar-based rectangular windows have been designed to better match specifically the young oil palm tree as the crown size is much smaller compared to the matured ones. Determination of features for oil palm tree is an essential task to ensure a high successful rate of correct oil palm tree detection. Furthermore, features that reflects the identification of oil palm tree indicate distinctiveness between an oil palm tree and other objects in the image such as buildings, roads and drainage. These features will be trained using support vector machine (SVM) to model the oil palm tree for classifying the testing set and subimages of WorldView-2 imagery data. The resulting classification of young oil palm tree with sensitivity of 98.58% and accuracy of 92.73% shows a promising result that it can be used for intention of developing automatic young oil palm tree counting.

  6. CREATING THE STANDARD FOR SPECIFIC ENERGY CONSUMPTION AT PALM OIL INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfa Firdaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no standard for the Specific Energy Consumption (SEC in the palm oil industry. SEC is a value that can be used as an indicator to measure the optimization level in the use of energy. Indonesia as one of the largest palm oil producing countries requires a standard for energy intensity in the palm oil industry. SEC in palm oil mill is defined in the amount of energy per unit of production (kWh/kg. The classifying method that has been used in this study is K-means cluster analysis with the measurement samples in 14 palm oil mills for 12 months of period. This study has suggested the SEC standard for Indonesian palm oil industry and it is expected to be SEC reference for other studies in the palm oil industry.

  7. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RyoheiTanaka; LehCheuPeng; WanRosliWanDaud

    2004-01-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world's largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country's economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10-15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia. Here we would like to introduce recent situation of palm oil and oil palm lignocellulosic residues at the first part of this paper. In the second part, our recent studies on the preparation of pulps for different purposes will be summarized.

  8. Suitability of online 3D visualization technique in oil palm plantation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat, Ruzinoor Che; Nordin, Norani; Zulkifli, Abdul Nasir; Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm industry has been the backbone for the growth of Malaysia economy. The exports of this commodity increasing almost every year. Therefore, there are many studies focusing on how to help this industry increased its productivity. In order to increase the productivity, the management of oil palm plantation need to be improved and strengthen. One of the solution in helping the oil palm manager is by implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation using game engine technology. The potential of this application is that it can helps in fertilizer and irrigation management. For this reason, the aim of this paper is to investigate the issues in managing oil palm plantation from the view of oil palm manager by interview. The results from this interview will helps in identifying the suitable issues could be highlight in implementing online 3D visualization technique for oil palm plantation management.

  9. Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. I-Solid fat content and consistency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simões, Ilka S.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (PO and palm kernel oil (PKO compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100 were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100oC. The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by solid fat content (SFC and consistency. Results showed a presence of eutectic system at PO and PKO compositions, mainly at 80/20, 60/40 and 50/50 fractions, proved through isosolids and isoconsistency diagrams. The incompatibility among the oils was decreased after reaction and improved the composition plasticity, demonstrated by the increment of solids value and yield value at room temperature.Se interesterificaron, en el laboratorio, mezclas de aceite de palma (PO y aceite de palmiste (PKO: 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 y 0/100 en condiciones predefinidas (0.4% metóxido de sodio, 20 minutos, 100oC. Las catorce muestras fueron caracterizadas antes y después de la interesterificación por su contenido de grasa sólida (SFC y su consistencia. Los resultados mostraron la presencia de un sistema eutéctico en las mezclas de PO y PKO, principalmente en las proporciones 80/20, 60/40 y 50/50, demostrado por los diagramas de isosólidos y de isoconsistencia. La incompatibilidad entre los aceites disminuyó después de la interesterificación y la plasticidad de las mezclas mejoró, hecho demostrado por el incremento del contenido de sólidos y del límite de fluidez a temperatura ambiente.

  10. Miocene dispersal drives island radiations in the palm tribe Trachycarpeae (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Christine D; Baker, William J; Simmons, Mark P

    2012-05-01

    The study of three island groups of the palm tribe Trachycarpeae (Arecaceae/Palmae) permits both the analysis of each independent radiation and comparisons across the tribe to address general processes that drive island diversification. Phylogenetic relationships of Trachycarpeae were inferred from three plastid and three low-copy nuclear genes. The incongruent topological position of Brahea in CISP5 was hypothesized to be caused by a gene duplication event and was addressed using uninode coding. The resulting phylogenetic trees were well-resolved and the genera were all highly supported except for Johannesteijsmannia and Serenoa. Divergence time analysis estimated the stem of the tribe to be approximately 86 Ma and the crown to be 38 Ma, indicating that significant extinction may have occurred along this branch. Historical biogeographic analysis suggested that Trachycarpeae are of southern North American, Central American, or Caribbean origin and supports previous hypotheses of a Laurasian origin. The biogeography and disjunctions within the tribe were interpreted with respect to divergence times, the fossil record, and geological factors such as the formation of the Greater Antilles--Aves Ridge, the Bering and the North Atlantic land bridges, tectonic movement in Southeast Asia, climatic shifts between the Eocene and Pliocene, and volcanism in the Pacific basin. In considering the three major island radiations within Trachycarpeae, Miocene dispersal appears to have been the driving force in allopatric speciation and is highlighted here as an emerging pattern across the tree of life.

  11. Estimating primary productivity of tropical oil palm in Malaysia using remote sensing technique and ancillary data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Tan, K. P.; Cracknell, A. P.

    2014-10-01

    The amount of carbon sequestration by vegetation can be estimated using vegetation productivity. At present, there is a knowledge gap in oil palm net primary productivity (NPP) at a regional scale. Therefore, in this study NPP of oil palm trees in Peninsular Malaysia was estimated using remote sensing based light use efficiency (LUE) model with inputs from local meteorological data, upscaled leaf area index/fractional photosynthetically active radiation (LAI/fPAR) derived using UK-DMC 2 satellite data and a constant maximum LUE value from the literature. NPP values estimated from the model was then compared and validated with NPP estimated using allometric equations developed by Corley and Tinker (2003), Henson (2003) and Syahrinudin (2005) with diameter at breast height, age and the height of the oil palm trees collected from three estates in Peninsular Malaysia. Results of this study show that oil palm NPP derived using a light use efficiency model increases with respect to the age of oil palm trees, and it stabilises after ten years old. The mean value of oil palm NPP at 118 plots as derived using the LUE model is 968.72 g C m-2 year-1 and this is 188% - 273% higher than the NPP derived from the allometric equations. The estimated oil palm NPP of young oil palm trees is lower compared to mature oil palm trees (trees contribute to lower oil palm LAI and therefore fPAR, which is an important variable in the LUE model. In contrast, it is noted that oil palm NPP decreases with respect to the age of oil palm trees as estimated using the allomeric equations. It was found in this study that LUE models could not capture NPP variation of oil palm trees if LAI/fPAR is used. On the other hand, tree height and DBH are found to be important variables that can capture changes in oil palm NPP as a function of age.

  12. Genetic and physiological variants of yeast selected from palm wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeronye, O U; Okerentugba, P O

    2001-01-01

    Genetic screening of 1200-palm wine yeasts lead to the selection of fourteen isolates with various genetic and physiological properties. Nine of the isolates were identified as Saccharamyces species, three as Candida species, one as Schizosaccharomyces species and one as Kluyveromyces species. Five of the isolates were wild type parents, two were respiratory deficient mutants (rho) and nine were auxotrophic mutants. Four isolates were heterozygous diploid (alphaa) and two were homozygous diploid (aa/alphaalpha) for the mating a mating types were further identified on mating with type loci. Four Mat alpha and four Mat a types were further identified on mating with standard haploid yeast strains. Forty-five percent sporulated on starvation medium producing tetrads. Fifty-two percent of the four-spored asci contained four viable spores. Maximum specific growth rate [micromax] of the fourteen isolates range from 0.13-0.26, five isolates were able to utilize exogenous nitrate for growth. Percentage alcohol production range between 5.8-8.8% for palm wine yeast, 8.5% for bakers' yeast and 10.4% for brewers yeast. The palm wine yeast were more tolerant to exogenous alcohol but had a low alcohol productivity. Hybridization enhanced alcohol productivity and tolerance in the palm wine yeasts.

  13. Clean technology for the crude palm oil industry in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chavalparit, O.

    2006-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the potential contribution of clean(er) technology to improve the environmental performance of the crude palm oil industry inThailand, to analyse implementation barriers for clea

  14. Simulating potential growth and yield of oil palm with PALMSIM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, M.P.; Vera, A.C.; Wijk, van M.T.; Giller, K.E.; Oberthur, R.; Donough, C.; Whitbread, A.M.; Fisher, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The growing demand for palm oil can be met by reducing the gap between potential yield and actual yield. Simulation models can quantify potential yield, and therefore indicate the scope for intensification. A relatively simple physiological approach was used to develop PALMSIM, which is a model that

  15. Life cycle assessment of palm-derived biodiesel in Taiwan

    KAUST Repository

    Maharjan, Sumit

    2016-10-01

    In Taiwan, due to the limited capacity of waste cooking oil, palm oil has been viewed as the potential low-cost imported feedstock for producing biodiesel, in the way of obtaining oil feedstock in Malaysia and producing biodiesel in Taiwan. This study aims to evaluate the cradle-to-grave life cycle environmental performance of palm biodiesel within two different Asian countries, Malaysia and Taiwan. The phases of the life cycle such as direct land-use-change impact, plantation and milling are investigated based on the Malaysia case and those of refining, and fuel production as well as engine combustion is based on Taiwan case. The greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and energy consumption for the whole life cycle were calculated as −28.29 kg CO2-equiv. and +23.71 MJ/kg of palm-derived biodiesel. We also analyze the impacts of global warming potential (GWP) and the payback time for recovering the GHG emissions when producing and using biodiesel. Various scenarios include (1) clearing rainforest or peat-forest; (2) treating or discharging palm-oil-milling effluent (POME) are further developed to examine the effectiveness of improving the environmental impacts © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  16. Simple Arm Muscle Model for Oil Palm Harvesting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Aliff

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Arm are essential in order to perform manual material handling work that normally involves lifting, handling, placing, push and pull, carrying and moving heavy loads. When these work elements are performed over prolonged periods repeatedly, it will expose workers arm to awkward posture and possible ergonomic risk factor. For example, work element that requires repetitions frequently may lead the arm to face physical stress and mental fatigue. The situation can be extremely risky if the worker task requires higher focus or time consumable. These issues are unavoidable in palm oil harvesting process since the workers are still using manual handling when harvesting the fresh fruit bunch (FFB. The worker using a chisel to harvest the young palms and a sickle mounted on a bamboo or aluminum pole to harvest taller palms. When perform this work element combining with heavy physical workload, it may lead to work-related muscle disorders (WSMDs. This study was conducted to identify the force reaction and inverse dynamic analysis during oil palm harvesting process using ergonomics software called Anybody Technology. Inverse dynamic analysis is a technique for figuring strengths and/or moments of power (torques taking into account the kinematics (movement of a body and the body’s inertial properties.

  17. Oil palm expansion in Indonesia : serving people, planet and profit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to provide a more holistic understanding of how drivers at various levels interplay and continue to feed the expansion of oil palm plantations with its associated land use/cover change (LUCC) particularly deforestation, local economic development and people’s livelihoods. Recent stu

  18. Tha palm family (Arecaceae): a microcosm of sexual system evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nadot, Sophie; Alapetite, Elodie; Baker, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Among the 416 angiosperm families, palms (Arecaceae) are striking in possessing almost all possible combinations of hermaphroditic and/or unisexual flowers, making them a particularly interesting subject for studies of the evolution of plant sexuality. The purpose of this review is to highlight...

  19. Modification of palm oil for anti-inflammatory nutraceutical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Zaida; Longman, Andrea J; Hurst, Samantha; Duggan, Katrina; Hughes, Clare E; Caterson, Bruce; Harwood, John L

    2009-07-01

    Palm oil is one of the most important edible oils in the world. Its composition (rich in palmitate and oleate) make it suitable for general food uses but its utility could be increased if its fatty acid quality could be varied. In this study, we have modified a palm olein fraction by transesterification with the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, alpha-linolenate or eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Evaluation of the potential nutritional efficacy of the oils was made using chondrocyte culture systems which can be used to mimic many of the degenerative and inflammatory pathways involved in arthritis. On stimulation of such cultures with interleukin-1alpha, they showed increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, the inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-1alpha and IL-1beta and the proteinase ADAMTS-4. This increased expression was not affected by challenge of the cultures with palm olein alone but showed concentration-dependent reduction by the modified oil in a manner similar to EPA. These results show clearly that it is possible to modify palm oil conveniently to produce a nutraceutical with effective anti-inflammatory properties.

  20. Inhibition of palm oil oxidation by zeolite nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Kok-Hou; Awala, Hussein; Mukti, Rino R; Wong, Ka-Lun; Rigaud, Baptiste; Ling, Tau Chuan; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A; Koleva, Iskra Z; Vayssilov, Georgi N; Mintova, Svetlana; Ng, Eng-Poh

    2015-05-13

    The efficiency of zeolite X nanocrystals (FAU-type framework structure) containing different extra-framework cations (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+)) in slowing the thermal oxidation of palm oil is reported. The oxidation study of palm oil is conducted in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals (0.5 wt %) at 150 °C. Several characterization techniques such as visual analysis, colorimetry, rheometry, total acid number (TAN), FT-IR spectroscopy, (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and Karl Fischer analyses are applied to follow the oxidative evolution of the oil. It was found that zeolite nanocrystals decelerate the oxidation of palm oil through stabilization of hydroperoxides, which are the primary oxidation product, and concurrently via adsorption of the secondary oxidation products (alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, and esters). In addition to the experimental results, periodic density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to elucidate further the oxidation process of the palm oil in the presence of zeolite nanocrystals. The DFT calculations show that the metal complexes formed with peroxides are more stable than the complexes with alkenes with the same ions. The peroxides captured in the zeolite X nanocrystals consequently decelerate further oxidation toward formation of acids. Unlike the monovalent alkali metal cations in the zeolite X nanocrystals (K(+), Na(+), and Li(+)), Ca(2+) reduced the acidity of the oil by neutralizing the acidic carboxylate compounds to COO(-)(Ca(2+))1/2 species.

  1. Maxent modelling for predicting the potential distribution of Thai Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tovaranonte, Jantrararuk; Barfod, Anders S.; Overgaard, Anne Blach;

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly species distribution models are being used to address questions related to ecology, biogeography and species conservation on global and regional scales. We used the maximum entropy approach implemented in the MAXENT programme to build a habitat suitability model for Thai palms based...

  2. Quantifying nitrogen losses in oil palm plantations: models and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardon, Lénaïc; Bessou, Cécile; Saint-Geours, Nathalie; Gabrielle, Benoît; Khasanah, Ni'matul; Caliman, Jean-Pierre; Nelson, Paul N.

    2016-09-01

    Oil palm is the most rapidly expanding tropical perennial crop. Its cultivation raises environmental concerns, notably related to the use of nitrogen (N) fertilisers and the associated pollution and greenhouse gas emissions. While numerous and diverse models exist to estimate N losses from agriculture, very few are currently available for tropical perennial crops. Moreover, there is a lack of critical analysis of their performance in the specific context of tropical perennial cropping systems. We assessed the capacity of 11 models and 29 sub-models to estimate N losses in a typical oil palm plantation over a 25-year growth cycle, through leaching and runoff, and emissions of NH3, N2, N2O, and NOx. Estimates of total N losses were very variable, ranging from 21 to 139 kg N ha-1 yr-1. On average, 31 % of the losses occurred during the first 3 years of the cycle. Nitrate leaching accounted for about 80 % of the losses. A comprehensive Morris sensitivity analysis showed the most influential variables to be soil clay content, rooting depth, and oil palm N uptake. We also compared model estimates with published field measurements. Many challenges remain in modelling processes related to the peculiarities of perennial tropical crop systems such as oil palm more accurately.

  3. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Dunck

    Full Text Available The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments.

  4. Distribution of periphytic algae in wetlands (Palm swamps, Cerrado), Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunck, B; Nogueira, I S; Felisberto, S A

    2013-05-01

    The distribution of periphytic algae communities depends on various factors such as type of substrate, level of disturbance, nutrient availability and light. According to the prediction that impacts of anthropogenic activity provide changes in environmental characteristics, making impacted Palm swamps related to environmental changes such as deforestation and higher loads of nutrients via allochthonous, the hypothesis tested was: impacted Palm swamps have higher richness, density, biomass and biovolume of epiphytic algae. We evaluated the distribution and structure of epiphytic algae communities in 23 Palm swamps of Goiás State under different environmental impacts. The community structure attributes here analyzed were composition, richness, density, biomass and biovolume. This study revealed the importance of the environment on the distribution and structuration of algal communities, relating the higher values of richness, biomass and biovolume with impacted environments. Acidic waters and high concentration of silica were important factors in this study. Altogether 200 taxa were identified, and the zygnemaphycea was the group most representative in richness and biovolume, whereas the diatoms, in density of studied epiphyton. Impacted Palm swamps in agricultural area presented two indicator species, Gomphonema lagenula Kützing and Oedogonium sp, both related to mesotrophic to eutrophic conditions for total nitrogen concentrations of these environments.

  5. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole in ambient air above oil palm canopies flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the Afric...

  6. Dissipation of the fungicide hexaconazole in oil palm plantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maznah, Zainol; Halimah, Muhamad; Ismail, Sahid; Idris, Abu Seman

    2015-12-01

    Hexaconazole is a potential fungicide to be used in the oil palm plantation for controlling the basal stem root (BSR) disease caused by Ganoderma boninense. Therefore, the dissipation rate of hexaconazole in an oil palm agroecosystem under field conditions was studied. Two experimental plots were treated with hexaconazole at the recommended dosage of 4.5 g a.i. palm(-1) (active ingredient) and at double the recommended dosage (9.0 g a.i. palm(-1)), whilst one plot was untreated as control. The residue of hexaconazole was detected in soil samples in the range of 2.74 to 0.78 and 7.13 to 1.66 mg kg(-1) at the recommended and double recommended dosage plots, respectively. An initial relatively rapid dissipation rate of hexaconazole residues occurred but reduced with time. The dissipation of hexaconazole in soil was described using first-order kinetics with the value of coefficient regression (r (2) > 0.8). The results indicated that hexaconazole has moderate persistence in the soil and the half-life was found to be 69.3 and 86.6 days in the recommended and double recommended dosage plot, respectively. The results obtained highlight that downward movement of hexaconazole was led by preferential flow as shown in image analysis. It can be concluded that varying soil conditions, environmental factors, and pesticide chemical properties of hexaconazole has a significant impact on dissipation of hexaconazole in soil under humid conditions.

  7. Coverage of soft tissue defect in palm with prefabricated flap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gong-lin; CAI Guo-rong; ZHANG Ming; ZHENG Liang-jun; ZHANG Yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ The coverage of large soft tissue defects in palm remains a challenge in the plastic recon-structive surgery. There are many local tissue transfers described for small-sized defects of hand, whereas large defect require regional flaps such as the radial forearm flap or free tissue transfer.1-5

  8. Comparison Study of Thermal Insulation Characteristics from Oil Palm Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan S.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, investigation was conducted to study the use of solid biomass from palm oil mill as insulation material. The experimental study concentrates on using oil palm fiber to determine the unidirectional thermal conductivity, k. The experiment was conducted at different temperature ranges and packing density. The values of k obtained were found to be 0.2 W/m.K to 0.069 W/m.K for a packing density between 66 kg/m3 to 110 kg/m3, and at a temperature between 40ºC to 70ºC. Comparisons were made with others common insulating materials, and it was found that the experimental k values for oil palm waste insulation was lower by between 4 to 56 times for rockwool and between 7 to 57 times for glass fiber at low temperatures. The value k of oil palm fiber however showed an increase at higher temperatures and was lower at lower packing densities. Although not being able to match the k values of common insulators at higher temperatures, other factors such as cost and environmental benefits of using waste material should be taken into consideration and hence encouraging its use as at least a supplement to existing insulation materials

  9. COMPARISON OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DATE PALM FIBER- POLYETHYLENE COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Mahdavi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Date Palm Fiber (DPF is one of the most available natural fibers in the Middle East, especially in Iran and the Persian Gulf region. This research provides a new insight into DPF, with consideration of morphological, chemical characteristics, and bulk density, as well as morphological and mechanical properties of DPF/HDPE wood plastic composite. There are three parts of date palm that are used for producing fiber, the trunk, rachis, and petiole. Results indicated that there is significant difference between trunk and petiole on fiber length but rachis has no significant differences relative to the other parts. The aspect ratios have significant differences among of three parts, with the highest and lowest values measured for the petiole and trunk, respectively. The chemical composition of various parts of the date palm tree differed significantly; with the highest amounts of cellulose and lignin content belong to rachis. Bulk density was measured for three parts of date palm, and the lowest amount was 0.082 g/cm3. The highest strengths were achieved in composites with 30 and 40% fiber content, depended on which original parts of the tree were used.

  10. Sustainable biogas and biomass utilization in Malaysian palm oil industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakisaka, Minato; Shirai, Yoshihito (Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu (Japan)); Yacob, Shahrakbah (Advanced Agriecological Research Sdn Bhd, Selangor (Malaysia)); Ali Hassan, M. (Dept. of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, Serdang (Malaysia))

    2007-07-01

    Palm oil industry in Malaysia is producing palm oil more than 12 million tones every year, while yielding more than 14 million of empty fruit bunch (EFB) and 25 million tones of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the POME treatment, huge anaerobic ponds (lagoon) are adopted, generating large amount of methane, more than 20 times global warming effect than CO{sub 2}. The objective of this research is to estimate actual methane emission from the POME treatment and to find out any possibility to utilize generated methane as an energy source under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Methane emission of 0.238 kg CH{sub 4} per kg COD removed or 12.36 kg CH{sub 4} per tone POME are obtained from actual mill operation throughout annual measurement. This indicates that more than 200,000 tones of methane, which is equivalent to 4 million tones of carbon dioxide, are estimated to be emitted from whole Malaysia. 500 tones of methane fermentor installed to palm oil mill to prevent GHG emission under the CDM. By this, lagoon system as major source of local environment pollution necessary no more, thus obtaining another 3 to 4 times large land area than mill. Our proposal is to establish novel industry utilizing biogas energy for value added material or energy conversion of excess biomass, thus enabling reduction of GHG and local environment pollution and sustainable development of local community. (orig.)

  11. Acoustic Properties of Innovative Material from Date Palm Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamyaa Abd AL-Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: An organic material is one of the major requirements to improve living environment and the invention of materials need to consider for the best solution. This study presents an experimental investigation on pure porous from Date Palm Fibre (DPF. The effectiveness of sound absorbers depends on structural architecture of this material. This study was conducted to examine the potential of using date palm fibre as sound absorber. The effects of porous layer thicknesses, densities and compression on Acoustic Absorption Coefficient (AAC of sound absorber using date palm fibre were studied. Approach: Rigid frame Johnson-Allard Model for various sample thicknesses was used in this study. The measurements were conducted in impedance tube on normal incidence acoustic absorption. The date palm fibre was mixed with latex which used for physical treatment on this material. Acoustic absorption behaviour of a porous material with different thicknesses was studied as well as samples with same thickness but different densities. In addition, samples with same properties but different period of compression time were inspected. The tests were in accordance to ISO 10534-2 and ASTM E1050-98 international standards for Acoustic Absorption Coefficient (AAC. Results: The experimental data indicates that two peak values of AAC is 0.93 at 1356Hz for sample with 50 mm thickness, also the AAC at high frequency for same thickness is 0.99 at 4200-4353 Hz that means able to improve acoustic absorption coefficient at low and high frequencies with significant increasing. Meanwhile, another experimental results were acquired for AAC of date palm fibre, with samples thicknesses of 35 mm at different densities .The results show that denser sample (11 Kg m-3 has higher AAC value of 0.83 at 1934- 2250 Hz as compared to less dense sample (9.92 Kg m-3 with AAC value 0.84 at 2443-2587 Hz . Conclusion: Acoustic absorption coefficient AAC of date palm fibre was

  12. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES, which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0 in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m−2 h−1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios, respectively and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus, which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis. There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y−1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m−2 h−1 and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene, the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a combination of a modified G06 algorithm for emission and a canopy resistance approach for deposition. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works

  13. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misztal, P. K.; Owen, S. M.; Guenther, A. B.; Rasmussen, R.; Geron, C.; Harley, P.; Phillips, G. J.; Ryan, A.; Edwards, D. P.; Hewitt, C. N.; Nemitz, E.; Siong, J.; Heal, M. R.; Cape, J. N.

    2010-05-01

    During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES), which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0) in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m-2 h-1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively) and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus), which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y-1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m-2 h-1) and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv) of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene), the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic compound may have an impact on regional atmospheric chemistry that previously has not been

  14. Large estragole fluxes from oil palms in Borneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Misztal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available During two field campaigns (OP3 and ACES, which ran in Borneo in 2008, we measured large emissions of estragole (methyl chavicol; IUPAC systematic name 1-allyl-4-methoxybenzene; CAS number 140-67-0 in ambient air above oil palm canopies (0.81 mg m−2 h−1 and 3.2 ppbv for mean midday fluxes and mixing ratios respectively and subsequently from flower enclosures. However, we did not detect this compound at a nearby rainforest. Estragole is a known attractant of the African oil palm weevil (Elaeidobius kamerunicus, which pollinates oil palms (Elaeis guineensis. There has been recent interest in the biogenic emissions of estragole but it is normally not included in atmospheric models of biogenic emissions and atmospheric chemistry despite its relatively high potential for secondary organic aerosol formation from photooxidation and high reactivity with OH radical. We report the first direct canopy-scale measurements of estragole fluxes from tropical oil palms by the virtual disjunct eddy covariance technique and compare them with previously reported data for estragole emissions from Ponderosa pine. Flowers, rather than leaves, appear to be the main source of estragole from oil palms; we derive a global estimate of estragole emissions from oil palm plantations of ~0.5 Tg y−1. The observed ecosystem mean fluxes (0.44 mg m−2 h−1 and mean ambient volume mixing ratios (3.0 ppbv of estragole are the highest reported so far. The value for midday mixing ratios is not much different from the total average as, unlike other VOCs (e.g. isoprene, the main peak occurred in the evening rather than in the middle of the day. Despite this, we show that the estragole flux can be parameterised using a modified G06 algorithm for emission. However, the model underestimates the afternoon peak even though a similar approach works well for isoprene. Our measurements suggest that this biogenic

  15. Oil palm biomass as an adsorbent for heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili, Mohammadtaghi; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Salamatinia, Babak; Gholami, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Many industries discharge untreated wastewater into the environment. Heavy metals from many industrial processes end up as hazardous pollutants of wastewaters.Heavy metal pollution has increased in recent decades and there is a growing concern for the public health risk they may pose. To remove heavy metal ions from polluted waste streams, adsorption processes are among the most common and effective treatment methods. The adsorbents that are used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media have both advantages and disadvantages. Cost and effectiveness are two of the most prominent criteria for choosing adsorbents. Because cost is so important, great effort has been extended to study and find effective lower cost adsorbents.One class of adsorbents that is gaining considerable attention is agricultural wastes. Among many alternatives, palm oil biomasses have shown promise as effective adsorbents for removing heavy metals from wastewater. The palm oil industry has rapidly expanded in recent years, and a large amount of palm oil biomass is available. This biomass is a low-cost agricultural waste that exhibits, either in its raw form or after being processed, the potential for eliminating heavy metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we provide background information on oil palm biomass and describe studies that indicate its potential as an alternative adsorbent for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. From having reviewed the cogent literature on this topic we are encouraged that low-cost oil-palm-related adsorbents have already demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants.Because cost is so important to those who choose to clean waste streams by using adsorbents, the use of cheap sources of unconventional adsorbents is increasingly being investigated. An adsorbent is considered to be inexpensive when it is readily available, is environmentally friendly, is cost-effective and be effectively used in economical processes. The

  16. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of red palm weevil (Coleopter: Curculionidae) in agricultural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  17. Recent developments in the use of acoustic sensors and signal processing tools to target early infestations of Red Palm Weevil in agricultural environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Much of the damage caused by red palm weevil larvae to date palms, ornamental palms, and palm offshoots could be mitigated by early detection and treatment of infestations. Acoustic technology has potential to enable early detection, but the short, high-frequency sound impulses produced by red palm ...

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balance of palm oil biofuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Souza, Simone Pereira; Pacca, Sergio [Graduate Program on Environmental Engineering Science, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Rua Arlindo Bettio, 1000 Sao Paulo (Brazil); de Avila, Marcio Turra; Borges, Jose Luiz B. [Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation (Embrapa - Soja) (Brazil)

    2010-11-15

    The search for alternatives to fossil fuels is boosting interest in biodiesel production. Among the crops used to produce biodiesel, palm trees stand out due to their high productivity and positive energy balance. This work assesses life cycle emissions and the energy balance of biodiesel production from palm oil in Brazil. The results are compared through a meta-analysis to previous published studies: Wood and Corley (1991) [Wood BJ, Corley RH. The energy balance of oil palm cultivation. In: PORIM intl. palm oil conference - agriculture; 1991.], Malaysia; Yusoff and Hansen (2005) [Yusoff S, Hansen SB. Feasibility study of performing an life cycle assessment on crude palm oil production in Malaysia. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment 2007;12:50-8], Malaysia; Angarita et al. (2009) [Angarita EE, Lora EE, Costa RE, Torres EA. The energy balance in the palm oil-derived methyl ester (PME) life cycle for the cases in Brazil and Colombia. Renewable Energy 2009;34:2905-13], Colombia; Pleanjai and Gheewala (2009) [Pleanjai S, Gheewala SH. Full chain energy analysis of biodiesel production from palm oil in Thailand. Applied Energy 2009;86:S209-14], Thailand; and Yee et al. (2009) [Yee KF, Tan KT, Abdullah AZ, Lee KT. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: revealing facts and benefits for sustainability. Applied Energy 2009;86:S189-96], Malaysia. In our study, data for the agricultural phase, transport, and energy content of the products and co-products were obtained from previous assessments done in Brazil. The energy intensities and greenhouse gas emission factors were obtained from the Simapro 7.1.8. software and other authors. These factors were applied to the inputs and outputs listed in the selected studies to render them comparable. The energy balance for our study was 1:5.37. In comparison the range for the other studies is between 1:3.40 and 1:7.78. Life cycle emissions determined in our assessment resulted in 1437 kg CO{sub 2}e/ha, while our analysis

  19. Modification of oil palm wood using acetylation and impregnation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagiyo, Lambang; Rosamah, Enih; Hesim

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study is chemical modification by process of acetylation and impregnation of oil palm wood to improve the dimensional stability. Acetylation process aimed at substituting the hydroxyl groups in a timber with an acetyl group. By increasing the acetyl groups in wood is expected to reduce the ability of wood to absorb water vapor which lead to the dimensions of the wood becomes more stable. Studies conducted on oil palm wood (Elaeis guineensis Jacq) by acetylation and impregnation method. The results showed that acetylated and impregnated wood oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq) were changed in their physical properties. Impregnation with coal ashfly provide the greatest response to changes in weight (in wet conditions) and after conditioning (dry) with the average percentage of weight gain of 198.16% and 66.41% respectively. Changes in volume indicates an increase of volume in the wet condition (imbibition) with the coal ashfly treatment gave highest value of 23.04 %, whereas after conditioning (dry) the highest value obtained in the treatment of gum rosin:ethanol with a volume increase of 13:44%. The highest changes of the density with the coal ashfly impregnation in wet condition (imbibition) in value of 142.32% and after conditioning (dry) of 57.87%. The result of reduction in water absorption (RWA) test showed that in the palm oil wood samples most stable by using of gum rosin : ethanol of 0.97%, whereas the increase in oil palm wood dimensional stability (ASE) is the best of 59.42% after acetylation with Acetic Anhydride: Xylene.

  20. Remotely sensed evidence of tropical peatland conversion to oil palm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Lian Pin; Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin; Ghazoul, Jaboury

    2011-03-22

    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ≈880,000 ha) of tropical peatlands in the region had been converted to oil-palm plantations by the early 2000s. Conversion of peatswamp forests to oil palm led to biodiversity declines of 1% in Borneo (equivalent to four species of forest-dwelling birds), 3.4% in Sumatra (16 species), and 12.1% in Peninsular Malaysia (46 species). This land-use change also contributed to the loss of ≈140 million Mg of aboveground biomass carbon, and annual emissions of ≈4.6 million Mg of belowground carbon from peat oxidation. Additionally, the loss of peatswamp forests implies the loss of carbon sequestration service through peat accumulation, which amounts to ≈660,000 Mg of carbon annually. By 2010, 2.3 million ha of peatswamp forests were clear-felled, and currently occur as degraded lands. Reforestation of these clearings could enhance biodiversity by up to ≈20%, whereas oil-palm establishment would exacerbate species losses by up to ≈12%. To safeguard the region's biodiversity and carbon stocks, conservation and reforestation efforts should target Central Kalimantan, Riau, and West Kalimantan, which retain three-quarters (3.9 million ha) of the remaining peatswamp forests in Southeast Asia.

  1. Compressive Strength of Concrete Containing Palm Kernel Shell Ash

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    FADELE Oluwadamilola A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the influence of varying palm kernel shell ash content, as supplementary cementitious material (SCM at specified water/cement ratios and curing ages on the compressive strength of concrete cubes samples. Palm kernel shell ash was used as a partial replacement for ordinary Portland cement (OPC up to 30% at 5% intervals using mix ratio 1:2:4. River sand with particles passing 4.75mmBS sieve and crushed aggregate of 20mm maximum size were used while the palm kernel shell ash used was ofparticles passing through 212μm BS sieve. The compressive strength of the test cubes (100mm were tested at 5 different curing ages of 3, 7, 14, 28 and 56 days. The result showed that test cube containing Palm kernel shell ash gained strength over a longer curing period compared with ordinary Portlandcement concrete samples and the strength varies with percentagePKSAcontent in the cube samples. The results showed that at 28 days test cubes containing 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% PKSA content achieved compressive strength of 26.1 MPa, 22.53MPa, 19.43 MPa, 20.43 MPa, 16.97 MPa and 16.5MPa compared to 29MPa of Ordinary Portland cement concrete cubes. It was concluded that for structural concrete works requiring a characteristic strength of 25Mpa,5% palm kernel shell ash can effectively replace ordinary Portland cement while up to 15% PKSA content can be used for concrete works requiring 20Mpa strength at 28 days

  2. Ergonomic Risk Assessment on Oil Palm Industry Workers

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    Baba Mohd DEROS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was an investigation conducted at two oil palm plantations in Slim River District, Perak, Malaysia on the prevalence of back pain among workers in the Malaysian oil palm industry. Many manual handling activities and tasks performed were not designed ergonomically, thus a high prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders was found among oil palm fresh fruit bunches (FFBs manual workers. The three main objectives of this study were to determine the level of employee awareness on health and safety of manual handling tasks; to recognize the musculoskeletal symptom on the workers body parts; and to analyze their working postures and identify the relevant risk factors.Methods: Modified Nordic questionnaire was used to collect data in 2012 at two oil palm plantations located in Slim River District, Perak, Malaysia. Later, Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA analysis was conducted for high risk working postures. Seventy workers participated in the study.Results: 81.4% of workers were aware on the correct methods to perform the manual handling tasks. The upper back and lower back pain were experienced by 87.1% and 94.3% of the workers respectively.Conclusion: Manual workers have high level (81.4% health and safety awareness on manual handling tasks but failed to practice it. As a result, 87.1% of them are sufferring from lower back and 94.3% from upper back pain. FFBs loading activity into the lorry is a high risk and changes needed to be done immediately. The two major risk factors identified were awkward lifting postures and repetitive lifting of FFBs. Keywords: Oil palm industry, Ergonomics, Posture, Musculoskeletal pain, workers

  3. Cell longevity and sustained primary growth in palm stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, P Barry; Huggett, Brett A

    2012-12-01

    Longevity, or organismal life span, is determined largely by the period over which constituent cells can function metabolically. Plants, with modular organization (the ability continually to develop new organs and tissues) differ from animals, with unitary organization (a fixed body plan), and this difference is reflected in their respective life spans, potentially much longer in plants than animals. We draw attention to the observation that palm trees, as a group of monocotyledons without secondary growth comparable to that of lignophytes (plants with secondary growth from a bifacial cambium), retain by means of sustained primary growth living cells in their trunks throughout their organismal life span. Does this make palms the longest-lived trees because they can grow as individuals for several centuries? No conventional lignophyte retains living metabolically active differentiated cell types in its trunk for this length of time, even though the tree as a whole can exist for millennia. Does this contrast also imply that the long-lived cells in a palm trunk have exceptional properties, which allows this seeming immortality? We document the long-life of many tall palm species and their inherent long-lived stem cell properties, comparing such plants to conventional trees. We provide a summary of aspects of cell age and life span in animals and plants. Cell replacement is a feature of animal function, whereas conventional trees rely on active growth centers (meristems) to sustain organismal development. However, the long persistence of living cells in palm trunks is seen not as evidence for unique metabolic processes that sustain longevity, but is a consequence of unique constructional features. This conclusion suggests that the life span of plant cells is not necessarily genetically determined.

  4. Exploratory Study of Palm Oil Fuel Ash as Partial Cement Replacement in Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Aggregate Concrete

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    K. Muthusamy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, issue of environmental pollution resulting from disposal of Palm Oil Fuel Ash (POFA which is a by-product from palm oil mill has initiated research to incorporate this waste in Oil Palm Shell (OPS lightweight aggregate concrete production. The current study investigates the effect of palm oil fuel ash content as partial cement replacement towards compressive strength OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Several OPS lightweight aggregate concrete mixes were produced by replacing various percentage of POFA ranging from 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50%, respectively by weight of cement. All the mixes were cast in form of cubes and then subjected to water curing until the testing date. The compressive strength test is conducted in accordance to BSEN 12390 (2009 at 7 and 28 days. From the results, it was observed that the combination of appropriate POFA content would enhance the compressive strength of OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. Specimen produced using 20% POFA as partial cement replacement exhibit higher value of compressive strength than that of control OPS lightweight aggregate concrete. However, mixes consisting POFA up to 50% is also suitable for structural application.

  5. LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT FOR OIL PALM BASED PLYWOOD: A GATE-TO-GATE CASE STUDY

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    M. Shamim Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Life Cycle Assessment (LCA is an important tool for identifying potential environmental impacts associated with the production of palm based plywood. This study is to make available the life cycle inventory for gate-to-gate data so that the environmental impact posed by oil palm based plywood production can be assessed. Conducting an LCA on the palm based plywood that are derived from the wastes of the oil palm industry is a first step towards performing green environmental product. Therefore.establishing baseline information for the complete environmental profile of the palm oil plywood is essential. Data from this study on the environmental impact for the production of palm plywood would help to develop sustainable palm plywood product. The results will provide information to identify ways and measures to reduce the environmental impacts. Most foreground data were collected directly from numbers oil palm plywood factories which represent 40% of the palm plywood industry in Peninsular Malaysia. Data gaps were filled by information obtained through questionnaires which were developed specifically for data collection, literature, public database or further calculated from obtained data. The outputs and inputs from production activities were quantified on the basis of functional unit of production of 1 m3from different types of oil palm based plywood i.e., Moisture Resistant (MR, Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 1 and Weather Boiling Proof (WBP Grade 2. The life cycle impact assessment was carried out using SimaPro 7.1 software and the eco-indicator 99 methodology. The weighting results of LCA for the production of 1 cubic meter of oil palm based plywood showed significant impact in descending order i.e., fossil fuel, respiratory inorganic and climate change. The most significant process contributing to these environmental impacts came from the production and usage of adhesives, transportation of oil palm trunks from plantation to factory and

  6. Oil Palm Tree Detection with High Resolution Multi-Spectral Satellite Imagery

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    Panu Srestasathiern

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm tree is an important cash crop in Thailand. To maximize the productivity from planting, oil palm plantation managers need to know the number of oil palm trees in the plantation area. In order to obtain this information, an approach for palm tree detection using high resolution satellite images is proposed. This approach makes it possible to count the number of oil palm trees in a plantation. The process begins with the selection of the vegetation index having the highest discriminating power between oil palm trees and background. The index having highest discriminating power is then used as the primary feature for palm tree detection. We hypothesize that oil palm trees are located at the local peak within the oil palm area. To enhance the separability between oil palm tree crowns and background, the rank transformation is applied to the index image. The local peak on the enhanced index image is then detected by using the non-maximal suppression algorithm. Since both rank transformation and non-maximal suppression are window based, semi-variogram analysis is used to determine the appropriate window size. The performance of the proposed method was tested on high resolution satellite images. In general, our approach uses produced very accurate results, e.g., about 90 percent detection rate when compared with manual labeling.

  7. Influence of palm olein on protein utilisation in the growing rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, C J; Ghusain-Choueiri, A; Gurr, M I

    1999-03-01

    In view of our preliminary findings that refined palm oil (RPOL) enhanced protein utilisation, and because of the growing importance of palm oil in human diets, two separate studies were conducted. The first study aimed to investigate the effect of the palm oil source and fraction on protein utilisation, as determined by net protein utilization (NPU) in growing rats. The second study aimed to investigate the influence of the dietary concentration of one particular palm oil fraction, refined palm olein (RPO) on net protein utilisation. The fat source of each of the semi-purified diets was as follows: crude palm oil (CPO), refined palm kernel oil (RKO), refined palm olein (RPO), refined palm stearin (RPS), and refined palm oil (RPOL). A sixth control group was offered an identical diet but with olive oil (OO, control) as the fat source. Both the oil source (P < 0.01) and the oil level (P < 0.05) influenced NPU in rats. NPU values were generally higher for rats given the RPO-containing diets, particularly at the 20% dietary level (P < 0.01) compared to the diets containing ground nut oil (GNO). The results of these two experiments indicate that RPO influences protein metabolism specifically at a concentration of at least 20% in the diet. This may suggest that RPO is superior to GNO as a source of fat for the rehabilitation of malnourished children. Human trials notably during the rehabilitation of malnourished children may therefore be the next step in this line of research.

  8. Hydrological and economic effects of oil palm cultivation in Indonesian peatlands

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    Elham Sumarga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm has increasingly been established on peatlands throughout Indonesia. One of the concerns is that the drainage required for cultivating oil palm in peatlands leads to soil subsidence, potentially increasing future flood risks. This study analyzes the hydrological and economic effects of oil palm production in a peat landscape in Central Kalimantan. We examine two land use scenarios, one involving conversion of the complete landscape including a large peat area to oil palm plantations, and another involving mixed land use including oil palm plantations, jelutung (jungle rubber; (Dyera spp. plantations, and natural forest. The hydrological effect was analyzed through flood risk modeling using a high-resolution digital elevation model. For the economic analysis, we analyzed four ecosystem services: oil palm production, jelutung production, carbon sequestration, and orangutan habitat. This study shows that after 100 years, in the oil palm scenario, about 67% of peat in the study area will be subject to regular flooding. The flood-prone area will be unsuitable for oil palm and other crops requiring drained soils. The oil palm scenario is the most profitable only in the short term and when the externalities of oil palm production, i.e., the costs of CO2 emissions, are not considered. In the examined scenarios, the social costs of carbon emissions exceed the private benefits from oil palm plantations in peat. Depending upon the local hydrology, income from jelutung, which can sustainably be grown in undrained conditions and does not lead to soil subsidence, outweighs that from oil palm after several decades. These findings illustrate the trade-offs faced at present in Indonesian peatland management and point to economic advantages of an approach that involves expansion of oil palm on mineral lands while conserving natural peat forests and using degraded peat for crops that do not require drainage.

  9. An interesterified palm olein test meal decreases early-phase postprandial lipemia compared to palm olein: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Wendy L; Brito, Marcela Fiuza; Huang, Junlan; Wood, Lucy V; Filippou, Androulla; Sanders, Thomas A B; Berry, Sarah E E

    2014-09-01

    Palm oil that has been interesterified to produce a higher proportion of palmitic acid (16:0) in the sn-2 position reduces postprandial lipemia in young, normolipidemic men and women, but effects in older subjects with higher fasting triacylglycerol (TAG) concentrations are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high-fat meals rich in interesterified palm olein (IPO) decrease lipemia and alter plasma lipoprotein fraction composition compared to native palm olein (NPO) in men aged 40-70 years with fasting TAG concentrations ≥1.2 mmol/L. Postprandial changes in plasma lipids following meals containing 75 g fat (NPO and IPO) were compared using a randomized, double-blind crossover design (n = 11). Although there were no significant differences in plasma TAG concentrations between meals over the total 6-h postprandial measurement period, IPO resulted in a decreased plasma TAG response during the first 4 h of the postprandial period (iAUC 1.65 mmol/L h, 95% CI 1.01-2.29) compared to NPO (iAUC 2.33 mmol/L h, 95% CI 1.58-3.07); meal effect P = 0.024. Chylomicron fraction TAG concentrations at 4-6 h were slightly reduced following IPO compared to NPO [NPO-IPO mean difference 0.29 mmol/L (95% CI -0.01-0.59), P = 0.055]. There were no differences in IDL fraction TAG, cholesterol or apolipoprotein B48 concentrations following IPO compared with NPO. In conclusion, consuming a meal containing palm olein with a higher proportion of 16:0 in the sn-2 position decreases postprandial lipemia compared to native palm olein during the early phase of the postprandial period in men with higher than optimal fasting triacylglycerol concentrations.

  10. Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell Using a Novel Five-Stage Winnowing Column System

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    Rohaya Mohamed Halim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional separation system for the recovery of palm kernel from its palm shell–kernel mixture using water as process media generates a considerable amount of waste effluent that harms the environment. The aim of this study is to develop a dry separation process for the recovery of palm kernel by using winnowing columns. A commercial system consisting of a series of five winnowing columns was developed and installed at a local palm oil mill. The system parameters, including column height, blower capacity, airflow rate and mesh screen size for shell removal, were studied and optimized to ensure good separation of kernel and shell in the column to enable collection of different sizes of kernel and shell at each column outlet. The performance of the separation process was evaluated in terms of its kernel losses, dirt content and kernel recovery rate. The average kernel losses based on oil palm fresh fruit bunches processed were found to vary from 0.11 to 0.30 wt %, with most of the values obtained being below the targeted limit of 0.30 wt %. The dirt content was in the range 4.56–6.03 wt %, which was mostly below the targeted limit of 5.5 wt %. The kernel recovery rate was in the range 5.69–6.89 wt %, with most of the values achieving the minimum targeted limit of 6.00 wt %. The system operates under completely dry conditions and, therefore, produces zero waste effluent.

  11. BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF OIL PALM INTERSPECIFIC HYBRIDS (Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis GROWN IN HYDROPONICS

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    Yurany Dayana Rivera

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The interspecific hybrid, Elaeis oleifera x Elaeis guineensis (OxG is an alternative for improving the competitiveness and sustainability of the Latin American oil palm agro-industry, because of its partial resistance to some lethal diseases and also because of the high quality of its oil. A comparative characterization was conducted of the physiological and biochemical performance of seedlings of six OxG hybrids grown in hydroponics. Gas exchange, vegetative growth, protein, sugar and photosynthetic pigment content, and antioxidant system activity were determined. With the exception of gas exchange, the other variables showed significant differences between materials. The ‘U1273’ and ‘U1737’ materials showed greater vegetative growth with no expression of biochemical traits, while the ‘U1914’and ‘U1990’ materials showed high levels of reducing and total sugars, photosynthetic pigments, and antioxidant system activities, characteristics that could confer them adaptation to stress conditions. With the standardized hydroponics technique, the optimal conditions for the growth of seedlings were ensured, the differences between materials and hybrid crosses were established, so those with promising features from the physiological and biochemical standpoint were identified. Finally, it could be used to study in a simple, fast, clean and inexpensive way, the effect of levels and sources of mineral nutrients on the growth and development of oil palm.

  12. Oil palm biotechnologies are definitely out of infancy

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    Rival Alain

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Although biotechnologies and sustainable development are often considered as antagonists, there is increasing evidence for a role for this approach in the ecological intensification of oil palm cultivation. Ecological intensification is based on the understanding of how nature functions so as to exploit its resources without destroying it. Living organisms are supported by the genome (DNA through the action of the transcriptome (RNAs, proteome, metabolome, and ionome, the four basic pillars of functional genomics. These pillars represent the sum of all the expressed genes, proteins, metabolites, and elements within an organism. The dynamic response and interaction of these biochemical “omes” defines how a living system functions, and its study, systems biology, is now one of the biggest challenges in life sciences. In oil palm, as in many major crops, functional genomics is still at its beginning, although there are no reasons why oil palm should not rapidly benefit from the fast progresses generated by automated and high-throughput technologies. The success of sequencing projects on model plants has created a widespread interest in exploring the structure and expression patterns of the genome. Indeed, several institutions have now achieved the full sequencing of the oil palm genome, paving the way for the rapid evolution of various genomics-based approaches. Oil palm breeding has provided an average 1% of genetic gain per year since the early 1960s and such an impressive increase in oil yield will be maintained in future generations with a major contribution from biotechnology. Indeed, the recent adoption of biotechnological approaches has already proven very useful in major areas such as cloning of outstanding material, identity checking of progenies/mother palms, identification and characterization of genes underlying agricultural traits, etc. Phenotypic differences among individuals are partly the result of quantitative differences in

  13. Neural Network in Modeling Malaysian Oil Palm Yield

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    Zuhaimy Ismail

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Forecasting of palm oil yield has become an important element in the management of oil palm industry for proper planning and decision making. The importance of yield forecasting has led us to explore modeling of palm oil yield for Malaysia using the most recent development of Artificial Neural Network (ANN. The main issue in yield forecasting is to predict the future value with the minimum error. Approach: Artificial neural networks are computing systems containing many interconnected nonlinear neurons, capable of extracting linear and nonlinear regularity in a given data set. It is an artificial intelligence model originally designed to replicate the human brains learning process, a network with many elements or neurons that are connected by communications channels or connectors. The ANN can perform a particular function when certain values are assigned to the connections or weights between elements. In this study, a secondary data set from the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB on the foliar nutrient composition, fertilizer trials and Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB yield were taken and analyzed. The foliar nutrient composition variables are the nitrogen N, phosphorus P, potassium K, calcium Ca and magnesium Mg concentration, while the fertilizer trials data are the N, P, K and Mg fertilizers and are measured in kg per palm per year. The foliar composition data was presented in the form of measured values whiles the fertilizer data in ordinal levels, from zero to three. Results: Two experiments were conducted to demonstrate the implementation ANN and for both experiment, the result demonstrated that the number of hidden nodes produces an effect to the overall forecast performance of the ANN architecture. From the first experiment, it shows that the number of runs does not affect the ANN performance, but changing the momentum to learning rates, due to shows a significant improvement in the forecast result. The experimental result will be

  14. American ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and inflammation of the lining of the stomach (gastritis). American ginseng is also used for low iron ... Dizziness. Pregnancy and childbirth complications. Stress. Anemia. Insomnia. Gastritis. Impotence. Fever. Hangover symptoms. Headaches. Swine flu. Aging. ...

  15. Interactions in interesterified palm and palm kernel oils mixtures. II – Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grimaldi, Renato

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (PO and palm kernel oil (PKO compositions (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 and 0/100 were interesterified in laboratory scale under predetermined conditions (0.4% sodium metoxide, 20 minutes, 100ºC. The fourteen samples, before and after interesterification, were characterized by Polarized Light Microscopy and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. Results showed the effect of various factors on the form and width of crystals. The mean area of crystals revealed the increase of crystals when PKO was added, with values varying from 2.7 x 10E3 µm2 to PO and 1.8 x 10E6 µm2 to PKO. After interesterification, the crystal widths were lower at PO/PKO 100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 20/80 fractions and were higher to anothers. The beta-prime polimorphic form was observed in the pure palm oil sample. The results showed in melting curves, onset values from –19.6ºC to more unsaturated peaks until 20.7ºC to more saturated ones. The higher values to more saturated peak in a melting curve to palm oil, 38.7 J.g-1 before and 48.4 J.g-1 after interesterification, showed a mores table saturated group. I n a genera l way, t h e interesterification promoted an increase of crystallization rate and a better compatibility between PO/PKO fractions.Fueron interesterificados en el laboratorio mezclas de aceite de palma (PO y aceite de palmiste (PKO en diferentes proporciones (100/0, 80/20, 60/40, 50/50, 40/60, 20/80 y 0/100 bajo condiciones predeterminadas (0.4% metoxido de sodio, 20 minutos, 100ºC. Las catorce muestras fueron caracterizadas antes y después de la interesterificación por Microscopía de Luz Polarizada y por Calorimetría Diferencial de Barrido (DSC. Los resultados mostraron el efecto de varios factores sobre la forma y anchura de los cristales. El área media de los cristales revela el aumento de tamaño de los mismos cuando aumenta la proporción de PKO, con valores que varían entre 2.7 x 10E3 µm2 para PO y 1.8 x 10E

  16. Improved Method for the Qualitative Analyses of Palm Oil Carotenes Using UPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Mei Han; Choo, Yuen May

    2016-04-01

    Palm oil is the richest source of natural carotenes, comprising 500-700 ppm in crude palm oil (CPO). Its concentration is found to be much higher in oil extracted from palm-pressed fiber, a by-product from the milling of oil palm fruits. There are 11 types of carotenes in palm oil, excluding the cis/trans isomers of some of the carotenes. Qualitative separation of these individual carotenes is particularly useful for the identification and confirmation of different types of oil as the carotenes profile is unique to each type of vegetable oil. Previous studies on HPLC separation of the individual palm carotenes reported a total analyses time of up to 100 min using C30 stationary phase. In this study, the separation was completed in <5 min. The qualitative separation was successfully carried out using a commonly used stationary phase, C18.

  17. Comprehensive analysis of lipid composition in crude palm oil using multiple lipidomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Wei Fun; Wenk, Markus R; Shui, Guanghou

    2014-05-20

    Palm oil is currently the leading edible oil consumed worldwide. Triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) are the dominant lipid classes in palm oil. Other lipid classes present in crude palm oil, such as phospholipids and galactolipids, are very low in abundance. These low-abundance lipids constitute key intermediates in lipid biosynthesis. In this study, we applied multiple lipidomic approaches, including high-sensitivity and high-specificity multiple reaction monitoring, to comprehensively quantify individual lipid species in crude palm oil. We also established a new liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometry method that allows direct quantification of low-abundance galactolipids in palm oil without the need for sample pretreatment. As crude palm oil contains large amounts of neutral lipids, our direct-detection method circumvents many of the challenges encountered with conventional lipid quantification methods. This approach allows direct measurement of lipids with no hassle during sample preparation and is more accurate and precise compared with other methods.

  18. Descriptive study of plant resources in the context of the ethnomedicinal relevance of indigenous flora: A case study from Toli Peer National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Muhammad Shoaib; Qaeem, Mirza faisal; Ahmad, Israr; Khan, Sami Ullah; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil; Zahid Malik, Nafeesa; Shaheen, Humaira; Khan, Arshad Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    gastro-intestinal, parasitic and hepatobiliary complaints (0.90). Berberis lycium Ajuga bracteosa, Prunella vulgaris, Adiantum capillus-veneris, Desmodium polycarpum, Pinus roxburgii, Albizia lebbeck, Cedrella serrata, Rosa brunonii, Punica granatum, Jasminum mesnyi and Zanthoxylum armatum were the most valuable plants with the highest UV, RFC and relative importance values. The Pearson correlation coefficient between UV and RFC (0.881) reflects a significant positive correlation between the use value and relative frequency of citation. The coefficient of determination indicated that 77% of the variability in UV could be explained in terms of RFC. Conclusion Systematic documentation of the medicinal plants in the Toli Peer National Park shows that the area is rich in plants with ethnomedicinal value and that the inhabitants of the area have significant knowledge about the use of such plants with herbal drugs commonly used to cure infirmities. The results of this study indicate that carrying out subsequent pharmacological and phytochemical investigations in this part of Pakistan could lead to new drug discoveries. PMID:28192466

  19. Palm Kernel Shells as a Dust Control Palliative on an Unpaved Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Ndoke NDOKE

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the effectiveness of the use palm kernel shells as a dust control palliative on an unpaved road has been carried out. The palm kernel shells were able to reduce the quantity of dust generated from the road to about 75% a few days after the application. It was then suggested that with the absence of funds for road maintenance works organic materials like palm kernel shells could be used as palliatives.

  20. Statistical Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Cellulase Production from Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal I. Daoud; Md. Z. Alam

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Palm oil mill effluent discharged by the oil palm industries is considered as the mixed of high polluted effluent which is abundant (about 20 million tonnes year-1) and its effect contributes to the serious environmental problems through the pollution of water bodies. Approach: The aim of this study was to identify the potential of low cost substrate such as Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) for the production of cellulase enzyme by liquid state bioconversion. The filamentous f...

  1. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hasmiza Harun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB. Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB. A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA. To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  2. TRANSFORMATION VERSUS STAGNATION IN THE OIL PALM INDUSTRY: A COMPARISON BETWEEN MALAYSIA AND NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Kajisa, Kei; Maredia, Mywish K.; Boughton, Duncan

    1997-01-01

    This paper contrasts the successful transformation of the oil palm sector in Malaysia with the stagnation of the oil palm sector in Nigeria, and examines the factors determining the different paths that the oil palm sectors took in these two countries with the aim of drawing lessons for future development and transfer strategy in Nigeria. Comparing two countries in different regions is not easy, especially when Nigeria has been in political chaos and the agro-climatic environments for oil-pal...

  3. Monitoring of oil palm plantations and growth variations with a dense vegetation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teng, Khar Chun; Koay, Jun Yi; Tey, Seng Heng

    2014-01-01

    -PACT) and Fresnel Phase Corrections. The iterative solutions of the radiative transfer model are computed with input based on ground truth measurements of physical parameters of oil palm plantations in the state of Perak, Malaysia, and compared with the SAR images obtained from RADARSAT2. Preliminary results...... are analyzed for dominant scattering mechanisms as well as monitoring of growth variation of oil palm trees for further development of operation models for long term monitoring of oil palm plantations....

  4. CORRELATION BETWEEN PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF PALM SUPER/ TOP-OLEINS AND THEIR TRANSPARENT STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Nusantoro, Bangun P.

    2012-01-01

    Telah dilakukan proses fraksinasi bertingkat untuk meningkatkan nilai tambah RBD-palm olein. Palm olein difraksinasi menghasilkan super-olein dan super-olein difraksinasi ulang untuk menghasilkan top-olein. Dengan pengulangan proses fraksinasi akan diperoleh fraksi olein dengan derajat ketidak jenuhan yang makin tinggi. Hal ini ditunjukkan dengan makin meningkatnya angka iod dari RBD-palm olein (IV: 57.2) ke top-olein (IV: 71.3). Hasil analisis GC juga menunjukkan terjadinya penin...

  5. An Evaluation of Holistic Sustainability Assessment Framework for Palm Oil Production in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chye Ing Lim; Wahidul Biswas

    2015-01-01

    Palm oil based biodiesel offers an alternative energy source that can reduce current dependence on conventional fossil fuels and may reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions depending on the type of feedstock and processes used. In the Malaysian context, the palm oil industry not only provides high-yield, renewable feedstock to the world, it brings socio-economic development to the Malaysian rural community and contributes to the national income. However, the sustainability of palm oil remains c...

  6. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Vijay

    Full Text Available Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to oil palm, we analysed recent expansions and modelled likely future ones. We assessed sample areas to find where oil palm plantations have recently replaced forests in 20 countries, using a combination of high-resolution imagery from Google Earth and Landsat. We then compared these trends to countrywide trends in FAO data for oil palm planted area. Finally, we assessed which forests have high agricultural suitability for future oil palm development, which we refer to as vulnerable forests, and identified critical areas for biodiversity that oil palm expansion threatens. Our analysis reveals regional trends in deforestation associated with oil palm agriculture. In Southeast Asia, 45% of sampled oil palm plantations came from areas that were forests in 1989. For South America, the percentage was 31%. By contrast, in Mesoamerica and Africa, we observed only 2% and 7% of oil palm plantations coming from areas that were forest in 1989. The largest areas of vulnerable forest are in Africa and South America. Vulnerable forests in all four regions of production contain globally high concentrations of mammal and bird species at risk of extinction. However, priority areas for biodiversity conservation differ based on taxa and criteria used. Government regulation and voluntary market interventions can help incentivize the expansion of oil palm plantations in ways that protect biodiversity-rich ecosystems.

  7. Conservation value and permeability of neotropical oil palm landscapes for orchid bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Livingston

    Full Text Available The proliferation of oil palm plantations has led to dramatic changes in tropical landscapes across the globe. However, relatively little is known about the effects of oil palm expansion on biodiversity, especially in key ecosystem-service providing organisms like pollinators. Rapid land use change is exacerbated by limited knowledge of the mechanisms causing biodiversity decline in the tropics, particularly those involving landscape features. We examined these mechanisms by undertaking a survey of orchid bees, a well-known group of Neotropical pollinators, across forest and oil palm plantations in Costa Rica. We used chemical baits to survey the community in four regions: continuous forest sites, oil palm sites immediately adjacent to forest, oil palm sites 2 km from forest, and oil palm sites greater than 5 km from forest. We found that although orchid bees are present in all environments, orchid bee communities diverged across the gradient, and community richness, abundance, and similarity to forest declined as distance from forest increased. In addition, mean phylogenetic distance of the orchid bee community declined and was more clustered in oil palm. Community traits also differed with individuals in oil palm having shorter average tongue length and larger average geographic range size than those in the forest. Our results indicate two key features about Neotropical landscapes that contain oil palm: 1 oil palm is selectively permeable to orchid bees and 2 orchid bee communities in oil palm have distinct phylogenetic and trait structure compared to communities in forest. These results suggest that conservation and management efforts in oil palm-cultivating regions should focus on landscape features.

  8. The Impacts of Oil Palm on Recent Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Varsha; Pimm, Stuart L; Jenkins, Clinton N; Smith, Sharon J

    2016-01-01

    Palm oil is the most widely traded vegetable oil globally, with demand projected to increase substantially in the future. Almost all oil palm grows in areas that were once tropical moist forests, some of them quite recently. The conversion to date, and future expansion, threatens biodiversity and increases greenhouse gas emissions. Today, consumer pressure is pushing companies toward deforestation-free sources of palm oil. To guide interventions aimed at reducing tropical deforestation due to oil palm, we analysed recent expansions and modelled likely future ones. We assessed sample areas to find where oil palm plantations have recently replaced forests in 20 countries, using a combination of high-resolution imagery from Google Earth and Landsat. We then compared these trends to countrywide trends in FAO data for oil palm planted area. Finally, we assessed which forests have high agricultural suitability for future oil palm development, which we refer to as vulnerable forests, and identified critical areas for biodiversity that oil palm expansion threatens. Our analysis reveals regional trends in deforestation associated with oil palm agriculture. In Southeast Asia, 45% of sampled oil palm plantations came from areas that were forests in 1989. For South America, the percentage was 31%. By contrast, in Mesoamerica and Africa, we observed only 2% and 7% of oil palm plantations coming from areas that were forest in 1989. The largest areas of vulnerable forest are in Africa and South America. Vulnerable forests in all four regions of production contain globally high concentrations of mammal and bird species at risk of extinction. However, priority areas for biodiversity conservation differ based on taxa and criteria used. Government regulation and voluntary market interventions can help incentivize the expansion of oil palm plantations in ways that protect biodiversity-rich ecosystems.

  9. Dual resonant frequencies effects on an induction-based oil palm fruit sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Mohd Sidek, Roslina; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-11-19

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA). To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  10. Effect of carvacrol on the oxidative stability of palm oil during frying

    OpenAIRE

    İnanç, T.; Maskan, M.

    2014-01-01

    Fats and oils deteriorate physically and chemically at frying temperatures due to several reasons. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of carvacrol on the oxidative stability of palm oil during a repeated frying process. Potatoes were serially fried in carvacrol-added palm oil, BHT-added palm oil and a control oil (without any antioxidants). After each tenth frying cycle, several chemical analyses were carried out on collected samples to evaluate deterioration in the oils. Th...

  11. Role of Methane Capture for Sustainable Biodiesel Production from Palm Oil: A Life Cycle Assessment Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Hermawan Prasetya; Yandra Arkeman; Erliza Hambali

    2013-01-01

    Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) is one of the major wastes generated by palm oil milling which is a part of palm oil diesel production chain. POME contain of methane (about 60-70 %), which contribute to Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emission. Due to reduction GHG emission is one of indicator bioenergy sustainability, some alternatives have been implementing to reduction it. One of the alternatives is implementing of methane capture technology which able to capture and/or utilize it for energy source. In...

  12. Enzymatic synthesis of fatty amides from palm olein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulla, Emad A Jaffar; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa Bt; Rahman, Mohd Zaki A

    2010-01-01

    Fatty amides have been successfully synthesized from palm olein and urea by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction. The use of immobilized lipase as the catalyst for the preparation reaction provides an easy isolation of the enzyme from the products and other components in the reaction mixture. The fatty amides were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) technique and elemental analysis. The highest conversion percentage (96%) was obtained when the process was carried out for 36 hours using urea to palm oil ratio of 5.2: 1.0 at 40 degrees C. The method employed offers several advantages such as renewable and abundant of the raw material, simple reaction procedure, environmentally friendly process and high yield of the product.

  13. Enzymatic synthesis of palm olein-based fatty thiohydroxamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulla, Emad A Jaffar; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa Bt; Rahman, Mohd Zaki Ab

    2010-01-01

    Fatty thiohydroxamic acids (FTAs) have been successfully synthesized from palm olein and thiohydroxamic acid by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction. The use of immobilized lipase (Lipozyme RMIM) as the catalyst for the preparation reaction provides an easy isolation of the enzyme from the products and other components in the reaction mixture. The FTAs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) technique and elemental analysis. The highest conversion percentage (95 %) was obtained when the process was carried out for 30 hours using urea to palm oil ratio of 6.0: 1.0 at 40 °C. The method employed offers several advantages such as renewable and abundant of the raw material, simple reaction procedure, environmentally friendly process and high yield of the product.

  14. Optimization on Epoxidation of Palm Olein by Using Performic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darfizzi Derawi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The epoxidation process of palm olein (POo was carried out by using in situ generated performic acid (HCOOOH to produce epoxidized palm olein (EPO. HCOOOH was produced by mixing of formic acid (HCOOH as oxygen carrier and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as oxygen donor in various ratio of POo: HCOOH: H2O2. The effect of HCOOH and H2O2 concentration, temperature, stirring effect and reaction time were studied. The presence of oxirane ring of EPO was characterised by fourier transformation infra-red (FTIR, proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR and (13C-NMR spectra. The results showed that an optimum oxirane oxygen content (OOC value was obtained by using mol ratio of 1: 5: 2 at 150 minutes.

  15. Use of calcium oxide in palm oil methyl ester production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulchanat Prasertsit

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducing an untreated calcium oxide (CaO as a solid heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production from palm oil by transesterification was studied in this work. The four studied parameters were methanol to oil molar ratio, CaO catalyst concentration, reaction time, and water content. The results for palm oil show that when the water content is higher than 3%wt and the amount of CaO greater than 7%wt soap formation from saponification occurs. A higher methanol to oil molar ratio requires a higher amount of CaO catalyst to provide the higher product purity. The appropriate methanol to CaO catalyst ratio is about 1.56. Commercial grade CaO gives almost the same results as AR grade CaO. In addition, reusing commercial grade CaO for about 5 to 10 repetitions without catalyst regeneration drops the percentage of methyl ester purity approximately 5 to 10%, respectively.

  16. Use of palm kernel cake for animal feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuprasert, S.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Palm kernel cake (PKC, a by-product from the palm-oil industry, has the potential for use as a feed ingredient. Crude protein, fiber and metabolizable energy contents of PKC are 12-18%, 18-13% and 1,940- 2,490 kcal/kg, respectively. Availability of amino acid in PKC are approximately 60-70% for chickens and 65-70% for pigs. With fat supplementation, PKC can be used up to 20% in broiler diet and can be increased to 30-40% with further addition of methionine and lysine. For the diets of pullets and laying hen, PKC can be used 30% and 20% respectively if supplemented with fat, methionine and lysine. PKC can be used 30% in diet for grower (30-60 kg and 50% in diet for finisher pigs (60-90 kg., respectively, if supplemented with lysine and cane molasses.

  17. Effect of Palm Pollen on Sperm Parameters of Infertile Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasekh, Athar; Jashni, Hojjatollah Karimi; Rahmanian, Karamatollah; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh

    2015-04-01

    There is a rapidly growing trend in the consumption of herbal remedies in the developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of orally administered Date Palm Pollen (DPP) on the results of semen analysis in adult infertile men. Forty infertile men participated in our study. They were treated by Pollen powder 120 mg kg(-1) in gelatinous capsules every other day, for two months. Before and at the end of therapy, the semen was collected after masturbation and sperm numbers, motility and morphology were determined. Our findings revealed that consumption of DPP improved the sperm count. The treatment was significantly increased sperm motility, morphology and forward progressive motility. Date palm pollen seems to cure male infertility by improving the quality of sperm parameters.

  18. Inter-esterified palm products as alternatives to hydrogenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Nor Aini; Dian, Noor Lida Habi Mat

    2005-01-01

    Inter-esterification is one of the processes used to modify the physico-chemical characteristics of oils and fats. Inter-esterification is an acyl-rearrangement reaction on the glycerol molecule. On the other hand, hydrogenation involves addition of hydrogen to the double bonds of unsaturated fatty acids. Due to health implications of trans fatty acids, which are formed during hydrogenation, the industry needs to find alternatives to hydrogenated fats. This paper discusses some applications of inter-esterified fats, with particular reference to inter-esterified palm products, as alternatives to hydrogenation. Some physico-chemical properties of inter-esterified fats used in shortenings are discussed. With inter-esterification, more palm stearin can be incorporated in vanaspati. For confectionary fats and infant formulations, enzymatic inter-esterification has been employed.

  19. A sub-canopy structure for simulating oil palm in the Community Land Model (CLM-Palm): phenology, allocation and yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Y.; Roupsard, O.; Bernoux, M.; Le Maire, G.; Panferov, O.; Kotowska, M. M.; Knohl, A.

    2015-11-01

    In order to quantify the effects of forests to oil palm conversion occurring in the tropics on land-atmosphere carbon, water and energy fluxes, we develop a new perennial crop sub-model CLM-Palm for simulating a palm plant functional type (PFT) within the framework of the Community Land Model (CLM4.5). CLM-Palm is tested here on oil palm only but is meant of generic interest for other palm crops (e.g., coconut). The oil palm has monopodial morphology and sequential phenology of around 40 stacked phytomers, each carrying a large leaf and a fruit bunch, forming a multilayer canopy. A sub-canopy phenological and physiological parameterization is thus introduced so that each phytomer has its own prognostic leaf growth and fruit yield capacity but with shared stem and root components. Phenology and carbon and nitrogen allocation operate on the different phytomers in parallel but at unsynchronized steps, separated by a thermal period. An important phenological phase is identified for the oil palm - the storage growth period of bud and "spear" leaves which are photosynthetically inactive before expansion. Agricultural practices such as transplanting, fertilization and leaf pruning are represented. Parameters introduced for the oil palm were calibrated and validated with field measurements of leaf area index (LAI), yield and net primary production (NPP) from Sumatra, Indonesia. In calibration with a mature oil palm plantation, the cumulative yields from 2005 to 2014 matched notably well between simulation and observation (mean percentage error = 3 %). Simulated inter-annual dynamics of PFT-level and phytomer-level LAI were both within the range of field measurements. Validation from eight independent oil palm sites shows the ability of the model to adequately predict the average leaf growth and fruit yield across sites and sufficiently represent the significant nitrogen- and age-related site-to-site variability in NPP and yield. Results also indicate that seasonal dynamics

  20. Proteomic analysis of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) responses to endophytic colonization by entomopathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Vidal, Sonia; Salinas, Jesús; Tena, Manuel; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2009-09-01

    The entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana, Lecanicillium dimorphum and L. cf. psalliotae can survive and colonize living palm tissue as endophytes. The molecular interaction between these biocontrol agent fungi and the date palm Phoenix dactylifera L. was investigated using proteomic techniques. Field date palms inoculated with these fungi were analyzed 15 and 30 days after inoculation in two independent bioassays. In vitro date palms were also inoculated with B. bassiana or L. cf. psalliotae. Qualitative and quantitative differences in protein accumulation between controls (not inoculated) and inoculated palms were found using 2-DE analysis, and some of these responsive proteins could be identified using MALDI/TOF-TOF. Proteins involved in plant defence or stress response were induced in P. dactylifera leaves as a response to endophytic colonization by entomopathogenic fungi in field date palms. Proteins related with photosynthesis and energy metabolism were also affected by entomopathogenic fungi colonization. A myosin heavy chain-like protein was accumulated in in vitro palms inoculated with these fungi. This suggests that endophytic colonization by these entomopathogenic fungi modulates plant defence responses and energy metabolism in field date palms and possibly modulates the expression of cell division-related proteins in in vitro palms at proteomic level.

  1. Palm oil – strategic source of renewable energy in Indonesia and Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Prokurat, Sergiusz

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to answer the question of how the global industry of palm oil is affecting the economies and natural environments of its two main producers – Indonesia and Malaysia. The first section examines the contemporary uses of palm oil in a variety of products and industries. It also sets out to describe the global palm oil market. The second section takes a historical perspective, analysing the origins of palm oil cultivation and trade and its rapid rise to global prominence. The thi...

  2. Convergent Evolution towards High Net Carbon Gain Efficiency Contributes to the Shade Tolerance of Palms (Arecaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ren-Yi; Zhang, Jiao-Lin; Cavaleri, Molly A; Sterck, Frank; Strijk, Joeri S; Cao, Kun-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Most palm species occur in the shaded lower strata of tropical rain forests, but how their traits relate to shade adaptation is poorly understood. We hypothesized that palms are adapted to the shade of their native habitats by convergent evolution towards high net carbon gain efficiency (CGEn), which is given by the maximum photosynthetic rate to dark respiration rate ratio. Leaf mass per area, maximum photosynthetic rate, dark respiration and N and P concentrations were measured in 80 palm species grown in a common garden, and combined with data of 30 palm species growing in their native habitats. Compared to other species from the global leaf economics data, dicotyledonous broad-leaved trees in tropical rainforest or other monocots in the global leaf economics data, palms possessed consistently higher CGEn, achieved by lowered dark respiration and fairly high foliar P concentration. Combined phylogenetic analyses of evolutionary signal and trait evolution revealed convergent evolution towards high CGEn in palms. We conclude that high CGEn is an evolutionary strategy that enables palms to better adapt to shady environments than coexisting dicot tree species, and may convey advantages in competing with them in the tropical forest understory. These findings provide important insights for understanding the evolution and ecology of palms, and for understanding plant shade adaptations of lower rainforest strata. Moreover, given the dominant role of palms in tropical forests, these findings are important for modelling carbon and nutrient cycling in tropical forest ecosystems.

  3. Convergent Evolution towards High Net Carbon Gain Efficiency Contributes to the Shade Tolerance of Palms (Arecaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Yi Ma

    Full Text Available Most palm species occur in the shaded lower strata of tropical rain forests, but how their traits relate to shade adaptation is poorly understood. We hypothesized that palms are adapted to the shade of their native habitats by convergent evolution towards high net carbon gain efficiency (CGEn, which is given by the maximum photosynthetic rate to dark respiration rate ratio. Leaf mass per area, maximum photosynthetic rate, dark respiration and N and P concentrations were measured in 80 palm species grown in a common garden, and combined with data of 30 palm species growing in their native habitats. Compared to other species from the global leaf economics data, dicotyledonous broad-leaved trees in tropical rainforest or other monocots in the global leaf economics data, palms possessed consistently higher CGEn, achieved by lowered dark respiration and fairly high foliar P concentration. Combined phylogenetic analyses of evolutionary signal and trait evolution revealed convergent evolution towards high CGEn in palms. We conclude that high CGEn is an evolutionary strategy that enables palms to better adapt to shady environments than coexisting dicot tree species, and may convey advantages in competing with them in the tropical forest understory. These findings provide important insights for understanding the evolution and ecology of palms, and for understanding plant shade adaptations of lower rainforest strata. Moreover, given the dominant role of palms in tropical forests, these findings are important for modelling carbon and nutrient cycling in tropical forest ecosystems.

  4. Isolation of palm oil-utilising, polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA)-producing bacteria by an enrichment technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alias, Zazali; Tan, Irene K P

    2005-07-01

    In early attempts to isolate palm oil-utilising bacteria from palm oil mill effluent (POME), diluted liquid samples of POME were spread on agar containing POME as primary nutrient. 45 purified colonies were screened for intracellular lipids by staining with Sudan Black B. Of these, 10 isolates were positively stained. The latter were grown in a nitrogen-limiting medium with palm olein (a triglyceride) or saponified palm olein (salts of fatty acids) as carbon source. None of the isolates grew in the palm olein medium but all grew well in the saponified palm olein medium. Of the latter however, only one isolate was positively stained with Nile Blue A, indicating the presence of PHA. This method did not successfully generate bacterial isolates which could metabolise palm olein to produce PHA. An enrichment technique was therefore developed whereby a selective medium was designed. The latter comprised minerals and palm olein (1% w/v) as sole carbon source to which POME (2.5% v/v) was added as the source of bacteria. The culture was incubated with shaking at 30 degrees C for 4 weeks. Out of seven isolates obtained from the selective medium, two isolates, FLP1 and FLP2, could utilise palm olein for growth and production of the homopolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate). FLP1 is gram-negative and is identified (BIOLOG) to have 80% similarity to Burkholderia cepacia. When grown with propionate or valerate, FLP1 produced a copolyester, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate).

  5. Periostitis of the metatarsal caused by a date palm thorn in a child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S S

    2011-01-01

    Date palm thorn injuries are common in Middle Eastern countries, where there are many date palm plantations. If detected, these injuries can be treated without subsequent complications. In children, however, the diagnosis can very easily be missed. An untreated embedded thorn may cause late complications, including periostitis or osteomyelitis. In this article, the author presents a case of date palm thorn-induced periostitis of the fourth metatarsal. The lesion was successfully treated in this 10-year-old male by curettage of the lesion and removal of the thorn embedded in the periosteum of the metatarsal. The presence of the date palm thorn was confirmed with ultrasound scan and computerized tomography.

  6. Comparative anatomy of the peduncles of Thai Sugar Palms provides insight on putative sugar transport mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somjaiai, Pananun; Barfod, Anders; Jampeetong, Arunothai

    Inflorescences of sugar palms exude copious amounts of sugar-rich sap, when their peduncles are scarred. In Thailand this phenomenon form the basis of a widespread cottage industry based on species such as Arenga pinnata, Borassus flabellifera, Cocos nucifera and Nypa fruticans. The extracted sugar...... sap is used mainly for jaggery, syrup and different types of beverages. In this study we looked for anatomical correlates of the elevated sap flow in injured peduncles of sugar palms. Despite a limited sample size we observed that sugar producing palms differ from the reference palm Chamaedorea...

  7. Sustainable Biofuels and Other Related Bio-Products from Palm Cultivations

    OpenAIRE

    Ani Farid Nasir

    2016-01-01

    Various kinds of palm trees are grown in the tropical regions of the world that provide edible oils for food consumption. They have in common in providing edible oils from the nuts and some from the mesocarp such as oil palm. More than 400 mills in Malaysia have provided more than sufficient energy from the biomass in processing the fruits to crude palm oil. The biomass are the mesocarp fibres, shells or endocarp, empty fruit bunches and palm oil mill effluents. One option of treatment of thi...

  8. Application of lidar and optical data for oil palm plantation management in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafri, Helmi Z. M.; Ismail, Mohd Hasmadi; Razi, Mohd Khairil M.; Anuar, Mohd Izzuddin; Ahmad, Abdul Rahman

    2012-11-01

    Proper oil palm plantation management is crucial for Malaysia as the country depends heavily on palm oil as a major source of national income. Precision agriculture is considered as one of the approaches that can be adopted to improve plantation practices for plantation managers such as the government-owned FELDA. However, currently the implementation of precision agriculture based on remote sensing and GIS is still lacking. This study explores the potential of the use of LiDAR and optical remote sensing data for plantation road and terrain planning for planting purposes. Traditional approaches use land surveying techniques that are time consuming and costly for vast plantation areas. The first ever airborne LiDAR and multispectral survey for oil palm plantation was carried out in early 2012 to test its feasibility. Preliminary results show the efficiency of such technology in demanding engineering and agricultural requirements of oil palm plantation. The most significant advantage of the approach is that it allows plantation managers to accurately plan the plantation road and determine the planting positions of new oil palm seedlings. Furthermore, this creates for the first time, digital database of oil palm estate and the airborne imagery can also be used for related activities such as oil palm tree inventory and detection of palm diseases. This work serves as the pioneer towards a more frequent application of LiDAR and multispectral data for oil palm plantation in Malaysia.

  9. THE DIVERSITY OF EPIPHYTIC FERN ON THE OIL PALM TREE (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. IN PEKANBARU, RIAU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nery Sofiyanti

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis is one  main commodity in Riau Province. Morphologically, the trunk of oil palm  has suitable environment for the growth of epiphytic fern, due to its broaden base of petiole that may accumulate organic and anorganic debrish. The objective of this study was to investigate the diversity of epiphytic fern on the oil palm tree. A total of 125 oil palm trees from seven  study sites in Pekanbaru, Riau were observed. The number of epiphytic ferns identified in this study was 16 species belongs to six families.

  10. Age of oil palm plantations causes a strong change in surface biophysical variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabajo, Clifton; le Maire, Guerric; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Over the last decades, Indonesia has experienced dramatic land transformations with an expansion of oil palm plantations at the expense of tropical forests. As vegetation is a modifier of the climate near the ground these large-scale land transformations are expected to have major impacts on the surface biophysical variables i.e. surface temperature, albedo, and vegetation indices, e.g. the NDVI. Remote sensing data are needed to assess such changes at regional scale. We used 2 Landsat images from Jambi Province in Sumatra/Indonesia covering a chronosequence of oil palm plantations to study the 20 - 25 years life cycle of oil palm plantations and its relation with biophysical variables. Our results show large differences between the surface temperature of young oil palm plantations and forest (up to 9.5 ± 1.5 °C) indicating that the surface temperature is raised substantially after the establishment of oil palm plantations following the removal of forests. During the oil palm plantation lifecycle the surface temperature differences gradually decreases and approaches zero around an oil palm plantation age of 10 years. Similarly, NDVI increases and the albedo decreases approaching typical values of forests. Our results show that in order to assess the full climate effects of oil palm expansion biophysical processes play an important role and the full life cycle of oil palm plantations need to be considered.

  11. Application of date palm trees mulch as a bedding material for dry heifers in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadik M.W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the safety of using Saudi date palm trees mulch as a bedding material for dry heifers. Date palm trees mulch was used as bedding material for 10 days. Final Composite regulated elements (N, P, K, Na, Ca, and Mg, NDF, ADF, pH, moisture, and EC were improved by use of date palm trees mulch as a bedding material especially in concrete area (1.85%, 0.50%, 1.42%, 0.59%, 2.56%, 0.26%, 60.00%, 49.40%, 7.53, 30%, 16.88 for N, P, K, Na, Ca. Mg, NDF, ADF, pH, Moisture and Electrical conductivity, respectively. On a dry matter basis, highly enriched element fresh manure was collected from the concrete section bedded with date palm trees mulch. Both Concrete area bedded with date palm trees mulch and Sand area bedded with date palm trees mulch were free of salmonella after 10 days. Date palm trees mulch was unsuitable medium for pathogenic bacteria especially Escherichia coli O157:H7 .Total viable bacterial counts failed to increase with the incubation time (104. Date palm tree mulch was unsuitable medium for flies and minimizes density of house flies. Date palm trees mulch seemed to be a safe, comfortable and effective bedding material for cow’s feedlots.

  12. Palm oil and derivatives: fuels or potential fuels?

    OpenAIRE

    Pioch Daniel; Vaitilingom Gilles

    2005-01-01

    Scientific and technical information including field trials about uses of palm oil as fuel has been available for more than half a century now. Several ways were investigated, from the simple mixture with petroleum Diesel fuel, to more sophisticated solutions. The quality of vegetable oils in natura as fuel is difficult to assess because of interferences between properties of the triacylglycerols – the main components – and those of the many minor components, their content varying significant...

  13. Desiccation effects on germination and vigor of King palm seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Martins Cibele C.; Bovi Marilene L. A.; Nakagawa João

    2003-01-01

    The desiccation tolerance of Archontophoenix alexandrae (Wendl. & Drude) seeds was determined and the most sensitive vigor test for assessing seed deterioration of this species was identified. Mature fruits were harvested in the palm collection of the Instituto Agronomico in Campinas, Brazil. Depulped fruits were transported in impermeable packages to the Faculdade de Agronomia in Botucatu, where the seeds were dried. As the seed moisture decreased, germination, seedling length, electrica...

  14. A Reliable Identification System for Red Palm Weevil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Mufleh Al-Saqer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Red Palm Weevil (RPW is a widely found pest among palm trees and is known to cause significant losses every year to palm growers. Existing identification techniques for RPW comprise of using traps with pheromones to detect these pests. However, these traditional methods are labor-intensive, expensive to implement and unreliable for early detection of RPW infestation. Early detection of these pests would provide the best opportunity to eradicate them and minimize the potential losses of palm trees. Approach: In this study, a reliable identification system is developed to identify RPW by using only a small number of image descriptors in combination with neural network models. The neural networks were developed by using between three to nine image descriptors as inputs and a large database of insects’ images was used for training. Three different training ratios ranging from 25-75% were used and the network was trained by two different algorithms. Further, several scenarios were formulated to test the efficacy and reliability of the newly developed identification system. Results: The results indicate that the identification system developed in this study is capable of 100% recognition of RPW and 93% recognition of other insects in the database by taking as input only three easily-calculable image descriptors. Further, the average training times for these networks was 13 sec and the testing time for a single image was only 0.015 sec. Conclusion: The new system developed in this study provided reliable identification for RPW and was found to be up to 14 times faster in training and three times faster in testing of insects’ images.

  15. Amazonian Native Palm Fruits as Sources of Antioxidant Bioactive Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary de Fátima Guedes dos Santos

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon region has many sources of fruits, especially native ones not yet explored, but which have some potential for use, as is the case with certain palms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the content of bioactive compounds and total antioxidant capacities of fruits from native palms from the Brazilian Amazon. The fruits of five palm species (bacaba, buriti, inajá, pupunha, and tucumã were evaluated for levels of ascorbic acid, anthocyanins, yellow flavonoids, total carotenoids, and total extractable polyphenols, as well as the total antioxidant capacities. The fruits had high contents of extractable total polyphenols, especially bacaba and tucumã (941.56 and 158.98 mg of galic acid·100g−1, total carotenoids in the case of tucumã and buriti (7.24 and 4.67 mg·100g−1, and anthocyanins in bacaba (80.76 mg·100g−1. As for the antioxidant capacity, bacaba had the highest total antioxidant activity by the Oxygen Radical Antioxidant Capacity (ORAC (194.67 µM·Trolox·g−1, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH (47.46 g·pulp·g−1 DPPH, and β-carotene/linoleic acid (92.17% Oxidation Inhibition (O.I methods. Bacaba phenolic profile revealed the presence of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and other flavonoids. The palm fruits studied can be considered good sources of bioactive compounds, some containing higher amounts than that of commonly consumed fruits. Total extractable polyphenols and anthocyanins were directly correlated to antioxidant activity in these fruits.

  16. SUSTAINABILITY OF SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL: A MARKET INTEGRATION ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Chalil

    2016-01-01

    Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is the biggest consumed vegetable oil in the world. The increase in CPO production raises concern on the environmental impact even outside the producing countries. As a response to this matter, the EU has made a requirement to only import certified CPO (CSPO). India and China, the two biggest importers in the world, are less restrictive to the environmental issues, and their demands are more influenced by CPO price levels. These countries are the main export markets for I...

  17. Optimization of the cemical interesterification reaction of palm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Grimaldi; Lireny Aparecida Guaraldo Gonçalves; Marlene Yumi Ando

    2005-01-01

    The Brazilian market has been showing a growing concern with nutritional values of oil components of foods. Chemical interesterification is a promising alternative to the current processes of modifying the consistency of oils. Chemical interesterification of deodorized palm oil was studied on a laboratory scale. The best results were obtained with 0.4% MeONa and heating for 20 min at 100 °C. These conditions are based on the largest variation in triacylglycerols as compared to a control. ...

  18. Auto Guided Oil Palm Planter by using multi-GNSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nur Aini, I.; W, Aimrun; Amin, M. S. M.; Ezrin, M. H.; Shafri, H. Z.

    2014-06-01

    Planting is one of the most important operations in plantation because it could affect the total area of productivity since it is the starting point in cultivation. In oil palm plantation, lining and spacing of oil palm shall be laid out and coincided with the topographic area and a system of drains. Conventionally, planting of oil palm will require the polarization process in order to prevent and overcome the lack of influence of the sun rise and get a regular crop row. Polarization is done after the completion of the opening area by using the spike wood with 1 m length painted at the top and 100 m length of wire. This process will generally require at least five persons at a time to pull the wire and carry the spikes while the other two persons will act as observer and spikes craftsmen respectively with the ability of the team is 3ha/day. Therefore, the aim of this project is to develop the oil palm planting technique by using multi- GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System). Generally, this project will involve five main steps mainly; design of planting pattern by using SOLIDWORKS software, determine the boundary coordinate of planting area, georeference process with ArcGIS, stakeout process with Tracy software and finally marking up the location with the wooden spikes. The results proved that the multi- GNSS is capable to provide the high accuracy with less than 1 m in precise positioning system without augmentation data. With the ability of one person, time taken to complete 70 m × 50 m planting area is 290 min, which is 25 min faster than using GPS (Global Positioning System) only.

  19. Deproteinated palm kernel cake-derived oligosaccharides: A preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Suet Pin; Chia, Chin Hua; Fang, Zhen; Zakaria, Sarani; Chee, Kah Leong

    2014-09-01

    Preliminary study on microwave-assisted hydrolysis of deproteinated palm kernel cake (DPKC) to produce oligosaccharides using succinic acid was performed. Three important factors, i.e., temperature, acid concentration and reaction time, were selected to carry out the hydrolysis processes. Results showed that the highest yield of DPKC-derived oligosaccharides can be obtained at a parameter 170 °C, 0.2 N SA and 20 min of reaction time.

  20. American Dream in Early American Literatuer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    屈彩娥; 李小玺

    2008-01-01

    American dream has often been closely rehted to American literature.Many say that the American literary history can be seen as the history of American dreams.In most periods in history,writers,whose dreams have been infused in a variety of characters create the American literature.While in Early American literature,American dream had been presented in a dif-ferent way.

  1. Violet-red discolouration of canned Palmyra palm during processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamchong, Montip; Tatidin, Yuporn; Misayan, Apinya

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of the research were to investigate the causes of the violet-red discolouration during processing of canned Palmyra palm and to identify preventive methods without the use of chemical additives. Palmyra palm flesh with (13-21 %) /without some peel left on was tested for the source of violet-red discolouration during blanching. It was found that blanching in distilled water had no effect on discolouration when blanching conditions were at 75, 85, and 95 °C for 7 min but the violet-red discolouration occurred only when tap water was used for blanching at 95 °C for 7 min. Moreover, the addition of bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in distilled water to imitate higher alkalinity of tap water during blanching could contribute to the violet-red discolouration. Thus the observed cut off alkalinity of the blanching water wherein not to expect any discolouration was found to be about 100 ppm. After sterilization, there was no violet-red discolouration from Palmyra palm flesh without any peel left on even though it had a preceding treatment of blanching in highly alkaline tap water.

  2. Development and Characterization of Liposomal Doxorubicin Hydrochloride with Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Sabeti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The usage of natural products in pharmaceuticals has steadily seen improvements over the last decade, and this study focuses on the utilization of palm oil in formulating liposomal doxorubicin (Dox. The liposomal form of Dox generally minimizes toxicity and enhances target delivery actions. Taking into account the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of palm oil, the aim of this study is to design and characterize a new liposomal Dox by replacing phosphatidylcholine with 5% and 10% palm oil content. Liposomes were formed using the freeze_thaw method, and Dox was loaded through pH gradient technique and characterized through in vitro and ex vivo terms. Based on TEM images, large lamellar vesicles (LUV were formed, with sizes of 438 and 453 nm, having polydispersity index of 0.21 ± 0.8 and 0.22 ± 1.3 and zeta potentials of about −31 and −32 mV, respectively. In both formulations, the entrapment efficiency was about 99%, and whole Dox was released through 96 hours in PBS (pH = 7.4 at 37°C. Comparing cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of LUV with CaelyxR on MCF7 and MDA-MBA 231 breast cancer cell lines indicated suitable uptake and lower IC50 of the prepared liposomes.

  3. Development and characterization of liposomal doxorubicin hydrochloride with palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabeti, Bahareh; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mohd, Shaharuddin; Hashim, Rosnani; Dahlan, Afendi; Javar, Hamid Akbari

    2014-01-01

    The usage of natural products in pharmaceuticals has steadily seen improvements over the last decade, and this study focuses on the utilization of palm oil in formulating liposomal doxorubicin (Dox). The liposomal form of Dox generally minimizes toxicity and enhances target delivery actions. Taking into account the antiproliferative and antioxidant properties of palm oil, the aim of this study is to design and characterize a new liposomal Dox by replacing phosphatidylcholine with 5% and 10% palm oil content. Liposomes were formed using the freeze_thaw method, and Dox was loaded through pH gradient technique and characterized through in vitro and ex vivo terms. Based on TEM images, large lamellar vesicles (LUV) were formed, with sizes of 438 and 453 nm, having polydispersity index of 0.21 ± 0.8 and 0.22 ± 1.3 and zeta potentials of about -31 and -32 mV, respectively. In both formulations, the entrapment efficiency was about 99%, and whole Dox was released through 96 hours in PBS (pH = 7.4) at 37°C. Comparing cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of LUV with Caelyx(R) on MCF7 and MDA-MBA 231 breast cancer cell lines indicated suitable uptake and lower IC50 of the prepared liposomes.

  4. Bacterial diversity of oil palm Elaeis guineensis basal stems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amran, Afzufira; Jangi, Mohd Sanusi; Aqma, Wan Syaidatul; Yusof, Nurul Yuziana Mohd; Bakar, Mohd Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    Oil palm, Elaeis guineensis is one of the major industrial production crops in Malaysia. Basal stem rot, caused by the white fungus, Ganoderma boninense, is a disease that reduces oil palm yields in most production areas of the world. Understanding of bacterial community that is associated with Ganoderma infection will shed light on how this bacterial community contributes toward the severity of the infection. In this preliminary study, we assessed the bacterial community that inhabit the basal stems of E. guineensis based on 16S rRNA gene as a marker using next generation sequencing platform. This result showed that a total of 84,372 operational taxonomic-units (OTUs) were identified within six samples analyzed. A total 55,049 OTUs were assigned to known taxonomy whereas 29,323 were unassigned. Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant phyla found in all six samples and the unique taxonomy assigned for each infected and healthy samples were also identified. The findings from this study will further enhance our knowledge in the interaction of bacterial communities against Ganoderma infection within the oil palm host plant and for a better management of the basal stems rot disease.

  5. Catalytic Cracking of Palm Oil Over Zeolite Catalysts: Statistical Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. A. Twaiq and S. Bhatia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic cracking of palm oil was conducted in a fixed bed micro-reactor over HZSM-5, zeolite ? and ultrastable Y (USY zeolite catalysts. The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of cracking reaction variables such as temperature, weight hourly space velocity, catalyst pore size and type of palm oil feed of different molecular weight on the conversion, yield of hydrocarbons in gasoline boiling range and BTX aromatics in the organic liquid product.  Statistical Design of Experiment (DOE with 24 full factorial design was used in experimentation at the first stage.  The nonlinear model and Response Surface Methodology (RSM were utilized in the second stage of experimentation to obtain the optimum values of the variables for maximum yields of hydrocarbons in gasoline boiling range and aromatics.  The HZSM-5 showed the best performance amongst the three catalysts tested.  At 623 K and WHSV of 1 h-1, the highest experimental yields of gasoline and aromatics were 28.3 wt.% and 27 wt.%, respectively over the HZSM-5 catalyst.  For the same catalyst, the statistical model predicted that the optimum yield of gasoline was 28.1 wt.% at WHSV of 1.75 h-1 and 623 K.  The predicted optimum yield of gasoline was 25.5 wt.% at 623 K and WHSV of 1 h-1.KEY WORDS: Catalytic Cracking, Palm Oil, Zeolite, Design Of Experiment, Response Surface Methodology.

  6. Computer-Vision-Assisted Palm Rehabilitation With Supervised Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamsikrishna, K M; Dogra, Debi Prosad; Desarkar, Maunendra Sankar

    2016-05-01

    Physical rehabilitation supported by the computer-assisted-interface is gaining popularity among health-care fraternity. In this paper, we have proposed a computer-vision-assisted contactless methodology to facilitate palm and finger rehabilitation. Leap motion controller has been interfaced with a computing device to record parameters describing 3-D movements of the palm of a user undergoing rehabilitation. We have proposed an interface using Unity3D development platform. Our interface is capable of analyzing intermediate steps of rehabilitation without the help of an expert, and it can provide online feedback to the user. Isolated gestures are classified using linear discriminant analysis (DA) and support vector machines (SVM). Finally, a set of discrete hidden Markov models (HMM) have been used to classify gesture sequence performed during rehabilitation. Experimental validation using a large number of samples collected from healthy volunteers reveals that DA and SVM perform similarly while applied on isolated gesture recognition. We have compared the results of HMM-based sequence classification with CRF-based techniques. Our results confirm that both HMM and CRF perform quite similarly when tested on gesture sequences. The proposed system can be used for home-based palm or finger rehabilitation in the absence of experts.

  7. Biochemical characterisation during seed development of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Sau-Yee; Namasivayam, Parameswari; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng-Lian; Ong-Abdullah, Meilina

    2013-07-01

    Developmental biochemical information is a vital base for the elucidation of seed physiology and metabolism. However, no data regarding the biochemical profile of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) seed development has been reported thus far. In this study, the biochemical changes in the developing oil palm seed were investigated to study their developmental pattern. The biochemical composition found in the seed differed significantly among the developmental stages. During early seed development, the water, hexose (glucose and fructose), calcium and manganese contents were present in significantly high levels compared to the late developmental stage. Remarkable changes in the biochemical composition were observed at 10 weeks after anthesis (WAA): the dry weight and sucrose content increased significantly, whereas the water content and hexose content declined. The switch from a high to low hexose/sucrose ratio could be used to identify the onset of the maturation phase. At the late stage, dramatic water loss occurred, whereas the content of storage reserves increased progressively. Lauric acid was the most abundant fatty acid found in oil palm seed starting from 10 WAA.

  8. [Allergic responses to date palm and pecan pollen in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waisel, Y; Keynan, N; Gil, T; Tayar, D; Bezerano, A; Goldberg, A; Geller-Bernstein, C; Dolev, Z; Tamir, R; Levy, I

    1994-03-15

    Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and pecan (Carya illinoensis) trees are commonly planted in Israel for fruit, for shade, or as ornamental plants. Pollen grains of both species are allergenic; however, the extent of exposure to such pollen and the incidence of allergic response have not been studied here. We therefore investigated skin-test responses to pollen extracts of 12 varieties of palm and 9 of pecan in 705 allergic patients living in 3 cities and 19 rural settlements. Sensitivity to the pollen extracts of both species was much higher among residents of rural than of urban communities. Moreover, there was a definite relationship between the abundance of these trees in a region and the incidence of skin responders to their pollen. Sensitivity was frequent in settlements rich in these 2 species, such as those with nearby commercial date or pecan plantations. In general, sensitivity to date pollen extracts was lower than to pecan. However, differences in skin responses to pollen extracts of various clones were substantiated. Air sampling revealed that pollen pollution decreased considerably with distance from the trees. At approximately 100 m from a source concentrations of airborne pollen were low. Since planting of male palm and pecan trees in population centers would increase pollen pollution, it should be avoided.

  9. Devolatilization studies of oil palm biomass for torrefaction process optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, D.; Abd Rahman, A.; Shamsuddin, A. H.

    2013-06-01

    Torrefaction of palm biomass, namely Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), was conducted using thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). The experiment was conducted in variation of temperatures of 200 °C, 260 °C and 300 °C at a constant residence time of 30 minutes. During the torrefaction process, the sample went through identifiable drying and devolatilization stages from the TGA mass loss. The percentage of volatile gases released was then derived for each condition referring to proximate analysis results for both biomass. It was observed an average of 96.64% and 87.53 % of the total moisture is released for EFB and PKS respectively. In all cases the volatiles released was observed to increase as the torrefaction temperature was increased with significant variation between EFB and PKS. At 300°C EFB lost almost half of its volatiles matter while PKS lost slightly over one third. Results obtained can be used to optimise condition of torrefaction according to different types of oil palm biomass.

  10. Palms (Phoenix canariensis infested by red PALM weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier: insecticidal efficacy tests of chipping treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Sperandio

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The provision n° A6505/29-11-2010 of the Lazio Region Agricultural Department states that the plant material resulting from the felling of palms infested by RPW (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier must be disinfested by heat treatment or fine mechanical chipping, ensuring that the resulting materials obtained are of a size smaller than 2 cm. This paper describes changes made on one machine chipper FARMI mod. FOREST CH260 for use in the cutting of trees and palm leaves in accordance with the above mentioned provision. The analyzes carried out on the plant material shredded, according to methodology UNI CEN/TS 15149-1 - 2006, show that 94,78% of the fragments is smaller than 16 mm and a water content of 52.5%. In all fragments of the material shredded at least one of the three dimensions was less than 2 cm. A mix of chipped stipes and leaves of palm tree was tested at ENEA facilities to evaluate the ability of RPW larvae to feed and survive on this substrate. Ten plastic containers (130 liters were filled up with 26 kg each of chipped matter and infested with larvae grouped by weight into 3 classes ranged from < 0.15 g, 0.15 -;- 0.35 g and > 0.35 g till 2 cm (3 containers for each class and 1 as control; 30 larvae for each container. Containers, covered with a metallic net, were kept in an isolated chamber, controlling temperature in order to maintain the substrate around 30°C. The substrate was inspected at 45 dd after infestation. No survival was recorded on the larvae, indicating that chipping technique could be a suitable method to destroy infested palm avoiding potential risks of re-infestation from the disposal sites.

  11. Re-esterified palm oils, compared to native palm oil, do not alter fat absorption, postprandial lipemia or growth performance in broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarrasa, E; Tres, A; Bayés-García, L; Parella, T; Esteve-Garcia, E; Barroeta, A C

    2014-08-01

    Re-esterified palm oils are obtained from the chemical esterification of palm acid oils (rich in free fatty acids) with glycerol, both economically interesting by-products from oil refining and biodiesel industries, respectively. Thus, re-esterified palm oils could be an economically interesting alternative to native palm oil in broiler chick diets. However, because they may have different physicochemical properties than have their corresponding native oil, we assessed the effect of fatty acid (FA) positional distribution within acylglycerol molecules and the effect of acylglycerol composition on FA apparent absorption, and their possible consequences on the evolution of postprandial lipemia and growth performance in broiler chicks. Seventy-two 1-day-old female broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 18 cages. The three treatments used were the result of a basal diet supplemented with 6 wt% of native palm oil (N-TAG), re-esterified palm oil (E-TAG), or re-esterified palm oil high in mono- and diacylglycerols (E-MDAG). Chemical esterification raised the fraction of palmitic acid at the sn-2 position from 9.63 mol% in N-TAG oil to 17.9 mol% in E-TAG oil. Furthermore, E-MDAG oil presented a high proportion of mono- (23.1 wt%) and diacylglycerols (51.2 wt%), with FA mainly located at the sn-1,3 positions, which resulted in a lower gross-energy content and an increased solid-fat index at the chicken's body temperature. However, re-esterified palm oils did not alter fat absorption, postprandial lipemia, or growth performance, compared to native palm oil, so they can be used as alternative fat sources in broiler chick diets.

  12. American Culture Reflected in American English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李华芳

    2013-01-01

    Language is a vehicle for culture. It is also a key component of culture. It not only reflects culture but also influences culture. As a variety of British English, American English, especially American words and expressions can reflect American culture from many aspects. This paper studies some typical traits of American culture reflected in words and expressions of American Eng-lish.

  13. American Connections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    2015-01-01

    The Danish artist Thomas Bang spent his early years in the USA. The works he created in this formative period were thus profoundly shaped by the contemporary movements in American art of the 1960s and 1970s when sculpture, or to be more precise, three-dimensional work became a hotbed of expansive...... experiments. This article traces how Bang made a radical move from painting to sculpture, which was characteristic of that time, and how he developed his artistic idiom by taking an active part in some of the seminal new departures in American art, in particular process art and post-minimalism. By leaping...... to the lasting impact of Bang's American period, which remains the key to understanding his works....

  14. The effects of an exotic palm on a native palm during the first demographic stages: contributions to ecological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa T. Mengardo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Biological invasions have negative impacts on native biota and consequently on biodiversity. In patches of Atlantic Forest in Brazil, the Australian palm tree Archontophoenix cunninghamiana has become invasive, whereas the endemic palm Euterpe edulis is threatened with extinction. The two species occupy parts of the same functional niche within the forests, which raises a question: Does the invasive species interfere with the recruitment of the native one when the two co-occur? We compared the initial demographic stages of these palms, and assumed that A. cunninghamiana would present better performance (higher rates of germination and seed viability and would feature allelopathic properties that could influence the recruitment of the native species. We investigated indirect and direct allelopathic interference, respectively, by watering E. edulis seeds with aqueous leachate solutions of A. cunninghamiana fruits and leaves and by conducting combined germination experiments. The leachate solutions neither inhibited germination nor affected the size of E. edulis seedlings. In the direct interference experiments, depulped A. cunninghamiana seeds had higher viability and germination rates than did E. edulis seeds. In E. edulis, exposure to A. cunninghamiana seeds did not affect germination nor seedling development but slightly decreased germination speed. In conclusion, A. cunninghamiana presented no significant allelopathic impediment to E. edulis establishment. However, because A. cunninghamiana seeds are usually depulped when dispersed by birds, the potential of the species to establish itself in the community surpasses that of E. edulis. We propose management strategies to enhance E. edulis performance and to restrict the spread of A. cunninghamiana.

  15. Thermal profiles, crystallization behaviors and microstructure of diacylglycerol-enriched palm oil blends with diacylglycerol-enriched palm olein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yayuan; Zhao, Xiaoqing; Wang, Qiang; Peng, Zhen; Dong, Cao

    2016-07-01

    To elucidate the possible interaction mechanisms between DAG-enriched oils, this study investigated how mixtures of DAG-enriched palm-based oils influenced the phase behavior, thermal properties, crystallization behaviors and the microstructure in binary fat blends. DAG-enriched palm oil (PO-DAGE) was blended with DAG-enriched palm olein (POL-DAGE) in various percentages (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%, 90%, 100%). Based on the observation of iso-solid diagram and phase diagram, the binary mixture of PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE showed a better compatibility in comparison with their corresponding original blends. DSC thermal profiles exhibited that the melting and crystallization properties of PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE were distinctively different from corresponding original blends. Crystallization kinetics revealed that PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE blends displayed a rather high crystallization rate and exhibited no spherulitic crystal growth. From the results of polarized light micrographs, PO-DAGE/POL-DAGE blends showed more dense structure with very small needle-like crystals than PO/POL. X-ray diffraction evaluation revealed when POL-DAGE was added in high contents to PO-DAGE, above 30%, β-polymorph dominated, and the mount of β' forms crystals was decreasing.

  16. Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for Iodine Value and Slip Melting Point

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmil Haizam Ahmad Tarmizi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work described study protocols on the production of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials for iodine value and slip melting point. Thirty-three laboratories collaborated in the inter-laboratory proficiency tests for characterization of iodine value, while thirty-two laboratories for characterization of slip melting point. The iodine value and slip melting point of palm oil, palm olein and palm stearin were determined in accordance to MPOB Test Methods p3.2:2004 and p4.2:2004, respectively. The consensus values and their uncertainties were based on the acceptability of statistical agreement of results obtained from collaborating laboratories. The consensus values and uncertainties for iodine values were 52.63 ± 0.14 Wijs in palm oil, 56.77 ± 0.12 Wijs in palm olein and 33.76 ± 0.18 Wijs in palm stearin. For the slip melting points, the consensus values and uncertainties were 35.6 ± 0.3 °C in palm oil, 22.7 ± 0.4 °C in palm olein and 53.4 ± 0.2 °C in palm stearin. Repeatability and reproducibility relative standard deviations were found to be good and acceptable, with values much lower than that of 10%. Stability of Palm-Based Standard Reference Materials remained stable at temperatures of –20 °C, 0 °C, 6 °C and 24 °C upon storage for one year.

  17. Testing the effects of an introduced palm on a riparian invertebrate community in southern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Sinicrope Talley

    Full Text Available Despite the iconic association of palms with semi-arid regions, most are introduced and can invade natural areas. Along the San Diego River (San Diego, California, USA, the introduced Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis forms dense patches among native riparian shrubs like arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis. The structural differences between the palm and native shrubs are visually obvious, but little is known about palm's effects on the ecosystem. We tested for the effects of the palm on a riparian invertebrate community in June 2011 by comparing the faunal and environmental variables associated with palm and willow canopies, trunks and ground beneath each species. The palm invertebrate community had lower abundance and diversity, fewer taxa feeding on the host (e.g., specialized hemipterans, and more taxa likely using only the plant's physical structure (e.g., web-builders, oak moths, willow hemipterans. There were no observed effects on the ground-dwelling fauna. Faunal differences were due to the physical and trophic changes associated with palm presence, namely increased canopy density, unpalatable leaves, trunk rugosity, and litter accumulations. Palm presence and resulting community shifts may have further ecosystem-level effects through alteration of physical properties, food, and structural resources. These results were consistent with a recent study of invasive palm effects on desert spring arthropods, illustrating that effects may be relatively generalizable. Since spread of the palm is largely localized, but effects are dramatic where it does occur, we recommend combining our results with several further investigations in order to prioritize management decisions.

  18. Correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritability for agronomic characters of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaumongkol, Y.

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available A study of correlation, path coefficient analysis and heritablity for some agronomic characters of oil palm was investigated during February 1998 to January 2002. The oil palm population used in this experiment was derived from F1 tenera hybrids which were collected from various oil palm plantations in Southern Thailand. One good performance bunch (i.e., big bunch, thin shell was selected from each plantation and four to six seeds per selected bunch were used for cultivation. One thousand thirty eight plants were grown at Klong Hoi Khong Research Station, Faculty of Natural Resources, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla, in 1989. Forty five palms consisted of Dura, Tenera and Pisifera types with 18, 18 and 9 plants respectively, were selected by randomization and tagged for investigation. The oil palm bunch yield and yield component characters were observed from individual palm for 4 years (February 1998 to January 2002. The bunch composition characters were analysed from a single bunch of each palm, sampled between June to October 1999. The results showed that in F2 plants of oil palm, the correlation and the path coefficient between characters relating to oil yield and %oil/bunch varied according to oil palm types (Dura, Tenera and Pisifera. In Dura and Tenera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, %oil/bunch, %fruit/bunch and %oil/fruit. In case of Pisifera palms, the characters which gave highly positive correlation with a large direct and indirect positive effects on oil yield and %oil/bunch were total bunch weight, number of bunches, single bunch weight, %oil/bunch and %fruit/bunch. However, from all investigated characters in F2 plants, only %mesocarp/fruit, %oil/fruit and %fruit/bunch showed the high values of broad sense heritabilities.

  19. [Bionomics data and descriptions of the immatures of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), pest of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) in Tabasco, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdova-Ballona, Leonides; Sánchez-Soto, Saúl

    2008-01-01

    Characters of the external morphology of egg, larval instars and pupae of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman, insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. Some bionomics data are also presented. The specie was reared in the laboratory on young oil palm plants.

  20. Nitrogen management is essential to prevent tropical oil palm plantations from causing ground-level ozone pollution

    OpenAIRE

    C. N. Hewitt; MacKenzie, A. R.; Di Carlo, P.; C. F. Di Marco; J. R. Dorsey; Evans, M,; Fowler, D; M. W. Gallagher; J. R. Hopkins; Jones, C. E.; Langford, B.; Lee, J. D.; A. C. Lewis; S. F. Lim; McQuaid, J.

    2009-01-01

    More than half the world's rainforest has been lost to agriculture since the Industrial Revolution. Among the most widespread tropical crops is oil palm (Elaeis guineensis): global production now exceeds 35 million tonnes per year. In Malaysia, for example, 13% of land area is now oil palm plantation, compared with 1% in 1974. There are enormous pressures to increase palm oil production for food, domestic products, and, especially, biofuels. Greater use of palm oil for biofuel production is p...

  1. A novel biobased polyester plasticizer prepared from palm oil and its plasticizing effect on poly (vinyl chloride)

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Puyou; Zhang Meng; Hu Lihong; Zhou Yonghong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, palm oil was the first time to convert into a novel polyester plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride (PVC). In the first stage, palm oil was converted into palm oil monoglyceride (POM) by alcoholysis with glycerol. Next, a novel palm oil monoglycerides based polyester plasticizer (POMP) was synthesized from POM and maleic anhydride through esterification and condensation reaction. The structure of POMP was characterized with FTIR, 1H NMR and GPC. Then PVC blends were prepared using...

  2. Non-tenera Contamination and the Economic Impact of SHELL Genetic Testing in the Malaysian Independent Oil Palm Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Ooi, Leslie C.-L.; Low, Eng-Ti L.; Abdullah, Meilina O.; Nookiah, Rajanaidu; Ting, Ngoot C.; Nagappan, Jayanthi; Manaf, Mohamad A. A.; Chan, Kuang-Lim; Halim, Mohd A.; Azizi, Norazah; Omar, Wahid; Murad, Abdul J.; Lakey, Nathan; Ordway, Jared M.; Favello, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) is the most productive oil bearing crop worldwide. It has three fruit forms, namely dura (thick-shelled), pisifera (shell-less) and tenera (thin-shelled), which are controlled by the SHELL gene. The fruit forms exhibit monogenic co-dominant inheritance, where tenera is a hybrid obtained by crossing maternal dura and paternal pisifera palms. Commercial palm oil production is based on planting thin-shelled tenera palms, which typically yield 30% more oil than dura p...

  3. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  4. 21 CFR 172.861 - Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm... substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils. The food additive, cocoa butter substitute from coconut oil, palm kernel oil, or both oils, may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  5. Aboveground carbon stocks in oil palm plantations and the threshold for carbon-neutral vegetation conversion on mineral soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khasanah, N.; Noordwijk, van M.; Ningsih, H.

    2015-01-01

    The carbon (C) footprint of palm oil production is needed to judge emissions from potential biofuel use. Relevance includes wider sustainable palm oil debates. Within life cycle analysis, aboveground C debt is incurred if the vegetation replaced had a higher C stock than oil palm plantations. Our st

  6. Meistrite tee 10 büroohoone Tallinnas = Meistrite St. 10 Office Building in Tallinn / Eero Palm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Palm, Eero, 1974-

    2005-01-01

    Kuubilaadne neljakorruseline hoone, parklapoolsel küljel evakuatsioonitrepp. Peamisteks materjalideks viimistlemata ja roostekarva betoonelement ning klaas. Projekteerija: Palm-E Arhitektibüroo OÜ. Arhitekt Eero Palm. Konstruktor: Randväli & Karema AS. Projekteeritud 2003, valminud 2004. Ill.: tüüpkorruse ja I korruse plaan, 5 värv. välisvaadet

  7. 75 FR 23253 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Central Palm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    .... ADDRESSES: The public scoping workshop will be held at the Town of South Palm Beach Town Hall, 3577 South Ocean Boulevard, South Palm Beach, Florida. The workshop will give agencies and the public an... Beach, South Palm Beach, Lantana, and Manalapan. The Corps will be evaluating a Department of the...

  8. Processing Practices of small-scale palm oil producers in the Kwaebibirem District, Ghana: A Diagnostic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osei-Amponsah, C.; Visser, L.E.; Adjei-Nsiah, S.; Struik, P.C.; Sakyi-Dawson, O.; Stomph, T.J.

    2012-01-01

    Ghana produces about 2,000,000 metric tons of oil palm fruits annually, and small-scale processors contribute about 60% of crude palm oil production. The country is not self-sufficient in the fats and oils needed for industrial use and home consumption. A large percentage of the palm oil produced by

  9. Land use change effects of oil palm expansion on ecosystem services in Tapi river basin, Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saswattecha, K.; Hein, L.G.; Kroeze, C.; Jawjit, Warit

    2016-01-01

    The last decades have shown a strong increase in oil palm production in Thailand. This is increasingly leading to land conversion including loss of forest habitat. However the specific direct and indirect land use effects of oil palm expansion in Thailand are as yet insufficiently understood. We sel

  10. Benefits and costs of oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, under different policy scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumarga, Elham; Hein, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan province are among the highest in Indonesia. This study examines the physical and monetary impacts of oil palm expansion in Central Kalimantan up to 2025 under three policy scenarios. Our modelling approach combines a spatial logistic reg

  11. The drive for accumulation: environmental contestation and agrarian support to Mexico's oil palm expansion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castellanos Navarrete, A.; Jansen, K.

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm expansion has been related to rural dispossession, environmental degradation and rural resistance. This paper explores the politics and impact of farmer-based oil palm expansion in Chiapas, Mexico. In relation to the debate on the greening of the agrarian question, this paper engages with t

  12. A case study of pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Nurhayati; Sulaiman, Fauziah; Aliasak, Zalila

    2013-05-01

    Biomass seems to have a great potential as a source of renewable energy compared with other sources. The use of biomass as a source of energy could help to reduce the wastes and also to minimize the dependency on non-renewable energy, hence minimize environmental degradation. Among other types of biomass, oil palm wastes are the major contribution for energy production in Malaysia since Malaysia is one of the primary palm oil producers in the world. Currently, Malaysia's plantation area covers around 5 million hectares. In the oil palm mill, only 10% palm oil is produced and the other 90% is in the form of wastes such as empty fruit bunches (EFB), oil palm shells (OPS), oil palm fibre (OPFb) and palm oil mill effluent (POME). If these wastes are being used as a source of renewable energy, it is believed that it will help to increase the country's economy. Recently, the most potential and efficient thermal energy conversion technology is pyrolysis process. The objective of this paper is to review the current research on pyrolysis of oil palm wastes in Malaysia. The scope of this paper is to discuss on the types of pyrolysis process and its production. At present, most of the research conducted in this country is on EFB and OPS by fast, slow and microwave-assisted pyrolysis processes for fuel applications.

  13. Promoting sustainable palm oil: viewed from a global networks and flows perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Global demand for palm oil is increasing to fulfil worldwide needs for cooking oil, food ingredients, biofuels, soap and other chemicals. In response, palm oil production is rapidly expanding which promotes economic growth in producing countries but also leads to serious environmental and social pro

  14. Palm oil and the emission of carbon-based greenhouse gases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnders, L.; Huijbregts, M.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    The current use of South Asian palm oil as biofuel is far from climate neutral. Dependent on assumptions, losses of biogenic carbon associated with ecosystems, emission of CO2 due to the use of fossil fuels and the anaerobic conversion of palm oil mill effluent currently correspond in South Asia wit

  15. Development narratives, notions of forest crisis, and boom of oil palm plantations in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Susanti, Ari; Maryudi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Indonesia experienced massive deforestation in the last decades where rapid oil palm expansion has been considered as one of the main drivers. This article shows that the process of deforestation and the rapid oil palm expansion cannot be viewed in isolation from broader development contexts. Variou

  16. Geographical ecology of the palms (Arecaceae): determinants of diversity and distributions across spatial scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.; Svenning, J.-C.; Kissling, W. Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background The palm family occurs in all tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Palms are of high ecological and economical importance, and display complex spatial patterns of species distributions and diversity. Scope This review summarizes empirical evidence for factors that determine ...

  17. Studies on the Ecology, Biogeography and Evolution of Palms (Arecaceae) with Focus on the Americas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiserhardt, Wolf L.

    The palm family (Arecaceae) increasingly serves as a model system to study the ecology and evolution of tropical ecosystems. This volume covers a wide range of topics in the areas of palm community ecology, macroecology, biogeography, and phylogeny, with a focus on the bridge between ecological...

  18. Research for the development of sago palm (Metroxylon sagu Robbt.) cultivation in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, F.S.

    1995-01-01

    General introduction (Chapter 1)This chapter contains an overview of knowledge with respect to the cultivation of the true sago palm (Metroxylon sagu). The palm flowers once and forms suckers or tillers. Seedlings grow into a rosette stage of leaves and trunks are only formed after 4-6 years. The tr

  19. Isolated plexiform neurofibroma over left palm: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan H Kudur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plexiform neurofibroma is common over the branches of trigeminal and cervical nerves over the face. Plexiform neurofibroma over palm is rare and affects the individuals with fine motor functions of hand. Here, we report a case of isolated plexiform neurofibroma over the palm with review of literature.

  20. Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.; Dornburg, V.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to biodies

  1. Efficient transformation of oil palm protoplasts by PEG-mediated transfection and DNA microinjection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mat Yunus Abdul Masani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic engineering remains a major challenge in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis because particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation are laborious and/or inefficient in this species, often producing chimeric plants and escapes. Protoplasts are beneficial as a starting material for genetic engineering because they are totipotent, and chimeras are avoided by regenerating transgenic plants from single cells. Novel approaches for the transformation of oil palm protoplasts could therefore offer a new and efficient strategy for the development of transgenic oil palm plants. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recently achieved the regeneration of healthy and fertile oil palms from protoplasts. Therefore, we focused on the development of a reliable PEG-mediated transformation protocol for oil palm protoplasts by establishing and validating optimal heat shock conditions, concentrations of DNA, PEG and magnesium chloride, and the transfection procedure. We also investigated the transformation of oil palm protoplasts by DNA microinjection and successfully regenerated transgenic microcalli expressing green fluorescent protein as a visible marker to determine the efficiency of transformation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have established the first successful protocols for the transformation of oil palm protoplasts by PEG-mediated transfection and DNA microinjection. These novel protocols allow the rapid and efficient generation of non-chimeric transgenic callus and represent a significant milestone in the use of protoplasts as a starting material for the development of genetically-engineered oil palm plants.

  2. Species Distribution modeling as a tool to unravel determinants of palm distribution in Thailand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tovaranonte, Jantrararuk; Barfod, Anders S.; Balslev, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    distribution under specific sets of assumptions. In this study we used maximum entropy to map potential distributions of 103 species of palms for which more than 5 herbarium records exist. Palms constitute key-stone plant group from both an ecological, economical and conservation perspective. The models were...

  3. Determination of hand and palm area as a ratio of body surface area in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Pawan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Accurate estimation of body surface area (BSA burn is important. In small and patchy burns, the patient′s hand is used to estimate percentage of burn which is traditionally considered as 1%. There is discrepancy about what percentage of TBSA is constituted by the palm and hand. Therefore, this study was designed to determine correctly the TBSA represented by the palmar surface of the entire hand and palm in the Indian population. Material and Methods: 300 healthy adult (male and female and 300 healthy children (male and female were included in the study. TBSA was calculated using DuBois formula and hand and palm surface area was calculated using hand tracing on plain paper. The hand/palm percentage of BSA (ratio was determined by dividing hand/palm surface area by total BSA. Results: The mean hand and palm ratio for adults was 0.92% and 0.50%, respectively. The mean hand and palm ratio in children was 1.06% and 0.632%, respectively. Conclusion: The hand area (palm plus digits is more closely represented to 1% of TBSA in Indian population.

  4. Exploring land use changes and the role of palm oil production in Indonesia and Malaysia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.; Sikkema, R.; Dornburg, V.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This study compiles and analyses national-level data on land use change (LUC) and its causes in Indonesia and Malaysia over the past 30 years. The study also explores the role that palm oil has played in past LUC and that projected growth in palm oil production may play in LUC until 2020 and suggest

  5. Tropical rainforest palm communities in Madre de Dios in Amazonian Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balslev, Henrik; Laumark, Per; Pedersen, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    We studied palm communities, in particular species-richness and -abundance, in the tropical rainforests in southeastern Peru in 54 transects (5×500m) covering an area of 13,5 hectares in flood plain, terra firme, terrace and premontane hills. We found 42 palm species in the transects and we found...

  6. Applications of Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Palm Oil and Oil from Natural Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Omar Ab Kadir

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO2 refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE that uses carbon dioxide (CO2 as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2 extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  7. Applications of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of palm oil and oil from natural sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanda, Mohammed Jahurul Haque; Sarker, Mohammed Zaidul Islam; Ferdosh, Sahena; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abdul; Ab Rahman, Nik Norulaini Nik; Ab Kadir, Mohd Omar

    2012-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE), which has received much interest in its use and further development for industrial applications, is a method that offers some advantages over conventional methods, especially for the palm oil industry. SC-CO₂ refers to supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) that uses carbon dioxide (CO₂) as a solvent which is a nontoxic, inexpensive, nonflammable, and nonpolluting supercritical fluid solvent for the extraction of natural products. Almost 100% oil can be extracted and it is regarded as safe, with organic solvent-free extracts having superior organoleptic profiles. The palm oil industry is one of the major industries in Malaysia that provides a major contribution to the national income. Malaysia is the second largest palm oil and palm kernel oil producer in the World. This paper reviews advances in applications of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) extraction of oils from natural sources, in particular palm oil, minor constituents in palm oil, producing fractionated, refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil, palm kernel oil and purified fatty acid fractions commendable for downstream uses as in toiletries and confectionaries.

  8. NBA-Palm: prediction of palmitoylation site implemented in Naïve Bayes algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Changjiang

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein palmitoylation, an essential and reversible post-translational modification (PTM, has been implicated in cellular dynamics and plasticity. Although numerous experimental studies have been performed to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying palmitoylation processes, the intrinsic feature of substrate specificity has remained elusive. Thus, computational approaches for palmitoylation prediction are much desirable for further experimental design. Results In this work, we present NBA-Palm, a novel computational method based on Naïve Bayes algorithm for prediction of palmitoylation site. The training data is curated from scientific literature (PubMed and includes 245 palmitoylated sites from 105 distinct proteins after redundancy elimination. The proper window length for a potential palmitoylated peptide is optimized as six. To evaluate the prediction performance of NBA-Palm, 3-fold cross-validation, 8-fold cross-validation and Jack-Knife validation have been carried out. Prediction accuracies reach 85.79% for 3-fold cross-validation, 86.72% for 8-fold cross-validation and 86.74% for Jack-Knife validation. Two more algorithms, RBF network and support vector machine (SVM, also have been employed and compared with NBA-Palm. Conclusion Taken together, our analyses demonstrate that NBA-Palm is a useful computational program that provides insights for further experimentation. The accuracy of NBA-Palm is comparable with our previously described tool CSS-Palm. The NBA-Palm is freely accessible from: http://www.bioinfo.tsinghua.edu.cn/NBA-Palm.

  9. 完美演绎Palm Pre Plus和Pixi Plus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    在本届CES上。Palm有两个重大举措。一是开发者工具全面开放,并宣称将拿出100万美元奖励那些针对WebOS开发出热门应用的开发者;二是为WebOS引入3D游戏。包括EA Mobile、Gameloft、Glu mobile和Laminar Research等顶尖厂商的3D游戏,并可在Palm App Catalog这个应用程序商店里下载。同时,Palm带来了Palm Pre和Palm Pixi的升级版,型号分别为Palm PrePlus和Palm Pixi Plus,这两款手机由美国运营商Verizon定制,不久之后就将上市。

  10. Two new records of palm species for Gabon: Sclerosperma profizianum Valk. & Sunder. and Eremospatha quiquecostulata Becc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourobou Bourobou, Paul Henri; Niangadouma, Raoul; Issembe, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Gabon is an important center of biodiversity in Central Africa. The country contains to date 27 species of palms. However, palms are generally poorly collected as these massive plants are hard to press and curate. Thus, our understanding remains incomplete, especially in Central Africa. New information We report three new records of two palm species for Gabon: Sclerosperma profizianum Valk. & Sunder. and Eremospatha quiquecostulata Becc.. The former species was collected in southeast Gabon, near Ndindi, while the later was collected in the Massif du Chaillu and Monts de Cristal National Park (Crystal Mountains National Park). The total number of palm species for Gabon is now 29, making it an important centre of palm diversity in Central Africa. PMID:27956852

  11. Palm oil industry: A review of the literature on the modelling approaches and potential solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabid, M. Faeid M.; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2015-12-01

    Palm oil industry plays an important role as a backbone to the economy of a country, especially in many developing countries. Various issues related to the palm oil context have been studied rigorously by previous researchers using appropriate modeling approaches. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to present an overview of existing modeling approaches used by researchers in studying several issues in the palm oil industry. However, there are still limited numbers of researches that focus to determine the impact of strategy policies on palm oil studies. Furthermore, this paper introduces an improved system dynamics and genetic algorithm technique to facilitate the policy design process in palm oil industry. The proposed method is expected to become a framework for structured policy design process to assist the policy maker in evaluating and designing appropriate policies.

  12. Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live cell imaging of focal adhesions

    CERN Document Server

    Deschout, Hendrik; Sharipov, Azat; Szlag, Daniel; Feletti, Lely; Vandenberg, Wim; Dedecker, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Leutenegger, Marcel; Lasser, Theo; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Live cell imaging of focal adhesions requires a sufficiently high temporal resolution, which remains a challenging task for super-resolution microscopy. We have addressed this important issue by combining photo-activated localization microscopy (PALM) with super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI). Using simulations and fixed cell focal adhesion images, we investigated the complementarity between PALM and SOFI in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. This PALM-SOFI framework was used to image focal adhesions in living cells, while obtaining a temporal resolution below 10 s. We visualized the dynamics of focal adhesions, and revealed local mean velocities around 190 nm per minute. The complementarity of PALM and SOFI was assessed in detail with a methodology that integrates a quantitative resolution and signal-to-noise metric. This PALM and SOFI concept provides an enlarged quantitative imaging framework, allowing unprecedented functional exploration of focal adhesions through the estimation of m...

  13. Complementarity of PALM and SOFI for super-resolution live-cell imaging of focal adhesions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschout, Hendrik; Lukes, Tomas; Sharipov, Azat; Szlag, Daniel; Feletti, Lely; Vandenberg, Wim; Dedecker, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Leutenegger, Marcel; Lasser, Theo; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2016-12-01

    Live-cell imaging of focal adhesions requires a sufficiently high temporal resolution, which remains a challenge for super-resolution microscopy. Here we address this important issue by combining photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) with super-resolution optical fluctuation imaging (SOFI). Using simulations and fixed-cell focal adhesion images, we investigate the complementarity between PALM and SOFI in terms of spatial and temporal resolution. This PALM-SOFI framework is used to image focal adhesions in living cells, while obtaining a temporal resolution below 10 s. We visualize the dynamics of focal adhesions, and reveal local mean velocities around 190 nm min-1. The complementarity of PALM and SOFI is assessed in detail with a methodology that integrates a resolution and signal-to-noise metric. This PALM and SOFI concept provides an enlarged quantitative imaging framework, allowing unprecedented functional exploration of focal adhesions through the estimation of molecular parameters such as fluorophore densities and photoactivation or photoswitching kinetics.

  14. A MODEL FOR THE PALM OIL MARKET IN NIGERIA: AN ECONOMETRICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Egwuma

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to formulate and estimate a model for the palm oil market in Nigeria with a view to identifying principal factors that shape the Nigerian palm oil industry. Four structural equation models comprising palm oil production, import demand, domestic demand and producer price have been estimated using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL cointegration approach over the 1970 to 2011 period. The results reveal that significant factors that influence the Nigerian palm oil industry include the own price, technological improvements, and income level. Government expenditure on agricultural development is also an important determinant, which underscores the need for government support in agriculture. Our model provides a useful framework for analyzing the effects of changes in major exogenous variables such as income or import tariff on the production, demand, and price of palm oil.

  15. Closing oil palm yield gaps among Indonesian smallholders through industry schemes, pruning, weeding and improved seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, T; Lim, F K S; Lee, J S H; Carrasco, L R

    2016-08-01

    Oil palm production has led to large losses of valuable habitats for tropical biodiversity. Sparing of land for nature could in theory be attained if oil palm yields increased. The efficiency of oil palm smallholders is below its potential capacity, but the factors determining efficiency are poorly understood. We employed a two-stage data envelopment analysis approach to assess the influence of agronomic, supply chain and management factors on oil palm production efficiency in 190 smallholders in six villages in Indonesia. The results show that, on average, yield increases of 65% were possible and that fertilizer and herbicide use was excessive and inefficient. Adopting industry-supported scheme management practices, use of high-quality seeds and higher pruning and weeding rates were found to improve efficiency. Smallholder oil palm production intensification in Indonesia has the capacity to increase production by 26%, an equivalent of 1.75 million hectares of land.

  16. Post harvest ripening of oil palm fruit is accelerated by application of exogenous ethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narumol Nualwijit

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted with fresh fully mature fruit bunches of Tenera variety oil-palm. Palm fruit bunches were exposed to 0, 250, 500 or 1000 mlL-1 ethylene for 24 hours. Each fruit bunch was evaluated in three separate sections: the bottom, the middle, and the top. The exogenous ethylene treatments significantly hastened palm fruit ripening, quantified by an increase in the fruit peel coloring that turns from black to reddish orange. Ethylene treatments also significantly eased detaching the fruit, by reducing the tension force required. Total oil contents of fruit increased with 1000 mlL-1 ethylene treatment. Free fatty acids (FFA in untreated palm fruit, especially in the bottom section, were at their highest levels 2 days after harvest, and the FFA levels were lowered by ethylene treatments. In summary, exogenous ethylene fumigation accelerated the ripening of oil palm fruit, increased oil yield, and decreased the FFA levels.

  17. PREPARATION OF VARIOUS TYPES OF PULP FROM OIL PALM LIGNOCELLULOSIC RESIDUES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryohei Tanaka; Leh Cheu Peng; Wan Rosli Wan Daud

    2004-01-01

    @@ INTRODUCTION Oil palm, Elaeis Guineensis, (Figure 1) is one of the most important plants in Malaysia. It produces palm oil and palm kernel oil, which is widely being used in food and other industries such as detergents and cosmetics. Malaysia is the world′s largest producer and exporter of the oil, so that the country′s economy is very much dependent on these oil products. Although oil from the palm tree is an excellent product for the country, residues from oil palm have not been used sufficiently. In this 10~15 years, development in new technologies for utilizing this lignocellulosic waste is categorized as one of the most important issues in science policy of Malaysia.

  18. The use of response surface analysis in obtaining maximum profit in oil palm industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Tarmizi Mohammed

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to show how to use Response Surface Analysis in obtaining the optimum level of fertilizer needs by oil palm. The ridge analysis was proposed to overcome the saddle point problem. Data from Malaysian Palm Oil Board database was analyzed. The fertilizers considered are N, P, K and Mg. The results from ridge analysis provided several alternatives of the fertilizer combination. Profit analysis was then applied to determine the best combination of fertilizers needed by the oil palm in order to generate maximum profit. It is found that N and K fertilizers were the important fertilizers required by the oil palm. It is also found that the N and K nutrient concentrations of the foliar nutrient composition were higher compared to other nutrients. Three different stations were considered and it was found that the fertilizersneeded by the oil palm and foliar nutrient composition were different at the different type of soil series.

  19. Synthesis of Transesterified Palm Olein-Based Polyol and Rigid Polyurethanes from this Polyol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arniza, Mohd Zan; Hoong, Seng Soi; Idris, Zainab; Yeong, Shoot Kian; Hassan, Hazimah Abu; Din, Ahmad Kushairi; Choo, Yuen May

    Transesterification of palm olein with glycerol can increase the functionality by introducing additional hydroxyl groups to the triglyceride structure, an advantage compared to using palm olein directly as feedstock for producing palm-based polyol. The objective of this study was to synthesize transesterified palm olein-based polyol via a three-step reaction: (1) transesterification of palm olein, (2) epoxidation and (3) epoxide ring opening. Transesterification of palm olein yielded approximately 78 % monoglyceride and has an hydroxyl value of approximately 164 mg KOH g(-1). The effect of formic acid and hydrogen peroxide concentrations on the epoxidation reaction was studied. The relationships between epoxide ring-opening reaction time and residual oxirane oxygen content and hydroxyl value were monitored. The synthesized transesterified palm olein-based polyol has hydroxyl value between 300 and 330 mg KOH g(-1) and average molecular weight between 1,000 and 1,100 Da. On the basis of the hydroxyl value and average molecular weight of the polyol, the transesterified palm olein-based polyol is suitable for producing rigid polyurethane foam, which can be designed to exhibit desirable properties. Rigid polyurethane foams were synthesized by substituting a portion of petroleum-based polyol with the transesterified palm olein-based polyol. It was observed that by increasing the amount of transesterified palm olein-based polyol, the core density and compressive strength were reduced but at the same time the insulation properties of the rigid polyurethane foam were improved.

  20. Impacts of current and projected oil palm plantation expansion on air quality over Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Sam J.; Heald, Colette L.; Geddes, Jeffrey A.; Austin, Kemen G.; Kasibhatla, Prasad S.; Marlier, Miriam E.

    2016-08-01

    Over recent decades oil palm plantations have rapidly expanded across Southeast Asia (SEA). According to the United Nations, oil palm production in SEA increased by a factor of 3 from 1995 to 2010. We investigate the impacts of current (2010) and near-term future (2020) projected oil palm expansion in SEA on surface-atmosphere exchange and the resulting air quality in the region. For this purpose, we use satellite data, high-resolution land maps, and the chemical transport model GEOS-Chem. Relative to a no oil palm plantation scenario (˜ 1990), overall simulated isoprene emissions in the region increased by 13 % due to oil palm plantations in 2010 and a further 11 % in the near-term future. In addition, the expansion of palm plantations leads to local increases in ozone deposition velocities of up to 20 %. The net result of these changes is that oil palm expansion in SEA increases surface O3 by up to 3.5 ppbv over dense urban regions, and in the near-term future could rise more than 4.5 ppbv above baseline levels. Biogenic secondary organic aerosol loadings also increase by up to 1 µg m-3 due to oil palm expansion, and could increase by a further 2.5 µg m-3 in the near-term future. Our analysis indicates that while the impact of recent oil palm expansion on air quality in the region has been significant, the retrieval error and sensitivity of the current constellation of satellite measurements limit our ability to observe these impacts from space. Oil palm expansion is likely to continue to degrade air quality in the region in the coming decade and hinder efforts to achieve air quality regulations in major urban areas such as Kuala Lumpur and Singapore.

  1. Life cycle assessment of palm biodiesel: Revealing facts and benefits for sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Kian Fei; Tan, Kok Tat; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Lee, Keat Teong [School of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, Seri Ampangan, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia)

    2009-11-15

    Similarity between the properties of biodiesel and petroleum-derived diesel has made the former one of the most promising alternatives to a renewable and sustainable fuel for the transportation sector. In Malaysia, palm oil can be a suitable feedstock for the production of biodiesel due to its abundant availability and low production cost. However, not many assessments have been carried out regarding the impacts of palm biodiesel on the environment. Hence, in this study, life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted for palm biodiesel in order to investigate and validate the popular belief that palm biodiesel is a green and sustainable fuel. The LCA study was divided into three main stages, namely agricultural activities, oil milling and transesterification process for the production of biodiesel. For each stage, the energy balance and green house gas assessments were presented and discussed. These are important data for the techno-economical and environmental feasibility evaluation of palm biodiesel. The results obtained for palm biodiesel were then compared with rapeseed biodiesel. From this study, it was found that the utilization of palm biodiesel would generate an energy yield ratio of 3.53 (output energy/input energy), indicating a net positive energy generated and ensuring its sustainability. The energy ratio for palm biodiesel was found to be more than double that of rapeseed biodiesel which was estimated to be only 1.44, thereby indicating that palm oil would be a more sustainable feedstock for biodiesel production as compared to rapeseed oil. Moreover, combustion of palm biodiesel was found to be more environment-friendly than petroleum-derived-diesel as a significant 38% reduction of CO{sub 2} emission can be achieved per liter combusted. (author)

  2. Global diversification of a tropical plant growth form: environmental correlates and historical contingencies in climbing palms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couvreur, Thomas L P; Kissling, W Daniel; Condamine, Fabien L; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Rowe, Nick P; Baker, William J

    2014-01-01

    Tropical rain forests (TRF) are the most diverse terrestrial biome on Earth, but the diversification dynamics of their constituent growth forms remain largely unexplored. Climbing plants contribute significantly to species diversity and ecosystem processes in TRF. We investigate the broad-scale patterns and drivers of species richness as well as the diversification history of climbing and non-climbing palms (Arecaceae). We quantify to what extent macroecological diversity patterns are related to contemporary climate, forest canopy height, and paleoclimatic changes. We test whether diversification rates are higher for climbing than non-climbing palms and estimate the origin of the climbing habit. Climbers account for 22% of global palm species diversity, mostly concentrated in Southeast Asia. Global variation in climbing palm species richness can be partly explained by past and present-day climate and rain forest canopy height, but regional differences in residual species richness after accounting for current and past differences in environment suggest a strong role of historical contingencies in climbing palm diversification. Climbing palms show a higher net diversification rate than non-climbers. Diversification analyses of palms detected a diversification rate increase along the branches leading to the most species-rich clade of climbers. Ancestral character reconstructions revealed that the climbing habit originated between early Eocene and Miocene. These results imply that changes from non-climbing to climbing habits may have played an important role in palm diversification, resulting in the origin of one fifth of all palm species. We suggest that, in addition to current climate and paleoclimatic changes after the late Neogene, present-day diversity of climbing palms can be explained by morpho-anatomical innovations, the biogeographic history of Southeast Asia, and/or ecological opportunities due to the diversification of high-stature dipterocarps in Asian TRFs.

  3. Global diversification of a tropical plant growth form: environmental correlates and historical contingencies in climbing palms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. P. Couvreur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical rain forests (TRF are the most diverse terrestrial biome on Earth, but the diversification dynamics of their constituent growth forms remain largely unexplored. Climbing plants contribute significantly to species diversity and ecosystem processes in TRF. We investigate the broad-scale patterns and drivers of species richness as well as the diversification history of climbing and non-climbing palms (Arecaceae. We quantify to what extent macroecological diversity patterns are related to contemporary climate, forest canopy height and paleoclimatic changes. We test whether diversification rates are higher for climbing than non-climbing palms and estimate the origin of the climbing habit. Climbers account for 22% of global palm species diversity mostly concentrated in Southeast Asia. Global variation in climbing palm species richness can be partly explained by past and present-day climate and rain forest canopy height, but regional differences in residual species richness after accounting for current and past differences in environment suggest a strong role of historical contingencies in climbing palm diversification. Climbing palms show a higher net diversification rate than non-climbers. Diversification analysis of palms detected a diversification rate increase along the branches leading to the most species-rich clade of climbers. Ancestral character reconstructions revealed that the climbing habit originated between early Eocene and Miocene. These results imply that changes from non-climbing to climbing habit may have played an important role in palm diversification, resulting in the origin of one fifth of all palm species. We suggest that, in addition to current climate and paleoclimatic changes after the late Neogene, present-day diversity of climbing palms can be explained by morpho-anatomical innovations, the biogeographic history of Southeast Asia, and/or ecological opportunities due to the diversification of high

  4. Effects of palm and sunflower oils on serum cholesterol and fatty liver in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Ye-Seul; Kim, Seung-Hee; Nam, Ki-Hoan; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2015-03-01

    Palm oil is a common cooking ingredient used in the commercial food industry as the second largest consumed vegetable oil in the world. Because of its lower cost and highly saturated nature, it usually maintains a solid form at room temperature and is used as a cheap substitute for butter. However, there has been a growing health concern about palm oil because of the link between dietary fats and coronary heart disease. Palm oil contains ∼49% saturated fat, a relatively high concentration compared with other vegetable oils. Consequently, high intakes of saturated fat from palm oil induce a larger increase in plasma concentrations of total cholesterol and low-density lipoproteins. In the present study, we examined the hyperlipidemia of palm oil and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) using a rat model in comparison with sunflower oil with a relatively low level of saturated fat. On in vivo examination using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 22 days, there were no significant differences in serum lipid levels, suggesting that palm oil may not cause hyperlipidemia and elevate CVD risk. However, liver samples obtained from SD rats fed with palm oil showed a lot of large lipid inclusions stained with the Oil Red O working solution, but not much lipid accumulation was observed in rats treated with sunflower oil. In addition, lipid accumulation in the mixed oil group fed the combination of palm and sunflower (1:1) oil was shown to be at an intermediary level between the palm oil group and sunflower oil group. Taken together, these results indicate that palm oil, a highly saturated form of vegetable oil, may induce dysfunction of the liver lipid metabolism before affecting serum lipid levels. On the other hand, sunflower oil, a highly unsaturated vegetable oil, was shown to be well metabolized in liver.

  5. GROWING NIPA PALM FOR RESTORATION OF ABANDONED SHRIMP PONDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noparat Bamroongrugsa; Chorthip Purintavarakul

    2006-01-01

    Rapid increase in the production of marine shrimps in the coastal zone has resulted in large - scale conversion of mangrove forests to shrimp ponds. Productions of the shrimps in some regions have been unstable. Consequently, a number of ponds are left idle. Restoring environmental conditions within the pond site by planting a suitable mangrove species considered an option. The experiment herein was carried out to explore the effect of planting methods on growth of Nipa palm in abandoned shrimp ponds in the Southern Thailand. Economically, coastal villagers in this area earn their income from the palm in several ways, the most importantly in Nipa sugar production. Most seedlings were planted on top of furrows were constructed in the pond to avoid flooding, except for some seedlings which were planted in the pond base where additional pond sludge were slightly filled up to compare their growth rates. The results showed that planting seedlings with attached rhizomes had the best growth rate and without seedling death at 14 months after planting. At this stage, however, the height of seedlings grown from the fallen fruits was similar to those growth from bare rooted seedlings (70 cm tall). Also, seedling mortality was not observed when growth from fallen fruits whereas about6% mortality was experienced by the bare rooted ones. Among the bare rooted seedling treatments, however no significant differences in growth rates were found when applying the soil with chemical fertilizers or farm manure or liming with CaCO3. In addition, it was found that seedling growth measured at 40 months after planting for those growths in pond base was almost 100% greater than those grown on the furrows. Therefore, this finding may be applied for the restoration of abandoned shrimp ponds by growing Nipa palm.

  6. Gasification of Nickel-Preloaded Oil Palm Biomass with Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Shatir A. Syed-Hassan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study experimentally investigates the gasification of nickel-preloaded oil palm biomass as an alternative catalytic approach to produce clean syngas. To eliminate the use of catalyst support, nickel was added directly to the oil palm mesocarp fiber via ion-exchange using an aqueous solution of nickel nitrate. Nickel species was found to disperse very well on the biomass at a nano-scale dispersion. The presence of the finely dispersed nickels on biomass enhanced syngas production and reduced tar content in the producer gas during the air gasification of biomass. It is believed that nickel particles attached on the biomass and its char promote the catalytic cracking of tar on their surface and supply free radicals to the gas phase to enhance the radical-driven gas-phase reactions for the reforming of high molecular weight hydrocarbons. The unconsumed nickel-containing char shows great potential to be re-utilised as a catalyst to further enhance the destruction of tar components in the secondary tar reduction process. Copyright © 2016 BCREC GROUP. All rights reserved Received: 12nd September 2015; Revised: 10th January 2016; Accepted:16th January 2016 How to Cite: Syed-Hassan, S.S.A., Nor-Azemi, S. (2016. Gasification of Nickel-Preloaded Oil Palm Biomass with Air. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 11 (3: 262-272 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.11.3.566.262-272 Permalink/DOI: http://doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.11.3.566.262-272

  7. How the palm oil industry is cooking the climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-11-15

    Every year, 1.8 billion tonnes (Gt) of climate changing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are released by the degradation and burning of Indonesia's peatlands, which is 4% of global GHG emissions from less than 0.1% of the land on earth. This report shows how, through growing demand for palm oil, the world's largest food, cosmetic and biofuel industries are driving the wholesale destruction of peatlands and rainforests. These companies include Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, who between them account for a significant volume of global palm oil use, mainly from Indonesia and Malaysia. Overlaying satellite imagery of forest fires with maps indicating the locations of the densest carbon stores in Indonesia, Greenpeace researchers have been able to pinpoint carbon 'hotspots'. Our research has taken us to the Indonesian province of Riau on the island of Sumatra, to document the current activities of those involved in the expansion of palm oil. These are the producers who trade with Unilever, Nestle and Procter and Gamble, as well as many of the other top names in the food, cosmetic and biofuel industries. The area of peatland in Riau is tiny: just 4 million hectares, about the size of Taiwan or Switzerland. Yet Riau's peatlands store 14.6Gt of carbon. If these peatlands were destroyed, the resulting GHG emissions would be equivalent to one year's total global emissions. Unless efforts are made to halt forest and peatland destruction, emissions from these peatlands may trigger a 'climate bomb'.

  8. Manifestation of pernicious anaemia as hyperpigmentation of palms and soles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Vaddadi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency produces various manifestations involving CNS, heart, skin, blood and female reproductive systems. It is seen most commonly in the older individuals, malabsorptive states and #8201;(>60% of all cases and vegetarians. Pernicious anaemia may be confused to Addison's disease as both may present with similar clinical features. Hereby we report a case of pernicious anaemia presenting with dermatological manifestation in the form of deep pigmentation of both palms of and both soles respectively, cortisol levels normal so Addition's disease ruled out. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1746-1748

  9. EXPERIMENTAL JUSTIFICATION OF IDENTITY FEATURE CHOICE OF PALM OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. V. Kadolich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of thermally activated current spectroscopy was used for identification of two popular types of palm oils. The spectrum of thermally stimulated currents represents sufficiently intensive (up to 10-11 А current peaks conditioned by differences in fatty-acid composition of oils. Introduction of representation on unstable associates, in which coordination bonds connect molecules of fat acid’s glycerides, allow interpret the experimental data about the current response at oil specimens heating. The current’s peaks location in a certain temperature range of TSC spectrum can be considered as an identify feature of investigated vegetable oils. 

  10. Mechanical Properties of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan, Fergyanto E.; Homma, Hiroomi; Brodjonegoro, Satryo S.; Hudin, Afzer Bin Baseri; Zainuddin, Aryanti Binti

    In tropical countries such as Indonesia and Malaysia, the empty fruit bunches are wastes of the oil palm industry. The wastes are abundantly available and has reached a level that severely threats the environment. Therefore, it is a great need to find useful applications of those waste materials; but firstly, the mechanical properties of the EFB fiber should be quantified. In this work, a small tensile test machine is manufactured, and the tensile test is performed on the EFB fibers. The results show that the strength of the EFB fiber is strongly affected by the fiber diameter; however, the fiber strength is relatively low in comparison to other natural fibers.

  11. A Gate-to-gate Case Study of the Life Cycle Assessment of an Oil Palm Seedling

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamad, Halimah; Sahid, Ismail Bin; Surif, Salmijah; Ai, Tan Yew; May, Choo Yuen

    2012-01-01

    The palm oil industry has played an important role in the economic development of Malaysia and has enhanced the economic welfare of its people. To determine the environmental impact of the oil palm seedling at the nursery stage, information on inputs and outputs need to be assessed. The oil palm nursery is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. A gate-to-gate study was carried out whereby the system boundary was set to only include the process of the oil palm seedling. The starting poin...

  12. Life cycle inventory for the production of germinated oil palm seeds at a selected seed production unit in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairuddin, Nik Sasha Khatrina; Ismail, B. S.; Muhamad, Halimah; May, Choo Yuen

    2013-11-01

    The increasing global demand for edible oil has encouraged Malaysia to increase the areas under oil palm cultivation. The total demand for germinated oil palm seeds in the years 2009, 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 86.4, 76.5, 72.6 and 75.2 million, respectively. Production of germinated oil palm seeds is the first link in the palm oil supply chain. Therefore, good management practices at seed production stage is required to ensure only high quality germinated oil palm seeds are produced before sale to customers. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used as a tool to assess environmental impact of the processes throughout a product's lifespan and this approach is an important tool for assessing green house gas (GHG) emission. For this study, a gate-to-gate life cycle inventory (LCI) of a single germinated oil palm seed production unit was carried out. The functional unit used for this LCI was one germinated oil palm seed. To determine the environmental impact for the production of germinated oil palm seeds, information on the inputs were obtained. The inputs for the production of germinated oil palm seeds involved materials such as polyethylene bags, electricity, water, chemicals and fungicides. For this study, the system boundary involved seed germination process and management of germinated oil palm seeds. It was found that the amount of input such as materials and energy used in the production of germinated oil palm seeds was very minimal.

  13. Ethanol fermentation by the thermotolerant yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus TISTR5925, of extracted sap from old oil palm trunk

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    Yoshinori Murata

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Palm sap extracted from old oil palm trunks was previously found to contain sugar and nutrients (amino acids and vitamins. Some palm saps contain a low content of sugar due to differences in species or in plant physiology. Here we condensed palm sap with a low content of sugar using flat membrane filtration, then fermented the condensed palm sap at high temperature using the thermotolerant, high ethanol-producing yeast, Kluyveromyces marxianus. Ethanol production under non-optimum conditions was evaluated. Furthermore, the energy required to concentrate the palm sap, and the amount of energy that could be generated from the ethanol, was calculated. The condensation of sugar in sap from palm trunk required for economically viable ethanol production was evaluated.

  14. In vitro growth of Ganoderma boninense isolates on novel palm extract medium and virulence on oil palm (Elaeis guineensis seedlings

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    Kok, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Basal stem rot (BSR disease caused by Ganoderma pathogenic fungi, especially Ganoderma boninense is thriving rapidly in both areas with coastal and inland soils. The objectives of this study were to isolate and characterize Ganoderma isolates collected from various locations in Peninsular Malaysia through the comparison of their growth rate in vitroly on conventional and novel palm extract media, and to determine the degree of virulence caused by the isolatesin oil palm seedlings. Methodology and results: In this study, 12 Ganoderma isolates were collected from infected oil palm trees, fromvarious locations – Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Kedah, Perak, Pahang, and Kelantan, in Malaysia in year 2011. Twelve Ganoderma isolates were identified using molecular method with primer set that targeted at small-subunit 18S rDNA fragment, and characterized by determining the in vitro growth rate, and degree of virulence in 2-month-old oil palmseedlings in the nursery using both disease incidence (DI and disease severity index (DSI as the measurements to quantify the infection. All the Ganoderma isolates were identified as G. boninense and sequences of the respective isolates were deposited in GenBank. In general, all the isolates proliferated faster on oil palm extract medium (OPEM compared to malt extract agar (MEA. Twelve G. boninense isolates were observed to illustrate different degree of virulence ranging from highly pathogenic to least pathogenic. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: Cultures of 12 G. boninense isolates were observed to show faster growth rate (P < 0.014 on OPEM under in vitro conditions compared to conventional MEA medium, except Bt Lintang G10 and GBA G12 isolates. OPEM medium could provide a better alternative for maintaining and culturing Ganoderma strains. In the current study, both DI and DSI were highly correlated. However, there were low linear relationships (R2 < 0.423 between mycelia growth rate (on MEA and OPEM

  15. The making of quality : a technography of small-scale women's groups and a medium-scale firm processing oil palm in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Adjei, B.E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Palm oil is an important product in local diets and domestic markets in the South. The current attention for market quality standards and certification schemes in the palm oil sector has the risk to marginalise the role of palm oil in local food security and to direct public and private investments exclusively to industrial and export-oriented production systems. The rise of a variety of standards in the oil palm sector in recent times particularly the Roundtable for Sustainable Palm ...

  16. The possibility of palm oil mill effluent for biogas production

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    EDWI MAHAJOENO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world currently obtains its energy from the fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas and coal. However, the international crisis in the Middle East, rapid depletion of fossil fuel reserves as well as climate change have driven the world towards renewable energy sources which are abundant, untapped and environmentally friendly. Indonesia has abundant biomass resources generated from the agricultural industry particularly the large commodity, palm oil (Elaeis guiinensis Jacq.. The aims of the research were to (i characterize palm oil mill effluent which will be used as source of biogas production, (ii know the biotic and abiotic factors which effect POME substrate for biogas production by anaerobic digestion in bulk system. The results show that POME sludge generated from PT Pinago Utama mill is viscous, brown or grey and has an average total solid (TS content of, 26.5-45.4, BOD is 23.5-29.3, COD is 49.0-63.6 and SS is 17.1-35.9 g/L, respectively. This substrate is a potential source of environmental pollutants. The biotic factors were kind and concentration of the inoculums, i.e. seed sludge of anaerobic lagoon II and 20% (w/v respectively. Both physical and chemical factors such as pre-treated POME pH, pH neutralizer matter Ca (OH2, temperature ≥40oC, agitation effect to increase biogas production, but in both coagulant concentration, FeCl2 were not.

  17. QbD implementation and Post Approval Lifecycle Management (PALM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohage, Ettore; Iverson, Raquel; Krummen, Lynne; Taticek, Ron; Vega, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Quality by design (QbD) is a global regulatory initiative with the goal of enhancing pharmaceutical development through the proactive design of pharmaceutical manufacturing process and controls to consistently deliver the intended performance of the product. The principles of pharmaceutical development relevant to QbD are described in the ICH guidance documents (ICHQ8-11) [1-3]. An integrated set of risk assessments and their related elements developed at Roche/Genentech were designed to provide an overview of product and process knowledge for the production of a recombinant monoclonal antibody. This chapter describes concepts for implementing the control strategy for a monoclonal antibody including a Design Space for routine commercial manufacturing, and the Post Approval Lifecycle Management (PALM) plan that is used to manage any remaining risks during the commercial lifecycle. The PALM plan is part of the submitted dossier in the regional section and serves as a regulatory agreement between the manufacturer and the health authority specifying how process and product attributes are monitored to ensure both remain within a controlled state post-approval, process parameter changes are managed within the design space, and the control system is updated as necessary based on further process and product knowledge.

  18. Properties of Raphia Palm Interspersed Fibre Filled High Density Polyethylene

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    Henry C. Obasi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blends of nonbiodegradable and biodegradable polymers can promote a reduction in the volume of plastic waste when they undergo partial degradation. In this study, properties of raphia palm interspersed fibre (RPIF filled high density polyethylene (HDPE have been investigated at different levels of filler loadings, 0 to 60 wt.%. Maleic anhydride-graft polyethylene was used as a compatibilizer. Raphia palm interspersed fibre was prepared by grinding and sieved to a particle size of 150 µm. HDPE blends were prepared in a corotating twin screw extruder. Results showed that the tensile strength and elongation at break of the blends decreased with increase in RPI loadings and addition of MA-g-PE was found to improve these properties. However, the Young’s modulus increased with increase in the amount of RPI into HDPE and compatibilization further increased the Young’s modulus. The water absorption indices and weight loss for RPI/HDPE composites were found to increase with RPI loadings but were decreased on addition of MA-g-PE.

  19. SUSTAINABILITY OF SUSTAINABLE PALM OIL: A MARKET INTEGRATION ANALYSIS

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    Diana Chalil

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crude Palm Oil (CPO is the biggest consumed vegetable oil in the world. The increase in CPO production raises concern on the environmental impact even outside the producing countries. As a response to this matter, the EU has made a requirement to only import certified CPO (CSPO. India and China, the two biggest importers in the world, are less restrictive to the environmental issues, and their demands are more influenced by CPO price levels. These countries are the main export markets for Indonesia and Malaysia, the two biggest CPO exporters in the world. This research using monthly price data from the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, EU28, India, China, Indonesia and Malaysia. Market integrations are tested with Cointegration Test, Vector Error Correction Model and Seemingly Unrelated Regression. The results show that these markets are integrated, but European countries are unlikely to lead the price movement. Therefore, the concern on sustainable certification from the European countries still slowly spreads to other main importers, resulting in low absorption of CSPO. Keywords: market integration; sustainable palm oil; seemingly unrelated regression; vector Error correction model

  20. Deep-fat frying of meat products in palm olein

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    Cibele Cristina Osawa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the discontinuous frying of breaded meat products in palm olein in a 28 L-electric fryer maintained at 182 ºC for 8 hours a day. Three 400-500 g batches of meat products were fried for 4.5 minutes daily. For comparison purpose, thermoxidation tests were performed using inert material with added moisture and without the addition of f ood (heating only. The total polar compound content did not reach the 25% limit, and nor did the formation of polymerized products exceed 5%, which indicates the good frying performance of palm olein for frying. Other analytical parameters and rapid tests were also evaluated. The sensory attributes, such as odor, colour, and foam formation determined when the frying oils should be discarded. The addition of water to the inert material contributed to the final value of 1.00 ± 0.01% (in palmitic acid, while the oil subjected only to heating reached respectively 0.26 ± 0.02%, and the oils used to fry breaded meat and breaded chicken reached 0.38 ± 0.00% and 2.35 ± 0.01%, respectively. This suggests a protective effect of the water during frying since the oil subjected only to heating was more prone to degradation.

  1. Bio-char from treated and untreated oil palm fronds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Fauziah; Abdullah, Nurhayati; Rahman, Aizuddin Abdul

    2013-05-01

    The palm oil industry generates almost 94% of biomass in Malaysia, while other agricultural and forestry by-products contribute the remaining of 6%. Oil palm fronds (OPF) are estimated to be the highest available biomass amounting to 44.84 million tonnes in Malaysia. However, studies on OPF for thermochemical conversion technology which has good potential for energy conversion are still lacking. In this work, pyrolysis of OPF is conducted by using a fixed bed reactor. Samples were carbonized at slow pyrolysis temperature of around 300 to 500°C with heating rate of 10°C min-1. In addition, samples were treated for 20 min with distilled water at ambient temperature to reduce the ash content. Effectiveness of pre-treatment can be determined by observing the percentage of ash content reduction of each sample after undergoing washing pre-treatment. At 300°C, the char yields of the untreated OPF were slightly higher at 50.95% compared to the treated sample at 49.77%. Approximately all bio-char from the treated samples have better high heating value (HHV) of around 18-20 MJ kg-1 compared to the untreated samples. Besides that, all treated OPF char is more carbon rich and considered to be environmental friendly due to its low nitrogen content compared to the untreated OPF char. In this work, microscopic analysis of OPF bio-char were also studied by observing and evaluating their structure surface and morphology.

  2. Tactile feedback to the palm using arbitrarily shaped DEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mößinger, Holger; Haus, Henry; Kauer, Michaela; Schlaak, Helmut F.

    2014-03-01

    Tactile stimulation enhances user experience and efficiency in human machine interaction by providing information via another sensory channel to the human brain. DEA as tactile interfaces have been in the focus of research in recent years. Examples are (vibro-) tactile keyboards or Braille displays. These applications of DEA focus mainly on interfacing with the user's fingers or fingertips only - demonstrating the high spatial resolution achievable with DEA. Besides providing a high resolution, the flexibility of DEA also allows designing free form surfaces equipped with single actuators or actuator matrices which can be fitted to the surface of the human skin. The actuators can then be used to provide tactile stimuli to different areas of the body, not to the fingertips only. Utilizing and demonstrating this flexibility we designed a free form DEA pad shaped to fit into the inside of the human palm. This pad consists of four single actuators which can provide e.g. directional information such as left, right, up and down. To demonstrate the value of such free form actuators we manufactured a PC-mouse using 3d printing processes. The actuator pad is mounted on the back of the mouse, resting against the palm while operating it. Software on the PC allows control of the vibration patterns displayed by the actuators. This allows helping the user by raising attention to certain directions or by discriminating between different modes like "pick" or "manipulate". Results of first tests of the device show an improved user experience while operating the PC mouse.

  3. Fungal degradation of oil palm cellulosic wastes after radiation pasteurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Mat Rasol Awang; Fajah Bt Ali

    1990-10-01

    The fungal degradation ability was appreciated for upgrading of oil palm cellulosic wastes. In this work, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Palm press Fiber (PPF) were fermented in an attempt to upgrade to animal feed. However, the heavy contamination of microorganisms in EFB and PPF was observed, and they consist of largely spore forming bacteria and toxigenic moulds of Aspergillus flavus, A. versicolor, A. fumigatus and etc. Therefore, pasteurisation was necessary to be carried out before fermentation, and gamma-irradiation of ca. 10 kGy was employed. Solid-state culture media from EFB and PPF for cultivation of cellulolytic fungi were prepared by addition of some inorganic salts as nitrogen source. The degradation of crude fibre by Coprinus cinereus, Pleurotus species, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma koningi, and T. viride was obtained in the range between 18 to 76 % after 18 to 20 days cultivation on non-alkali treated cellulosic wastes. C. cinereus could degradate crude fiber more than 50 %, and which resulted in reduction of crude fibre content to 20{approx}28 % and giving to 10-13 % crude protein content. Release of reducing sugars was obtained as 40 to 145 mg glucose/g after saccharification of precultivated alkali-treated EFB by C. cinereus, A. niger, T. knoningi and T. viride. (author).

  4. Optimization of squalene produced from crude palm oil waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandira, Irda; Legowo, Evita H.; Widiputri, Diah I.

    2017-01-01

    Squalene is a hydrocarbon originally and still mostly extracted from shark liver oil. Due to environmental issues over shark hunting, there have been efforts to extract squalene from alternative sources, such as Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD), one of crude palm oil (CPO) wastes. Previous researches have shown that squalene can be extracted from PFAD using saponification process followed with liquid-liquid extraction process although the method had yet to be optimized in order to optimize the amount of squalene extracted from PFAD. The optimization was done by optimizing both processes of squalene extraction method: saponification and liquid-liquid extraction. The factors utilized in the saponification process optimization were KOH concentration and saponification duration while during the liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) process optimization, the factors used were the volumes of distilled water and dichloromethane. The optimum percentage of squalene content in the extract (24.08%) was achieved by saponifying the PFAD with 50%w/v KOH for 60 minutes and subjecting the saponified PFAD to LLE, utilizing 100 ml of distilled water along with 3 times addition of fresh dichloromethane, 75 ml each; those factors would be utilized in the optimum squalene extraction method.

  5. Pulping and paper properties of Palmyra palm fruit fibers

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    Waranyou Sridach

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmyra palm fruit fibers have the properties to be used as an alternative raw material of cellulosic pulps for papermaking.Acid and alkali pulping were investigated by using nitric acid and caustic soda on a laboratory scale, with the purpose of producing printing or writing grade pulp. The chemical composition of fiber strands from palmyra palm fruits were examined, such as holocellulose, cellulose, pentosan, lignin and extractives. The yields of acid and soda pulps were below 40%. The main physical and mechanical properties of hand sheets produced from acid and soda processes were evaluated on 80 g/m2 test sheets as functions of the following parameters: tensile index, tear index, and brightness. The mechanical properties of soda pulps were developed by twin-roll press while it was not necessary to fibrillate acidic pulps through the beating step. The soda pulp sheets presented a lower brightness than that of acidic pulp sheets. The mechanicaland physical properties of the acidic and alkaline pulps verified that they were of an acceptable quality for papermaking.

  6. In-situ data collection for oil palm tree height determination using synthetic aperture radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C.; Loong, C. K.

    2016-04-01

    The oil palm is recognized as the “golden crop,” producing the highest oil yield among oil seed crops. Malaysia, the world's second largest producer of palm oil, has 16 per cent of its territory planted with oil palms. To cope with the increasing global demand on edible oil, additional areas of oil palm are forecast to increase globally by 12 to 19 million hectares by 2050. Due to the limited land bank in Malaysia, new strategies have to be developed to avoid unauthorized clearing of primary forest for the use of oil palm cultivation. Microwave remote sensing could play a part by providing relevant, timely and accurate information for a plantation monitoring system. The use of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) has the advantage of daylight- and weather-independence, a criterion that is very relevant in constantly cloud-covered tropical regions, such as Malaysia. Using interferometric SAR, (InSAR) topographical and tree height profiles of oil palm plantations can be created; such information is useful for mapping oil palm age profiles of the plantations in the country. This paper reports on the use of SAR and InSAR in a multisensory context to provide up-to-date information at plantation level. Remote sensing and in-situ data collection for tree height determination are described. Further research to be carried out over the next two years is outlined.

  7. Pollution Control: How Feasible is Zero Discharge Concepts in Malaysia Palm Oil Mills

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    Yahaya S. Madaki

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Many palm oil mills in Malaysia still discharged either partially treated or raw palm oil mill effluent (POME into nearby rivers. Either partially treated or untreated POME depletes a water body of its oxygen and suffocates aquatic life. Vast amounts of biogas are also generated during anaerobic digestion of POME. This paper presented the key findings from the survey mailed to 86 palm oil mills located in Sarawak and Sabah. The survey results provide an overview of the position of the palm oil mills operators on current advance POME treatment technology (PTT in relation to achieving zero discharge concepts. The survey attempted to identify the key issues about the PTT in respect to feasibility of zero discharge concepts in palm oil mills. The results shows that, although palm oil mills generate a lot of different types of wastes during processing of Fresh Fruit Bunches, according to the operators and available literature, POME is the most difficult waste to manage. The results also shows that, palm oil mills cannot meet up with the new discharge limits of 20ppm of BOD and zero emission using only conventional open or closed pounding system

  8. Economic viability of including palm kernel cake in diets for feedlot lactating cows

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    Leidiane Reis Pimentel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of palm kernel cake in the diet for lactating crossbred cows in feedlot system, and its implications on economic viability. We used 12 crossbred Holstein x Zebu cows assigned to three 4 x 4 Latin Squares, in the following treatments: control (without inclusion of palm kernel cake in the diet; inclusion of 50, 100 or 150 g palm kernel cake (PKC per kg in the total dry matter (TDM. Earnings per animal showed a reduction in values, this decrease in profitability is related to the increase in feed costs, specifically, and the costs with concentrate, which increased as the palm kernel cake was included in the treatments, 0, 50, 100 and 150 g kg-1 TDM. The effect observed for profitability affected the internal rate of return, which decreased with the inclusion of palm kernel cake levels in the diet. However, it was positive in all treatments, demonstrating the feasibility of investment in palm kernel cake. Data on the economic viability evidenced that treatment with 100 g palm kernel cake per kg TDM is the most financially viable under the conditions of this study.

  9. Biotechnology of oil palm: strategies towards manipulation of lipid content and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveez, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad; Rasid, Omar Abdul; Masani, Mat Yunus Abdul; Sambanthamurthi, Ravigadevi

    2015-04-01

    Oil palm is a major economic crop for Malaysia. The major challenges faced by the industry are labor shortage, availability of arable land and unstable commodity price. This has caused the industry to diversify its applications into higher value products besides increasing its yield. While conventional breeding has its limitations, biotechnology was identified as one of the tools for overcoming the above challenges. Research on biotechnology of oil palm began more than two decades ago leveraging a multidisciplinary approach involving biochemical studies, gene and promoter isolation, transformation vector construction and finally genetic transformation to produce the targeted products. The main target of oil palm biotechnology research is to increase oleic acid in the mesocarp. Other targets are stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, ricinoleic acid, lycopene (carotenoid) and biodegradable plastics. Significant achievements were reported for the biochemical studies, isolation of useful oil palm genes and characterization of important promoters. A large number of transformation constructs for various targeted products were successfully produced using the isolated oil palm genes and promoters. Finally transformation of these constructs into oil palm embryogenic calli was carried out while the regeneration of transgenic oil palm harboring the useful genes is in progress.

  10. Interactions Between the Bud Rot Disease of Oil Palm and Rhynchophorus palmarum (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Martínez, Luis Carlos; Fernandes, Flávio Lemes; de Sousa Ramalho, Francisco; Zanuncio, José Cola; Serrão, José Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) causes great losses to the oil palm plantations, and therefore, the spatial and temporal distribution of this insect should be studied, to manage its populations. Insect sampling was done for 2 yr in an oil palm plantation from Colombia. In total, 60 pheromone traps were used in healthy palm trees and infected ones with the Bud Rot disease. On the other hand, developmental stages of this insect were quantified on healthy and diseased palms for two consecutive years. Number of adult R. palmarum per sampling was higher in the plantation with diseased palm trees, 3.85 and 74.7 insects per trap, than in those with healthy ones, 1.91 and 9.48 insects per trap, in the first and second years, respectively. After the integration of pheromone traps, there was a significant increase in the infestation level at all stages of development of the insect. For the first time, the presence of R. palmarum attracted to diseased palms is reported. The association between R. palmarum and the Bud Rot disease is a cause of death and great loss to the oil palm plantations.

  11. Preparation of palm olein enriched with medium chain fatty acids by lipase acidolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chnadhapuram, Mounika; Sunkireddy, Yella Reddy

    2012-05-01

    Medium chain (MC) fatty acids, caprylic (C8:0) and capric (C10:0) were incorporated into palm olein by 1,3-specific lipase acidolysis, up to 36% and 43%, respectively, when added as mixtures or individually after 24h. It was found that these acids were incorporated into palm olein at the expense of palmitic and oleic acids, the former being larger in quantity and reduction of 18:2 was negligible. The modified palm olein products showed reduction in higher molecular weight triacylglycerols (TGs) and increase in concentration of lower molecular weight TGs compared to those of palm olein. Fatty acids at sn-2 position in modified products were: C10:0, 4%; C16:0, 13%; C18:1, 66%; and C18:2, 15.4%. DSC results showed that the onset of melting and solids fat content were considerably reduced in modified palm olein products and no solids were found even at and below 10°C and also the onset of crystallisation was considerably lowered. The cloud point was reduced and iodine value dropped from 55.4 to 38 in modified palm olein. Thus, nutritionally superior palm olein was prepared by introducing MC fatty acids with reduced palmitic acid through lipase acidolysis.

  12. Highly Secured Bio-Metric Authentication Model with Palm Print Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Raja Murali Prasad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available For securing personal identifications and highly secure identification problems, biometric technologies will provide higher security with improved accuracy. This has become an emerging technology in recent years due to the transaction frauds, security breaches and personal identification etc. The beauty of biometric technology is it provides a unique code for each person and it can’t be copied or forged by others. To overcome the draw backs of finger print identification systems, here in this paper we proposed a palm print based personal identification system, which is a most promising and emerging research area in biometric identification systems due to its uniqueness, scalability, faster execution speed and large area for extracting the features. It provides higher security over finger print biometric systems with its rich features like wrinkles, continuous ridges, principal lines, minutiae points, and singular points. The main aim of proposed palm print identification system is to implement a system with higher accuracy and increased speed in identifying the palm prints of several users. Here, in this we presented a highly secured palm print identification system with extraction of region of interest (ROI with morphological operation there by applying un-decimated bi-orthogonal wavelet (UDBW transform to extract the low level features of registered palm prints to calculate its feature vectors (FV then after the comparison is done by measuring the distance between registered palm feature vector and testing palm print feature vector. Simulation results show that the proposed biometric identification system provides more accuracy and reliable recognition rate.

  13. The impact of tropical forest logging and oil palm agriculture on the soil microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Binu M; Edwards, David P; Mendes, Lucas William; Kim, Mincheol; Dong, Ke; Kim, Hyoki; Adams, Jonathan M

    2016-05-01

    Selective logging and forest conversion to oil palm agriculture are rapidly altering tropical forests. However, functional responses of the soil microbiome to these land-use changes are poorly understood. Using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we compared composition and functional attributes of soil biota between unlogged, once-logged and twice-logged rainforest, and areas converted to oil palm plantations in Sabah, Borneo. Although there was no significant effect of logging history, we found a significant difference between the taxonomic and functional composition of both primary and logged forests and oil palm. Oil palm had greater abundances of genes associated with DNA, RNA, protein metabolism and other core metabolic functions, but conversely, lower abundance of genes associated with secondary metabolism and cell-cell interactions, indicating less importance of antagonism or mutualism in the more oligotrophic oil palm environment. Overall, these results show a striking difference in taxonomic composition and functional gene diversity of soil microorganisms between oil palm and forest, but no significant difference between primary forest and forest areas with differing logging history. This reinforces the view that logged forest retains most features and functions of the original soil community. However, networks based on strong correlations between taxonomy and functions showed that network complexity is unexpectedly increased due to both logging and oil palm agriculture, which suggests a pervasive effect of both land-use changes on the interaction of soil microbes.

  14. An Investigation of Sustainable Power Generation from Oil Palm Biomass: A Case Study in Sarawak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Aghamohammadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sarawak is the largest state in Malaysia, with 22% of the nation's oil palm plantation area, making it the second largest contributor to palm biomass production. Despite the enormous amount of palm biomass in the state, the use of biomass as fuel for power generation remains low. This study is designed to investigate the sustainability of power generation from palm biomass specifically in Sarawak by conducting a survey among the palm oil mill developers. To conduct this investigation, several key sustainability factors were identified: the security of the biomass supply, the efficiency of conversion technology, the existing network system, challenges and future prospects for power generation from palm biomass. These factors were assessed through a set of questionnaires. The returned questionnaires were then analysed using statistical tools. The results of this study demonstrate that Sarawak has biomass in abundance, and that it is ready to be exploited for large scale power generation. The key challenge to achieving the renewable energy target is the inadequate grid infrastructure that inhibits palm oil developers from benefiting from the Feed-in-Tariff payment scheme. One way forward, a strategic partnership between government and industrial players, offers a promising outcome, depending on an economic feasibility study. The decentralization of electricity generation to support rural electrification is another feasible alternative for renewable energy development in the state.

  15. Genetic analysis identifies the region of origin of smuggled peach palm seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristo-Araújo, Michelly; Molles, David Bronze; Rodrigues, Doriane Picanço; Clement, Charles R

    2017-04-01

    Seeds of a plant, supposedly a palm tree known popularly as peach palm (Bactris gasipaes), were seized by the Federal Police in the state of Pará, Brazil, without documentation of legal origin to authorize transportation and marketing in Brazil. They were alleged to be from the western part of Amazonas, Brazil, near the frontier with Peru and Colombia, justifying the lack of documentation. The species was confirmed to be peach palm. To determine the likely place of origin, a genetic analysis was performed to determine the relationship between the seized seeds and representative populations of peach palm from all of Amazonia, maintained in the Peach palm Core Collection, at the National Research Institute for Amazonia, using nine microsatellite loci. Reynolds' coancestry analysis showed a strong relationship between the seeds and the Pampa Hermosa landrace, around Yurimaguas, Peru. The Structure program, used to infer the probability of an individual belonging to a given population, showed that most seeds grouped with populations close to Yurimaguas, Peru, corroborating the coancestry analysis. The Pampa Hermosa landrace is the main source of spineless peach palm seeds used in the Brazilian heart-of-palm agribusiness, which motivated the smugglers to attempt this biopiracy.

  16. Physico-chemical properties and amino acid profiles of sap from Tunisian date palm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Makhlouf-Gafsi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Date palm sap (Phoenix dactylifera L., also known as “legmi”, is a fresh juice extracted from date palm trees. The present study aimed to elucidate the effects of collection time (at the beginning of the tapping period and after seven days of collection on the amino acid profile and physico-chemical properties of date palm sap from both male and female trees. Dry matter, protein, amino acid, and sugar profiles were determined using the Kjeldahl method, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC, and High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAEC-PAD, respectively. Date palm sap from both male and female trees contained high levels of carbohydrates. HPLC analysis showed that this fraction was dominated by sucrose in the sap sample from female trees compared to that from male trees. Male date palm sap was noted to exhibit lower dry matter content than female date palm sap but higher protein, total polyphenol, ash, and amino acid contents. While the major essential amino acids in the sap from male trees consisted of valine and threonine, they were represented by lysine and phenylalanine in sap samples from female trees. Further, Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE analysis showed the presence of a proteinic band of 30 kDa only for the sap from male trees. Taken together, the sap from both male and female date palm trees had a number of properties that are highly valued by the functional food industry.

  17. Exploratory Study of Oil Palm Shell as Partial Sand Replacement in Concrete

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    K. Muthusamy

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia being one of the world largest palm oil producers has been disposing oil palm shell, which is a by-product from palm oil mill thus causing negative impact to the environment. At the same time, extensive mining of natural river sand in large amount to meet the increasing demand of concrete production for the use in rapidly developing construction industry has posed the risk of natural aggregate depletion and ecological imbalance in future. The effect of finely Crushed Oil Palm Shell (COPS as partial sand replacement material in concrete mix towards density and compressive strength was investigated in this study. Total of five mixes consisting various content of crushed oil palm shell as partial sand replacement ranging from 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% were prepared in form of cubes. All the specimens were water cured before tested at 7, 14 and 28 days. Compressive strength was conducted in accordance to BSEN 12390. Generally, the compressive strength and density decrease with the increase in the crushed oil palm shell replacement level. Between 50 to 75% replacement, the mix produced possess lower density enabling it to be categorized as lightweight concrete and has the potential to be used as non-load bearing structure. The application in structural concrete material is suited for mix consisting around 25% of crushed oil palm shell.

  18. Oil Palm Biomass As Potential Substitution Raw Materials For Commercial Biomass Briquettes Production

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    A. B. Nasrin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil industry generates vast amount of palm biomass. Converting palm biomass into a uniform and solid fuel through briquetting process appears to be an attractive solution in upgrading its properties and add value. In this study, raw materials including empty fruit bunch (EFB, in powder and fibre forms, palm kernel expeller (PKE and sawdust were densified into briquettes at high temperature and pressure using screw extrusion technology. The briquettes were analysed to determine its physical and chemical properties, mechanical strength and burning characteristics. It was found that briquettes made either from 100% pulverized EFB or mixed with sawdust exhibited good burning properties. EFB fibre and PKE, due to their physical properties, were recommended to be blended with sawdust in producing quality briquettes. In overall, converting palm biomass into briquettes has increased its energy content and reduced moisture content about minimum of 5% and 38% respectively compared to its raw materials. The properties of palm biomass briquettes obtained from the study were compared to the commercial sawdust briquettes properties and to the minimum requirements of DIN 51731. The details of the study were highlighted in this paper. Palm biomass briquettes can become an important renewable energy fuel source in the future.

  19. Financial assessment of oil palm cultivation on peatland in Selangor, Malaysia

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    M.N. Noormahayu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm plantations on peat soils are generally believed to have greater environmental impacts than those on other soil types. Nonetheless, Malaysia operates substantial incentives to maximise palm oil production, which in practice encourage the establishment of plantations on peatland. This paper explores the social and economic basis of oil palm cultivation on one peatland estate at Sungai Panjang in the state of Selangor, peninsular Malaysia. Data were obtained by conducting a questionnaire survey of 200 farmers who cultivate oil palm on peat soil. Some of the data were cross-tabulated against farmers’ ages in order to identify any age-related trends in education level, the area of land farmed, annual income and knowledge about oil palm cultivation. The Cobb-Douglas production function was used to model the financial output from oil palm in terms of the costs of chemical inputs and labour. The results indicated that cultivation of this crop gives decreasing returns to scale on peatland in Sungai Panjang, and that chemical inputs are more important than labour cost in determining the level of financial output. Finally, the financial viability of oil palm cultivation for farmers was assessed by calculating three financial indicators (NPV, BCR and IRR. This can be a profitable investment so long as growth conditions, costs, selling price and interest rate do not fluctuate substantially. Greater annual returns can be achieved over 20–25 years than over shorter periods, especially of less than 10 years.

  20. Damage Pattern and Nesting Characteristic of Coptotermes curvignathus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae in Oil Palm on Peat

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    Wei-Hong Lau

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The oil palm industry of Malaysia has expanded into peat area in Sarawak. Problem statement: The subterranean termite Coptotermes curvignathus was a serious pest of oil palm on peat. Control of this termite has resorted to heavy usage of chemicals which was deemed uneconomical and hostile to the environment. Baiting system has inconsistent success due to the limited knowledge of the behavior of the pest. Approach: This study was to investigate damage and nesting characteristic of the pest. Infested palm in the peat area was dissected using a chainsaw and observation was made on the endoecie and damage. Microclimate inside the palm was recorded using a data logger and acid insoluble lignin from 3 different infested palms was determined. Results: Dissection of infested palm revealed that termite generally attacked the palm from the spear in immature palm or basal region in mature palm due to the energy requirement and level of water table. Spear region infestation was possible because of the moist environment provided by the proximity of the fronds and leaf sheaths. The high lignin content (42-45% in the thin laminae indicated the concentration of lignin or incorporation of peat in nest construction. Wood stump residues remained in the plantation was one of the main reasons of termite infestation. The stability and protection of the wood stump encouraged termite breeding. A C. curvignathus queen was discovered in the endoecie under the wood stump and was seen mobile. Conclusion: The pest was generally available in area where wood stumps and moisture were available. Manipulation of water table for certain period after spraying of chemical may help reduce infestation by the termite.